Study "Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays 111-161

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Criminal Justice Management Policing Matrix Essay

… Criminal Justice Management Policing Matrix

The Matrix provided here is a detailed and thorough plotting of research findings in a number of specific areas that are defined by their level of proactive nature and success levels. Essentially, it is a… [read more]


Effectiveness of Police Patrol Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

Effectiveness of Police Patrol

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of police patrol. Specifically, it will discuss the purpose and effectiveness of police patrol. The two articles utilized for this study are… [read more]


Treatment vs. Punishment Treatment Concept Research Paper

… In this research, recidivism was the new contact with the criminal justice system after release from the last DHS supervised residential treatment placement (McCollister et al., 2009). The critical was critical in integrating three definitions: new arrest for felony crime,… [read more]


Criminal Justice Research Paper

… While lies are not universally acceptable, telling strategic lies as a part of plan to achieve greater good is always acceptable.

• An analysis of whether this is a form of retributive justice with reasons to support your analysis

The retributive justice means the punishment should be a fair response to crime. Thus, intentions to commit crime should not be punished as much as actually committing or preparing for crime. Hence, the retributive justice offers fair solution to those that have committed a crime. The crime against state is thus punished more severely than the crime against a small community. The case presented here is not a crime against an individual thus it is not restorative justice case. The crime against society or a community, department, should not be personally dealt by an individual. The solution to a retributive justice case is that it should be solved by a criminal justice system and not the individual or a community (Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, 2009). Referring the case to criminal justice system would mean a lot more. It will not only assess the given information rather it will also monitor the linked activities. For example there can be other illegal activities going on in the prison that are not in the knowledge of the police.

• An analysis of Kant's ethical formalism in view of the given scenario.

Kantian theory of formalism is a kind of deontological i.e. duty-oriented theories of ethics. It tells that an individual should know what are his duties and obligations. By fulfilling one's duty, he contributes something valuable to the society. Kant's ethics says that there is always a form or structure of a moral judgment (thus called formalism). This duty oriented approach demands that a person should do good even if does not bring benefits to the individual because duty is obligation that must be fulfilled whatever the case is.

Kant believes that no act can be categorized as good or evil or cruel but the scenario makes it so (Jensen, 1934). He believes that a person does not act freely if he behaves the same before and after knowing the facts. He says that people have a variety of different experiences and backgrounds thus they make different judgments and can hardly agree on same decisions. Kant advocates that we can control our actions in order to hold the consequences of actions that we are responsible for. He says that categorical imperative requires behaving in a fair manner regardless of personal aims or purposes. To him, an action can be universally acceptable if it is consistent and acceptable to people. In the light of moral and ethical guidelines of Kant's theory, I believe that it was right to share the information the inmate shared with me. It is universally acceptable to tell a minor lie that violates the confidentially right of one in order to uproot crime from the society. If it was not so, there would be no rewards to those sharing the location… [read more]


Categorizing Crimes: Criminal Law Term Paper

… In this case, the defendant argued that separate convictions violated double jeopardy and that he acted intentionally in kicking the puppy.

However, the court argued that the evidence provided at trial was sufficient to justify separate convictions. The court also concluded that the general or specific rule is inapplicable to the underlying statutes and child abuse is not a particular kind of misdemeanor aggravated battery. With regards to negligent cruelty to animals, the jury concluded that there was sufficient evidence to convict the defendant because he acted with a higher mens rea than required by the statute. The court examined various factors including the temporal proximity of the two charged incidents, location of the victim during each incident, existence of any intervening events, his intentions based on conduct and utterances, and sufficiency of evidence on negligent cruelty on animals.

Statute and Case on Crime against Property:

The Florida State statue on theft is an example of a statute on crime against property that states that an individual commits theft if he/she knowingly obtains or use, or attempts to obtain or use, another person's property with the intention of temporarily or permanently depriving the person of a right to the property ("Crimes Against Property," n.d.). The statute is also applicable if the individual seeks to use a property that he/she is not entitled to. This statute was used in determining a case where the defendant, Robert H. Bonanno appealed to the District Court of Appeal regarding the conviction of robbery with a deadly weapon. He argued that the trial court erred in allowing his case to continue despite voluntarily absenting himself since the jury was selected before being sworn. He also argued against the conviction by stating that the trial judge erred in instructing the jury regarding the robbery elements.

According to the Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure, a trial should continue as though the defendant is present if the defendant voluntarily absents himself from the trail after being present at the beginning. Secondly, the instruction from the trial judge to the jury was that the element of robbery was a temporary or permanent intention to deprive the victim of his property. Therefore, there was no error in the conviction based on the law of Florida, which made the court to uphold the ruling of the trial court ("Crimes Against Property," n.d.).

Conclusion:

Crimes against persons and crimes against property differ significantly with regards to kind of criminal act, mental state, and punishment. Generally, crimes against persons are geared towards causing physical injury to an individual while crimes against property are geared towards depriving an individual a right or benefit to property. However, the determination of cases involving these crimes requires an understanding of the statutes and case law interpretations. Criminal justice professionals should understand them in order to ensure effectiveness of the process and ruling.

References:

Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm

"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf… [read more]


Criminal Justice Although Jeff's Confession Is Voluntary Essay

… Criminal Justice

Although Jeff's confession is voluntary in principle, there are certain facts of the case which make it inadmissible. The voluntary nature of the confession may be ascribed to the fact that Jeff made the decision to confess independent… [read more]


Criminal Justice - Gender Crime Essay

… Criminal Justice - Gender

CRIME and GENDER

Give and explain two reasons why hanging out with boys seems to increase criminal offending for both boys and girls.

Generally, males are much more likely than females to engage in delinquent and criminal behaviors than females; this is especially true in the case of violent crimes (Ogle, et al. 1995). Also, there seems to be is a direct relationship between peer relations and offending behaviors of all types, in both genders. Regardless of gender, adolescents who spend more unsupervised time with their peers are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior by virtue of the strength of their need for peer approval. Since males are more inclined to become involved in criminal offending behavior, adolescents whose peer group consists of (or includes) males are more inclined toward criminal conduct because male peers are more likely to lead by example and to reward offending behavior with peer approval (Agnew & Brezina 1997). Another possible explanation is that adolescents who are less tightly controlled by parents are more likely to offend. Since male adolescents are less tightly controlled by parents than females, adolescents who have the opportunity to spend more time with male peers are…… [read more]


UCR vs NIBRS Data Gathering Research Paper

… This permits criminal justice researchers to analyze and dissect various incidents of a crime. Unlike UCR, NIBRS supplies data about cases including simple assault (Maxfield, & Babbie, 2012).

