Study "Disease / Virus / Disorder / Injury" Essays 1-55

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Detection of the Borna Disease Term Paper

… [Author not available 2003]

BDV and Neuropsychiatric Disease reason for renewed interest and research into the pathogenesis and characteristics of the BDV is the possibility recently discovered of the BDV being an etiological factor in human behavioral disorders as well.… [read more]

Blood Diseases and Disorders Research Paper

… Blood cells disorders that affect the white blood cells always occur as a result of the presence of too many white blood cells or when the cells are few. Lymphoma is a form of blood cancer that occurs in an individual's lymph system making white blood cells to become malevolent while increasing and spreading abnormally. While leukemia also makes white blood cells to become malignant, they multiply in the bone marrow. Myelodysplastic syndrome is a form of blood cancer affecting the bone marrow, which can suddenly develop into leukemia. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that causes the plasma cell to become malignant and increase while releasing substances with the potential of causing organ damage. Other examples of white blood cells disorders include basophilic and eosinophilic conditions.

Platelets Blood Disorders:

These are also among the most commonly known blood-clotting disorders and include thrombocytopenia, herapin-induced thrombocytopenia, and essential thrombocytosis. Similar to thrombocytopenia, herapin-induced thrombocytopenia is not only caused by the presence of few platelets in the blood but also because of reactions against herapin. The essential trombocytosis occurs when the body produces many platelets that don't work properly because of an unknown reason resulting in excessive bleeding and clotting (Chang, 2010).

Plasma Cell Blood Disorders:

Plasma cell blood disorders can develop in an individual when the fluid segment of the blood grows to a situation where it can only produce one kind of antibody. When these plasma cells can't function properly, the body loses the ability to defend itself against infectious microorganisms. Some of the most common blood disorders that occur from the improper functioning of plasma cells include hemophilia, sepsis, and Von Willebrand disease. While sepsis is an infection that spreads into the blood, both hemophilia and von Willebrand disease occurs due to deficiency of particular proteins that help the blood to clot.


Medical science has currently divided blood diseases and disorders into various categories with many of these conditions being treatable through medication and other procedures that don't necessarily involve pharmaceutical drugs. However, the treatment of these diseases and disorders is solely based on the condition of the blood and its severity.


Chang, L. (2010, August 10). Types of Blood Disorders. Retrieved August 31,

2011, from

Thomas, M. (2009, September 11). A Summary of Blood Disorders. Retrieved August

31, 2011, from [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Is a Neuro-Degenerative Disorder Term Paper

… Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative disorder that currently affects close to 4 million people in the United States (National Institutes of Health). By 2025, the number of Alzheimer's cases is expected to increase by 44% in the United States (Alzheimer's… [read more]

Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Term Paper

… These mobility deficits are difficult to treat with drugs or neurosurgery, yet physical therapy has the potential to improve these aspects by training patients in the use of pure or compensatory movement (Keus et al., 2007, p. 453).

Clinical trials… [read more]

Contagious Disease and Its Impact on Society Term Paper

… Contagious Disease and Its Impact on Society

The movie Outbreak chronicles the fictional events of an ebola-like virus, known as Motaba, which is contracted from an African monkey which has been illegally smuggled into the United States and spreads within… [read more]

Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease When Atheromatous Term Paper

… Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease

When atheromatous plaques accumulate within the coronary artery walls, the end result is usually coronary artery disease (CAD). The affected coronary arteries supply both nutrients and oxygen to the myocardium. In this text, I discuss the pathophysiology of CAD.

The Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)


The risk factors of CAD according to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007) include excessive alcohol intake, diabetes, inadequate vegetable and fruit consumption, hypertension, cigarette smoking and old age. Other risk factors include but are not limited to lack of physical exercise and C-reactive protein (Marshal Cavendish Corporation 2007).


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), since the 1960s, the incidence of CAD has been on a steady decline in the U.S. Some of the factors that have contributed to this decline include enhanced treatment of the same and better control of risk factors. CDC (2011) further notes that in the period between 2006 and 2010, there was an overall decline of CAD from 6.7% to 6.0% in the U.S. In regard to education, sex and age group categories; similar declines were observed.


According to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007), CAD is caused by the formation of plaques (within the coronary artery walls) as a result of the buildup of particles including but not limited to cellular debris and fatty substances. The starting point of CAD is usually during adolescence with maturation (slow) of the same occurring through adulthood. However, the prevalence of risk factors (identified above) may accelerate the maturation of the disease. With the growth of atherosclerosis, proper blood flow to the heart muscles (and hence oxygen and nutrients) is obstructed.

Signs and Symptoms

According to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007), chest pain is the most common symptom of CAD. Other symptoms include but are not limited to increase in heart rate (modest); back, jaw and shoulder pains;… [read more]

Benefits of Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks Term Paper

… ¶ … allopathic medicine outweigh the risks?

The risks and benefits of allopathic medicine

Introduction definition of allopathic medicine is: "The system of medical practice which treats disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced… [read more]

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Etiology Essay

… Endoscopy allows direct visual inspection of the esophageal lining. Another method used to diagnose GERD is the placement of a probe that measures the acidity in the esophagus. The probe stays in place for a couple of days, while a computer worn around the waist records the acid readings.


The prototypical symptoms of GERD are heartburn, which is a burning sensation in the center of the chest. Another common symptom is regurgitation of stomach acid or stomach contents into the mouth or throat. The strongest predictors of GERD have been shown to be chest pain and nocturnal cough, although chest pain can result from a number of other causes and is therefore not very useful diagnostically. Other symptoms common to GERD include hoarseness, chronic cough, chronic bronchitis, and dental erosions.


