"Disease / Virus / Disorder / Injury" Essays

X Filters 

Managing Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The management of diabetes is vital since the disease does not have any cure. Without proper management, a patient would not survive for long, as the disease would cause their organs to crush. Intensive management for diabetes has been proven to reduce the risks of suffering from complications associated with the disease, but the requirements for intensive management might be prohibitive for some patients. Reducing risks by up to 70% is commendable, but the costs associated, and the possibility that a patient would still suffer from the complications later on does not make intensive management a full proof method. Conventional management has demonstrated that it is easier for the majority of patients and is pocket friendly. Therefore, many patients are able to afford and are comfortable with conventional treatment.


American Diabetes Association. (2010). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 33(Supplement 1), S62-S69.

Inzucchi, S.E., Bergenstal, R.M., Buse, J.B., Diamant, M., Ferrannini, E., Nauck, M., . . . Matthews, D.R. (2012). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes care, 35(6), 1364-1379.

Qaseem, A., Humphrey, L.L., Chou, R., Snow, V., & Shekelle, P. (2011). Use of intensive insulin therapy for the management of glycemic control in hospitalized patients: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(4), 260-267.

Riddle, M.C. (2010). Effects of intensive glucose lowering in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Circulation, 122(8), 844-846.

Sacks, D.B., Arnold, M., Bakris, G.L., Bruns, D.E., Horvath, A.R., Kirkman, M.S., . . . Nathan, D.M.…… [read more]

Health: Heart Problems Linked to Those Born With HIV Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


High cholesterol means a cholesterol measure equaling or exceeding 240.

High Blood Sugar: When the levels of blood sugar are too high (over 200mg/dL), fatty acid materials are not properly broken down, and end up being deposited on the inside walls of the blood vessels, causing them to harden and clog.

Hypertension: The high pressure of blood, in this case, causes damage to the cells of the arteries' inner walls, causing them to thicken and stiffen. Moreover, the pressure pushes the heart to work more. As a result, the left ventricle thickens or stiffens, and its pumping ability is reduced, increasing the chance of heart failure.

The high risk of CVD in HIV-infected persons has been linked to the antiretroviral drugs used in HIV therapy. A commonly used class of ARVs referred to as protease inhibitors, which works by inhibiting the action of the HIV enzyme protease, and hence preventing the assemblage of new virus particles, has particularly been found to contain very high levels of LDL cholesterol and fatty acids (McNeil Jr., 2014). Protease inhibitor is one of six classes of ARVs used in the treatment of HIV / AIDS. ARVs are used on a daily basis, which implies that these cholesterol levels build up to damaging levels over a long span of time and the risk of CVD increases almost proportionately. One could then ask; why shouldn't people just avoid this particular class? The answer lies in the fact that taking a combination of drugs from different classes increases the drugs' working ability, and prevents a case where a HIV strain becomes resistant to a particular type of drug (McNeil Jr., 2014).


Fox News. (2013). HIV Linked to Higher Chance of Heart Attack. Fox News. Retrieved 26 April 2014 from http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/03/06/hiv-linked-to-higher-chance-heart-attack/

McNeil Jr. D.G. (2014). Heart Problems Linked to Those Born with HIV. Positive Living Society of British Columbia. Retrieved 26 April 2014 from http://www.positivelivingbc.org/news/140303/heart-problems-linked-those-born-hiv

NIH. (2014). Youth Born with HIV may have Higher Heart Disease Risk, NIH Network Study Shows. National…… [read more]

2005 Study by Mohala Tucker Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In other words, both of these studies from the late 1990s point investigation in the direction of noting that the presence of infected maternal blood due to customary tearing and dilation within the birth canal during parturition may actually be responsible for infecting the infant during the actual process of childbirth, even after the infant has remained infection-free for nine… [read more]

Would Blood Work? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



There are a number of interventions that are effective in treating (not curing) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Many of the interventions, however, are based solely on how far along the CKD has progressed in specific patients. This is how it should be, of course, but such a scenario causes one to wonder exactly what particular intervention to use in… [read more]

Approach to Care of Cancer: Dealing With Side Effects of Treatment and Diagnosis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


811); ii) cognitive destruction -- blocking the patient's aversive stimuli by engaging them in absorbing and more interesting activities during the treatment procedure; iii) relaxation training - teaching the patient to identify a relaxation state which is scientifically thought to lessen pain during the treatment procedure; and iv) systematic desensitization -- altering a patient's aversive stimuli by "gradually introducing feared stimuli/events in a hierarchical manner, beginning with the least feared stimuli" (Redd, Montgomery & DuHamel, 2001, p. 812).


Cancer has become not only a serious health concern, but also a leading cause of death across the world. For instance, it is important to note that in 2012, cancer claimed 8.2 million lives. WHO projects that the rising trend will continue over the next decade. There is a lot of misinformation, particularly on the causes and treatment of cancer. This misinformation has been responsible for most deaths as it makes people shy away from early diagnosis, only seeking treatment when cancer has reached advanced levels. Cancer patients face many psychological and physical side effects of care, but there are methods of reducing the extent of the same. Of even more significance is that cancer can be totally cured if it is diagnosed and treated early.


Epstein, J.B., Thariat, J., Bensadoun, R.J., Barasch, A., Murphy, B.A., Kolnick, L., Popplewell, L. & Maghami, E. (2012). Oral Complications of Cancer and Cancer Therapy: from Cancer Treatment to Survivorship. CA Cancer J. Clin, 62(6), 400-422.

Kelvin, J.F. & Tyson, L. (2010). 100 Questions and Answers about Cancer Symptoms and Cancer Treatment Side Effects (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

NCI. (n.d.). Cancer Staging. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2014 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging

Redd, W.H., Montgomery, G.H. & DuHamel, K.N. (2001). Behavioral Interventions for Cancer Treatment Side Effects. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93(11), 810-823.

Schrevens, L.,…… [read more]

Ige Immunoglobulin E (Ige) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The identification of the pathological role of IgE and the subsequent release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines has enabled physicians to treat allergic symptoms with regard to the underlying immunological mechanisms. In summary there is a fine probability that the IgE treatment would be very beneficial to the symptoms of the 4-year-old child in question.

To better understand this approach it is important to understand how sneezing and the other symptoms experienced by the patient come to fruition. When sneezing occurs the body is reacting to an invading force within the body. The sneeze is a violent manner to eradicate this invading virus or allergen. The mucous displacement is the waste product of the body that contains the remains of the invading force.

IgE is a way to help the immune system replenish the immune cells that are responsible for fighting off those cells, viruses and other parasitical forces that contaminate the body and put pressure on the immune system to operate in a successful manner that assists the person in healing.


Ritter, C., Battig, M., Kraemer, R., & Stadler, B.M. (1991). IgE hidden in immune complexes with anti-IgE autoantibodies in children with asthma. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 88(5), 793-801.

