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Detection of the Borna Disease

[Author not available 2003] BDV and Neuropsychiatric Disease reason for renewed interest and research into the pathogenesis and characteristics of the BDV is the possibility recently discovered of the BDV being an etiological factor in human behavioral disorders as well. [Jurgen 1997] Numerous scientific studies are being done to accumulate evidence to clarify this issue. One study showed that 10-15%…

Pages: 20  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Blood Diseases and Disorders There

Blood cells disorders that affect the white blood cells always occur as a result of the presence of too many white blood cells or when the cells are few. Lymphoma is a form of blood cancer that occurs in an individual's lymph system making white blood cells to become malevolent while increasing and spreading abnormally. While leukemia also makes white blood cells to become malignant, they multiply in the bone marrow. Myelodysplastic syndrome is a form of blood cancer affecting the bone marrow, which can suddenly develop into leukemia. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that causes the plasma cell to become malignant and increase while releasing substances with the potential of causing organ damage. Other examples of white blood cells disorders include basophilic and eosinophilic conditions. Platelets Blood Disorders: These are also among the most commonly known blood-clotting disorders and include thrombocytopenia, herapin-induced thrombocytopenia, and essential thrombocytosis. Similar to thrombocytopenia, herapin-induced thrombocytopenia is not only caused by the presence of few platelets in the blood but also because of reactions against herapin. The essential trombocytosis occurs when the body produces many platelets that don't work properly because of an unknown reason resulting in excessive bleeding and clotting (Chang, 2010). Plasma Cell Blood Disorders: Plasma cell blood disorders can develop in an individual when the fluid segment of the blood grows to a situation where it can only produce one kind of antibody. When these plasma cells can't function properly, the body loses the ability to defend itself against infectious microorganisms. Some of the most common blood disorders that occur from the improper functioning of plasma cells include hemophilia, sepsis, and Von Willebrand disease. While sepsis is an infection that spreads into the blood, both hemophilia and von Willebrand disease occurs due to deficiency of particular proteins that help the blood to clot. Conclusion: Medical science has currently divided blood diseases and disorders into various categories with many of these conditions being treatable through medication and other procedures that don't necessarily involve pharmaceutical drugs. However, the treatment of these diseases and disorders is solely based on the condition of the blood and its severity. References: Chang, L. (2010, August 10). Types of Blood Disorders. Retrieved August 31, 2011, from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/blood-disorder-types-and-treatment?page=3 Thomas, M. (2009, September 11). A Summary of Blood Disorders. Retrieved August 31, 2011, from http://www.articletrader.com/health/a-summary-of-blood-disorders.html…

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Alzheimer's Disease Is a Neuro-Degenerative Disorder That

Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative disorder that currently affects close to 4 million people in the United States (National Institutes of Health). By 2025, the number of Alzheimer's cases is expected to increase by 44% in the United States (Alzheimer's Association, Fact Sheet). From the onset of symptoms, Alzheimer's disease can last from 30 to 20 years (Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's).…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Contagious Disease and Its Impact on Society

Contagious Disease and Its Impact on Society The movie Outbreak chronicles the fictional events of an ebola-like virus, known as Motaba, which is contracted from an African monkey which has been illegally smuggled into the United States and spreads within a town known as Cedar Creek (Petersen, 1995). Ebola, a member of the family Filoviridae, is a highly lethal virus whose infection is characterized by the onset of hemorrhagic fever (Cavendish, 2007; Groseth, Feldmann, & Strong, 2007; Preston, 2009). Among the symptoms of ebola infection are extensive hemorrhaging internally and from external orifices and severe fever, headache, and general confusion (Cavendish, 2007; Preston, 2009). Due to the high lethality of Ebola, up to 90%, and the lack of available treatments, it is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent (Cavendish, 2007; Groseth et al., 2007; Preston, 2009). The spread of Ebola, and similarly the fictional Motaba virus, occur primarily through the interpersonal contact of blood and bodily fluids (Groseth et al., 2007; Petersen, 1995; Preston, 2009). The proximate origins of the Motaba virus in Outbreak are from the smuggled African monkey, whereas the origin of the real-life Ebola virus remains elusive (Groseth et al., 2007; Petersen, 1995; Snowden, 2008). The prevailing theory of Ebola's emergence within the human population is contraction from an infected animal host, most likely primate, although the specifics of the animal reservoir are unknown (Groseth et al., 2007; Preston, 2009; Snowden, 2008). The initial emergence of Ebola within Africa occurred during the mid-1970s in Sudan and Zaire, however the provenance is unclear (Groseth et al., 2007; Preston, 2009). Scientists have speculated that animal reservoirs, including chimpanzees, gorillas, and bats, may be sources for animal to human transmission as a result of fluid transfer, most likely from bites (Groseth et al., 2007; Preston, 2009). Potential for Disease Spread in United States The appearance and spread of a Level 4 contagion is a realistic concern in the modern world and within the United States. The possibility for an emergence of disease is additionally compounded by the prospect of terrorism and purposeful release of infectious agents, which itself may be facilitated by the celerity of modern travel (Preston, 2009; Snowden, 2008; Yassi, Kjellstrom, & Kok, 2001). Attempts to acquire Ebola and utilize it as a weaponized biological agent have already been made by certain terrorist groups in the past, specifically the Japanese Aum Shinrikyo group in the early 1990s…