There are a number of over the counter medications that are used to treat GERD, including Maaloz, Mylanta, Gelusil, Rolaids, and Tums. These antacids provide instant relief, but cannot help reduce esophageal inflammation. H2-receptor antagonists, or blockers, provide slow-acting, long-term relief by reducing stomach acid production. Common H2-receptor antagonists include Tagamet HB (cimetidine), Pepcid AC (famotidine), Axid AR (nizatidine), and Zantac (ranitidine). Proton pump inhibitors also provide relief by inhibiting stomach acid production, and include Prevacid (lansoprazole) and Prilosec (omeprazole). Although all of these medications are can be obtained over-the-counter, but stronger doses can be obtained with a prescription. Other treatment options include corrective surgery or medications to strengthen the diaphragm.


Lacy, Brian E., Weiser, Kirsten, Chertoff, Jocelyn, Fass, Ronnie, Pandolfino, John E., Richter, Joel E. et al. (2010). The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. American Journal of Medicine, 123, 583-592.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011). GERD. Retrieved 29 Mar. 2011 from

GERD [read more]

Effects of Brilliant Blue G. On Spinal Cord Injury Thesis

… ¶ … Brilliant Blue G. On spinal cord injury

The spinal cord is the thick elongated bundle of nervous tissues, which is enclosed within the vertebral column or spine and extends from the base of the brain to the rest… [read more]

Stress Each of Us Term Paper

… The most common sign indicating that stress affects the cardiovascular system is the fast beating of the heart.

Researches indicate that relaxation is an effective remedy on the effects of stress on cardiovascular system. One of which is breathing exercises.… [read more]

Viruses Are a Stubborn Mechanism of Spreading Term Paper

… Viruses are a stubborn mechanism of spreading disease. Viruses rarely die off, but rather go dormant for periods of time only to emerge and spread causing pandemics for new generations of people. Such is the case with the H1N1 or swine flu. This virus was originally discovered in humans in 1918 where it was also discovered to be able to mutate rapidly causing further global pandemics in both 1957 and 1968 (Girard, 2010). This virus, which originated in swine, traveled from Europe where it had been common among animals for centuries (Girard, 2010). Since then, it has adapted to humans and caused multiple pandemics through its unique ability to adapt and combine with other virus strains (Michaelis, 2009).

It is exceptionally rare for a virus to mutate from animals to humans. In fact, it is a very complex adaptation that a virus must make. The primary reason, according to disease specialists as to why this happens, is the presence of the virus is concentrated amounts of animals, specifically commercially farmed animals (Schmidt, 2009). The theory is that under such tight conditions, viruses spread rapidly and mutate just as rapidly, reinfecting the same animals over and over again. After awhile, those working with the animals are exposed to the virus so many times that the virus finally picks up enough human DNA to mutate and move into a new host (Schmidt, 2009). Once this happens, the virus is able to spread quickly among people, who have zero immunity to this new viral strain (Schmidt, 2009). The strangest thing about the swine flu as opposed to other viruses is that it has remained stored in pigs and continually reoccurs, causing repeated outbreaks in humans, but causing little, if any, effects in pigs… [read more]

Genetics Technology Where the Buck Research Paper

… The bottom line is that a patient's right to confidentiality need not be violated just to inform his relatives of his carrier status. The ethical principles of beneficence and patient autonomy impose that specific informed consent for disclosure to third… [read more]

Characteristics and Potential Applications of Stem Cell Assessment

… Stem cells are non-specializing cells that can be defined by the two very specific properties which are the ability to differentiate into cells with other functions and the ability to self-regenerate. The zygote contains the most valuable of the stem… [read more]

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Term Paper

… This test, which looks for viral DNA is performed by collecting cells from the cervix and then sending them to a laboratory for analysis. The test can detect high-risk types of HPV even before there are any conclusive visible changes… [read more]

Alternative Approach to Computerized Tomography Article Review

… One is that it actually summarized the findings of literature from a fairly lengthy time period -- there are references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.

Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology

Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.

Journal: Medical History

Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.

Publisher Information:

Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a cursory history of the method of English forensic pathology employed in the early part of the 20th century. The authors do so within the larger context of contrasting the notion of a celebrated forensic pathologist with the concept of conventional forensic pathology within a laboratory. It essentially reenacts the homicide investigation of a famed murder trial. There is no hypothesis, research question or sample. I reviewed this article because it is fascinating to see how far the science of forensic pathology has come.

Abstract: This article provides a thorough review of an early 20th century murder investigation in England to denote the key concept of putrefaction and celebrity status of forensic pathologists that was relevant at the time.

Analysis and Synthesis: There are several principle ideas deconstructed within this article. One is the way that fame and celebrity status of a forensic pathologist can affect a murder trial, and the overarching view of this practice and profession. Another is the nature of this process, specifically the impact of the natural decay of the human body (once deceased) on the work of a forensic pathologist. Additionally, this article examines the evolution of the practice of forensic pathology from one based on the individual to one based on a process (which is more scientific than the former). In this respect, this work functions as a check for forensic pathologists and that for the profession in general. Individuals should never consider themselves more valuable than the process of this practice, and should make no assumptions. Finally, this article emphasizes the inherent dangers in this field related to convicting innocent people.

Implications: This article was highly enjoyable, not the least because of how well it was written with astute vocabulary and sentence structure compelling throughout its duration. Although there was no new research conducted, this article is extremely valuable for the history it provides regarding the field of forensic pathology and its evolution to today's methods, which are highly scientific and seem much more precise. The article was not flawed in any way, and actually could serve quite convincingly as a… [read more]

Autism Research Paper

… One research has observed that production of ATP, NADH, and NADPH was abnormal and much lower than regular levels in subjects that have been diagnosed with autism (Lee, Wondra). Other studies face indicated impairment in the production of various proteins and amino acids within the body. There have been observations that those diagnosed with autism have "impaired methylation, decreased glutathione, and oxidative stress," and that the studies also pinpoint that these nutritional supplements are beneficial for the body; therefore, abnormal production of such supplements causes the body to degenerate (Lee, Wondra). In one joint U.S. And Canada study, 8% to as much as 16% of those diagnosed with autism were found to be anemic.