NIBRS builds its study with respect to reported criminal offenses, which are reported to the police, while the UCR conducts its study dependent upon family unit reports from people that have been victims. The UCR is contrived to supply reports of victimization dependent on across the nation's information. Contrary, NIBRS measures reports dependent upon a local level, obtained from the police organizations. The NIBRS represent law violations that occur in people who are under 12 years, yet the UCR does not cover any victimized people less than 12 years of age. Since the data does not factor in young children, it does not consider the amount of sexual or physical misuse victims of this age that may exist within these family units (Reaves, & United States, 2013).

Since the summary reporting framework gathers the vast majority of its wrongdoing information as classes, it gives next to no proficiency to break down the coming about information into particular subcategories. Then again, since NIBRS gathers the portions of crime episodes, it permits more specificity in reporting (Siegel, 2012). For instance, breakdowns might be made around crimes against people, organizations, financial foundations, government, religious institutions, public, and different substances, Unlawful acts perpetrated by and against citizens vs. non-citizen people and unlawful acts including different forms injuries and wounds. Moreover, because NIBRS gathers the particular qualities of recovered and stolen property, numerous financial value breakdowns might be made.

References

Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L.R. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Nolan, J., Haas, S. & Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime Reports. J Quant Criminol (2011) 27:497 -- 519

Reaves, B.A., & United States. (2013). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of…… [read more]


Parole Board Robert, the Chair Case Study

… ¶ … Parole Board

Robert, the chair of the parole board, is under pressure to relax the standards for parole because of the Governor's fears that if current overcrowding suits are successful, it will result in inmates being released under… [read more]


History and Theories Associated With Criminal Justice Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice

History of Criminalities

The need to amend criminal procedures and justice has developed in Europe since 20th century. Several philosophers have come up with theories trying to explain how justice can be achieved in a much simpler way… [read more]


Gender Bias in the U.S Research Paper

… In certain situations women have been given leniency because of their physical femininity such as the case where a woman became impregnated by a 14-year-old and was granted probation because she needed to stay out of prison to take care… [read more]


Illegal Immigration Cost Research Paper

… The GAO found that the number was, on average, 8 times. They also said that "Approximately fifteen percent of these crimes were "property-related offenses," including "burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and property damage." Twelve percent of these crimes were "violent… [read more]


Criminal Justice -- Research Method Essay

… Drop-off rates increase when a slow-to-fast bar is used as compared to not showing a progress bar. The fast-to-slow progress indicator is currently considered to be ethically questionable by the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) and the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR) codes, so use is not recommended by the authors.

Assignment # 3 -- Surveymonkey Survey Questions

1. Do you work a rotating shift?

2. How often do you go to work feeling as though you have not had enough sleep?

3. What do you do when you have not had enough rest and you have to work?

4. Do you feel that the quality of your work, including your reaction time and mental alertness, is impacted by how much you sleep?

5. When you are not working, do you engage in recreation, or do you catch up on sleep?

*I am interested in these questions because sleep is closely related to cognitive processing and mood, both of which are critical factors in police work.

Assignment # 4 -- Center for Problem-Oriented Policing (POP Center)

The sample for the offender's interviews in Rana Sampson study on theft of and from autos in parking facilities in Chula Vista, California, was inadequate for any type of generalization. Sampson recognized this problem from the onset of the study, and identified the primary factor contributing to the low number of offenders in the sample -- the arrest rates were very low for the criteria used in sampling. Apparently the risk of getting caught stealing cars -- or stealing from cars -- in these parking lots in Chula Vista is quite low. It is entirely possible that Sampson's sampling procedures result in a sample of young, inexperienced, careless, or not very bright offenders. Sampson's research would be vastly improved by expanding her sample to other cities that are similarly situated or in which auto theft is similarly a problem.

The survey is too long, nearly 41 pages. The structure of the survey is not clear. It is possible that Sampson was attempting to triangulate the data by asking and re-asking questions, but she risks having her respondents get survey fatigue early in the process because of the length of the survey and repetitive nature of the survey questions. The most important questions -- those that Sampson is most likely to want responses to-were not all located in the beginning of the survey.

THESE ARE OBVIOUS TO ME: shorten the survey, sample in other cities, put the most important questions first in the survey, don't repeat (variants of questions) so many… [read more]


Criminal Justice SARA Essay

… III. Response

The third step or that of response is one that is chosen "based on the seriousness of the problem and the interests at stake which is inclusive of an analysis. This step also involves the office returning to the individual who originally made the complaint to see is the individual perceives there has been any improvement in the situation.

IV. Assessment

The final step of the S.A.R.A. model is that of assessment and Lyons reports that it is this area in which policing "typically falls short." (Lyons, 2000) Assessment is inclusive of "evaluation of the effectiveness of the response." (Lyons, 2000)

V. Community Policing

The S.A.R.A. model is most effectively used in community policing initiatives as community oriented policing "Involves not only greater involvement of the community, but also more creative and innovative approaches to problem solving." (Lyons, 2000)

Summary and Conclusion

The S.A.R.A policing model was designed to provide better response to the community and involves the steps of scanning, analysis, response, and assessment. This model is used primarily in the problem oriented and community policing models and is a method that provides appropriate response to concerns and reports that are made to the police and law enforcement agencies.

References

Lyons, Phillip (2000) Community Policing Concepts Applied to TLE Patrol. Spring, 2000 edition of Texas Highway Patrol Association Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.cjcenter.org/trcpi/doc/articles/cpc.pdf

What is S.A.R.A. Problem Solving (2000) Neighborhood Associations of Michigan (NAM). Fact Sheet. No. 3 December 2000. Retrieved from: http://www.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/rcpi/sara.pdf… [read more]


Criminal Justice Victimology the Term Crime Research Proposal

… Criminal Justice

Victimology

The term crime victim usually refers to any person, group, or entity that has suffered injury or loss due to illegal activity. The harm that is done can be physical, psychological, or economic. The legal definition of a victim usually includes the following:

"A person who has suffered direct, or threatened, physical, emotional or pecuniary harm as a result of the commission of a crime; or in the case of a victim being an institutional entity, any of the same harms by an individual or authorized representative of another entity. Group harms are normally covered under civil and constitutional law, with "hate crime" being an emerging criminal law development, although criminal law tends to treat all cases as individualized" (Victimology Theory, 2003)

Along with primary crime victims, there are also secondary crime victims. These are people who experience the harm second hand, such as intimate partners or significant others of rape victims or children of a battered woman. There is also something called tertiary crime victims. These are people who experience the harm vicariously, such as through media accounts or from watching television. Many people feel that referring to themselves as a victim has negative connotations, so they choose instead to define themselves as survivors (Victimology Theory, 2003)

Victimologists often use surveys of large numbers of people about the crimes that have been committed against them because official police statistics are often incomplete. Data is obtained from victimization surveys that are carried out each year by the Census Bureau on behalf of the Department of Justice. This is done by conducting the NCVS - National Crime Victimization Survey. Victimologists take this data and estimate victimization rates and risks in order to predict crime. If one were to define a method to victimology it would look something like this:

1. Define the problem by finding the irregularities, analyze the responsibilities, and exploring the kinds of harm that have been done

2. Measure the true dimension of the problem - by analyzing statistics to see what kind of people are involved and accurately gauging the extent of the harm that has been done

3. Investigate how the Criminal Justice system handles the problem -- by looking at what is being ignored, asking what the victim wants, and analyzing the effects of crime on victims

4. Examine society's response to the problem - look at issues of constitutional rights, analyze proposed legislation, analyze media reaction, see if anyone is cashing in on the problem at hand (Victimology Theory, 2003).

