"Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays

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Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The New Jersey Division of Criminal Justice Web Site is also a comprehensive Web Site meant for a variety of users. It uses a lot of graphics to break up the pages and make the reading more interesting, and it is very easy to navigate, even if it does seem a bit crowded at times. There is a lot of information here to digest, from Megan's Law to Bullying, and Identity Theft. This is the kind of Web Site that would take several visits to see everything, because it might even seem a little overwhelming at first glance. For example, the Law Enforcement Resources section has news releases in addition to thirteen different sections with information on everything from Drug Testing to Other Resources. Clearly, it takes a long time to wade through all these resources. Some of them might be very valuable, but you might miss them during the first or even the second visit to this site. This site might contain too much information in one place, and might need to be broken down into smaller sites that had the same information, but might be less intimidating to the user. This was probably the most difficult of all the Web Sites to understand and navigate in one or even two visits. http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/nj_overview.htm

This Overview page of the New Jersey Courts is helpful and informative, and acts as a gateway to the rest of the very comprehensive information on the site. It includes links to several important topics such as, "A Walk Through the Judicial Process," the different courts, and the "2000-2001 Annual Report of the NJ Judiciary." Clearly, this is another Web Site designed for use by many different people, from the general public to criminal justice professionals and even the accused. This page is clear, easy to navigate, and states the court's purposes distinctly and in easy to read terms. It also says the court system in New Jersey is one of the simplest in the nation, and that the people of New Jersey have the final say in their courts. I learned a lot about the court system just by reading this page, and this is an excellent example of how to break a complicated process down so the public can understand it easily.… [read more]

Ethics in Criminal Justice Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … inmates with mental illness when state hospitals close?

Since the 1960s, states have been part of a trend to close state mental hospitals and substitute the same with community mental health centers that most people thought would serve the needs of the mentally ill better. The results have, however, been far from positive -- community facilities have become… [read more]

Theories of Criminology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,165 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Under what school of thought or theory do law enforcement agencies operate?

There is no precise theory that all law enforcements agencies follow when doing their jobs, but it is reasonable to assume, based on the literature on crime and police responses to crime, that law enforcement embraces the Rational Choice theory. For example, when an adult sells tobacco products to 16-year-old boys, that individual made the choice to break the law in order to make a profit. Rational choice is about "how incentives and constraints affect behavior," and for a police officer on the street, he or she knows that the man selling cigarettes to minors has made a rational choice to do that (Gul, 2009). Hiring illegal immigrants, visiting violence on a spouse or partner, dealing heroin on the streets of Brooklyn, or becoming a pimp and profiting off of prostitution; all of these criminal acts were committed following thought and planning by the suspect, hence, Rational Choice.

Under what school of thought of theory do the courts operate? It would seem logical to assume that the courts operate -- at least in many situations -- under the Neoclassical School of thought. That is, the crime and the punishment are two different components of a judicial finding. When an 18-year-old is arrested for drunk driving, and it is his first offence, the judge is going to give him sentence that will be quite different from the person who has been arrested multiple times and is an alcoholic who refuses to undergo therapy.

Changes for law enforcement -- an alternative school of thought.

If the police in certain circumstances could view crime and criminals with a more sociological and understanding approach (and I'm not saying that this works in all cases) -- especially in low-income neighborhoods where unemployment is very high and levels of education are very low -- the Positivist Theory might be an important model to employ. Of course law-breaking must be stopped and the person must be punished. In fact, restorative justice could be used in these cases -- where the victim and the perpetrator meet under controlled situations and there is a sense of closure for both parties.

Important changes in the courts' approach to justice could be (perhaps should be) restorative justice. The prisons are overcrowded, criminal cases are backed up, so why not (in municipal courts at least) use restorative justice, and instead of locking younger law-breakers up, give them a chance to meet their victims and make restoration for their wrongdoing?

Important changes in corrections' systems of punishment could include taking non-violent offenders out of the institution and (with the National Guard serving as law enforcement) have those nonviolent offenders working in the forests and Wildlands clearing brush to help fire fighters. This is not a new idea, but why not put offenders to work helping the environment? It is the fire season, and it may even be appropriate to train some of the inmates to fight fires. But for certain, they… [read more]

Felony Murder: Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,303 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal Justice: Felony Murder

A person is convicted of murder if it is proven, beyond reasonable doubt, that they specifically intended the death that they caused, intended to foist serious bodily injury upon their victim, or acted recklessly, with no regard for human life (Malani, 2002). The felony-murder rule, which "allows a killing that occurs in the course of a serious felony, even an accidental death, to be charged against the felon as murder," is the only exception to the proof of intent provision that governs murder convictions (LII, n.d.). It comes into operation when death occurs either during a felony or in subsequent flight from one, and there is a direct causal connection between the death, and the felony (Binder, 2002). Like any other rule in criminal punishment, the felony-murder rule was developed with one overriding intention; to deter crime by making people shy away from committing felonies. Empirical research indicates that the felony-murder rule does little to deter crime. It ought to be abolished and replaced with a more effective alternative.

The felony-murder rule began in England under the Common Law and was at the very onset applied rather strictly - encircling any killing taking place during the commission of a "felony even if the felon is not the killer" (LII, n.d.). To this end, if a security officer attempting to thwart a bank raid shot and killed one robber, the surviving one(s) was (were) charged with the murder of his (their) colleague (LII, n.d.). Most jurisdictions have since limited the scope of the rule, making it operative only when a felony is extremely dangerous, or when death is foreseeable (Binder, 2002). Some jurisdictions have abolished it altogether (Binder, 2002). Although jurisdictions that still practice the felony-murder rule have different definitions of dangerous felonies, robbery, rape, kidnapping, and burglary come out as the typical felony murder rule-invoking crimes (Malani, 2002).

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Felony-Murder Rule

Three weighty justifications have been advanced by the rule's proponents with regard to its efficacy and practicability. First and foremost, the rule literally pushes "felons to take greater care to avoid accidental deaths when committing felonies" (Malani, 2002, p. 5). Any killing, intentional or not, that occurs in the course of a felony shifts a case from felony to murder, and consequently, attracts a higher penalty. In order to avoid this, a felon would try to execute their crime more carefully, perhaps by using weapons that are less dangerous, or by having their executions planned out with greater precision (Malani, 2002). This way, the rule instills some level of fear among felons and goes a long way towards reducing the number of accidental deaths resulting from felony crimes (Malani, 2002)

In addition to inducing greater care in the execution of felonies, the felony-murder rule drives felons to adjust their criminal activities to optimal levels (Malani, 2002). This rides on the ideology that the risk of unintentional killing increases with the number of felonies; such that, for instance, a felon who commits… [read more]

Criminology Theories and Theorists Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,231 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


"According to the original strain theory, an increase in aspirations and a decrease in expectations should lead to an increase in delinquency; however, this was not found to be the case (Agnew, 1985:152). Also, the original strain theory predicted a concentration of delinquent behavior in the lower class, but research proved that delinquency was also common in the middle and upper classes" (Robert Agnew's general strain theory, 2013, FSU). Agnew criticized earlier strain theorists for focusing too much on economic conditions, pointing out that was only one source of strain. Agnew conceptualized strain as more internally driven: it was not only the fact that society was unfair, but also how the criminal perceived his or her circumstances.

"There are three major types of strain according to general strain theory. They are the failure to achieve positively valued goals, the loss of positive stimuli, and the presentation of negative stimuli" (Robert Agnew's general strain theory, 2013, FSU). The failure to achieve goals may include monetary goals but also the loss of power and respect. The removal of positive stimuli (such as the loss of a job) can also cause strain. And the introduction of negative stimuli (such as a child who is abused) can increase the stressors upon the individual and increase the likelihood he or she would engage in criminal activities. Strain thus can be caused by a perceived gap between expectations and reality, but temperament and circumstances affect how that gap is perceived. Additionally, gender may also play a role in the perception of strain. Women may be more apt to blame themselves for disappointments and turn their frustrations on themselves while men are more apt to lash out violently.

Both Becker and Agnew propose relatively subjective theories of criminality, both of which are based in social analysis, not individual psychology alone. Becker stresses the importance of larger power interests determining what constitutes crime, highlighting the mutability of the definition of what constitutes a crime and a criminal person. Defining classes as 'criminal' becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. In contrast, for Agnew, crime is much more of an individual phenomenon. Perceived expectations and personal disappointments can cause the sociological and psychological foundations which allow crime to fester.

These theories remain important because they address not only how crimes are generated, but implicitly how we should address crime. Becker's concept underlines the importance of not stereotyping entire classes of people and the extent to which labeling in schools and other institutions can foster rather than fight crime. Agnew stresses the need for society to foster positive coping mechanisms for individuals to deal with frustration: "If the initial goals and values of a person are high and they have few alternative goals to fall back on, then the person may be more prone to committing delinquent acts. Also, individuals may have coping resources available through variables such as temperament, self-esteem, and creativity, which will make them less likely to participate in delinquent or criminal acts" (Robert Agnew's general strain theory, 2013, FSU).… [read more]

Juvenile and Adult Justice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, in some instances, juveniles may be punished more severely than adults, and are generally given longer probation sentences for crimes such as being disorderly (Komisaruk 2007). This notion of 'the worst of both worlds' was reflected in the U.S. Supreme Court decision of Kent v. The United States (1966). Before Kent, it was generally found that the Fourteenth Amendment right to due process could be waived for certain classes of persons if there was a compensatory benefit, such as the aim of the juvenile court system to rehabilitate the offender (Chapter 4, 1999, Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report: 90). But in Kent, the Court found that such 'compensatory benefits' were often lacking in actual practice for juveniles and juveniles often had fewer rights than adults but were granted harsher punishments for the same offenses.

Later, in Gault, in which a juvenile was sentenced to confinement in a training school until he reached adulthood for making a prank call (the maximum penalty for an adult would have been a $50 fine or 2 months in jail), the Court ruled that the defendant's rights had been violated. The Court stated that when the crime of which the juvenile was accused could result in institutional confinement, the juvenile was entitled to due process, including the right to counsel, question witnesses, and question witnesses (Chapter 4, 1999, Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report: 90). Because of Gault, the adult and criminal justice systems are now similar in all of these three critical respects.


Chapter 4: Juvenile justice system structures and processes. (1999). Juvenilia Offenders and Victims: National Report. Retrieved: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/chapter4.pdf

Juvenile law: status offenses. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved:


Komisaruk, Kami. 92007). Differences between juvenile and adult court. Just Law Collective.

Retrieved: http://www.lawcollective.org/article.php?id=64

La Mance, Ken. (2012). Juvenile vs. adult criminal system. LegalMatch Law Library.

Retrieved: http://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/juvenile-vs.-adult-criminal-system.html… [read more]

Criminal Justice -- Sentencing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


2). The PSI report would also give information about the crime, including a narrative of the facts and any mitigating or aggravating circumstances of the crime (Steverson, 2012, p. 2). In addition, the PSI report would give current information about the victim(s) and information about the restitution, including: the type, amount and recipient (Steverson, 2012, p. 2). Finally, the probation officer sometimes includes a recommendation about sentencing in the PSI report (Steverson, 2012, p. 2).

Procedure after Sentencing and Possible Appeal

After sentencing, Hernandez would be taken into custody (if not already in custody) and handed over to the custody of the Federal Corrections Department to begin her sentence. Hernandez entered her plea in the Western District of Texas (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010), so her appeal would go to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit, which is the appellate court with jurisdiction over the Western District of Texas (United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, 2012, p. 9).

In order for Hernandez's appeal to be granted, Hernandez would have to show that something was materially wrong procedurally or substantively in the lower court and that her plea, her sentence or something else about her case should be overturned or sent back to the lower court for further action. That covers a lot of ground and many different arguments might be successfully made to the appellate court. For two examples: Hernandez might argue that she had ineffective assistance of counsel because her attorney had her accept a plea with… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


There are however issues concerning the extent to which this strategy should be used and its cost implication in regard to crime prevention strategy. In addition, it is possible that prisons may be reserved specifically for selected people considered dangerous and most likely repeat offenders. It is also possible that there would be a situation where a large number of felons would be incarcerated. Therefore, the effectiveness of incapacitation in reducing crime still remains a controversial issue. In the same line, there have been rigorous studies carried out to examine the effectiveness of this concept and mostly focused on creating models to evaluate its effect on a personal level (Zimring and Hawkins 1995). Nonetheless, the process of evaluation and estimation of the benefits of crime prevention that result from incarceration is complicated. Therefore, an estimation of crime occurrence and the period of active criminals would give clear guidelines. In addition, Sherman et al. (1996), assert that abody of studies centered around incapacitation reveal little positive effect of the concept in crime reduction.


This a deontological view of punishment used in reference to the offences performed by criminals. To those who favor this concept, it is a punishment mitted out subjected to the judicial process rather than an intention to promote right and enhancing good. Moore (1993) suggests that retribution can be conceptualuzed as a theory that epitomizes punishment as an intrinsic good that need to be enhanced. White (2012) categorizes retribution into two major varieties and claims that each can be justified in many ways. The first is negative retribution which puts restrictions on allowed punishment, with the believe that those who have not been found guilty should not be punished and that those found guilty must never be severely punished. Moreover, positive retribution on the other hand is where there are affirmative requirements put on punishment with the believe that the innocent should never be punished and the guilty must be severely punished. Positive retribution is opposite to deterrence as a basis of punishment and it points at one who is to be punished and the mode of punishment. According to Avio (1990), such demands are challanging considering economic burden it can impose on the criminal justice system. However, retribution is effective in reducing crime because in any event the penalty distribution in retribution is different from that in detterrence, retribution emerges effective.

A criminal justice system that employs capital punishment regardless of the financial implications and issues regarding its value on deterrence is biased towards retribution.


