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Detection of the Borna Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


[Author not available 2003]

BDV and Neuropsychiatric Disease reason for renewed interest and research into the pathogenesis and characteristics of the BDV is the possibility recently discovered of the BDV being an etiological factor in human behavioral disorders as well. [Jurgen 1997] Numerous scientific studies are being done to accumulate evidence to clarify this issue.

One study showed that 10-15%… [read more]

Blood Diseases and Disorders Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Blood cells disorders that affect the white blood cells always occur as a result of the presence of too many white blood cells or when the cells are few. Lymphoma is a form of blood cancer that occurs in an individual's lymph system making white blood cells to become malevolent while increasing and spreading abnormally. While leukemia also makes white blood cells to become malignant, they multiply in the bone marrow. Myelodysplastic syndrome is a form of blood cancer affecting the bone marrow, which can suddenly develop into leukemia. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that causes the plasma cell to become malignant and increase while releasing substances with the potential of causing organ damage. Other examples of white blood cells disorders include basophilic and eosinophilic conditions.

Platelets Blood Disorders:

These are also among the most commonly known blood-clotting disorders and include thrombocytopenia, herapin-induced thrombocytopenia, and essential thrombocytosis. Similar to thrombocytopenia, herapin-induced thrombocytopenia is not only caused by the presence of few platelets in the blood but also because of reactions against herapin. The essential trombocytosis occurs when the body produces many platelets that don't work properly because of an unknown reason resulting in excessive bleeding and clotting (Chang, 2010).

Plasma Cell Blood Disorders:

Plasma cell blood disorders can develop in an individual when the fluid segment of the blood grows to a situation where it can only produce one kind of antibody. When these plasma cells can't function properly, the body loses the ability to defend itself against infectious microorganisms. Some of the most common blood disorders that occur from the improper functioning of plasma cells include hemophilia, sepsis, and Von Willebrand disease. While sepsis is an infection that spreads into the blood, both hemophilia and von Willebrand disease occurs due to deficiency of particular proteins that help the blood to clot.


Medical science has currently divided blood diseases and disorders into various categories with many of these conditions being treatable through medication and other procedures that don't necessarily involve pharmaceutical drugs. However, the treatment of these diseases and disorders is solely based on the condition of the blood and its severity.


Chang, L. (2010, August 10). Types of Blood Disorders. Retrieved August 31,

2011, from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/blood-disorder-types-and-treatment?page=3

Thomas, M. (2009, September 11). A Summary of Blood Disorders. Retrieved August

31, 2011, from http://www.articletrader.com/health/a-summary-of-blood-disorders.html… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Is a Neuro-Degenerative Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative disorder that currently affects close to 4 million people in the United States (National Institutes of Health). By 2025, the number of Alzheimer's cases is expected to increase by 44% in the United States (Alzheimer's Association, Fact Sheet). From the onset of symptoms, Alzheimer's disease can last from 30 to 20 years (Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's).… [read more]

Contagious Disease and Its Impact on Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,172 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Contagious Disease and Its Impact on Society

The movie Outbreak chronicles the fictional events of an ebola-like virus, known as Motaba, which is contracted from an African monkey which has been illegally smuggled into the United States and spreads within a town known as Cedar Creek (Petersen, 1995). Ebola, a member of the family Filoviridae, is a highly lethal virus whose infection is characterized by the onset of hemorrhagic fever (Cavendish, 2007; Groseth, Feldmann, & Strong, 2007; Preston, 2009). Among the symptoms of ebola infection are extensive hemorrhaging internally and from external orifices and severe fever, headache, and general confusion (Cavendish, 2007; Preston, 2009). Due to the high lethality of Ebola, up to 90%, and the lack of available treatments, it is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent (Cavendish, 2007; Groseth et al., 2007; Preston, 2009). The spread of Ebola, and similarly the fictional Motaba virus, occur primarily through the interpersonal contact of blood and bodily fluids (Groseth et al., 2007; Petersen, 1995; Preston, 2009).

The proximate origins of the Motaba virus in Outbreak are from the smuggled African monkey, whereas the origin of the real-life Ebola virus remains elusive (Groseth et al., 2007; Petersen, 1995; Snowden, 2008). The prevailing theory of Ebola's emergence within the human population is contraction from an infected animal host, most likely primate, although the specifics of the animal reservoir are unknown (Groseth et al., 2007; Preston, 2009; Snowden, 2008). The initial emergence of Ebola within Africa occurred during the mid-1970s in Sudan and Zaire, however the provenance is unclear (Groseth et al., 2007; Preston, 2009). Scientists have speculated that animal reservoirs, including chimpanzees, gorillas, and bats, may be sources for animal to human transmission as a result of fluid transfer, most likely from bites (Groseth et al., 2007; Preston, 2009).

Potential for Disease Spread in United States

The appearance and spread of a Level 4 contagion is a realistic concern in the modern world and within the United States. The possibility for an emergence of disease is additionally compounded by the prospect of terrorism and purposeful release of infectious agents, which itself may be facilitated by the celerity of modern travel (Preston, 2009; Snowden, 2008; Yassi, Kjellstrom, & Kok, 2001). Attempts to acquire Ebola and utilize it as a weaponized biological agent have already been made by certain terrorist groups in the past, specifically the Japanese Aum Shinrikyo group in the early 1990s (Preston, 2009). While these attempts have thus far failed, it does not preclude the possibility that terrorist groups may eventually attain Ebola or some different biological agent which could be used for the purposes of terrorism. Nor, does it prevent the possibility that the disease may spread to the United States via fortuitous means, as in the movie Outbreak (Petersen, 1995).

In the event that the Ebola virus or another biological agent emerged and spread within the United States, certain prophylactic measures could be taken to mitigate further infection. The first, and most obvious method of slowing transmission, is the… [read more]

Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


These mobility deficits are difficult to treat with drugs or neurosurgery, yet physical therapy has the potential to improve these aspects by training patients in the use of pure or compensatory movement (Keus et al., 2007, p. 453).

Clinical trials settled for six targeted areas of focus during physical therapy for antiparkinsonian purposes, namely transfers, posture, reaching and grasping, balance,… [read more]

Benefits of Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,631 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … allopathic medicine outweigh the risks?

The risks and benefits of allopathic medicine

Introduction definition of allopathic medicine is: "The system of medical practice which treats disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the disease under treatment." (Definition of Allopathic medicine) Allopathic medicine is also known as formal or conventional medicine and… [read more]

Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease When Atheromatous Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease

When atheromatous plaques accumulate within the coronary artery walls, the end result is usually coronary artery disease (CAD). The affected coronary arteries supply both nutrients and oxygen to the myocardium. In this text, I discuss the pathophysiology of CAD.

The Pathophysiology of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)


The risk factors of CAD according to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007) include excessive alcohol intake, diabetes, inadequate vegetable and fruit consumption, hypertension, cigarette smoking and old age. Other risk factors include but are not limited to lack of physical exercise and C-reactive protein (Marshal Cavendish Corporation 2007).


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), since the 1960s, the incidence of CAD has been on a steady decline in the U.S. Some of the factors that have contributed to this decline include enhanced treatment of the same and better control of risk factors. CDC (2011) further notes that in the period between 2006 and 2010, there was an overall decline of CAD from 6.7% to 6.0% in the U.S. In regard to education, sex and age group categories; similar declines were observed.


According to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007), CAD is caused by the formation of plaques (within the coronary artery walls) as a result of the buildup of particles including but not limited to cellular debris and fatty substances. The starting point of CAD is usually during adolescence with maturation (slow) of the same occurring through adulthood. However, the prevalence of risk factors (identified above) may accelerate the maturation of the disease. With the growth of atherosclerosis, proper blood flow to the heart muscles (and hence oxygen and nutrients) is obstructed.

Signs and Symptoms

According to Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007), chest pain is the most common symptom of CAD. Other symptoms include but are not limited to increase in heart rate (modest); back, jaw and shoulder pains;…… [read more]

Effects of Brilliant Blue G. On Spinal Cord Injury Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,446 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Brilliant Blue G. On spinal cord injury

The spinal cord is the thick elongated bundle of nervous tissues, which is enclosed within the vertebral column or spine and extends from the base of the brain to the rest of the body (Laberge 2010). Its chief function is to carry nerve impulses between the brain and the rest of… [read more]

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Etiology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Endoscopy allows direct visual inspection of the esophageal lining. Another method used to diagnose GERD is the placement of a probe that measures the acidity in the esophagus. The probe stays in place for a couple of days, while a computer worn around the waist records the acid readings.


The prototypical symptoms of GERD are heartburn, which is a burning sensation in the center of the chest. Another common symptom is regurgitation of stomach acid or stomach contents into the mouth or throat. The strongest predictors of GERD have been shown to be chest pain and nocturnal cough, although chest pain can result from a number of other causes and is therefore not very useful diagnostically. Other symptoms common to GERD include hoarseness, chronic cough, chronic bronchitis, and dental erosions.


There are a number of over the counter medications that are used to treat GERD, including Maaloz, Mylanta, Gelusil, Rolaids, and Tums. These antacids provide instant relief, but cannot help reduce esophageal inflammation. H2-receptor antagonists, or blockers, provide slow-acting, long-term relief by reducing stomach acid production. Common H2-receptor antagonists include Tagamet HB (cimetidine), Pepcid AC (famotidine), Axid AR (nizatidine), and Zantac (ranitidine). Proton pump inhibitors also provide relief by inhibiting stomach acid production, and include Prevacid (lansoprazole) and Prilosec (omeprazole). Although all of these medications are can be obtained over-the-counter, but stronger doses can be obtained with a prescription. Other treatment options include corrective surgery or medications to strengthen the diaphragm.


Lacy, Brian E., Weiser, Kirsten, Chertoff, Jocelyn, Fass, Ronnie, Pandolfino, John E., Richter, Joel E. et al. (2010). The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. American Journal of Medicine, 123, 583-592.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011). GERD. MayoClinic.com. Retrieved 29 Mar. 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/gerd/DS00967.

GERD… [read more]

Stress Each of Us Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The most common sign indicating that stress affects the cardiovascular system is the fast beating of the heart.

Researches indicate that relaxation is an effective remedy on the effects of stress on cardiovascular system. One of which is breathing exercises. This serves as a preventive measure that helps the cardiovascular system control high blood pressure and the effects of stress.… [read more]

Characteristics and Potential Applications of Stem Cell Assessment

Assessment  |  6 pages (1,687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Stem cells are non-specializing cells that can be defined by the two very specific properties which are the ability to differentiate into cells with other functions and the ability to self-regenerate. The zygote contains the most valuable of the stem cells and can reproduce as all cell types of a species as shown in Figure 1.

Differentiation of Human Tissues… [read more]

Genetics Technology Where the Buck Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


The bottom line is that a patient's right to confidentiality need not be violated just to inform his relatives of his carrier status. The ethical principles of beneficence and patient autonomy impose that specific informed consent for disclosure to third parties. This specific consent also identifies the patient or person to whom the information may be revealed, the specific information… [read more]

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This test, which looks for viral DNA is performed by collecting cells from the cervix and then sending them to a laboratory for analysis. The test can detect high-risk types of HPV even before there are any conclusive visible changes to the cervical cells.