Seeger, M., Thierse, H.J., Lange, H., Shaw, L., Hansen, H., & Lemke, H. (1998). Antigen-independent suppression of the IgE immune response to bee venom phospholipase A2 by maternally derived monoclonal IgG antibodies. European journal of immunology,…… [read more]

Applying Epidemiology and Formulating Hypothesis Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  4 pages (1,241 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This follows the constitution restricting medical practitioners from revealing client's information. It is against the ethical expectation of health workers. The number of cases should be determined based on the individuals who have shown the aforementioned symptoms. The laboratory results are also analyzed in order to come up with the proper conclusion on the main cause of the problem (Community and Public Health Online). The time duration is also considered. In this case study, time duration when the students were started seeing the symptoms has been recorded. Besides, further analyses of the situations have been done to come up with the necessary methods of dealing with the issue. The location should also be analyzed appropriately (Committee on Communicable Diseases Affecting Man, Food Subcommittee, 1988). The other consideration at this level is time. The outbreak should occur over a given reasonable period. The other step would involve a survey using data collection methods such as questionnaires. The next steps involve the development and comparison of hypotheses to come up with a conclusion on the cause of the outbreak described in the case study.

The questions that the students need to be asked include the time that they started feeling nauseatic, the urge to vomit and diarrhea as well as if any of them had shown the same symptoms previously. The complaint should be investigated further since the students may be suffering from a serious illness.

Yes, the cases represent outbreak at the university. Ideally, the number of patients involved is large, and the period is not large. Besides, it has happened within a single locality, which is south central Texas. The information that should be provided is the presence of some disease-causing agents. It would be used in knowing the possible diseases ailing the students.

The bacterial culture determines the type of disease after some tests have been carried out. In this case, there were no bacteria present in the stool. In essence, the students might not be suffering from the common water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. The results would qualify whether other diseases apart from the typhoid and cholera are present. Besides, it will also raise the question on whether the patients are suffering from terminal diseases associated with the symptoms.

The main topic that would be discussed in the meeting would be an analysis of the foods that were served during the three days of March 10, 11th, and 12th, the time when most people showed the symptoms. This would help in making appropriate guess or hypothesis on the possible cause of the disease.

Leading hypothesis: the students became ill after eating a common meal

The first action after formulating the hypothesis would involve questioning the management of the university cafeteria on whether there were appropriate quality measures on the foods consumed by the students on the mentioned dates. I would look for the origin of the pathogens in the food suppliers. In addition, analysis of the water consumed by the students will also be done.

The… [read more]

Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In addition, the course red blood cells cause damage to the capillary beds which are very fragile in nature and this is important to note since the capillaries are the very small blood vessels in the human body that supplies the eyes, feet and kidneys. For patients with poor control of their blood sugar the result can be a large amount of damage in areas that are dense with capillaries including the hands and feet.

Additionally, damaged capillary beds result in the blood flow being very poor and infections resulting and even more serious problems resulting in amputations in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Finally, the red blood cells that are so coarse can result in damage to the capillaries that supply the kidneys and retina because they are so very fragile and this can result in the development of blindness, failure of the kidneys or even cataracts. Failure of the kidneys can result in the individual requiring kidney dialysis.

It is reported that when high blood glucose levels are sustained that this drives the pancreas beta cells to produce additional levels of insulin and this sears out the beta cells resulting eventually in beta cell dysfunction and this in turn brings about a decrease in the production of insulin and the blood glucose levels will rise even higher and this results in a "vicious cycle of metabolic, biochemical and hormonal imbalances." (Death to Diabetes, 2014, p. 1) Treating this disease and defeating this disease requires that the disease cycle be broken rather than just to be treated with a regimen of drugs. (Death to Diabetes, 2014, paraphrased)


The Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes (2014) Death to…… [read more]

Congestive Heart Failure: Causes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,493 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


If an individual can't walk fast or do minimal amounts of physical exertion without struggling to breathe or walk normally, those are symptoms that should convey a strong message that the heart is struggling to work effectively. Legs tend to become puffy and swollen when a person is having congestive heart failure, and "pitting edema" may occur as well (the… [read more]

Heart Disease Prevention Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Prevention of heart diseases should be, of course, the number one target for the state and federal governments. First, the tracking and monitoring of those that are mostly at risk of dying or surviving heart failure or stroke with disabilities, among whom the African-Americans over 65, should be the number one point of interest at every state level.

One of the most illustrative examples is Jefferson County, Alabama. The county "has a 30% obesity rate and its death rate from lung cancer is among the highest in Alabama. It rates of heart disease and strokes are18 and 50% higher, respectively, than the national average"( http://www.jcdh.org/misc/ViewBLOB.aspx?BLOBId=270). "Improved nutrition and physical activity" are the main targets for prevention programs for heart disease and strokes. Media campaigns was to be allocated a large portion of the funding, considering how important its direct impact on the target population was.

Another factor of risk is the genetic factor. Family history becomes one of the most important aspects in the prevention programs.

"A Public Health Action Plan to Prevent Heart Disease and Stroke." American Heart Association. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/action_plan/pdfs/action_plan_full.pdf. Retrieved: Sep 28th, 2014

Healthy People.gov. Avalable at: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=21 Retrieved: Sep 29th, 2014

Hansen, Jeff. The Birmingham News. "Health Department Wins Double Grants $13 Million to Fight Obesity, Tobacco." Available at: http://www.jcdh.org/misc/ViewBLOB.aspx?BLOBId=270 Retrieved: Sep 29th, 2014

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. Addressing the Nation's Leading Killers: At A Glance 2011. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/dhdsp.htm Retrieved: Sep 28th, 2014

On the Move to Better Heart Health for African-Americans. U.S. Department of health and Human Services. 2008. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/public/heart/aariskfactors.pdf Retrieved: Sep 29th, 2014… [read more]

Measles in China Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (526 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Measles is a highly contagious disease. It is caused by an RNA virus that changes constantly. Measles symptoms usually include a bad cough, sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, sensitivity to light, and a very high fever. Red patches with white grain like centers appear along the gum line in the mouth two to four days after the first symptoms show. These patches are called Koplik spots because Henry Koplick first noticed them in 1896. The Spots are important to diagnose measles. A characteristic red rash in measles is red spots starting at the hairline and going down to the face, body, and limbs. Measles usually ends with a complete recovery, but some rare complications can occur with the lungs and brain. In 1978, the U.S. Public Health Service started vaccinating for measles. All school age children were vaccinated. Two years later the measles virus occurring went down 99%. Now days, measles is very rare and all children are vaccinated for it in the industrialized world, however this is not the case in China (WHO, 2011).