The law and order movement that has taken place in America has continued to overlap with the movement to enhance the legal standing and improve treatment of crime victims. Those people…… [read more]


Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes? Thesis

… Racial Bias in Sentencing

Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes than Caucasian Women?

A ic/Research Question

The proposed research will explore racial bias in the criminal justice system. It will explore consist of… [read more]


Criminal Justice Final Research Proposal

… Criminal Justice Final

Define the "traditional" crime of murder as described in 2C:11-3 (a) 1 and 2, include the two relevant forms of criminal intent or criminal state of mind.

According to N.J.S.2C:11-3(a), "criminal homicide constitutes murder when:

The actor… [read more]


Comparison of New Zealand and the United States Criminal Justice System Research Proposal

… ¶ … New Zealand and the United States Criminal Justice System

New Zealand and United States Criminal Justice System

Comparison of the New Zealand and United States Criminal Justice System

Brief history of New Zealand

The first inhabitants of New… [read more]


Crime Prevention Term Paper

… Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention

INCREASING CRIME PREVENTION EFFECTIVENESS

Crime prevention encompasses myriad different facets both within the criminal justice system and also within society at large. Within the criminal justice system, increasing the effectiveness of crime prevention efforts requires directing resources in the most focused way toward that effort. Specifically, increasing the effectiveness of crime prevention efforts requires distinguishing between criminal conduct that affects other individuals adversely from criminal conduct that affects only the criminal himself.

While paternalistic criminal laws may serve some role in the most general sense, the reality of American society is that law enforcement resources are insufficient to address every form of criminality; therefore, one of the primary conceptual themes should be to address crimes perpetrated against persons and other entities first and avoid wasting precious financial resources and manpower against so-called criminal vices, particularly those that do not pose any risk or danger to others.

The war against illegal drugs is one example of a law enforcement effort that wastes a tremendous amount of financial and personnel resources combating a vice that might very well be better allocated to other types of crime. Certainly, some of the criminal conduct associated with the illicit drug market constitutes a necessary area of law enforcement focus, but that class of crimes is completely separable from the issue of private drug use just as driving or violence under the influence of alcohol is completely distinguishable from consuming alcohol privately without concurrent criminal conduct.

Ultimately, effective crime prevention is more a matter of optimal resource allocation to prevent serious crimes against innocent persons than it is a matter of preventing every criminal statute across the board without conceptual distinction. The CRIMINAL JUSTICE…… [read more]


Criminal Justice Critique on Policing the Various Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

Critique on Policing

The various polices about getting tough on crime that are most reflective of the government's commitment to toughening up criminal laws are the bail reform law for gun offenses and the mandatory prison sentences. There… [read more]


Crime as Schmalleger Term Paper

… 5. a) The site labeled ":Criminal Justice Statistics (http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/intsites.htm) offers links to many different criminal justice websites, with a large section headed "Foreign Web Sites." The sites linked cover much of the world, notably Canada, Great Britain, Finland, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Russia, and Ukraine. The section headed "International Web Sites" covers sites dealing with crime in Latin America and Europe and different police organizations, including various UN crime control programs.

b) The website for the United Nations Office on Drugs & Crime (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crime_prevention.html) discusses the UN program, its history, and the importance of crime prevention when it comes to the drug issue, an international problem. The site also covers topics such as terrorism, organized crime, corruption, and trafficking in human beings. The site also offers links to other UN sponsored agencies and programs addressing legal issues and crime in different parts of the world.

c) Crime and Justice International, sponsored by the Criminal Justice Center (http://158.135.23.21/cjcweb/college/cji/directoryNew.cfm)

addresses issues of crime and crime news with stories about international crime programs, criminal justice agencies, and other trends, with a searchable archive of past issues to take the visitor to stories from other time periods on the same basic topics. The featured story in the current issue involves the use of technology to fight crime and aid law enforcement personnel.

Works Cited

Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.

Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.… [read more]


Constitutional, Legal and Ethical Issues Term Paper

… According to Ida Tarbell, who makes a very broad observation of the police behaviour, "deviance (i.e. behavior inconsistent with norms, values, or ethics) also implies corruption (i.e. forbidden acts involving misuse of office for gain), misconduct (i.e. wrongdoing violations of… [read more]


Overcoming Ethical Challenges in the Workplace Case Study

… Ethical Behavior in Criminal Justice

The Parole Board

Correction facilities are meant to shape the characters of offenders; offer punishment for crimes committed, and train them to fit the society well after release. It also gives them the chance to… [read more]


Evaluating Police Reform Efficacy Research Paper

… Not everyone is so enamored with police-worn body cameras, especially police officers. The Toronto Police Association's President, Mike McCormack, argued that body cameras would do little to reduce citizen complaints against police (Rosenthal & Brown, 2014). Meanwhile, mandated body cameras for police officers in Edmonton, Victoria, Calgary, and Ottawa have reportedly reduced citizen complaints by as much as 80%. When U.S. District Judge Shira Scheindlin mandated body camera pilot programs for the New York City Police Department in the aftermath of the Stop-n-Frisk trial, an outcry was heard throughout City Hall (Skoloff, Ritter, & Lemire, 2013).

Although civil libertarians are concerned about the privacy issues raised by police-worn body cameras, the greatest resistance seems to be coming from police officers themselves. One hypothesis would be that police resistance to body cameras is due to the constraints imposed on an officer's behavior by police culture (Conti, 2009). To better understand the rationale(s) for this resistance a grounded theory study design will be used. Officers will be interviewed individually or in groups, asked whether they would be willing to wear a body camera, and then queried about the basis of their views. The information collected during the individual and group interviews will be used to improve the questions before the next set of interviews. A comparison of the views expressed by officers individually or in a group format may reveal whether police culture has a significant influence on officer attitudes towards body cameras.