How is HPV treated?

HPV cannot be cured, but the warts can be treated. Although warts may go away on their own, the viruses can remain. If warts do not go away or if they recur, they may need treatment. The type of treatment depends on where the warts are on your body. Warts can be treated with medication applied to the area or surgery to remove them.

If you have a lot of warts, or very large ones, your doctor may recommend that they be removed with surgery. Although all these treatments destroy the warts, the virus may still be in nearby tissue. It can produce new growths weeks or even months after the old ones are gone. You may then need more treatment.

How can HPV be prevented?

The only way to prevent contracting HPV is to avoid the virus altogether. The chances of contracting HPV can be reduced by not having sex or by using spermicides (substances that kill sperm). Sperm is the male sex cell that joins with the female egg to produce offspring.

Reducing or avoiding risky sexual activity (such as reducing the number of sex partners) can decrease the chance of developing HPV. Having sex with condoms made of latex or polyurethane may decrease the risk of developing conditions related to HPV, such as genital warts and cervical cancer. Latex and polyurethane are two substances that help make flexible materials.

Condoms do not offer full protection from HPV because the virus may be found on parts of the body that is not protected by the condom, such as the anus. However, they may reduce the risk of getting HPV when used correctly and consistently. Condom use has also been associated with decreased risk for diseases related to HPV, such as cervical cancer.

Doctors recommend that people avoid having contact with partners that have genital warts, until the warts are treated. This can decrease the chance of getting HPV. It is important to mention that going to a doctor for regular check-up can easily prevent cervical cancer, which is one of the possible results of HPV infection.


Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill

Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical

Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide


Fact Sheet 3.20 (2004)[Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide Web:

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (1999) [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide Web: < http://www.fmgturlock.com/hpv.htm

Human Papillomavirus (2002) [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World

Wide Web:

Papillomaviruses (2004) [Online]. [Accessed 26th April 2005]. Available from World Wide

Web: [read more]

Viruses Are a Stubborn Mechanism of Spreading Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Viruses are a stubborn mechanism of spreading disease. Viruses rarely die off, but rather go dormant for periods of time only to emerge and spread causing pandemics for new generations of people. Such is the case with the H1N1 or swine flu. This virus was originally discovered in humans in 1918 where it was also discovered to be able to mutate rapidly causing further global pandemics in both 1957 and 1968 (Girard, 2010). This virus, which originated in swine, traveled from Europe where it had been common among animals for centuries (Girard, 2010). Since then, it has adapted to humans and caused multiple pandemics through its unique ability to adapt and combine with other virus strains (Michaelis, 2009).

It is exceptionally rare for a virus to mutate from animals to humans. In fact, it is a very complex adaptation that a virus must make. The primary reason, according to disease specialists as to why this happens, is the presence of the virus is concentrated amounts of animals, specifically commercially farmed animals (Schmidt, 2009). The theory is that under such tight conditions, viruses spread rapidly and mutate just as rapidly, reinfecting the same animals over and over again. After awhile, those working with the animals are exposed to the virus so many times that the virus finally picks up enough human DNA to mutate and move into a new host (Schmidt, 2009). Once this happens, the virus is able to spread quickly among people, who have zero immunity to this new viral strain (Schmidt, 2009). The strangest thing about the swine flu as opposed to other viruses is that it has remained stored in pigs and continually reoccurs, causing repeated outbreaks in humans, but causing little, if any, effects in pigs…… [read more]

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Treat Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (2,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Treat the Severe Neurological Disorder Angelman Syndrome

With Additional Theoretical Application to Treating Other Neurological Disorders

Concepts, Issues, and Definitions

Statement of General Topic Area: Neurological Disorders and Stem Cell Treatment

Angelman Syndrome

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research

Possibilities for therapeutic cross-over benefit to other Neurological Disorders

Animal Model for Testing

Potential Therapeutic… [read more]

Stem Cell Research and Testing Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (5,529 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Stem Cell Research and Testing

Stem Cell Research

The field of Stem cell research has come out of its first phase of research to the current phase where researchers are trying to harness its efficacy in the areas of regenerative medicine that could alter our entire approach to the management of degenerative diseases. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are… [read more]

Diabetes Mellitus Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,238 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most important and common chronic diseases found in humans. The disease has foundational consequences for the body and the mind and seriously affects society in general in both direct and indirect ways. Millions of people have diabetes mellitus and many more are likely to develop it as the years go by, risk factors increase in prevalence and as more people manage the disease and successfully have children. Another reason why diabetes is important is because the majority of medical care that is provided for the disease is self administered and therefore at high risk of patient noncompliance.

Diabetes is one of the most common of the chronic medical disorders and is expected to present one of the twenty-first century's biggest medical challenges. The number of people with diabetes is escalating both in the UK and world wide and type 2 diabetes in particular is increasing at an alarming rate. & #8230;in diabetes, patients deliver over 95 per cent of their own care. (Clark, 2004, p. ix)

Diabetes like many other chronic diseases will increasingly demand the attention of the medical community and the community at large as the disease grows in prevalence and incidence, in many ways due almost entirely too so called lifestyle choices that high risk individuals make that increase the odds of occurrence (the most important being overeating and obesity). (Silink, Kida & Rosenbloom, 2003, p. 2)

Definition and Prevalence

Diabetes Mellitus is a profound medical disorder that involves the reduction of or absence of the ability of specialized cells in the pancreas (islets of Langerhans) to produce insulin. Insulin is the main hormone responsible for the body's cellular ability to utilize and break down glucose, the sugar that fuels nearly all cells of the body. Lack of effective or available insulin then disallows glucose, the end result of nearly all the foods we eat to be taken from the blood stream and used as cellular fuel. (Clark, 2004, p. ix) the limited cellular fuel use as well as the buildup of excess glucose in the blood stream both result in profound functional impairment and over a long-term can result in permanent physical degradation. In cases of profound absence of insulin even over the short-term, such as is the case when the pancreas simply stops producing insulin death can result, relatively rapidly.

The prevalence of Diabetes of three particular types type 1 (complete lack of insulin production) type 2 (lowered and ineffective use of insulin) and gestational diabetes (a form of type 2 diabetes that effects pregnant women) is significant and in fact the American Diabetes Association (ADA) estimates that nearly 8% (23.6. million diagnosed and an est. 57 million undiagnosed) of the U.S. population has one of these three forms. (ADA Website, 2009, "Total Prevalence" http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-statistics/prevalence.jsp) the ADA also estimates that the annual financial cost of diabetes to be an estimated $174 billion. (ADA Website, 2009, "Diabetes Statistics" http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-statistics.jsp)

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diabetes vary between types,… [read more]

Autism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


One research has observed that production of ATP, NADH, and NADPH was abnormal and much lower than regular levels in subjects that have been diagnosed with autism (Lee, Wondra). Other studies face indicated impairment in the production of various proteins and amino acids within the body. There have been observations that those diagnosed with autism have "impaired methylation, decreased glutathione, and oxidative stress," and that the studies also pinpoint that these nutritional supplements are beneficial for the body; therefore, abnormal production of such supplements causes the body to degenerate (Lee, Wondra). In one joint U.S. And Canada study, 8% to as much as 16% of those diagnosed with autism were found to be anemic.

Low levels of plasma and vitamin supplements can further be detrimental to those diagnosed with autism, for the lack of protein production can lead to the abnormal formation of synaptic works within the neural pathways of the brain. The disorder can greatly unbalance the part of the brain that connect neurons to other parts of the brain; motor reflexes and inhibitive reflexes can be as affected as other parts of the body. While there is still no definitive, understandable link between the neurochemical depletion and autism, there is clearly a correlation among the studies showcased (Lee, Wondra). There have been many plans to manage individuals with autism, though there is no single treatment that works best. Many suggest tailored treatment on that afflicted individual.


Klin, Ami. Autism and Asperger syndrome: an overview. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. [online]. 2006, vol.28, suppl.1 [cited 2011-12-02], pp. s3-s11 . Available from: . ISSN 1516-4446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462006000500002.

Wondra Lee, et al. "Nutritional And Metabolic Status Of Children With Autism Vs. Neurotypical Children, And The Association With Autism Severity." Nutrition & Metabolism 8.1 (2011): 34-65.Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Dec. 2011.… [read more]

Trauma Is Considered as 'Mental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is a disturbance of emotional adaptation. The symptoms of Neurosis include many emotional and mental changes. The symptoms of Neurosis is generally so widespread among people that it is considered often more proper today to speak of them as to their degree of presence or as to the degree of resulting disability than merely as to their strict presence… [read more]

Racial and Ethnic Approaches Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,356 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus it is a very important public health function to remove these differences. For this purpose, providers and services must be stationed in underserved minority community areas to expand and maintain the efforts. Partnerships must be built up at all levels, and these include public and private providers: public health department, hospitals, MCH programs, Ryan White programs, health centers, free… [read more]

Stem Cells Without a Doubt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"(Rosenberg) By this, Brandeis means that individual states should come up with their own laws regulating stem cell research and the therapies and treatments it can provide. In other words, the states would act as individual "laboratories," that can, through their experiences, develop precedents and protocols that can later be implemented nationally.

Of course, ethical considerations are a part of… [read more]

Alternative Approach to Computerized Tomography Article Review

Article Review  |  7 pages (1,983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One is that it actually summarized the findings of literature from a fairly lengthy time period -- there are references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.

Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology

Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.

Journal: Medical History

Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.

Publisher Information:

Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a cursory history of the method of English forensic pathology employed in the early part of the 20th century. The authors do so within the larger context of contrasting the notion of a celebrated forensic pathologist with the concept of conventional forensic pathology within a laboratory. It essentially reenacts the homicide investigation of a famed murder trial. There is no hypothesis, research question or sample. I reviewed this article because it is fascinating to see how far the science of forensic pathology has come.

Abstract: This article provides a thorough review of an early 20th century murder investigation in England to denote the key concept of putrefaction and celebrity status of forensic pathologists that was relevant at the time.

Analysis and Synthesis: There are several principle ideas deconstructed within this article. One is the way that fame and celebrity status of a forensic pathologist can affect a murder trial, and the overarching view of this practice and profession. Another is the nature of this process, specifically the impact of the natural decay of the human body (once deceased) on the work of a forensic pathologist. Additionally, this article examines the evolution of the practice of forensic pathology from one based on the individual to one based on a process (which is more scientific than the former). In this respect, this work functions as a check for forensic pathologists and that for the profession in general. Individuals should never consider themselves more valuable than the process of this practice, and should make no assumptions. Finally, this article emphasizes the inherent dangers in this field related to convicting innocent people.

