Study "Disease / Virus / Disorder / Injury" Essays 661-715

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Pandemic Flu Impact on Ethics Literature Review Chapter

… Employers as well as healthcare institutions must be part of the mobilization effort, as they can also strive to educate their workers about symptoms and offer vaccine clinics if necessary on-premises (Stroschein 2010). Independent traveling or stationary clinics specifically targeted to provide immunizations can be extremely useful in creating an effective response, given that they can relieve the pressures put upon larger healthcare institutions. Schools, workplaces, and other institutions can be helpful in encouraging compliance with CDC recommendations to reduce the spread of the virus such as encouraging covering the nose and mouth area with a disposable disuse, hand-washing and sanitizing, not touching the eyes, nose or mouth; avoiding close contact with sick people when possible; staying home when sick, and, for healthcare providers using face masks when treating infected patients (Goldenberg 2009). During the most recent pandemic outbreak, the CDC developed a PCR diagnostic test kit to detect the H1N1 virus and distributed test kits all over the U.S. And internationally (Goldenberg 2009)

These methods of prevention can be useful because transmission occurs when people touch objects contaminated with influenza and "the relative contribution of the different types of contact-airborne, large droplet, droplet nuclei, indirect exposure, and direct contact-in transmitting influenza is unknown" so all must be guarded against (Santibanez 2009). The most effective preventative is widely regarded as vaccination. Fears regarding vaccines, despite public relations campaigns to convince the public otherwise, have been growing in recent years, and it is deemed essential that healthcare workers provide a source of responsible educational efforts for patients. However, other precautions are still required given that "estimates of vaccine effectiveness -- the prevention of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness in vaccinated populations- vary from less than 50% in years with poorly matched vaccines to 50% to 90% in years with well-matched vaccine" (Santibanez 2009).

During the most recent pandemic, shortages of vaccine rationing were reported at the height of the 'scare.' But vaccines alone, once an epidemic has occurred cannot be wholly relied upon. "Vaccines that are specifically formulated to work against a pandemic virus usually will not be available until 4 to 5 months after a pandemic begins" (Santibanez 2009). And since infected individuals have a typical incubation period of about 1 to 4 days before becoming symptomatic, even apparently non-infected individuals must take precautions.


Goldenberg, S. (2009). The swine flu pandemic. Journal of Continuing Education Topics & Issues, 11(3), 108-111

Manos, J. (2009). Lessons learned from the first wave of the swine flu pandemic. Occupational Health, 61(11), 30-30.

Santibanez, S., Fiore, Anthony E., Merlin, T.L., & Redd, S. (2009). A

primer on strategies for prevention and control of seasonal and pandemic influenza. American Journal of Public Health, 99, S216-24.

Shabanowitz, R.B., & Reardon, J.E. (2009). Avian flu pandemic…… [read more]

Man Made Disaster. The More Catastrophic Term Paper

… ¶ … man made disaster. The more catastrophic the disaster, the more impacting it becomes on the community involved. It took over one year for New York to recover after September 11th, and just as long to locate all the victims' bodies. In response to this and other more recent disasters, President Obama initiated the National Health Security Strategy of the United States of America. In this proposal, ten objectives were given to ensure proper preparedness for any and every possible disaster scenario. It is the responsibility of the communities and local governments to implement the plan and ensure proper preparedness in the event of an emergency. One such example that requires exceptional organization on the part of nurses and medical staff is a plane crash in which proper primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies are vital to the survival of the victims.

There are four primary prevention strategies that are necessary for emergency assistance and preparedness. Primary prevention strategies according to the CDC:

Primary prevention is the reduction or control of causative factors for a health problem and includes reducing risk factors -- such as smoking to prevent lung cancer or sex education to reduce sexually transmitted diseases -- and environmental exposures -- such as reducing ambient lead to prevent intellectual impairment. This category also includes health-service interventions, such as vaccinations or such preventive "therapy" tools as fluoridated water supplies or dental sealants.

In the case of a plane crash, the first primary measure that must be carried out is "Ensure that all systems that support national health security are based on the best available science, evaluation, and quality improvement." Modern studies have revealed the most common causes of death associated with a plane crash. This knowledge can aid medical staff in saving more lives. For instance, according to a study by Susan Baker, et al., the most common injury seen in a plane crash is lower limb fracture followed by head injury. Another study conducted by Guohua Li and Baker determined that the majority of fatalities in these crashes are the result of deceleration forces. This knowledge can and should empower further research and development into better seats on airplanes to prevent the injuries. Additionally, this information should prepare hospital staff for entry of those emergency victims to the hospital.

The next primary measure is "Ensure situational awareness." Medical staff entering the crash site must be prepared and aware of any dangers to them or continuing dangers to the victims. For instance, in aviation crashes between the years of 1991 and 1998, 41% of the deaths were related to carbon monoxide poisoning, as revealed in the carbon levels in the blood during autopsy. Measures such as this should translate to medical staff being prepared to remove victims as quickly as possible from the crash site and begin oxygen treatment.

The third primary measure is "Ensure timely and effective communications." It is imperative that ambulances, on scene staff, and hospitals remain in complete and constant communication so that victims… [read more]

How and Why Did X-Ray Technology Come to Be Used in Medicine Essay

… ¶ … Ray Technology in Medicine

How and why did x-ray technology come to be used in medicine?

In a period spanning more than the last century, the medicine world has been able to maximize totally on technology. X-ray technology… [read more]

Aluminum Shoes for the Performance Research Paper

… Some horses have unfortunate and deteriorative illnesses which can be exacerbated by poor horse shoes. One such condition, popularly known as navicular disease, which is a painful and degenerative condition which affects both a horse's hooves and its feet, is considered to be both highly painful and detrimental to the animal's overall health. For this condition, animal orthopedic experts have suggested specialized footwear using aluminum horse shoes which provides both support and balance for animals during their recovery period from the disease (Crisan 2009). Navicular disease has been the subject of debate in and of itself because animal scientists are as yet unsure of the direct cause of the condition. Some researchers have claimed that navicular disease can be directly linked to vibration. Such assertions have been supported by a large number of animal science researchers, including Dr. J. Rooney. The other hypothesis is that navicular disease is a vascular condition, which is effected by the veins in the horse (Rooney 1998,-page 1). Both of these hypothesis indicate a link between the horse's legs, and thus their hooves, and the likelihood of becoming afflicted with the disease. Whatever the cause of the condition may be, and there is no concrete evidence as yet which is the true cause, there has been definitive research to indicate that the material of horseshoes has a concrete effect on the continued deterioration or the betterment of the horse that has been diagnosed with the condition.

It has also been proved that other conditions that can damage a horse and deter its quality of life are affected by the hooves and legs of the animal. Thus, the horse can be treated or at least aided by the use of a properly designed horse shoe. According to Gore (2012), "In some rare occasions, the horse shoe can be used to help a cracked hoof to aid in healing and support. Horse shoes can be used for gait management or to improve other movements of the horse" (page 1). Whether using aluminum or steel horse shoes, what most researchers do agree to is that the usage of some type of metallic shoe is far better than not using any material on the horse's hoof.

There are many proven reasons why aluminum horse shoes can be superior to steel for certain situations. Research was conducted by Huguet and Duberstein (2012) wherein the investigators looked into a direct comparison between how horses' knees react when the horses are shoes with both steel and aluminum shoes. The researchers were able to determine that in cases where the horses were shoed with aluminum, the body showed that there was a larger carpal angle and an evident relieving of tension observed. This suggests that there are many potentially different performance enhancements which can be achieved with the replacement of aluminum shoes rather than steel ones.

With this evidence which has been acquired, it is possible to state without hesitation that for animals with potential injury or disease, aluminum horse shoes are superior… [read more]

Practice Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Essay

… Then action, where one aquires new behavior, then maintenance, where one sustains the behavior and finally termination, where one cannot be tempted or a no return stage.

HIV / AIDS among African-American women.

According to a survey conducted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2007), of all the races in the United States of America, African-Americans have the highest number of HIV and Aids related infections. The African-Americans account for almost 50% of the newly detected cases in the country. The African-American women are the most vulnerable as their infection rate is 19 times that of their counterparts from other races.

HIV transmission and infection rate among African-American women is rising steadily. According to Samuel (2009) failure to use protection during sexual intercourse has been singled out as a major risk factor in the transmision of the virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009), reports that 85% of African-American women with HIV were infected through heterosexual sex.

Lack of awareness has been cited as the major reason for this trend, it is approximated that 1 out 5 adults in the United States are not aware of their HIV status (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). Late diagnosis is another issue of concern; this prevents early medical attention that could curtail further transmission of the virus. One of the critical issues in dealing with the HIV and Aids pandemic is the socioeconomic aspect of the problem. Most African-American women are living in poverty and cannot access good health care or HIV prevention education.

Problem Statement

HIV and AIDS remains a health issue in the United States of America. The most affected section of the population is the African-American community and more so the females. It is critical for the health professionals to develop an anti-HIV- AIDS campaign on order to counter the increasing infection rate among the African-American women.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). HIV among African-Americans. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). HIV / AIDS and African-Americans. Atlanta:

Centers for Disease Control…… [read more]

Anatomy Tonsillitis Is Swelling of the Tonsils Essay

… Anatomy


Tonsillitis is swelling of the tonsils, the two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat. There is one tonsil on each side. Signs and indications of tonsillitis include swollen tonsils, sore throat and trouble swallowing. The majority cases of tonsillitis are caused by infection with a common virus, but a bacterial infection also may cause tonsillitis. Tonsillitis creates certain kinds of disease-fighting white blood cells. So the tonsils are thought to act as the immune system's first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter the mouth. This function may make the tonsils predominantly susceptible to infection and inflammation. On the other hand, the tonsil's immune system function goes down after puberty, which is thought to account for the uncommon cases of tonsillitis in adults (Tonsillitis, 2012).