Low levels of plasma and vitamin supplements can further be detrimental to those diagnosed with autism, for the lack of protein production can lead to the abnormal formation of synaptic works within the neural pathways of the brain. The disorder can greatly unbalance the part of the brain that connect neurons to other parts of the brain; motor reflexes and inhibitive reflexes can be as affected as other parts of the body. While there is still no definitive, understandable link between the neurochemical depletion and autism, there is clearly a correlation among the studies showcased (Lee, Wondra). There have been many plans to manage individuals with autism, though there is no single treatment that works best. Many suggest tailored treatment on that afflicted individual.


Klin, Ami. Autism and Asperger syndrome: an overview. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. [online]. 2006, vol.28, suppl.1 [cited 2011-12-02], pp. s3-s11 . Available from: . ISSN 1516-4446.

Wondra Lee, et al. "Nutritional And Metabolic Status Of Children With Autism Vs. Neurotypical Children, And The Association With Autism Severity." Nutrition & Metabolism 8.1 (2011): 34-65.Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Dec. 2011. [read more]

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Treat Research Proposal

… ¶ … Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Treat the Severe Neurological Disorder Angelman Syndrome

With Additional Theoretical Application to Treating Other Neurological Disorders

Concepts, Issues, and Definitions

Statement of General Topic Area: Neurological Disorders and Stem Cell Treatment

Angelman Syndrome… [read more]

Stem Cell Research and Testing Thesis

… Stem Cell Research and Testing

Stem Cell Research

The field of Stem cell research has come out of its first phase of research to the current phase where researchers are trying to harness its efficacy in the areas of regenerative… [read more]

Diabetes Mellitus Research Proposal

… Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most important and common chronic diseases found in humans. The disease has foundational consequences for the body and the mind and seriously affects society in general in both direct and indirect ways. Millions of… [read more]

Stem Cells Without a Doubt Term Paper

… "(Rosenberg) By this, Brandeis means that individual states should come up with their own laws regulating stem cell research and the therapies and treatments it can provide. In other words, the states would act as individual "laboratories," that can, through… [read more]

Racial and Ethnic Approaches Term Paper

… Thus it is a very important public health function to remove these differences. For this purpose, providers and services must be stationed in underserved minority community areas to expand and maintain the efforts. Partnerships must be built up at all… [read more]

Trauma Is Considered as 'Mental Term Paper

… It is a disturbance of emotional adaptation. The symptoms of Neurosis include many emotional and mental changes. The symptoms of Neurosis is generally so widespread among people that it is considered often more proper today to speak of them as… [read more]

Pathophysiology of Pain Essay

… Although science has not yet proved the exact reason for referred pain, it is largely believed that it is not central convergence mechanism, wherein the dorsal horn neurons diverge within the deep tissue. It is hypothesized that nociceptive input from the skeletal muscles refer to myotomes outside the areas of origin and are spread by central sensitization to spinal segments near the origin point.


In terms of diagnosis, the most important thing is to locate the underlying cause for the pain, whether it is acute, chronic, or referred (Woessner 2013). First, muscles, nerves, and tissues near the area of pain will be examined to determine if there is a direct cause of pain which can be linked to the patient. If this is not possible, then further examination and testing must be undertaken.

Acute pain is rarely, if ever, diagnosed as the sole problem of a patient because of the understanding that there must be a correlation between pain and causation. Referred pain also requires a cause for the discomfort and diagnosis of pain in and of itself is not acceptable in this context. Rather, the source for the pain must be ascertained for treatment. This is less true with chronic disease and chronic pain because in certain cases the pain itself is a disease, such as fibromyalgia.

Prescription of Treatment:

Acute pain is usually treated with medications such as anti-inflammatory medication, narcotics like morphine or codeine, and acetaminophen (Acute 2008). In addition, acute pain can be treated by holistic methods such as acupuncture or relaxation techniques. It can also be treated with more invasive treatments like surgery. In referred pain, a similar course is usually undertaken. The priority is upon finding the cause for the pain and in treating that cause moreso than treating the pain for itself.

Works Cited

Acute vs. chronic pain. (2008). Cleveland Clinic: Cleveland, OH.

Fink, W.A. (2005, May). The pathophysiology of acute pain. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 23(2). 277-84.

Understanding pain. (2013). Pain Care Clinic: London, England.

Vecchiet, L., Vecchiet, J., & Giamberardino, M.A. (1999). Referred muscle pain: clinical and pathophysiologic aspects. Current Review of Pain. 3(6). 489-98.

Woessner, J. (2013). Referred pain vs. origin of pain pathology: understanding the organic and physiological patterns of referred pain helps to identify the true origin of pathology and inform proper treatment. Practical Pain Management. Vertical Health Media.

Woolf, C.J. & Doubell, T.P. (1999, Aug.). The pathophysiology of chronic pain -- increased sensitivity to low threshold A beta-fibre inputs. Current Opinion in Neurobiology.… [read more]

Periodontal Health Definition of Calculus (Supra Gingival Essay

… ¶ … Periodontal Health

Definition of Calculus (Supra Gingival and Subgingival)

Implications of the Removal of Dental Calculus

Periodontal Health Can be Established without Removal of Dental Calculus

Maintaining periodontal health is important for a number of reasons. Left untreated,… [read more]

John Kellys "The Great Mortality Term Paper

… The notary from Piacenza writes about the attack with human corpses that were thrown by the Mongols lead by Khan Janibeg, cadavers that were bringing the virus to the healthy people in the town. Their response was to pray and… [read more]

Congestive Heart Failure Term Paper

… Congestive heart failure happens when the heart is unable to pump sufficient oxygen to the body in order to meet its needs (Kulick et al. 2007, Drug Digest 2007). It can be caused by diseases, which weaken or stiffen the… [read more]

Treatment Approaches to Autism Term Paper

… Treatment Approaches to Autism

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of autism. Specifically it will discuss the disease and treatment approaches to the disease. Autism is a disease that has no cure, even though… [read more]

Southeast Asia Term Paper

… In several public statements, World Health Organization officials have explained the difficulty of making any kind of estimate about the death toll of a pandemic from a transformed avian influenza, they have composed studied estimates that range from two million to one hundred million and have also explained the difficulties of creating a vaccine against a rapidly morphing virus" (Stewart Pp). Thus, even at the low end, a pandemic could have devastating global effects (Stewart Pp). Mart Stewart writes that "while it has received scant news coverage in the United States, avian flu in Asia (or anywhere else) is potentially a global event and one with larger consequences than any modern disaster since the 1918 pandemic" (Stewart Pp).