Implications: This article was highly enjoyable, not the least because of how well it was written with astute vocabulary and sentence structure compelling throughout its duration. Although there was no new research conducted, this article is extremely valuable for the history it provides regarding the field of forensic pathology and its evolution to today's methods, which are highly scientific and seem much more precise. The article was not flawed in any way, and actually could serve quite convincingly as a…… [read more]

Periodontal Health Definition of Calculus (Supra Gingival Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,205 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Periodontal Health

Definition of Calculus (Supra Gingival and Subgingival)

Implications of the Removal of Dental Calculus

Periodontal Health Can be Established without Removal of Dental Calculus

Maintaining periodontal health is important for a number of reasons. Left untreated, periodontitis has been shown to have a wide range of adverse healthcare outcomes, including increased incidences of cardiovascular disease and… [read more]

John Kellys "The Great Mortality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,378 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


The notary from Piacenza writes about the attack with human corpses that were thrown by the Mongols lead by Khan Janibeg, cadavers that were bringing the virus to the healthy people in the town. Their response was to pray and hope that God will punish the infidels and keep them safe. Kelly further explains that even if de'Mussins' accounts of the Mongol attack on the Geneoese were fabricated, the epidemic might have had different means of spreading, like the rats who were traveling easily throughout the town and making the contamination a matter of days. Hazard made Caffa to be the town where hell broke loose upon the attack of the Monglos and the Europens who fled in horror brought hell along to Europe. Kelly underlines that what the European historians called the Black Death "has killed an estimated two hundred million people, and no outbreak of plague has claimed as man victims or caused as much anguish and sorrow as the Black Death" (The Great Mortality, p. 11). How this might have happened is what Kelly is attempting to find out, by closely examining the conditions that converged toward the spread of the bacillus in such a short time on such a huge scale.

Kelly examines the historic records from the times associated with the spread of the pest along the century and indicates a pattern: violent manifestations of the environment appear to accompany the epochs when the pest attacked regions in Europe or in Asia. There is not enough evidence though to conclude that the bacillus causing the pest is fond of environmental instability, but the historic records are often describing natural calamities close to the key moment of the spread of the bubonic disease in both Asia and Europe.

As previously mentioned, another factor that contributed to the successful contamination of two continents, placing them under the threat of being wiped out was warfare. Kelly point out the not even when the plague was at its worst moments in Europe, people did not cease to wage war against one another and give the example of Cola di Rienzo, he calls "possibly the silliest man in Europe" (The Great Mortality, xvi). War lives behind many conditions that encourage the spread of a virus or a bacillus and vehicles like rats and insects, polluted waters and bad air are all thriving in the aftermath of a battle. Kelly analyses the conditions people lived in at the in the early 1300s and points out that the Europe was already confronted by overpopulation, famine was usual, low immune systems were just ready to embrace the attack of the Yesinia Pestis bacillus. Kelly's remarkable analysis goes back and forth in human history comparing results and records, the spreading of different viruses across time and place and undertaking the task to find common features to support his arguments related to the factors that contributed to the high toll the Plague requested from two continents. The advancemtn of science has allowed the discovery of… [read more]

Congestive Heart Failure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,497 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Congestive heart failure happens when the heart is unable to pump sufficient oxygen to the body in order to meet its needs (Kulick et al. 2007, Drug Digest 2007). It can be caused by diseases, which weaken or stiffen the heart muscles or increase oxygen demand by any tissue in the body beyond what the heart can deliver. The right… [read more]

Treatment Approaches to Autism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,599 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Treatment Approaches to Autism

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of autism. Specifically it will discuss the disease and treatment approaches to the disease. Autism is a disease that has no cure, even though research is working on understanding and thus curing the disease. It affects one in every 150 individuals, making it one… [read more]

Southeast Asia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In several public statements, World Health Organization officials have explained the difficulty of making any kind of estimate about the death toll of a pandemic from a transformed avian influenza, they have composed studied estimates that range from two million to one hundred million and have also explained the difficulties of creating a vaccine against a rapidly morphing virus" (Stewart Pp). Thus, even at the low end, a pandemic could have devastating global effects (Stewart Pp). Mart Stewart writes that "while it has received scant news coverage in the United States, avian flu in Asia (or anywhere else) is potentially a global event and one with larger consequences than any modern disaster since the 1918 pandemic" (Stewart Pp).

The December 2004 tsunami that devastated parts of Southeast Asia have been the focus of global media attention for some months now. Recently former presidents Bill Clinton and George H. Bush left on a tour of the effected regions (Torchia Pp). Clinton remarked that "It's almost impossible to appreciate the scope of this if you haven't physically seen it," and estimated that it would take three to five years to complete the reconstruction effort (Torchia Pp). In its biggest military operation in Southeast Asia since the Vietnam War, the United States has deployed a carrier battle group and twenty helicopters for relief operations off Aceh's western coast (Torchia Pp). Moreover, Washington has pledged some $950 million for relief efforts for the countries hit by the tsunami (Torchia Pp). In fact, relief from governments and private citizens has poured in from around the globe

In this modern age of global communication, global travel and global economy, there is little that happens anywhere in the world that does not in some way effect others. However, at the present moment, virus transmission appears to be the most disturbing element of Southeast Asia.

Works Cited

Torchia, Christopher. "Bush, Clinton Reassured on Tsunami Aid"

AP Online; 2/20/2005; Pp.

Stewart, Mart; Lan, Ly. "Avian Flu Takes Wing in Southeast Asia."

Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA); 2/11/2005; Pp.

Security Situation in Southeast Asia Favorable." ITAR-TASS; 3/13/2002; Pp.

Palmer, Ronald D. "Terrorism in Southeast…… [read more]

Pathophysiology of Pain Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (854 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Although science has not yet proved the exact reason for referred pain, it is largely believed that it is not central convergence mechanism, wherein the dorsal horn neurons diverge within the deep tissue. It is hypothesized that nociceptive input from the skeletal muscles refer to myotomes outside the areas of origin and are spread by central sensitization to spinal segments near the origin point.


In terms of diagnosis, the most important thing is to locate the underlying cause for the pain, whether it is acute, chronic, or referred (Woessner 2013). First, muscles, nerves, and tissues near the area of pain will be examined to determine if there is a direct cause of pain which can be linked to the patient. If this is not possible, then further examination and testing must be undertaken.

Acute pain is rarely, if ever, diagnosed as the sole problem of a patient because of the understanding that there must be a correlation between pain and causation. Referred pain also requires a cause for the discomfort and diagnosis of pain in and of itself is not acceptable in this context. Rather, the source for the pain must be ascertained for treatment. This is less true with chronic disease and chronic pain because in certain cases the pain itself is a disease, such as fibromyalgia.

Prescription of Treatment:

Acute pain is usually treated with medications such as anti-inflammatory medication, narcotics like morphine or codeine, and acetaminophen (Acute 2008). In addition, acute pain can be treated by holistic methods such as acupuncture or relaxation techniques. It can also be treated with more invasive treatments like surgery. In referred pain, a similar course is usually undertaken. The priority is upon finding the cause for the pain and in treating that cause moreso than treating the pain for itself.

Works Cited

Acute vs. chronic pain. (2008). Cleveland Clinic: Cleveland, OH.

Fink, W.A. (2005, May). The pathophysiology of acute pain. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 23(2). 277-84.

Understanding pain. (2013). Pain Care Clinic: London, England.

Vecchiet, L., Vecchiet, J., & Giamberardino, M.A. (1999). Referred muscle pain: clinical and pathophysiologic aspects. Current Review of Pain. 3(6). 489-98.

Woessner, J. (2013). Referred pain vs. origin of pain pathology: understanding the organic and physiological patterns of referred pain helps to identify the true origin of pathology and inform proper treatment. Practical Pain Management. Vertical Health Media.

Woolf, C.J. & Doubell, T.P. (1999, Aug.). The pathophysiology of chronic pain -- increased sensitivity to low threshold A beta-fibre inputs. Current Opinion in Neurobiology.…… [read more]

Polycystic Kidney Disease (Pkd) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,202 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Drowsiness, joint pain and nail abnormalities are other symptoms that may happen with PKD ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").


Even though autosomal dominant PKD has no cure, proper treatment of this genetic disease can relieve symptoms and make life longer. Cyst infection, bleeding, kidney stone etc. can cause pain in the kidney area. At first, the doctor will assess the causes that are contributing to the pain in order to direct the patient about treatment. If it is evaluated as chronic pain due to the enlargement of cyst, over-the-counter pain medications (aspirin or acetaminophen) may be initially suggested by the doctor. If the pain is severe, it can be relieved by the means of surgery (for shrinking cysts). It must be noted that surgery may only provide an impermanent relief and does not reduce the progression speed of the disease toward kidney failure ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 4).

The urinary tract infections due to autosomal dominant PKD can be treated with antibiotics. Urinary tract infections can cause cyst infections which are difficult to treat as a lot of antibiotics do not make a way into the cysts for curing them. The effects of autosomal dominant PKD can be slowed down by keeping blood pressure under control. High blood pressure can be kept under control by changing the lifestyle and taking a variety of medications. In many cases, blood pressure can be kept under control just by taking proper diet and doing proper exercise ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 4).

Thus, the main goal of treatment is controlling PKD symptoms and preventing complications. Although it is not an easy task to control the high blood pressure, controlling it is the most imperative part of PKD cure. There may also be a need of removing one or both kidneys through surgery. Moreover, end-stage kidney disease may be treated by dialysis or a kidney transplant ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").

Method(s) of Prevention

At present, there is no treatment that can put a stop to the formation or enlargement of cysts ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").

Directions for Future Research

The scientists today have been able to recognize the processes that activate the PKD cysts formation. The field of genetics has advanced tremendously due to which the understanding concerning the abnormal genes that are responsible for autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive PKD has increased. Recently, researchers have been successful in discovering quite a lot of compounds that have emerged to slow up cyst development in mice with the PKD gene. A number of such compounds are in experimental testing in human beings. Scientists are hoping that further testing will make safe and effective treatments possible for humans who have polycystic kidney disease ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 7).

Clinical studies that have been done recently about the autosomal dominant PKD are discovering innovative imaging methods for tracking the cystic kidney disease development.

As such methods use MRI, it is becoming so fruitful for scientists to design improved clinical experiments for fresh treatments of autosomal dominant PKD ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 7).


"Polycystic Kidney… [read more]

Diseases West Nile Virus, Malaria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


During these outbreaks, hungry infected fleas that have lost their normal hosts seek other sources of blood..." ("Plague," 2004). The first sign of plague is a hot, swollen, and painful lymph node called a "bubo." The swollen node is often accompanied by fever, headache, and exhaustion. These symptoms usually begin about two to six days after the person is exposed… [read more]

Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and Illnesses Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Foodborne Illness

Foodborne diseases and illnesses are becoming increasing severe and widespread in the world. This type of illness is defined by the World Health Organization ( WHO) as follows: "Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Every person is at risk… [read more]

Cell Injury &amp Death, Thrombosis &amp Embolism Assessment

Assessment  |  8 pages (2,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Cell Injury & Death, Thrombosis & Embolism, Cell Function in relation to Inflammation, Causes & Course of Inflammation

The human body may pose natural responses to external and internal influences, such as trauma, infection, poisoning, and loss of blood flow, autoimmunity, or errors of development. Pathology is looking at the way in which the body's responses to injury, while evolved… [read more]

Hemophilia the Most Common Genetic Bleeding Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,476 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8



The most common genetic bleeding disorder is von Willebrand Disease, which affects roughly 3% of the world's population including all genders and races, and which is determined by a gene on chromosome 12, although occasionally it occurs as a new mutation (Curry 2004). Other inherited bleeding disorders, such as platelet or fibrinogen dysfunctions are extremely rare, and most have… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease and Aging at What Age Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,676 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Alzheimer's Disease And Aging

At what age do people start to get Alzheimer's?