The procedure to diagnose tonsillitis is very simple. The doctor rubs a sterile swab over the back of the throat in order to get a sample of secretions. The sample is then checked in a lab for streptococcal bacteria. A lot of clinics are equipped with a lab that can get a test result within a few minutes. Nonetheless, a second more reliable test is typically sent out to a lab that can return results within 24 to 48 hours. If the rapid, in-clinic test comes back positive, then a person almost certainly has a bacterial infection. If the test comes back negative, then it is very likely a person has a viral infection. The doctor will wait, though, for the more dependable, out-of-clinic lab test in order to determine the cause of the infection (Tonsillitis, 2012).

The doctor may also order a CBC with a small sample of blood in order to test even further. The result of this test, which can frequently be done in a clinic, produces a count of the different types of blood cells. The profile of what's high, what's normal or what's below normal can show whether an infection is more probable to be caused by a bacterial or viral agent. A CBC is not frequently…… [read more]

Clinical Medicine and Cellular Pathology Assessment

… Cystic Fibrosis

Clinical Medicine and Cellular Pathology

Cellular Biochemistry

The CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene product is a 168 kD cAMP-regulated chloride channel expressed on epithelial cells in the airways, intestine, reproductive tissues, pancreas, and sweat and salivary glands (Li and Naren, 2005). The channel typically resides on the luminal side of the apical membranes and regulates salt and water transport into and out of the cytoplasm, using ATP hydrolysis for energy. 12 helices make up the hydrophobic transmembrane region, which consists of two repeats having 6 helices each, with a linking hydrophilic cytoplasmic domain encoding a number of consensus phosphorylation sites. The N-terminus extends into the cytoplasmic space and has regulatory properties by virtue of interacting with other membrane-bound proteins, while the C-terminus tail binds PDZ-containing regulatory proteins that may enhance dimer formation and transporter activity. Since chloride transport affects the electrical properties of membrane polarity, the activity of other transporters, including sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate, is also affected. The complexity of interactions with other regulatory proteins is still incompletely understood, but what is known suggests that CFTR activity can be altered by a number of different regulatory pathways in the cell.

Blood Chemistry

Pancreatic insufficiency is detectable in 75% of newborns with cystic fibrosis and is caused by a buildup in bicarbonate and an inability to produce ductal fluid from the ductal epithelial cells (Rodrigues et al., 2008). Without ductal fluid to flush canaliculi of acini-secreted, digestive enzymes, they become obstructed and the enzymes fail to reach the duodenum. Nutrient malabsorption results and is evidenced by large, pale feces with a distinct smell. Since the enzymes are unable to be secreted into the duodenum, the pancreas begins to auto-digest. After months or years of auto-digestion diabetes develops.

Because pancreatic insufficiency is so prevalent in newborns with cystic fibrosis, routine blood screening for immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) protein has been instituted in a number of countries (Rodrigues et al., 2008). The source of the trypsin is the diseased pancreas, which releases trapped digestive enzymes into the circulatory system. Even in cystic fibrosis patients with pancreatic sufficiency, the test is still valuable because pancreatic function is often already impaired.

Unfortunately, there the IRT test alone produces a false positive rate of approximately 25% (Rodrigues et al., 2008). Researchers have thus been trying to improve blood tests for detecting cystic fibrosis in newborns. Additional testing for elevated serum levels of pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP), meconium lactase, and the more common CFTR mutations seem to produce high specificity and good sensitivity through various combinations. General acceptance of these testing protocols will probably take time though.


Since CFTR is expressed in a number of different tissues, the disease manifests in a number of locations. The primary defining features are chronic lung and pancreatic disease (Rodrigues et al., 2008). At the cellular level, impaired chloride transport results in sodium…… [read more]

Measles in China Essay

… Measles is a highly contagious disease. It is caused by an RNA virus that changes constantly. Measles symptoms usually include a bad cough, sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, sensitivity to light, and a very high fever. Red patches with white grain like centers appear along the gum line in the mouth two to four days after the first symptoms show. These patches are called Koplik spots because Henry Koplick first noticed them in 1896. The Spots are important to diagnose measles. A characteristic red rash in measles is red spots starting at the hairline and going down to the face, body, and limbs. Measles usually ends with a complete recovery, but some rare complications can occur with the lungs and brain. In 1978, the U.S. Public Health Service started vaccinating for measles. All school age children were vaccinated. Two years later the measles virus occurring went down 99%. Now days, measles is very rare and all children are vaccinated for it in the industrialized world, however this is not the case in China (WHO, 2011).

Nearly 100 million children in China will be vaccinated against measles to help eliminate the disease, a leading cause of avoidable death and disability in developing countries. There were more than 52,000 cases of measles in China in 2009. Although most people recover from the highly contagious viral disease, some suffer serious complications like blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhea, pneumonia and ear infections. Michael O'Leary, the WHO's representative in China, said China's measles cases made up 86% of all cases in the western Pacific. O'Leary said residents of remote…… [read more]

Personalized Medicine Essay

… Indeed, medical professionals now understand that these diseases also have multigene components and could also be caused by errors in the DNA, where the connections between genes create the problem, rather than those within the genes themselves. Hence, a better understanding of such diseases is created by using a whole-genome approach rather than assuming that either the environment, the genome, or a combination of these, is primarily responsible.

Saha and Labs (2010) suggest that personalized medicine is becoming an increasingly prominent component of clinical practice. In addition to more effective diagnosis and treatment methods, this area is also creating more alliances between diagnostic and pharmaceutical businesses. This is a significant advantage for medical care recipients, since it also means more effective and more integrated treatments. In the long-term, this could even hold advantages for medical insurance recipients, where reduced costs might be the final effect of more cost-effective diagnoses and treatments.

There are several areas of research that have received attention in terms of personalized medicine. In vitro diagnostics (IVD), for example, has made significant progress as a result of the new discoveries and the development of new technology.

Furthermore, policy issues such as regulatory developments on biomarker testing have also received considerable attention as a result. Licensing and partnerships are also issues that are being considered in a new light as a result of the new discoveries and developments.

It therefore appears that there are significant advantages to the new discovery, especially in terms of disease prevention and more effective treatment. It is, however, also possible that there could be some disadvantages to the technology. One of these might be in terms of medical insurance. Being able to test for the likelihood of a severe disease such as cancer, for example, could drive the cost of individualized policies higher as a result of known risk. A further disadvantage could be the initial cost of standardizing personalized medicine. This cost is not only financial, but could be significant in terms of time as well. The cost and time intensiveness of initial testing for each individual could take resources that might otherwise have been applied towards caring for more patients.

Regardless of the potential drawbacks, the potential advantages of personalized medicine are significant. In the world today, it is vital to create platforms from which people can be treated with more effectiveness, especially when it comes to prevention of severe diseases. Ultimately, it could help not only the general health of the population, but also the economy as this relates to the field of medical care, partnerships, and policy.


Saha, S. And Labs, R. (2010). Is healthcare industry moving towards personalized medicine? Retrieved from:

U.S. News (2012). Personalized Medicine. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Cholera in Somalia: Resources Research Paper

… 4-5). Hand washing is also effective, especially when preparing food. Two WHO-recommended vaccines have been shown to be 60% and 67% percent effective against 01 El Tor, or 01 El Tor and 0139 strains, respectively. Both could be used to produce a 'herd effect' if only a portion of the at-risk population is vaccinated, and the latter vaccine is cheap enough (U.S.$2 dollars) for use in developing countries.

WHO Cholera Case Study: Somalia

During the first 31 weeks of 2011 there were 4272 cases of acute watery diarrhea (AWD) at the Banadir Hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia, of which 75% were children under the age of 5 (WHO Somalia, 2011). This rate is a reflection of what is occurring throughout Somalia, because health care personnel are unable to keep up with the countless new villages that form randomly due to the ongoing conflict and drought conditions. Gaining access to conflict zones is generally impossible, so many internally displaced persons (IDPs) have no access to medical care, potable water, or hygiene products. The magnitude of the problem is revealed by the fact that another 74,400 persons were displaced from their homes between June and July last year.

The percentage of AWD cases resulting from V. cholerae is unknown, but sporadic testing indicated that 60% were due to cholera in the lower and middle Juba regions (WHO Somalia, 2011). In August, 2011 the WHO announced cholera incidence was increasing in Somalia and began to mount a rapid response in anticipation of the rainy season (WHO and UNICEF, 2011). Cholera was considered to be under control at the time, but the most recent cholera epidemic, which occurred in 2006, caused an estimated 67,000 cases. With this recent history in mind, plans were executed to prepare for treating 80,000 moderate and 20,000 severe cases of cholera by strategically positioning diarrheal disease kits in the most at-risk regions.

Essentially, everything that can be done is being done given the available resources. Trained community health personnel are going door to door and providing hygiene education. Water sources serving approximately 500,000 residents and IDPs in the Mogadishu area are being chlorinated and household hygiene kits are being distributed. The hygiene kits include chlorine tablets, soap, and buckets. Based on United Nations estimates, U.S.$80 million is needed for health centers and another U.S.$78 million for water sanitation and personal hygiene products, but less than 40% of the needed funds have been raised.


Efforts to forestall the next cholera epidemic in Somalia are limited to the most at risk areas in the country, which seems appropriate given that cholera was considered under control at the time and funding for a vaccination program was lacking. Pre-rainy season preparations were based on the scale of the most recent cholera epidemic and limited to AWD treatment, community education, and household hygiene supplies for a limited section of the country. The current status of cholera epidemic prevention and treatment in Somalia is therefore limited primarily to crisis management, rather than prevention, and therefore… [read more]

New Respiratory Drugs Research Paper

… Again, it is a prevention drug and cannot stop a bronchospasm that has already in its latter stages. It is important to not treat patients with Brovana if they have the following medical issues: heart disease with an un-rhythmic heart beat and/or high blood pressure, diabetes, liver disease, thyroid infection or disorder, and an inheritance or family line of Long QT syndrome. Brovana daily intake is prescribed differently according to the patient's need but is always taken with a nebulizer, never swallowed or taken by mouth. In case a dose is missed, it must be skipped and the patient must take the next dose when it is time for it (Cerner, 2010c).