Nearly 100 million children in China will be vaccinated against measles to help eliminate the disease, a leading cause of avoidable death and disability in developing countries. There were more than 52,000 cases of measles in China in 2009. Although most people recover from the highly contagious viral disease, some suffer serious complications like blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhea, pneumonia and ear infections. Michael O'Leary, the WHO's representative in China, said China's measles cases made up 86% of all cases in the western Pacific. O'Leary said residents of remote…… [read more]

Clinical Medicine and Cellular Pathology Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (952 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Cystic Fibrosis

Clinical Medicine and Cellular Pathology

Cellular Biochemistry

The CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene product is a 168 kD cAMP-regulated chloride channel expressed on epithelial cells in the airways, intestine, reproductive tissues, pancreas, and sweat and salivary glands (Li and Naren, 2005). The channel typically resides on the luminal side of the apical membranes and regulates salt and water transport into and out of the cytoplasm, using ATP hydrolysis for energy. 12 helices make up the hydrophobic transmembrane region, which consists of two repeats having 6 helices each, with a linking hydrophilic cytoplasmic domain encoding a number of consensus phosphorylation sites. The N-terminus extends into the cytoplasmic space and has regulatory properties by virtue of interacting with other membrane-bound proteins, while the C-terminus tail binds PDZ-containing regulatory proteins that may enhance dimer formation and transporter activity. Since chloride transport affects the electrical properties of membrane polarity, the activity of other transporters, including sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate, is also affected. The complexity of interactions with other regulatory proteins is still incompletely understood, but what is known suggests that CFTR activity can be altered by a number of different regulatory pathways in the cell.

Blood Chemistry

Pancreatic insufficiency is detectable in 75% of newborns with cystic fibrosis and is caused by a buildup in bicarbonate and an inability to produce ductal fluid from the ductal epithelial cells (Rodrigues et al., 2008). Without ductal fluid to flush canaliculi of acini-secreted, digestive enzymes, they become obstructed and the enzymes fail to reach the duodenum. Nutrient malabsorption results and is evidenced by large, pale feces with a distinct smell. Since the enzymes are unable to be secreted into the duodenum, the pancreas begins to auto-digest. After months or years of auto-digestion diabetes develops.

Because pancreatic insufficiency is so prevalent in newborns with cystic fibrosis, routine blood screening for immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) protein has been instituted in a number of countries (Rodrigues et al., 2008). The source of the trypsin is the diseased pancreas, which releases trapped digestive enzymes into the circulatory system. Even in cystic fibrosis patients with pancreatic sufficiency, the test is still valuable because pancreatic function is often already impaired.

Unfortunately, there the IRT test alone produces a false positive rate of approximately 25% (Rodrigues et al., 2008). Researchers have thus been trying to improve blood tests for detecting cystic fibrosis in newborns. Additional testing for elevated serum levels of pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP), meconium lactase, and the more common CFTR mutations seem to produce high specificity and good sensitivity through various combinations. General acceptance of these testing protocols will probably take time though.


Since CFTR is expressed in a number of different tissues, the disease manifests in a number of locations. The primary defining features are chronic lung and pancreatic disease (Rodrigues et al., 2008). At the cellular level, impaired chloride transport results in sodium…… [read more]

Understanding Ovarian Cancer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,235 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ovarian Cancer


Ovarian cancer is that type of cancer, which originates from the ovaries, the egg-producing reproductive organ in women (Pubmed Health, 2013). It is the fifth most common type among women (Pubmed Health). The most common sub-type is epithelial ovarian cancer among all cancer-related deaths (Jayson et al., 2014). It occurs frequently among postmenopausal women who first suffer abdominal pain and distension (Jayson et al.). Recent official statistics reveal that 12.3 per 100,000 women every year develop it and 7.9 of this population die every year (SEER, 2012). There are approximately 188,867 women suffering from this type of cancer in the United States alone an as of 2011. Health experts estimate that about 1.3% of the total population will be diagnosed with the disease at some time in their lives (SEER).



The cause of ovarian cancer remains unknown, although risks have been recognized (PubMed Health, 2013; Jayson et al., 2014). The risk appears higher in women with fewer children, who give birth later in life, who have had breast cancer or with a history of either cancer type because of the defect in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, who undergo estrogen replacement for 5 or more years and those who are 55 years old or older (Pubmed Health; Jayson; Cunningham et al., 2014).

Signs and Symptoms

These are often vague and attributed to other causes or conditions (Pubmed Health, 2013). It has often advanced by the time it is diagnosed. Doctors, therefore, advise women to get a check-up when they notice certain symptoms occurring on a daily basis and repeating longer than a few weeks. These include bloating or swollen belly, feeling full easily, pain or heaviness in the lower abdominal area, abnormal menstrual cycle, digestive disorders, unusual back pain, vaginal bleeding in-between menstrual periods, and an increase or decrease in weight. Doctors also warn women about excessive growth of dark or coarse hair, more frequent or urgent urination (Pubmed Health).


A woman with advanced ovarian cancer will hae a swollen abdomen, usually caused by a condition of too much fluid called ascites (Pubmed Health, 2013,; Jayson et al., 2014). A pelvic examination will lead to an ovarian or abdominal mass or tumor. Her symptoms may prompt the use of a CA-125 blood test. It is also used to measure the progress of treatment when she has already been diagnosed with the disease (Pubmed Health, Jayson et al.).

The doctor or oncologist may also opt to conduct a complete blood count and blood chemistry, a pregnancy test for serum HCG, a CT scan or MRI of the patient's pelvis or abdomen, or an ultrasound of her pelvis (Pubmed Health, 2013; Jayson et al., 2014). The oncologist may also opt to perform a pelvic laparoscopy or exploratory laparotomy, which is a surgical procedure. This is to determine the cause of the symptoms. A biopsy is routinely done to reach a diagnosis. Unfortunately, no tests are conducted to screen or diagnose for this… [read more]

Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models of Health Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models of Health

Prior to 1977, the biomedical model was the key model used by physicians to explain the causes of illness and disease. It postulates that illness is a consequence of abnormalities/malfunctions in the physiological body processes, and that social and psychological factors are not in any way related to the disease process (Taylor,… [read more]

Communication Program for Aids Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,898 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Innovation Study

HIV / AIDS Behavior Change Communication (BCC) for adolescents in developing nations

Statistics (UNFPA, 2003) indicate that 70% of over a million children ranging between 10-19 years live in developing nations. Increase in the need for formal education, computer technology and knowledge of the internet, media exposure to new ideas, different employment opportunities and telecommunication mark the major… [read more]

HIV / AIDS as a Public Health Problem Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


HIV / AIDS is one of the major public health issues in the modern society that started in a cloud of fear since it was difficult to determine how the disease was spread. The fear surrounding the spread of the disease in the early stages was also fueled by the fact that HIV was infectious. Moreover, HIV / AIDS has become a major public health issue because it is potential fatal and has no specific treatment. These factors have in turn combined to contribute to prevalent discrimination and stigma against those who live with HIV / AIDS. As a result, public health officials have in turn worked tireless to create awareness in the general public with precise information regarding how HIV is and is not transmitted. These officials have also been involved in several measures to educate people on how they could prevent themselves to avoid being infected with the disease. These efforts were driven by the need to prevent the increased spread of HIV transmissions and the fact that there was stigma associated with the disease which was obstructing testing and prevention initiatives and making it difficult for those living with the disease to get healthcare. While these efforts have been beneficial in preventing the spread of the disease and lessening the stigma associated with it, there is need for more effective measures by public health officials to prevent the spread of the disease. Actually, despite these initiatives by various stakeholders including public health officials, those living with the disease, clinical personnel and HIV / AIDS advocates, HIV-related discriminations have continued.

