"Disease / Virus / Disorder / Injury" Essays

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Wasted: A Memoir of Anorexia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Girls tend to have more problems with eating disorders than boys do, but some boys also have this problem. All middle and high school students should read this book so that they understand more about the dangers of trying to be too thin. Many don't seem to realize all of the dangers to the organs and the rest of the body that can occur from prolonged starvation and vomiting. If an eating disorder continues too long, that damage can be unrepairable, and even someone who is actually working to eat more and get better cannot always be saved when the disorder has progressed this far.

There are many lessons and messages that Hornbacher tries to get across in her book, but the two main ones are that this disorder is very real and very painful, and that the recovery from this disorder can literally take a lifetime. Once the disorder is allowed to continue for very long at all, it becomes a pattern that is difficult to break, and many who have the disorder never break it, and die as a consequence.

In order to avoid this tragic end, parents and others who are close to someone who might have an eating disorder need to be vigilant and get help as soon as they notice any kind of problem. Denying it will not make it go away, and will not help the person with the disorder. Anyone can develop an eating disorder, but many of the people who do so are young women who have difficult home lives.

Messages that the media provide to society do not help the battle against anorexia and bulimia, but they are not the only problem. The poor quality of many people's home lives affect eating disorders more than the media does, but there are many factors that can be a problem. Understanding is really the only way to help with eating disorders, and this understanding has been slow in coming. It is books like Hornbacher's that will help to…… [read more]

Melanoma/Amelanotic Melanoma Is a Malignant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (957 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Clinicopathologic cellular subtypes of malignant melanoma are: "Superficial spreading, Nodular, Lentigo maligna, Acral lentiginous (palmar/plantar and subungual), Miscellaneous unusual types: Mucosal lentiginous (oral and genital), Desmoplastic, Verrucous" (General pg).

Studies have been found to be considerably variable concerning the histologic diagnosis of melanomas and benign pigmentented lesions (General pg).

One study, examined by a panel of experienced dermatopathologists, found there was discordance on the diagnosis of melanoma vs. benign lesions in 37 of 140 cases (General pg). Another study, examined by a panel of expert pathologists, revealed that 38% of cases had two or more discordant interpretations (General pg). Such studies prove how difficult it is to distinguish between benign pigmented lesions and early melanoma (General pg).

Surgery is the most common treatment for melanoma, in fact some 95% of cases are treated with surgery first, then other treatments such as, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of the three, may be added as needed (Melanoma pg). An example of combination therapy would be three days of DTIC and cisplatin followed by eight days of Interleukin-2 and Interferon per month (Melanoma pg). Chemotherapy can be systemic treatment, affecting cancerous cells over the entire body, or localized, called infusion and perfusion, where chemicals are placed into the melanoma area (Melanoma pg). Although, Interferon and Interleukin are common forms of Immunotherapy, vaccine therapy is another form, however, most all vaccine therapies are considered experimental and unproven, yet many look promising (Melanoma pg).

Exfoliative Cytopathology includes gynecologic specimens, such as pap smears, non-gynecological specimens and outside slides (Section pg). Prepared specimens are sent to cytotechnologists for preliminary screening and evaluated by a cytopathogist (Section pg). Fine Needle Aspiration, FNA, biopsies are performed by cytopathologists who smear, stain and evaluate the aspirated material, as well as issue a preliminary diagnosis while the patient is waiting (Section pg). "The deep aspirations are procured by radiologists under guidance (including fluoroscopy, CT scan and ultrasound) and require immediate cytological assessment of adequacy, specimen triage and subsequent interpretation" (Section pg). Involving cases of "unclassified neoplasms, lymphoproliferative disorders and breast cancer, additional passes are obtained for immunocytochemistry markers, flow cytometry, cytogenetic and molecular studies as indicated" (Section pg). The FNA diagnosis, in many cases, is reinforced by ancillary tests of aspirated cells, "and the clinical findings are the working diagnosis on which definitive therapy is based" (Section pg). Due to the diversity and primary diagnostic nature of the majority of the aspiration specimens, "heavy emphasis is placed on the use of ancillary studies for both diagnosis and prognosis" while "a final cytopathology report integrates all the ancillary studies" (Section pg).

Works Cited

General Information: Melanoma. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/templates/doc_pdq.aspx?version=healthprofessional&cdrid=62917#Section_1.(accessed 06-27-2003).

Melanoma. http://www.tustison.com/melfaq.html.(accessed 06-27-2003).

Section of Cytopathology. University of Texas Cancer Center. http://www3.mdanderson.org/depts/pathology/cytopathology.(accessed 06-27-2003).… [read more]

2003 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,262 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This same theory held true for potential tourists. Thurow contends, "There is no reason for a tourist to be brave. They are on vacation to have fun and there are a lot of other fun places to visit that do not have SARS (5). With the quarantines, the screenings, and general panic experienced in Southeastern Asia (mostly due to the… [read more]

SARS With a Focus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Compared to 10 days ago, our active caseload is down by half," Ontario health commissioner Colin D'Cunha said (Canada, 2003)."

This recent outbreak was the second time Toronto dealt with SARS. Just as the first outbreak was under control and officials removed the need for SARS preventative measures that included "gloves, gowns and masks on all hospital staff -- as the first SARS outbreak came under control and active SARS cases were being reduced to single digits. Everything came back on quickly after the man's discovery."

This second outbreak provided new information about its transmission according to health officials.

People can be mildly infected... that in itself is not very surprising, but what's more important is could these people transmit the virus when they had such a mild disease," Low said, adding that there was no evidence of such transmission (Canada, 2003). "


SARS is a new and scary problem around the world. While it began in China and was moved through people who traveled the world was not overly concerned other than containing travelers to and from that area. When an outbreak began Toronto the world became more uneasy. Toronto is a hub of activity for travelers worldwide both in business and for pleasure. The Toronto outbreak was carefully monitored and brought under control which lead to preventative measure being relaxed. This caused another outbreak. The Toronto SARS outbreak has provided several new pieces of evidence including the fact that it is more easily transmitted than originally thought. Toronto is working hard to contain the virus to its area and not allow it to spread. With luck and careful monitoring it will be successful in its quest.


Author not available, Q&A: WHY TORONTO, AGAIN?: SARS ROUND TABLE: Ontario needs a better response system for SARS, say front-line experts., Maclean's, 06-09-2003, pp 26.


Author not available, Death toll from SARS in Toronto rises to 36., AP Worldstream, 06-20-2003.

Author not available, Canada remains cautious over SARS as active caseload declines., Agence France Presse English, 06-19-2003.

Author not available, Q&A: WHY TORONTO, AGAIN?: SARS ROUND TABLE: Ontario needs a better response…… [read more]

Autism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of the most comprehensive studies of the link between vaccinations and the preservatives in them and autism was published last year in the New England Journal of Medicine. Titled "A Population-Based Study of Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccination and Autism," authors Kreesten Meldgaard etal found there to be no link between the Thimerosal in vaccination preparations and autism. This piece of research is certainly a compelling argument against any connection; it is perhaps not, however, the final word on the subject that its authors argue it to be. While its findings are sound, they are limited to the MMR vaccine; this is not the only vaccine that can contain Thimerosal.