Alzheimer disease (AD) usually does not start until around 65 years of age or older. It is characterized by gradually worsening dementia (forgetfulness) caused by cerebral atrophy (deterioration). It is the most common form of dementia. Fewer than 2% of families with AD have early-onset familial AD… [read more]

Sexual Transmitted Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,217 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Sexually Transmitted Disease

Sexual Transmitted Disease

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) refers to illnesses or infections that are spread through human sexual behaviors and are also known as venereal disease or sexually transmitted infections. These diseases usually occur through a variety of ways including anal sex, vaginal intercourse and oral sex with the most common means being through sexual intercourse with… [read more]

Paget's Disease of Bone James Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,856 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Diet is also an important part of health and is especially important if a patient is being treated with pharmaceutical agents such as bisphosphonates. Increasing a patient's intake of Calcium and Vitamin D is another extremely important factor for the uptake of calcium which strengthens bones. And finally, maintaining mobility and bone strength is essential for a patient with Paget's disease, and nothing can do that better than regular exercise. While some activities could be harmful, consulting a doctor and fitness specialist can help in developing a program of exercise that is optimal.

Paget's disease of bone is a disease that interferes with the normal biological processes of bone tissue, causing a number of adverse effects which could include things from abnormal bone growth to lesions and fractures. While there are some treatments for Paget's, these treatments deal mostly with the pain associated with the disease, as well as chemical agents which help regulate bone growth. Despite these treatments, there is really no successful way to deal with the chronic complications associated with the disease. While a patient's pain can be eased, and the symptoms of the disease delayed, there simply is no cure currently available for patients with Paget's disease of bone.

Works Cited

Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.

Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.


Daroszewska, Anna, and Stuart H. Ralston. "Mechanisms of Disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders." Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology

2.5 (2006): 270+. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Flowers, W. Mel, Jr. "Radiological signs of Paget's disease." Southern Medical Journal

(Oct. 2004): p. S34. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Leach, Robin J. And Frederick R. Singer "Do all Paget disease risk genes incriminate the osteoclast?" Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 6.9 (Sept. 2010): p502. Academic

OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Seton, Margaret. "Diagnosis, complications and…… [read more]

Autistic Spectrum Disorders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(Autism FAQ - Similar Conditions)

There is another disease called LKS Landau-Kleffner syndrome which is also called acquired childhood epileptic aphasia. This is a very rare disorder and the patients show normal development and age appropriate language development for the age up to 7 years; then loses receptive language though retains some expressive language; the speech becomes 'telegraphic' with the… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease While Most People Know Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,214 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alzheimer's Disease

While most people know someone who has a family member with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), most people still have little idea about what causes it. Indeed, because there is no definitive method of even diagnosing AD until after the patient dies and the condition of the brain can be assessed post-mortem, even the medical profession has had a difficult… [read more]

Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Autoimmune Disorders

Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders

Autoimmune disorders: The influence of genetics in contracting systemic lupus (SLE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Lupus is a little-understood illness and few fully effective treatments exist to deal with its consequences. "Lupus is a chronic (long-term) disease that causes inflammation -- pain and swelling. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, nervous system and other organs of the body. Most patients feel fatigue and have rashes, arthritis (painful and swollen joints) and fever" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology). Lupus is caused by a misfiring of the body's immune system. Usually, the body reacts to foreign bodies such as germs or cancer by making antibodies. In the case of lupus, instead of attacking these negative outside forces, the body attacks its own tissues, leading to inflammation. "As the attack goes on, other immune cells join the fight. This leads to inflammation and abnormal blood vessels (vasculitis). These antibodies then end up in cells in organs, where they damage those tissues" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology).

The cause of lupus is as-yet undetermined, but it has a clear genetic component. African-Americans and Asians are far more likely to exhibit symptoms. There also may be a hormonal component, given that women are ten times more likely to be affected than men. However, genetics alone cannot explain the disorder and various environmental triggers seem to bring on attacks, including "viruses, sunlight and drug allergies. People with lupus may also have an impaired process for clearing old and damaged cells from the body, which causes an abnormal immune response" (Lupus, 2013, American College of Rheumatology). Further complicating the study of lupus is that the symptoms tend to wax and wane, and vary considerably in severity from person to person: some patients' symptoms can be managed by standard NSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories) while others may require more intensive treatment with corticosteroids. Lupus cannot be cured: it can only be managed.

Likewise, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a little-understood condition which can be understood as a misfiring of the body's immune system,…… [read more]

Krabbe Disease Genetic Components Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The only known treatment that has some effect on the progression of the disease is a bone marrow or cord blood transplant. The healthy cells received in the transplant can make the GALC enzyme which was missing in the body. Though it has serious risks and is not an option for all patients, a transplant can be life- saving and prevent severe disability for some people with GLD (Staff, 2011).

Cord Blood Transfusion

It has been seen that blood transfusion of blood stem cells which are taken form umbilical cord od any unrelated donor can play an important role in the reduction of neurological symptoms in infants. If this is done before the symptoms are appeared, it is possible that the child can maintain his/her vision and hearing ability.

Treatment for Late on-set Form

The people with late on-set Krabbe disease have benefited from treatment with umbilical cord blood stem cells, although this treatment has been most successful in pre-symptomatic patients with the early on-set form of the disease. In cases, where the treatment has been successful, neural deterioration is slowed and symptoms are less severe.

Gene Therapy

Gene therapy is a new method which attempts to provide working copies of genes to people with non-working copies. The DNA sequence of a working gene is placed into the person with an enzyme deficiency. Working enzyme would be made by the person's "new" cells and degrade whatever substance has been stored.

Incidence and Longevity of the disease

In the United States, Krabbe disease affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. A higher incidence (6 cases per 1,000 people) has been reported in a few isolated communities in Israel.

The Early on-set form of Krabbe disease is usually fatal before the age of two. Those infants who receive cord blood stem cells before the appearance of symptoms have longer lifespans.

Those with Late on-set Krabbe disease usually live between 2 and 7 years after the on-set of symptom. (Tegay, 2012)

Socioeconomic Factors

Taking care of a child with Krabbe disease is a very tough job. It is not possible to do it alone. One has to become a social outcast. Since it does not have a complete cure, therefore the person is completely dependent on others. Some children need therapy even if they get treatment. Some require blood transfusion, which puts an economic pressure too. The cost of treatment is high. It is seen that Krabbe develops more in Israel than population at large. In United States it affects every 1 person in 100,000 populations (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). There are many organizations working all over the world to provide support to those who are suffering from Krabbe.


It is very important for people to be aware about the severity of this disease. Since it has a genetic aspect and is carried, any couple who is a carrier or have a family member who has this disorder should consult the doctor in order to get a complete picture about the disease and… [read more]

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,642 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


, et al., 2012).

Vaginitis is one of the most common lower reproductive tract infections; most commonly caused by infections like candida, bacteria, or other bacteria. It is both treatable and less serious than other infections, but has the potential of migrating up the reproductive tract and causing more serious infections. Cervical infection is caused by a variety of pathogens, especially STDs like gonorrhea and chlamydia. These are more severe than vaginitis because they usually reside in the upper reproductive tract and are more difficult to diagnose and treat since they are often asymptomatic (Population Council, 2012).

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.

Khosla, S., et al. (2011). The unitary model for estrogen deficiency. Journal of the Bone and Mineral Research, 26(3), 441-51.

Population Council. (2012, July). Reproductive Tract Infections: An Introductory Overview. Retrieved from popcouncil.org: http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/RTIFacsheetsRev.pdf

Rabiu, K., et al. (2010). Female Reproductive Tract Infections. BMC Women's Health, 10(8). doi:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2851660/?report=reader#__ffn_sectitle

Rodondi, N., et al. (2010). Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Mortality. Journal of the American Medicial Association, 304(12), 1365-74. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1361

Safer Chemicals Coalition. (2012, October). Reproductive Health and Fertility Problems. Retrieved from healthreport.saferchecmicals.org: http://healthreport.saferchemicals.org/reproductive.html

Sweet, M. e. (2012). Evaluation and Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Premenopausal Women. Journal of the American Academy of Family Physicians, 85(1), 35-42. Retrieved November 2013, from http://drkney.com/pdfs/vagbleed_010112.pdf

Wang, L., et al. (2011). The Diagnosis and Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Nonpregnant Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis. European Pub Med Central, 19(1), 52-4. Retrieved November 2013, from http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21272460/reload=0;jsessionid=BgHP6IKlqmk4nm0rQwZJ.52… [read more]

Diseases Vectored by Insects Malaria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,391 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Diseases Vectored by Insects

Malaria and yellow fever are two main diseases, which are transmitted by insects.

Malaria remains an infectious disease, which is caused by Plasmodium, a parasite and infects the red blood cells. The disease is mostly characterized by sweating, fever, chills and pain, muscle aches as well as headaches. Other patients feel nauseated, vomit, cough, and experience… [read more]

Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

Respiratory Care

A Case Study in Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

A Case Study in Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

A 65-year-old Caucasian woman is the subject of this case study. Symptoms include a dry nocturnal cough lasting two weeks, mild morning sore throat, and anorexia. The cough is worse when lying down and all… [read more]

Hepatitis Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The liver is one of the most important organs in the body, performing many functions such as detoxifying the body and keeping many of its necessary processes and its general homeostasis in balance. When the liver is negatively affected by disease, life threatening symptoms can develop, and this is the reason that the disease Hepatitis is so dangerous. There are actually several different types of hepatitis that can be brought on by viral infection (with different specific viruses causing Hepatitis A, B, and C), bacterial infections, and even certain drugs and medications, and each different type and/or cause of hepatitis can have different specific symptoms. All hepatitis types affect liver function, however, and at times people can go for decades with a hepatitis infection and not even know it -- it is only when enough damage has been done to the liver over time that symptoms can actually be felt, and at that point a patient can already be in or near total liver failure.

The symptoms of hepatitis can include such minor and common things as fevers, fatigue, and nausea, but these symptoms can become sever and other more serious symptoms can also develop. Abdominal distension or swelling can occur, with pain and tenderness in the area of the liver, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and/or eyes) can occur due to a build up of chemicals that the liver normally helps to eliminate from the body, and due to hormonal changes men can even experience breast development, which has attendant pain and can have certain complications. General itching can also occur, and urine and stool both take on a different color and odor in many cases of different types of hepatitis.

Not all cases of hepatitis become sever enough to…… [read more]

Heart Disease Contrary to Popular Belief Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Heart Disease

Contrary to popular belief, cancer is not the leading cause of death among people in America. According to the American Heart Association, heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women. There are many conditions that contribute to heart disease which are: arrhythmia, high cholesterol, hypertension, congenital heart disease and several others (http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/). Because there are so many conditions that can cause heart disease, this paper will focus on heart disease in women. Many women are more concerned with breast or ovarian cancer and are not aware that heart disease kills more women than both of these types of cancer. Many women with heart disease aren't even aware that they have the disease which is why increased awareness of the disease in necessary. The more informed the woman is, the more she can do to prevent heart disease.