Description and Analysis of this Public Health Problem

As previously mentioned, HIV / AIDS is a major public health problem in the modern society whose initial spread and transmission was unclear. The rates of HIV transmissions have continued to increase rapidly in the society, which contributes to concerns regarding why the problem exists in the society. While the spread of HIV / AIDS has occurred throughout the globe, the epidemic is rampant in poorly structured, resourced, and developing societies. For instance, given the nature and status of many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is also one of the poorest regions across the globe, there is a large number of HIV infections (Joseph, 2010, p.91). Notably, most of HIV infections in this region take places in urban centers or cities. One of the major reasons why HIV / AIDS exist in the society is because of inadequate essential services in informal settlements such as proper drainage facilities, sanitation, waste collection, and water. These conditions enhance…… [read more]

Perspective: Clinical-Qualitative Study in Brazil Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Mattje, Gilberto Dari, & Turato, Egberto Ribeiro. (2006). Life experiences with Systemic Lupus

Erythematosus as reported in outpatients' perspective: a clinical-qualitative study in Brazil. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 14(4), 475-482. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-11692006000400002

According to Mattje & Turato (2006), while the physical mechanisms of lupus have been much studied (but are still ill-understood), the personal, lived experiences of patients suffering from the disorder have not been given adequate attention in clinical studies. The purpose of this qualitative research was to allow patients with lupus to articulate how the autoimmune disorder had impacted their daily lives. From a medical perspective, "Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease, probably caused by a combination of inborn/hereditary predispositions and environmental factors, which leads to an abnormal stimulation of the immune system" (Mattje & Turato 2006). However, because the illness manifests itself in many very different ways, depending upon the patient, patients often do not feel that either healthcare providers or family members fully comprehend the degree to which it impacts their lives. Lupus has even been given the nickname in the healthcare profession as the "great imitator, because its manifestations vary so widely that it is often erroneously confounded with other disorders" and it "affects several organs: skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, nervous system, and others" (Mattje & Turato 2006). The severity of this chronic inflammatory disorder can vary widely from patient to patient and over the course of the patient's own lifetime.

Like most autoimmune disorders, lupus is far more common in women than in men which can further cause the symptoms to be ignored as psychosomatic by clinicians. Lupus can be confirmed with a series of blood tests but diagnosis is still often delayed by a lack of clinical recognition. There is no cure for lupus, only the ability to manage it. Chronic fatigue and joint pain are its most common presenting symptoms that interfere with a patient's functionality. To let patients speak for themselves to the maximum degree, a qualitative design was chosen. Qualitative research is inductive in nature and focuses on small patient populations, versus data-driven quantitative research which has predetermined research questions and categories and makes use of the experimental method. The researchers describe their approach as a clinical-qualitative design (a case study method) and subjects were drawn from a single dermatology service of a Brazilian general hospital. The sample was purposive and made use of semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions to allow the maximum degree of patient direction over the results.

To ensure that the study had value for the patients, as well as soliciting information from them from interviews, psychodynamic therapy was offered in conjunction with the study. Although qualitative, the researchers stated that they hoped that the results of the study would give them information that would be useful to clinicians in advising lupus patients, such as the fact that exercise can help alleviate joint pain. Qualitative studies are usually first undertaken because of cost and logistical considerations such as size of quantitative studies.… [read more]

Hao, G., Wang, Z., Guo, R., Chen Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hao, G., Wang, Z., Guo, R., Chen, Z., Wang, X., Zhang, L., & Li, W. (2014). Effects of ACEI/ARB in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 14(1), 148.


The author has been asked to conduct a scholarly article review of an article published in 2014. The article was written by Hao and a slew of other authors. The subject of the article was the effects of ACEI/ARB in hypertensive patients with type II diabetes mellitus. The form of the study was a meta-analysis of other randomized controlled studies. ACEI makes reference to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and ARB's are angiotensin II receptor blockers.

The study starts off by stating that hypertension and type II diabetes are commonly coexistent with the same patients. Indeed, the patients that have this comorbidity of those two disorders are at much higher risk of cardiovascular problems. The background sections notes that sixty to eighty percent of those with type II diabetes die of cardiovascular complications and many of the cardiovascular complications that are experienced are directly related to high blood pressure. To help combat this happenstance in any given patient, it is noted that ACE inhibitors have become a well-documented way to reduce mortality rates for patients. However, the study notes that it is much less documented (if at all) whether there has ever been a meta-analysis of ACE/ARB effects on cardiovascular disease risk in hypertensive patients that also have type II diabetes.

The study describes that a search was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases through January 2014 for relevant studies performed in hypertensive patients that also had type II diabetes. For the sources that were chosen, there was a…… [read more]

Flu and Nurse Precautions Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Influenza (flu)

Pathophysiology of Influenza (flu)

Influenza (otherwise known as the flu) is a viral infection that affects the respiratory system. In contrast to the common cold, influenza is much more severe. Symptoms include runny nose, aches, cough, high fever, and general weakness. Acute symptoms usually last from 3-7 days and residual symptoms may last even longer ("Signs and symptoms," 2015). Peak outbreaks occur in the winter and children, the elderly, and individuals with compromised immune symptoms are at highest risk ("Signs and symptoms," 2015).

Mode of transmission in children

As well as being more dangerous for children, the flu is often more easily transmitted between children as well. A lack of appropriate handwashing and close proximity to other children facilitates the spread of the disorder. Coughing and sneezing are the most common methods of transmission between persons, given that the flu is spread through infected fluids; exposure through touching the same surface as an infected person is another possible means of transmission ("Signs and symptoms," 2015). Young children are also more likely to present atypical symptoms such as earaches, nausea, and vomiting which can result in under-diagnosis, thus raising the risk of infection. According to the CDC: "In studies conducted among children aged 5 -- 12 years, the positive predictive value of fever and cough together was 71% -- 83%, compared with 64% among children aged <5 years" ("Signs and symptoms," 2015).

Incubation period, treatment in children

For a healthy adult, the average incubation period is 1-4 days and an adult can infect others 5-7 days after becoming ill but children typically have a longer period in which they can infect others given their weakened immune systems ("Signs and symptoms," 2015). Treatment for children in most instances is similar to that for adults with the flu: rest and plenty of fluids. Over-the-counter medicines may be used to remedy some of the more uncomfortable symptoms, such as coughing or sneezing, along with home remedies such as tea and honey for a scratchy throat. As the flu is not a bacterial infection, antibiotics are not necessarily helpful. For children…… [read more]

Choler Pandemic in India Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,390 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Cholera in India

Disease overview

Cholera is a common illness especially in the tropical regions like most countries in Africa and Asia and the Americas, though in fewer instances in this region as compared to the former two regions. More often it is termed as an outbreak or pandemic since the spread is so fast and can cause deaths amazingly fast among many if not well managed and controlled and treated. Cholera is an illness caused by bacterium called vibrio Cholerae. It is a species that is not prevalent among human beings and their presence in the human system is not meant to be a natural part of the life cycle of the bacteria. The natural places that the bacteria is frequently found is in the estuary ecology and finds home in snails, floating planktons, any static form in the ecology and even crustaceans (Shin S., et.al, 2011).


