Study "Disease / Virus / Disorder / Injury" Essays 56-110

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Disorders in Older People Alzheimer Term Paper

… In the management of Alzheimer's disease, the approved treatment includes Donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and tacrine in mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment in patients with AD. Donepezil has also been FDA approved for use in moderate-to-sever AD.

Apart from management, ongoing assessment is… [read more]

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Research Paper

… Eradicating this disease from the society can turn out to be a painstaking job for the government of America. It may require mass and robust campaigns to educate the society about this disease and to get a large amount of… [read more]

Disease Trend. Some Examples Tuberculosis Essay

… This explanation ties into another key point that the article made, that at least in the United States, research was abandoned due to the formulation of formal regulations regarding work on the bird flu. The author states that the recent publication of research guidelines in Science Magazine as completed by the National Institute of Health coincides with the revival of interest in the topic domestically. This information is somewhat at odds with Moritz's statement that the University voluntarily decided to stop working on the virus. Interestingly enough, while the article merely suggests that the University of Wisconsin may resume research on the bird flu, it does state that research has "started" in other parts of the world (Eucalano, 2013).

This allusion to the global perspective of research on the bird flu is also another one of the reasons that the author claims was responsible for the temporary cessation of work on the subject. The general public decried acts of research at the University of Wisconsin as well as in the Netherlands that was based on animal testing. Researchers claimed that involving animals, and ferrets in particular, helped them to glean a fair amount of insight into how this particular virus is transmitted. Eucalano implies that testing on animals was viewed as unethical by some members of the public, and which may have contributed to the respite from research on the subject. "People questioned what was the benefit of this type of research," said Moritz, who maintained that "the benefit is global public health" (Eucalano, 2013).

In summary, Eucalano's article is primarily about the probable resumption of research on the bird flu in the United States. The author suggests that there was an international respite in this research due to a plethora of reasons, some of which appear to contradict one another. For instance, representatives from the University of Wisconsin say they voluntarily desisted from research, while there is information in the article that implies the domestic government prevented this facility from conducting research on this virus. The article makes no claims about the treatment of the disease largely because additional research is required to effectively facilitate treatment. The scope of the article is both domestic and international; the emphasis on the reasons for the moratorium on researching this subject at the university of Wisconsin provide facts about the former, while the involvement of Dutch researchers and references to renewed international research on this subject give the article a decidedly global perspective.


Eucalano, S. (2013). "Bird flu studies to resume shortly." The Badger Herald. Retrieved from… [read more]

Cardiovascular System 10 Diseases With Symptoms and Treatment Essay

… Cardiovacular System: 10 Diseases With Symptoms and Treatment

There are many different types of heart diseases. As such, there is a variety of symptoms that pertain to these diseases. Still, some diseases share the same symptoms and the same basic types of treatment. Others, however, have distinct symptoms and forms of treatment.

The principle symptom associated with coronary heart disease is chest pain. Other symptoms include a heart attack. Essentially, coronary heart disease results from a blockage of the coronary arteries. There are a variety of forms of treatment for this condition, which vary in efficacy due to the specific symptoms a patient endures and the stage of this disease in which he or she is in. Lifestyle changes can treat this condition, and include controlling one's weight, refraining from smoking, and engaging in regular exercise. There are also medications to lower cholesterol and options for surgery.

Some of the symptoms of the condition known as hypertensive heart disease include tiredness, putting on excess weight, shortness of breath, a feeling of bloating, as well as a large heart. Other symptoms include swollen ankles and nausea. Treatment includes detecting high blood pressure and taking a variety of measures to lower and control it. Lifestyle activities that can promote effective treatment include refraining from drinking alcohol, smoking, and staying at the proper weight. There are also certain narcotics one can take to manage this condition.

Symptoms of heart failure include a swelling of one's legs, difficulty conducting physical exercise, and a shortness of breath. This condition is one in which the heart has difficulty pumping enough blood to properly suffuse the body. Treatments for heart failure include taking a number of oral medications, as well as making lifestyle adjustments to improve one's overall health. These adjustments may involve keeping one's weight down, and engaging in healthy eating habits.