This paper is based upon epidemiological research rather than biological research; in other words, it is a correlation study between vaccination type, timing and the onset of autism vis-a-vis "standard" rates of autism. This alone makes one part of the case against a connection between autism and vaccination. Other research based not on post-facto epidemiological studies but rather on the biology of autism (and in general of auto-immune syndromes) must be considered as well.

Other researchers have investigated this aspect of a possible connection between vaccinations and autism and have again found that there is no link between the biology of autism and mercury as a trigger (although heavy metals are triggers for some types of auto-immune responses. For example, Trottier et al. (1999) found that rather than environmental triggers (which would include vaccinations), the primary cause for autism appears to be genetic. (Their work did not exclude the possibility that environment factors might not trigger autism in a genetically susceptible individual, but found no evidence that Thimerosal was one of these triggers.) They concluded that there is certainly a biological element to autism and one that is linked to inheritance, but that environment may also play a role. (This is hardly surprising; nearly every disease is affected by both genetic and environmental factors).

In summary, the prevailing view is that autism is caused by a pathophysiologic process arising from the interaction of an early environmental insult and a genetic predisposition (p. 115).

Comi etal (1999) found the same concatenation of environmental and genetic factors to be at play in the onset of autism.

An increased number of autoimmune disorders [in patients' families] suggests that in some families with autism, immune dysfunction could interact with various environmental factors to play a role in autism pathogenesis." (Comi etal, 1999, p. 394).

Other research (Barak etal, 1998) have found that the trigger for autism may well be viral infections of the central nervous systems. (The authors also found a genetic propensity for such viral infections; thus the picture presented in this case between environmental influences and genetic ones vis-a-vis autism becomes even more complex.) large amount of research into autism has in fact found links between the onset of autism and either other viral infections as well as the onset of autism and a variety of auto-immune conditions. Kiln (1998), for… [read more]

Exercise and Proper Diet: Solutions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,463 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It also increases blood pressure, which is the primary reason why smoking is harmful to the health of an individual (aside from lung cancer) (Heartsavers 2003).

Physical inactivity or lack of exercise also causes heart diseases. Aside from lowering the blood pressure of an individual, exercise greatly contributes to the replenishment of oxygen-carrying blood to the circulatory system, particularly the… [read more]

AIDS in South Africa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The majority of South Africans will be affected by this epidemic everyone in the nation is likely to know someone among their family members, friends and colleagues who is sick with the disease. Many may well lose any sense that there can ever be a world in which AIDS is defeated (Cohen 2002; Bennett 2002)

Social and political instability… [read more]

Graphs Were Complied Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (810 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As can be seen by the chart less then 10% of the total tested actually returned a positive result.

The test results as noted on the following chart show that those who tested positive for HIV overwhelming had no know risk factors, as graded by the counselors who met with the subjects and conducted the tests. The subjects were tested and given the opportunity to return for a second or more times. Most subjects did return once.

Risk factors broken down by code and total number of HIV positive test results per risk factor:

The chart clearly illustrates that the highest number of positive test results for the Aids virus were those who were coded Q, which is no known risk factors prior to testing.

While 14 cases tested positive for the HIV virus that had no known risk factors, there was 1 case each for each of the other factors noted and 4 instances where the subject had multiple risk factors assigned. As mentioned earlier of the 22 who tested positive for HIV all chose to return once for a second visit, and 15 met with a counselor.

This style of charts was used for their simplicity in relating the raw data in the easiest to understand form. A pie chart could have been used with the data as well but the visual impact would have been muddy by the smaller slices of data represented with the 1 incidence entries for each risk category noted.

The break down by age shows that on average Hispanics were 6 years older then Blacks in the test results:


Avg. Age

The subjects who returned a positive test broke down evenly between male and female. However, an interesting divide occurs between Hispanics and Blacks. Among Hispanics, the positive test cases were all male, while the group that tested positive for HIV among Blacks were all Female:





Distribution of positive cases by zip code:

Number of…… [read more]

HIV What Is HIV? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,497 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As HIV advances, victims start to show more symptoms and may feel a loss of energy. This often goes hand-in-hand with systemic infections, such as tuberculosis.

Some of symptoms shown by HIV victims include (Cohen, pp. 38-39):

Unusual weight loss.

Extended periods of diarrhea.

A white coating on the tongue.

Swollen glands.

A persisting cough and/or fever.

Yeast infection.

In… [read more]

Uns-El-Wujood and El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The compulsion Uns-El-Wujood has to endanger his life in search of El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam is a sure sign of the intoxicating effects of desire. Passion and romance are described by Uns-El-Wujood as being extremely pleasurable: "the lover is intoxicated by his passion," (p. 202). However, separation kills the high: "when his desire increaseth, he recovereth," (p. 202).

Desire and longing create immense physical suffering for El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam and Uns-El-Wujood. It is as if they are not in control of their minds or their bodies once they fall in love and are thwarted from fulfilling their affair. Desire afflicts them as any virus or disease would, by affecting both body and mind. The lovers feel actual physical sensations like heat in their chests, and their bodies suffer the result of food and sleep deprivation. The lovers cannot heal themselves in their separation, however. Time and patience, contrary to common sense, are not cures for desire. The lovers repeat their willingness to be patient, but both of them continue to waste away and suffer. Their affliction is so serious that their parents, their sultans, and all who come into contact with them sympathize and try to help them reunite. The lovers are also conscious of the need for reunion as a cure. "If I gain my object, I shall not remember anxiety or fatigue," (p. 206). When they are reunited, they are immediately healed. "One hour of union hath made me forget what rendered us gray from excess of terror," (p. 225).

This dichotomy of poison and cure is resolved in the lover's reunion. Their intense joy would not be so keenly felt had the trauma of their separation not been so great. Although the desire El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam and Uns-El-Wujood have for each other created conditions of illness and pain, fulfilling their desire is the ultimate spiritual salve. Perhaps the lovers would not know such immense bliss were it not for their personal suffering. Desire is disease, painful and deadly, but it is also salvation, uplifting and exalted. Suffering and joy are two sides of the same coin; they feed each other and respond to each other. There would be no cure without the disease. This dual function of desire is particularly…… [read more]

Health Promotion: American HIV Prevention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  35 pages (9,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


That is the scope of the problem with which we are dealing: How to use well-proven tools of health promotion to regain the ground we've recently lost against AIDS.

Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of our study is simple: To collect and analyze information from various sectors dealing with health promotion and lifestyle change manners Americans must implement in… [read more]

African-Americans and AIDS Risk Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


" Ethnicity & Disease 12.2 (Spring 2002): 174-6.

Duncan C., Miller, D.M., Borskey, E.J., Fomby, B., Dawson, P., Davis, L. "Barriers to Safer Sex Practices Among African-American College Students." Journal of the National Medical Association 94.11 (Nov. 2002): 944-51.