The challenge of permanently eradicating cholera infections from the Indian society at large has been worrying the environmental health practitioners and the medics in equal measures. The recurrent nature of this infection that goes with the seasons has occasioned several researchers and this paper strives to highlight some of the salient information on the nature, prevalence and possible treatment and control of cholera in India. It highlights the Etiology, Virulence, and Transmission. The paper further discusses the epidemiology and contributing social factors to cholera infections, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and Diagnosis of cholera.


Etiology, Virulence, and Transmission

The infection is caused by the bacterium called Vibrio cholera, the deadly symptoms of the infection are however caused by a potent toxin known as CTX which is emitted by the bacteria in the small intestines. This toxin CTX embeds itself on the walls of the small intestines and binds it hence interfering with the normal intake and absorption of the sodium and chloride. This state makes the human body to secrete large amounts of water hence being dispelled from the body making the body to lose essential and significant amounts of water and salts. The cholera bacterium has two distinct lifecycles, one that takes place in the natural environment and the other within the human body (Mayo Clinic, 2014).

The bacterium enters the human system through various avenues but the most common is through ingestion of contaminated food. The sea foods that are eaten raw are a source that can deposit large number of the bacteria that can cause cases of cholera. Cholera can also be contacted through getting into contact with moist surfaces and then the hand finds its way to ones mouth and another way is through use of water that is contaminated by the bacteria.

Epidemiology and Contributing Social Factors

In India, there is a clear epidemiological feature of the appearance of cholera in a regular patters especially in the areas of endemic infections. The outbreaks are normally traced back to specific areas of focus which is a major pointer to the contribution of environment to the trigger of the… [read more]

Lessons of Vygotsky Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,212 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Mediated Action

The contents of this report will be a fairly brief but substantial review of mediated action and communication. One of the visionaries when it comes to this subject would be Vygotsky and that will be one of the main people cited and discussed in this report. Whether it be academics, psychology, individualism or other things, the realms of… [read more]

Viral Upper Respiratory Infections Article

Article  |  2 pages (524 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Viral URI

Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

This study by Tansee et.al (2008) discusses Viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI) and the comorbid condition of Otitis media among children. There is a very high incidence of Otitis media among pediatric subjects. Acute Otitis media (AOM) caused by viral URI, is a severe middle ear infection that can even result in deafness. This study is particularly significant, as not much research has focused on the association between specific virus types in URI and the onset of Otitis media complication. The University of Texas Medical Branch conducted this study. For the study, a total of 294 children between 6 months and 3 years of age were followed up over a period of 1-year. The subjects were carefully screened to exclude children with chronic medical conditions and with a previous history of ear infections. During the period of study, parents were asked to notify the study physician immediately upon the onset of cold or any URI symptoms. The children were followed up for a few days to assess for any Otitis media complications. The study physicians also followed up with couple of home visits during the 2nd and 3rd week following an URI for tympanometry. Virological studies were performed on the respiratory specimens gathered during the initial visit for URI and post detection of AOM. During the study period, a total of 1295 URI episodes were documented and of these 414 (32%) lead to the onset of AOM. 26 separate cases of AOM not associated with URI were also reported in the study accounting for…… [read more]

Autism in Women, Girls and Their Education Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Autism in women, girls and their education


Topical Reference List: (Topic of Your Research Here)

The hallmark of Autism spectrum disorder ( AS) according to National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, is a complex neurodevelopment disorders, characterized by social impairments, communication difficulties, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. One out of 110 U.S. children has Autism spectrum disorder, according to the DSM TR IV ( 2000)..

Keywords: (autism, spectrum disorder, kanner's autism, childhood autism, early infantile autism, asd)

Topical Reference List: (Effects of Autism on women and girls and their education)


To understand how Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ASD) effects girls, women, and their education. Children with Autism are special children with language barriers . Some children with Autism are highly functional children, while others are low functioning. It is evident through the literature that educational programs are a necessity for these children in order to learn coping strategies for function in a daily environment. Teachers, doctors, speech specialist, and family must collaborate on a daily bases in order for the children to thrive.

The most effective theoretical framework for these children is using cognitive -- social learning theory ( Bandura, 1997).

The term autism derives from the Greek autos (meaning 'self') - it connotes separation, aloneness - and descriptions of those diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently suggest they are very much apart from the shared, experientially common space of others ( Davidson, 2007) . .

Research Question

How are girls, and women effected different in their education?


Attwood, T., Grandin, T., Faherty, C., Wagner, S., Wrobel, M., Bolick, T., et al. (2006). Asperger's and girls. Houston: Future Horizons, Inc.

The majority…… [read more]

What Is Diabetes What Complications Effects Does it Cause to the Body? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … 2010, among Americans 30 and older, 13.7% of men and 11.9% of women have diabetes. Almost one-third of them have never received a diagnosis of the disease. Ninety-five percent of diabetics have type-two diabetes -- a disease caused by obesity (Diabetes: A state-by-State Breakdown, Nicholas Bakalar, October 12, 2009, New York Times).

In the opening of January 9, 2006, New York Time feature story on diabetes, N.R. Kleinfield writes:

"Begin on the sixth floor, third room from the end, swathed in fluorescence: a 60-year-old woman was having two toes sawed off. One floor up, corner room: a middle-aged man sprawled, recuperating from a kidney transplant. Next door: nerve damage. Eighth floor, first room to the left: stroke. Two doors down: more toes being removed. Next room: a flawed heart…these assorted burdens were all the work of a single illness: diabetes.

As the percentage of over-weight children and adults has to grown and the resulting cases of diabetes has develop, the United States has created a medical epidemic with horrifying consequences.


When you have diabetes, your body is unable to process sugar properly. Normally, your body uses insulin to break down sugar into glucose, which moves through your blood stream to deliver energy to the cells. When you have diabetes this process in not working correctly.

There are four types of diabetes: type-one, type-two, gestational and pre-diabetes. In each type of diabetes the body's ability to process sugar is impeded. Type-one diabetes occurs when your pancreas no longer produces insulin. Type-two diabetes is the result of your body's inability to produce enough insulin or the body's inability to properly use the insulin produced by the pancreas. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy when changing hormone levels impact the body's use of insulin. Pre-diabetes is when glucose levels in the blood are above average but have not yet reach the levels that are associated with diabetes.

Type-one diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce insulin. Insulin is made in beta cells; a type-one diabetic's body destroys these cells. Symptoms of type-one diabetes are extreme thirst, frequent urination, weight loss and hunger. To treat type-one diabetes insulin must be injected into the body at regular intervals to help maintain the proper blood sugar levels. The doctor will recommend the type of insulin the amount and the frequency that will best help the patient.

If type one diabetes is untreated, the body reacts by breaking down fat. When fat is broken down it produces and releases ketones into the bloodstream causing a person to feel flush, loose their appetite, feels of restlessness and confusion. This is called diabetic ketoacidosis, which can damage the eyes, heart, nerves, and kidney and in extreme cases, it can cause death.