Research findings have suggested police culture affiliation is a significant negative influence on the prevalence of use of force (Terrill, Paoline, & Manning, 2003), which was one of the outcome variables reduced in Rialto after the introduction of body cameras (Carroll, 2013). Terrill and colleagues (2003) developed a survey instrument to quantify attitudes towards organizational culture, the public, and police culture, which could be used to evaluate changes in officer attitudes after the introduction of mandated body cameras. All officers would complete the survey as a pretest and then randomized to either a camera or control group. A year later, posttest scores would be collected and compared with pretest scores. The RCT data could then be analyzed to see of body camera experience improved attitudes towards the public and reduced affiliation toward police culture values.

References

Carroll, R. (2013, November 4). California police use of body cameras cuts violence and complaints. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/04/california-police-body-cameras-cuts-violence-complaints-rialto.

Conti, N. (2009). A visigoth system: Shame, honor, and police socialization. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 38(3), 409-32.

Driessnack, M., Sousa, V.D., & Mendes, I.A. (2007). An Overview of Research Designs Relevant to Nursing: Part 2: Qualitative Research Designs. Revisto Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 15(4), 684-8.

Rosenthal, J. & Brown, D. (2014, March 31). Curtis Young case shows need for body-worn cameras on police. The Star. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2014 from http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2014/03/31/curtis_young_case_shows_need_for_bodyworn_cameras_on_police.html.

Skoloff, B., Ritter, K., & Lemire, J. (2013, August 14). Police body cameras get cool reception. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2013 from http://abclocal.go.com/wabc/story?section=news/local/new_york&id=9206129.

Sousa, V.D., Driessnack, M., & Mendes,… [read more]


Racial Equality Race Research Paper

… Eating and breathing are pleasurable and necessary activities to maintain natural life and are both based on inequality of resources. Instead, we are force feeding our beliefs to a body that does not need them or in reality want them.

The only way to truly eliminate racism is to look at both sides of race. How can we escape this mess if we are constantly throwing new piles of trash on top of old ones? If we amend the Constitution for every way in which folks are different (i.e., unequal), the document is going to get cluttered, if it has not already reached this point. Race needs to be embraced and celebrated. One must consider what is the purpose of having many races on earth. To me, each race, when looked at from a macrocosmic perspective has both gifts and troubles to offer the rest of society. To me it is quite hypocritical to celebrate Black History Month and then ignore the negative aspects of the black race. Each race has its own pluses and negatives as new ones are created every day. Race is an expanding and fluid measurement and new forms and combinations are rapidly increasing each day. Instead of singling people out for their race we should simply treat it as hair or eye color.

References

Brooks, E. (2011). Cultural Resources. The African-American Lectionary, 1 Nov 2011. Retrieved from http://www.theafricanamericanlectionary.org/PopupCulturalAid.asp?LRID=235

Goldmacher, S. (2012). Disparate Impact: Black Lawmakers and Ethics Investigations. The Atlantic, 3 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/03/disparate-impact-black-lawmakers- and-ethics-investigations/253931/

Kerby, S. (2012). The Top10 Most Startling Facts about the People of Color And Criminal Justice in the United States. Center For American Progress, 13 March 2012. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/news/2012/03/13/11351/the-top-10- most-startling-facts-about-people-of-color-and-criminal-justice-in-the-united-states/

Kansal, T. & Mauer, M. (2005). Racial Disparity in Sentencing: A Review of the Literature. The Sentencing Project, January 2005. Retrieved from http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_sentencing_review.pdf

Maurer, M. (2010). Justice for All? Challenging Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System. Human Rights Magazine Fall 2010. Retrieved from https://www.americanbar.org/publications/human_rights_magazine_home/human_rights_ vol37_2010/fall2010/justice_for_all_challenging_racial_disparities_criminal_justice_syst em.html

The Sentencing Project (ND). Racial Disparity. Viewed 9 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://www.sentencingproject.org/template/page.cfm?id=122… [read more]


Victims Program Grant Application Term Paper

… Victim Service Enhancement Program for Rural Crime Victims

Victim Services Enhancement Program for Rural Crime Victims:

The State Board Fund offers support and advocacy services to crime victims in order to develop and enhance current programs that serve victims of… [read more]


Investigation Procedures Sexual Assault Term Paper

… Sexual Assault

The criminal justice and legal procedures for investigating a sexual assault will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but there are some key common elements to all cases. The first and most obvious step is the initial interviews with the victim. First responders must determine whether or not the victim requires emergency medical care, as in the case of a violent sexual assault. Multiple types of responses and responders may be necessary at this juncture (IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center, 2005). Moreover, the first responders and law enforcement need to determine whether or not the victim is in need of supervision and whether the attacker is known to him or her. If the attacker is known, then it may be necessary to protect the victim who may have continued contact with the suspect.

After a formal complaint has been filed with law enforcement regarding an alleged sexual assault, a law enforcement detective will work with the victim to develop an official statement. The statement is created under oath, and may be used as evidence in a court of law (Government of New South Wales: Justice and Attorney General, 2012). When gathering evidence for the statement, the detective will need to keep several core issues in mind. These issues will relate to prevailing definitions of felony sexual assault, the different types of sexual offences that may have taken place, and what types of questions or concerns might be raised in courts or by attorneys. As the IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center (2005) states, "Investigators must remain flexible because defenses are not entirely predictable and may change -- even during the course of a single investigation," (p. 3). Issues related to defense will need to be intelligently considered when interviewing the victim, as denial, identity, and the defense of consent may surely be raised. General guidelines of criminal investigation apply, such as inquiring about potential witnesses or circumstantial evidence that could be helpful if a criminal prosecution evolves. Writing the report requires knowledge of judicious report-writing skills in general, such as the use of helpful details related to the victim's physical and emotional condition.

At this stage in the investigation, no formal charges have been brought yet. Follow -- up investigations and interviews will usually take place. Evidence must be gathered. Photographs of the victim, and if possible, the crime scene, can prove helpful when trying the case. Articles of clothing will need to be acquired, as they might include some DNA evidence that could be used successfully in a court of law. Similarly, bedding, and any possible physical evidence that might include bodily fluids must be taken in as evidence.

A forensic medical examination may be required of the victim. Although potentially traumatic, the medical examination could be crucial in the prosecution. The IACP's "Training Key 572" (2004) suggests, "The forensic examiner should document the victim's medical history and…… [read more]


Considering the Consequences Term Paper

… ¶ … Consequences

STEWARDSHIP AND ACCOUNTABILITY

Talks about police abuses and supervision often begin and center on the brutal attack of Rodney King, an African-American construction worker-parolee by Los Angeles policemen (Johnson, 2011). A videotape of the incident by a… [read more]


Criminal Justice Research Paper

… Society is providing a means for these individuals to contribute to America. As it stands to today, more and more individuals are entering prison. These individuals are subsequently not paying any tax, not providing goods and services for society to… [read more]


Disparity and Discrimination Research Paper

… If a prison holds 200 prisoners and 150 of them are blacks, then it suggests that the justice system discriminates against race. However, this may not be the case. It is necessary for one to carry out an investigation in the crimes committed, the degree of serious found in the rimes, and the criminal records of the criminals. It is impossible for the court to release a number of criminal based of maintaining the races imprisoned. This would be discrimination in itself (Mustard, 2009).