Arrhythmia is another heart disease in which the heart beats irregularly. It may beat either too slow or too fast. The primary symptom that is indicative of this condition is palpitations, in which a patient is acutely aware of his or her own heart beating. Dizziness and fainting are other symptoms. Some treatments for this condition include pacemakers and other regulators for the heart. There is also conventional oral medication and well as certain physical maneuvers.

Myocarditis is a disease in which there is inflammation close to the heart. Symptoms for this condition can involve chest pain, heart failure, palpitations and fever. Most treatment for this condition includes those that are directly aimed at counteracting the effects of symptoms. Treatment may call for simple bed rest, diuretics or digoxin. Inotropes and… [read more]

Diseases I.E. Lung Cancer Term Paper

… According to estimation, 30-35% of Americans are fat or obese ("obesity," 2012). The main cause of obesity is the intake of additional calories than the energy requirement as the surplus calories are stocked up in the body as fat. Other… [read more]

Communicable Disease: Measles Term Paper

… , 2011). Based on its high degree of contagiousness, vaccine coverage levels in the range of 95% to 98% are needed in order to prevent the continuing spread of the disease (Naseri & Salimi, 2011). According to epidemiological studies by… [read more]

Emergent Human Diseases Essay

… Generally, if henipah viruses evolve to be transmitted eagerly through casual contact, there are concerns that it could spread even rapidly and widely even throughout the world.

As noted in the past four decades, any emergent human disease and ecological infectious disease is usually caused by demographical changes and encroachment into wild lands. The failure to take care of the natural world can generally contribute to breakdown of the ecosystems that in turn result in emerging and ecological infectious diseases. The developing model of infectious diseases like SARS and Ebola that have taken place in the past several decades is because of the things people do to nature. Therefore, as it turns out, disease can largely be regarded as an environmental issue since 60% of emerging human and ecological infectious diseases originate in animals, especially wildlife. Consequently, several teams of conservation biologists and veterinarians are involved in global initiatives medical doctors, other clinical professionals, and epidemiologists to understand the ecology of disease.

Since new infectious diseases continue to emerge at alarming and historically unprecedented rates, the world is still at great risks of emerging human and ecological infectious pandemics and epidemics (Gutierrez, 2009). Actually, the world is at risk of the emergence of more than one disease annually due to the ever-increasing rate of global transportation. Furthermore, there is a great risk of the emergence of drug-resistant strains because of poor medical practices such as misuse of antibiotics. However, my family and I are not at risk of any emergent diseases because of the preventive measures that we are constantly engaged in. some of these preventive measures include ensuring that we take routine vaccinations and getting immunizations as recommended by the doctor.


Gutierrez, D. (2008, January 5). WHO Warns of High Risk of Global Epidemic from Emerging

Diseases. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from

Robbins, J. (2012, July 14). The Ecology of Disease. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from [read more]

Vili Ventilator Induced Lung Injury Research Paper

… Ventilator Induced Lung Injury (VILI) is an acute lung injury that occurs because of volutrauma and excessive use of oxygen. While it not a new concept, the injury occurs when the lung is damaged by the action of mechanical ventilation.… [read more]

Hepatitis a Causative Agent Virus Article Review

… Avoiding potentially contaminated food and water is also essential. This includes the water that may have been used to wash fruit and vegetables, as well as seemingly innocent ice cubes in drinks. When traveling abroad, relying upon bottled water is suggested (Zieve 2011). To avoid the transmission of fluids by air, good ventilation and proper air filtration in healthcare settings and in kitchens and dining halls is also suggested.