Symbicort is basically a drug that is a combination of two drugs: Budesonide, a steroid which is used to decrease the inflammation in the body; and Formoterol, a bronchodilator which is used to relax the muscles that help in the breathing. Symbicort is a prevention drug that is used to remedy the instance of bronchospasm in patients who have asthma or COPD. Some of the side effects of the drug include: worsened asthma attacks, chest pain, eye problems, white patches in mouth, headaches, diarrhoea, and muscle/joint pain amongst others (Vogelmeier et al., 2005).


Beeh, K.M., Derom, E., Kanniess, F., Cameron, R., Higgins, M., van As, A. (2007). "Indacaterol, a novel inhaled beta2-agonist, provides sustained 24-h bronchodilation in asthma." Eur. Respir. J. 29 (5): 871 -- 8.

Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010). Dulera Inhaler. Accessed 02-02-12 from:

Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010a). Tyvaso. Accessed 02-02-12 from:

Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010b). Alvesco. Accessed 02-02-12 from:

Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010c). Brovana. Accessed 02-02-12 from:

Feldman, G., Siler, T., Prasad, N., Jack, D., Piggott, S., Owen, R., Higgins, M., Kramer, B. et al. (2010). "Efficacy and safety of indacaterol 150 mcg once-daily in COPD: a double-blind, randomised, 12-week study.." BMC pulmonary medicine 10: 11.

Forest Pharmaceuticals Inc., (2011). Daliresp. Accessed 02-02-12 from:

Vogelmeier, C., D'Urzo, A., Pauwels, R., Merino, J.M., Jaspal, M., Boutet, S., Naya, I., Price, D. (2005). "Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy: an effective asthma treatment option?" European Respiratory Journal 26 (5): 819 -- 828.… [read more]

Morbidity Lung Cancer Research Paper

… ¶ … lung cancer as compared to other leading causes of death in your state. Include the mortality rates and the costs of lung cancer (for the most recent year reported) in your analysis.

Pennsylvania is one of the 7 states that has the second highest incidence of all states in the U.S.A. with lung cancer rankling as one of its leading causes of deaths caused by all illnesses. 66.4 to 74.7% per 100, 000 citizens are diagnosed with lung cancer yearly according to the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group

On the other hand, compared to most states, Pennsylvania also seems to show the second-highest level of effective treatment for lung cancer with only 47.1 to 52.0 annual deaths compared to the highest mortality rate level of annual deaths from lung cancer (56.8 to 74.6) in the mostly southern states.

According to the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute of Pennsylvania, approximately, 3236 cases of lung cancer are reported annually in that state, making it the third largest diagnosed and recurring cancer preceded only by brain cancer (first) and female breast cancer. Men seem to have the greatest incidence (128) with women (99). This is the standard incidence ratio of every 100 cases. The annual mortality rates of lung cancer were 2,393 with the ratio being 104:86 males to females.

Graphs on survival rates of lung caner in Pennsylvania (Northeast Regional Cancer Institute of Pennsylvania) showed that the soonest the cancer was diagnosed the higher were rates for survival. Lung cancer diagnosed within the first few months had the highest rate, but if caught before the end of the first year, survival rate was only 40%. By the 2nd year, chances for survival were only 20%. The majority of other cancer rate in comparison showed a far higher level of survival and possibility of treatment with success, as for instance, in the case of prostrate cancer sometimes approaching 100%.

2.Analyze the three (3) key risk factors associated with lung cancer as it pertains to your state (Pennsylvania).

3.Rank the three (3) key risk factors from order of biggest public health concern. Provide statistics or specific evidence from your state to support your ranking

1. Smoking -- tobacco smoke causes approximately 9 out of 10 cases of lung cancer in Pennsylvania. The longer the person has been smoking, the more chance of being diagnosed with lung cancer. Secondary smoke also results in diagnosis (Penn Medicine: Lung cancer risk and prevention)

2. Radon - radioactive gas released by the normal breakdown of uranium in soil and rocks. Some states have it to a higher degree than others depending on the quality of soil, and Pennsylvania is one of the states in the U.S.A. that has it to the largest degree. Radon is insidious in that it can't be seen, tested or smelt and builds up indoors.

3. Asbestos -- People who work with asbestos -- which a large number of industries in Pennsylvania are occupied with -- have a higher risk of getting lung… [read more]

Aetiology and Management of Cancer Understanding Essay

… Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Understanding the aetiology and management of cancer in Biopsychosocial perspective

Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world today and unfortunately, there are more than 200 different types of cancers that can… [read more]

Ecoli Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) Term Paper

… coli in the production of naturally decaffeinated teas and coffees. Just as the use of E. coli to produce hydrogen depends on the genetic engineering of the organism, so too does the use of E. coli in natural decaffeination. As Ashihara & Crozier (2001) point out, "A gene from tea leaves encoding caffeine synthase, an N-methyltransferase that catalyses the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, has been cloned and the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli," (p. 407).

For instance, a new strain of E. coli can produce "substantial amounts of hydrogen…140 times more hydrogen than is created in a naturally occurring process," ("E. Coli Bacteria: A Future Source of Energy?" 2008). To make a bacteria produce an excessive amount of hydrogen might not seem like an important discovery but in fact, this research could be "a significant stepping stone on the path to the hydrogen-based economy that many believe is in this country's future," ("E. Coli Bacteria: A Future Source of Energy?" 2008). This is because hydrogen fuel-cell technology offers a clean and renewable source of energy that mitigates the greenhouse effect while preventing economic collapse. Until the discovery that E. coli might be able to power home appliances, cars, and factories, hydrogen for fuel-cells had to be generated via expensive processes involving breaking down water molecules. E. coli may be the magic adjunct in biofuels.

The use of E. coli in the production of human insulin and also in the development of vaccines has been well-documented. E. coli has as many as 5000 genes, making it an incredibly complex and diverse organism with many capabilities for research in biotechnology and energy science. According to the Science Daily article about the breakthrough technology involving E. coli as a hydrogen machine, genetically modifying the organism in this way is not dangerous because it actually makes the bacteria less robust and competitive ("E. Coli Bacteria: A Future Source Of Energy?" 2008). The soap and detergent industry has its eye on E. coli, too because research shows that a type of the bacteria can be used to convert glycerin into useful products: "from biofuels, ethanol, hydrogen and organic acids," ("E. coli Has Its Benefits -- Rice University Scientist Honored for Research Converting Glycerine Into High Value Products," 2010). Glycerin is a byproduct of biodiesel production, and is also a key ingredient in many soaps and detergents.


Ashihara, H. & Crozier, A. (2001). Caffeine: A well-known but little mentioned compound in plant science. Trends in Plant Science 6(9): 407-413.

Douky, N., Toyoda, K. & Aono, R. (2002). Indigo production by Escherichia coli carrying the phenol hydroxylase gene from Acinetobacter sp. strain ST-550 in a water-organic solvent two-phase system. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 60(6): 720-725.

"E. Coli Bacteria: A Future Source Of Energy?" (2008). Science Daily. Retrieved online:

"E. coli Has Its Benefits -- Rice University Scientist Honored for Research Converting Glycerine Into High Value Products," (2010). Business Wire. 19 May 2010. Retrieved online:

Lee, P.S. & Lee, K.H. (2003). Escherichia… [read more]

Prescription Drug Advertisement Assessment

… Med

Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor, a medication that reduces the amount of acid the stomach creates. Therefore, omeprazole is a drug that can be used to treat several different types of gastrointestinal problems. The most commonly indicated use of omeprazole is for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which entails the backward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus. The drug can also be used to treat Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a condition in which the stomach produces too much acid. Ulcers caused by the bacteria H. pylori can also be treated using omeprazole but usually in conjunction with other medications. There are two types of omeprazole: prescription and non-prescription. The latter is indicated in situations in which patients experience frequent heartburn, defined by an experience of heartburn for two or more days in any week.

The most noticeable symptom of GERD is heartburn. However, gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause damage to the esophagus. Omeprazole is designed to prevent esophageal damage due to GERD, and can help the esophagus heal from its contact with the excess acid.

Omeprazole is not an antacid and should not be used to treat infrequent or sporadic heartburn. Omeprazole does not lead to immediate relief from heartburn. The drug is taken before meals, once or twice per day. When prescribed for patients with ulcers caused by H. pylori or patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, the drug may need to be taken more frequently. The drug must also be taken in a course of fourteen days in order to treat the problem, although symptom relief may arrive within one to four days only. Omeprazole should not be used to treat heartburn in children, because heartburn in children could indicate a more serious condition. The drug contains dexlansoprazole…… [read more]

Approach to Care of Cancer Essay

… Diagnosis of Cancer

There is a wide array of tools that are used to diagnose cancer. The most common methods are:

where samples of the tumor are removed during surgery or during less invasive procedures and examined under a microscope for presence of cancer cells.

Endoscopy -- a flexible plastic tube with a camera on its end is inserted into body organs and cavities taking a picture of the suspicious area. There are various types of scopes each used for a specific area. For instance, a laparoscope is used for the abdominal cavity whilst a colonoscope is used for the colon.

Diagnostic imagining -- this includes methods such as MRIs, x-rays, CAT scans, ultrasounds, and PET scans that are separately or additionally used to locate the locations and extent of the cancer.

Blood tests -- Some tumor marketers (i.e. substances related by tumors) can be indicated in the blood. Higher than normal prostrate specific antigen levels for instance can indicate cancer. However, blood tests by themselves are inconclusive (MD Anderson Cancer Center).

Staging of cancer

Staging is the process of discovering the extent of cancer in the body and its localization. This tells the physician the stage of growth that the specific cancer is in order to predict the person's diagnosis and to plan the treatment. Early stage breast cancer, for instance, may just need surgery and radiation, whereas a more advanced stage may need chemotherapy. Knowing the stage also helps doctors predict the course of the cancer.

The stage is generally based on three main factors that are called T, N, and M. T refers to the size of the primary (or original tumor) and analysis of whether or not it has spread into neighboring tissue. M refers to whether or not the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes; whereas m refers to the situation of the cancer affecting distant areas of the body.

Some cancers, depending on their body origin, are not staged this way. For instance, leukemia impacts the blood and bone marrow and does so throughout the body therefore the T, N, M staging is irrelevant. Similarly, too, Cerebral-based cancers only spread to other parts of the brain not to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body; hence they too are not staged with this acronym.