Avio, K.L. (1990). Retribution, Wealth Maximization, and Capital Punishment:A Law and Economics Approach. Stetson Law Review, 19, 373-409.

Gadek, R. (2013). Rehabilitation vs. Punishment in the Adult Justice System. Retrieved Feburary 11, 2013, from http://criminaljusticeonlineblog.com

McNeill, F. (2012). When Punishment is Rehabilitation. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.Fergus.

Moore, M. (1993). Justifying Retributivism. Israel Law Review, 15-49.

Mumola, C. (1999). Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners 1997.

of Justice Statistics . Bureau of Justice Statistics .

Raynor, P.,… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory and Policy Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (1,366 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Prosecution discretion and the constitution

The majority bring out the fact that the prosecutor is trying to abide by the laws that relate to plea-bargaining. If the prosecutor would, by any chance make threats to the accused, then the verdict by the majority would have been unfair to the accused. The defendant, therefore, would have had an unfair trial, which can make him charged unfairly. In my opinion, I agree with the decision by the majority in that they are considering the fact that the prosecutor has the responsibility of trying to convince the defendant to relinquish that he is not guilty. This would set the pace for a trial in which all the evidence against the defendant presented to the court. This sheds light to the case thereby ensuring that the whole story and scenario behind the case becomes apparent (McConville & Mirsky, 2009). The advantage to this, therefore, is that a fair conclusion of the case would present itself. The laws are in favor of the defendant in a case whereby the defendant pleads to a guilty plea and in consideration to this case scenario, the defendant pleads not guilty.

The prosecutor is rather being harsh to the defendant according to the opinion by the majority. The accused turns down the offer by the prosecutor, thereafter, the prosecutor goes ahead with placing charges that are worth to consider as harsh. This brings out a negative impression relating to the decision made by the prosecutor who seems to be a little bit hard to the defendant (McConville & Mirsky, 2009). This is not right when considering the law because the prosecutor should treat the defendant fairly. In the eyes of the law, the defendant is still innocent until found guilty of the charges against him. Alternatively, if the defendant had given in to the offer tabled by the prosecutor, then the charges against him would have been less harsh in comparison to the subjection of an obligatory life incarceration. If that is not the case, then the prosecutor might be up to making his work much simpler by expecting the defendant to agree to the plea-bargaining offered. It is mandatory that the prosecutor let the defendant decide for him or herself whether to plead guilty or not. The prosecutor should not force the defendant to make irrational decisions so that he can simplify his work. This is a selfish act.

The prosecutor has the right of persuading the defendant to agree on the plea-bargaining, but it is unfair that the charges that the defendant gets after dilapidating have to be harsh. It is, however, the defendant's option to make a decision on whether to agree or repudiate the offer tabled by the prosecutor (McConville & Mirsky, 2009). Another reason that supports the opinion by the majority is the fact that the law defies punishment of a person who contravenes what the law consents to like for this case where the prosecutor is obviously trying… [read more]

Criminal Justice Changes Criminal Justice "Changes Expected Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice

Changes Criminal Justice

"Changes expected in the field of criminal justice over the next 50 years."

In the next fifty years, the world will gain more technological advancement. This progress will give benefit to the world largely but as every innovation brings some tension, similarly the criminal minds will misuse this advancement to carry on their devilish activities. If we look back, the crime rate ten years ago was less than today's crime rate and the criminals were less brutal. The advancement has also brought misery to the humanity.

Children are misusing the internet facilities and the abuses leads them to the juvenile justice, being minor they do not get severe punish but the root for crime is indulged in them. Segregation of the adult internet portion is compulsory as the children get negative impact of the pornographic material available on the internet (Pattavina, 2005). Moreover, the centralized databases and the security systems of the financial institutions and the governmental high alert zones are also facing problems of the hackers who even unlock the passwords and make the system useless by their fatal viruses. Such risks increase the problem of online robbery in the wink of an eye. Another issue of the present time is the stealing of property rights electronic data and digital files available on the internet. People are using others' work with their own name and the original owner is getting no worth for his/her work (Sorensen, 2009).

Observing all the above problems, the anti-corruption departments and the police have decided to take such measures that will prevent the crime rates in future. As diamond cuts diamond, similarly the police have decided to use the technology in order to stop the criminal activities in the society.

The world's criminal justice system will develop a whole database of the serial murderers and rapists to sort their records as quickly as possible. In future, they are planning to have serological analysis, which is a blood-serum test that…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Juveniles Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


(Johnson and Tabri, Page 2 -- 3)

People think that juveniles with life sentences would improve their health and their character if the possibility of parole existed to be something for them to work towards while imprisoned. LWOP is another form of death. Others who argue against LWOP for juvenile declare that LWOP diminishes the health of juveniles in many… [read more]

Criminal Justice Organizational and Administrative Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Since the job can be stressful, it may sometimes seem like the department is not performing for the officers as it should. This can reach the level of an officer who is disgruntled making statements to the media that are not warranted. When an individual is under stress he or she is likely to make statements that cannot be proven. However, the public may believe the statements because they are made by an employee of a relatively secretive organization. The department may even look worse of they charge the office for the comments.

Web Field Trip

Article One

In an article for The Police Chief, an attorney, Martin J. Mayer, discussed the hiring concessions that a department must make with regard to the American with Disabilities Act. He starts by making the point that medical information can be gathered prior to making an offer of employment and that many attorneys are advising police departments that they should conduct most of the background check before the offer is made also. However, he contends that some EEOC legislation is countering a department's right to know all of the medical issues an applicant might have (Mayer, 2012). But the EEOC did say that a conditional offer of employment was illegal, and that a departments could offer to hire the individual if that person met certain criteria. It seems that the primary concern of both the EEOC and the police departments is that they not increase the hiring process to any great degree.

Article Two

The second article discusses a case of libel in Brockport, NY. Comments were made on a website that corruption was running rampant in the Brockport police department, and many officers were named as having committed illegal acts. Although the police chief and the rest of the department knew that the allegations were false, the chief asked the town Board of Trustees that the DA conduct an investigation into the accusations (Mangan, 2011). The reporter discussed the fact that libelous information is also spoken or written against police departments, and that the department has the need to protect its officers if they are innocent. The article also acknowledged that libel is not protected by the First Amendment, so the individuals responsible would have no protection under the law. The author uses case quotes and legal precedent for making his case.


DOJ. (1997). Questions and answers: The Americans with Disabilities Act and hiring police officers. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/copsq7a.htm

Mangan, T. (2011). Libel raises its ugly head in Brockport. Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/article/libel-raises-its-ugly-head-brockport

Mayer, M.J. (2012). ADA and the hiring process. The Police Chief. Retrieved from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display&iss ue_id=92009&category_ID=3… [read more]

Organizational Structure the Debate Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (1,029 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


These signs indicate potential for advancement. For example, "Correctional Officers GS-8 work with a great deal of independence in performing very difficult assignments. They utilize superior skill and insight in observing and interpreting inmate activities, making sound decisions rapidly, and resolving difficult correctional problems" (opm.gov).



Correctionsone.com is a website devoted to keeping the corrections officer well-informed about relevant news and developments in the corrections field. Ideally, the website has a goal of keeping the corrections officer more able to foster a safe and well-run environment. The website also dedicates itself to providing a platform for those who work in the correctional field to discuss and debate controversial or pressing issues. For example, the website allows experts to sound off issues like treatment vs. custody; a truly multi-faceted issue as we've seen from the class readings. The website also offers a range of tips and insight on issues that only a correctional officer deals with firsthand, and which only those who work in the field can offer insight upon. These tips provide help and advice for things like prison gangs, riots, crowd control and reducing prisoner weapons. The website also promotes the latest correctional officer gear and products to make their jobs easier.


This website is similar to the first in that it also attempts to keep those who work in the correctional field. This website also tries to provide insider information to these professionals about pertinent news in the field. For example, one article stressed that illegal cell phone use was one of the key components to the South Carolina prison riot. Insider information like that can give correctional officers around the world key insight into ways they can better protect themselves and run safer and more efficient institutions. Furthermore, each article provides a deep, introspective look at each issue, so that professionals can really digest all perspectives on a given matter or event. Many of the articles truly do discuss ways for correctional officers to better protect themselves, by discussing the pros and cons of cameras in prisons and ways to combat cell phone smuggling and the latest gear and tools to make such officers more effective.


Bayley, B. (2009, July 1). Custody Vs. Treatment Debate: Deterrence -- The Two Great Lies.

Retrieved 8, 2012, June, from Correctionsone.com: http://www.correctionsone.com/corrections- training/articles/1851841-Custody-Vs- Treatment-Debate-Deterrence-The-Two-Great-Lies/

Doj.wisconsin.gov. (n.d.). What Is the Difference between Probation and Parole? Retrieved June 8, 2012, from Wisconsin Department of Justice: http://www.doj.wisconsin.gov/dles/cibmanuals/files/TIME/HTML/whatisthedifferencebe tweenprobationandparole.htm

Opm.gov. (n.d.). Position Classification Standard. Retrieved June 8, 2012, from U.S. Office of Personnel Management: http://www.opm.gov/fedclass/gs0007.pdf

Warren, J. (n.d.). Covering Community Corrections: Probation, Parole and Beyond . Retrieved June 8, 2012, from Justice Journalism: http://www.justicejournalism.org/crimeguide/chapter15/chapter15_pg02.html… [read more]

Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


If a candidate fails the written test he or she can take it again after six months.

The oral exam is given by medical professionals (including a psychologist) appointed by the sheriff. A comprehensive background investigation is launched for each candidate (looking into histories of education, jobs, any legal issues, family history) and a "truth verification exam" is given (a polygraph test / CVSA). Also a physical agilities test is required (consists of a 99 yard obstacle course; 6' solid fence jump; 6' chain link fence climb; a "165-pound life-like dummy drag for 32 feet"; and A 500 yard run).

As to tattoos, any body art must not be visible on the "face, neck, or head" because visible tattoos are "prejudicial to good order and discipline" (SDSD). There is also a firearms qualification test at the SDSD (which wasn't mentioned for the SFSD qualifications). As for salary, 1st step deputy pay is $22.17 an hour based on a 40-hour workweek. It takes 5-1/2 years to make the 8th step, which pays up to $36.34 an hour based on a 40-hour workweek.

Quality and competency of recruits issues for both sheriff's departments: I agree that every aspect of a person's health, intelligence, and background experience should be thoroughly evaluated and background checks must be able to detect even the smallest flaw in a candidate's character and skills. An effective sheriff's department must have strong, able leaders at the top of the chain of command, and that leadership must be willing to train recruits in the highest level of law enforcement skills. Research by the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) shows that the most effective police officers are those with the best departments, and the best departments insist on the following: a) "the exercise of strong leadership"; b) an ongoing debate "of police and criminal justice issues"; c) a solid "research and policy department"; and d) "the provision of vital management leadership services to police agencies" (Saint Louis County).

Works Cited

Saint Louis County Missouri. (2009). Law and Public Safety / Evaluating Quality Police

Services / What is Quality Police Service? Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.stlouisco.com.

San Diego County Sheriff's Department. (2011). Become a Deputy Sheriff / Lateral Program /

Join Our Team. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.joinsdsheriff.net/lateral.html.

San Francisco County Sheriff's Department. (2011). City and County of San…… [read more]

Movie Training Day Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,298 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Moving Training Day

Training Day

In the moving Training Day, Officer Jake Hoyt (Ethan Hawk) and Detective Alonzo Harris (Denzel Washington) serve on a narcotics unit that Harris commands. He is a highly decorated officer inside the LAPD (who is known for his good police work and strong track record of convictions). Hoyt is a young officer who wants to become involved in undercover work and advance his career. Set on Hoyt's first day, the movie discusses the issues surrounding the role of police authority and how it is exercised. To fully understand the way that these ideas apply to field of criminal justice requires: comparing select aspects of the movie with key law enforcement procedures. Together, these elements will highlight the way these practices are applied and what aspects should be taken into account to prevent abuse. ("Training Day," 2001)

Key Points from Training Day

Training Day is focusing on how Hoyt is reacting to the less formalized policies and procedures that Harris is using. This occurs at the start of the movie when Hoyt is on his way to roll call and is informed that they do not have to go. As the film continues, Harris engages in activities that are designed to benefit himself / his associates and test Hoyt's loyalty. The most notable include: failing to make key arrests, performing illegal searches and creating a fake police shooting. The way that Harris fails to make key arrests occurs: when he witnesses a drug deal and an attempted rape. These issues are problematic, as they are illustrating how Harris is completely corrupt. ("Training Day," 2001)

To test how far Hoyt will go, Harris has him smoke marijuana and will visit a friend of his named Roger (who is known drug dealer and former police officer). They then leave and Harris meets with high ranking police officials. These individuals tell him that they know about his situation with Russian Mafia and they advise him to leave town. Harris assures them that he can handle everything. He then gives them some money (which was sized earlier from gang members and a drug dealer named Sandman). Harris tells Hoyt that he had to pay these individuals with the money he seized from Sandman to secure the warrant. ("Training Day," 2001)

They return to Roger's house and find the money that he has hidden underneath his kitchen. It is at this point that Harris kills Roger and then works with the rest of his team to create a cover story. This involves every man receiving a percentage of the money that was recovered. Then, Harris shoots one team member and places the gun in Roger's hand. This is to show that when they entered the premises, he shot one of the officers. To defend themselves, they were forced to kill Roger. ("Training Day," 2001)

The problem is that Hoyt refuses to take the money and is shaken by these events. This is when Harris will go with Hoyt to the home… [read more]

Right Versus Right Decision-Making in Criminal Justice Administration Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,171 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethical Decision Making in Law Enforcement Management

In general, ethical decision making in public policy and law enforcement involves right-versus-right decisions rather than right-versus-wrong decisions because all of the stakeholders involved represent valid and just objectives. In many respects, that makes public policy and law enforcement decisions more difficult than other types of decisions because ignoring a right is much more difficult than ignoring a right. Typically, these types of decisions must consider the interests and concerns of employees, citizens, and publicly elected officials.