Disparity does not have to entail discrimination. Cities such as Detroit have been noted to have a large population of one race. Therefore, it makes sense if the prison contains a high percentage of this defined race. Therefore, disparity is a product of discrimination, which begins at the point of arrest and ends at the point of sentencing. For example, those who are employed are said to be given more linear sentences than those who are not employed. Male employees are believed to serve longer hours than their female counterparts who commit similar crimes. This belief draws the issue of discrimination while it could be a reason for disparity (Robinson & Williams, 2009).

A good example is the deputy attorney of the Juvenile department of Santa Clara, Kurt Kumli. This attorney demonstrates an example of how the juvenile justice system experiences issues related to racial disparity. His story relates to two minor offenders, one white, and the other black who were attending a hearing. The white minor offender comes from a family of affluent whites where the mother watches over the son ay home. On the other hand, the black minor offender comes from a single parent home where the mother has to go to work, and she cannot provide his son with the same options as the white juvenile. The justice system does not discriminate because juveniles are surrounded with different circumstances: it generates disparity between the juvenile who is arrested and the one who is sent home (Walker, Spohn, & DeLone, 2004).

Chances of discrimination can be eliminated through ensuring that there is equal application of laws to all offenders. People of all races should be given the same treatment and sentence regardless of an individual's race, age, ethnicity, or prior criminal records. However, concerns are increasing over the treatment given to white people who engage in drug trafficking. Many white people who deal with drugs are not given the same treatment as that given to black people found with drugs. Consistency must be adhered to in order to reduce disparities and discrimination in the justice system (Mustard, 2009).

References

Mustard, B. (2009). Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in sentencing: Evidence from the U.S.

Federal Courts. New York: Springer.

Robinson, M. & Williams, M. (2009). The myth of a fair criminal justice system. South Carolina:

Edward Elgar Publishing.

Walker, S., Spohn, C. & DeLone, M. (2004). The color of justice:…… [read more]


Sex Offenders Research Paper

… Residency laws have been reviewed by several state supreme courts, where they have been largely upheld. But the dissenting judge in an Illinois Supreme Court Case challenge noted the problems inherent in the "application of these residency restrictions, which fail to consider sex offenders' prior offenses or case histories…since this Act treats all offenders alike, without consideration of whether a particular offender is likely to reoffend, its retroactive residency restriction promotes and furthers retribution, a traditional aim of punishment" (Durling 2006). There is still ambiguity about the intention of the law, and deliberately 'shaming' individuals after serving their time, and subjecting them to community censure clearly does 'punish' the offender to some degree.

The uniform applicability of the laws to all sex offenders, regardless of age or crime, has been so troubling that even the mother of the original Megan has protested their use. In 2009, "authorities in Passaic County, N.J., charged a 14-year-old girl with possession and distribution of child pornography for posting nude photos of herself on MySpace.com" ('Megan's Law' mom criticizes 'sexting' charges, 2009, NPR). Under Megan's Law, she would have to register and be publically identified as a sexual criminal for the rest of her life. But Ms. Kanka said "the girl needs help, not legal trouble" ('Megan's Law' mom criticizes 'sexting' charges, 2009, NPR). Even if Megan's Laws and other residency restrictions continue to exist -- which they likely will -- some refinement of the types of crimes encompassed by such laws seems essential in the name of justice.

References

Durling, C. (2006). Never going home: Does it make us safer? does it make sense? sex offenders, residency restrictions, and reforming risk management law. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 97(1), 317-363.

'Megan's Law' mom criticizes 'sexting' charges. (2009). NPR. Retrieved:

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=102399198

Shealy, L., Kalichman, S.C., Henderson, M.C., Szymanowski, D., & McKee, G. (1991). MMPI

profile subtypes of incarcerated sex offenders against children. Violence and Victims, 6(3), 201-12.…… [read more]


Criminal Justice Should Sherriff Essay

… The voters can get rid of the sheriff from office during the election. The county board controls the budget and salary of the sheriff; and in severe cases statutes allow for the removal of the sheriff from office for misfeasance or nonfeasance of duty (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.).

In our democratic system, the people should have the right to choose who is to be sheriff. In a lot of counties the sheriff is the single most influential individual and institution. Despite the efforts of appointment proponents, voters who have had a chance to decide the issue have nearly collectively decided to keep the office elective (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.). Citizens should have the freedom to choose their sheriff and direct election is the best means to accomplish that.

The election of the sheriff in Killeen is constant with national traditions and practices. Election of sheriffs is almost uniform throughout the United States. History has shown in those jurisdictions in which the sheriff is appointed there is a decline in quality and continuity of law enforcement services and administration. When the sheriff is subject to the whims and caprices of the board of commissioners, the office becomes more politicized, not less (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.).

There is stability and continuity of office. The sheriffs at the county level and the city police departments at the municipal level handle local law enforcement in Killeen. While city police departments on the whole do a good job, evaluation of the continuity, innovation and public responsiveness of the office sheriff to city police demonstrates the perils of appointment. There is no purpose, empirical data that proves city police departments headed by an appointed law enforcement official are any (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.).

References

Dan Smith - Bell County Sheriff. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.co.bell.tx.us/Sheriff/03aboutthesheriff.htm

Elected office of the sheriff. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.sheriffs.org/sites/default/files/tb/The_Elected_Office_of_Sheriff

_An_Executive_Summary.pdf

Killeen Police Department. (2012). Retreived from http://www.killeentexas.gov/index.php?section=226… [read more]


Community Response to Race Research Paper

… What needs to be taken into account is the environment that some of these individuals grow up in. We cannot always assume that everyone comes from a stable household. The department takes these things into consideration and the objective is… [read more]


TV Criminal Procedure Fluffy, Unrealistic Essay

… According to the law school review, few shows do justice to what judges do; judges don't attack people like Judge Judy does.

A recent show that is remaking The Firm (by John Grisham) had an interesting opening story. A bereaved father sought to kill a juvenile boy who killed his son. It turned out the both the defense attorney and the prosecutor came up with an informal way to punish the father by using a confession as a form of coercion -- which the prosecutor said she would keep until she was convinced the father would not break the law again. While this is not very ethical, it could be a more realistic way that the real people of the profession try to get the means to balance with the ends.