Staging occurs at the time of diagnosis and is represented by two types: (1) clinical staging -- that estimates the extent of cancer based on the exams and tests used and (2) Pathologic staging - that employs information extracted during surgery in order to determine the type and extent of cancer.

Other factors that determine the stage include: Grade (degree of abnormality of the cancer); cell type of cancer; tumor location; and tumor marker levels.

The stage of a cancer remains constant over time even if the cancer progresses, returns, or seems to be in remission. Even when restaging occurs (i.e. when post-treatment tests are employed to discover the extent of the effect), does the former staging rarely,… [read more]

Causes of Autism Research Paper

… Autism

What are the reasons that a healthcare can offer to a parent whose child has been diagnosed with autism? Presently in the United States there are controversies regarding the cause of autism, as some parents and groups insist that certain vaccines are the root cause. This paper reviews the information that pertains to the cause of autism.

The Literature on Autism

The National Autism Association (NAA) explains on their Web site that the U.S. is in "…midst of a tragic epidemic of autism" and that between the years 1992-1993 and 2000-2001, there has been an average increase of 644% in terms of reported cases of autism. One in nine children in public schools have shown signs of autism, according to the U.S. Department of Education (quoted by the NAA). The NAA believes that children that are exposed to thimerosal (ethylmercury) -- which is used in vaccines -- have a greater chance of becoming autistic.

"A growing number of scientists and researchers believe that a relationship between the increase in neurodevelopmental disorders of autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, and speech language delay and the increased use of thimerosal in vaccines" (NAA).

The NAA believes that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) "acted too slowly" in removing ethylmercury from over-the-counter products, and moreover the NAA criticizes the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for their "failed" attempt to be "vigilant" when new vaccines were brought on the market, approved, and given the okay to be used in immunization proceedings for children. The NAA finds another culprit in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), for a lack of "aggressive" actions to remove thimerosal from all vaccines, and as a result, children were exposed to thimerosal / ethylmercury far longer than they should have been, according to the NAA.

However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assure readers on their Web site that "…evidence from several studies examining trends in vaccine use and changes…… [read more]

Causes of Anorexia Nervosa Research Paper

… Anorexia nervosa (AN) a serious illness which negatively affects the body and the mind of its victims (Bulik et. Al,2005). The illness is a very common eating disorder which is universally linked to emaciation as well as a marked increase… [read more]

Treatment of Asperger Syndrome Research Paper

… , in press). Furthermore, other areas of the brain are also likely implicated in Asperger syndrome, as research has determined that the amygdala and surrounding structures of the limbic system are structurally abnormal in autistic spectrum disorders (Schultz et al., in press).

Research investigating autism and Asperger syndrome has indicated through brain imaging studies that there are differences in limbic circuits, areas implicated in sensorimotor gating, in these individuals (McAlonan et al., 2002). Impairment in gating due to differences in limbic circuits maybe be part of the cause behind the inability to inhibit repetitive actions, speech and thoughts among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (McAlonan et al., 2002). A study by McAlonan et al. (2002) showed that among individuals with Asperger Syndrome, sensorimotor gating is significantly impaired, possibly due to the demonstrated less grey-matter in cerebellar and fronto-striatal regions of the brain as well as vast differences in white matter in comparison with controls (McAlonan et al., 2002). Futhermore, Asperger syndrome is likely associated with various alterations in development of the brain (McAlonan et al., 2002).

Early targeted education programs and interventions directed toward to improvement of social competence are necessary components in the treatment of Asperger syndrome (Toth & King, 2008). However, no one single strategy for intervention has been determined as the most effective with the most positive outcomes, and there is no one comprehensive program of treatment deemed as successful for all individuals with the disorder (Toth & King, 2008). Approaches often used for the treatment of Asperger syndrome include behavioral programs that utilize principles of behavioral analysis, child centered approaches as well as interventions combining principles from behavioral, developmental, and social-pragmatic approaches (Toth & King, 2008). Improving social competence is a priority in the treatment of Asperger syndrome, and social skills are taught through various approaches, including peer friendship groups, private group therapy, mentoring programs, as well as directed classroom activities, to name a few (Toth & King, 2008). Overall, treatment plans should focus on developing strengths in the child, address specific areas that are impaired, and also attend to the presence of any comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders (Toth & King, 2008).


McAlonan, G.M., Daly, E., Kumari, V., Critchley, H.D., van Amelsvoort, T., Suckling, J., Simmons, A., Sigmundson, T., Greenwood, K., Russell, A., Schmitz, N., Happe, F., Howlin, P., Murphy, D.G.M. (2002). Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome. Brain, 127, 1594-1606.

Schultz, R.T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R.K., Anderson, A.W., Volkmar, F., Skudlarski, P., Lacadie, C., Cohen, D.J., Gore, J.C. (In Press). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome during face discrimination. Archives…… [read more]

Demographic Perception Survey of Patients Research Proposal

… " (Isaac, 2000) Issac (2005) additionally states that women with "an intermediate-probability profile, who are able to exercise and how have a normal resting ECG, should undergo ECG testing with Duke Treadmill Score (DTS)." (Isaac, 2005)

Isaac stress imaging studies… [read more]

Bacterial Meningitis in Children Term Paper

… Bacterial Meningitis in Children: An Overview

Bacterial meningitis represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Meningitis is defined as inflammation of the protective membranes, known as meninges, that surround the brain and spinal cord (Chavez-Bueno et… [read more]

Bioagent Attacks Biodefense in America Term Paper

… There are some that claim the hysteria caused by the possibility of a biological attack is much more damaging than the attack itself. Like other terrorist attacks, it would be difficult to harm a major portion of the U.S. population… [read more]

Breast Cancer Pathophysiology Term Paper

… Mesenchymal stem cells have been described as localized to breast carcinomas, however their involvement in tumor pathophysiology has not fully been examined (Karnoub et al., 2007). One study demonstrated that human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells cause cancer cells to increase their… [read more]

Swine Flu Swine Influenza Research Paper

… To wash hands, some anti-bacterial FDA approved soap should be used. In case when it is not available, some alcohol-based hand sanitizer should be used to keep the hands 100% clean from germs.

If living in the region where there is an attack of swine influenza, one should always keep on wearing a surgical mask on his face. He should avoid sitting, walking, and talking with people who are already infected by this contagious disease. When there is swine flu virus in the region, he should not attend parties and ceremonies and never use eatables that are sold in open or drink water from open points. One should avoid touching his tongue, lips, nose, and eyes without washing hands with a good anti-bacterial soap or sanitizer.

In addition to these precautionary measures, some physical measures are also recommended. For example; doing exercise on regular basis, taking full and sound sleep, and try to stay healthy by taking daily essential amount of calories.

Unfortunately, if someone gets infected with this virus, he must stay at home and avoid interacting with people. He should take leave from office and get proper treatment from some recognized diagnostic center. The tissue paper must be used once, and disposed off in the dust bin immediately after sneeze or exposure to cough hit.

Turning towards conclusion, it can be said that swine flu, despite being a fatal disease, has easy precautionary measures that can be adopted to stay safe (McPhee & Papadakis, 212). The world's leading health councils, bodies, and organizations have recommended special tests and vaccines for the detection and treatment of swine influenza. Although it is claimed that this disease has been dismissed from the human life, still its symptoms can be identified in winter season.

Works Cited

McPhee, Stephen, Papadakis, Maxine. Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2011. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw Hill Health Professions, 2010. Print

Siegel, Marc. Swine Flu: The New Pandemic. U.S.: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print

Stephenson, Terence. Swine flu: what parents need to know? London, Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2009. Print

Stooker, Richard. Beat the flu: protect yourself and your family from swine flu, bird flu, pandemic flu and season flu. Charleston, SC: Info Ring Press: Create Space, 2010. Print

Tanaka, Kazuo, Niki, Yoshihito, Kokaze, Akatsuki. Current Topics of Infectious Diseases in Japan and Asia. Tokyo: Springer, 2010. Print

Tasian, Sarah.…… [read more]

Anthropology of Asthma Essay

… Asthma is an affliction that is suffered worldwide but its diagnosis and treatment varies considerably depending on the culture (Jackson, 2009). There are reportedly over 300 million individuals suffering from asthma throughout the world but because a precise method of measuring the full extent of asthma does not exist the numbers may be understated. Also, asthma is not recognized as such in all cultures. In some cultures asthma is identifiable but in others it is considered a less stigmatizing illness and described as simply wheezing. The lack of a uniform system of reporting makes it difficult to quantify the full effect of asthma and to devise a treatment protocol. Additionally, from an anthropological viewpoint, analyzing the development of asthma is complicated by the same factors.

As a malady, asthma has a fairly short history. When it first began to be recognized as an official medical diagnosis in the late 18th century, asthma was treated as a hormonal disorder. Medical practitioners at said time believed that a combination of hormones, cold, and moisture were the root cause of asthma and treatment protocols at said time recommended minimizing exposure to such factors. Pharmacology was in its infancy so available medicinal treatment was minimal.

In the late 18th century physicians began to view the origin of asthma differently. Abandoning the hormonal approach, asthma began to be seen as a dysfunction in the nervous system but a consensus could not be reached as there were schools of thought that considered asthma to be the result of a blood disorder, a respiratory problem, or a multiple system problem.

The introduction of improved technology in the late 19th century brought with it an increased understanding of asthma. This improved technology made it possible for physicians and health scientists who were involved in research as to the origin, diagnosis, and treatment of asthma to make measurements through the use of spirometers and microscopes. These measurements provided such individuals to compare the results taken from those suffering from asthma and compare the results not only between asthma sufferers but also the general population. The result of this initial testing was to tip the balance toward the medical community beginning to view asthma as an allergic condition and abandon hormones or neurological dysfunction as the source of the condition.

As the medical and scientific community began examining asthma as an allergic condition the attention shifted to other aspects of asthma as well. It had been believed for some time that there were psychological factors that contributed to the seriousness of asthma and, quite possibly, also contributed to its causes (Park, 2009). As the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry were becoming increasingly more popular and also enjoying greater legitimacy, this aspect of asthma became an interesting topic for research. Although the trend was toward treating asthma as an allergic reaction, vestiges of the other theories that had been circulating remained on the horizon.