Right-versus-Right Analyses

In principle, right-versus-right analyses incorporate four types of questions. First, the approach must consider the various identifiable consequences of every decision option, including the different types of consequences that affect different classes of individuals (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). In that respect, the second area of inquiry in right-versus-right analyses requires comparing the respective importance and magnitude of the full spectrum of conceivable outcomes associated with all possible corresponding decisions. That level of inquiry requires anticipating how the respective concerns and welfare of every stakeholder can be addressed within the framework of any given decision. The third element of right-versus-right decision making involves establishing a message capable of communicating the values that an organization hopes to represent, inspire, and emulate. The fourth and final element of right-versus-right decision making is an analysis of effectiveness in relation to stated strategic objectives (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).


Within law enforcement, the most valuable commodity are the individuals who actually devote their lives to public service in a capacity that requires significant sacrifice and that often entails exposure to tremendously dangerous situations and circumstances. Naturally, right-versus-right decision making in connection with employees in law enforcement typically includes considerations of the safety of personnel as paramount in relative importance. However, in many instances, decisions that provide optimal (or maximal) personnel safety may not necessarily be the most practical decisions.

For one example, there is no question that two-man patrol vehicles provide a much higher level of safety for police officers in the field than single-occupancy patrol vehicles (Schmalleger, 2010). On the other hand, not every police agency is fortunate enough to have the necessary resources (including manpower, vehicles, and budget) to field a fleet of two-officer vehicles. They may have to balance the right of officer safety with the right of being able to fulfill the agency mission for the entire community served by and reliant on the agency for police services. Unfortunately, in those types of situations, the right of agency mission and obligations to the community outweighs the right of providing maximum security and safety for officers in the field and often requires those agencies to rely on single-officer patrol vehicles or to field such a small number of officers in the field at any given time that backup is often too far away to provide the level of security that would be desirable and optimal. Obviously, both concerns are right: it is right to provide the maximum safety for officers in the field and it is… [read more]

Discrimination Against Minorities in the Judicial System Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,062 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Discrimination against minorities is rampant in the United States civil and criminal justice system (Blumstein, 2009). The discrimination is observed to be along racial, ethnic or gender-based lines (Murphy,2009). To discriminate against anyone according to DOE (2008) means to exclude them from the enjoyment in full of their social, political, economic, civil and cultural rights as well as freedoms. The… [read more]

Criminal Justice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Criminal justice.

What are the elements of the crime of burglary?

The elements of the crime of burglary, according to common law, are the illicit breaking into and entering the dwelling of another in order to commit some sort of felony on the premises. Usually that felony will be theft, but the common-law elements have been made less restrictive by modifications in most jurisdictions and have included other offenses that fall under the ambit of burglary (Burglary: elements of the offense: http://law.jrank.org/pages/4932/Burglary.html)

How does the Nevada Revised Statutes differ?

The Nevada Revised Statutes 205.06 extends description of the victim's dwelling to any "house, room, apartment, tenement, shop, warehouse, store, mill, barn, stable, outhouse or other building, tent, vessel, vehicle, vehicle trailer, semitrailer or house trailer, airplane, glider, boat or railroad car," and extends the felony to "grand or petit larceny, assault or battery on any person or any felony, or to obtain money or property by false pretenses." (Nevada Revised Statutes 205.06 - Burglary: Definition; penalties; venue. [online])

Give two definitions of white-collar crime.

Modern criminology defines the crime according to the type of offense and the type of offender. (it is also defined according to organizational culture).

1. The type of offense includes property violations, environmental issues, health and safety corners and so forth. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines white-collar crime as "lying, cheating, and stealing. That's white-collar crime in a nutshell" (Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). [online]). This is the generally accepted definition of white-collar crime in the U.S.

2. The type of offender -- Offenders of white collar crimes are, generally, distinguished by their socioeconomic statutes and white collar crimes differs from the more serious sorts due to a covert policy of social inequality. As Shover and…… [read more]

Job Interest Essay

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Criminal Justice

What areas of criminal justice am I interested in and why?

I am interested in investigating crimes because it is always of interest to me as to why that particular crime was committed. Whether the crime was committed against property, people, an institution or animals, I am always curious to know who committed the wrongdoing and perhaps get… [read more]

Sex Crime Program | Criminal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A recent study discusses that the sex crime program is still to this date, very flawed. This was according to a recent survey which found that there is a 14% chance of repeat crimes, and a 54% of re-offence recorded in one year ("Sex Offender Survey," 2010). This information was gathered through a survey conducted by the National Police Agency. The study observed a total of 740 sex offenders whom were released from prison since June 2005 to May 2010, an overall 14% of all offenders were seen to repeat their crime, and of that percentage a total of 57 individuals had done so within one year from their discharge ("Sex Offender Survey," 2010).

This shows that there is still a problem with sex crime programs, and there needs to be more research done on the topic. How to approach a sex offender, and how to release them back into society with the confidence that they will not repeat their crime should be studied more carefully. The current program objectives, according to the survey conducted, shows that the goals are not achieved because there are still repeat crimes in terms of sex offence. These goals are supposedly to reduce potential deviant behavior, offer motivation and psychological education, evaluate psychological condition, encourage responsibility for offences, and other objectives relating to the re-release of sex offenders into society ("Sex Offender Rehabilitation," n.d.).

Seeing the high numbers of repeat offenders, the programs should look more into the psychological evaluations of these sex crime offenders to see if they are really fit to re-enter society ("Sex Offender Survey," 2010).


Sex Offender Program (n.d.). Hibbing, Minnesota. Retrieved from http://www.hibbing.mn.us/index.asp?Type=B_BASIC&SEC={6E735594-D46A-476A- 9A9C-459B7FE36A7F}&DE={57503F2E-8FA0-448A-B08D-4ABDAFA22829}

Sex Offender Rehabilitation Programs (n.d.). Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved from http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/pgm&svcs/pgms&svcs-sexofftrtpgm.htm

Sex offender survey: 14% repeat / Address-registry program flawed; 54% of reoffenses occur within 1 year (2010). Daily Yomiuri Online. Retrieved from http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T101104006439.htm… [read more]

Criminal Justice Sex Offender Regulations Maryland Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice

Sex Offender Regulations

Maryland's Sex Offender Registration Guidelines

People found guilty by a court of a sexual crime must register with the state. The amount of time and grouping of registration depends on the crime for which a person has been convicted, the age of the injured party and the date that the crime was committed. All offenders… [read more]

Problems in the Criminal Justice System Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,623 words)
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Eyewitness Testimony Problems

One of the fundamental assumptions of the American criminal justice system is that the testimony of eyewitnesses can be trusted -- in fact, that it can be trusted absolutely. There is little more convincingly to a jury than hearing a witness declaim: "That's the man -- I saw him leaving the murder scene." We believe eyewitnesses because… [read more]

Race and Sentencing Thesis

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Race in the Criminal Justice System

There are a disproportionate number of minorities in the prison system compared to their White counterparts. As of 2006 Blacks accounted for only 13.4% of the American population (U.S. Census Bureau), however they accounted for 41% of all inmates in the prison population (U.S. Dept. Of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics). Altogether, minorities made up 66% of the entire prison population (U.S. Dept. Of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics). With the disparity of Blacks and minorities incarcerated, the question of systematic inequality has been raised.

As an emergence of the war of crime, harsh sentencing practices such as three strikes and charging juveniles as adults has arisen. These practices have been implemented as deterrents to crime however, are the harsh sentencing practices being distributed equally among all offenders. Weather perceived or real, concerns about racial profiling, sentencing disparities and jury composition are factors that should be examined.

One issue that insinuates inequality in the punitive system is the disparity in sentencing for crack cocaine opposed to powder cocaine. According to the article "Justices Unfetter Judges on Sentences; The Supreme Court said Sentencing Guidelines are Advisory, not Mandatory. A Racial Disparity was seen." By Emilie Lounsberry, "harsher penalties for crack cocaine was unfair to Black defendants" (pg. 1 paragraph 4). According to the article, a two-tier cocaine sentence existed as crack cocaine was more punitive than that of powder cocaine.

The author, Emilie Lounsberry, suggests that the problem in the two-tier cocaine sentencing targeted Blacks. Crack cocaine was more prevalent in the Black community, therefore the chances of usage and distribution would more likely be from Black individuals. A person convicted of distributing powder cocaine would have to distribute 100 times more than that of crack cocaine to receive the same harsh sentence.

The disparity in this law has not gone unheard. For years civil rights activist have argued against mandatory sentencing in the drug law. This law is currently in the appellate court arguing for the right to allow judges more discretion when sentencing individual based on review of the individual's case.

The revelation of the preceding information suggests judicial inequality exits, and according to the article "Racial prejudice, perceived injustice, and the Black-White gap in punitive attitudes," by Devon Johnson there is a gap in the opinions among blacks and whites about punitive distribution. The author suggests that whites are more in favor of stiffer prison sentences and the death penalty than their black counterparts. Devon Johnson examines the reason why blacks are less favorable and whites are more favorable for harsher sentences and states that "blacks' support for the punitive policies should be tempered by the belief that the criminal justice system is biased against them" (pg.3 paragraph 1).

The author reveals that Blacks have more negative views about racial fairness and the police than Whites. Since more Blacks could identify with vicarious exposure to incarceration, Blacks were more apathetic and less supportive to severe sentencing. Devon Johnson survey revealed that 79%… [read more]

Forensic Science in the 21st Century of Criminal Justice Essay

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Forensic Science in the 21st Century of Criminal Justice Forensic Science

Forensic science in the 21st century

The role of forensic science in the 21st century has assumed an increasing importance for the criminal justice system. The use of the various scientific methods and procedures in modern forensics has been used extensively in the solving of crimes as well as in court process and procedures. This paper will highlight some of the main aspects of contemporary forensics and how it contributes to crime fighting in terms of the process of criminal justice.

Forensics can generally be defined as the application of science to law (A Career In Forensic Science: What is Forensic Science?). In essence this refers to the process of investigation, gathering and analyzing evidence in order to prove that a crime has in fact occurred and to discover the instigator of the crime. It is important to realize that forensics is a complex and varied discipline with many areas of expertise. Forensics makes use of the knowledge from disciplines such as biology, chemistry, analytical science and mathematics, among others (What is Forensics?). Forensic scientists often specialize in one area of investigation -- for example, drug crime investigations and data analysis.

2. The importance of modern forensic science

One of the main reasons given for the importance of this disciple is the often crucial role that it plays in the identification of crime and criminals. A useful description of forensics that explains something of its importance is provided by the FBI. In order for crimes to be successfully investigated and prosecuted in the legal system, a central requirement is the "… the collection, preservation, and forensic analysis of evidence" (Handbook of Forensic Services). Forensic analysis is therefore in many cases " crucial to determinations of guilt or innocence" (Handbook of Forensic Services). In other words, forensics is an essential part of criminal investigation and procedure. This view of forensic also applies to its role in the justice system. There are instances where the value of forensics and forensic investigations has been proven to be necessary and many crimes would not have been solved without the intervention of forensic science.

An extremely important aspect of forensics is that it makes use of the latest technologies and scientific discoveries in the investigation of crime. For instance, through DNA technology and…… [read more]

Flow of Communication Essay

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Criminal Justice Communication

Flow of communication

Communication within the criminal justice system: Upward, downward, and horizontal

Within the context of the criminal justice system, upward, downward, and horizontal communication all takes place on a daily basis. Downward communication, when an individual communicates with someone lower on the power hierarchy than him or herself, might occur when a police chief gives orders to a newly-promoted detective, or when an officer gives feedback and guidance to a subordinate during a performance review. Traditionally, there are said to be five types of downward communication within a criminal justice organization. The first is that of job instruction, such as in the case of officer training, for example. The second is that of job rationalizing, or communicating to officers how and why they must achieve certain goals: an officer might be urged by his or her superior to involve the community in a positive way in policing efforts to improve the department's public image and reputation. More specific is the third: communication can (and must) take place relating to organizational procedures and practices, such as how to interrogate a suspect or methods of handling evidence. Communication can also take the form of performance-related 'grading' of job performance. The final and fifth type of communication is that of indoctrination or motivational communication methods used to mobilize personnel, as in the case of a speech by a major public figure to officers, such as the police commissioner speaking to the entire ranks (McKinney, 2008, p.1).

Upward communication occurs when a lower-level individual communicates with a supervisor -- for example, when a police officer communicates with his superintendant about what he observed regarding a suspect's behavior. This is an example of upward communication in a formally-defined relationship. Upward communication within the context of policing has traditionally been problematic: "For example, if a patrol officer sees something that must be reported to the highest ranks, they first need to take the information to their patrol sergeant. Then the patrol sergeant needs to report to the lieutenant, the lieutenant needs to report to the captain, etc. As the report reaches the higher ranks, the individuals will reflect on the problem and put their own interpretation on it. It is possible that the information can become diluted or distorted. This process is also incredibly time consuming" (McKinney, 2008, p.2). Within criminal justice organizations, input from lower-level officers was traditionally discouraged, except in terms of the most routine factual reports that are conveyed only one 'rung' up the organizational ladder. Relationships are so formally defined in a power hierarchy within a police organization, the types of communication that could be characterized as 'upward' continue to be stymied because of the power asymmetries inherent in the relationships of a military-style bureaucracy.