The symptoms of heart disease can include fatigue, shortness of breath, and numbness of extremities and vomiting, yet many women brush these symptoms off until they become too severe to ignore (Banks 430). With the busy lives that many women lead, they make take these symptoms as the result of having a stressful day and think that it is normal. Stress does play a role in heart disease as well as diet and physical activity. While some women may have hereditary factors which contribute to their condition, there are still many precautions that can be taken to reduce the risk of heart disease. Small changes can build up to gradual and long lasting improvements. It is important for women to make time to relax and reduce stress. Also, even though fast food is convenient it is often unhealthy so women must learn to prepare healthful meals and get to moving. Banks states that women are different physiologically from men in that their coronary vessels are much smaller making it easier for arteries to become blocked. She says that moderate physical activity such as walking for thirty minutes at least five times a week can help to prevent this blockage (432, 435).

Of particular note concerning heart disease in women is women of color, especially African-American women. Heart disease is extremely prevalent in minority…… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Is a Fatal Neurological Condition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Alzheimer's disease is a fatal neurological condition that typically appears first in elderly individuals; it is a progressive disease with no cure that causes the gradual deterioration of cognitive functions, eventually rendering patients completely incoherent and unable to process cognitive information or to communicate (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2008). The only definitive way to formally diagnose Alzheimer's disease is through a post-mortem identification of tangled neuron bundles and amyloid plaque at autopsy. However, the symptoms of the disorder are distinctive enough that they permit a practical diagnosis for the purpose of treatment (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2008).

While there is no way to stop the progression of the disease yet, early diagnosis is a benefit because it permits caretakers and patients to mitigate some of the negative consequences by adopting behavioral adaptations conducive to the comfort, safety, and health of patients and to the minimization of the burden the disease typically places on loved ones and other caretakers (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2008). Generally, Alzheimer's begins after the age of 60, although there are also less frequent cases of early-onset Alzheimer's among much younger individuals.

The disease begins and progresses very gradually, so much so, that it's earliest symptoms of mild forgetfulness and other cognitive decline are very often assumed to be functions of advanced age without any clinically relevant pathology (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2008). In fact, there are so many similarities between ordinary age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's that it is now believed that, for decades, millions of cases of Alzheimer's went unrecognized with the symptoms of the disease blamed on senile dementia. In many Alzheimer's patients, the disease may continue to progress over the course of approximately seven years from first onset of symptoms to death (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2008).

Initially, Alzheimer's begins with mild symptoms that are indistinguishable from ordinary age-related cognitive decline such as memory problems and general reduction in awareness and ability to care for one's self independently (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2008). Thereafter, Alzheimer's patients experience a continual decline in their memory, ambulation, balance, and their ability to communicate with others. Unfortunately, if the patient is otherwise healthy, Alzheimer's disease ultimately progresses to complete cognitive incapacity, inability to communicate or understand others, and frequently, even the ability to recognize loved ones, including even caretaking spouses. Physical symptoms of the disease include loss of vestibular integrity, inability to walk, and incontinence. By the time of their death, most Alzheimer's patients require complete care that usually exceeds the capacity of loved ones to provide without professional assistance (Taylor, Lillis, & LeMone, 2008).


Taylor C, Lillis C, and LeMone P. (2008). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.


In the contemporary age of modern industry and production, it has become quite common for work to continue round the cock, typically in connection with three 8-hour work shifts often referred to as first, second, and third shift (Lamond, Dorrian, Roach, et… [read more]

Epidemiology Sexual Transmitted Diseases Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,114 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Epidemiology-sexual transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

Sexually transmitted diseases: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

Primary: Health promotion and specific prevention strategies

Despite the increased publicity regarding the role of condom use in the prevention of sexually-transmitted diseases, there are an estimated 19 million new STD infections in the United States every year. "In 2006, more than 45,000 (of 56,300) new cases of HIV / AIDS have been attributed to sexual transmission; in addition, more than 1 million cases of Chlamydia and 355,991 cases of gonorrhea were reported in 2007" (Scott-Sheldon et al. 2009, p.1). Ignorance of how to prevent STDs with condoms is one, but not the only cause of these sobering statistics: "Patients in STD clinics often report other health-related problems, such as high levels of alcohol and drug use that may exacerbate their risk for HIV and/or STDs" (Scott-Sheldon et al. 2009, p.1). STD prevention, to be effective, cannot merely focus on condom use: encouraging teens and adults to limit substances that can impair good judgment and to understand the seriousness and commonness of all STDs is critical to the prevention of the spread of these public health threats. Teens and adults must understand that the consequences of STDs, including syphilis, Chlamydia, and the human papillomavirus virus (HPV) cannot be easily dismissed and cured by simply taking an antibiotic. The rise of antibiotic-resistant infections, the risks of undetected STDs, and more serious consequences, such as an increased risk of cervical cancer in the case of HPV are all the results of inadequate preventative strategies.

Educational efforts must be direct, have impact, and also speak the target audience's language in. One video-based waiting room intervention, entitled Safe in the City, specifically designed to address the needs of New York City residents was found to lower STD incidence among attendees at an STD clinic patients by a statistically significant margin. Researchers "found that patients who were exposed to a 23-minute HIV/STD prevention video had nearly a 10% reduction in new infections compared with those who were not exposed to the video" (Klausner 2003). STD prevention strategies are often more effective if targeted to specific populations -- the stress must be that the disease 'can happen to you' rather than seem like a theoretical threat. Teens must understand they are not invincible; adults must understand that despite the existence of antibiotics, STDs are often dangerously asymptomatic and are not discovered before serious damage is done. Women are also more likely to contract STDs from men than vice versa, and should be aware of their elevated risk. Regarding one specific STD, the genital human papillomavirus virus, vaccination is an additional option. "Vaccines can protect males and females against some of the most common types of HPV" (HPV, 2009, CDC).

Secondary: Early diagnosis and treatment

Early detection is critical in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. For example, undetected Chlamydia, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD), can progress to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic… [read more]

Communicable Disease Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,112 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Communicable Disease

Epidemiology has been defined as the study of the allocation and determinants of disease and injury in human populations. Epidemiologist study the differences of disease in relation to age, sex, race, occupational and social characteristics, place of residence, susceptibility, exposure to specific agents or other pertinent characteristics. Also of concern are the chronological distribution of disease, the examination… [read more]

Anorexia Nervosa Parkinson's Disease All People Contract Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,556 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Anorexia Nervosa

Parkinson's Disease

All people contract a disease sooner or later, and their well-being depends on the severity in form of the respective malady. There are numerous diseases known to mankind and some of them go back to the early ages where people had been aware that maladies exist and that they need to be treated some way or… [read more]

Coronary Artery Disease Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,179 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Coronary Artery Disease

The heart is a structurally equipped and well-functioning muscle, which sustains life. Healthy coronary arteries are clean, smooth, flexible and can expand to respond to the need of the heart for more oxygen. But faulty, fatty diet, and perhaps infection, can injure the functioning of the arteries. Coronary artery disease can develop. It begins with atherosclerosis or the accumulation of fatty substances. It can progress to angina or a heart attack. The disease affects other body systems (De Milto, 2001; American Heart Association 2007).

It is the leading cause of death in both sexes in the United States at one in every 4.8 (American Heart Association, 2007). Every 29 minutes, an American will have a heart attack and every minute, one will die of it. Many have silent coronary disease, which can lead to sudden death (American Heart Association).

Various treatments have been devised, such as antibiotics, statins and a regimen of work and social support (Barry, 2006; Hemingway, 1999; USA Today, 2006; Tarbutton & Mitra, 2007). High level of coronary artery calcium is said to increase the risk of developing the disease (Women's Health Advisor, 2008). The overall prognosis is said to be bright.

Coronary Artery Disease 2

Normal Aspects

The normal heart is a muscle, which is only a little bigger than a fist (American Heart Association, 2007). It beats 100,000 times a day and pumps approximately 2,000 gallons of blood daily and continuously through the circulatory system. It has two upper and two lower chambers. The upper chambers are the right atrium and the left atrium. The lower chambers are the right and left ventricles. It also has four heart valves, which open and close to allow blood flow in one direction. These are the tricuspid valve, the pulmonary valve, the mitral valve and the aortic valve. Blood is pumped through the chambers and aided by the valves. It returns to the heart through the veins and then enters the right atrium. The right atrium empties the blood into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve (American Heart Association).

Dark bluish blood is pumped under low pressure by the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery (American Heart Association, 2007). At this point, blood gets fresh oxygen, turns bright red. It then goes back to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins, crosses the mitral valve and goes to the left ventricle. Red oxygen-rich blood is pumped by the left ventricle through the aortic valve into the aorta. The aorta brings the blood throughout the body (American Heart Association). Healthy coronary arteries are clean, smooth, flexible and able to expand when needed (De Milto, 2001)

Deviations from Normal Anatomy and Physiology

The disease process in arteries generally begins with an injury to their linings and walls (De Milto, 2001). The injury renders them vulnerable to atherosclerosis and blood

Coronary Artery Disease 3 clots (thrombosis). Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of fatty materials in the linings of the arteries. In coronary artery disease,… [read more]

West's Niles Virus in Horses Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,009 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


West Nile Virus in Horses

The objective of this work is to examine West Nile Virus in horses in terms of its' origin, prevention and critical analysis for the reason of increase or decrease in statistical data related to West Nile Virus.

Both people and animals may become infected with West Nile Virus due to having been bitten by a… [read more]

Occupational Health and Safety and Lighting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,788 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … Risk and Hazard Factors of Bright Blue Light

The public is constantly being inundated by advertising that states that the intensity and range of colors offered by lamps that replicate sunshine and daylight are necessary for best vision and visual health. Simultaneously, the public is admonished by those in the medical field to wear blue-blocking, UV-protective sunglasses outdoors.… [read more]

HIV / AIDS Virus Has Claimed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,163 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


HIV / AIDS virus has claimed more lives in the past two decades than many other leading causes of death. To date more than 40 million people around the globe are affected by HIV / AIDS with sub-Saharan Africa being the hardest hit region. Ninety five percent of AIDS cases are reported from developing countries like Africa, India and China.… [read more]

Sickle Cell Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,291 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Sickle cell disease is a severely debilitating genetic disorder that has no real cure except the risky bone marrow transplantation. Pharmacological interventions are thus largely focused on symptomatic management and in reducing the discomfort and pain for the patient. The promise of gene therapy as a cure is not immediately imminent. The severe psychosocial issues associated with the disease makes… [read more]

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Is a Frightening Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,559 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a frightening name for an all-too common illness. It is the most common type of heart disease and the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women ("What Is Coronary Artery Disease?" NIH, 2007). More than 64 million Americans suffer from some form of cardiovascular disease, and in 2001, cardiovascular… [read more]

Eating Disorder Is an Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (933 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Eating disorder is an issue for many people and there is significant ratio of eating disorder many people are still suffering. There are different types of eating disorders people suffer. The eating disorder is a situation in which people usually do not feel well and they behave differently either they eat too much or do not eat anything. There are different types of eating disorder and many people face problem with these habits and they check for eating disorders. Eating disorder not only disturbs your physical health but also your mental health and sometimes it has severe effect on the body of human being. The main eating disorder includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge eating disorder. Once you are able to identify what type of eating disorder you are serving from then you can easily cure it but for that you must have to eliminate the root causes. (wikipedia, 2007)