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Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

These mobility deficits are difficult to treat with drugs or neurosurgery, yet physical therapy has the potential to improve these aspects by training patients in the use of pure or compensatory movement (Keus et al., 2007, p. 453). Clinical trials settled for six targeted areas of focus during physical therapy for antiparkinsonian purposes, namely transfers, posture, reaching and grasping, balance,…

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Benefits of Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks

¶ … allopathic medicine outweigh the risks? The risks and benefits of allopathic medicine Introduction definition of allopathic medicine is: "The system of medical practice which treats disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the disease under treatment." (Definition of Allopathic medicine) Allopathic medicine is also known as formal or conventional medicine and…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 10


Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease When Atheromatous

Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease When atheromatous plaques accumulate within the coronary artery walls, the end result is usually coronary artery disease (CAD). The affected coronary arteries supply both nutrients and oxygen to the myocardium. In this text, I discuss the pathophysiology of CAD. The Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Risk/Etiology The risk factors of CAD according to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007) include excessive alcohol intake, diabetes, inadequate vegetable and fruit consumption, hypertension, cigarette smoking and old age. Other risk factors include but are not limited to lack of physical exercise and C-reactive protein (Marshal Cavendish Corporation 2007). Incidence According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), since the 1960s, the incidence of CAD has been on a steady decline in the U.S. Some of the factors that have contributed to this decline include enhanced treatment of the same and better control of risk factors. CDC (2011) further notes that in the period between 2006 and 2010, there was an overall decline of CAD from 6.7% to 6.0% in the U.S. In regard to education, sex and age group categories; similar declines were observed. Pathology According to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007), CAD is caused by the formation of plaques (within the coronary artery walls) as a result of the buildup of particles including but not limited to cellular debris and fatty substances. The starting point of CAD is usually during adolescence with maturation (slow) of the same occurring through adulthood. However, the prevalence of risk factors (identified above) may accelerate the maturation of the disease. With the growth of atherosclerosis, proper blood flow to the heart muscles (and hence oxygen and nutrients) is obstructed. Signs and Symptoms According to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007), chest pain is the most common symptom of CAD. Other symptoms include but are not limited to increase in heart rate (modest); back, jaw and shoulder pains;……

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Effects of Brilliant Blue G. On Spinal Cord Injury

¶ … Brilliant Blue G. On spinal cord injury The spinal cord is the thick elongated bundle of nervous tissues, which is enclosed within the vertebral column or spine and extends from the base of the brain to the rest of the body (Laberge 2010). Its chief function is to carry nerve impulses between the brain and the rest of…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10


Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Etiology

Endoscopy allows direct visual inspection of the esophageal lining. Another method used to diagnose GERD is the placement of a probe that measures the acidity in the esophagus. The probe stays in place for a couple of days, while a computer worn around the waist records the acid readings. Symptoms The prototypical symptoms of GERD are heartburn, which is a burning sensation in the center of the chest. Another common symptom is regurgitation of stomach acid or stomach contents into the mouth or throat. The strongest predictors of GERD have been shown to be chest pain and nocturnal cough, although chest pain can result from a number of other causes and is therefore not very useful diagnostically. Other symptoms common to GERD include hoarseness, chronic cough, chronic bronchitis, and dental erosions. Treatment There are a number of over the counter medications that are used to treat GERD, including Maaloz, Mylanta, Gelusil, Rolaids, and Tums. These antacids provide instant relief, but cannot help reduce esophageal inflammation. H2-receptor antagonists, or blockers, provide slow-acting, long-term relief by reducing stomach acid production. Common H2-receptor antagonists include Tagamet HB (cimetidine), Pepcid AC (famotidine), Axid AR (nizatidine), and Zantac (ranitidine). Proton pump inhibitors also provide relief by inhibiting stomach acid production, and include Prevacid (lansoprazole) and Prilosec (omeprazole). Although all of these medications are can be obtained over-the-counter, but stronger doses can be obtained with a prescription. Other treatment options include corrective surgery or medications to strengthen the diaphragm. References Lacy, Brian E., Weiser, Kirsten, Chertoff, Jocelyn, Fass, Ronnie, Pandolfino, John E., Richter, Joel E. et al. (2010). The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. American Journal of Medicine, 123, 583-592. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011). GERD. MayoClinic.com. Retrieved 29 Mar. 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/gerd/DS00967. GERD…