TOPIC 2

Texas appears to be the only state in the Union that requires that all felony charges be substantiated through a grand jury indictment (Onecle, 2007). This would mean that, in most cases involving serious offenses, there is no choice about whether there will be an indictment by a grand jury. This would also mean that there could not be both a grand jury review and a preliminary hearing. However, after an indictment has been provided, it seems possible for certain pretrial procedures to occur that might act like a preliminary hearing where the defense has a lawyer present and arguing on his or her side. In Article 28.01, the codes allows for questioning the process or substance of an indictment provided by a grand jury.

As a defense attorney who is defending a person accused of a sexual assault, I would not have an option to request a preliminary hearing, because the charge will likely be as a felony. My best move would be to try to at least get the charges reduced to a misdemeanor so we could use the preliminary hearing to ensure that my client had continuous legal assistance and that he or she would be treated less harshly if found guilty.

References:

TOPIC 1:

Admin (2011). Are criminal justice TV shows full of fluff? A one-sided depiction of criminal justice careers. Viewable at http://www.uscollegesearch.org/blog/resource-articles/criminal-justice-info/are-criminal-justice-tv-shows-full-of-fluff.

Weyenburg, M. (2011). 25 Best & Worst Legal TV Shows. Law School Podcaster: Your guide to law school. Viewable at http://www.lawschoolpodcaster.com/2011/05/27/25-best-worst-legal-tv-shows/

TOPIC 2:

Onecle (2007). Texas Code of Criminal Procedure -- Article 28.01. Pre-Trial. Viewable at http://law.onecle.com/texas/criminal-procedure/28.01.00.html.… [read more]


Leadership Skills for the Criminal Term Paper

… There have been cases in the past of people in the criminal justice system having problems at home with issues such as domestic violence. While these difficulties did not occur on the job, they still reflect on the character and abilities of the person who went through the difficulties or who caused them to occur. Anyone who works in criminal justice or who wants to work in criminal justice must be aware of the potential for problems and the difficulties that a lack of ethics can cause in life, in order to avoid a loss of the trust and leadership ability that comes with being an ethical human being (Walsh, 2010).

Leaders in the criminal justice profession focus on ethics and virtue in every aspect of their lives, because they know the value of the work they do and how much ability they have to help other people or affect those people's lives in some way (Nordin, Pauleen, & Gorman, 2009). It can be hard to remain ethical when one is exposed to the worst of society on a daily basis, though, and some do break under the pressure. Usually, they burn out in some way rather than turn to crime, though. For example, they may end up with violence problems in their own life, or they may have difficulties with anger management, depression, or anxiety (Walsh, 2010). It is very important that anyone who works in the criminal justice system stay close to his or her colleagues, family, and friends in order to mitigate the effects of a life lived around the criminal element. When criminal justice professionals attain good leadership skills and exercise them regularly, they are better able to stay strong and to continue to help others and themselves to stay out of trouble, do the right thing, and be valuable members of society.

References

Bryan, K. & Mackenzie, J. (2008). Meeting the speech, language, and communication needs of vulnerable young people: Model of service delivery for those at risk of offending and re-offending. Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists. Retrieved from http://www.rcslt.org/about/campaigns/RCSLT_model_of_service_delivery_offending_2008.pdf

Nordin, M., Pauleen, D.J., & Gorman, G.E. (2009). Investigating KM antecedents: KM in the criminal justice system. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(2): 4-20. Retrieved from http://lpis.csd.auth.gr/mtpx/km/material/JKM-13-2a.pdf

Walsh, E.F. (2010). The development of comprehensive criminal justice leadership standards: A modified delphi study approach. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/3467496.pdf… [read more]


Police Integrity and Police Work Essay

… The result is a condition in which many officers will tend to unfairly target particular demographics or racial groups for routing traffic stops, vehicle searchers or other modes of engagement. This is not a behavior that is consistent with the order of integrity to which officers are to be beholden but to many in the line of duty, this is perceived as a necessary avenue by which to conduct work that is frequently challenging and dangerous. Here, officers are often in a difficult position of attempting to balance what they perceive as professional instincts with what may be deeply ingrained and unconscious racial biases. Whether conscious or not, according to JRank (2009), "Statistics show that African-Americans are several times more likely to be arrested and incarcerated than white Americans. As of 2000, fewer African-American men were in college than were in prison. Moreover, black children were nine times as likely as white children to have at least one parent in prison." (JRank, p. 1)

This suggests that for a complex array of socio-cultural, political and economic reasons, African-Americans are a group confronted by police officers at a far higher rate than Caucasians. While we cannot observe that racial profiling is alone the cause for this, it is possible to observe that a certain degree of objective integrity is required of the police officer in order to prevent an imbalanced perpetuation of this condition. And even more than that, it is incumbent upon precincts, departments and states to aggressively dissuade and root out systemic practices of racial profiling from daily police work.

Works Cited:

JRank. (2009). Racial Profiling. Jrank.org. Online at http://law.jrank.org/pages/9628/Racial-Profiling.html

U.S. Department of Justice. (2001). Principles for Promoting Police Integrity. Examples of Promising Police Practices and Policies.… [read more]


Criminal Justice Grade Course Research Paper

… Compensation may also be paid to victims of crime to cover their bills in hospitals and sustain them if they are not in a position to continue working.

Illegal Expenditures

Illegal expenditures is also another cost associated with crime (Conklin,… [read more]


Diversity in Criminal Justice Article Review

… Criminal Justice

Diversity in Criminal Justice

No one has ever said that that being a cop on the street is unproblematic. One day they have to be a social worker and the next they have to prepare for a riot. They have to be charming and in control as they ask an intoxicated person to quit urinating in public. The compensation is horrible and they take the risk of getting killed every day. And then they have to cope with the phenomenon of profiling, either racial in doing their jobs or in another way by just being a cop.

In a survey done by the Washington Post, fifty two percent of African-American males reported that they had familiarity with racial profiling first hand. But what occurs when police officers think that they too are sufferers, when they become swayed that they cannot do their work without being known as racists or being wrongly charged with using unacceptable vigor. What happens is what took place in Cincinnati, OH in April of 2001.

In the anxious time since the three days of aggressive altercations in April between generally black demonstrators and generally white cops, many police officers have seemed to have taken a break. According to numbers provided by the city of Cincinnati, in June of 2001 the police made 2,517 arrests for nonviolent crimes like disorderly conduct and weapons infringements; in June of 2000 they made 5,063 of this type of arrest. Arrests for violent crimes, like murder and arson, went down a little, to 487 from 502, in spite of a 20% increase from the preceding June in the occurrence of those crimes. The numbers for May, the month following the rioting, are very similar. Police officers are extremely discouraged at this increase in crimes but they fear being tagged as a racial profiler every time they go to arrest someone.