Within horizontal or symmetrical forms of organizational communication,…… [read more]

Effects of Punishment and Sentencing Thesis

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Criminal Justice Issues -- Sentencing

Fundamental Sentencing Philosophies:

In the American criminal justice system, there are three primary purposes of criminal sentencing: retribution (or punishment), deterrence, and rehabilitation (Schmalleger, 2007). Additionally, incarceration is also intended to remove offenders from society to protect others from victimization, whereas so-called "alternative" sentencing also incorporates a fourth purpose: victim compensation (Schmalleger, 2007). In many cases, specific criminal offenses may be eligible for different sentences emphasizing one or more elements of those primary purposes. In that regard, various arguments suggest that one perspective or the other is more beneficial to society.

The argument in favor of emphasizing punishment over rehabilitation is that the main function of penal law in general is precisely consistent with its name: to punish criminal conduct. Certainly, that is not in doubt; however, an exclusive focus on punishment may not be the most beneficial approach from a societal perspective, because the vast majority of criminal offenders are eventually returned to society (Dershowitz, 2002). The recognition of the need to minimize criminal recidivism among ex-offenders influences sentencing by increased efforts designed to provide behavioral counseling, education, and vocational training even within the context of punitive sentences.

Factors Considered in Sentencing Decisions:

The most significant factors considered in criminal sentencing decisions are whether the criminal offense at issue is violent or nonviolent and whether the criminal conduct represents an isolated instance or a pattern of repeated behavior on the part of the offender (Schmalleger, 2007). Within that general framework, there are those who emphasize the relevance of the distinction between violent and nonviolent crimes and those who emphasize patterns of criminality instead. In principle, the former position suggests that even first-time violent offenders deserve more harsh punishment…… [read more]

Criminal Justice RICO in 1970 the U.S Thesis

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Criminal Justice


In 1970 the U.S. government passed a set of federal statutes referred to as the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations laws which were meant to combat the influence of organized crime on legitimate businesses. RICO, made it unlawful to carry out or conspire to carry out a venture in which the activities affected interstate commerce by committing… [read more]

Horton v. California 496 U.S. 128 1990 Essay

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Criminal Justice

Plainview Doctrine

In the case of Horton v. California, 496 U.S. 128 (1990), the treasurer of the San Jose Coin Club, Erwin Wallaker, was robbed after returning from a coin club event. The attackers were said to be armed with a machine gun and a stun gun. Wallaker had been approached in his garage where he was stunned with the stun gun and then tied up and handcuffed. The attackers got away with his cash and jewelry. While investigating the armed robbery, Sergeant LaRault found probable cause to search Terry Horton's home for the stolen property and the weapons that were used in the crime. The warrant the officer obtained to search his home only specified that he was searching for stolen property. But when the officer executed the search warrant, he discovered the weapons that had been used in the robbery. The officer confiscated the weapons as well as a few other items that included clothing that had been described by the victim, a handcuff key, and an advertisement for the club's show. LaRault testified that in addition to looking for the stolen property that was listed in the warrant, he had also been looking for further evidence that would link the suspect to the robbery. He claimed that in making his discovery of the weapons it was deliberate and not inadvertent. The trial court admitted this evidence into the trial even though the warrant did not authorize the seizure of it. A jury convicted Horton of armed robbery and sentenced him to prison. Horton appealed the case to the California Court of Appeals where it was affirmed based upon the fact that the officer had testified that, while he was searching Horton's home for the stolen property, he was also interested in finding other evidence connecting Horton to the robbery and that the seized evidence was not discovered inadvertently.

Horton v. California, was argued in front of the U.S. Supreme Court on February 21, 1990 and decided on June 4, 1990. The court upheld the appellate courts decision saying that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit seizure of belongings not specifically listed in a warrant found in plain sight during a legal…… [read more]

Use of Force and Ethics Term Paper

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Criminal Justice - Use of Force


Ethical Issues and Use-of-Force Management in Policing:

Police and other law enforcement officers are authorized to employ physical force in performance of their lawful duties including in executing lawful arrests, protecting members of the public from harm, and preventing serious crime (Schmalleger, 2008).

That use of force ranges from the mere use of a command presence and voice commands all the way up to and including the use of deadly force. Generally, police management and training utilizes a use-of-force continuum (UOFC) that includes five specific levels of force: (1) Non-physical command presence and verbal commands, (2) light hands, such as guiding individuals away from restricted areas, (3) heavy hands, consisting of compliance techniques that produce momentary discomfort or restriction of movement, (4) heavy-handed self-defense techniques consisting of physical strikes and forceful compliance holds, and (5) deadly force (Montgomery, 2005).

In modern American policing, police administrators and policy makers must devote considerable attention to the appropriate level of force in tactical situations, because excessive force can cause physical injury, disfigurement, and even death without justification, resulting in tremendous civil liability on the part of the agency as well as civil rights violations and other criminal charges against the officers involved. Experience has shown that precise policy and specific training are absolutely necessary, because they are the two most important components of administrative efforts to ensure that necessary implementation of force in policing are consistent with legal requirements and civil rights (McCauley, 2005).

Administrative Policy, Procedure, and Police Training:

The single most influential factor in preventing excessive use of force in policing is a clear position established by police administrators clearly defining approved policies and procedures for the use of force. In that regard, use…… [read more]

Corrections - Criminal Justice Issues Essay

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Corrections - Criminal Justice Issues


Can we operate safe, effective prison?

Imprisonment as a form of punishment is almost always associated with much higher rates of violence in correctional facilities than in society outside of prisons.

According to the experts, the risk of assault in prison may be as much as ten times higher than in society. The factors responsible for violence in prison are the nature of the prison population itself, because those sentenced to imprisonment are, by definition, those in society who are most prone to violent behavior. The close quarters and tensions associated with living in the prison environment give rise to gang affiliation in prison and to corresponding conflicts among different prison gangs. One of the most important contributing factors to violence in prison is overcrowded conditions, such as those that, in retrospect, are considered to have been responsible for causing the New York State Attica riot in 1971 and the California prison riot in Santa Fe in 1980. In that respect, avoiding prison overcrowding is considered one of the most important ways to prevent large-scale violence in correctional facilities.

Some of the strategies for reducing prison overcrowding are implemented on the "front end" such as alternative sentencing formats that provide non-incarceration sanctions for appropriate candidates and so-called "back-end" strategies, such as increased use of early release in conjunction with supervised parole. Capacity expansion in the form of renovating existing facilities and constructing new facilities is the third main method of avoiding prison violence attributable to overcrowding. While prison violence is unlikely ever to be eliminated entirely, a combined strategy of front-end, back-end, and capacity expansion can reduce it enough to ensure maximum safety.

2. Should small jails be consolidated into larger, regional facilities?

From the perspective of maintaining the safest possible conditions in jails, smaller size is more conducive to strict control over inmates and prevention of violence within correctional institutions. However, from the perspective of improving other elements of incarceration, small jails are comparatively less able to benefit from federal funds, primarily because it is much harder to justify such expenditures for institutions whose programs provide services to small inmate communities.

On the other hand, to the extent rehabilitation and reduction in recidivism after release back to the community is a goal of incarceration, it may make more sense to consolidate smaller jails into larger regional facilities. In larger facilities, jail administrators have a greater opportunity to implement programs designed to rehabilitate prisoners rather than just confining them until their scheduled date of release. Larger facilities are more eligible for federal funding for such programs. However, since approximately half of all jail inmates have not yet been convicted of a crime, it is difficult to emphasize rehabilitation and anti-recidivism programs. In that regard, one of the most important factors militating against the consolidation of smaller jails into larger regional facilities is the state's responsibility to protect prisoners from harm while they are in custody. Whatever the moral duty and… [read more]

Criminal Justice Process Essay

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Criminal Law

Is plea bargaining a good or bad practice in American criminal justice?

It is impossible to state that plea bargaining is an unequivocally good or unequivocally bad practice when placed in the broader context of the American criminal justice system. Plea bargaining certainly has its merits, and helps keep an already overwhelmed system from becoming completely unworkable. However, plea bargaining can make victims feel as if they have been deprived of both procedural and substantive justice, leading to a perception that the American criminal justice system is soft on crime and cares more about defendants than about victims.

There is no question that modern criminal courts are forced to contend with a complex and busy caseload. Furthermore, they have to walk a difficult line, one the one hand controlling crime and protecting society, while, on the other hand, being protective of individual rights. Most of the people who are intimately involved in the criminal justice system have a good idea of the value of a particular crime. In other words, they know the approximate sentence that a defendant with particular characteristics would receive for committing a specific crime. This enables those actors to make pre-trial determinations of the appropriate sentence for a particular defendant. Of course, different actors play different roles in these determinations. Clearly, it is the role of the defense attorney to try to obtain a below-average sentence for his client, while a prosecutor might seek an above-average sentence. However, because all of the daily actors in the criminal justice system are so well-versed in crime and punishment, plea bargains usually result in the appropriate sentence for the offender. In this way, plea bargains are very efficient and are a boon to a struggling court system. However, there are weaknesses in a criminal justice system whose convictions are largely the result of plea bargains; though a trial is a defendant's absolute constitutional right, the push to plea bargain may make it seem as if defendant's are penalized for seeking that right, since they are charged with the highest level of crime applicable if they are brought to trial.

2. Is preventative pretrial detention a just practice?

In a country that prides itself on the notion that all people are innocent until proven guilty, and that all people have an absolute Due Process right to a fair and complete trial, the idea of pretrial detention should shock the conscience of legal observers. The Constitution only recognizes one function for bail, and that is to secure people who are flight risks while they await trial. Moreover, the Constitution does not even contemplate a scenario in which a defendant would be denied a meaningful opportunity to make bail. However, the reality is that courts frequently set bail so high that defendants have no possibility of making bail, which results in de facto pretrial detention for those defendants. In fact, with the Bail Reform Act of 1966 and the Bail Reform Act of 1984, Congress recognized that bail was being… [read more]

Job Opportunities Thesis

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Criminal Justice - Job Opportunities


Good morning and thank you for inviting me to your school today. I am very pleased to know that so many of you have expressed a potential interest in this presentation because that is a good thing for our criminal justice system. As you may already know, the criminal… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Profiling Criminal Research Proposal

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Criminal Justice - Profiling


Background and History of Criminal Profiling:

Criminal profiling is based on the notion that criminality is a form of behavior that can be predicted based on knowledge of the perpetrator's personality and personal characteristics. Its first use was pioneered by the U.S. Office of Strategic Services during World War II in connection with the… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Risk Management Thesis

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Criminal Justice - Risk Management


The Importance of Risk Management Planning:

One of the casualties of September 11, 2001 was Rick Rescorla, Security Chief at the investment firm Morgan Stanley, headquartered at the World Trade Center. Shortly after his initial hiring, Rescorla suggested that all 2,700 Morgan Stanley employees working between floors 44 and 74 of the South Tower be reassigned and the firm relocated to Jersey City, New Jersey, just across the Hudson River. According to Rescorla, the WTC was too vulnerable to a crude terrorist attack such as a bomb detonated from within a vehicle in the basement garage. Morgan Stanley management was appreciative of the advice, but responded that the prestige and profile of the WTC towers were too much to give up but that they would accept just about any security suggestions other than relocating the firm (Larsen, 2007).

Instead, Rescorla thereafter set about creating detailed evacuation plans for the entire firm that included brightly colored markings throughout the stairwells, as well as repeated drills in which employees (reluctantly) practiced evacuating the structure in several different scenarios, including power failures and smoke-filled stairwells. Those plans were instrumental in a successful evacuation of all 2,700 Morgan Stanley employees in 1993 after the first terrorist attack on the WTC (Larsen, 2007).

Eight years later, it Rescorla who instructed Morgan Stanley employees to disregard the official announcement over the building intercom to remain at their desks after the first plane crashed into the South Tower. Rescorla's detailed scenario planning conducted over the previous decade disclosed that immediate evacuation of the tower following a terrorist attack on the North Tower (and vice-versa) would be much safer than following the instructions to the contrary on the morning of September 11, 2001.

Unfortunately, Rescorla perished that day because he returned to make sure all of his coworkers had evacuated, but his risk management planning saved thousands of lives and provide a model of efficiency in the field of corporate risk management. (Larsen, 2007).

Specific Risk Management in Criminal Justice Facilities:

Policing is a dangerous profession that entails constant exposure to safety threats of different origin. While eliminating those threats is impossible by virtue of the nature of the profession, risk management principles allow law enforcement managers to mitigate those risks substantially. The institution of two-man patrol units is one specific response to the many identified risks facing patrol officers, particularly in jurisdictions where immediate backup is not always available to officers on patrol. The presence of two officers in every patrol unit substantially reduces many of the potential threats to officer safety, especially those associated with late night traffic stops of vehicles…… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Gender and Crime Homicidal Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,438 words)
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Criminal Justice - Gender and Crime

HOMICIDAL CRIMES and GENDER DIFFERENCES I. Demographic and Historical Distribution:

Criminologists have long believed that crime rates are at least partially attributable to social factors in society that affect individuals differently (Macionis, 2003). In particular, race, social class, age and gender correlate strongly to incidence of criminal behavior. Race has been implicated as one… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Communication Within Police Thesis

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Criminal Justice - Communication


Communications within Police Departments:

Communications of various types play different roles within police departments: police administrators establish official policies and procedures for formal dissemination in writing and unit supervisors provide specific instructions to their officers within the chain-of-command supervisory process. Unofficial communications also play a significant role: typically, senior officers (often regardless of official rank) communicate their expectations to junior officers, and individual officers engage in social conversations that include addressing various elements of their professional responsibilities as well as their sentiments about administrative policies and senior officers (Grubb & Hemby 2003).