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Stress Each of Us Has

The most common sign indicating that stress affects the cardiovascular system is the fast beating of the heart. Researches indicate that relaxation is an effective remedy on the effects of stress on cardiovascular system. One of which is breathing exercises. This serves as a preventive measure that helps the cardiovascular system control high blood pressure and the effects of stress.…

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Characteristics and Potential Applications of Stem Cell

Stem cells are non-specializing cells that can be defined by the two very specific properties which are the ability to differentiate into cells with other functions and the ability to self-regenerate. The zygote contains the most valuable of the stem cells and can reproduce as all cell types of a species as shown in Figure 1. Differentiation of Human Tissues…

Pages: 6  |  Assessment  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 20


Genetics Technology Where the Buck

The bottom line is that a patient's right to confidentiality need not be violated just to inform his relatives of his carrier status. The ethical principles of beneficence and patient autonomy impose that specific informed consent for disclosure to third parties. This specific consent also identifies the patient or person to whom the information may be revealed, the specific information…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Is a

This test, which looks for viral DNA is performed by collecting cells from the cervix and then sending them to a laboratory for analysis. The test can detect high-risk types of HPV even before there are any conclusive visible changes to the cervical cells. How is HPV treated? HPV cannot be cured, but the warts can be treated. Although warts may go away on their own, the viruses can remain. If warts do not go away or if they recur, they may need treatment. The type of treatment depends on where the warts are on your body. Warts can be treated with medication applied to the area or surgery to remove them. If you have a lot of warts, or very large ones, your doctor may recommend that they be removed with surgery. Although all these treatments destroy the warts, the virus may still be in nearby tissue. It can produce new growths weeks or even months after the old ones are gone. You may then need more treatment. How can HPV be prevented? The only way to prevent contracting HPV is to avoid the virus altogether. The chances of contracting HPV can be reduced by not having sex or by using spermicides (substances that kill sperm). Sperm is the male sex cell that joins with the female egg to produce offspring. Reducing or avoiding risky sexual activity (such as reducing the number of sex partners) can decrease the chance of developing HPV. Having sex with condoms made of latex or polyurethane may decrease the risk of developing conditions related to HPV, such as genital warts and cervical cancer. Latex and polyurethane are two substances that help make flexible materials. Condoms do not offer full protection from HPV because the virus may be found on parts of the body that is not protected by the condom, such as the anus. However, they may reduce the risk of getting HPV when used correctly and consistently. Condom use has also been associated with decreased risk for diseases related to HPV, such as cervical cancer. Doctors recommend that people avoid having contact with partners that have genital warts, until the warts are treated. This can decrease the chance of getting HPV. It is important to mention that going to a doctor for regular check-up can easily prevent cervical cancer, which is one of the possible results of HPV infection. References Anderson, N. And…

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Viruses Are a Stubborn Mechanism of Spreading

Viruses are a stubborn mechanism of spreading disease. Viruses rarely die off, but rather go dormant for periods of time only to emerge and spread causing pandemics for new generations of people. Such is the case with the H1N1 or swine flu. This virus was originally discovered in humans in 1918 where it was also discovered to be able to mutate rapidly causing further global pandemics in both 1957 and 1968 (Girard, 2010). This virus, which originated in swine, traveled from Europe where it had been common among animals for centuries (Girard, 2010). Since then, it has adapted to humans and caused multiple pandemics through its unique ability to adapt and combine with other virus strains (Michaelis, 2009). It is exceptionally rare for a virus to mutate from animals to humans. In fact, it is a very complex adaptation that a virus must make. The primary reason, according to disease specialists as to why this happens, is the presence of the virus is concentrated amounts of animals, specifically commercially farmed animals (Schmidt, 2009). The theory is that under such tight conditions, viruses spread rapidly and mutate just as rapidly, reinfecting the same animals over and over again. After awhile, those working with the animals are exposed to the virus so many times that the virus finally picks up enough human DNA to mutate and move into a new host (Schmidt, 2009). Once this happens, the virus is able to spread quickly among people, who have zero immunity to this new viral strain (Schmidt, 2009). The strangest thing about the swine flu as opposed to other viruses is that it has remained stored in pigs and continually reoccurs, causing repeated outbreaks in humans, but causing little, if any, effects in pigs……

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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Treat the