Anorexia Nervosa:

Anorexia Nervosa is a special type of eating disorder and people who suffer from this usually have low body weight and their body image is distorted. People who are conscious about their weight and do not take care of their diet properly they usually suffer with Anorexia Nervosa. In America most of young females are suffering from Anorexia Nervosa. There are different reasons people suffer from this these and most of them are voluntary controls of their diet like starving from proper diet, vomiting, doing excessive exercises and usage of other weight control measures that can cause for Anorexia Nervosa. The ratio of Anorexia Nervosa is comparatively high in females as compare to males so the reason behind this is most of American females are very conscious about their weight and they sometimes go beyond limits to reduce their weight by using different types of pills so ultimately they also suffer from Anorexia Nervosa and also from side effects of those pills that may put severe problems for them after using. In America many people die due to this disease and most of people do not know about this disease. (Cohen Juliet)

The Anorexia Nervosa is harmful for body image and it also put strain on the major body parts. It causes physical disorder as well as emotional disorder in the people. It also cause hurdles and impediments on the functioning of heart and cardiovascular system of human being. There are many doctors that are suggesting that it can disturb heart beat and usually results in slow heart beat that can be dangerous for any person if the heart beat slows so much. People suffering from Anorexia Nervosa usually suffer from Heart failure, weakness of their muscles and dysfunction of immune. You will find many websites that are providing information on causes, symptoms and treatments of Anorexia Nervosa. In youngsters especially who have…… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease: The Onset as Alzheimer's Diseases Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,283 words)
Bibliography Sources: 33


Alzheimer's Disease: The Onset

As Alzheimer's diseases is believed to be the "dementing order" because of the recognized changes in the behavior and line of thinking of the person with the said disease. From the researchers' and the physicians' point-of-view, there is a possibility that anyone can get it, regardless of the age. More so, people should realize that Alzheimer's… [read more]

Infectious Disease Influenza Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … transmission and symptoms of the flu, treatments that are currently available, and how your organization can help mitigate the spread of this disease.

The first and possible the most effective method in regard to mitigating the spread of influenza is to properly educate the consuming public. This education campaign will allow others to be aware of the profound impact that the virus can have on an individuals day-to-day activities. This education can take many forms that can be adapted depending on the individual states needs. For example, states with high immigration rates such as Texas, Florida, and California are especially susceptible to the flu epidemic as immigrants are not properly vaccinated when entering the company. This in part, is a failure of the federal government to enforce immigration constraints and existing laws. This is also in part to the desire of many immigrants to obtain a better quality of life in American. As such, I believe the federal government should mandate the individual state health departments to determine what course of education would be appropriate in regards to the flu epidemic. This serves two purposes; first, the individual states can prioritize what aspects of the education campaign will be the most important heading into the upcoming flu season. I believe that individual states can prioritize their own needs better than the U.S. Federal Government can (1). By allowing the states to utilize their own methods, the spread of influenza will be better mitigated. As I mentioned previously, states with high immigration rates would particularly emphasis vaccination of immigrates and education of both children and parents of immigrants entering into the country. In contrast, states within the heartland of America could focus on the transmission of the virus through contact with agriculture, or in manufacturing plants due to unsanitary conditions. Second, by allowing the states to have this power, the government is allowing a market system to flourish which will better mitigate the spread of the virus. One state may develop a method far superior to the others in regards to the mitigation of the flu virus. In such instances, if other states deem it necessary, they too can implement the change and the nation will be better served because of it.

In addition to properly education, I would allow for more emphasis to be placed on medicine and subsequent treatment of the virus. Currently, treatment does exist, which I believe is quite effective in abating the spread of influenza. However, the treatment in many instances requires a shot to be administered to the patient. It is my contention that if a more ubiquitous…… [read more]

Influence of Disease on the Revolution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Smallpox in the Revolutionary War

The disease that caused the most serious problems during the Revolutionary War in America was smallpox. There were other diseases that afflicted the soldiers, but nothing took the terrible toll that smallpox did. This paper delves into some of the issues created by the smallpox outbreaks during the Revolutionary War.

The Literature on Smallpox in the Revolutionary War

"During the American Revolution, a huge epidemic of smallpox killed more Americans than did the war itself. Rumors of the British using smallpox as an early form of germ warfare had the American soldiers and colonists living in fear" (Furgang, 2010, p. 22).

Why did the war create the opportunity for such epidemics? Author Peter McCandless explains that the British suffered from smallpox to nearly the same degree that the Americans did. The British knew the "perils of warm-weather campaigning in the southern coastal lands," McCandless writes. The fact that the British were able to beat the revolutionaries in Florida and Georgia produced "their greatest victories to date but severely undermined the health of their forces" (McCandless, 2011, p. 84). Fighting in warm weather where viruses can grow faster, created the opportunity for the British to become sick.

Also, the patriots got sick in some instances because as McCandless explains on page 87, tents were in short supply forcing men to "…sleep exposed to the damp night air" which contributed to the disease's spread. In war, supplies are not always where they are needed when they are needed. On page 93, McCandless explains that the "spread of these diseases was facilitated by the constant movement of soldiers and residents." Elizabeth Fenn writes that when people who were stricken with smallpox moved "…from one place to another…they also carried microbes" (Fenn, 2002, p. 47).

What preventative measures were possible against this killer? Some of the troops were inoculated with the smallpox vaccination (although General George Washington was against soldiers getting inoculated, many went ahead against his orders), especially those that had not been exposed to smallpox in other campaigns. (Fenn, 2002). Washington tried to prevent the spread by keeping his troops "…at a certain distance from the small pox hospital" (Fenn, 48). Washington also…… [read more]

Respiratory Infections Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The patients with non-atopic asthma do not have elevated levels of IgE in blood serum and they do not have hypersensitivity to any allergens. However, there are certain immunologic mechanisms that have not been demonstrated Clark et al., 1999()

The risk factors of bronchial asthma usually lead to immunologic mechanisms whereby they cause irritation directly or indirectly as a result… [read more]

AIDS and Human Rights What Is the Best Approach Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


human rights approach to HIV / AIDS

Human rights approach to HIV

AIDS, a health problem that was first clinically identified more than thirty years ago has grown to become one of the major diseases affecting mankind. Since it began, the epidemic is estimated to have infected more than sixty million individuals with the virus and approximately thirty million deaths… [read more]

Multiple Sclerosis the Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Multiple Sclerosis

The disease multiple sclerosis, often shortened to MS, affects the central nervous system. The disease inflames the nervous system and scars nerve receptors leading to scarring and a process called demyelination. The cause of the disease is still under debate, but it is a combination of genetic and infectious. Despite having genetic factors that cause the disease to recur in families anywhere from a fifth to a third of the time once it happens to one family member, the disease is not considered hereditary and is driven by a lot of environmental factors. Overall, the basic cause of MS is not known at this time and there is no known cure to the disease.

Symptoms of the disease include weakness in the muscles, loss of balance and spasms with the early symptoms being weakness, blurred vision, numbness and tingling throughout the body. The disease can be triggered by stress and other nerve disorders often team up with MS to attack the patient. Viral infections such as the flu can also cause increased attacks and discomfort within a patient. Less common symptoms of MS include slurred speech and cognitive issues. Rarer still are instances of seizure and breathing problems.

The effects of MS can be managed but cannot really be stopped. The prognosis for an MS patient is generally not short-lived but the nervous system attacks that occur have to be managed. Drugs taken for MS include interferon beta drugs such as Betaseron, Avonex and Rebif. Also used are Glatiramer, Novantrone and therapies such as Tysabri and Cytoxan. Less common drugs that are used when others do not work are steroids, Baclofen and Gilenya.

1). Stimulation by the autonomic nervous system results in the increase insulin secretion from the pancreas during and after a meal. This increased production of insulin is a result of parasympathetic stimulation. An example of a parasympathetic function would be salivation. Also, acetylcholine agonists will stimulate insulin secretion. These are agents such as poisons and drugs that imitate or stimulate parasympathetic functions. Nicotine is one of many such substances.


2). When a person consumes a substantial amount of nicotine, the response is an increase in parasympathetic and sympathetic responses. Parasympathetic responses and sympathetic responses oppose each other but in a symbiotic way. Parasympathetic would be body functions such as salivation, digestion and defecation whereas sympathetic relates to organ function.


3). The cochlear neurons are stimulated by hairs in the inner ear which allows people to hear. Death of these hairs leads to deafness.

4). When people…… [read more]

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Respiratory Syncytial Virus / Bronchiolitis

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a very common cause of pneumonia and bronchitis, especially in children that are under one year of age. Generally, children develop a runny nose, fever, coughing, and sometimes wheezing as well. The first time children have RSV infection, generally between 25 and 40% of them show signs of pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Of those,.5% to 2% require a hospital stay. Generally, it takes between 8 and 15 days for children to recover. Many of the children that are hospitalized for this type of infection are in their first six months of life. It can generally cause repeated infections throughout an individual's life span as well, usually associated with cold-like symptoms that are moderate to severe. It is spread through close contact with individuals that already have the infection or contact with objects or surfaces that are contaminated. This can occur through contact with the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, or nose or contact with any type of infectious material, or when the virus is inhaled through the sneezes or coughs of other individuals. These are the most likely times for an infant to contract RSV. In climates that are very temperate outbreaks usually occur during the late fall, or early spring, but they can also take place in winter. It spreads very quickly among children and most children by two years of age have evidence of having had an RSV infection at some point (www.cdc.gov,2005).

In general, it is the most common cause of any type of lower respiratory tract infection in children throughout the world, and virtually all of them will contract it by the age of three. In infants, it is the strongest cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia and also plays a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In patients that have immunodeficiency, such as premature and very young infants that have not built up a strong immune system yet, there is a significant chance of morbidity and mortality as it spreads extremely easily. There have been two specific types of RSV identified, subtype a and subtype B. Subtype B is generally asymptomatic…… [read more]

Huntington's Disease Affects Families Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This was because it was Huntington that happened to present the disease in all its clarity of symptoms, and was also able to identify the hereditary nature of the disease, a fact that had not been discovered until that time. (Neurohistory, History of Huntington's disease)

While the various unrelated movements of chorea had been described in great detail before this… [read more]

West Nile Virus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (791 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Furthermore, New York and Newark both have active ports, where ships carrying goods from Israel dock. It does not require a stretch of the imagination to consider the fact that the West Nile Virus outbreak in America in 1999 was caused by the accidental transport of infected mosquitoes from Israel.

In support of the idea that the West Nile Virus was accidentally introduced to America by mosquitoes brought over from Israel is the fact that, in the summer of 1999, there were also two cases of malaria in New York City. Like West Nile Virus, malaria is a disease that is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes. Like West Nile Virus, one would expect malaria to occur in semi-tropical regions that traditionally have had malaria outbreaks. In the United States, those regions are generally confined to the southern half of the country. However, as previously indicated, the same conditions that promote mosquito growth in the South exist in the summer in New York City. In addition, most cases of malaria in America occur from travelers who have gone to infected regions without taking the proper precautions. There is no evidence that there was any link between the cases of malaria and West Nile Virus that occurred in New York City in 1999.