The December 2004 tsunami that devastated parts of Southeast Asia have been the focus of global media attention for some months now. Recently former presidents Bill Clinton and George H. Bush left on a tour of the effected regions (Torchia Pp). Clinton remarked that "It's almost impossible to appreciate the scope of this if you haven't physically seen it," and estimated that it would take three to five years to complete the reconstruction effort (Torchia Pp). In its biggest military operation in Southeast Asia since the Vietnam War, the United States has deployed a carrier battle group and twenty helicopters for relief operations off Aceh's western coast (Torchia Pp). Moreover, Washington has pledged some $950 million for relief efforts for the countries hit by the tsunami (Torchia Pp). In fact, relief from governments and private citizens has poured in from around the globe

In this modern age of global communication, global travel and global economy, there is little that happens anywhere in the world that does not in some way effect others. However, at the present moment, virus transmission appears to be the most disturbing element of Southeast Asia.

Works Cited

Torchia, Christopher. "Bush, Clinton Reassured on Tsunami Aid"

AP Online; 2/20/2005; Pp.

Stewart, Mart; Lan, Ly. "Avian Flu Takes Wing in Southeast Asia."

Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA); 2/11/2005; Pp.

Security Situation in Southeast Asia Favorable." ITAR-TASS; 3/13/2002; Pp.

Palmer, Ronald D. "Terrorism in Southeast… [read more]

Polycystic Kidney Disease (Pkd) Research Paper

… Drowsiness, joint pain and nail abnormalities are other symptoms that may happen with PKD ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").


Even though autosomal dominant PKD has no cure, proper treatment of this genetic disease can relieve symptoms and make life longer. Cyst infection, bleeding, kidney stone etc. can cause pain in the kidney area. At first, the doctor will assess the causes that are contributing to the pain in order to direct the patient about treatment. If it is evaluated as chronic pain due to the enlargement of cyst, over-the-counter pain medications (aspirin or acetaminophen) may be initially suggested by the doctor. If the pain is severe, it can be relieved by the means of surgery (for shrinking cysts). It must be noted that surgery may only provide an impermanent relief and does not reduce the progression speed of the disease toward kidney failure ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 4).

The urinary tract infections due to autosomal dominant PKD can be treated with antibiotics. Urinary tract infections can cause cyst infections which are difficult to treat as a lot of antibiotics do not make a way into the cysts for curing them. The effects of autosomal dominant PKD can be slowed down by keeping blood pressure under control. High blood pressure can be kept under control by changing the lifestyle and taking a variety of medications. In many cases, blood pressure can be kept under control just by taking proper diet and doing proper exercise ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 4).

Thus, the main goal of treatment is controlling PKD symptoms and preventing complications. Although it is not an easy task to control the high blood pressure, controlling it is the most imperative part of PKD cure. There may also be a need of removing one or both kidneys through surgery. Moreover, end-stage kidney disease may be treated by dialysis or a kidney transplant ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").

Method(s) of Prevention

At present, there is no treatment that can put a stop to the formation or enlargement of cysts ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").

Directions for Future Research

The scientists today have been able to recognize the processes that activate the PKD cysts formation. The field of genetics has advanced tremendously due to which the understanding concerning the abnormal genes that are responsible for autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive PKD has increased. Recently, researchers have been successful in discovering quite a lot of compounds that have emerged to slow up cyst development in mice with the PKD gene. A number of such compounds are in experimental testing in human beings. Scientists are hoping that further testing will make safe and effective treatments possible for humans who have polycystic kidney disease ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 7).

Clinical studies that have been done recently about the autosomal dominant PKD are discovering innovative imaging methods for tracking the cystic kidney disease development.

As such methods use MRI, it is becoming so fruitful for scientists to design improved clinical experiments for fresh treatments of autosomal dominant PKD ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 7).


"Polycystic Kidney… [read more]

Diseases West Nile Virus, Malaria Term Paper

… During these outbreaks, hungry infected fleas that have lost their normal hosts seek other sources of blood..." ("Plague," 2004). The first sign of plague is a hot, swollen, and painful lymph node called a "bubo." The swollen node is often… [read more]

Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning Research Paper

… Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

Respiratory Care

A Case Study in Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

A Case Study in Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

A 65-year-old Caucasian woman is the subject of this case study. Symptoms include a dry… [read more]

Diseases Vectored by Insects Malaria Term Paper

… Diseases Vectored by Insects

Malaria and yellow fever are two main diseases, which are transmitted by insects.

Malaria remains an infectious disease, which is caused by Plasmodium, a parasite and infects the red blood cells. The disease is mostly characterized… [read more]

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues Research Paper

… , et al., 2012).

Vaginitis is one of the most common lower reproductive tract infections; most commonly caused by infections like candida, bacteria, or other bacteria. It is both treatable and less serious than other infections, but has the potential of migrating up the reproductive tract and causing more serious infections. Cervical infection is caused by a variety of pathogens, especially STDs like gonorrhea and chlamydia. These are more severe than vaginitis because they usually reside in the upper reproductive tract and are more difficult to diagnose and treat since they are often asymptomatic (Population Council, 2012).

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.

Khosla, S., et al. (2011). The unitary model for estrogen deficiency. Journal of the Bone and Mineral Research, 26(3), 441-51.