¶ … Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Treat the Severe Neurological Disorder Angelman Syndrome With Additional Theoretical Application to Treating Other Neurological Disorders Concepts, Issues, and Definitions Statement of General Topic Area: Neurological Disorders and Stem Cell Treatment Angelman Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research Possibilities for therapeutic cross-over benefit to other Neurological Disorders Animal Model for Testing Potential Therapeutic…

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Stem Cell Research and Testing Stem Cell

Stem Cell Research and Testing Stem Cell Research The field of Stem cell research has come out of its first phase of research to the current phase where researchers are trying to harness its efficacy in the areas of regenerative medicine that could alter our entire approach to the management of degenerative diseases. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are…

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Diabetes Mellitus Is One of the Most

Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most important and common chronic diseases found in humans. The disease has foundational consequences for the body and the mind and seriously affects society in general in both direct and indirect ways. Millions of people have diabetes mellitus and many more are likely to develop it as the years go by, risk factors increase in prevalence and as more people manage the disease and successfully have children. Another reason why diabetes is important is because the majority of medical care that is provided for the disease is self administered and therefore at high risk of patient noncompliance. Diabetes is one of the most common of the chronic medical disorders and is expected to present one of the twenty-first century's biggest medical challenges. The number of people with diabetes is escalating both in the UK and world wide and type 2 diabetes in particular is increasing at an alarming rate. & #8230;in diabetes, patients deliver over 95 per cent of their own care. (Clark, 2004, p. ix) Diabetes like many other chronic diseases will increasingly demand the attention of the medical community and the community at large as the disease grows in prevalence and incidence, in many ways due almost entirely too so called lifestyle choices that high risk individuals make that increase the odds of occurrence (the most important being overeating and obesity). (Silink, Kida & Rosenbloom, 2003, p. 2) Definition and Prevalence Diabetes Mellitus is a profound medical disorder that involves the reduction of or absence of the ability of specialized cells in the pancreas (islets of Langerhans) to produce insulin. Insulin is the main hormone responsible for the body's cellular ability to utilize and break down glucose, the sugar that fuels nearly all cells of the body. Lack of effective or available insulin then disallows glucose, the end result of nearly all the foods we eat to be taken from the blood stream and used as cellular fuel. (Clark, 2004, p. ix) the limited cellular fuel use as well as the buildup of excess glucose in the blood stream both result in profound functional impairment and over a long-term can result in permanent physical degradation. In cases of profound absence of insulin even over the short-term, such as is the case when the pancreas simply stops producing insulin death can result, relatively rapidly. The prevalence of Diabetes of three particular types type…

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Autism Is, if Not the

One research has observed that production of ATP, NADH, and NADPH was abnormal and much lower than regular levels in subjects that have been diagnosed with autism (Lee, Wondra). Other studies face indicated impairment in the production of various proteins and amino acids within the body. There have been observations that those diagnosed with autism have "impaired methylation, decreased glutathione, and oxidative stress," and that the studies also pinpoint that these nutritional supplements are beneficial for the body; therefore, abnormal production of such supplements causes the body to degenerate (Lee, Wondra). In one joint U.S. And Canada study, 8% to as much as 16% of those diagnosed with autism were found to be anemic. Low levels of plasma and vitamin supplements can further be detrimental to those diagnosed with autism, for the lack of protein production can lead to the abnormal formation of synaptic works within the neural pathways of the brain. The disorder can greatly unbalance the part of the brain that connect neurons to other parts of the brain; motor reflexes and inhibitive reflexes can be as affected as other parts of the body. While there is still no definitive, understandable link between the neurochemical depletion and autism, there is clearly a correlation among the studies showcased (Lee, Wondra). There have been many plans to manage individuals with autism, though there is no single treatment that works best. Many suggest tailored treatment on that afflicted individual. Resources Klin, Ami. Autism and Asperger syndrome: an overview. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. [online]. 2006, vol.28, suppl.1 [cited 2011-12-02], pp. s3-s11 . Available from: . ISSN 1516-4446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462006000500002. Wondra Lee, et al. "Nutritional And Metabolic Status Of Children With Autism Vs. Neurotypical Children, And The Association With Autism Severity." Nutrition & Metabolism 8.1 (2011): 34-65.Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Dec. 2011.…

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Trauma Is Considered as 'Mental

It is a disturbance of emotional adaptation. The symptoms of Neurosis include many emotional and mental changes. The symptoms of Neurosis is generally so widespread among people that it is considered often more proper today to speak of them as to their degree of presence or as to the degree of resulting disability than merely as to their strict presence…

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Racial and Ethnic Approaches to