Typically, type-one diabetes starts in childhood. The cause of type one diabetes is unknown, however there is a heredity link; if one of your blood relatives has it, you are twice as likely to be a type one diabetic (https://members.kaiserpermanente.org/kpweb/healthency.do?hwid=hw34303).

Type-two diabetes… [read more]

Proteomics Using Proteomics in Drug Discovery Proteins Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Using Proteomics in Drug Discovery

Proteins are the essential building blocks of organic cells, and are involved at the most basic and simplified level of many processes and mechanisms that occur within the body. This makes an understanding of protein functions and effects essential in the development of new chemical mechanisms for altering the processes of the body, i.e. pharmaceuticals. As understandings of the workings of specific proteins and proteases, which are sequences of amino acids that comprise larger proteins, become more accurate and more refined, new possibilities for the discovery of drugs whose functionality and efficacy is a product of their interactions with proteins and proteases arise. This paper examines several pieces of recent medical scholarship and investigation in order to develop and describe a brief yet broad overview of the ways in which proteomics can lead to the development of more effective and more specifically targeted pharmaceuticals.

One profound example of the way in which improved knowledge of protein and protease function has led to improvements in drug development comes from the recognition of the true role of Amyloid-( build up in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. The processes that produce Amyloid-( were once thought to be purely symptomatic and degenerative, but are now understood to be natural processes that can produce excess amounts of the protease leading to disease (Golde & Kukar 2009). This has led to the creation of several pharmaceutical substances that disrupt the production of Amyloid-(, pre-empting one of the physiological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (Golde & Kukar 2009).

The above case demonstrates how the study of proteomics relating directly to human beings can be used to develop disease-preventing…… [read more]

History of Tuberculosis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … History of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria whose scientific name is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is a disease with deep historical roots; there are several reports of ancient Egyptian mummies having signs of tubercular decay in their skull and vertebrae. (Canadian Lung Association) Due to these signs, some scientists contend that TB has been affecting humans for at least 4000 years. There is also evidence that the ancient Greeks were exposed to, and aware of, the disease that would eventually be diagnosed as TB. More than 2400 years ago, Hippocrates wrote that pthisis was the most common disease of humans, and he further noted that it was nearly always fatal. (Canadian Lung Association) The Greek word pthisis actually means "a dwindling or wasting away," which provides an accurate account of the effects of the disease. (MedTerms Medical Dictionary) It was thought that Columbus brought TB to the new world in 1492, but evidence was found to the contrary in 1994, when scientists reported that they had identified TB bacterium DNA in the mummified remains of a woman who died in the Americas 500 years before Columbus set sail for the New World. (Nebraska Dept. Of Health and Human Services)

In Europe during the late Renaissance and Early Modern Era, roughly the 17th and 18th centuries, the continent was overtaken by the "Great White Plague," which was later diagnosed as TB. (Nebraska Dept. Of Health and Human Services - NDHHS) This outbreak did provide physicians with the opportunity to make significant advances in the diagnosis of the disease. In his Opera Medica of 1679, Sylvius was the first to identify actual tubercles as a consistent and characteristic change in the lungs and other areas of consumptive patients, and he also described the progression to abscesses and cavities. (New Jersey Dept. Of Health and Senior Services - NJDHSS) Twenty years after Sylvius' publication, the Republic of Lucca in Italy issued the following decree that indicated an understanding of the disease as communicable and infectious: "henceforth, human health should no longer be endangered by objects remaining after the death of a consumptive. The names of the deceased should be reported to the authorities, and measures undertaken for disinfection." (Canadian Lung Association) This was an important step for doctors and civic leaders who trying to contain the spread of the disease. In 1720, the English doctor Benjamin Marten was the first to surmise that germs, or in his words, "wonderfully minute creatures" could be the cause of the symptoms. (NDHHS) He argued that eating, drinking, sleeping, or being in close proximity to a consumptive patient for long periods of time could cause a healthy person to catch the disease.

An incredible breakthrough in identifying and fighting tuberculosis occurred in 1882 when the German physician Robert Koch discovered the organism that caused the disease. It was called a tubercle bacillus because small rounded bodies (tubercles) occurred in the diseased tissue and where characteristic of the disease. Through his many… [read more]

Randomized Controlled Trial for Latino Gay and Bisexual Men Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Randomized Control Trial for LGBM

Description of Project Model

Latino Gay and Bisexual Men (Many LGBM endure physical abuse, discrimination, verbal abuse, poverty and homophobia because of their sexual orientation (Diaz, Ayala & Bein, 2004). There is increasing curiosity as well in how racism can be related to health issues (Flores & Millett, 2009), which may not be in LGBM's… [read more]

Oral Candidiasis Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Oral Candidiasis

A Fictitious Report

Oral candidiasis is a condition where the fungus Candida albicans collects on the lining of the mouth (Mayo Clinic 2011). It is the most common fungal infection of the oral cavity (RDH 2011). Candida albicans can exist in one of two different ways: in a yeast (spore) form or a hyphal (filament) form (RDH 2011). An article published by RDH (2011), it states that the hyphal form is present and associated with the invasion of tissue, while the yeast form is not associated with infection and therefore not harmful.

There are four different types of oral candidiasis that are found in the oral cavity: hyperplastic, pseudomembranous, erythematous, and angular cheilitis (RDH 2011). Each one looks different in appearance and some patients may have just one form of thrush, while others may have a combination (RDH 2011).

Hyperplastic candidiasis is the least common type of candidiasis; it looks like a hard plaque and it cannot be removed by wiping or scraping. It is located most commonly on the anterior buccal mucosa and may also be on the lips and tongue. There are not any symptoms related to this form of candidiasis (RDH 2011).

Pseudomembranous candidiasis is quite common and it is often referred to as "oral thrush." It is the most widely recognized type of candidiasis (RDH 2011). It causes creamy white types of lesions on the tongue and the inner cheeks, which can be quite painful, bleeding a bit if they are scraped or irritated in some way (Mayo Clinic 2011). Oral thrush can spread to other areas of the mouth, including the roof of the mouth, the gums, tonsils, and the back of the throat (Mayo Clinic 2011). This form of candidiasis can be found in people of all ages and there isn't any sex predilection (RDH 2011); however, infants and chronically ill patients are the most susceptible to this type of candidiasis (RDH 2011). It is also seen in people who wear dentures, use inhaled corticosteroids, smoke, are undergoing chemotherapy, have diabetes, have HIV or other conditions that cause a weakened immune systems (Mayo Clinic 2011). Oral thrush isn't a major problem for people who have healthy and strong immune systems, but for those that don't, oral thrush can be hard to control and can often be quite severe (2011).

The symptoms related to pseudomembranous candidiasis -- oral thrush -- are often difficult to detect. The symptoms may also come on quite suddenly but then persist for a long period of time (Mayo 2011). Some of the symptoms are: 1) creamy, white lesions on the tongue, inner cheeks, roof of mouth, gums, and/or tonsils; 2) lesions have a "cottage-cheese" appearance; 3) bleeding if the lesions are scraped/rubbed; 4) cracking at the corners of the mouth; 5) dry or "cotton mouth"; and, 6) loss of taste (2011). (in some quite severe cases, oral thrush can spread down into the esophagus, which can make swallowing difficult) (2011).