Increased industrialization and the increased use of automobiles in the twentieth century complicated the situation surrounding asthma.… [read more]

Phytochemistry: Research on Isolation, Identification Research Proposal

… (Duman, et al., 2009, paraphrased)


The objective of the proposed study is to ascertain the potential of identification, purification, and use of plants and herbs containing antimicrobial compounds specifically those located in the Mediterranean area and in the UK.


The significance of the research proposed is in the benefits that will be derived from the knowledge of the use of such plants and herbs containing antimicrobial properties in the treatment of disease.

Research Questions

(1) What research exists on the purification of new antimicrobial compounds from common and available herbs in the Mediterranean Area and in the UK?

(2) Are there plant species known among indigenous populations in the Mediterranean and the UK that have not yet been tested for their antimicrobial properties?

(3) What future does use of plants and herbs with antimicrobial compounds appear to have in regards to the present research in this area of study?


The method proposed in this study is of a qualitative nature and to involve an exhaustive review of literature in this area of study such as can be found in peer-reviewed academic and professional journals and articles.


It is recommended that a research study be conducted in regards to the isolation, identification, purification of plants and herbs containing antimicrobial properties and specifically those found in the Mediterranean area and the UK.


Das, K., Tiwari, RKS, and Shrivastava, DK (2010) Techniques for Evaluation of Medicinal Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agent: Current Methods and Future Trends, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. Vol.4(2), pp.104-111. Retrieved from:

Duman, AD, et al. (2009) Antimicrobial Activity of Six Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. )Varieties and Their Relation to Some of Their Pomological and Phytonutrient Characteristics. Molecules 2009, 14 1808-1917. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Airway Pressure the Effects Essay

… demonstrated in a study conducted on dogs that HFOV in comparision to CPPV exhibited no effect on cardiac output which means that there is no direct relation between HFOV and cardiac output. (Irvin Mayers, 1989).

There is considerable effect of HFOV on the circulatory system. The high pressure generated by this method of ventilation causes the intrathoracic pressures to rise and exert force on the heart and interrupt the cardiac output. The decrease in cardiac output inturn reduce the blood pressure and a vicious cycle maybe set up. The process of avoiding this complication involves proper monitoring of the patients hemodynamic status including proper monitoring of not just the blood pressure but also the kidney function, urine output and organ perfusion. The change is the thoracic pressures as a result of the high frequency oscillatory ventilation can exhibit a physical exert on the heart. This can be monitored by conducting a chest x ray 30-60 minutes after beginning the ventilatory cycle to observe if the thorax is compressing the heart or not.

When a patient is transitioned from conventional ventilation to HFOV a sustained state of a positive pressure inside the thoracic cavity may influence the venous return or cardiac output and impede it. The result of this would be a decrease in blood pressure or hypotension. This condition can also be further worsened if their exists a state of acidemia due to this hypotension. The solution to this problem can be to make a check and make sure that the patient is euvolemic before HFOV is initiated. Also proper arrangements should be made that when needed the patient can be conveniently volume resuscitated.

Although there exist many upsides to the use of HFOV, its use in adult patients is quite low infact rare. The reason for this maybe the lack of comfort of the medical staff in handling such an equipment, inability of dispensing the nebulized medication and the lack of mobility predisposed by it. Downside of HFOV represents in the form of its various possible complications which include disturbances in the distention of the lung, ET occlusion due to secretions, pneumothorax and compromise to the hemodynamics.


Calzia E, R.P. (1997). Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure:a 10-year literature review. Clinical Intensive Care, 8:296-301.

Cartotto R, E.S. (2004). High frequency oscillatory ventilation in burn patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Burns, 30(5):453-463.

Dickstein K, C.-S. A. (2008). "ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Hear. Eur. Heart J., 29(19):2388-442.

dorland's medical dictionary . (2009).

Falkenhain SK, R.T. (1992). Improvement in cardiac output during airway pressure release ventilation. Crit care Med, 20:1358-1360.

Fort P, F.C. (1997). High-frequency oscillatory ventilation for adult respiratory distress syndrome -- a pilot study. Crit Care Med, 25(6):937-947.

Garner W, D.J. (1988). Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV): a… [read more]

Health - Nursing Cystic Fibrosis Research Paper

… Without these digestive enzymes, a person's intestine can't completely take in the nutrients in the food that they eat (Cystic fibrosis, 2011).

The indications and harshness of cystic fibrosis differs from person to person. A number of people who have cystic fibrosis have severe lung and digestive troubles. Other people have a more mild form of the disease that doesn't present itself until they're teenagers or adults. The indications and harshness of cystic fibrosis also differ over time. From time to time, one will have few indications. Other times, their indications may become harsher. As the disease gets worse, one will have more severe indications more frequently (Cystic Fibrosis, 2011).

Lung function regularly begins to decline in early childhood in people who have cystic fibrosis. Eventually, lasting harm to the lungs can cause severe breathing troubles. "Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in people who have cystic fibrosis. As treatments for cystic fibrosis continue to improve, so does life expectancy for those who have this disease. Today, some people who have cystic fibrosis are living into their forties, fifties, or older. Early treatment for cystic fibrosis can progress both ones quality of life and lifespan. Such early treatment includes nutritional and respiratory therapies, medicines, exercise, and other treatments" (Cystic Fibrosis, 2011).

Knowing what the signs and symptoms of this disease are will help me later in my career as a nurse as I will be more apt to recognize this disease and know what it is all about. The more that I know about what things can affect people the more successful I will be at performing my job and helping people when they are not at their best.


Cystic fibrosis. (2011). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from

Cystic Fibrosis. (2011). Medicine Net. Retrieved from… [read more]

Autonomic Nervous System Function Article Critique

… The researchers were looking for evidence that the transfusion significantly increased the mortality rate of these patients.

The authors found that in a univariable analysis the transfusion did increase he risk of death in all three time periods studied (0-30,… [read more]

HIV / AIDS, Homelessness Research Paper

… Every 10 years, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) leverages scientific research and training educated from the precedent decade, together with new knowledge of present data, developments, and innovations. Healthy People provides science-centered, 10-year national objectives for… [read more]

STD's Can Have a Physical and Emotional Effect on the Human Body Research Paper

… ¶ … Sexually Transmitted Diseases also had negative psychological, as well as physical, effects on the individual.

The purpose of the report is to convince the audience that STDs are not only a serious problem, but that many are able to remain hidden for years, silently causing neurological damage. This neurological damage, when untreated, may have longer and more serious effects upon the body than some of the initial physical issues.

STDs, sexually transmitted diseases, are caused by infections that pass from one person to another during sexual activity, sharing of blood or body fluids, or by accident in medical procedures. A more common and correct term under use now by the medical and public health profession is STI, or sexually transmitted infections, which is a broader base term that has more meaning in the contagious disease paradigm. Often, the infections do not cause any overt symptoms, but remain hidden and allow the person to remain infected.

STD and STI rates are quite high in most of the world, despite the advances in diagnostic and therapeutic treatments that allow for infected individuals to get treatment early on. In a number of cultures, changing sexual morals combined with oral contraceptives have eliminated some of the traditional (cultural) sexual restraints, especially for women. Still patients in many countries, and physicians, often have difficulty dealing openly with sexual issues, especially in countries that have primarily male physicians. In addition, the development and spread of drug-resistant bacteria makes some STDs more difficult to control. Air travel and the shrinking of the ability for cultures to come into contact with one another causes the World Health Organization to estimate that about a million people are infected with some type of STI daily, most of whom are under 25 years of age (STD Statistics Worldwide, 2010).

Forecast -- The rest of the report will expand on the epidemiology and prevention of the most common STIs, focusing on the psychological and psychosocial factors that are consequences and circumstances of the infections. Alternatives and expansion of prevention mechanisms would be the next logical stage of research.

Step Six

Methodologically, my focus was on combining primary and secondary research materials to find the most cogent and understandable information on the subject. The challenge in this research was not a lack of information, but too much information that needed to be appropriately qualified. The information on the subject is typically categorized into: medical layman, medical technical, epidemiological, educational, sociological, political, social policy, and statistical. Because of the amount of information, it was important that one find the most current possible that was understandable, and scientific enough for validity but accessible enough for the regular scholarly researcher. However, of interest was the focus of much of the data. It was primarily dealing with physical symptoms and treatments with the psychological and ancillary effects far less. Until the diseases progressed into the severe neurological range, many of the studies briefly mentioned psychological and psycho-social effects, but rarely did they focus upon them.… [read more]

Gestational Diabetes and African-American Women Essay

… It is important for women to become educated about this disease, it will help them to control their blood glucose during pregnancy and protect them after delivery. Women with gestational diabetes have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the years after delivery. There are many risk factors for gaining diabetes; however developing gestational diabetes is a major predictor for the individual becoming diabetic. Minority women, especially African-American women are at greater risk for this disease. A lack of health care access is a contributing factor for minority women getting gestational diabetes. Health education is extremely important; it helps these women understand the disease and how to protect themselves from the disease. Diet and exercise is the most important variables for controlling or preventing diabetes.


ADA (2011). What is Gestational Diabetes? American Diabetes Association. Retrieved from

Anderwald et. al. (2011). Glucose absorption in gestational diabetes mellitus during an oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetes Care. 34 (7) 1475-1480

Bowers et. al. (2011). A prospective study of prepregnancy dietary iron and risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Care. 34 (7) 1557-1563

Costan, D.R. (2007). Pharmacological Management of Gestational Diabetes. Diabetic Care. 30 (2) 206-208

Frederick et. al. (2000). Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in African-American and White Adults. JAMA. 283 (17) 2253-2259

Goetzl, L. & Wilkins, I. (2002). Glyburide compared to insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus: A cost analysis. Journal of Perinatiology. 22 (5) 403-406

Kelly et. al. (2005). Controversies around gestational diabetes. Canadian Family Physician. 51 (5) 688-695

Kieffer et. al. (2001). Obesity and gestational diabetes among African-American women and Latinas in Detroit: implications for disparities in women's health. Journal Medical Women's Association. 56 (4) 181-187

NDEP (2010). The Diabetes Epidemic Among African-Americans. National Diabetes Education Program. Retrieved from

Osei, K., Gaillard, T.R. & Schuster, D.P. (1998). History of gestational diabetes leads to distinct metabolic alterations in nondiabetic Afrian-American women with a parental history of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 21 (8) 1250-1257

Persson et. al. (2011). Mission Impossible? Midwives experiences counseling pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Patient Education and Counseling. 84 (1) 78-83

Razee et. al. (2010). Beliefs, barriers, social support, and environmental influences related to diabetes risk…… [read more]

AIDS/HIV Research Proposal

… ¶ … AIDS/HIV has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the disease was a virtual death sentence until various drugs were used to slow its effects. As a result, the total number… [read more]

Websites Compare and Contrast Tow Essay

… AIDS Websites

Comparing Two Websites

This paper will compare and contrast two websites, and "The True but Little Known Facts about Women and AIDS," analyzing both for accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage; and ultimately identifying neither as a good source for initiating a study of AIDS information.