Furthermore, there is a final reason that argues against the idea that West Nile Virus was

Purposely introduced to the United States by terrorists; its relatively limited scope. Had a terrorist organization been determined to attack the United States with a biological agent, it would have been relatively simple to infect mosquitoes for that purpose. The limited scope of the virus, as well as the fact that it has appeared in the same populations (birds and horses) as in outbreaks around the world, help support the idea that the West Nile Virus has spread to the United States accidentally, and not as the result of terrorist intervention .

Works Referenced

"Background: Virus History and Distribution." West Nile Virus. 2004. Centers for Disease

Control and Prevention. 24 Apr. 2005


Giladi, Michael, Einat Metzkor-Cotter, Denise A. Martin, Yardena Siegman-Igra, Amos D.

Korczy, Raffaele Rosso, Stephen A. Berger, Grant L. Campbell, and Robert S. Lanciotti. "West Nile Encephalitis in Israel, 1999: The New York Connection." West Nile Virus. 2001. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 24 Apr. 2005

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no4/giladi.htm.… [read more]

Patient's Perspective of Parkinson's Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Parkinson's Disease: A Patients Perspective

Being diagnosed with a progressive neurological disease is never easy for a patient or family member. Recently my father was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. A proud man, it took a lot of strength and courage initially to admit that something was wrong. Because Parkinson's is a progressive disease there is a strong likelihood that my… [read more]

West Nile Virus Was First Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 2002 a Michigan woman contracted the virus through a blood transfusion she received shortly after giving birth, and some weeks later, an analysis of the baby's blood showed presence of the West Nile virus (West1). Moreover, there are at least two other reported cases of the virus transmission through breast-feeding (West1). And again in 2002, two microbiologists who were involved in West Nile virus surveillance and research, contracted the virus through skin wounds acquired while working with infected animals (West1).

The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, APHIS, is part of the United States Department of Agriculture and is responsible for protecting and promoting agricultural health, administering the Animal Welfare Act, and carrying out wildlife damage management activities (Guidelines). The APHIS Veterinary Services, VS, is concerned about horses and other equine (Guidelines). Since the first detection of the West Nile virus in the United States in 1999, there have been 85 cases of illness in horses that have attributed to the West Nile virus infection, and 32, or 38%, of those horses died or were euthanatized (Guidelines). Many additional horses that did not develop clinical illness have been found to be infected with the virus based on detection of antibodies to the virus, however no transmission of the virus has been documented from horses, either directly or through mosquitoes (Guidelines). To prevent exposure of equine to the virus it is essential to prevent their exposure to mosquitoes, by taking measures such as eliminating stagnant water sources where mosquitoes may breed, and by insect proofing stables and other measure that reduce exposure of equine to mosquitoes (Guidelines). There is no vaccine currently available, however vaccine development is moving forward and a product may soon be approved for use in horses (Guidelines).

Work Cited

Guidelines for Investigating Suspect West Nile Virus Cases in Equine. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:


NIAID Research on West Nile Virus. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious

Disease. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:


West1 Nile Virus: Signs and Symptoms; Causes. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:



West Nile Virus. The National Biological Information Infrastructure. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from: http://westnilevirus.nbii.gov/

West2 Nile Virus Poliomyelitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/qa/Poliomyelitis.htm… [read more]

Vili Ventilator Induced Lung Injury Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ventilator Induced Lung Injury (VILI) is an acute lung injury that occurs because of volutrauma and excessive use of oxygen. While it not a new concept, the injury occurs when the lung is damaged by the action of mechanical ventilation. Notably, mechanical ventilation has largely been used to support patients who are acutely ill for many decades. However, clinicians and… [read more]

Communicable Disease: Measles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


, 2011). Based on its high degree of contagiousness, vaccine coverage levels in the range of 95% to 98% are needed in order to prevent the continuing spread of the disease (Naseri & Salimi, 2011). According to epidemiological studies by Diekmann, Heesterbeek and Britton (2013), "Weather conditions may influence the probability of transmission [and] age structure may necessitate the use… [read more]

Emergent Human Diseases Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Generally, if henipah viruses evolve to be transmitted eagerly through casual contact, there are concerns that it could spread even rapidly and widely even throughout the world.

As noted in the past four decades, any emergent human disease and ecological infectious disease is usually caused by demographical changes and encroachment into wild lands. The failure to take care of the natural world can generally contribute to breakdown of the ecosystems that in turn result in emerging and ecological infectious diseases. The developing model of infectious diseases like SARS and Ebola that have taken place in the past several decades is because of the things people do to nature. Therefore, as it turns out, disease can largely be regarded as an environmental issue since 60% of emerging human and ecological infectious diseases originate in animals, especially wildlife. Consequently, several teams of conservation biologists and veterinarians are involved in global initiatives medical doctors, other clinical professionals, and epidemiologists to understand the ecology of disease.

Since new infectious diseases continue to emerge at alarming and historically unprecedented rates, the world is still at great risks of emerging human and ecological infectious pandemics and epidemics (Gutierrez, 2009). Actually, the world is at risk of the emergence of more than one disease annually due to the ever-increasing rate of global transportation. Furthermore, there is a great risk of the emergence of drug-resistant strains because of poor medical practices such as misuse of antibiotics. However, my family and I are not at risk of any emergent diseases because of the preventive measures that we are constantly engaged in. some of these preventive measures include ensuring that we take routine vaccinations and getting immunizations as recommended by the doctor.


Gutierrez, D. (2008, January 5). WHO Warns of High Risk of Global Epidemic from Emerging

Diseases. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.naturalnews.com/022457_emerging_disease_World_Health_Organization.html

Robbins, J. (2012, July 14). The Ecology of Disease. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/15/sunday-review/the-ecology-of-disease.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0… [read more]

Cardiovascular System 10 Diseases With Symptoms and Treatment Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (874 words)
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Cardiovacular System: 10 Diseases With Symptoms and Treatment

There are many different types of heart diseases. As such, there is a variety of symptoms that pertain to these diseases. Still, some diseases share the same symptoms and the same basic types of treatment. Others, however, have distinct symptoms and forms of treatment.

The principle symptom associated with coronary heart disease is chest pain. Other symptoms include a heart attack. Essentially, coronary heart disease results from a blockage of the coronary arteries. There are a variety of forms of treatment for this condition, which vary in efficacy due to the specific symptoms a patient endures and the stage of this disease in which he or she is in. Lifestyle changes can treat this condition, and include controlling one's weight, refraining from smoking, and engaging in regular exercise. There are also medications to lower cholesterol and options for surgery.

Some of the symptoms of the condition known as hypertensive heart disease include tiredness, putting on excess weight, shortness of breath, a feeling of bloating, as well as a large heart. Other symptoms include swollen ankles and nausea. Treatment includes detecting high blood pressure and taking a variety of measures to lower and control it. Lifestyle activities that can promote effective treatment include refraining from drinking alcohol, smoking, and staying at the proper weight. There are also certain narcotics one can take to manage this condition.

Symptoms of heart failure include a swelling of one's legs, difficulty conducting physical exercise, and a shortness of breath. This condition is one in which the heart has difficulty pumping enough blood to properly suffuse the body. Treatments for heart failure include taking a number of oral medications, as well as making lifestyle adjustments to improve one's overall health. These adjustments may involve keeping one's weight down, and engaging in healthy eating habits.

Arrhythmia is another heart disease in which the heart beats irregularly. It may beat either too slow or too fast. The primary symptom that is indicative of this condition is palpitations, in which a patient is acutely aware of his or her own heart beating. Dizziness and fainting are other symptoms. Some treatments for this condition include pacemakers and other regulators for the heart. There is also conventional oral medication and well as certain physical maneuvers.

Myocarditis is a disease in which there is inflammation close to the heart. Symptoms for this condition can involve chest pain, heart failure, palpitations and fever. Most treatment for this condition includes those that are directly aimed at counteracting the effects of symptoms. Treatment may call for simple bed rest, diuretics or digoxin. Inotropes and…… [read more]

Disease Trend. Some Examples Tuberculosis Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This explanation ties into another key point that the article made, that at least in the United States, research was abandoned due to the formulation of formal regulations regarding work on the bird flu. The author states that the recent publication of research guidelines in Science Magazine as completed by the National Institute of Health coincides with the revival of interest in the topic domestically. This information is somewhat at odds with Moritz's statement that the University voluntarily decided to stop working on the virus. Interestingly enough, while the article merely suggests that the University of Wisconsin may resume research on the bird flu, it does state that research has "started" in other parts of the world (Eucalano, 2013).

This allusion to the global perspective of research on the bird flu is also another one of the reasons that the author claims was responsible for the temporary cessation of work on the subject. The general public decried acts of research at the University of Wisconsin as well as in the Netherlands that was based on animal testing. Researchers claimed that involving animals, and ferrets in particular, helped them to glean a fair amount of insight into how this particular virus is transmitted. Eucalano implies that testing on animals was viewed as unethical by some members of the public, and which may have contributed to the respite from research on the subject. "People questioned what was the benefit of this type of research," said Moritz, who maintained that "the benefit is global public health" (Eucalano, 2013).

In summary, Eucalano's article is primarily about the probable resumption of research on the bird flu in the United States. The author suggests that there was an international respite in this research due to a plethora of reasons, some of which appear to contradict one another. For instance, representatives from the University of Wisconsin say they voluntarily desisted from research, while there is information in the article that implies the domestic government prevented this facility from conducting research on this virus. The article makes no claims about the treatment of the disease largely because additional research is required to effectively facilitate treatment. The scope of the article is both domestic and international; the emphasis on the reasons for the moratorium on researching this subject at the university of Wisconsin provide facts about the former, while the involvement of Dutch researchers and references to renewed international research on this subject give the article a decidedly global perspective.


Eucalano, S. (2013). "Bird flu studies to resume shortly." The Badger Herald. Retrieved from…… [read more]

Disorders in Older People Alzheimer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,151 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the management of Alzheimer's disease, the approved treatment includes Donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and tacrine in mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment in patients with AD. Donepezil has also been FDA approved for use in moderate-to-sever AD.

Apart from management, ongoing assessment is required for patients with Alzheimer's. According to Uriri-Glover, McCarthy and Cessaroti (2013), this entails the use of the standardized rating… [read more]

Hepatitis a Causative Agent Virus Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,038 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Avoiding potentially contaminated food and water is also essential. This includes the water that may have been used to wash fruit and vegetables, as well as seemingly innocent ice cubes in drinks. When traveling abroad, relying upon bottled water is suggested (Zieve 2011). To avoid the transmission of fluids by air, good ventilation and proper air filtration in healthcare settings and in kitchens and dining halls is also suggested.

Slide 5: Portals of entry

Oral (ingestion)

Intercourse and needle-sharing (semen and blood)

Being in an environment where bodily fluids are often exchanged

Speaker notes: Common portals of entry include eating contaminated food or water (ingestion); exchanging bodily fluids through needle-sharing or sexual practices; living in a nursing home, rehabilitation center, or having an extended hospital stay, or being in a profession which requires close contact with other persons, such as healthcare, food, sewage, or daycare. Because of the difficulty of controlling one's food and water purity, frequent international travel also places one at high risk, where sanitary practices may be less carefully observed (Zieve 2011). Patients with frequent wounds (such as hemophiliacs) or patients with conditions which require them to use catheters (like dialysis) are also at much greater risk, as are the persons who care for them. Using disposable medical devices; proper hand-washing with hot water and soap; using gloves; guarding against potential 'puncture' wounds are necessary in a healthcare environment. In a food service environment, frequent hand-washing is also required; responsible sourcing of foods and disposal of potentially contaminated food; and educating all workers in proper food sanitation is demanded.