Erythematous candidiasis (also known as atrophic candidiasis) is… [read more]

Preventing Kidney Failure Diabetes and Hypertension Dialysis Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  6 pages (2,107 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Kidney Failure



Kidney Failure: Prevention When There Is No Cure

Kidney Failure: Prevention When There Is No Cure

As of 2007, an estimated 11% of Americans over the age of 20 have kidney disease (National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 2011). Kidney disease can lead to kidney failure if left… [read more]

Anatomy and Physiology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Anatomy & Physiology

We begin a fantastic voyage through the body of a healthy female adult. Our starting point is the femoral vein, which is the largest vein in the groin. The femoral vein is a continuation of the popliteal vein, which is formed in the lower leg from the union of the front and back tibial veins (MedicineNet.com). As we take our voyage through the cardiovascular system, the veins and arteries become magically transparent so that we can see inside the body as we pass through it inside our microscopic craft. Our mission is to investigate the bacterium that is invading the lower lobe of the right lung. We will journey to that destination for further study; when we have the information we are looking for, we will continue on, eventually crossing the alveolar membrane and routing out of the body through the nose.

The femoral vein ends at the inferior margin of the inguinal ligament, where it becomes the external iliac vein. As we travel towards the heart along the upper leg, the femoral vein branches off into the superficial external pubic vein, the superficial internal circumflex, the superficial iliac circumflex, and the superficial epigastric. We are now in the trunk of the body. We pass the umbilicus. We move through the external iliac, which becomes the common iliac -- that also branches off into the internal iliac. The common iliac becomes the inferior vena cava. The inferior vena cava (also called the posterior vena cava) brings deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart. We travel through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts, forcing the blood past the pulmonary semilunar (crescent-shaped) valve, We then go into the pulmonary trunk.

The pulmonary trunk divides in two. The blood is still lacking oxygen, and the two pulmonary arteries, left and right, take us to the lungs. The blood becomes enriched with oxygen and travels back toward the heart. With the blood, we enter the heart through the right pulmonary vein (there is also a left pulmonary vein) that comes directly from the lungs. We then enter the left atrium. The bicuspid valve opens up and the blood fills the left ventricle. The ventricle contracts and the blood is forced past the aortic semilunar valve. The blood goes into the aorta -- the largest artery in the body -- and brings the oxygen-rich blood back through the body.

Rather than follow the blood's entire path, however, we chose to stop and investigate the lower lobe of the right lung. We chose the right lung because it is a bit more spacious. The left lung is slightly smaller to leave room for the heart.

The inside of the lung looks like a tree. The right bronchus, which branches from the trachea, branches further and further into tiny tubes. We see about thirty thousand bronchioles in the right lung; there are about the same number in the left lung, each one the thickness of a human… [read more]

Francisella Tularensis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,843 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Francisella Tularensis


Nature of the Menace and Global Incidence

New, re-emerging and microbiologic infections threaten the health of peoples, including those in the industrialized world, according to world health entities (Cutler et al., 2010). The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health in 2004 recognized these threats as 60%… [read more]

Tomato Xylem SAP Protein XSP10 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Tomato xylem sap protein XSP10 is required for full susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease," by Vladimir Krasikov is a characterization of the protein XSP10. XSP10 is a highly abundant xylem sap protein found in tomato with unknown function that is similar to other plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). LTPs are able to bind lipids and other hydrophobic molecules and sometimes play a role in plant disease resistance. The amount of XSP10 in the xylem sap has been found to decrease when the plant is infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol). This protein could be significant in tomato plant resistance to Fol infection. The research in this paper seeks to shed more light on the protein XSP10.

The main conclusions of this paper are that the protein XSP10 does have affinity for saturated fatty acids (FA) and that XSP10-silenced tomato plants do not fully develop symptoms of Fol infection. FA affinity was determined with a fluorescent probe called 2-p-toluidinonaphthalene6-sulphonate (TNS). TNS binding is a common assay for determining FA affinity. TNS is highly fluorescent when bound to the hydrophobic cavity of a protein. If it is displaced by another FA then the fluorescence decreases. In this study it was found that unsaturated FAs were not successful at displacing TNS. Saturated FAs were able to displace TNS. Decreases ranging from 22-35% were seen with several saturated FAs. This indicates that XSP10 binds saturated FAs weakly but significantly.

To look at XSP10s role in Fol infection XSP10-silenced plant lines were constructed. Fol resistance was tested on control and XSP10-silenced plants using a disease index. Both sets of plants were either mock infected or infected with Fol and then scored 0-4 with 0 indicating no infection and 4 indicating dead or very small and wilted plants. The transgenic plants showed fewer disease…… [read more]

Acute Radiation Syndrome Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Acute Radiation Syndrome

Three Types of ARS

the Bone Marrow Syndrome

the Gastrointestinal Syndrome

the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous System Syndrome

The Stages of ARS

ARS Diagnosis

Treatment of ARS

Cytokine Therapy

Transfusion and Stem cell transplantation

General Care

Recent Researches

Acute Radiation Syndrome

Acute Radiation Syndrome, also known as radiation sickness or radiation toxicity, refers to a severe condition… [read more]

Kidney Failure and Hemodialysis Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (2,934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Kidney Failure and Hemodialysis

The main difference between health and illness is health is when one is free from disease while illness is when there is an impairment in normal physiological functioning. Health is important because it is what keeps us functioning in a manner that is not impaired and what has happened to you with your kidney failure is… [read more]

Legal Aspects of Biotechnology Invention Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,189 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Legal Aspects of Biotechnology Innovation

Legal Aspect of Biotechnology Innovation

The use of aspirin in: treating and preventing coronary artery disease; has been continually discussed as a safe way for effectively helping patients, who are suffering from the condition. Yet, the underlying amounts of dosages have been creating controversy among health care professionals, as a number of studies are confirming or denying the results of one another. In this study, researchers are seeking to determine the answer to the problem, by looking at various published and unpublished studies / clinical trials.

A Description of the Field of Invention and Background of Invention

Over the last several decades, aspirin has continued to create innovative solutions for dealing with a host of medical conditions. Where, it has been shown, as being an effective treatment against coronary artery disease. Yet, there is a lack of agreement about what is right amount of dosage that a patient needs to be taking. As the U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets the acceptable range for dosages between 50 mg / d to as high as 1,300 mg / d. (Campbell, 2007, pp. 2018 -- 2024) This is because the different studies that were conducted all provide a wide range of recommended quantities. The problem is: that with the different underlying levels of health in the individual; this guideline could prove to be in accurate. Where, it does not take into account, specific factors that could give the person to small or to large of a dosage. To rectify the situation the article Aspirin Dose for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, examines these underlying effects by looking at various published and unpublished research trials. Once this is complete, it provides the greatest insights, as to how the underlying dosages should be determined.