Essien, E.J., Meshack, A.F., Ross, M.W. "Misperceptions about HIV Transmission Among Heterosexual African-American and Latino Men and Women." Journal of the National Medical Association 94.5 (May 2002): 304-12.

Funnye, A.S., Akhtar, A.J., Biamby, G. "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older African-Americans." Journal of the National Medical Association 94.4 (April 2002): 209-14.

Hodge, C.E. "HIV / AIDS: Impact on African-American Community." The Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentristry 22.3 (2001): 52-56.

Kennamer, J.D., Honnold, J., Bradford, J., Hendricks, M. "Differences in Disclosure of Sexuality Among African-American and White Gay/Bi-Sexual Men: Implications for HIV / AIDS Prevention." Aids Education and Prevention 12.6 (Dec. 2002): 519-31.

Morin, S.F., Sengupta, S., Cozen, M., Richards, T.A., Shriver, M.D., Palacio, H., Kahn, J.G. "Responding to Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Use of HIV Drugs: Analysis of State Policies." Public Health Reports 117.3 (May - June 2002): 263-72.

Pickle, K., Quinn, S.C., Brown, J.D. "HIV / AIDS Coverage in Black Newspapers, 1991-1996: Implications for Health Communication and Health Education." Journal of Health Communication 7.5 (Oct. - Dec. 2002): 427-44.

PR Newswire. 20 March 1998. http://www.aegis.com/news/pr/1998/PR980310.html

Sanders-Phillips, K. "Factors Influencing HIV / AIDS in Women of Color." Public Health Reports 117.1 (2002): S151-6.

Sterk, C.E. "The Health Intervention Project: HIV Risk Reduction Among African-American Women Drug Users." Public Health Reports 117.1…… [read more]

HIV Risk Prevention: Educating Minority Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (9,403 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In conclusion, it would be advantageous to use the TRA for this project since studies have shown successful outcomes with this theory in past HIV / AIDS prevention programs. By providing appropriate knowledge or information, eventually the performance of a given behavior will be influenced. This HIV / AIDS prevention program will be education for seventh to eighth grade students… [read more]

Teenage AIDS Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The numbers of teens reported to have AIDS cannot be relied on either because of the fact that they do not seek treatment until they get sick. "More than 60% of people with AIDS in their 20s and 30s probably were infected with HIV as teenagers, and more than 80% of smokers took up the habit as youngsters. Adolescence is when the behavior starts. It's a time of experimentation, of taking risks. Teenagers don't think of tomorrow. They think of themselves as invulnerable (Groves, 1998)."


There are programs across the nation being implemented for the purpose of slowing the progress of AIDS among teens. Peer pressure and peer leadership have proven to be valuable tools in the fight against AIDS.

Programs around the country are setting up peer groups to counsel teens about the illness. Peer counseling is comprised of other teens, some with AIDS and some without. The teens have a chance to ask questions and learn the latest facts about the disease before becoming engaged in high risk behaviors. Many teens are not aware that oral sex can spread AIDS and they mistakenly think if they stick with oral sex they cannot get sick. This is one of the many fallacies about AIDS that pervade the American teenage population. Prevention programs are working to get the word to teens that abstinence is the only sure way to be risk free.

Another important factor to slowing the progress of teen AIDS infection is to educate them on how to stay safe (Mueller, 2000). Using condoms is a method of reducing risk, but it does not remove the risk. Many teenagers believe that using a condom protects them but they are not aware of the differences in condoms. One must use latex to receive any protection. Even using a condom does not insure complete protection from the disease as it could be used incorrectly, or it could tear during sexual activity. It is a well-known fact among adults that the only true protections are abstinence but among the youth of America it is believed condoms are as protective as abstinence. Programs are working to show teens the correct way to use condoms as well promoting the many other ways to show affection and love without sexual behavior.


AIDS is a growing problem in the teenage population across the country. Teens believe they are invincible and that it won't happen to them. In addition they have a difficult time conceptualizing the future and how important it will be to stay health so they can lead healthy productive lives. It is a national problem that must be addressed.


BOB GROVES, Staff Writer, MORE HIV TESTING URGED FOR TEENAGERS., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 06-25-1998, pp a01.

Author not available, The growing specter of AIDS in the young.. Vol. 17, Medical Update, 03-01-1994, pp 3(1).

Michelle B. Mueller; Special To The Post-Dispatch, TEEN-AGERS…… [read more]

Field of Pediatric Nursing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Furthermore, nurses need to reflect on what matters to individuals who grow up with a chronic illness and expect a shortened life span. The participants' experiences revealed in this study indicate that it is counterproductive to set an actuarial time for death. Instead of looking for answers and expectations, nurses need to see the individual's uniqueness of spirit and power of will and faith. Describing and analyzing experiences can enlighten the nurse to the critical sensitivity required in patient interactions. (Tracy, 1997)

Perhaps the most exciting advent in the history of the treatment of CF, as well as the most controversial, is the use of gene therapy. The idea behind gene therapy is to treat an illness by addressing and correcting its genetic cause. With the identification of the gene that actually causes CF, noting that it is a defect of sorts in the gene that causes the disease, it was only a matter of time before gene therapy was applied to CF. In 2000, an advanced experiment was performed in North Carolina. The idea was to give patients currently suffering from CF a healthy gene and hope that it will fix what is wrong with the unhealthy gene, even replace it, thereby curing the patient. Results and future applications of this procedure remain to be seen.

Like most diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF) has benefited from the tremendous leaps in scientific research that have occurred in the last twenty or so years. In particular, the Human Genome Project has allowed scientists and researchers to make significant progress in understanding this disease. The implications surrounding a better understanding of cystic fibrosis are many, including stress levels on parents and genetic counseling. In addition, nurses and nurse practitioners now have a large body of knowledge from which to draw on when it comes to counseling patients with the disease and their families.


Author not available. (1994). Genetic Therapy Possible Cure for Several Diseases. Morning Edition (NPR).

Baroni, M.A., Anderson, Y.E., and Mischler, E. (1997). Cystic fibrosis newborn screening: Impact of early screening results on parenting stress. Pediatric Nursing. 23, 143(9).

Hopkin, Karen. (1998). Understanding Cystic Fibrosis. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Orenstein, David M. (1997). Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for Patient and Family. 2nd ed., Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.

Phillips, B.J. And Perry, C.W. (2002). Quick review: Cystic fibrosis. The Internet Journal of Internal Medicine. 3(1).…… [read more]

Air Pollution Pertains to Substances Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


All we have on other mycotoxins are information on their toxicity or their laboratory effects;

3. The effects of multiple exposures to mycotoxins in the air and those of other breathed indoor air pollutants are still unknown;

4. effects of other biologically active molecules that produce allergic reactions, such as irritation and acting with mycotoxins are similarly unknown. The measurement… [read more]

Muscular Dystrophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



There are things that can be done to alleviate symptoms of MD. Exercise in moderation and other physical regimes can help slow the symptoms and alleviate the symptoms already present. Independence is achieved through the use of canes, wheelchairs, walkers and other devices to promote autonomy. "Surgical procedures can sometimes be helpful in relieving muscle shortening caused by some forms of muscular dystrophy (Part Two (http://www.mdausa.org/publications/fa-md-qa2.html)."