Population Council. (2012, July). Reproductive Tract Infections: An Introductory Overview. Retrieved from

Rabiu, K., et al. (2010). Female Reproductive Tract Infections. BMC Women's Health, 10(8). doi:

Rodondi, N., et al. (2010). Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Mortality. Journal of the American Medicial Association, 304(12), 1365-74. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1361

Safer Chemicals Coalition. (2012, October). Reproductive Health and Fertility Problems. Retrieved from

Sweet, M. e. (2012). Evaluation and Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Premenopausal Women. Journal of the American Academy of Family Physicians, 85(1), 35-42. Retrieved November 2013, from

Wang, L., et al. (2011). The Diagnosis and Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Nonpregnant Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis. European Pub Med Central, 19(1), 52-4. Retrieved November 2013, from;jsessionid=BgHP6IKlqmk4nm0rQwZJ.52 [read more]

Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders Essay

… Autoimmune Disorders

Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders

Autoimmune disorders: The influence of genetics in contracting systemic lupus (SLE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Lupus is a little-understood illness and few fully effective treatments exist to deal with its consequences. "Lupus is a chronic (long-term) disease that causes inflammation -- pain and swelling. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, nervous system and other organs of the body. Most patients feel fatigue and have rashes, arthritis (painful and swollen joints) and fever" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology). Lupus is caused by a misfiring of the body's immune system. Usually, the body reacts to foreign bodies such as germs or cancer by making antibodies. In the case of lupus, instead of attacking these negative outside forces, the body attacks its own tissues, leading to inflammation. "As the attack goes on, other immune cells join the fight. This leads to inflammation and abnormal blood vessels (vasculitis). These antibodies then end up in cells in organs, where they damage those tissues" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology).

The cause of lupus is as-yet undetermined, but it has a clear genetic component. African-Americans and Asians are far more likely to exhibit symptoms. There also may be a hormonal component, given that women are ten times more likely to be affected than men. However, genetics alone cannot explain the disorder and various environmental triggers seem to bring on attacks, including "viruses, sunlight and drug allergies. People with lupus may also have an impaired process for clearing old and damaged cells from the body, which causes an abnormal immune response" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology). Further complicating the study of lupus is that the symptoms tend to wax and wane, and vary considerably in severity from person to person: some patients' symptoms can be managed by standard NSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories) while others may require more intensive treatment with corticosteroids. Lupus cannot be cured: it can only be managed.

Likewise, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a little-understood condition which can be understood as a misfiring of the body's immune system,… [read more]

Krabbe Disease Genetic Components Research Paper

… The only known treatment that has some effect on the progression of the disease is a bone marrow or cord blood transplant. The healthy cells received in the transplant can make the GALC enzyme which was missing in the body. Though it has serious risks and is not an option for all patients, a transplant can be life- saving and prevent severe disability for some people with GLD (Staff, 2011).

Cord Blood Transfusion

It has been seen that blood transfusion of blood stem cells which are taken form umbilical cord od any unrelated donor can play an important role in the reduction of neurological symptoms in infants. If this is done before the symptoms are appeared, it is possible that the child can maintain his/her vision and hearing ability.

Treatment for Late on-set Form

The people with late on-set Krabbe disease have benefited from treatment with umbilical cord blood stem cells, although this treatment has been most successful in pre-symptomatic patients with the early on-set form of the disease. In cases, where the treatment has been successful, neural deterioration is slowed and symptoms are less severe.

Gene Therapy

Gene therapy is a new method which attempts to provide working copies of genes to people with non-working copies. The DNA sequence of a working gene is placed into the person with an enzyme deficiency. Working enzyme would be made by the person's "new" cells and degrade whatever substance has been stored.

Incidence and Longevity of the disease

In the United States, Krabbe disease affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. A higher incidence (6 cases per 1,000 people) has been reported in a few isolated communities in Israel.

The Early on-set form of Krabbe disease is usually fatal before the age of two. Those infants who receive cord blood stem cells before the appearance of symptoms have longer lifespans.

Those with Late on-set Krabbe disease usually live between 2 and 7 years after the on-set of symptom. (Tegay, 2012)

Socioeconomic Factors

Taking care of a child with Krabbe disease is a very tough job. It is not possible to do it alone. One has to become a social outcast. Since it does not have a complete cure, therefore the person is completely dependent on others. Some children need therapy even if they get treatment. Some require blood transfusion, which puts an economic pressure too. The cost of treatment is high. It is seen that Krabbe develops more in Israel than population at large. In United States it affects every 1 person in 100,000 populations (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). There are many organizations working all over the world to provide support to those who are suffering from Krabbe.


It is very important for people to be aware about the severity of this disease. Since it has a genetic aspect and is carried, any couple who is a carrier or have a family member who has this disorder should consult the doctor in order to get a complete picture about the disease and… [read more]

Paget's Disease of Bone James Research Paper

… Diet is also an important part of health and is especially important if a patient is being treated with pharmaceutical agents such as bisphosphonates. Increasing a patient's intake of Calcium and Vitamin D is another extremely important factor for the uptake of calcium which strengthens bones. And finally, maintaining mobility and bone strength is essential for a patient with Paget's disease, and nothing can do that better than regular exercise. While some activities could be harmful, consulting a doctor and fitness specialist can help in developing a program of exercise that is optimal.

Paget's disease of bone is a disease that interferes with the normal biological processes of bone tissue, causing a number of adverse effects which could include things from abnormal bone growth to lesions and fractures. While there are some treatments for Paget's, these treatments deal mostly with the pain associated with the disease, as well as chemical agents which help regulate bone growth. Despite these treatments, there is really no successful way to deal with the chronic complications associated with the disease. While a patient's pain can be eased, and the symptoms of the disease delayed, there simply is no cure currently available for patients with Paget's disease of bone.

Works Cited

Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.

Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.