Thus it is a very important public health function to remove these differences. For this purpose, providers and services must be stationed in underserved minority community areas to expand and maintain the efforts. Partnerships must be built up at all levels, and these include public and private providers: public health department, hospitals, MCH programs, Ryan White programs, health centers, free…

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Stem Cells Without a Doubt,

"(Rosenberg) By this, Brandeis means that individual states should come up with their own laws regulating stem cell research and the therapies and treatments it can provide. In other words, the states would act as individual "laboratories," that can, through their experiences, develop precedents and protocols that can later be implemented nationally. Of course, ethical considerations are a part of…

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Alternative Approach to Computerized Tomography

One is that it actually summarized the findings of literature from a fairly lengthy time period -- there are references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N. Journal: Medical History Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60. Publisher Information: Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a cursory history of the method of English forensic pathology employed in the early part of the 20th century. The authors do so within the larger context of contrasting the notion of a celebrated forensic pathologist with the concept of conventional forensic pathology within a laboratory. It essentially reenacts the homicide investigation of a famed murder trial. There is no hypothesis, research question or sample. I reviewed this article because it is fascinating to see how far the science of forensic pathology has come. Abstract: This article provides a thorough review of an early 20th century murder investigation in England to denote the key concept of putrefaction and celebrity status of forensic pathologists that was relevant at the time. Analysis and Synthesis: There are several principle ideas deconstructed within this article. One is the way that fame and celebrity status of a forensic pathologist can affect a murder trial, and the overarching view of this practice and profession. Another is the nature of this process, specifically the impact of the natural decay of the human body (once deceased) on the work of a forensic pathologist. Additionally, this article examines the evolution of the practice of forensic pathology from one based on the individual to one based on a process (which is more scientific than the former). In this respect, this work functions as a check for forensic pathologists and that for the profession in general. Individuals should never consider themselves more valuable than the process of this practice, and should make no assumptions. Finally, this article emphasizes the inherent dangers in this field related to convicting innocent…

Pages: 7  |  Article Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Periodontal Health Definition of Calculus (Supra Gingival

¶ … Periodontal Health Definition of Calculus (Supra Gingival and Subgingival) Implications of the Removal of Dental Calculus Periodontal Health Can be Established without Removal of Dental Calculus Maintaining periodontal health is important for a number of reasons. Left untreated, periodontitis has been shown to have a wide range of adverse healthcare outcomes, including increased incidences of cardiovascular disease and…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 15


John Kellys "The Great Mortality"

The notary from Piacenza writes about the attack with human corpses that were thrown by the Mongols lead by Khan Janibeg, cadavers that were bringing the virus to the healthy people in the town. Their response was to pray and hope that God will punish the infidels and keep them safe. Kelly further explains that even if de'Mussins' accounts of the Mongol attack on the Geneoese were fabricated, the epidemic might have had different means of spreading, like the rats who were traveling easily throughout the town and making the contamination a matter of days. Hazard made Caffa to be the town where hell broke loose upon the attack of the Monglos and the Europens who fled in horror brought hell along to Europe. Kelly underlines that what the European historians called the Black Death "has killed an estimated two hundred million people, and no outbreak of plague has claimed as man victims or caused as much anguish and sorrow as the Black Death" (The Great Mortality, p. 11). How this might have happened is what Kelly is attempting to find out, by closely examining the conditions that converged toward the spread of the bacillus in such a short time on such a huge scale. Kelly examines the historic records from the times associated with the spread of the pest along the century and indicates a pattern: violent manifestations of the environment appear to accompany the epochs when the pest attacked regions in Europe or in Asia. There is not enough evidence though to conclude that the bacillus causing the pest is fond of environmental instability, but the historic records are often describing natural calamities close to the key moment of the spread of the bubonic disease in both Asia and Europe. As previously mentioned, another factor that contributed to the successful contamination of two continents, placing them under the threat of being wiped out was warfare. Kelly point out the not even when the plague was at its worst moments in Europe, people did not cease to wage war against one another and give the example of Cola di Rienzo, he calls "possibly the silliest man in Europe" (The Great Mortality, xvi). War lives behind many conditions that encourage the spread of a virus or a bacillus and vehicles like rats and insects, polluted waters and bad air are all thriving in the aftermath of a battle. Kelly analyses…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 1


Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure happens when the heart is unable to pump sufficient oxygen to the body in order to meet its needs (Kulick et al. 2007, Drug Digest 2007). It can be caused by diseases, which weaken or stiffen the heart muscles or increase oxygen demand by any tissue in the body beyond what the heart can deliver. The right…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 15


Treatment Approaches to Autism the Purpose of

Treatment Approaches to Autism The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of autism. Specifically it will discuss the disease and treatment approaches to the disease. Autism is a disease that has no cure, even though research is working on understanding and thus curing the disease. It affects one in every 150 individuals, making it one…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 10