Police organizations are not immune to the types of negative communications such as those that promote attitudes and beliefs that contradict official policies. In the most extreme cases, the evolution of an agency culture among first-line (i.e. patrol) officers may be characterized by general discontent. In that environment, informal agency culture may promote the communication of rumor and innuendo to such a degree that it may be capable of interfering with agency goals and objectives (Linsky & Heifetz 2002) by undermining the basis of chain-of-command authority and respect among officers for administrative regulations.

The Paramilitary and Civilian Communications Models:

Most police agencies operate along the lines of paramilitary organizations although they may vary substantially in the extent of their incorporating various components of private sector civilian organizations notwithstanding the fundamental differences between respective standards and communication policies. Traditionally, official paramilitary communications policies require dissemination of information along the chain-of-command hierarchy, often with a need-to-know basis that discourages unofficial communication of that information even within the organization (Grubb & Hemby 2003). The downside of this process is that it promotes alternative channels of communication among officers, such as gossip, rumor, and innuendo.

In comparison, civilian organizations are generally less restrictive about subsequent unofficial dissemination of information except that pertaining to trade secrets, proprietary information, and other confidential matters. Probably one of the most significant differences between law enforcement agencies and civilian enterprises is that the former are extremely resistant to input into policy or procedure from lower ranks.

Conversely, civilian business organizations often include non-supervisory employees in the communication chain and actively encourage such input and suggestions without regard to authority, rank, tenure, or responsibilities.

While the concept of "unofficial policies and procedures" is not entirely unknown in the private sector, it is highly doubtful that many non-police entities can rival the degree to which the law enforcement industry is plagued by significant discrepancies between official policies and the procedures actually employed by non-supervisory officers. Specifically, law enforcement organizations are often characterized…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Agency Policies Thesis

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Criminal Justice Agency Policies

The main policy of criminal justice agencies in the United States is to ensure safety for the citizens of the country. As such, agencies such as the police and the court system work to ensure both safety and human rights. Areas such as terrorism, civil rights, community safety, and domestic safety are the focus of these policies.

Terrorism: The safety of United States citizens are ensured by preventing and discouraging acts of terrorism. The Department of Homeland Security for example fulfills this function by monitoring suspected terrorist cells and ensuring the safety of airports in a preventative manner. Citizens are often involved in helping the government to identify potential terrorist threats, and to eliminate these.

Civil Rights: Criminal justice policy is focused upon providing charged persons with the rights that are theirs under the law. An accused cannot be sentenced without a full and impartial hearing. This policy ensures that citizens live in a climate of true justice.…… [read more]

Miranda v. Arizona Term Paper

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Criminal Justice - Miranda


Background and History of the Miranda Ruling:

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966) is a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that fundamentally changed the policies and procedures by which U.S. police interrogate criminal suspects. Failure to abide by Miranda requirements triggers a remedy of excluding the use of confessions and… [read more]

Odontology in Criminal Justice Forensics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (7,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25


Odontology in Criminal Justice Forensics

Odontology has been historically used or indeed, one might say misused within the framework of the judicial system to sway juries against factual evidence and to gain a conviction because the jury fails to understand or cannot understand how evidence can be molded purposely away from the truth or how by being little understood can… [read more]

Criminal Justice A) the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

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Criminal Justice a) the criminal justice system in the United States is experiencing a crisis on several levels, especially where the prison system is concerned. Overcrowding is accompanied by increasing reports of the dehumanizing conditions and lack of rehabilitation in correctional facilities. In addition, while taxpayers are increasingly pressured, none of these funds appear to be used towards improving the lives and futures of prisoners. Building additional prisons will probably do no more than exacerbate the problem. More prison space is not a solution to crime, because overcrowded prisons are not the only problem. Other problematic factors both contribute to and result from overcrowded prisons. Some critics have therefore suggested that rehabilitative and preventive measures could be more effective in mitigating both crime and overcrowded prisons in the country. In the light of reports and statistical evidence, I would tend towards the latter solution: prevention and education, especially for young people, will be much more effective in preventing prisons that overflow with criminals that only worsen during their stay at correctional facilities.

According to Matthew Davis (2006), a staggering 2.1 million or more people are in jail during any time in the United States. This number continues to rise. Indeed, according to Patel & McMurray, the prison population in the country has more than tripled since 1980. The author cites policies such as the "three strikes" law as responsible for these excessive numbers. According to this law, long sentences are handed out to repeat offenders, which results in more prisoners at any given time. While falling crime rate has been cited by the government to prove the effectiveness of such policies, critics hold that the lack of rehabilitation can only be problematic in the future, especially when prison sentences have been served.

Harsh prison environments such as the top security facilities are least conducive to rehabilitation, with Davis holding that these are not only an affront to basic human rights, but also a "breeding ground for monsters." In many of these facilities, solitary confinement is a way of life, and prisoners often spend as much as 23 hours per day locked into their cells. While this removes them from being a danger to society, it does not encourage anything approaching rehabilitation. Such prisoners are utterly removed from society, and cannot hope to be normal citizens of the country again. Such is the dehumanizing effect of the prison system.

Interestingly, such a prison system not only dehumanizes prisoners themselves, but also the guards working with them. One guard that Davis quotes admits that he enjoys seeing the prisoners in his care suffer for their crimes.

Another significant factor in the prison system, according to Patel & McMurray, is race. The black community, while making up only 12% of the general population, amounts to nearly half of the prison population. Some critics hold this statistic as evidence that the criminal justice system is still very much based on long-outdated racial prejudice.

All these factors result not only in overcrowding in prisons, but… [read more]

How to Manage the Use of Force Ethical Issues Term Paper

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¶ … criminal justice system, a manager has a hard time due to ethical issues because there is a high level of stress within the police department. Due to the high level stress that police go through, it affects them psychological and physically, which alters their daily behavior and cause them to violate or overlook ethical issues such as police brutality and profiling. This is a major issue because most police departments do not have suitable support for the stress because most police stress programs and consulting mental health practitioners focus predominantly on preventing and treating stress among individual officers. Unfortunately, this approach fails to deal with the original organizational problems that form the basis of the stress encountered by many officers. From there, it is apparent that police departments need an improved support system for their officers so that they can serve their communities to their fullest abilities, which can force good ethical issues.

Ethical issues changing society creates ethical problems for police officers and criminal justice managers. This is because they feel that the moral standards in America have fallen below the norms of the past. Rapid social change could be a reason why norms have dropped (Ramirez 2006).

In 1970, a. Toffler proposed the term "future shock" to describe the result of social change that has become too rapid for people to assimilate" (Territo & Sewell, 1999). The results of that rapid change have created a deteriorating social environment that creates problems for law enforcement. Today it is very difficult for officers to hold on to their ethical principles, while many of the people that they are sworn to serve and protect keep acting unethically and unlawfully. Regrettably, many of…… [read more]

Private Security Functions as it Relates to the Various Components of the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

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Private Security Functions as it Relates to the Various Components of the Criminal Justice System

The objective of this work is to analyze major components of the criminal justice system which includes private security functions with a focus upon improvement of the interaction between law enforcement, private security the courts and institutional and community corrections over the next 15 years.… [read more]

Criminal Justice the Use of Technology Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice


The use of technology has allowed the various law enforcement agencies in states, the nation and the world to create effective modes on communication, or interconnectivity, that allows for efficient levels of information exchange and subsequent ability to track and apprehend offenders. Although this new technology has benefits in all areas of crime, from Driving While Intoxicated to international terrorism, one of its most public uses is its ability to track and communicate information on sex offenders.

Why Sex Offenders?

Due to the way our government is set up, there are both Federal and state laws. Further, each state has different laws, rules and regulations. This becomes complicated when one is able to freely move between the various states and jurisdictions. In the past, prior to the interconnectivity of law enforcement agencies, a criminal could easily move to another state and leave his or her criminal record behind. Of course this poses a particular problem with sex offenders because of the various laws and restrictions on where they can live and move to. With the interconnectedness of the various agencies, law enforcement agencies can now better enforce these restrictions no matter where the particular sex offender resides.

Two of the most popular and effective inter-agency communication programs that allow for this efficient transfer of information between the jurisdictions are the Modus Operandi Database and the Violent Criminal Apprehension Program.

Violent Criminal Apprehension Program

The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program, (or Vi-CAP) is a nationwide computer system designed to track and coordinate information on violent crimes, particularly murders. It is provided to local law enforcement agencies by the FBI and compiles information on solves and…… [read more]

Criminal Justice the Issue of Future Dangerousness Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Criminal Justice

The Issue of Future Dangerousness in Capital Murder Trials

One of the most controversial elements of Texas' capital murder statute is that it requires juries to find that a defendant poses a risk of future dangerousness prior to sentencing a defendant to death. In fact, "during the punishment phase of death penalty trials, the question of whether or not a convicted capital murderer can be given a life sentence and prevented from committing future acts of violence often becomes the focal point for both the prosecution and the defense." (Merillat, 2006). Many outside of the legal community assume that a life sentence without the possibility of parole will ensure that convicts are unable to present a future danger. However, those within the legal community understand that prison is, in and of itself, a micro-society, and that convicts within the prison system can continue to pose a substantial risk to those within the prison. Therefore, the issue of future dangerousness is much more complex than simply determining whether or not a criminal defendant will ever be eligible for parole.

For many people in everyday society, the issue of future dangerousness appears simplistic. After all, if a defendant is kept away from society, it seems like they would have no opportunity to continue violent and dishonest acts. When confronted with the idea that prisoners come in contact with other people, some opponents of capital punishment suggest that capital defendants could simply be placed in life-time isolation, which would prevent them from creating a risk to fellow prisoners. However, even convicts in isolation come into contact with other people. For example, prisoners interact with guards on a daily basis. In addition, prisoners interact with civilian prison employees, such as doctors, nurses, librarians, and mental health professionals. The fact is that "the Texas prison system is a place where the opportunities to be violent are presented to any inmate, regardless of the sentence or type of conviction he or she has received." (Merillat, 2006).

For example, while Texas has a prison classification system, that classification system "does not single out murderers and capital murderers for special, restrictive treatment. The system provides for certain classification levels…… [read more]

Criminal Justice/Forensics Undercover Thesis

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Criminal Justice/Forensics

Undercover" is a term that has made its way into the public vernacular, thanks in large part to movies and television programs. Undercover, at its fundamental level, means pretending to be someone else- the construction and portrayal of a false identity for an ulterior purpose. In the case of undercover police investigations, this ulterior purpose is to enforce… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory Term Paper

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For example, synthesized theories work to help prevent crime, and to help understand the criminal mind. That alone is a large indication of why they are so important to the study of criminality. The need to understand criminals has been in the minds and hearts of criminologist and police officers for countless years.

Early on, it was difficult to understand… [read more]

Emotion in Criminal Justice Term Paper

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For example, anger can facilitate a firm dealing with unruly prisoners, but sympathy and compassion can prevent undue cruelty or even harm or abuse of prisoners. Judges also have a responsibility to develop mature emotions in their approach to criminal justice. Because judges ultimately deliver sentences, emotions ranging from compassion to anger can assist the issuance of just sentences. Sentencing should balance the needs of the victim for retribution with the needs of the convicted criminal for compassion.

Developing emotions should not be done indiscriminately, though. For criminal justice officials to do their jobs effectively, they must often learn to keep emotions at bay. For example, too much anger can lead to overly harsh treatments of criminals, and too much sympathy can cloud judgment and obscure the needs for community safety. Criminal justice requires a keen balance of reason and emotion, and the profession is unique in its sometimes conflicting demands. A criminal justice official can develop a plan for developing effective use of emotions by first becoming aware of emotions in the first place. Each person is different. Some react stronger than others, some are more prone to anger or sadness than others. Therefore, it is up to the individual to recognize bodily signals and other signs of emotionality. Second, law enforcement officials must learn how to recognize emotions in others. Reading faces and reading emotions in people's voices is essential in the criminal justice process, which deals primarily with people. Third, law enforcement officials have to learn how to control and properly channel emotional energy. Too much emotion can be devastating and inappropriate and can cause poor decision-making. On the other hand, insufficient emotions can lead to cold, hard, cruel, and unusual punishments.

In the wake of severe or violent crimes, criminal justice officials might be prone to using too many emotions in their decision-making. However, too much emotional distance can prevent the professional from understanding the full impact of the crime. Non-violent crimes demand a high level of creativity in the treatment of emotion. For example, the effects of white collar crime might not be immediately evident and therefore might not spark any emotional output. However, criminal justice officials must learn how to put themselves into others' shoes, such as the shoes of shareholders who had just lost their life savings.

An individual is successful in fulfilling a plan toward perfecting emotionality when their decisions are clear and effective, and when they best balance the needs of the community with the needs of the victim and suspect or perpetrator. If the criminal justice official demonstrates objectivity, compassion, and professionalism, he or she is probably successful in implementing a personal development plan.… [read more]

Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (639 words)
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Attempts are included.

Vandalism -- Willful or malicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement, of any public or private property, without consent of the owner or persons having custody or control. Attempts are included.

Children have different reasons and hold particular characteristics, distinct to them individually, as to why they commit these crimes. Some of these children commit these crimes due to the following, but are not limited to: lack of parental discipline, abuse, or peer group rejection. The majority of children who commit crimes are males. Many of these boys live in single-parent homes in which there is a lot of family conflict. Children of whom are either insufficiently monitored or overly punished are more likely to be violent. In other words, both extremes tend to produce more violent behavior. Most often these male children are highly impulsive and have not been taught ways to control these impulses. They also tend to have limited coping skills and are often socially and academically unsuccessful in school.

In regards to the concept of charging minors as adults, in most states minors reach the age of majority at 18, at which time they are legally able to make their own decisions free from parental authority and control. Many states, however, have established circumstances under which a youth may become emancipated before the age of 18. Roughly half of the states provide for automatic emancipation if the minor enters a valid marriage or if he/she joins the military.