Travelers should avoid street food and diners should eat food that is properly prepared: food should be properly chilled or cooked. Undercooked or raw meat and fish should be avoided. Boiling water for one minute or more kills the virus and can be used as an alternative source of decontamination if no bottled water is available (Zieve 2011).

Slide 6: Susceptible host

Persons in high-risk occupations should be vaccinated

Vaccines also suggested for persons likely to suffer complications

Speaker notes: For persons in high-risk occupations; persons who are in relationships with known carriers; and persons with compromised immune symptoms vaccinations are available. Healthcare workers, IV drug users, and food service personnel are at the highest level of occupationally-related risk. The elderly or persons with compromised immune systems or liver are at greatest risk for suffering complications from hepatitis A, which is considered to be the 'mildest' form of hepatitis. Vaccines are protective after four months, and are then followed by six-month or yearly booster shots to provide longer protection (Zieve 2011).

There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A, once it is contracted, although infected persons should be medically supervised. However, it can cause acute liver failure, which can be fatal, so patients should be under the treatment of a physician when identified as infected and monitored until they no longer test positive (Hepatitis A, 2012, WHO).


Hepatitis A (2013). World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved:


Zieve,… [read more]

Parkinson's Disease Is a Neurological Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



EuroStemCell. (2012). Parkinson's Disease: How could stem cells help? Eurostemcell.org. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://www.eurostemcell.org/factsheet/parkinson%E2%80%99s-disease-how-could-stem-cells-help

National Institute Of Health. (2013). Parkinson disease. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/parkinson-disease

NHGRI. (2011). Learning About Parkinson's Disease. National Human Genome Research Institute. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://www.genome.gov/10001217

Talan, J. (2012). Parkinson's Disease. The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2013 from http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/parkinsons-disease/overview.html#Exams-and-Tests


BOLD -- Parent 1

NOT BOLD -- Parent 2

A_ - affected if dominant autosomal unaffected, but carrier if recessive

AA -- affected if dominant autosomal unaffected if recessive aa -- unaffected if dominant autosomal affected if recessive

Dominant autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease

Recessive autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being a carrier of the mutation; 0% chance of being affected by Parkinson's disease

Dominant autosomal: 75% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease; 25% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease

Recessive autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being carrier of the mutation; 25% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 25% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease

Dominant autosomal: 100% chance of offspring being affected by Parkinson's disease

Recessive autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 50% chance of offspring being a carrier for the mutation

Dominant autosomal: 50% chance of offspring being unaffected by Parkinson's disease; 50% chance of offspring being affected…… [read more]

Cardiovascular Disorders Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Cardiovascular Disorders

One of the most common ailments is cardiovascular disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control, nearly 600 thousand people die every year from this condition. The costs are totaling $108.90 billion annually from lost productivity, medications and health care services. This is illustrating the overall scope of the problem and the impact it is having on society. To fully understand the patho-physiology of cardiovascular disorders requires focusing on: genetic factors / their impact on the condition, the alteration (i.e. congestive heart failure) and how hypertension can lead to the complications. Together, these elements will highlight the primary causes and the impact it is having on the underlying levels health for large segments of society. ("Heart Disease Facts," 2013)

Patient Factor: Genetics and its Impact on their Condition

Congestive heart failure is when the individual cannot pump enough blood to meet their body's needs. This is caused from some kind of blockage that is slowing the flow through one of the ventricles. The way that this is impacting the patho- physiology is to increase the chances of the heart becoming completely blocked or too weak to meet the demands of the body. When this happens, the odds increase that they will have fatal stroke or heart attack. Genetics is having a major impact on the patient's condition. This is because the genes which are inherited from relatives will play a major part in determining who is most susceptible. ("Heart Failure," 2013) (Kolata, 2010) ("Heart Disease and Stroke," 2012)

In a study that was conducted by the University of Cincinnati, researchers concluded that people who inherit two common gene variants are ten times more likely to have congestive heart failure. These findings were determined by carefully examining 159 patients with congestive heart failure and comparing them with 189 people who did not have any of these issues. During this process, there was a focus on race and lifestyle choices (with both being equal for each of these groups). They concluded that genetics is one of the single most important factors in determining if someone is likely to develop the condition. (Kolata,…… [read more]

Digestive Disorders Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Digestive Disorders


Prior to denoting just what specifically the pathophysiological mechanism of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease are, it is necessary to present a little background information about these two gastrointestinal disorders. There is a substantial amount of overlap between the symptoms for these conditions, which affects the pathophysiological mechanisms they engender. Additionally, Inflammatory Bowel Disease is actually an overarching term that refers to two different medical conditions: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

As such, inflammatory bowel diseases produce an inflammation in some part of the digestive tract. Symptoms include a substantial amount of pain in the abdomen area, which may be so great that it interferes with normal activities such as sitting, working, and even eating. It is worth noting that the specific area of inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases can take place in any part of the digestive track.

This is critical information when comparing the similarities and differences with the preceding condition with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. This latter conditions strictly involve a disruption with typical functions of the colon. Additionally, Irritable Bowel Syndrome is just one disease, and does not refer to multiple conditions like Inflammatory Bowel Disease does. Specific pathophysiological mechanisms associated with it include diarrhea, cramps, constipation, and a bloated feeling. Both of these conditions are chronic. However, there is empirical evidence that validates the notion that Irritable bowel syndrome can precipitate inflammatory bowel disease (Porter et al., 2012). This is a key distinction between the two and alludes to the fact that often, Irritable bowel syndrome is associated with stressful situations and negative changes in one's life, whereas Inflammatory Bowel Disease is generally conceived of as a more "organic" disease that is strictly physically based (Pace et al., 2003, p. 1031).


Treatments for inflammatory bowel disease require…… [read more]

HIV / AIDS on American Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,463 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


What they found in that research was that there has been a dramatic decline in coverage of the HIV / AIDS epidemic as well as a "…shift in portrayal of risk in the U.S." (Stevens, et al., 2013). There was a shift in focus over those fifteen years of newspaper coverage, Stevens explains, and the newer focus was on the… [read more]

Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,287 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

Normal Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production:

The stomach produces gastric acid in order to break down food products into necessary vitamins and eventual waste product; this is the normal function and when there is not a medical issue to prevent or inhibit the acids from performing their proper job, there are no negative consequences for its existence. There are three stages of gastric acid stimulation and production in a normally-functioning body. First there is the cephalic phase where thought, taste, smell, or sight of food begins acid stimulation. These processes incite the gastrointestinal tract to begin producing the acid and secreting it into the stomach so that the food that is eventually consumed can be broken down. Then, begins the gastric phase where the chemicals within food are distributed into the stomach. When the food hits the stomach, it is met by hydrochloric acid which has already been secreted. The food is dissolved by the acid and broken down into its essential components. Finally, during the intestinal phase the final bits of acid are secreted in response to the consumption of a meal. As the food content travels through the gastrointestinal tract, it is further broken down into either nutrients or waste matter. The level of acid produced is usually in direct correlation to the size of the meal and the content of the food products consumed. Acid and pepsin are created within the stomach which itself has mechanisms designed to protect the organs and inner body from the caustic nature of the substances produced (Soll 2013). These defenses and healing mechanisms are controlled by neural, endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine paths within the human body, provided all mechanisms are functioning properly.

Changes that Occur to Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production with GERD, PUD, and Gastritis Disorders:

When a person has issues with their gastrointestinal tract because of GERD, PUD, or Gastritis conditions, there are actually changes that occur with regard to acid stimulation and production. In some cases, the stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract produces too mucho f the gastric acid; too much of this makes it impossible for the body to function normally and the acid, having already destroyed the food products for which they were created, begin attacking the actual body. In GERD patients, the acid that is produced is refluxed by the body into the esophagus which can cause a great deal of discomfort. According to Kahrilas (2003), "Once reflux has occurred, impaired acid clearance prolongs exposure of the mucosa to the damaging effects of the refluxate" (page S7). Acid is secreted into body parts which are not prepared for it and has not been designed to defend itself against the damage this acid can cause (Kahrilas 2003,-page S5). PUD (peptic ulcer disease) is diagnosed when a patient has gastric, duodenal, or esophageal ulcers which are most often caused by a bacterial infection of Helicobacterpylori or H. pylori. Usually PUD is caused by hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid or pepsin which… [read more]

Communicable Disease/Community Nursing 2003 SARS Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Individuals suffering from respiratory and cardiovascular disease should avoid spending time outdoors on days when pollutant concentrations reach levels that have caused health problems in the past.

Urban pollution levels in the United States and Canada can be monitored using the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI), which can be accessed through the appropriate government agency, online, and through news channels (reviewed by Abelsohn and Stieb, 2011). Patients with respiratory and cardiovascular disease should monitor the severity of their symptoms in relation to the AQHI, thereby allowing them to use the AQHI to predict periods when spending time outdoors or certain activities would exacerbate their symptoms. Monitoring the AQHI will reveal that some patients react adversely to even low levels of air pollution, depending on what activities they engage in and how much time is spent outdoors.

Once a patient learns how their symptoms react to air pollution levels, as determined by the AQHI, they can adjust their outdoor activities accordingly (reviewed by Abelsohn and Stieb, 2011). For example, patients who are still physically active may want to reschedule a strenuous outdoor activity to periods when pollution levels have returned to a lower level or move the activity indoors. Patients with more severe disease may benefit from avoiding outdoor activity altogether, closing the windows, and utilizing a filtration system capable of removing many of the pollutants discussed above.


Abelsohn, Abe and Stieb, D.M. (2011). Health effects of outdoor air pollution: Approach to counseling patients using the Air Quality Health Index. Canadian Family Physician, 57(8), e280-e287.

CDC. (2004a). Fact sheet: Basic information about SARS. CDC.gov. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/sars/about/fs-SARS.pdf.

CDC. (2004b). In the absence of SARS-CoV transmission worldwide: Guidance for surveillance, clinical and laboratory evaluation, and Reporting Version 2. CDC.gov. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/sars/Surveillance/absence.pdf.

CDC. (2004c). Supplement B: SARS Surveillance. V. Reporting of cases of SARS-CoV disease. CDC.gov. Retrieved 12 Apr. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/sars/guidance/B-surveillance/reporting.pdf.

Hsieh, Ying-Hen, Lee, Jen-Yu, Chang, Hsiao-Ling. (2004). SARS epidemiology modeling. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(6), 1165-1167.

Lau, Yu Lung and Peiris, J.S. Malik. (2005). Pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Current Opinion in Immunology, 17, 404-410.

Totura, Allison L. And Baric, Ralph S. (2012). SARS coronavirus pathogenesis: Host innate immune responses and viral antagonism of interferon. Current Opinion in Virology, 2, 264-275.

Zhao, Guo-ping. (2007). SARS molecular…… [read more]

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