Daroszewska, Anna, and Stuart H. Ralston. "Mechanisms of Disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders." Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology

2.5 (2006): 270+. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Flowers, W. Mel, Jr. "Radiological signs of Paget's disease." Southern Medical Journal

(Oct. 2004): p. S34. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Leach, Robin J. And Frederick R. Singer "Do all Paget disease risk genes incriminate the osteoclast?" Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 6.9 (Sept. 2010): p502. Academic

OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Seton, Margaret. "Diagnosis, complications and… [read more]

Sexual Transmitted Disease Term Paper

… Sexually Transmitted Disease

Sexual Transmitted Disease

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) refers to illnesses or infections that are spread through human sexual behaviors and are also known as venereal disease or sexually transmitted infections. These diseases usually occur through a variety… [read more]

Cell Injury and Death, Thrombosis and Embolism Assessment

… Cell Injury & Death, Thrombosis & Embolism, Cell Function in relation to Inflammation, Causes & Course of Inflammation

The human body may pose natural responses to external and internal influences, such as trauma, infection, poisoning, and loss of blood flow,… [read more]

Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and Illnesses Research Paper

… Foodborne Illness

Foodborne diseases and illnesses are becoming increasing severe and widespread in the world. This type of illness is defined by the World Health Organization ( WHO) as follows: "Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or… [read more]

Hemophilia the Most Common Genetic Bleeding Disorder Term Paper

… Hemophilia

The most common genetic bleeding disorder is von Willebrand Disease, which affects roughly 3% of the world's population including all genders and races, and which is determined by a gene on chromosome 12, although occasionally it occurs as a… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease and Aging at What Age Term Paper

… Alzheimer's Disease And Aging

At what age do people start to get Alzheimer's?

Alzheimer disease (AD) usually does not start until around 65 years of age or older. It is characterized by gradually worsening dementia (forgetfulness) caused by cerebral atrophy… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease While Most People Know Term Paper

… Alzheimer's Disease

While most people know someone who has a family member with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), most people still have little idea about what causes it. Indeed, because there is no definitive method of even diagnosing AD until after the… [read more]

Autistic Spectrum Disorders Term Paper

… (Autism FAQ - Similar Conditions)

There is another disease called LKS Landau-Kleffner syndrome which is also called acquired childhood epileptic aphasia. This is a very rare disorder and the patients show normal development and age appropriate language development for the… [read more]

End Stage Renal Disease Term Paper

… End Stage Renal Disease

End-Stage Renal Disease


This study addresses a patient named 'George White', born 7/15/1950. He is married to Donna White, born 1/5/65, and has two children: Jamal (male), born 9/25/92, and Rasheeda (female), born 7/11/97. Mr.… [read more]

Etiology of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder Term Paper

… ¶ … Supranuclear Palsy

A discussion of the neurological etiology of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is an unusual neurodegenerative situation that leads to severe executive dysfunction. The traditional findings in PSP reveal that executive functions are… [read more]

Atherosclerosis and Gender Essay

… There is statistical evidence of this prejudice: more likely to be prescribed statins than women, despite the fact that the drugs are considered equally effective for both genders (Ricciotti 2003).

The risks which make one more prone to atherosclerosis are similar for women as they are for men: a poor diet, lack of exercise, and genetic susceptibility. But heart attacks are more deadly in women than men: a woman is 50% more likely to die during heart surgery than a man. This may be due to the greater 'subtlety' of signs that cause them to be missed, despite the fact that women are more likely to go to the doctor than men for regular check-ups. But it could also be due to "fundamental difference" in women's hearts vs. men's (Ricciotti 2003). Not only do "women have smaller hearts and smaller arteries than men" but there is evidence that "women also have a different intrinsic rhythmicity to the pacemaker of their hearts, which causes them to beat faster" (Ricciotti 2003). This means that a standard EKG may be less accurate for women than for men. "A 2000 article published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported that of 10,000 people who reported to a hospital emergency room, a small number had heart problems but were mistakenly sent home instead of being hospitalized. These people were more likely to be women under the age of 55, minorities, and people whose electrocardiogram (EKG) was normal" (Ricciotti 2003).

Although deaths from heart disease have been dropping for the past 30 years, they have not dropped nearly as fast for women as they have for men because of these physical and cultural biases. For many years, most medical research on heart disease was primarily conducted on male subjects, leading to a gap in knowledge of how hardening of the arteries differs in the two genders. Knowledge on how heart disease manifests itself in women in different ways is still playing 'catch up' with what is known about the progression in men.


Heart attack symptoms in women. (2014). AHA. Retrieved from:

How does heart disease affect women? (2013). NIH. Retrieved from:

Ricciotti, H. (2003). Heart disease -- differences between men and women. BIDMC. Retrieved

What is atherosclerosis? (2013). NIH. Retrieved from: [read more]

Disorders of the Brain Alzheimer Research Paper

… This is because the areas that are affected by the disorder are the ones that are responsible for these functions in an individual. Therefore the damage in these regions due to the disorder greatly affects the development and behavior of an individual (Remedy Health Media, LLC .2014).

Doctors recommend magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when carrying out investigations of whether a person has Alzheimer's disease or not. This is intended to rule out any other possible cause for the cognitive impairment like brain tumor or even blood clots. This involves a painless outpatient procedure that involves the use of a tube-like machine; MRI gives a detailed picture of internal organs parts of the brain included. A physician may request for an MRI if a patient has symptoms that are commonly associated with Alzheimer disease such as memory loss, problems with executing functioning and confusion problems. It is important to not that MRI can not be used to determine who is likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. It is however used to assist in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease through the evaluation of particular patterns of brain atrophy which occurs in patients that have the disorder (Remedy Health Media LLC., 2014).

Biochemical investigations indicate that onset of the symptoms that are associated wit this disorder indicate that selective neurotransmitter pathology occurs in the early cause of the disease. The presynaptic makers of the cholinergic system appear reduced in a way that is not uniform. Two alternative misfoldings hypotheses also suggest that either tau protein or amyloid beta also initiate the onset. Acetylcholine is associated with muscle activation; learning and memory .therefore Alzheimer's disease is associated with this neurotransmitter. Peptide neurotransmitters are also believed to be associated with this disorder. This is because they are associated with the mediation of pain perception.


Remedy Health Media, LLC.(2014). Alzheimer's disease. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from [read more]

Crohn's Cronh's Disease and Ulcerative Research Paper

… Furthermore, with Crohn's the inflammation may appear in random patches while the inflammation in the UC is more uniform and generally the colon wall is thinner and more likely to produce bleeding from the rectum during bowel movements.