What precisely is racial profiling? It does not reduce the seriousness of racial profiling by admitting that that there is no acknowledged definition of what it means. It is not contained…… [read more]


Criminal Justice - Corrections Criminal Justice: Reducing Essay

… Criminal Justice - Corrections

CRIMINAL JUSTICE: REDUCING CRIME RATES

In this Module, there were two ways of estimating how much crime is saved merely by getting them off the street, two ways of estimating the "incapacitation effect. One way is to conduct self-report studies of offenders just entering prison, asking them to report their criminal involvement over the past year. Are there any strengths to this approach? Are there any limitations? How might you conduct such a study?

In principle, the incapacitation approach to crime reduction hinges on the accurate identification of criminals whose prior criminal history is associated with a higher degree of repeated or continual criminality (Visher, 1987). In that regard, self-report studies are potentially useful, particularly to the extent those studies disclose criminal conduct for which prisoners imprisoned for other crimes were never prosecuted because those crimes were never detected (or never solved) by authorities. Except for one-time offenders, it is presumed that the vast majority of offenders commit many more offenses than those for which they are eventually incarcerated (Visher, 1987). The most significant limitation to this method of identifying criminals with a higher degree of repeated or continual criminality is that it depends completely on the honesty of a population with a demonstrated propensity to violate rules of law, moral principles, and the rights of others. In general, these traits are much more consistent with untruthfulness than truthfulness; more particularly, the most "successful" criminals are likely to be the most wary of providing authorities with information about their undetected past crimes. One possible method of increasing the accuracy of information provided by more "successful" criminals is to provide assurances of immunity with respect to disclosures.

Especially since the incapacitation approach depends on identifying offenders with the greatest likelihood of repeated criminality, the failure of those offenders to provide accurate information of past crimes undermines the entire concept. Therefore, because self-report studies may fail to identify the very offenders on whose identification the success of the incapacitation approach to reducing criminality depends most directly, reliance on self-reporting represents a crucial limitation.

2. Various authors have argued that since the 1970s, we have been conducting a natural or real world "experiment" in whether prisons "work" to reduce crime. As a correctional policy, do you think that the expansion of prison as a key way to control crime in the United States has been warranted?

According to Visher (1987), the approach to reducing crime that relies on increasing prosecution, sentencing, and prison populations across the board do not correspond particularly well with crime reduction. First, prior studies indicate that even with respect to serious crimes thought to be most indicative of future criminality, a relatively…… [read more]


Forensic Science in 21st Century Thesis

… Criminal Justice - Forensics

TWENTIETH-CENTURY FORENSICS in CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Forensic Science in Policing and Criminal Investigations:

In terms of its full potential, 21st-century forensic science is still in its infancy; nevertheless, the initial incorporation of forensic technologies to contemporary law enforcement applications have already revolutionized several traditional law enforcement investigative functions (Kobalinsky, Liotti, et al., 2005). The recent evolution DNA technology attributable to the Human Genome Project have revolutionized the field of criminal investigations more than any other single development since the introduction of identification through finger prints in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In fact, hundreds of decades-old so-called "cold cases" have been solved in the first decade of the 21st century by applying new DNA analysis and identification techniques that were unavailable to the original investigators to physical evidence preserved since the initial investigation went cold (Johns, Downes, et al., 2005). As forensic science technology continues to evolve, investigators anticipate being able to establish conclusive identifications from an even greater range of potential sources as well as continued improvements in the sensitivity and precision of existing technologies that will enable even more minute quantities of physical evidence to provide positive identification.

DNA matching techniques have greatly expanded the list of potential substances and sources of reliable forensic evidence. Specifically, uniquely identifying forensic material is present in virtually all biological excretions and tissues but previous technological capabilities have limited their use pending the development of more precise forensic identification techniques (Markey, 2007). Since the introduction of more accurate DNA mapping and more sensitive analysis of biological evidence, forensic science has enabled criminal investigators to establish definitive identification from very minute quantities of blood evidence as well as hair, fiber, skin, saliva, semen, mucous, and excretory secretions. In many cases, those applications have even been applied successfully to animal DNA leading to positive identification of suspects from trace evidence linked to the domestic pets of both victims and criminals alike (Yost & Burke, 2007). Forensic Science in Court Processes and Modern Security: In addition to the tremendous potential increase in the applicability of forensic science to criminal investigations, 21st-century forensic science has also provided corresponding increases in the accuracy of existing techniques for establishing paternal lineage through mitochondria DNA, in particular (Markey, 2007). Those developments have generated applications capable of corroborating (or refuting) information pertaining to substance abuse by offenders and other court-monitored subjects.

The sophisticated analyses of hair follicles, for example, are capable of reveling accurate information that far exceeds the limits of 20th-century urinalysis techniques. In principle, these developments…… [read more]


Policing - Criminal Profiling: Legitimate Research Proposal

… Policing - Criminal Profiling

CRIMINAL PROFILING: LEGITIMATE POLICING TOOL or RACISM

Due process of law is one of the most fundamental concepts in American constitutional law. The right of citizens to live free from the threat of arbitrary or partial… [read more]


Criminal Justice Is the Coordination of Putting Term Paper

… Criminal Justice is the coordination of putting into practice and associations exercised by state and local governments which are aimed at sustaining social power, dissuade, controlling misdemeanor and permitting those who disobey laws with illegal punishments. The most important organizations… [read more]


Discrimination Within the Death Penalty and Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Death Penalty and Race

Arguments have raged for decades about the use of capital punishment in the United States, with some holding that there is a need for society to express its disapproval for certain acts by ending the life… [read more]


Due Process, Truth, and the Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Due Process, Truth, And the Criminal Justice System

Due Process is one of the most important founding principles underlying the U.S.

A criminal justice system. It derives from the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution (which applies to federal government action) and has traditionally been applied identically to state actions by the identical provision contained in the Fourteenth Amendment (Schmalleger, 1997). The specific wording that appears in both amendments prohibits the deprivation of "life," "liberty," and "property" by the government without the "due process of law." Due process also requires grand jury indictment, and prohibits double jeopardy and compelled self-incrimination, and therefore, is one of the most influential concepts defining criminal procedure in the enforcement of penal laws in the U.S.

Supreme Court interpretation continually directs the evolution and refining of permissible criminal procedures and establishes the limits of permissible police and other law enforcement-related functions. Therefore, modern law enforcement and the security industry must continually update their tactical procedures to ensure compliance with changes in constitutional law of due process to ensure compliance, because the consequences of error in this area can potentially undermine investigations and criminal prosecutions requiring the release of guilty criminals back into society without punishment for their crimes (Dershowitz, 2002).

Striking a Balance between Two Important Principles:

Law enforcement always requires the balancing of two competing social concerns: on one hand, is the government's interest in protecting its citizens and prosecuting criminal conduct; on the other hand, is the right of innocent citizens to be free from unrestricted searches and seizures and compelled confessions. Under British rule before the Revolution that established a sovereign United States, citizens were subject to unwarranted searches of their property and seizure of their persons for suspicion of criminal conduct without the need for justification on the part of government agents. This experience under British rule was incorporated into the U.S. Constitution and its subsequent amendments, including the Bill of Rights, precisely to provide the protection of citizens against unrestricted governmental police powers.