The problem with both websites is that each fails to pass the first criteria necessary for a good website: accuracy. The True but Little Known Facts website offers a plethora of sources, which are clearly identified but are also obviously ridiculous and false. The site is allegedly written by Dr. Juatta Lyon Fueul of the Departmnet [sic] of Public Health and Public Interest Enrichment -- a flashy sounding title that could easily escape the notice of a peripheral inspection. As for editors or fact checkers, the site does not appear to have evidence of either -- nor is the site free from grammatical errors (as already seen above) and meaningless slogans: "University of Santa Anita: Pro-actively serving the largest metropolitan area in the United States with no major institution of higher learning." fails in an altogether different way: the site is nothing more than a search engine that gives no information on AIDS, but instead offers only suggestions for other websites, which sometimes only marginally have anything to do with the disease: several links provided take one to dubious sites that ask for money or attempt to sell some sort of medication. A quick perusal of the website leaves one annoyed and frustrated -- especially when a search engine like Google will give better and faster results for AIDS information.

The problem of authority affects in a major way: one would have better luck finding good and accurate information about AIDS from a more authoritative source like, which was found simply by typing "aids" into a Google search engine (the world's most trusted search engine). The website -- which carries no authority with it whatsoever -- is far from being recognized as a legitimate search engine and brief experience with it tells one all there is to know about it: it is little better than a Redirect Virus.

The True but Little Known Facts site at least makes an attempt to appear reputable, but a thorough reading of the site reveals that it is a complete hoax designed by an Ithaca college professor and therefore should not be taken seriously at all. The site appears, at first glance, to be authoritative -- but with statements like, "A recent study in Pittsburgh proves that women who eat hot oatmeal twice a day are significantly less likely to contract AIDS than women who eat breakfast with unprotected spoons," reveals the absurdity at the heart of the website.

There also…… [read more]

Tipping Point Gladwell Term Paper

… In such cases, it is easy to see how word-of-mouth could actually result in an explosion of interest, especially when factors such as public endorsement of such products and practices by celebrities can be enough to reach a "tipping point." Gladwell's explanations could also be used to examine the way in which health-related misinformation can spread among populations -- for example, the presence in America (statistically most prevalent in the African-American community) of so-called "AIDS denialists," or people who claim that there is no proven scientific link between the HIV virus and the disease of AIDS. The statistical prevalence of these ideas among African-Americans is explained largely by the greater epidemiological vulnerability of African-Americans to HIV infections, combined with the "word of mouth" transmission of ideas which Gladwell thinks is more important than official or scientific endorsements, combined with high-profile support for "AIDS denialist" ideas, such as the endorsement of such notions by South Africa's government in 2000. Smith and Novella (2000) note that the South African president's AIDS denialist "ideas were derived at least partly from material he found on the Internet" -- suggesting not only the rise of a new way of transmitting ideas, but one that dangerously divorces them from Gladwell's idea of "context."


Gladwell, M. (2000). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. New York: Little Brown.

Smith, TC and Novella, SP. (2007). HIV denial in the Internet era. PLoS Med 4…… [read more]

Salmonella Fig 1. Salmonella Bacteria Research Paper

… The anaerobic nature of the Salmonella bacteria means that it can survive for a very long time -- living bacteria have been discovered in dried feces after two and a half years. In any culture where human feces or the feces of those animals which are susceptible to Salmonella infection might enter the agricultural supply, the risk of extending the vectors of infection becomes quite great. The risk of Salmonella infection from eggs for human consumption, though, does not come from the egg itself but from feces or contamination on the eggshell -- by this token, it is clear that hand-washing and proper hygiene are usually sufficient to keep infection at bay.

Salmonella infects humans through their ingestion of infected or contaminated food. Normally stomach acid is sufficient to kill most Salmonella bacteria, which is why medications that suppress stomach acid production can increase risk of Salmonella. Symptoms of infection include headache, vomiting, diarrhea (sometimes bloody), although death is unlikely except in the cases of immunocompromised individuals (such as AIDS patients) and the elderly, who constitute most of the 30 lives actually claimed by Salmonella each year in the United States. However it is important to note that the once-familiar scourge of Typhoid Fever is actually a more virulent form of Salmonella, which can only be contracted due to direct contact with contaminated human feces. This form of Salmonella will overtax the spleen (one reason why those who have had their spleens removed are at greater risk of Salmonella infection) and it causes a distinctive "rose spotted" pink rash on the skin. The Typhoid form of Salmonella also has a particularly virulent effect on individuals with the sickle-cell type of anemia, and children with sickle-cell anemia may develop osteomyelitis as a complication to Salmonella infection. In most people infection registers as a basic gastro-intestinal disturbance, and is treated with antibiotics.

Summary of Terms

Anaerobic: Does not require oxygen to survive

Bacteria: Microorganisms with a distinct life cycle that can cause infectious disease

Facultatively anaerobic: Does not require oxygen to survive but uses oxygen if present

Zoonotic: Bacteria capable of transmission from humans to animals, and vice versa

Multiple Choice Questions

Salmonella is a type of a) Virus

b) Bacteria

c) Flu

d) Salmon

Which household pet has the least risk of killing Grandma with a Salmonella infection?

a) rat

b) snapping turtle

c) chicken

d) iguana

Symptoms of Salmonella infection include

a) vomiting

b) fever

c) bloody diarrhea

d) all of the above

In 2008-2009, nine people died and almost seven hundred people became infected from salmonella contamination in which product?

a) toothpaste

b) peanut butter

c) hairspray

d) condoms

How many people in America die from Salmonella infection every year, on average?

a) 30

b) 300

c) 3,000

d) 30,000

According to the CDC, for every reported case of Salmonella infection in America, how many cases go unreported?

a) 1

b) 10

c) 20

d) 38

Which of the following diseases is actually a rarer form of Salmonella infection?… [read more]

HIV Testing/Screening Research Paper

… The Task Force also was for the idea of screening every pregnant woman, in spite of risk, but made no recommendation in support for or against routinely screening asymptomatic adults and adolescents with no particular risk factors for HIV. The… [read more]

Seaman, W.T., Andrews, E., Et Al.) Research Paper

… Seaman, W.T., Andrews, E., et al., (2010). Detection and quantitation of HPV in genital

and oral tissues and fluids by real time PCR. Journal of Virology. 7 (3): 194+.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a serious human pathogen that has at least 200 known types infectious to humans. In some cases, HPV is as minor but annoying as warts, but as serious as leading to cancers in both men and women -- including almost all known cases of cervical cancer (Walboomers, J., et al., 1999). In the developed world, cervical screening using a Papanicolaou (Pap) test is used to detect abnormal cells that have the potential for cancer. If abnormal cells are found, the individual may elect to have them removed through cryotherapy. Treating abnormal cells in this way can prevent them from developing into cancer. However, in anogenital/oral cancers and wars, there are four sets of viruses that are of concern, and no single test that distinguishes the most common types of these viruses.

Recent research has found that it is possible to use a specific antigen to screen for specific types of viruses that code within a particular light source. These assays were developed as a response to the growing number of anogenital warts, prior to this development, the results were of any testing were quite expensive, varied in their reliability, and were most certainly never done in a regular clinical setting. Specifically dealing with the healthcare paradigm, research needed to increase the viability of the test, while reducing the cost of performing the test, assaying and interpreting the results; all the while staying within goal target of an inexpensive enough test that engenders the ability for its use in the developing world as well. These assays may be of significant use in deciphering the importance of HPV replication prior to disease development. "The use of these qPCR assays have significant utility in distinguishing the presence of specific types of HPV. The one tube multiplex assay containing type/fluorophore specific TaqMan probes directed against…… [read more]

Generating Hypothesis/Research Question Systematic Essay

… The influence or effects of HIV / AIDS differs significantly in the countries present in the region, relying upon the duration and the magnitude of the epidemic. Many of the countries go through epidemics that are generalized. The occurrence rate… [read more]

Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1918 Essay

… In particular, Barry observes that mismanagement and graft in the political machine system in Philadelphia -- then America's most populous city, ahead of New York City -- had rendered the city "…fertile ground for epidemic disease. So did a city government incapable of responding to a crisis. Muckraker Lincoln Steffens had called Philadelphia 'the worst governed city in America'." (198). The epidemic might have given rise to greater unrest of governmental inability to respond to the crisis, had it not struck in the middle of the colossal casualties of World War I and continued on into the period after the Armistice, in which the terms of the Treaty of Versailles were being negotiated. This may have been the largest lasting political effect of the Spanish flu -- as Pettit points out, one of those who contracted it and survived (much weakened) was U.S. President Woodrow Wilson during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Pettit writes:

There has always been much controversy about the nature of President Wilson's illness in April of 1919. Both medical and non-medical writers have suggested that the malady was much more serious than influenza…Woodrow Wilson returned from Europe less capable of carrying out the duties of his presidency….There was little doubt in Dr. Grayson's mind that President Wilson had had influenza, and certainly the weight of evidence suggests that this was the case…. (Pettit 171-2)

While historians are still divided as to whether it was influenza or a stroke like the one that would later incapacitate Wilson almost completely -- hamstringing his presidency and the political process in Washington, D.C. -- it is undeniable that Wilson's role at the Paris Peace Conference was a disastrous failure. It is not surprising that Wilson's high ideals and public promises entering the negotiations may also have been one of the many casualties of the Spanish influenza epidemic.