Preparation of Claims

The different claims that are going to be examined, will determine the underlying effects of taking various dosages. Where, researchers are looking at numerous studies and information, to accurately decide the correct amount of aspirin an individual should be taking.

Types of Claims

Composition Claim

1. The composition of this claim is: to determine the various types of dosages and the effects that will occur, after it has been digested by the individual. Where, researchers would look at the prescribed amounts of aspirin that is being ingested to include: 40 mg, 100 mg, 300 mg and 500 mg. As the most effective absorption rates were between: 300 mg to 500 mg. This is significant, because it shows how the higher and lower dosages can prove to be ineffective, as the absorption rate will determine how quickly the medication can reduce platelet activity. As this is imperative, in reducing the short and medium term effects of someone, who is suffering from coronary artery disease. (Campbell, 2007, pp. 2018 -- 2024)

Formulation or an Alternative Composition Claim

1. The alternate composition claim is: the long-term effects of various dosages on an individual. Where, researchers found that someone who is consistently prescribed amounts of aspirin… [read more]

Blood Cultures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Blood cultures are laboratory tests that are used to detect whether bacterial or viral pathogens have entered the human vascular system. They are typically ordered when a person has symptoms of infection and allow medical personnel to understand which type of pathogen is affecting the individual so that appropriate treatment may be ordered. A typical blood culture is able to reveal a number of problems; from the innocent to the very severe. It is a way to scientifically understand the chemical make-up of the individual's blood at the time of testing. The term "culture," refers to the procedure that blood cells are placed in a medium that allows bacteria or other microorganisms to grow under conditions which allow medical personnel to more accurately identify them (Fischbach and Dunning 535-6).

History- While the first recorded blood transfusion took place in 1665, it was not until 1901 that researchers identified different human blood types, and again not until 1939 that the Rh factor and blood type testing began in earnest. In the 1930s and 1940s blood testing was done to screen for syphilis and rubella as a prerequisite to marriage. Certain basic tests (CBC) and some culturing was done after the 1930s, but it was not really until the post-World War II medical advances and really not until the 1960s that blood cultures became significant diagnostic tools (Kenney).

Method - A blood culture is done with a blood draw. First, the exposed skin is wiped with a disinfectant pad, and then often smeared with an antibacterial solution. This skin sterilization is crucial to prevent contamination from the skin and cause a misdiagnosis. The amount of blood that is drawn is dependent upon the age of the individual -- 5mm in babies, 1-2 mm for older children and up to 5mm for adults. This amount of fluid is quickly replenished, along with the blood cells, the body usually compensates within 24-48 hours. The general rule on blood cultures, based on statistical observation, shows that the higher the volume of blood cultured, the higher the yield of potential cultures. This rule remains true even in the contemporary technological era, in which blood cultures are routinely read by machine…… [read more]

Asperger's Syndrome in 2001, Henderson Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Asperger's Syndrome

In 2001, Henderson explains that Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disorder on the autism spectrum characterized by social deficits, relatively normal language and cognitive development, and the presence of idiosyncratic interests. To determine if Asperger's Syndrome is an appropriate diagnosis for an individual, the person's intellectual ability, academic achievement, developmental history, behavioral patterns, adaptive behavior and even motor skills should be assessed by an experienced psychologist, preferably one familiar with autism spectrum disorders. In 2008, Toth & King report that AS is considered to be a variant of autism rather than a distinct disorder, similar if not equivalent to high-functioning autism. Asperger's most famous cases were patients described as having above-average intellectual and language abilities, with significant disturbances in social and affective communication.

Henderson (2001) describes the characteristics related to cognitive processing, particularly executive function deficits, which are descriptive of persons with AS, include: Cognitive inflexibility, in which the person with AS has difficulty adapting to changing expectations, schedules, word or concept definitions, and perseverates on prescribed areas of interest. Attention problems, in which the person with AS has difficulty concentrating, sharing attention between two tasks, suppressing attention to non-salient information, and switching from one task to another. Coping strategies include visual cues to accompany auditory messages, controlling the environmental distractions, and providing structured environments as well as visual warnings of change.

Characteristics descriptive of persons with AS that are related to communication include: High-level pragmatic communication deficits, in which the person has difficulty extracting the subtleties of normal conversation, particularly those related to affect and intention; difficulty with perceiving and abiding by socially expected communication behaviors, in which the person with AS has difficulty with conversational skills, eye contact, or social distance.…… [read more]

Parasitic and Nonparasitic Organisms Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … parasitic and non-parasitic organisms. Specifically, it will discuss the parasitic hookworm, and the non-parasitic worm planaria, including research into the organisms.


Planaria are non-parasitic flatworms that live in both fresh and saltwater areas. Some can also live on land, under rocks or logs or in other moist areas. They can be 1/8 of an inch to almost an inch long, and they are often used in laboratory experiments and study. They are not harmful to humans. They feed on detritus, along with other living and dead matter, and they are carnivorous. They move by using cilia to glide along the ground. Since they are non-parasitic, they do not have a host or a method of transmission.

They are currently used in a variety of different research, largely because they can regenerate. If they are cut in two, either lengthwise or crosswise, they can regenerate into two new creatures. They are beneficial because they can be used in a variety of scientific applications, and they aid learning in the classroom. Perhaps the most famous research using planaria includes research by scientist James V. McConnell, who studied them during the 1950s and 60s. He based his "Memory RNA" theories on his findings with the worms. His research involved showing the worms a bright light and then giving them an electric shock. After several experiments, when the worms viewed the light, they reacted as if they had been shocked, even when they were no longer shocked. He then cut them up, and the regenerated animals regained the learning and reacted to the light as if they had been shocked, as well. He determined that memory can be transmitted through chemicals, and this helped develop his memory RNA theory, however, his results have not been able to be replicated by modern scientists.

Planaria are flat worms, nematodes are round worms, such as the hookworm discussed below, and round worms, or nematodes do not beneficially affect them.


The hookworm is a…… [read more]

Fomite Transmission Lab Report

Lab Report  |  2 pages (468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Fomite Transmission

The purpose of the fomite transmission experiment was to learn modes of pathogen transmission and to identify sites of potential fomite transmission in the environment. Fomite transmission is important to research and understand as with the increase in population around the world as well as mobility of persons, pathogen transmission has become intensified and there are major challenges now when it comes to interrupting the spread of diseases.

For many years it was presumed that infectious diseases were spread mainly via the air or through direct contact with people, and that the surrounding environment played a small or no role at all. Over the years, however, studies have changed the perspective of viral transmission to include a more complex multifactorial model of disease spread. Today there is evidence to support the belief that contaminated fomites or surfaces play a part in the spread of viral infections.


Eight areas in the home were located as a potential source of fomite transmission. The eight areas were doorknobs on bathroom doors, doorknobs on front door, the kitchen sink, the bathroom sink, a computer keyboard, the remote control for the television, the telephone, and the kitchen faucet. The type of bacteria expected to be found is staphylococcus, streptococcus, bacillus, Escherichia coli, corynaebacterium, and salmonella.

Two petri dishes were utilized with the bottom of each dish divided into fourths. The quadrants were then labeled #1 through…… [read more]