Southeast Asia There Seems to

In several public statements, World Health Organization officials have explained the difficulty of making any kind of estimate about the death toll of a pandemic from a transformed avian influenza, they have composed studied estimates that range from two million to one hundred million and have also explained the difficulties of creating a vaccine against a rapidly morphing virus" (Stewart Pp). Thus, even at the low end, a pandemic could have devastating global effects (Stewart Pp). Mart Stewart writes that "while it has received scant news coverage in the United States, avian flu in Asia (or anywhere else) is potentially a global event and one with larger consequences than any modern disaster since the 1918 pandemic" (Stewart Pp). The December 2004 tsunami that devastated parts of Southeast Asia have been the focus of global media attention for some months now. Recently former presidents Bill Clinton and George H. Bush left on a tour of the effected regions (Torchia Pp). Clinton remarked that "It's almost impossible to appreciate the scope of this if you haven't physically seen it," and estimated that it would take three to five years to complete the reconstruction effort (Torchia Pp). In its biggest military operation in Southeast Asia since the Vietnam War, the United States has deployed a carrier battle group and twenty helicopters for relief operations off Aceh's western coast (Torchia Pp). Moreover, Washington has pledged some $950 million for relief efforts for the countries hit by the tsunami (Torchia Pp). In fact, relief from governments and private citizens has poured in from around the globe In this modern age of global communication, global travel and global economy, there is little that happens anywhere in the world that does not in some way effect others. However, at the present moment, virus transmission appears to be the most disturbing element of Southeast Asia. Works Cited Torchia, Christopher. "Bush, Clinton Reassured on Tsunami Aid" AP Online; 2/20/2005; Pp. Stewart, Mart; Lan, Ly. "Avian Flu Takes Wing in Southeast Asia." Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA); 2/11/2005; Pp. Security Situation in Southeast Asia Favorable." ITAR-TASS; 3/13/2002; Pp. Palmer, Ronald D. "Terrorism in Southeast……

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Pathophysiology of Pain Is a

Although science has not yet proved the exact reason for referred pain, it is largely believed that it is not central convergence mechanism, wherein the dorsal horn neurons diverge within the deep tissue. It is hypothesized that nociceptive input from the skeletal muscles refer to myotomes outside the areas of origin and are spread by central sensitization to spinal segments near the origin point. Diagnosis: In terms of diagnosis, the most important thing is to locate the underlying cause for the pain, whether it is acute, chronic, or referred (Woessner 2013). First, muscles, nerves, and tissues near the area of pain will be examined to determine if there is a direct cause of pain which can be linked to the patient. If this is not possible, then further examination and testing must be undertaken. Acute pain is rarely, if ever, diagnosed as the sole problem of a patient because of the understanding that there must be a correlation between pain and causation. Referred pain also requires a cause for the discomfort and diagnosis of pain in and of itself is not acceptable in this context. Rather, the source for the pain must be ascertained for treatment. This is less true with chronic disease and chronic pain because in certain cases the pain itself is a disease, such as fibromyalgia. Prescription of Treatment: Acute pain is usually treated with medications such as anti-inflammatory medication, narcotics like morphine or codeine, and acetaminophen (Acute 2008). In addition, acute pain can be treated by holistic methods such as acupuncture or relaxation techniques. It can also be treated with more invasive treatments like surgery. In referred pain, a similar course is usually undertaken. The priority is upon finding the cause for the pain and in treating that cause moreso than treating the pain for itself. Works Cited Acute vs. chronic pain. (2008). Cleveland Clinic: Cleveland, OH. Fink, W.A. (2005, May). The pathophysiology of acute pain. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 23(2). 277-84. Understanding pain. (2013). Pain Care Clinic: London, England. Vecchiet, L., Vecchiet, J., & Giamberardino, M.A. (1999). Referred muscle pain: clinical and pathophysiologic aspects. Current Review of Pain. 3(6). 489-98. Woessner, J. (2013). Referred pain vs. origin of pain pathology: understanding the organic and physiological patterns of referred pain helps to identify the true origin of pathology and inform proper treatment. Practical Pain Management. Vertical Health Media. Woolf, C.J. & Doubell, T.P. (1999,…

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Polycystic Kidney Disease (Pkd) Is