Works Cited

Barry, John M. The Great Influenza: The story of the deadliest pandemic in history. New York: Penguin Books, 2005.

Crosby, Alfred W. America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Pettit, Dorothy A. A Cruel Wind: Pandemic Flu in America 1918-1920. Murfreesboro: Timberlane Books, 2008.


General "Black Jack" Pershing was placed in command of the U.S. Expeditionary Forces sent to fight the Central Powers during World War I by President Woodrow Wilson. Pershing's earlier military career had entailed territorial warfare against Native Americans, including participation as an officer in the Wounded Knee Massacre… [read more]

Patient With Terminal Lung Cancer Case Study

… ¶ … Patient with Terminal Lung Cancer

The purpose of this study is to conduct a case study on a patient with terminal lung cancer and to determine the best practices in providing palliative care for this patient.

Learner Objectives… [read more]

Individual Impacts Genetic Diagnosis Assessment

… 17%, respectively). A second study of women followed for 1 year after BRCi testing found that only 1 of 29 (3%) unaffected female carriers had a prophylactic mastectomy within 1 year after receiving genetic test results and 13% had a… [read more]

HIPAA and Diseases Essay

… Passed by Congress in 1996, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protects the privacy, security, and confidentiality of patients in the American health care system. As Biel-Cunningham (2003) points out, "There are four parts to HIPAA: portability, transaction,… [read more]

Rabies in the State of Florida Thesis

… Rabies is a deadly viral infection that has a history of more than four thousand years. The disease is generally known to be transmitted through animal bite or scratch. The disease is mainly found in wild animals, primarily mammals. Almost… [read more]

Dangers of Plastic Bottles Research Paper

… ¶ … Dangers of Plastic Bottles

Whether you drink Coke, Pepsi, Gatorade, or any of hundreds of possible beverage choices, the chances are you will drink it from a plastic bottle. From baby bottles to cleaning products, and of course beverages, Americans consume 2 million bottles every 5 min.(Palliser 2010) These bottles are made from a petroleum-based chemical known as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and in the past few years researchers and scientists have begun to look into the impact these kinds of chemicals have on the health of the people. (Palliser) While everyone knows there are natural environmental dangers associated with these plastic bottles, there are also serious health dangers associated with the use of these bottles. Scientists have found dangerous toxins associated with the use of plastic bottles; and these toxins have been found to cause serious health problems in humans. This essay will discuss the dangers associated with plastic bottles; emphasizing the dangers on people's health from toxins associated with the use of plastic bottles.

Plastic bottles are light, durable, inexpensive, and everywhere. Americans spend almost $12 billion on the production of plastic bottles each year, and the number continues to rise. While the production of plastic bottles in the United States creates 2.5 million tons of CO2 which is released into the atmosphere. (Palliser) And out of all these plastic bottles, only 20%-30% ever get recycled, the rest end up in landfills where it takes a plastic bottle an average of 1000 years to degrade. The problem lies in the chemical makeup of the PET, the chemical which plastic is made from, and biphenyl A, a waste product from the formation of PET which often contaminates the plastic.

Bisphenyl A (BPA) is one of the primary toxins which researchers have found to be associated with the production of plastics. (Van Meter 2009) When used as containers and bottles, plastics laced with bisphenyl A can contaminate the foods and liquids which are inside. It would appear that the "chemical links that make up the BPA in plastics and other products don't remain linked. They degrade over time and end up inhaled or ingested during the normal course of life" (Belli 2010) But these chemical links do not necessarily degrade at a constant rate, researchers around the world have demonstrated that heating plastics, particularly in the microwave, can increase the level of toxins released. (Duck Soo Lim 2009) (Skjevrak 2005) The BPA then can enter the human body through food, drinks, or inhaling dust particles. (Splete 2008) And, once inside the human body it can cause a variety of disorders. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences described BPA as "…a highly prevalent constituent of plastics that has since been associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and an increased risk of miscarriages in humans." (Allard 2010) And this view of the effects of biphenyl A (BPA) is common among the scientific community, for instance, researcher Heidi Splete, in the article "Bisphenol A exposure linked to disease in Adults" found… [read more]

Patient History the Patient's Medical Case Study

… Hepatocytes are therefore unlikely to be affected in this patient by whatever is causing these symptoms.

Preliminary Diagnosis

The 6-fold increase in ALP levels over the upper limit of the normal range for a female between 61 and 65 years… [read more]

Tourette's Syndrome Case Study

… Tourette Syndrome and the Case of Kenny

Tourette syndrome is a form of disability that has only recently come into the forefront of discussion. However since its symptoms and manifestations have become more widely recognized, more and more cases of Tourettes are being reported every year. According to Wilson (2003) "Until 1972, the condition was considered to be quite rare, with only fifty known recorded cases at that time. Today, the syndrome is identified in as many as one out of 200 children" (p. 105).

While most people think of Tourettes as the spontaneous blurting out of curse words, the disorder is far more complicated than that. In fact only about "one-third of all children with Tourette syndrome also have coprolalia, the involuntary use of vulgar or obscene language and/or gestures" (Wilson, 2005, p. 105). Essentially, Tourette Syndrome is what is known as a "tic disorder," which can involve all sorts of involuntary movements, from snapping one's fingers to grunting or barking to blinking one's eyes. For most patients these irregular movements and vocalizations usually begin occurring around the age of five, but they can occur earlier or later as well. The frequency of the tics can vary from once in a while to up to one hundred times a minute. There are also periods of remission in some sufferers but these are relatively rare occurrences (Wilson, 2003).

The Tourettes sufferer does not have to exhibit all of the possible symptoms however, according to Hendren (2002) "to be diagnosed with TS, a person must present with both motor tics and vocal (phonic) tics. The motor and vocal tics do not necessarily occur concurrently" (p. 23). In Kenny's case, Tourettes has manifested itself these general types of facial movements, and he also has vocal tics, usually in the form of grunting or snorting. In addition, Kenny has strong compulsive tendencies, particularly when it comes to touching things (including himself), wringing his hands and spinning.

Not surprisingly, Tourette's is commonly associated with other disorders such as learning disabilities, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). In fact, according to Wilson (2003) "Approximately 50 per cent of children with Tourette syndrome also have learning disabilities, and many experience some form of attention deficit. Obsessive compulsive behavior is also observed in 55 to 74 per cent of cases of Tourette syndrome and tends to take the form of needing to complete tasks to perfection or perform certain rituals" (p. 105). Kenny definitely seems to have OCD, although he is able to control his hand wringing at times. He also has trouble sitting still which could be evidence of ADD.

The association with OCD is to be expected because, as Carr (1999), explains, "the tics that characterize Tourette's syndrome are similar to those which occur…… [read more]

Queensland Fever Essay

… Queensland Fever

The illness known as "Queensland Fever" is also commonly referred to as Queensland tick typhus (QTT) and is resultant of the patient's contraction of the organism Rickettsia australis, which is transmitted through the bite of one of two types of ticks, either the Ixodes holocyclus or I. tasmani (Hanson). This disease is prevalent along the eastern coast of Australia, including Queensland, New South Wales, Sydney, and the Flinders Island in the Bass Strait. Environmental factors that contribute to the spread of the disease seem simply to be that the ticks of this type are located in an environment suitable for them to reproduce, and it is in such an environment that patients are bitten by a tick and infected. It would seem also that these ticks are particularly prevalent in suburban areas, as in many cases, patients contracted the illness after having been bitten by a tick during outdoor activities (such as planting trees) in suburban Sydney. It was also discovered however that some cases were contracted from tick bites after the patient had visited a game park in South Africa or been performing rural road work (Anderson 963).

Symptoms of Queensland Fever vary from chronic to acute, but in most cases, the illness is not severe and the recovery is not complicated. There have rarely been reported cases in which the disease resulted in fatality, and these are suggested to have been due to late detection of the disease which increased its severity. Symptoms of Queensland Fever include fever, headaches, cough, myalgia, and usually a rash originating from the spot of the tick bite, which may form an eschar (Anderson 963). Rashes usually begin as maculopapular lesions but may increase in severity to become either petechial or vesicular (Anderson 963). Other symptoms that do not always occur but which are possible are joint pain, nausea, abdominal pain, photophobia, conjunctivitis and sore throat. Most patients who have been hospitalized with the disease and febrile also had tachycardia and tachypnea (Hanson). Depending upon severity, some cases also develop severe pneumonia, confusion, multiorgan failure, purpura fulminans, tender local lymphadenopathy, and digital…… [read more]

Hepatitis C And Cellular Biology Term Paper

… , 2009). Therefore, the researchers developed a production system for a secreted form of E2 ectodomain from mammalian cells (Whidby et al., 2009). This was demonstrated to be effective in blocking infection by cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus, which may lead to further advances in the development of vaccines and entry inhibitors for the virus (Whidby et al., 2009).

Belon & Frick (2009) suggest that antiviral therapies specifically targeted for hepatitis C will prove to be the most effective treatments, replacing presently used therapies. These include all new antiviral agents that act upon the proteins that are involved in the replication of the virus (Belon & Frick, 2009). These researchers looked specifically at compounds that seem to inhibit catalyzed reactions of the hepatitis C virus helicase and cellular replication of the virus (Belon & Frick, 2009). Some of the findings involving hepatitis C helicase inhibitors discussed included nucleoside and base analogs called benzatriazoles that inhibit the virus in virto, and a new beacon-based molecular helicase assay that has been developed for the facilitation of the analysis of inhibitors (Belon & Frick, 2009).

Advances have also been made with regard to the development of vaccines for the prevention of hepatitis C Clinical trials are currently underway to test the effectiveness of IC41, which is a synthetic peptide vaccine that contains hepatitis C virus T-cell epitopes (Sharma, 2010). IC41 has been shown to induce INF-gamma-secreting CD$+ and CD8+ T-cells specific to the hepatitis C virus in healthy individuals, and it has been demonstrated to induce Th 1/Tc 1 responses that are specific to the virus in hepatitis C patients that have shown to be non-responsive to other treatments (Sharma, 2010). The Hepatitis C -- specific HLA-A2-restricted NS3 (1073) epitope has also demonstrated promise as a peptide vaccine for prevention of the virus (Sharma, 2010).