In conclusion, there have been an increasing number of crimes committed by children today. It is important to become aware of the types of crimes they commit, characteristics they possess and of the legality of their consequences. Children are our future and we must help them, whether in the role of a parent or citizen to become law abiding citizens so that they may lead a long and healthy life.… [read more]

Criminal Justice Interoffice Memorandum Supervising Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (920 words)
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Ebersol can expect his punishment to be 30 days in jail or a $500.00 fine. If Mr. Ebersol is found guilty, it can be argued that he should not be subject to 30 days in jail or a $500.00 fine, as prescribed by § 22-15-992. Under People v. Durant, 12 N.M. 26, 55 P. 200 (1901), a two-hour detention of a shoplifter by store security was determined to be a violation of the shoplifter's rights. Because of the length of time that the shoplifter was detained by store security, the Durant court determined that the shoplifter should suffer no sentence, however minimal. Durant is still good law. Mr. Ebersol's detention by the police was even lengthier than the detention in Durant. However, the issue is whether detention by the police, rather than by store security, for suspected criminal activity is a violation of a suspect's rights. There is support for the idea that Mr. Ebersol's rights were violated. Had the police determined that they had probable cause to arrest Mr. Ebersol for shoplifting, they could have arrested him and detained him for questioning. However, by failing to formally arrest Mr. Ebersol, but by detaining him, they placed him in a position where an arrest had occurred. A determination of whether or not Mr. Ebersol's rights were violated may depend on whether or not the officers complied with formal rules surrounding arrest and custodial interrogation (for example, Mirandizing Mr. Ebersol). Without that information, there is not enough information to determine whether or not Mr. Ebersol's rights were violated. Because of that, if Mr. Ebersol is found guilty he can expect to serve 30 days in jail or pay a $500.00 fine.


Mr. Ebersol should be able to successfully plead not-guilty to the charge of shoplifting because he did leave adequate compensation for the Phillips head screwdriver. If the court disagrees with that reasoning and finds that Mr. Ebersol did shoplift the screwdriver, Mr. Ebersol should expect to serve 30 days in jail or pay a $500.00 fine, because the circumstances in his case are sufficiently different from the circumstances in Durant to warrant departure by the court.

However, the argument can still be made that 2 1/2 hours of detention was sufficient punishment for shoplifting a Phillips head screwdriver. The issue is whether the value of the screwdriver warranted a greater punishment than 2 1/2 hours of detention. Durant makes the argument that 2 hours of detention is considered sufficient punishment for shoplifting a brick. A brick and a screwdriver are extremely close in actual value. Furthermore, even if Mr. Ebersol is found guilty of shoplifting, there are mitigating circumstances that did not appear in Durant: Ebersol did leave the…… [read more]

Growth and Use Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Question #2: Explain the factors that have contributed to prison overcrowding.

Elliott Currie in his study Crime and Punishment in America has argued that since 1972 the United States has been engaged in an unprecedented, unparalleled, and largely unnoticed social experiment. Since the society has been "testing the degree to which a modern industrial society can maintain public order through the threat of punishment" or, more specifically, imprisonment. (Currie, 1998) Jailing population has turned from a purpose of punishing the offender to maintaining order in society. While the former created deterrence, the later paradigm as only created the expectation of the society that prison is a holding cell for the offender, rather than a place to implement, punishment, and/or attempt rehabilitation. Marc Maier of the Sentencing Project makes a similar point in Race to Incarcerate, noting that "during this period public policy in the U.S. has resulted in... A second wave of the great 'experiment' in the use of incarceration as a means of controlling crime."(Maier, 1999) Still, this most recent prison experiment, which has sought to determine "whether a massive and unprecedented use of imprisonment would effectively control crime," has generated a corrections boom which is extraordinary even by U.S. standards and has led to the construction of the largest prison system in human history. (Ibid.)

The scope and impact of this experiment, the flip side of our nation's long-running wars on crime and drugs, may be measured in a variety of ways. Between 1972 and 1998 the population of our state and federal prisons more than sextupled, growing from less than 200,000 to over 1.2 million. By mid-1999 the total U.S. prison and jail populations was 1,860,520 and was projected to reach 2 million by the end of 2001. (McCormick, 2000)

Some of the factors which have influence the increasing numbers of prison inhabitants can be attributed to several factors:

The aggressive government policy of a "war on drugs;" increased federal and state funding for policing;

the increased role of victims and victim advocacy groups in the court process which have expanded the length of the court process, added bed capacity in the correctional system;

increasing levels of recidivism by the offender population;

Second, convicted inmates are remaining incarcerated for a greater portion of their court-imposed prison sentence rather than being paroled or being granted time credits for good behavior.

Third, a "tough on crime" policy has allowed the criminal justice system to narrow its use of discretion and take a more conservative approach toward punishing convicted offenders. The public and the media have increasingly supported a more punitive response to convicted offenders. As a result, a "tough on crime" attitude has forced a change in criminal justice practices. By creating a narrow focus on punishment, alternative sanctions and community-based supervision of sentenced criminals is less appealing options for the court, DOC, and the parole board.


Henderson, N. (2002) The Patriot Act's impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law… [read more]

Organizational Trends of Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,094 words)
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This philosophy helped restructure national law enforcement agencies, especially in regards to Bruce P. Smith's notion that criminal justice organizations should match economies of scale, "arguing that the consolidation of smaller police forces into larger ones, replacing sheriffs with state police, and other centralizing efforts would provide for greater efficiency in law enforcement." This lead to a large trend of centralizing criminal justice organizational structures to create more efficient and larger regulatory bodies.

As more and more bureaucracies began to show major cracks in their designs, there was a movement within theory towards a more flexible structure for law enforcement and criminal justice. Essentially, in a bureaucracy, there are beliefs that the rigidity of the hierarchy tends to be a factor that hinders motivation for workers inside of that organization. In response to this, new theories began to take favor in some areas of law enforcement. First came the human relations model which decreased autocratic authority within the hierarchy. The situational or contingency model is designed around motivational theories of behavior. These theories tend to emphasize the fact that with higher level of individual responsibility comes greater motivation to perform and thus create an effective organization.

In fact, motivational theories tend to influence the impact criminal justice organizations are capable of. According to the Criminal Justice Motivational Theories Matrix, there are a number of potential reasons for how motivation impacts organizational structure and performance. According to the Hierarchy of Needs Theory, there are tiers of needs that all humans try to achieve. Beginning with basic physical needs, as each tier is satisfied the individual aspires to gain more control. From a criminal justice perspective, organizations must provide the necessary elements to fulfill the needs of their workers in order to aspire individuals to perform most productively within their field. Secondly, there is the Two Factor Theory, which dictates that people need motivation through recognition and achievement, but that these must be augmented with the more tangible notions of reward, like raises and compensation. Ultimately, this would argue that there needs to be obvious recognition through achievement and increases in compensation within criminal justice organizations to keep workers improving continuously.

There are a number of other motivational theories which can be applied to criminal justice organizations as well. First, there is McClelland's Theory of Needs. This is a theory which dictates that all individuals have a need for achievement, power, and affiliation. Criminal justice organizations can adopt ways to satisfy those needs for individuals within the organization. By meeting those needs, workers can be more productive and successful in their fields. Additionally, there is the Self-Determination Theory, which suggests that individuals always find ways to achieve as they are motivated by intrinsic and extrinsic values. Applying this to criminal justice means that organizations may have to increase the overall feeling of individual officers seeking justice, an intrinsic value, when they fail to actually capture or detain criminals, which is more of an extrinsic reward. Finally, there is the Goal Setting Theory.… [read more]

Decision Making Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (758 words)
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Whether they are behind a desk doing paperwork, in the jail watching over inmates, or out on the streets patrolling and answering calls for help, officers need to be able to make decisions that will protect them and that will also protect the largest number of citizens. These decisions have to be made at the time, and do not require the officer to call others to ask permission or discuss feasibility. Instead, they are not rely on their training, so they can handle issues anywhere they are without the input of others who are higher ranking than they are.

Despite this, there are times when consulting others is vital. In situations that are not commonly seen, such as natural disasters and manmade concerns like hostage and shooter situations, it is often important to consult higher ranking individuals in the organization. In short, the power of an officer is limited, and not something that can be used for anything and everything that might occur. There are times when officers can be in serious trouble for acting without consulting with others, and they can even be prosecuted for these kinds of transgressions if their decisions result in the serious injury or death of another person. On the following page is an organizational chart providing information on the Coryell County Sheriff's Department's structure. This shows how many people are found between patrol deputies and the actual Sheriff, giving much more insight into the hierarchy that a criminal justice organization has, even if it does not seem large or overly complex when considered on the surface or by outsiders (Chart Source: http://www.coryellcountysheriff.com/chain_of_command.htm).

K - 9

Patrol Deputy

Court Security

Work Crew


Auto Theft Task Force


County Jailers





Civil Process







Narcotics Inv.


Criminal Inv.


Auto Theft Task Force


James Burson




Ricky Helms




Butch Ronne




Kenneth Green


Civilian Supervisor

Mary Songer



John Blanchard


*Coryell County Sheriff's Office

Organizational Chart

Admin. Assist.

Mary Ann Snyder

Chief Deputy

Joe Blakley II



Johnny Burks… [read more]

Pursuit of Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (871 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Having this type of information allows those in charge of determining the best method for punishment assists them in being more effective. Page two of the Tumminello et al. study hits home this point when the study determined that "creating appropriate distinctions among different criminal acts is difficult" (p. 2) and that the quantitative classifications of the study allows the researchers to "empirically establish how crime categories organize into larger clusters that emerge from individual's criminal behavior" (p. 2). So, in this particular study, using a quantitative methodology made perfect sense.

One other study that provide ammunition for researchers seeking the effectiveness of quantitative research was a study that looked to determine what type of interventions might actually lower the number of young people committing crimes. The study's objective was to determine "whether multisystemic therapy (MST) is more cost-effective than statutory interventions that are currently available for young offenders in England" (Cary, Butler, Baruch, Hickey, Byford, 2013, p. 1). The study used quantitative data regarding treatments provided to young offenders and then compared and analyzed the data to determine which treatments were the most effective and, most importantly, which were the treatments that were most cost-effective overall. The study used the quantitative data to compare "MST with usual services provided by two youth offending teams" and that "service costs were compared to cost savings in rates of criminal re-offending" (p.1).

There are a number of instances that criminal justice research can effectively use quantitative data to compare, contrast and analyze to good report. Some of those instances have been discussed herein. However, other instances of mixed research, action research, and even qualitative research provide additional proof that quantitative research will almost always be helpful in discussing criminal justice. Using quantitative facts and figures oftentimes provides the researcher with the necessary foundation to any type of study, and quantitative research will perhaps always maintain a certain underlying sense of its own importance to research in general.

Works Cited

Cary, M.; Butler, S.; Baruch, G.; Hickey, N.; Byford, S.; (2013) Economic evaluation of multisystemic therapy for young people at risk for continuing criminal activity in the UK, PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, Issue 4, pp. 1 -- 6

Kugler, M.B.; Funk, F.; Braun, J.; Gollwitzer, M.; Kay, A.C.; Darley, J.M.; (2013) Differences in punitiveness across three cultures: A test of American exceptionalism in justice attitudes, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 103, Issue 4, pp. 1071 -- 1113

Tumminello, M.; Edling, C.; Lijeros, F.; Mantegna,…… [read more]

Statistics in Criminal Justice Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (976 words)
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¶ … PTS (I don't use the D. because I do not believe it is a disorder) you chose. Many studies and research has been done and is currently ongoing to understand this problem. Many first responders and military members are seeking assistance for their symptoms. Studies like the one you chose for this assignment are just one of the examples. I see that the study you chose the sample is 300 officers from Brazil and that the female sample was taken our of the final report (9 of them). Do you believe that there were only 9 females that were willing to participate in the study or just 9 chosen? If there was a higher number of female officers sampled do you believe it would have changed the hypothesis? Also, how do you believe the correlation between PTS in Brazil and the United States differs? Do you think such a study would/could be useful.

Thanks for the post, TB


I am not certain whether or not there were only 9 females willing to participate in the study or whether only 9 were chosen from a much larger number of potential females. I have no real knowledge of the Brazilian police system and their gender compositions. In the United States, police forces are more gender-mixed than they were in the past, but still continue to be predominantly male. Certainly, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, I could see it being very difficult to find more than 9 female officers with PTSD in a select sample size. Clearly, in a modern U.S. police force, those numbers would be higher. I simply not certain how those numbers would be in Brazil.

I do not know enough about PTSD in females to know if it would change the sample. The studies I have seen that focus on gender-specific aspects of PTSD seem to focus on different causes of PTSD, such as rape for females, and maybe combat-trauma for males. Because of the different causes of trauma, I do not know if the different genders actually process trauma differently.

My limited knowledge of Brazilian and American police departments makes it difficult for me to know whether there would be a correlation between PTSD in Brazil and the United States. I have no idea whether Brazilian police officers are exposed to the same level of trauma as police officers in the U.S. More significantly, I have no idea how Brazilian police forces deal with traumatic incidents. As a result, I believe that such a study would be useful, but it would not explain any differences that might be found.

Discuss the results of the hypothesis test. Comment on the choice of the test statistic.

• Point out anything interesting about the study and explain why you found it interesting. You may comment on the substance (what the researchers found) and/or the methods (how the researchers designed the study).