Medications designed to assist in specific forms of the disorder have also proven helpful.

The cardiac problems associated with some forms of muscular dystrophy sometimes need treatment. A cardiac pacemaker is frequently needed in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Medications can also be used to treat some cardiac problems (Part Two (http://www.mdausa.org/publications/fa-md-qa2.html)."

The disease is inherited at one half from the mother and the other half through the father. Their exact DNA match provides the recipe for MD to occur. There are now genetic tests that can be performed for couples to determine if their DNA mapping might cause their children to develop the disorder.

There are differences in several of the forms of MD.


Age of onset: Early childhood to adulthood; Newborn period for congenital form

Inheritance / gender affected: Autosomal dominant / males and females

Muscles first affected: Face, feet, hands Progression: Slow neck (MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NINE (9) MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES (http://www.mdausa.org/publications/fa-md-9.html)"

MYOTONIC dystrophy (DM), also known as Steinert's disease, is the most common adult form of muscular dystrophy. Its name underscores an unusual symptom found only in this form of dystrophy -- myotonia -- which is similar to a spasm or stiffening of muscles after use."Myotonic dystrophy results from a gene flaw on chromosome 19, one of the autosomes. The gene containing the defect is for an enzyme recently named myotonin protein kinase. Some researchers believe the defect may affect other nearby genes neck (MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NINE (9) MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES (http://www.mdausa.org/publications/fa-md-9.html)."

DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: Age of onset: 2 to 6 years

Inheritance / gender affected: X-linked / males Muscles first affected: Pelvis, upper arms, upper legs Progression: Slow, sometimes with rapid spurts neck (MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NINE (9) MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES (http://www.mdausa.org/publications/fa-md-9.html)"


Age of onset: 2 to 16 years. Inheritance / gender affected: X-linked / males

Muscles first affected: Pelvis, upper arms, upper legs.Progression: Slow neck (MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NINE (9) MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES (http://www.mdausa.org/publications/fa-md-9.html)."

There are many researchers working together to locate a cure for Muscular Dystrophy today. The gene is being located, and the DNA combinations are now understood. This is the first step to doing a reverse engineering type study to discover what might stop the disease in its tracks. Watching a child go from running and playing to being confined ot a wheelchair for life is difficult for the most stoic person. It is a disorder that has many markers when it occurs, and the secret will be figuring out the secret to counteracting those markers so the disorder can be stopped. With telethons such as the one Jerry… [read more]

Pertussis, Sometimes Called Whooping Cough Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


By the second stage of the disease, antibiotics may be ineffective (Todar, 2002).

As the disease progresses, the cough, which is dry and forceful, becomes more and more severe. The second, acute stage may last for several weeks, with symptoms lingering for sometimes after the patient is no longer acutely ill (CHP, 2002). Simple life activities can trigger a coughing fit, including eating, crying, or even low levels of activity (CHP, 2002).

Because the early stage of pertussis may not look like a condition requiring early and aggressive medical treatment, and because of the significant mortality rate, especially in infants, prevention is the most important treatment for pertussis. The vaccine, first developed in the 1940's, (AMA, 2002) prevents most cases but is not always effective. If a person does catch pertussis, early treatment with antibiotics (often erythromycin) is crucial, as the disease is much harder to treat in the second stage (Todar, 2002; CHP; 2002).

Once someone has come down with pertussis, all those who have come in contact with that person during the contagion period should be treated with a preventative course of antibiotics or a vaccine booster shot. This would include anyone who lives with the infected patient, classmates, teachers or daycare workers, playmates and babysitters. Incidence of pertussis has risen in the United States during recent years because of reluctance by some to vaccinate their children for it, often because very small amounts of mercury is used in its production. (CHP, 2002). As a result, in areas of the United States where vaccination rates for pertussis is low, the incidence of the disease has risen.

Works Cited

American Medical Association (AMA). 1998. Medem: Medical Library. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough)." Accessed via the Internet 10/9/02. http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZPWVII1AC&sub_cat=286.

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (CHP). 2002. Infectious Diseases. "Whooping Cough (Pertussis)." Accessed via the Internet 10/9/02. http://www.chp.edu/greystone/infectious/pertus.php

Todar, Kenneth. 2002.. Center for Disease Control. "National Vaccine Program." Accessed via the Internet 10/9/02. http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Bact330/lecturebpertussis… [read more]

Admissions Committee Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


DNA evidence is now the state of the art in crime detection. How a DNA sample can be obtained from a hair or a single fingerprint? Due to a technique called PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) that amplifies the signal of a DNA. I was involved in the development of a new PCR kit.

My crowning scientific achievement has also been in the area of PCR. I am the inventor of a new technique called SPAS (Self-Primed Amplification System) for which I have obtained a U.S. Patent (# 6,207,424). The technique is related to copying a nucleic acid with a self-priming primer. This new method improves the fidelity of the PCR results. Conventional PCR requires twice the sets of primers for as the number of genes being studied; my method involves only one additional primer. SPAS reduces the primer usage by half.

I have extensive experience with computers. I am an acknowledged expert in using the UNIX operating system. I use SQL to create dynamic queries to access the Arabdopsis genome. SQL is the universal program of choice in database management, the mainstay for storage and retrieval of genomic information. I am also proficient using the Windows operating system using word-processing and spreadsheets. Most of the Bioinformatics information is accessible today is on the Internet -- the state of the art being the National Center for Biotechnology Information. I am also an expert in using web-based Bioinformatics techniques.

I consider myself to be in a unique position in this field. I have already made significant contributions in areas that could be extended to biotechnology, medicine and even law-enforcement. I want to create a niche in the field of Bioinformatics with my abilities. I want to build on my invention and go on to make a greater impact. My admission to your institution will enable me to realize my career…… [read more]

Human Digestive System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Roberts, 474)

The most significant prevention measure is sanitation, and the proper disposal of fecal matter, to which the United States initiated a hookworm campaign in 1913, which educated the American people on hookworm infection, as well as medicated those who were currently infected. (Roberts, 474-475) Because of those measures, hookworm disease is no longer as prevalent in America as… [read more]

Schizophrenia Affects the Brain, Person Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Psychotherapy and counselling may also be of benefit in coping with the new lifestyle, and the role of cognitive behavioural therapy has also been seen as suitable to help with some patients, especially those with residual schizophrenia.

Once the patient is in the community the role of family and social support are important. The establishment of routine help, and contact also helps to ensure that medication is continued. The prognosis may be good for many patients, and aspects such as outside support may make the difference to the level of recovery and the quality of life.

When we look at the effect that this condition has on family members we see that it is influential on more than the individual. Those close to the sufferer will often demonstrate some 'loosely associative' styles of thought. This may be seen as reflective of the 'over inclusive' thinking process of the sufferer. To many in both the sufferer and the relative this may be seen as creative thinking, demonstrating the fine line that may be seen between genius and madness ((Barnes, 1990).