Unrestricted police powers might, in principle, allow for the highest level of crime prevention and prosecution, but at a very steep cost, because virtually any police action would be permissible, including searches and apprehension, detention, and imprisonment without any justification, based solely on the suspicions, or even the whims, of government agents. Excessive protections of individual rights would prohibit the investigatory, arrest, and prosecutorial functions necessary to…… [read more]


Criminal Justice the Polygraph Remains a Controversial Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

The polygraph remains a controversial tool in criminal investigation ever since 1917, when William M. Marston, an American professor, first invented it. However, for almost a century now, the polygraph continues to be used in many countries as… [read more]


Criminal Justice Substantive vs. Procedural Law Essay

… Criminal Justice

Substantive vs. Procedural Law

Substantive law includes laws that "create, define and regulate legal rights and obligations" whereas procedural law governs and defines rules law enforcement agencies use "to enforce substantive law" (ICMBA, 2007). Examples of substantive law… [read more]


Comparative CJ System Final Project Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

The Perfect Criminal Justice System

This paper will propose the perfect criminal justice system, one that focuses on networking and collaboration among policing agencies, communities, private sector entities, judicial bodies, prosecutors, legal representatives and those accused of or… [read more]


Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

Do you agree that for police action to be "just" it must recognize the rights of individuals while at the same time holding them accountable to the social obligations defined by law?

Law enforcement is an essential component of any civilized society. The alternative to some form of penal law enforcement is a state of complete anarchy in which individual citizens are at the mercy of other citizens absolutely free to rape, rob, pillage, and plunder without any consequences. On the other hand, the polar opposite, a society with unjust laws (or unjust principles of law enforcement), is little better than complete anarchy. A "police state" in which government may intrude into the ordinary lives of its citizens without restriction, cause, or justification other than the general aim of enforcing its laws does so at the expense of individual freedom and fundamental rights, such as those recognized by American penal philosophy..

In the words of one renowned ethical philosopher, "... It is not the criminal law and its efficient and vigorous enforcement that enslaves, but the absence of such law, or its creation and enforcement in the light of ill-conceived principles." (Taylor, 1980) The goal of a society designed to protect its citizens must balance two equally important and legitimate needs: (1) to protect them from harming each other by establishing and enforcing social regulations, and (2) to avoid enforcement practices and procedures that do so only at the substantial expense of basic civil liberties and reasonable freedom from unjustifiable, unregulated, and arbitrary police intrusion into ordinary life.

Given only the choice between absolute civil anarchy governed by the "natural law" of might makes right and completely unchallenged and unjust state regulation, most individual citizens are probably somewhat safer risking governmental oppression and law enforcement abuse than they would be without any social rules whatsoever to protect the weaker from the whims of the stronger. Ultimately, the moral goal of a civilized society is to establish principles of laws (and rules for their enforcement) that maximize the protection of its citizens while minimizing unjustifiable intrusions into ordinary life that are almost -- if not quite exactly -- every bit as harmful as no governmental regulation, enforcement, or protection of law at all.

Have the courts provided adequate protection to citizens against overzealous police officers? In which Areas of search and seizure and interrogation law do you think the courts have not gone far enough? In which areas do you think the courts have gone too far?

Yes. Ever since the Miranda decision in 1966, the Supreme Court has continually expanded protections afforded under constitutional rights against unwarranted search and seizure and self-incrimination. Under the fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine, police action determined to have violated constitutional principles results in excluding…… [read more]


Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice

An Analysis of the Modern Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice

Summary of Remaining Chapters

Chapter IV: Data Analysis

Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations

Responses to "I believe that psychics have some special ability that… [read more]


Corporate Criminal Justice Term Paper

… His intention is to show that privatization of criminal justice is nothing new in the United States. Its history can be traced back to the American colonies and before into Anglo-Saxon history (McCrie 12-13).

The overall impression that one takes away from this analysis is that McCrie has spent an extensive amount of time examining the historical precedent for the coexistence of private and public criminal justice forces in the Western tradition. His evidence is quite extensive for his discussion of police forces, though he only lightly touches on privatization of the courts and the prison system (McCrie 20-22). That is perhaps McCrie weakest section; his argument might have been stronger had he restricted his focus to police forces and left the courts and prisons for another essay. Despite this, McCrie does an expert job in providing the historical evidence for a tradition of public and private solutions to criminal justice in the United States for at least the last three hundred years (McCrie 23).

Works Cited

Dalton, Daniel R. Security Management: Business Strategies for Success. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. 1-37.

Internal Revenue Services. Financial Investigations: A Financial Approach to Detecting and Resolving Crimes. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION.

Keller, Kimberley S. "Securing Security Expert Testimony: Overcoming the Daubert Challenge to Reach the Witness Stand." Security Journal 17.3 (2004): 21-29.

McCrie, Robert. "Three Centuries of Criminal Justice Privatization in the United States."…… [read more]


Criminal Justice Term Paper

… http://www.state.nj.us/lps/dcj/home.htm

The New Jersey Division of Criminal Justice Web Site is also a comprehensive Web Site meant for a variety of users. It uses a lot of graphics to break up the pages and make the reading more interesting, and it is very easy to navigate, even if it does seem a bit crowded at times. There is a lot of information here to digest, from Megan's Law to Bullying, and Identity Theft. This is the kind of Web Site that would take several visits to see everything, because it might even seem a little overwhelming at first glance. For example, the Law Enforcement Resources section has news releases in addition to thirteen different sections with information on everything from Drug Testing to Other Resources. Clearly, it takes a long time to wade through all these resources. Some of them might be very valuable, but you might miss them during the first or even the second visit to this site. This site might contain too much information in one place, and might need to be broken down into smaller sites that had the same information, but might be less intimidating to the user. This was probably the most difficult of all the Web Sites to understand and navigate in one or even two visits. http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/nj_overview.htm

This Overview page of the New Jersey Courts is helpful and informative, and acts as a gateway to the rest of the very comprehensive information on the site. It includes links to several important topics such as, "A Walk Through the Judicial Process," the different courts, and the "2000-2001 Annual Report of the NJ Judiciary." Clearly, this is another Web Site designed for use by many different people, from the general public to criminal justice professionals and even the accused. This page is clear, easy to navigate, and states the court's purposes distinctly and in easy to read terms. It also says the court system in New Jersey is one of the simplest in the nation, and that the people of New Jersey have the final say in their courts. I learned a lot about the court system just by reading this page, and this is an excellent example of how to break a complicated process down so the public can understand it easily.… [read more]

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