I did my…… [read more]

Criminal Justice -- Analyzing Approaches Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  3 pages (1,250 words)
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With the goal of providing people in all Los Angeles communities with the "safety, opportunity and health they need to thrive" (Advancement Project, 2013), Advancement Project intends to treat the City's "gang epidemic" by abandoning an "us vs. them" mentality and treating all residents of Los Angeles -- including gang members -- as community members who deserve an equal chance for "upward mobility" (Advancement Project, 2013). By breaking the cycle of inequality and hopelessness that may drive young people to gangs, Advancement Project strongly believes that one of the benefits will be a dramatic reduction in gang violence.

Though Los Angeles must face enormous gang problems due to the size of its population, the prevalence of gangs and the many inequalities that have existed in the past, Advancement Project appears to be making some progress. Advancement Project looks at the total community picture and at gang violence as one symptom of the total community's sickness of inequality. With funding of over $15 billion dollars (Advancement Project, 2013), the Project concentrates on equality in education, equality in the disbursement of public funds, a "healthy city" in which community members and leaders all contribute their knowledge and work for the total equality of the community, and urban peace in which the members of every community are safe. As of 2013, Advancement Project has: transformed policing from suppression to a community-based approach; started the Summer Night Lights program that has reduced gang violence by 13% and gang homicides in 24 parks and neighborhoods by 50%; renovated schools a provided 67,000 new classroom seats in low-income, high-need communities; expanded educational programs to include 120,000-four-year-old children; developed a mapping website to visually connect needy families with vital resources and provide accurate images of community needs in California (Advancement Project, 2013). Although the "gang capital" of the U.S.A. has daunting problems to overcome in order to bring equality, healthfulness and peace to its community members, the progress made since the founding of Advancement Project indicate that it is already somewhat successful and could overcome all its community problems and the gang violence that is one of those problems.


Gang problems and attempted solutions to gang problems have existed in U.S. cities for decades. Cities have tried suppression, social intervention and organizational change with different levels of success. Researchers show that suppression and social intervention have failed miserably while organizational change hold the most hope for success. Although organizational change requires cooperation among multiple city institutions, extensive data collection and a significant amount of money, this approach seems to be the most intelligent approach to gangs because it treats the gang problem as part of society's problem of inequality. Los Angeles' Advancement Project has shown that at least partial and perhaps complete organizational change can be made in even the "gang capital" of the U.S.


Advancement Project. (2013). advancementproject.org fact sheet. Retrieved on January 23, 2013 from www.advancementprojectca.org Web site: http://www.advancementprojectca.org/sites/default/files/imce/AP%20FACT%20SHEET%202012.pdf

Advancement Project. (2013). Urban Peace. Retrieved on January 23, 2013 from www.advancementprojectca.org Web site:… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theories Labeling Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The existence of public housing ghettos, the living conditions in them, and the seeming ambivalence to fix those conditions certainly suggest that the poor are led towards criminal behavior. Radical theory goes a step further than many conflict theories because it suggests redistribution of assets and is frequently linked with communism.

There are obvious similarities between radical theory and conflict theory since radical theory is a form of conflict theory. Both of the theories believe that conflict between a group that is in power and a group that lacks power results in criminalization of behavior in which the group lacking power is more likely to engage. On its surface, labeling theory may not appear to have similarities with conflict or radical theories, because people seemingly self-select being in the powerless group with the first time that they engage in criminal behavior. However, when one considers that labels do not really attach when one commits a criminal act, but when one is convicted of a criminal act, then the idea of selective prosecution and preconceptions about who engages in criminal behavior illuminate how labeling theory could be a form of conflict theory. However, labeling theory has a significant difference from conflict or radical theories because labeling theory seems to support the idea of rehabilitation and that if criminals are punished but not labeled for their behavior, one cannot necessarily predict further criminality. Moreover, there is a significant difference between conflict and radical theories, in that conflict theories can be based on any single group that is in power, but radical theory suggests that those in power are always going to be people with greater financial resources than other people.


Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:


See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'

Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theories Drift Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Developmental life course theories look at why some people have stable levels of criminality over their lifetimes, while others have changes in their criminal behavior (Sees, 2004). They suggest that this is due to the interaction between those individual internal factors and social influences.

All three of these theories attempt to explain why people engage in criminal behavior at certain times but may refrain from criminal behavior at certain times. Drift theory and developmental life course theory both suggest that people go back and forth between criminal behavior. Moreover, they both suggest that outside forces can interact with a person's individual personality traits to provoke criminal behavior. However, drift theory suggests that guilt can cause people who have engaged in criminal behavior to shift back towards noncriminal behavior, while developmental life course theory does not suggest the same back-and-forth oscillation between criminal and non-criminal behavior. The containment theory places a more positive spin on external factors and suggests that external factors can help prevent someone from engaging in criminal behavior. In fact, containment theory suggests that socialization works in two ways on people: first, by instilling an internal system of constraints that prevents criminality, and, second, by acting as an outside barrier when the internal system fails. The first two theories suggest that external factors, such as stress, can contribute to an increase in the likelihood of criminality. The last theory is more focused on the lack of social support systems, because when those external controls are missing criminal behavior is less likely to be contained.


Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:


See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'

Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf… [read more]

Prison Architecture Criminal Justice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The effectiveness of the Auburn approach depended on a regime of brutal punishments for breaches of regulations, especially the rule of silence, and therefore required a large staff. Its communal labor programs permitted a broad range of potentially profitable industrial activities. The method and form of Pennsylvania-styled prisons led to smaller staffs but a very narrow range of labor programs (Johnson, 2011).

Since 1960 many prisons and jails have been replaced by new institutions. Electronic and building technologies such as video and audio surveillance, automated entry systems and tempered steel and other high-strength materials, provide the security once guaranteed by walls and high staffing ratios. Many institutions offer vocational, recreational, psychological and socialization programs. Modern-day prisons are increasingly run in a business like fashion and are required to be efficient and effective. These institutions are increasingly employing the use of technology to enhance the security and safety of prison personnel, visitors and inmates. Though incarcerating individuals with criminal proclivities is certainly one way of making society safer and more secure, it also creates environments, ranging from maximum security correctional institutions, to open detention centers, which must be controlled, contained and managed. Prisons are communities within a community, employing all types of support staff, from prison guards, medical personnel and social workers, to librarians, sports instructors, teachers and catering personnel. Occupational hazards and threats from inmates can arise from substance abuse, fanatical ideologies and an unstable mental state, or be caused by overcrowding, gang rivalry and protection rackets. Not only do prison personnel and visitors need to be guarded from the more dangerous inmates, but prisoners also need to be protected from themselves and other inmates. The use of surveillance cameras and remote monitoring, such as wrist bands work to keep an eye on prisoner movements. Stun technology, and enhanced communications are all innovations that have significantly contributed to safety in the prison environment (Lewis, 2009)


Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009130

Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14prisons-t.html?pagewanted=all… [read more]

Identify a Current Criminal Justice Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … United States enjoys the dubious distinction of incarcerating more of its citizens than practically any nation on earth, and large numbers of these citizens are being incarcerated for drug-related crimes including crack cocaine. Although crack cocaine is chemically similar to other preparations of the drug, the crack preparation is favored by African-American users and the disparities of the… [read more]

Criminal Justice in Action Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (992 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The great penitentiary rivalry basically involved the introduction of two concepts of imprisonment in New York and Pennsylvania. The two concepts included the structures of the prison system and how the system should be operated. The penitentiary was basically developed in America as a more balanced and humane way of punishing criminals (Pray, n.d.). Prior to the introduction of these concepts, the criminal justice situation in New York and Pennsylvania were similar since most of the crimes were subject to capital punishment and corporal punishment was wide. The concepts were designed not only to house criminals but to reform these individuals into hard working citizens who could return to the society. Consequently, sentences were implemented long enough for prison programs to have a great impact on the lives of criminals.

The developments of these two concepts of prison system were the basis for an incredible rivalry that lasted for thirty-five years. Whereas the Pennsylvania concept represented the individual system, the New York concept represented the congregate system. The proponents of the individual system claimed that the New York concept was cheap while the defenders of the congregate system claimed that the Pennsylvania system resulted in death and insanity.

Publicly Funded and Privately Funded Prisons:

Publicly funded prisons in America are primarily supported by the taxes of American residents and are run by people who are working directly for the state. Individuals working for the publicly funded prisons are usually entitled to benefits that are similar to other state employees. On the contrary, privately funded prisons are run by private people who are contracted to the state and strictly controlled by the state. As compared to individuals in the publicly funded prisons, people in the privately funded prisons are sometimes more flexible and less effective. Privatizing the prison system has become a topic of debate because of the four basic objectives of privatization which are to reduce the size and scope of government, to cut the red tape, lessen operation costs and improve performance (Greene, n.d.). Moreover, privatizing the prison system is a topic of debate because of the fact that the publicly funded prisons are run by taxes of residents and the increasing population of inmates.


The American prison system has undergone various developments throughout its history that have shaped its structure and operations. Currently, this system is for the purpose of protecting the society and rehabilitation of criminals in addition to being run by taxes.


Greene, J. (n.d.). Comparing Private and Public Prison Services and Programs in Minnesota:

Findings from Prisoner Interviews. Retrieved April 6, 2011, from http://archive.epinet.org/real_media/010111/materials/greene.pdf

Pray, R. T (n.d.). How Did Our Prisons Get That Way? Retrieved April 6, 2011, from http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1987/5/1987_5_92.shtml

"Prisons: History -- Modern Prisons." (n.d.). Jrank.org: Law Library -- American Law and Legal

Information. Retrieved April 6, 2011, from http://law.jrank.org/pages/1782/Prisons-History-Modern-prisons.html… [read more]

Criminal Justice Leadership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal Justice Leadership

Learning to effectively deal with the media is a sensitive responsibility and not one that most probation officers will likely face under most situations but some criminal cases generate considerable public interest. In cases such as these a probation officer must recognize that his first responsibility is to protect the confidentiality of his report. The offender is entitled to such confidentiality in most jurisdictions both statutorily and ethically. In addressing the interest of the media as to the contents of the report, the probation officer should balance the concerns of the reporter against the rights of the offender (Farlex, 2002). A careful explanation should be provided to the reporter setting forth this dichotomy.

The probation officer should expect some criticism from the reporter. As a strong advocate for victims of crime he can be expected to exploit the probation officer's failure to discuss the reasons for the recommendations as a form of embarrassment or as weak support. Professional standards, however, require that the probation officer remain staunch in his unwillingness to discuss the matter with the reporter beyond generalized comments that do not address the particulars of the recommendation.

The purpose of intermediate sanction programs is to provide a vehicle for situations that demand a stricter sanction than straight probation but not the imposition of incarceration (Burke, 1997) . The situation in the instant case is typical of what was intended by the innovators of intermediate sanctioning. The offender in the case at hand had no prior criminal record of any kind. Additionally, the offender is the victim of long-standing abuse at the hand of the victim. This fact raises emotional issues that provide some understanding as to the reasons behind the actions of the offender but do not justify the action. This form of information is vital to the determination but may not be information that is necessarily proper for distribution to the general public.

There are two overriding considerations in this particular case. The first is the lack of any history of violence by the offender and the second is his having been a nearly life-long victim of abuse at the hand of the victim. Such considerations make him…… [read more]

Criminal Justice &amp the Prison System: Program Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (791 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



This work in writing intends to examine the criminal justice and prison system in a brief program evaluation that identifies the external factors that impact the operation of a prison program geared toward the reduction of prison overcrowding and recidivism and specifically in terms of the ethics that may be involved in evaluation of the program.

Government's Role in Prisoner Re-Entry Program Should be Limited

The work of Mulhlhausen (2009) entitled: "Prisoner Reentry: A Limited Federal Government Role" in what is his testimony before the Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on Crimes and Drugs of the United States Senate" reports that the national government should in addressing the issue of offender recidivism "limit itself to handling tasks that fall under its constitutional powers and the state and local governments cannot perform by themselves." Mulhlhausen states that the government should do two things:

(1) Operate 'evidence-based' programs; and (2) Not assume responsibility for funding the routine operations of state and local reentry programs. (2009)

The opinion of Mulhlhausen is that while the tendency exists to search for solutions at the national level, this is "misguided and problematic..." (2009) because although offender recidivism is a problem "common to all states...the crimes committed by offenders in the state corrections systems are almost entirely and inherently local in nature and regulated by state criminal law, law enforcement and courts." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)

Offender reentry begins in the prison as inmates begin to prepare for release and is ongoing in various communities with characteristics that are individual to that specific community in terms of its public policies and other factors that serve to influence the transition of the individuals from prison and into the community. Mulhlhausen (2009) reports that additional factors that influence the individual's transition from prison to community are those of:

(1) Individual characteristics;

(2) Family and peer relationships; and (3) Community circumstances. (Mulhlhausen, 2009)

II. Rigorous and Scientific Evaluation of Programs for Re-Entry

The work of Wolk and Hartmann (1996) reports that outcome evaluations for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of prison programs are essential. Since the primary reason that re-entry programs exist is the prevention of recidivism a requirement also exists for impact evaluations that are scientifically rigorous and for two reasons:

(1) The curtailing of ineffective programs; and (2) The adoption of effective programs. (Mulhlhausen, 2009)

III.…… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Investigations Deception Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (886 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Criminal Justice - Investigations


Deception Detection in Criminal Investigation:

Criminal investigation includes the evaluation of statements for truthfulness or deception at every stage of investigation and interrogation, as well as during sworn testimony. In that regard, trained criminal investigators must be aware of numerous cues available in the content of conversations, the context of word choice, omissions intended to conceal information of guilt of complicity, and nonverbal cues in posture, eye contact, and unconscious physical gestures intended to mislead investigators or conceal the truth (Sandoval, 2008).

In many cases, the indicators of deception are extremely subtle and require the benefit of specific training to identify them. Individuals also vary in their innate ability to detect intentional deception in others, and generally, those individuals tend to notice the same types of cues as those taught during investigative training, except that they do so unconsciously rather than by methodical adherence to learned deception detection strategies (Sandoval, 2008).