One of the features of this illness which is not mentioned in either ICD-10 or DSM-IV, is this phenomenon where the thought disorders may be fruitful (Barnes, 1990). There is an association with the condition creating a greater capacity for abstract thought that results in intellectual jumps, but have limits human emotions, isolating them in an insular self-made world (Barnes, 1990).

This also results in an inability or difficulty in developing close personal relationships. Therefore there is a level of correlation between the ability for creative thought and the symptoms of schizoid or schizo-typical personalities and their lack of social or close relationships (Barnes, 1990).


Anonymous, (2002), The Schizophrenia…… [read more]

HIV Infection and Your Child Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (634 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I know very well that there is no cure for the infection, but with right treatment a person's quality of life can be improved significantly. I will try to explain the situation to my daughter because I wouldn't want to keep her in dark about the disease and what she can face in the coming years. The best thing would then be to first talk to her doctor in detail, and once I have all the information about her particular case and possible treatment, I will explain everything precisely to my daughter. I believe that nothing creates more fear in a patient than lack of information. I will also encourage her to find out more about the condition on her own, this way she will have ample information available and making a decision about future treatment would become easier.

Answer #3

When one member of the family is suffering from a disease that eventually leads to death, it can be a shattering and traumatic experience for the others. In this situation, the best step in the right direction would be to talk about the disease to other members and tell them exactly what they could be facing in future. If the patient's disease is such that its primary cause i.e. unprotected sex in this case, cannot be disclosed to younger members of the family, it is important to be extra careful and sensitive while explaining how the patient contracted the disease. It is also vital to keep in mind the fact that open discussions about a disease can often be very embarrassing for the patient, especially when it has been contracted through sexual activity. In this case, I would try to be careful when talking about the disease to other family members and would make it certain that nobody blames the patient as she would not only be embarrassed but would also lose the will-power to…… [read more]

Investor Document for Ebonylife TV in Africa Corporate Documents

Corporate Documents  |  17 pages (5,358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Investor Document for EbonyLife TV

Set up a Radio Station

Set up a channel on Startimes

Set up a channel on GO-TV: http://nigeria.gotvafrica.com/Home /

Set up a channel on DTT

The Create Africa Project

Film & TV Creative Academy

Set up a Teleshopping Channel: Like QVC or HSN for Africa

Growing our video on demand platform

Continual investment in quality… [read more]

Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Develop a Learning Objective for Whooping Cough Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Public Health Class On Whooping Cough: Learning Objective Development and Justification

Whooping cough is an upper respiratory tract infection caused by the bacterium, Bordetella pertussis (NLM, 2013). Although vaccinated children and adults can still become infected with B. pertussis, the severity of the disease tends to be less than that experienced by the unvaccinated (CDC, 2014). Without vaccination serious illness can develop and an estimated 1.3% of those infected with B. pertussis will die as a result. Additionally, nearly half of infected infants will be hospitalized and recent outbreaks represent infections among children between the ages of 7 and 14. The cost of vaccinations should not be a barrier for families with children either, since free vaccinations are available through the WIC Program regardless of immigration status (American Red Cross, 2015).

Nurse Page would be interested in communicating the need for preventive care to low-income families within the communities she serves, especially to non-English speaking migrant families, since health literacy would be expected to be low among this demographic. The knowledge and attitude competencies for patient-centered care include assessment of health literacy diversity for a patient population, recognition of the limitations associated with low health literacy, and valuation of the health literacy diversity within a population (AACN, 2012).

The most important fact to get across to this demographic is the need for preventing the spread of, and serious complications from, whooping cough infections through vaccinations for infants, children, pregnant women, and other adults. An appropriate learner-centered learning objective would therefore be enabling community members to discriminate between outcomes depending on whether a family participates in recommended B. pertussis vaccinations. On the one hand, vaccinations will help prevent the spread of whooping cough and minimize the risk of serious complications and death, while on…… [read more]

Brefeldin A: Miracle and Curse Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Upside and Downside of Brefeldin A

Brefeldin A (BFA) is a versatile compound in common use in many cell biological research laboratories around the world and has been very useful in dissecting signal transduction pathways in mammalian and plant cells (Nebenfuhr, Ritzenthaler, & Robinson, 2002). Preparations of BFA are derived from the fungus Penicillium brefeldianum or synthesized chemically (Sigma, n.d.;… [read more]

Deubiquitinases in Cancer and Health Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014) and prostate tumors express high levels of the ubiquitin-specific protease-14 (USP14) (Human Protein Atlas, n.d.). USP14 is the mammalian ortholog of the yeast deubiquitinase (DUB) Ubp6 and Ubp6/USP14 has been shown to reversibly associate with the19S RP proteosomal… [read more]

Mapping the Patient Assessment and Treatment Experience Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Mapping for Patient Diagnosis and Treatment Planning


*Not feeling well since trip south GA

*Frontal headache (moderate, constant)

*Runny nose, nasal congestion

*Fever, chills, tachycardic

*Hemoglobin 4.9 of baseline

*No cough, SOB, or sore throat

*No new abdominal pain or bowel habits change

*No genital lesions reported

*No neck pain


Abdominal X-Ray:

*Upright & spine films obtained

*No dilated loops of bowl to suggest obstruction

*Possible GI involvement of Kapowsi sarcoma

*Lungs grossly clear


*Retic count, peripheral smear, haptoglobin, DIC panel, parovovirus PCR in blood

*Transfuse with 2 units PRBC

*Obtain LP to r/o meningitis (possible cryptococcal disease)


Nursing Diagnoses

Acute hemolytic anemia

SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome)

Stress response

Review of Systems:

CONST Fatigue, low energy

HENT No sore throat, headache as per HPI

EYES No yellowing

CV No chest pain

RESP No nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or change in bowel habits

GU No genital ulcers

MSK No joint swelling

NEURO ++Headache, but no weakness

SKIN No new rash

Assessments -- Lab Results:

RPRQUAL Non-Reactive 2/16/15

CD4TABS 89 12/30/14


CHLAMSCRNPRB -- Positive Chlamydia trachomatis rRNA 12/30 14

GCSCRNPRB -- Negative for Neisseria gonorrhea rRNA 1/23/14

Hepatitis serology

*HAVABTOT Negative 11/16/12

*HBSAG Negative 10/14/13

*HBSAB Positive 6/3/13

*HCVAB Negative 12/30/14

CMV serology -- CMVIGGAB Positive 11/16/12

PPD -- negative 4/17/14

Problem List:

1) Acute anemia / thrombocytopenia*DDX acute blood loss from GI

2) Headache / fever

*Viral illness

*Possible meningitis


*23-year-old male:


*Diffuse Kapowsi…… [read more]

Breast Cancer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Breast cancer Prevention/Health Promotion

Summary of teaching plan

The teaching plan would involve the active participation of the members of the community. The program would aim to communicate awareness about the prevention and early detection of the incidents of breast cancer in the community women. The program would be assisted with the use of literature and a slide show that… [read more]

Nanoparticles and Their Applications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … cytotoxicity and the therapeutic uses of nanoparticles, including major concerns and advantages, the mechanisms of operation as well as salient examples from each article, followed by a recapitulation of the findings in the conclusion.