Figure 1 - Primary Differences (Columbia St. Mary's, N.d.)

There is no cure for either disease however the symptoms of both diseases can be mitigated to some extent. With Crohn's surgery may be performed to remove the diseased sections since they occur in patches. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are similar. The mainstays of treatment, 5-ASA medications and corticosteroids, are used to treat both conditions. However, there are some medications that have only proved effective in treating one form of IBD or the other. For instance, Cimzia (certolizumab pegol) and Humira (adalimumab) are currently only used to treat Crohn's disease, although they are under study for use in ulcerative colitis (Tresca, 2013).

A 40-year-old male patient that you are caring for has been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He reports that one of his aunts was diagnosed with Crohn's disease years ago and wants to know whether there is any similarity. I would be honest with this patient and tell them that they have a long and difficult path ahead. However, at the same time the research on both diseases is progressing rapidly and there may be breakthrough treatments ahead. There is no reason to be pessimistic about the future of living with such a disease. On the other hand, there are several reasons that one can still find optimism despite a diagnosis of Crohn's or UC.

Both Crohn's and UC are serious conditions that must be taken seriously. Crohn's has a small advantage in the fact that there are more options with surgery to remove diseased sections of the intestines that have been harmed. That can provide some relief to patients. UC is more uniform in regard to its damage to the intestine and can cause complications for long stretches in the intestinal tract. Therefore there are fewer options to combat a diagnosis of UC since surgery could not possibly remove that much tissue in the intestines. Therefore there is a small advantage in the comparison that favors Crohn's, yet this advantage is minimal considering the seriousness of both conditions.

Works Cited

Anderson, C., & al, e. (2009). Investigation of Crohn's Disease Risk Loci in Ulcerative Colitis Further Defines Their Molecular Relationship . Gastroenterology, 523-529.

Columbia St. Mary's. (N.d.). Differences Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved from Gastroenterology Services:

Hugot, J., Puig, P.R., Olson, J., Lee, J.B., naom, I.D., Gossum, A., . . . Thomas, G. (1996). Mapping of a susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease on chromosome 16. Nature, 821-823.

Shaw, S., Blanchard, J., & Bernstein, C. (2011). Association Between the Use of Antibiotics and New Diagnoses of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2133-2142.

Tresca, A. (2013, October 13). The Differences Between Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease. Retrieved from… [read more]

Basal Ganglia the Control Research Paper

… The only accepted treatment for early stage disease is L-dopa, which is a dopamine precursor capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Unfortunately, the side-effects can be debilitating and its use is therefore limited and no treatment currently exists for the more advanced stages of disease.

Parkinson's patients reveal cognitive deficits similar to those found in patients with Huntington's disease (reviewed by Stocco, Lebiere, and Anderson, 2010). These include nondeclaritive and working memory deficits, although L-dopa administration can improve working memory. When Parkinson's patients with mild to moderate disease were challenged with a probabilistic category task, they performed significantly worse than healthy controls (Shohamy, Myers, Onlaor, and Gluck, 2004). Performance improved over time for both patients and controls, but patients always performed worse in the task; however, on the first of three days of testing the difference was not statistically significant. The authors discovered that the learning strategies employed by patients and controls were essentially the same on the first day, but only the controls began to rely on a more complex strategy during the next two days of testing. Parkinson's patients were therefore unable to acquire a multi-cue strategy required for optimal performance on the task and continued to rely on a single-cue strategy.

People who suffer basal ganglia brain lesions will experience some of the same deficits. Rieger and colleagues (2003) evaluated non-Parkinson's and non-Huntington's patients with frontal, non-frontal, and basal ganglia lesions using neuropsychiatric tests and a stop-signal test. When compared to healthy controls, the patients with basal ganglia lesions performed significantly worse on the intellectual functioning test, which included verbal comprehension, reasoning, word fluency, space, field dependence, and closure. Patients with frontal or basal ganglia lesions also performed significantly worse on a verbal learning and memory test. When the stop-signal reaction times were assessed, patients with frontal or basal ganglia lesions performed significantly worse. These findings reveal significant cognitive and motor response inhibition deficits in patients with basal ganglia lesions.


Whether the damage or dysfunction comes from environmental toxins, genetic inheritance, or physical trauma, the basal ganglia have been shown to be important for a number of essential cognitive tasks, including motor response inhibition. Unfortunately for patients, adequate treatments are still in the future, although a few drugs are providing measurable relief.


Rieger, Martina, Gauggel, Siegfied, and Burmeister, Katja. (2003). Neuropsychology, 17(2), 272-282.

Shohamy, D., Myers, C.E., Onlaor, S., and Gluck, M.A. (2004). Role of the basal ganglia in category learning: How do patients with Parkinson's disease learn? Behavioral Neuroscience, 118(4), 676-686.

Stocco, Andrea, Lebiere, Christian, and Anderson, John R. (2010). Conditional routing of information to the cortex: A model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination. Psychological Review, 117(2), 541-574.

Wilson, Josephine F. (2013). Biological… [read more]

HIV / AIDS on American Essay

… What they found in that research was that there has been a dramatic decline in coverage of the HIV / AIDS epidemic as well as a "…shift in portrayal of risk in the U.S." (Stevens, et al., 2013). There was… [read more]

Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility Research Paper

… Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

Normal Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production:

The stomach produces gastric acid in order to break down food products into necessary vitamins and eventual waste product; this is… [read more]

Digestive Disorders Research Paper

… Digestive Disorders


Prior to denoting just what specifically the pathophysiological mechanism of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease are, it is necessary to present a little background information about these two gastrointestinal disorders. There is a substantial amount of overlap between the symptoms for these conditions, which affects the pathophysiological mechanisms they engender. Additionally, Inflammatory Bowel Disease is actually an overarching term that refers to two different medical conditions: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

As such, inflammatory bowel diseases produce an inflammation in some part of the digestive tract. Symptoms include a substantial amount of pain in the abdomen area, which may be so great that it interferes with normal activities such as sitting, working, and even eating. It is worth noting that the specific area of inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases can take place in any part of the digestive track.