Drowsiness, joint pain and nail abnormalities are other symptoms that may happen with PKD ("Polycystic Kidney Disease"). Treatment Even though autosomal dominant PKD has no cure, proper treatment of this genetic disease can relieve symptoms and make life longer. Cyst infection, bleeding, kidney stone etc. can cause pain in the kidney area. At first, the doctor will assess the causes that are contributing to the pain in order to direct the patient about treatment. If it is evaluated as chronic pain due to the enlargement of cyst, over-the-counter pain medications (aspirin or acetaminophen) may be initially suggested by the doctor. If the pain is severe, it can be relieved by the means of surgery (for shrinking cysts). It must be noted that surgery may only provide an impermanent relief and does not reduce the progression speed of the disease toward kidney failure ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 4). The urinary tract infections due to autosomal dominant PKD can be treated with antibiotics. Urinary tract infections can cause cyst infections which are difficult to treat as a lot of antibiotics do not make a way into the cysts for curing them. The effects of autosomal dominant PKD can be slowed down by keeping blood pressure under control. High blood pressure can be kept under control by changing the lifestyle and taking a variety of medications. In many cases, blood pressure can be kept under control just by taking proper diet and doing proper exercise ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 4). Thus, the main goal of treatment is controlling PKD symptoms and preventing complications. Although it is not an easy task to control the high blood pressure, controlling it is the most imperative part of PKD cure. There may also be a need of removing one or both kidneys through surgery. Moreover, end-stage kidney disease may be treated by dialysis or a kidney transplant ("Polycystic Kidney Disease"). Method(s) of Prevention At present, there is no treatment that can put a stop to the formation or enlargement of cysts ("Polycystic Kidney Disease"). Directions for Future Research The scientists today have been able to recognize the processes that activate the PKD cysts formation. The field of genetics has advanced tremendously due to which the understanding concerning the abnormal genes that are responsible for autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive PKD has increased. Recently, researchers have been successful in discovering quite a lot of compounds that have emerged to slow…

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Diseases West Nile Virus, Malaria,

During these outbreaks, hungry infected fleas that have lost their normal hosts seek other sources of blood..." ("Plague," 2004). The first sign of plague is a hot, swollen, and painful lymph node called a "bubo." The swollen node is often accompanied by fever, headache, and exhaustion. These symptoms usually begin about two to six days after the person is exposed…

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Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and Illnesses Are

Foodborne Illness Foodborne diseases and illnesses are becoming increasing severe and widespread in the world. This type of illness is defined by the World Health Organization ( WHO) as follows: "Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Every person is at risk…

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Cell Injury & Death, Thrombosis & Embolism,

Cell Injury & Death, Thrombosis & Embolism, Cell Function in relation to Inflammation, Causes & Course of Inflammation The human body may pose natural responses to external and internal influences, such as trauma, infection, poisoning, and loss of blood flow, autoimmunity, or errors of development. Pathology is looking at the way in which the body's responses to injury, while evolved…

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Hemophilia the Most Common Genetic Bleeding Disorder

Hemophilia The most common genetic bleeding disorder is von Willebrand Disease, which affects roughly 3% of the world's population including all genders and races, and which is determined by a gene on chromosome 12, although occasionally it occurs as a new mutation (Curry 2004). Other inherited bleeding disorders, such as platelet or fibrinogen dysfunctions are extremely rare, and most have…

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Alzheimer's Disease and Aging at What Age

Alzheimer's Disease And Aging At what age do people start to get Alzheimer's? Alzheimer disease (AD) usually does not start until around 65 years of age or older. It is characterized by gradually worsening dementia (forgetfulness) caused by cerebral atrophy (deterioration). It is the most common form of dementia. Fewer than 2% of families with AD have early-onset familial AD…

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Sexual Transmitted Disease

Sexually Transmitted Disease Sexual Transmitted Disease Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) refers to illnesses or infections that are spread through human sexual behaviors and are also known as venereal disease or sexually transmitted infections. These diseases usually occur through a variety of ways including anal sex, vaginal intercourse and oral sex with the most common means being through sexual intercourse with…

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Paget's Disease of Bone James

Diet is also an important part of health and is especially important if a patient is being treated with pharmaceutical agents such as bisphosphonates. Increasing a patient's intake of Calcium and Vitamin D is another extremely important factor for the uptake of calcium which strengthens bones. And finally, maintaining mobility and bone strength is essential for a patient with Paget's disease, and nothing can do that better than regular exercise. While some activities could be harmful, consulting a doctor and fitness specialist can help in developing a program of exercise that is optimal. Paget's disease of bone is a disease that interferes with the normal biological processes of bone tissue, causing a number of adverse effects which could include things from abnormal bone growth to lesions and fractures. While there are some treatments for Paget's, these treatments deal mostly with the pain associated with the disease, as well as chemical agents which help regulate bone growth. Despite these treatments, there is really no successful way to deal with the chronic complications associated with the disease. While a patient's pain can be eased, and the symptoms of the disease delayed, there simply is no cure currently available for patients with Paget's disease of bone. Works Cited Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. Daroszewska, Anna, and Stuart H. Ralston. "Mechanisms of Disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders." Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 2.5 (2006): 270+. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. Flowers, W. Mel, Jr. "Radiological signs of Paget's disease." Southern Medical Journal (Oct. 2004): p. S34. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. Leach, Robin J. And Frederick R. Singer "Do all Paget disease risk genes incriminate the osteoclast?" Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 6.9 (Sept. 2010): p502. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. Seton, Margaret. "Diagnosis, complications and……