Summary of "The Use of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy"

Today, cancer represents the third-leading cause of death (after heart disease and stroke) (Malekigorji, Anthony, Hoskins & Hoskins, 2014). Furthermore, the problem is global in scope. According to Malekigorji and her colleagues, "Studies have demonstrated that there were 10 million new instances, about 6 million deaths and 22 million patients living with cancer worldwide in the year 2000" (2014, p. 1). Of all the cancer types, pancreatic cancer is especially deadly. In this regard, Malekigorji et al. emphasize that, "[Pancreatic cancer] is still the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death in the Western world" (2014, p. 1). Although significant progress has been made in treating certain types of cancers such as leukemia and breast cancer, far fewer advances have been achieved with pancreatic cancer for a number of reasons, including its resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic interventions as well as inefficient drug delivery systems (Malekigorji et al., 2014).

Moreover, pancreatic adenocarcinomas typically create a barrier that inhibits efficient drug penetration. It is possible to overcome these constraints to treatment by increasing the dosage of chemotherapeutic agents, but this alternative introduces numerous serious side effects due to their non-selectivity in targeting tumor cells (Malekigorji et al., 2014). Because they have easily modified surfaces, magnetic nanoparticles have been viewed as a viable alternative for the treatment of pancreatic cancer through improved drug delivery mechanisms, magnetic resonance imaging applications and magnetic fluid hyperthermia which is used for both diagnosis and treatment (Malekigorji et al., 2014).

Summary of "Toxicity Effect of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles on Fertilization Capacity and Reproduction Success of Rainbow Trout"

The same attributes that are making nanoparticles more popular for biomedical…… [read more]

Evidence-Based Practice Project a Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (993 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This demonstrates the effectiveness of influenza vaccination for elderly people.

The evidence presented by the researchers is strong and clear indication is offered on how to prevent the development of pneumonia there is need to offer yearly vaccinations. The study results might not be applicable to Veterans Affairs facilities (Loeb et al., 1999). The study found that the development of pneumonia does not result in decline in functional status as had earlier been shown. This is a good study that would offer positive grounds for advancement of this research. The researchers noted that viral respiratory infections were common, and this mostly lead to development of pneumonia in the elderly. The unavailability of previous research focusing on this phenomenon makes it hard to establish if this finding is correct. Future research could assist in determination of the same.

This is a position paper that addresses all levels long-term care facilities. This article offers recommendations for providing infection control to long-term care facilities. The authors have focused on a variety of infections, and their main intention is to minimize health care associated infections. These infections have been identified as preventable, and health care administrators should ensure their facilities reduce such infections. As with the other articles, the author has focused on pneumonia and respiratory tract infections that occur in hospital settings. These infections are mostly associated with procedures that patients undergo. The measures proposed are not proven by any research study, but they are based on basic infection control logic (Smith et al., 2008). The authors focused on elderly persons aged above 65 years. It was found that there are 1.8 to 13.5 endemic infections occurring for every 1000 residents in care facilities (Smith et al., 2008).

The wide range of infections demonstrates the difficulty faced in trying to determine the epidemiology of the infections. The impact such infections would have on individuals is also hard to establish. Hand washing has been established as a contributor to the spread of infections, since some of the elderly are least likely to wash hands or maintain proper personal hygiene. The article does demonstrate the need to have proper care especially to elderly persons living in care facilities. This is vital, as it would ensure the patients are not infected with preventable diseases. These diseases have been proven life threatening since the patients are frail and their immune systems weak. The leading cause of death in LTCFs is pneumonia (Smith et al., 2008). The article has covered all areas of infection, which has made the information provide quite relevant and applicable to the current situations.


Loeb, M., McGeer, A., McArthur, M., Walter, S., & Simor, A.E. (1999). Risk factors for pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections in elderly residents of long-term care facilities. Archives of internal medicine, 159(17), 2058-2064.

Rabie, T., & Curtis, V. (2006). Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Tropical medicine & international health, 11(3), 258-267.

Smith, P.W., Bennett, G., Bradley,…… [read more]

Objective Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (463 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014, p. 8)

II. Choosing PPE

There are three primary considerations for the choice of personal protective equipment including: (1) the anticipated exposure; (2) durability and appropriateness of PPE for the task; and (3) fit. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014, p. 39)

III. PPE for Standard Precautions

It is reported that Personal Protective Equipment for Standard Precautions includes:

(1) Gloves -- for use when touching "blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, contaminated items; for touching mucus membranes and nonintact skin (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014, p. 39)

(2) Gowns -- for use during "Procedures and patient care activities when contact of clothing/exposed skin with bloody/body fluids, secretions, or excretions is anticipated." (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014, p. 39)

(3) Mask and goggles or a face shield -- of use during "patient care activities likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014, p. 39)

Summary and Conclusion

The article reviewed in this study published by the (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) has informed this study as to the proper use of personal protective equipment in the healthcare environment.


Guidance for the Selection and Use…… [read more]

Toxicology After Taking the Position Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



The main way of excretion is by means of urine elimination. However, other studies that have been done in volunteers made the point that 15-17% elimination of the compound was looked at as being the stable rate after an originally high excretion amount. That removal of 13-16% stayed at being stable for beyond a year. Also, another understood direction of elimination is by way of the feces, even though there has not been much little indication has shown this to be important (it is still looked at as being a route of elimination for the reason that if DDT metabolites are present in feces, they would exist in that it is an untraceable conjugates).

3. What types of exposure and response are associated with DDT?

When it comes to DDT, Human exposure has been linked with many malignant effects. Research shows that higher liver cancer rates were discovered in communities that have a much higher DDT concentrations in fat tissue. Pancreatic cancer is also connected with chronic DDT exposure.

Further investigation also shows that Cancer is not the single health risk linked with chronic high-level contact to DDT. Employee's unprotected to high concentrations of DDT in the place of work were suggested in a 2006 report to be at a risk that is higher for diabetes. There are other studies which have discovered dose-linked increases in the risk of increasing diabetes with DDT contact.

Research shows that the biggest indication for ill effect of DDT contact is not discovered in adult diseases. Developmental outcomes are some of the most deeply concerned dangers from DDT. However, at the fetal stage, offspring whose mothers have a very high level of serum DDT metabolites were at bigger danger for spontaneous abortion and death. Preterm delivery was likewise discovered to be elevated in a manner that concurred with raised serum DDT stages. It would also need to be noted that these effects were looked at right away after the 1960s age of extremely high environmental usage of DDT in America, and far along studies where women with lesser serum levels of DDT displayed that low-level contact to DDT does not appear to connect with other gestational defects or even preterm birth.