This is critical information when comparing the similarities and differences with the preceding condition with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. This latter conditions strictly involve a disruption with typical functions of the colon. Additionally, Irritable Bowel Syndrome is just one disease, and does not refer to multiple conditions like Inflammatory Bowel Disease does. Specific pathophysiological mechanisms associated with it include diarrhea, cramps, constipation, and a bloated feeling. Both of these conditions are chronic. However, there is empirical evidence that validates the notion that Irritable bowel syndrome can precipitate inflammatory bowel disease (Porter et al., 2012). This is a key distinction between the two and alludes to the fact that often, Irritable bowel syndrome is associated with stressful situations and negative changes in one's life, whereas Inflammatory Bowel Disease is generally conceived of as a more "organic" disease that is strictly physically based (Pace et al., 2003, p. 1031).


Treatments for inflammatory bowel disease require… [read more]

Cardiovascular Disorders Chapter

… Cardiovascular Disorders

One of the most common ailments is cardiovascular disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control, nearly 600 thousand people die every year from this condition. The costs are totaling $108.90 billion annually from lost productivity, medications and health care services. This is illustrating the overall scope of the problem and the impact it is having on society. To fully understand the patho-physiology of cardiovascular disorders requires focusing on: genetic factors / their impact on the condition, the alteration (i.e. congestive heart failure) and how hypertension can lead to the complications. Together, these elements will highlight the primary causes and the impact it is having on the underlying levels health for large segments of society. ("Heart Disease Facts," 2013)

Patient Factor: Genetics and its Impact on their Condition

Congestive heart failure is when the individual cannot pump enough blood to meet their body's needs. This is caused from some kind of blockage that is slowing the flow through one of the ventricles. The way that this is impacting the patho- physiology is to increase the chances of the heart becoming completely blocked or too weak to meet the demands of the body. When this happens, the odds increase that they will have fatal stroke or heart attack. Genetics is having a major impact on the patient's condition. This is because the genes which are inherited from relatives will play a major part in determining who is most susceptible. ("Heart Failure," 2013) (Kolata, 2010) ("Heart Disease and Stroke," 2012)

In a study that was conducted by the University of Cincinnati, researchers concluded that people who inherit two common gene variants are ten times more likely to have congestive heart failure. These findings were determined by carefully examining 159 patients with congestive heart failure and comparing them with 189 people who did not have any of these issues. During this process, there was a focus on race and lifestyle choices (with both being equal for each of these groups). They concluded that genetics is one of the single most important factors in determining if someone is likely to develop the condition. (Kolata,… [read more]

Parkinson's Disease Is a Neurological Research Paper

… References:

EuroStemCell. (2012). Parkinson's Disease: How could stem cells help? Retrieved 20 April 2013 from

National Institute Of Health. (2013). Parkinson disease. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from

NHGRI. (2011). Learning About Parkinson's Disease. National Human Genome Research Institute. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from

Talan, J. (2012). Parkinson's Disease. The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from


BOLD -- Parent 1

NOT BOLD -- Parent 2

A_ - affected if dominant autosomal unaffected, but carrier if recessive

AA -- affected if dominant autosomal unaffected if recessive aa -- unaffected if dominant autosomal affected if recessive

Dominant autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease

Recessive autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being a carrier of the mutation; 0% chance of being affected by Parkinson's disease

Dominant autosomal: 75% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease; 25% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease

Recessive autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being carrier of the mutation; 25% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 25% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease

Dominant autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease

Recessive autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 50% chance of offspring being a carrier for the mutation

Dominant autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 50% chance of offspring being affected… [read more]

Communicable Disease/Community Nursing 2003 SARS Term Paper

… Individuals suffering from respiratory and cardiovascular disease should avoid spending time outdoors on days when pollutant concentrations reach levels that have caused health problems in the past.

Urban pollution levels in the United States and Canada can be monitored using the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI), which can be accessed through the appropriate government agency, online, and through news channels (reviewed by Abelsohn and Stieb, 2011). Patients with respiratory and cardiovascular disease should monitor the severity of their symptoms in relation to the AQHI, thereby allowing them to use the AQHI to predict periods when spending time outdoors or certain activities would exacerbate their symptoms. Monitoring the AQHI will reveal that some patients react adversely to even low levels of air pollution, depending on what activities they engage in and how much time is spent outdoors.

Once a patient learns how their symptoms react to air pollution levels, as determined by the AQHI, they can adjust their outdoor activities accordingly (reviewed by Abelsohn and Stieb, 2011). For example, patients who are still physically active may want to reschedule a strenuous outdoor activity to periods when pollution levels have returned to a lower level or move the activity indoors. Patients with more severe disease may benefit from avoiding outdoor activity altogether, closing the windows, and utilizing a filtration system capable of removing many of the pollutants discussed above.


Abelsohn, Abe and Stieb, D.M. (2011). Health effects of outdoor air pollution: Approach to counseling patients using the Air Quality Health Index. Canadian Family Physician, 57(8), e280-e287.

CDC. (2004a). Fact sheet: Basic information about SARS. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from

CDC. (2004b). In the absence of SARS-CoV transmission worldwide: Guidance for surveillance, clinical and laboratory evaluation, and Reporting Version 2. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from

CDC. (2004c). Supplement B: SARS Surveillance. V. Reporting of cases of SARS-CoV disease. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from

Hsieh, Ying-Hen, Lee, Jen-Yu, Chang, Hsiao-Ling. (2004). SARS epidemiology modeling. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(6), 1165-1167.

Lau, Yu Lung and Peiris, J.S. Malik. (2005). Pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Current Opinion in Immunology, 17, 404-410.

Totura, Allison L. And Baric, Ralph S. (2012). SARS coronavirus pathogenesis: Host innate immune responses and viral antagonism of interferon. Current Opinion in Virology, 2, 264-275.

Zhao, Guo-ping. (2007). SARS molecular… [read more]

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