Despite the advances made in research regarding the lifecycle and molecular characterization of the hepatitis C virus and the subsequent illumination of target areas for possible pharmacological interventions, there are still several obstacles and questions that remain unanswered (Sharma, 2010). According to Sharma (2010), the following areas point to future directions for the improvement of treatment for the virus: mechanisms involved in the replication of the hepatitis C virus in the human liver; molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis by viral proteins; and the defense mechanisms that underlie the rare occurrence of natural solution of hepatitis C infection.


Belon, C.A. & Frick, D.N. (2009). Helicase inhibitors as spciefically targeted antiviral therapy for hepatitis C Future Virology, 4(3), 277-93.

Sharma, S.D. (2010). Hepatitis C virus: Molecular biology and current therapeutic options. Indian Journal of Medical…… [read more]

Improving T-Cell Responses to Cancer and Infectious Disease Research Proposal

… cells are a type of white blood cell, called a lymphocyte that is critical to the immune system. Since they are like soldiers that search out and destroy invaders, attempts have been made in recent years to generate mature T-cells, engineer other T-cells and introduce them into the immune system, and manipulate them -- place them precisely in specific positions so that they are best able to recognize and fight antigens -- the invaders (

One way that this is done is through "adoptive T-cell cancer therapy" (see e.g. Greenberg, 1991; June, 2007) which means that mature T-cells are infused into the immune system in order to eliminate a tumor and prevent its recurrence. The advantages with this type of therapy are that T- cells have a long clonal life span (Jamieson & Ahmed, 1989), and are well suited for genetic manipulation.

For adoptive T-cell therapy to best work, one has to be careful to select the best T-cells, to engineer them, and then to encourage them to proliferate whilst keeping their abilities intact. These abilities include 'ferreting out' invaders, attaching themselves to other cells, and working as well as they do in natural conditions.

T-cells exist in several stages of growth and category. There are three main categories by which it has been suggested T-cells can be generated:

1. The linear differentiation model - a conversion from naive (beginning) to effector (a working T-cell) to actual generated T-cell through a process of differentiating and producing one from the other in a linear-type fashion.

2. The signal strength model - Signals of T-cells are strengthened, and when they reach their peak they proliferate and differentiation (growth and separation from 'mother' cell occurs. T-cells receiving weakest signals do not survive; so much depends on the strength and stability of the signal.

3. The stem cell model - the cells within the T-cell are self-renewing, and they can be used for deriving effecter T-cells (namely T-cells that are able to impact).

Since naive T-cells are too weak to kill tumor cells, and since in vivo T-cells are superior to in vitro T-cells, it has been thought that adoptive T-cell transfer strategies are the best way to promote populations of T-cells that will live a long while within the immune system and be…… [read more]

Alport Syndrome Term Paper

… Audiology: Alport Syndrome

Alport Syndrome (also known as hereditary nephritis and nerve deafness) is a genetic syndrome affecting the kidneys, inner ears, and eyes. It was recognized by Dr. Cecil Alport in 1927, and named for him in 1961. (NKF, 2010) the disorder results from genetic mutations affecting collagen proteins. (Favor, Gloeckner, Janik, & Klempt, 2007) in turn, these faulty collagen proteins impair hearing by affecting the inner ear organ of Corti, which transforms sound waves into nerve impulses for the brain. (NIH, 2009) Hearing abnormalities generally do not develop until late childhood or early adolescence, primarily affect males, and are associated with renal symptomology. Hearing aids are generally effective for hearing loss due to Alport Syndrome complications. (Alport Syndrome Foundation, 2010)

The most common symptom of Alport Syndrome is actually hematuria (blood in the urine). As otoscopic examination findings are normal, diagnosis is not made based on these results; however, patients have bilateral type a curve tympanometry. (Viveiros, 2006) in many cases, bilateral high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) may develop by late childhood or early adolescence. In addition, SNHL will eventually develops in approximately 85% of affected males, as well as in some females (but only about 10%). (Kashtan, 2010)

Early on, hearing impairment is only detected through audiometry; typically it is bilateral hearing loss specifically to high tones ranging in frequency from 2000 to 8000 hertz (Hz). The audiometric curve types most often associated with hearing loss in Alport Syndrome are mild drop in high frequencies, and flat curves. (Abreu Alves & al, 2008) Later in life, sloping sensorineural hearing loss can occur, and in some cases, complete deafness. Other hearing abnormalities and test results typical of Alport's Syndrome can include hearing loss at 4000 Hz, loudness recruitment, high SISI scores, absent tone decay, and Type II Bekesy…… [read more]

Immunization and Public Organization Administration India Research Paper

… Immunizations and Public Org India

Vaccinations, associated with the prevention of many once common and deadly diseases that cannot be combated by traditional medicine have saved millions of lives all over the world. As vaccines provide prevention from viruses, pathogens… [read more]

Recent Outbreak of Polio in Congo Essay

… ¶ … outbreak of polio in Congo

Recent Polio Outbreak in Congo

Poliomyelitis (polio) is caused by a highly-contagious enterovirus called the Picorna virus, transmitted through contaminated feces, food, or water that is ingested (Berkow & al, 1997). Picorna virus is highly stable in fecal matter. Ironically, scientists believe that although the disease dates back at least 3000 years, in the earliest days when raw sewage was ubiquitous children developed a protective immunity and outbreaks were rare.

As for etiology, the virus enters through mucous membranes and lives in the throat and intestines of its human host; there is no animal reservoir. Sometime after infection, the virus spreads to the lymph nodes and blood. Eventually, in less than one percent of all cases, the virus penetrates the nervous system through capillary walls and paralyzes motor nerves. (CDC, 2010) Vectors that may transmit the disease are mechanical -- insects that are not infected, yet may land on food with contaminated feet, etc., thereby contaminating the food and spreading the illness (CDC, 2010). While some partially immune adults may be carriers for the virus, the primary hosts are infected children under the age of five. No incidental hosts have been identified (CDC, 2010).

As a result of widespread vaccination programs, polio has nearly been eradicated in most countries. However, reservoirs of the disease still exist in four countries: Pakistan, India, Nigeria, and China. The Western Hemisphere was declared free of wild polio virus as of 1994. At one time, the World Health Organization had hopes of completely eradicating the disease by the turn of the 21st century. Recently, however, a significant outbreak in the African Congo has startled scientists. (Berkow & al, 1997) Despite no recorded indigenous cases since 2000, the outbreak was confirmed on November 4, 2010 in the Republic of Congo; it's highly unusual in that a total of 324 cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) have been reported there, with 146 recorded deaths so far (as of November 22). Normally polio occurs in young children, and rarely results in paralysis or death. In response, a massive polio vaccination campaign is underway, estimated to cost in excess of $23 million. (PGEI, 2010) Most of the victims have been males between the…… [read more]

Syphilis Also Known as "The Pox," "Lues Research Paper

… Syphilis

Also known as "the pox," "Lues," "Cupid's Disease," the "Great Imitator" of other diseases, or "Syph," syphilis is a potentially-devastating sexually-transmitted bacterial infection infamous for its famous victims (NIH, 2009). These unfortunate souls include Adolf Hitler, Al Capone, Vincent Van Gogh, Abraham Lincoln, Friedrich Nietzsche, and the composer Franz Schubert (Hayden, 2003). Although symptoms attributed to syphilis have been recorded since the time of Hippocrates, the first official outbreak dates back to Italy in 1494 (Verweij, 2007). Initial treatments included experimenting with enough mercury or arsenic to kill the disease but not the patient; this mode of treatment led to the use of chemotherapy against cancer cells. In addition, the development of public health departments can be attributed to early attempts by medical researchers and officials to contain and control syphilis outbreaks. (Hayden, 2003) Since then, researchers have identified three major stages of syphilis: primary, secondary, and tertiary; the illness can be difficult to diagnose since symptoms vary widely and in some cases no symptoms are present at all as the bacteria enter dormancy phases (NIH, 2009).

Syphilis is caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum; it is spread through broken skin or mucous membranes, most often as a result of sexual contact (Romanowski, 1997). However, there is also a congenital form in which the disease is spread from mother to child during pregnancy. T. pallidum is a gram-negative bacteria with a helical shape and trademark corkscrew motility. It has very limited metabolic capacity, relying solely on glycolosis for survival. Although it requires very low oxygen levels, T. pallidum is difficult to culture in the lab as its limited metabolic capacity renders it highly dependent on a host. The complete genome was sequenced in 1998; however, this strain of bacteria is still mysterious and its virulence factor remains unknown. (Baseman, Nichols, & Hayes, 1976)

In the primary stage of syphilis, painless sores appear around the site of infection approximately two to twelve weeks after contamination. Even without treatment, the bacteria then enter a dormant phase and the sores disappear after two to four weeks. This period of dormancy, before the onset of stage two, can last up to two months. (NIH, 2009)

The secondary stage of syphilis is highly contagious, as bacteria have spread to the bloodstream. Symptoms of this stage include rashes of several possible forms: lesions on the palms or soles; mucous patches on the mouth, vagina, or penis; or warty patches on the genitals called condylomata lata. Additional manifestations of this phase can include fever, fatigue, irritability, hair loss, swollen lymph nodes, painful joints, or muscle aches. Once again, this stage ends and symptoms subside as T. pallidum enter a dormant phase, usually several weeks after phase commencement. (NIH, 2009)

Late syphilis, or tertiary syphilis, is the final recognized stage. It can follow the initial infection by up to fifteen years. If the disease is allowed to reach this point, chronic damage from bacterial infestation has spread throughout the entire body, often including the skin, nervous tissue,… [read more]

Haven't Decided Term Paper

… Anorexia: A Comparison of Two Studies

Eating disorders like anorexia have been researched at length, but with varying results. I have chosen to examine how research on anorexia compares between an experimental study and a case study. The two articles… [read more]

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