4. Should the WHO continue to approve the use of DDT to combat malaria?

Not that long ago, the World Health Organization today publicized a most important change in policy. It appears that the WHO is in the process of aggressively supporting the debated insect killer DDT as a means of trying to keep malaria up under tight control. It is obvious that the WHO has some understanding that Malaria kills about 1 million individuals a year, mostly children, and mostly in Africa, in spite of a decades-long effort to eliminate it. With that being said, the WHO should not continue with approving the use of DDT to get rid of Malaria.


The use of DDT in malaria vector control. (2011, August 21). THE USE OF…… [read more]

Discharge Plan for an Asthmatic Child Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



In combination, the boy will be given 2-6 inhalations of beta2 agonists at 20-minute intervals and then re-evaluated (CCHMC, 2010). A hand-held metered dose with a spacer device may be used on the child. The aim is to correct severe hypoxemia, quickly reverse airflow obstruction and minimize the risk of relapse. Inhaled corticosteroids have proven effective in managing persistent asthma (Kovesi et al., 2010). They will be given to the boy every day and between exacerbations as a minimum regimen for a given duration at four puffs per dose in children one year and older. Home-made spacers may also be used as effective substitutes. These include plastic bottles, foam or paper cups, cardboard tubes or paper spacers. Their effectiveness has been beyond question when used correctly and adequately, so that in case of failure, a diagnosis of asthma or another illness should be reconsidered. In cases when the control of symptoms remains inadequate with the application of moderate dose of inhaled corticosteroids, the dose should be increased or a receptor antagonist introduced. Should he need additional therapy, a pediatric asthma specialist will be consulted (Kovesi et al.).

Inhaled steroids must be regularly administered for a given duration and not only during attacks in order to be effective (Koversi et al., 2010). The combination will improve lung function, resulting in reduced hospitalization. Inflammation tends to persist for many days following an acute attack. Intensive therapy is, therefore, necessary after discharge until symptoms resolve and peak expiratory flow normalizes (Kovesi et al.).


AsthmaCure (2010). Some facts and statistics about asthma. AsthmaCure.com.

Retrieved on July 20, 2014 from http://www.asthmacure.com/2010/12/asthma-facts-statistics

CCHMC (2010). Management of acute exacerbation of asthma in children. Health Policy & Effectiveness Program Evidence-Based Guideline. Retrieved on July 20, 2014 from http://www.cincinnatichidrens.org/workarea/downloadAsset%3Fid%3D87871

Kovesi, T., et al. (2010). Achieving control of asthma in pre-schoolers. Canadian Medical

Association Journal: Canadian Medical Association. Retrieved on July 20, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2831671

Pollart, S., et al. (2011). Management of acute asthma exacerbations. Vol. 84 # 1,

American Family Physician: American Academy of Family…… [read more]

Anemia Through Blood Loss Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


If this diagnosis is correct, then some of the steps that need to be taken should be taken right away. Since there are no signs that there was a large loss of blood; but that the blood the patient has been losing has essentially been over the long-term, then a blood transfusion may not be necessary. If there were signs of a large loss of blood, then a blood transfusion could be a medical necessity. Oxygen, fluids and possibly even iron should be given to the patient while still at medical facility. One recent study determined that "intravenous iron may help to alleviate symptoms in patients" (Kansagara, Dyer, Englander, Rongwei, Freeman, Kagen, 2013, p. 746) but in this particular case it would likely be better to provide the patient with iron supplements.

The more pressing issue of course, is to address the loss of blood, and how to control the underlying cause of the anemia. In this case, Ms. A is experiencing menorrhagia, and that could be the exacerbation that is leading to anemia. The molecular structure of the blood cells (see blood results) show that the patient is presenting with symptoms of blood loss anemia and that replacing the iron and building new red blood cells is of major importance. The results also show that the ongoing chronic loss of blood must be addressed as well.

This might be best accomplished by providing the patient with information concerning the disease, and by follow-up appointments to ensure that the patient is attending to her anemia in an appropriate manner.

Works Cited

Ford, J.; (2013) Red blood cell morphology, International Journal of Laboratory Hematology, Vol. 35, Issue 3, pp. 351 -- 357

Kansagara, D.; Dyer, E.; Englander, H.; Rongwei, F.; Freeman, M.; Kagen, D.; (2013) Treatment of anemia in patients with heart disease, Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 159, Issue 11, pp. 746 --…… [read more]

Globalization the Country Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is invaluable to send those patients who are from the areas in which the confirmed cases of cholera are from for treatment first, because they have a greater propensity for having contracted this disease.

The health/environmental problem I would attempt to handle early in my work is the process of administering vaccinations, which is perhaps the swiftest way to reduce the incidence of additional cholera cases. It might be difficult to attain the resources to significantly change the sanitary and hygienic conditions responsible for this epidemic in a short amount of time, but it certainly is possible to vaccinate people in this time frame. Despite the limited resources, one of the most powerful things the nurses and I can do to engender infection control is to educate our patients about the necessity of hygiene, sanitation, and accessing clean water and clean food. These patients need to learn how to properly prepare food in the wake of a cholera outbreak in a matter that is sanitary and hygienic, such as eating raw foods after they have been washed in clean water, covering food, and washing their hands before eating (Thabo, 2014). In terms of standard precautions, it is necessary that the nurses working in the shelter and that the shelter itself has all of the resources to provide a sanitary, hygienic environment -- both for the workers and their patients.

While I work with the physicians with the sickest of the patients, one of the primary responsibilities that I could designate to others includes educating the masses about the particulars of this disease. Doing so not only includes telling them what cholera is, but also how it is contracted and, most importantly, all of the things they can do to prevent it from spreading. Nurses who are not working with the most sick patients should have this responsibility because it is still extremely valuable and is a service that is less demanding that working with the aforementioned patients. Another aspect of patient care that could be assigned to other nurses is ensuring that supplies are coming in from the Ministry of Health and its affiliates. Again, this is an extremely important responsibility which is not technical in nature, which is wise less experienced nurses can be trusted with it. Although it might be possible to bring some supplies with my team of nurses from the U.S. (such as certain prepackaged cholera testing measures), the bulk of our supplies for providing proper environments related to sanitation, hygiene and clean water should come from the Ministry of Health, and its partnerships with other organizations such as the World Health Organization.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Cholera -- Vibrio cholerae infection. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/diagnosis.html

Thabo, O. (2014). Cholera outbreak in Juba, Republic of South Sudan. www.who.int. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hac/en/

World Health Organization. (2014). Cholera outbreak in Juba, central equatorial state. search.who.int / Retrieved from http://search.who.int/search?q=health+crises+2013&ie=utf8&site=who&client=_en_r&proxystylesheet=_en_r&output=xml_no_dtd&oe=utf8&getfields=doctype… [read more]

Diabetes / Brian Cancer Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (828 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


1. The functional regions of Monique's cerebral cortex that are likely to be affected by the brain tumor are the ones which receive the pressure from the growth of the tumor: these would be the right occipital and temporal lobes.

2. The location of Monique's brain tumor between her right occipital and temporal lobes is most likely immediately to affect vision, which is governed by the occipital lobe, and hearing and memory, which are governed by the temporal lobe. Thus doctors would be on the lookout for visual or auditory impairment or hallucinations, and also memory loss or linguistic impairment as well.