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Autistic Spectrum Disorders and the

(Autism FAQ - Similar Conditions) There is another disease called LKS Landau-Kleffner syndrome which is also called acquired childhood epileptic aphasia. This is a very rare disorder and the patients show normal development and age appropriate language development for the age up to 7 years; then loses receptive language though retains some expressive language; the speech becomes 'telegraphic' with the…

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Alzheimer's Disease While Most People Know Someone

Alzheimer's Disease While most people know someone who has a family member with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), most people still have little idea about what causes it. Indeed, because there is no definitive method of even diagnosing AD until after the patient dies and the condition of the brain can be assessed post-mortem, even the medical profession has had a difficult…

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Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders

Autoimmune Disorders Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders Autoimmune disorders: The influence of genetics in contracting systemic lupus (SLE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Lupus is a little-understood illness and few fully effective treatments exist to deal with its consequences. "Lupus is a chronic (long-term) disease that causes inflammation -- pain and swelling. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, nervous system and other organs of the body. Most patients feel fatigue and have rashes, arthritis (painful and swollen joints) and fever" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology). Lupus is caused by a misfiring of the body's immune system. Usually, the body reacts to foreign bodies such as germs or cancer by making antibodies. In the case of lupus, instead of attacking these negative outside forces, the body attacks its own tissues, leading to inflammation. "As the attack goes on, other immune cells join the fight. This leads to inflammation and abnormal blood vessels (vasculitis). These antibodies then end up in cells in organs, where they damage those tissues" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology). The cause of lupus is as-yet undetermined, but it has a clear genetic component. African-Americans and Asians are far more likely to exhibit symptoms. There also may be a hormonal component, given that women are ten times more likely to be affected than men. However, genetics alone cannot explain the disorder and various environmental triggers seem to bring on attacks, including "viruses, sunlight and drug allergies. People with lupus may also have an impaired process for clearing old and damaged cells from the body, which causes an abnormal immune response" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology). Further complicating the study of lupus is that the symptoms tend to wax and wane, and vary considerably in severity from person to person: some patients' symptoms can be managed by standard NSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories) while others may require more intensive treatment with corticosteroids. Lupus cannot be cured: it can only be managed. Likewise, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a little-understood condition which can be understood as a misfiring of the body's immune system,……

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Krabbe Disease Genetic Components of

The only known treatment that has some effect on the progression of the disease is a bone marrow or cord blood transplant. The healthy cells received in the transplant can make the GALC enzyme which was missing in the body. Though it has serious risks and is not an option for all patients, a transplant can be life- saving and prevent severe disability for some people with GLD (Staff, 2011). Cord Blood Transfusion It has been seen that blood transfusion of blood stem cells which are taken form umbilical cord od any unrelated donor can play an important role in the reduction of neurological symptoms in infants. If this is done before the symptoms are appeared, it is possible that the child can maintain his/her vision and hearing ability. Treatment for Late on-set Form The people with late on-set Krabbe disease have benefited from treatment with umbilical cord blood stem cells, although this treatment has been most successful in pre-symptomatic patients with the early on-set form of the disease. In cases, where the treatment has been successful, neural deterioration is slowed and symptoms are less severe. Gene Therapy Gene therapy is a new method which attempts to provide working copies of genes to people with non-working copies. The DNA sequence of a working gene is placed into the person with an enzyme deficiency. Working enzyme would be made by the person's "new" cells and degrade whatever substance has been stored. Incidence and Longevity of the disease In the United States, Krabbe disease affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. A higher incidence (6 cases per 1,000 people) has been reported in a few isolated communities in Israel. The Early on-set form of Krabbe disease is usually fatal before the age of two. Those infants who receive cord blood stem cells before the appearance of symptoms have longer lifespans. Those with Late on-set Krabbe disease usually live between 2 and 7 years after the on-set of symptom. (Tegay, 2012) Socioeconomic Factors Taking care of a child with Krabbe disease is a very tough job. It is not possible to do it alone. One has to become a social outcast. Since it does not have a complete cure, therefore the person is completely dependent on others. Some children need therapy even if they get treatment. Some require blood transfusion, which puts an economic pressure too. The cost of treatment is high. It is…

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