Deception During the Investigative Phase:

Guilty individuals who wish to conceal their responsibility for or involvement in criminal activity tend to be deceptive at every phase of the investigative process, beginning with their first contact with investigative authorities, regardless of who initiates that contact. For this reason, deception detection is crucial for patrol officers responding to crime scenes as well as for subsequent investigators (Schmalleger, 2008; Sweeney, 2005)

Specifically, statement analysis of emergency service calls to authorities via 911 systems provide a wealth of information capable of distinguishing victims and innocent uninvolved individuals from perpetrators concealing their criminal involvement (Adams & Harpster, 2008).

In particular, patrol officers focus on specific behaviors and linguistic cues consistent with deception, including patterns of eye contact, word choice, and behavioral indicators such as repeating the officer's questions or reflexive questions like "What?" Or "Who, me?" Or "Huh" in contexts where it is clear that the subject heard the question clearly the first time. In that regard, officers compare the apparent difference in supposed comprehension of non-incriminating questions like "Do you live here?" And potentially incriminating questions like "Did you argue with the victim at all today?" (Conlon, 2004). Deception During the Interrogation and Testimonial Phases:

While 911 calls are not technically part of the investigative phase, their potential to provide crucial clues and indicators of intentional deception suggests that 911 operators be trained to focus on specific characteristics of word choice and demeanor of callers that typically differ substantially based on whether or not the caller is intentionally trying to conceal criminal involvement (Adams & Harpster, 2008). Generally, innocent callers who discover a homicide scene, for example, request assistance for the victim, omit irrelevant information, cooperate…… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Profiling Serial Killer Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (581 words)
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Criminal Justice - Profiling


Behavioral Evidence:

The six victims in this series of crimes are all black females between the ages of 25 and 45. All victims had prior arrests, criminal charges, and/or convictions and lived a high-risk lifestyle that included illicit drug use and solicitation for prostitution. All six victims were killed by strangulation and all but one victim also suffered a broken neck.

At least one victim was sexually assaulted in conjunction with her murder. All six victims were discovered in relatively close proximity, within the same local area and were approximately similar in physical dimensions.

Behavioral Hypotheses:

The fact that the victims were all discovered in the same general area suggests that the perpetrator is either from that area or well-acquainted with that neighborhood.

The fact that all the victims had previous encounters with the criminal justice system suggests that the perpetrator also has a prior criminal record. Since the victims were all career street criminals and/or prostitutes, it is probable that the perpetrator is capable of blending into the high-crime area and interact with potential victims in a manner that does not arouse suspicions.

The shared characteristics as to gender, race, and age suggests that the perpetrator may have significant psychological issues with women that relate in some way to maternal relationships. According to some schools of thought, the common race of the victims suggests that the perpetrator is of similar racial background; however, other schools of thought favor the assumption that the perpetrator of such a series of homicides is more likely to be a white male, nevertheless.

The combination of these characteristics of the victims, locale, and the extreme violence of the manner in which they were strangled…… [read more]

Criminal Justice References in the U.S. Constitution Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (896 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Criminal Justice

References in the U.S. Constitution

Along with Hammurabi's Code, the Magna Carta, and the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, the Constitution of the United States of America and its accompanying Bill of Rights has been lauded as one of the most definitive and influential documents in the history of human rights and democracy. With its authorship growing out of the forefathers' debates at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, the constitution was influenced by such great philosophers as Montesquieu and John Locke, but traces of the Classical School of Criminology can also be detected in the philosophy of the constitution. Coined by Social Contract philosophers of the 18th and 19th, the Classical School suggested that criminal behavior was a product of criminal nature, a result of humans' tendency to act in their own selfish interest and rational decision making skills. Thus, the Classical School of Criminology contends that criminal justice systems must be set up in order to enable humans to make rational choices that would result in their choosing the non-criminal action, making the law a deterrent through a system of punishments and rewards ("The Classical School"). The Constitution embodies this principal in a variety of ways, but most importantly by establishing rights, especially first ten amendments or the Bill of Rights and proposing a just system to levy punishments, or a courts system.

By offering citizens rights, the Constitution provides incentives for those who obey the law, therefore offering them motivation for choosing non-criminal behavior, the Classical School of Criminal Justice is applied. The constitution guarantees many rights to citizens of the United States of America, including the right to bare arms, the right to secure themselves from "unreasonable searches and seizures," and the right to refrain from testifying against one's self in a court of law (Amendment 2, Amendment 4, and Amendment 5). Although these rights are guaranteed by the constitution, they are not to be applied to those who have been convicted of criminals and are serving time in prison. The constitution implies the conditions on these rights through a variety of means. Most expressively, on multiple occasions conditions are listed alongside the grantees of rights. For example, the fourth amendment protects citizens from searches and seizures if those searches and seizures are unreasonable. This implies that while citizens are given a right while they remain lawful, that right becomes null and void when they or not lawful, or when search and seizure is reasonable.

Similarly, the thirteenth amendment is known as the amendment that abolished slavery, but another important connotation is contained within the wording of the amendment -- that slavery, or rather "involuntary servitude" is allowable if a…… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Forensics Collection and Preservation Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice - Forensics

Collection and Preservation of Physical Evidence

The physical evidence collector has the responsibility to collect, package, mark and preserve any evidence on the scene. There are many types and classifications of physical evidence. There are even specialties in forensic science relating to physical evidence. Certain crimes are coordinated with specific kinds of physical evidence and the recognition, collection and preserving of the forensic evidence is crucial to discovery and administering justice. Physical evidence must be collected and preserved by the first investigator on the scene. The preservation procedures allow for later physical evidence use in field tests or enhancement reagents.

First Officer on the Scene and His or Her Responsibilities

The first officer dispatched to the scene of a crime has grave responsibilities. Before arriving, he or she should call the dispatch and tell the estimated time of arrival. They must assesses their own health and safety risks, what materials and/or backup they will need, assess the health and safety needs of other persons and other officers on the scene and administer CPR or First Aid, if necessary. They should establish contact with emergency services and see if…… [read more]

Articles Published on Criminal Justice and Restorative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,138 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Articles Published on Criminal Justice and Restorative Justice Published between 1996 and 2006.

As Nilsson et al., (2007) suggest, "scholarly discipline" or the exploration of scholarly investigation and techniques warrants examination and investigation in and of itself (p. 357). The purpose of this paper is to examine the content or peer reviewed articles published within a ten-year period, focusing on specific content areas, in this case the criminal justice system and its experiences with restorative justice. Content analysis is helpful for offering insights into the "values" researchers have that drive investigation during any given period (Nilsson, et al., 2007:358). Thus, the researcher may identify gaps and trends in research during the specified period. The quantitative investigation allows for validity and reliability, providing the researcher the opportunity for statistical analysis that will provide direct insight into the proposed methods prescribed in the research, and offer clues that answer or establish a new hypothesis or theorem.


The purpose of this research is to review quantitative articles on the criminal justice system and restorative justice between the periods of 1996 to 2006 to establish whether restorative justice is or remains a reliable means of reform for young adults. This study aims to explore the population of criminals between the ages of 18 and 30. Thus, the research questions are as follows: (1) Does examination of the literature provide substantial evidence that restorative justice is or is not an effective method of rehabilitation? (2) Are there other methods that prove equally effective for reforming the criminal justice system, and (3) Do trends in criminal justice suggest reform in justice measures are necessary in the current period?


The author hypothesizes the following: Restorative justice is an effective tool for rehabilitating young criminals and reintroducing them into society and there community. Secondary to this the researcher hypothesizes that young adults subject to the restorative justice system are more likely to realize positive outcomes and contribute to their communities, having less relapse or reconviction rates than criminals punished by other means.


This study will provide public insight as to the efficacy or inefficiency of the current criminal justice system, and offer plausible methods for improving the manner in which young adults are penalized and reformed. The study is backed by comprehensive data spanning a decade's worth of research, considering current trends in criminal justice. It is impossible however in the allotted timeframe to adequately hypothesize whether the results of this study will remain valid for the next decade and for decades to come. For this reason it is important that continuous research be upheld to track future trends in justice and reassert the hypothesis or call for a need for new methods of rehabilitation amongst criminals of all ages. The study is also limited to a small and defined population of individuals. It is possible the information gathered is not applicable to all criminals, including those that are repetitive criminals and those younger or older than those studied for purposes of this… [read more]

Individual Rights vs. Public Order Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Criminal Justice

The American criminal justice system attempts to balance the rights of the individual with the need for public order. Without a commitment to the preservation of individual rights, suspects could be detained indefinitely or may never receive a fair trial in a court of law. Cruel and unjust punishments would also infringe on individual rights. Preserving the absolute rights of individuals has been reflected in the American system of due process: the right to a fair trial and to be considered "innocent until proven guilty" by a court of law. The fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the rights of the individual under due process of law, and ensures that no individual will be deprived of "life, liberty, or property" without due process ("Due Process" nd). Miranda rights are one of the most well-known examples of the American commitment to the preservation of individual rights. Law enforcement officials and criminal justice workers are obliged to protect individual rights in the interests of preserving a humanitarian and just democratic society.

On the other hand, law enforcement officials must the right of the community to enjoy safe streets. In the interests of preventing crime, law enforcement must sometimes restrict the rights of individuals. For example, a vandal does not have the freedom to smash store windows; his individual rights are curtailed in the interests of public order as well as in the interests of the individual rights of the victims of crime. Maintaining public order often requires the restriction of individual rights, as by prohibiting driving under the influence or by restricting the possession of pornography.

The American criminal justice system strikes a balance between individual rights and the right to public order through specific legislation. For example, individual rights are ensured through the outlawing of illegal searches and seizures. However, law enforcement officials can petition a judge to temporarily lift the ban and issue a warrant to search the…… [read more]

Corrections - Probation Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Corrections - Probation

Criminal Justice

Corrections & Probation-

The objective of this work is to answer the question of precisely what purpose the pre-sentence investigation reports serves inclusive of a victim impact statement and to relate some problems that are associated with these documents. Further this work has as its objective to explain the advantages and disadvantages of the ways in which probation may be administered. Next this work will relate the advantages and disadvantages of probation being administered on a county level and on a state level. Finally the elements that affect whether probation is granted will be researched and then related.

Pre-sentencing Report

The pre-sentencing report is just as it sounds a report that is prepared prior to the sentencing hearing. The report contains relevant information related to the hopeful probationer concerning their income, employment, address, family characteristics, and any medications/treatment/rehabilitation presently applicable.

II. Victim Impact Statement

The Victim-Impact Statement is a report that relates the effect to which the victim in the case at hand was injured on a monetary basis and then used for the calculation of the reparation to be paid by the probationer as a contingent factor of their obtaining and maintaining probationary status.

III. Advantages/Disadvantages in Methods of Administration of Probation

Both advantages and disadvantages exist in the methods used to administer probation. Administration of fees, fines, restitutions, and supervision of…… [read more]

Criminal Justice- Victimology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,154 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Criminal Justice- Victimology

For something so seemingly innocuous, the idea of a bill of rights for crime victims has raised an amazing amount of controversy. Those against the Crime Victims' Rights Amendment believe that it is the first step towards eroding the constitutional protections guaranteed to those accused of a crime in the United States. Such a belief displays a basic misunderstanding of both the U.S. Constitution and the proposed Crime Victims' Rights Amendment. The Crime Victims' Rights Amendment is aimed at offering protections towards those victims whose offenders have been convicted. This idea is not contrary to the United States Constitution, which offers little protection for convicted criminals beyond the right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment.

Before one can determine whether the proposed Crime Victims' Rights Amendment is contrary to the United States Constitution, one must look at those provisions of the Constitution aimed at preventing over-reaching by law enforcement. The Fourth Amendment protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures and prohibits any search or seizure that is not based upon probable cause. The Fifth Amendment provides a criminal defendant to the right to an indictment by a grand jury, prohibits forced self-incrimination, prohibits double jeopardy, and guarantees people the right to due process of law before being deprived of life, liberty, or property. The Sixth Amendment guarantees defendants the right to confront their accusers and the right to a speedy trial. In addition, the Sixth Amendment guarantees a criminal defendant the right to consult with an attorney; this right has been expanded to include the right to a court-appointed attorney for those defendants accused of significantly serious crimes. Finally, the Eighth Amendment prohibits the imposition of cruel and unusual punishment once an accused has been convicted of a crime. Looking through the Constitutional provisions that relate to the rights of criminal defendants, it is clear that there is nothing in the Constitution that prohibits the Government from offering some type of protection to the victims of crime.

In fact, the types of protections proposed in the Crime Victims' Rights Amendment are not contrary to any element of the United States Constitution. The main goals of the Crime Victims' Rights Amendment are: (1) victims should be provided with reasonable and timely notice of any public proceeding involving the crime or the release or escape of the accused; (2) victims are not to be excluded from public proceedings involving the crime; (3) victims are to be reasonably heard at public release, plea, sentencing, reprieve, and pardon proceedings; and (4) requires that decisions duly consider the victims' safety, right to restitution, and interest in avoiding an unreasonable delay in the criminal proceedings (President). Taking a closer look at each of the proposed provisions, it becomes clear that none of them violate an accused's constitutional rights.

The first proposed victims' right is that victims should be notified if an accused is no longer in custody, whether by escape or release. Looking at the guarantees contained in U.S. Constitutional Amendments… [read more]

Three Strikes Law Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,412 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Three Strikes Law

Criminal Justice & Three Strikes Law

The purpose of this work is to research the Three Strikes Law in relation to a proposal for improvement or for refocus of the legislation on the Three Strikes Law. Included will be an Annotated Bibliography of the sources relied on in research of this issue.

Public outrage, prison… [read more]

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