3. The reason why chemotherapy might potentially be able to affect a lung tumor but not a brain tumor is due to the blood-brain barrier. This barrier was a relatively recent scientific discovery. Interlandi (2013) notes that it was actually discovered by Paul Ehrlich (subject of the Hollywood biopic "Doctor Ehrlich's Magic Bullets"), who would go on to develop arsphenamine, the first effective cure for syphilis but also (not coincidentally) the first modern chemotherapy drug (52). Ehrlich discovered that specimens whose bloodstream was injected with a staining dye would exhibit coloration everywhere but the brain, while specimens injected directly into the brain would exhibit consistent coloration within the brain but nowhere else. Ultimately it was established that the blood vessels in the brain are lined with endothelial cells that are so tightly packed together that very few substances can pass through. Chemotherapy drugs, which are generally large molecules, are unable to get through the blood-brain barrier.

4. Glioblastoma multiforme is a type of brain cancer that can take on different forms (hence "multiforme"): gliosarcoma or giant cell glioblastoma. It is the most common form of malignant brain tumor affecting adults, and offers a poor prognosis for most patients. The tumors like Monique's that are caused by glioblastoma multiforme generally display characteristic genetic mutations which are presumably related to the aggressive growth of the cancer: these mutations affect the genes for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a gene for a tumor-suppressing protein (TP53), the gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and the gene for synthesizing isocitrite dehydrogenase (IDHI). Other genes with involved mutations include one that produces enzymes for maintaining proper DNA protection (TERT) and a genetic mutation otherwise associated with the disease neurofibromatosis (NF1).


Ahmed, AM. (2002). History…… [read more]

Health Fair Presentation on Diabetes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,862 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


What is your waist circumference measured below the ribs?

Less than 94cm

94-102 cm

More than 102cm

5. Do you engage in regular physical activity for at least 30 minutes every day?



6. How often do you consume fruits or vegetables?



7. Have you ever been diagnosed with high blood pressure?



8. Have you… [read more]

Biological, Psychological, and Social Determinants of Health Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


574-575). Morrie has been quite successful in this regard, even to the point documenting his demise with former student Mitch Albom. According to Peck, successful aging requires three adjustments. The first adjustment is from the role of wage-earner to retiree, which Morrie successfully managed by grieving the loss of his old role as teacher and establishing a mentoring role with Albom. Morrie has also accepted the fact that he is gradually losing his ability to walk, write, or even hold lengthy conversations and has transcended these limitations by remaining intellectually involved on micro and mezzo levels. The third adjustment necessary for successful aging is self-transcendence, which Morrie accomplished by shifting his attention away from self-pity by sharing his death with loved ones. If the psychological items on the INTERMED instrument were used to evaluate Morrie, he would score very low on all items (Mazzocato et al., 2000; INTERMED Foundation, 2009). Psychologically, Morrie is doing very well.


On a micro level, Morrie appears to be an outgoing, gregarious, and good-humored individual who has remained intellectually sharp and active (Albom, 1997); therefore, Morrie does not have any impairment that would prevent social interactions. On a mezzo level, Morrie is loved and cared for by family, friends, former students, and former colleagues (Ogden and Jackson, 1999). Compared to other patients in palliative care, patients with ALS tend to be less of a burden on caregivers; however, with increased symptom severity and behavioral problems the burden can become significant enough to threaten the psychological health of caregivers (Hecht et al., 2003). Morrie's caregivers do not appear to be at risk due to the large number of people, informal and professional, involved in his care. Should this change as Morrie nears the end of his life, additional support could be obtained on a macro level from the U.S. healthcare system. Based on this assessment, Morrie would score very low on the INTERMED social items (Mazzocato et al., 2000; INTERMED Foundation, 2009).


From a biopsychosocial perspective, the greatest threat to Morrie's health is physiological. This is due to the rapid progression expected for an ALS patient of his age and the imminent threat of death. Psychologically and socially, Morrie is aging successfully despite the ALS.


Albom, M. (1997). Tuesdays with Morrie: An Old Man, a Young Man, and Life's Greatest Lesson. New York: Doubleday.

Foley, G., Timonen, V., & Hardiman, O. (2014). Acceptance and decision making in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from a life-course perspective. Qualitative Health Research, 24(1), 67-77.

Hecht, M.J., Graesel, E., Tigges, S., Hillemacher, T., Winterholler, M., Hilz, M.J. et al. (2003). Burden of care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Palliative Medicine, 17(4), 327-33.

INTERMED Foundation (2009). The INTERMED Method: INTERMED Complexity Assessment Grid (IM CAG version 6). Retrieved 28 Apr. 2014 from https://www.intermedfoundation.org/uploads/10/32/103299ff97ac58bcee216085ec23a708/Description-of-IM-CAG-v6-including-interview-and-score-December-2009.pdf.

Mazzocato, C., Stiefel, F., de Jonge, P., Levorato, A., Ducret, S., & Huyse, F.J. (2000). Comprehensive assessment of patients in palliative care: A descriptive study utilizing the INTERMED. Journal of Pain and Symptoms Management, 19(2), 83-90.

Mitsumoto, H.… [read more]

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Renal Calculus Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … PCOS, Kidney Stones)

DuRant and Leslie provide a basic overview of all known facts concerning the condition known as polycystic ovary syndrome. While this is the most widespread endocrine condition to affect young women (estimates place its incidence at between 5 and 10% of the young female population) it is frequently not diagnosed. The basic diagnostic criteria are indeed somewhat contentious, and presently a diagnosis hinges upon the presence of two of the following three symptoms: irregularities in ovulation (either failure to ovulate or irregular or lengthened menstrual cycle, i.e., oligoovulation), a raised level of male hormones with no other cause, and polycystic ovaries with no other cause. Each of these individual symptoms can, of course, be caused by other conditions, but the presence of two of them with any other conditions (i.e., adrenal tumor) ruled out indicates polycystic ovary syndrome. As the descriptor "syndrome" should indicate, the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome is presently not understood. The consensus is that it involves some defect in the endocrine processes that govern ovulation, in which the hypothalamus and pituitary in the brain communicate chemically with the ovaries to trigger ovulation. The syndrome generally accompanies onset of menarche at age 12 or 13: young women who have polycystic ovary syndrome generally never develop a consistent schedule of menstruation. Other symptoms include those generally associated with heightened androgen levels, including male facial hair, male pattern baldness, and acne. Half of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are obese. However the chief clinical sign is endocrine, indicated by a heightened level of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in the ratio of 2:1 or higher. This heightened hormonal ratio is present in 60 to 70% of patients with the syndrome, and more likely to occur in those who are not obese. Weight control and oral contraceptives (to counteract increased androgens) can alleviate some of the symptoms, but polycystic ovary syndrome correlates to other illnesses later in life like diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, endometrial cancer, and infertility, and thus should be treated as a potential risk factor for these later conditions. In particular, polycystic ovary syndrome is more common in patients who have a prevalence of type 2 diabetes on both sides of the family.…… [read more]