Slide 5: Portals of entry

Oral (ingestion)

Intercourse and needle-sharing (semen and blood)

Being in an environment where bodily fluids are often exchanged

Speaker notes: Common portals of entry include eating contaminated food or water (ingestion); exchanging bodily fluids through needle-sharing or sexual practices; living in a nursing home, rehabilitation center, or having an extended hospital stay, or being in a profession which requires close contact with other persons, such as healthcare, food, sewage, or daycare. Because of the difficulty of controlling one's food and water purity, frequent international travel also places one at high risk, where sanitary practices may be less carefully observed (Zieve 2011). Patients with frequent wounds (such as hemophiliacs) or patients with conditions which require them to use catheters (like dialysis) are also at much greater risk, as are the persons who care for them. Using disposable medical devices; proper hand-washing with hot water and soap; using gloves; guarding against potential 'puncture' wounds are necessary in a healthcare environment. In a food service environment, frequent hand-washing is also required; responsible sourcing of foods and disposal of potentially contaminated food; and educating all workers in proper food sanitation is demanded.

Travelers should avoid street food and diners should eat food that is properly prepared: food should be properly chilled or cooked. Undercooked or raw meat and fish should be avoided. Boiling water for one minute or more kills the virus and can be used as an alternative source of decontamination if no bottled water is available (Zieve 2011).

Slide 6: Susceptible host

Persons in high-risk occupations should be vaccinated

Vaccines also suggested for persons likely to suffer complications

Speaker notes: For persons in high-risk occupations; persons who are in relationships with known carriers; and persons with compromised immune symptoms vaccinations are available. Healthcare workers, IV drug users, and food service personnel are at the highest level of occupationally-related risk. The elderly or persons with compromised immune systems or liver are at greatest risk for suffering complications from hepatitis A, which is considered to be the 'mildest' form of hepatitis. Vaccines are protective after four months, and are then followed by six-month or yearly booster shots to provide longer protection (Zieve 2011).

There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A, once it is contracted, although infected persons should be medically supervised. However, it can cause acute liver failure, which can be fatal, so patients should be under the treatment of a physician when identified as infected and monitored until they no longer test positive (Hepatitis A, 2012, WHO).


Hepatitis A (2013). World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved:

Zieve,… [read more]

Communicable Disease - HIV Essay

… Current Prevention Efforts

As stated above, professionals are currently focusing on universal access to prevention through the use of condoms, testing and treatment (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). Prevention interventions in the form of testing and education are being used to identify, inform and change the behavior of people with HIV to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to their sex/drug partners (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Health care professionals have also found that improving access to high quality health care for populations traditionally highly affected by HIV, including nonwhite and gay/bisexual men, educating/encouraging HIV patients to stay in treatment, and providing preventive measures to the partners of HIV patients are all fundamental preventive strategies (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Through education, testing, treatment access/continuation and preventive measures, the health care industry is directly confronting the significant crises posed by HIV / AIDS.

Future Goals for Prevention

The ultimate goal of health care professionals and agencies dealing with HIV is the prevention of HIV and related illness and death (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). To that end, the National HIV / AIDS Strategy has established 3 primary goals: lowering the number of people becoming infected with HIV; raising health care access and enhancing treatment outcomes for HIV patients; lowering health disparities related to HIV (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Mirroring and aggressively enhancing measures currently used by health care professionals are believed to be the most effective goals/measures for prevention of HIV / AIDS.

Nurse's Role in Education and Prevention

The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such… [read more]

Autoimmunity the Immune System Research Paper

… Fortunately, now the cause is known and this information has been verified by several researchers, moreover, the rate of healing of RA this scheme is between 78 and 95%. There are several kinds of joint diseases; the three most prominent are the Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and Gouty Arthritis. At least 13,000,000 people suffer from RA in the United States (Munz, Lunemann, Getts, Miller, 2009).The name of the disorder refers to a large group of diseases associated with damage to connective tissue rich in collagen. So far RA has had no solution but peculiarly since 1964 a researcher in England has clarified this issue and has implemented a treatment and in 80% of cases the patient has been cured. Their findings have been widely documented and confirmed by other researchers but have received no official attention.

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Arthritis is the inflammation of the joints but the term rheumatism includes a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain and tenderness of muscles and joints. This disorder is extremely widespread and most people develop some form of arthritis or rheumatism in their lifetime. RA apart from joint and muscle pain can also involve tendons, bones and nerves and can present as rheumatic fever, sciatica, lumbago, spondylitis, bursitis, neuritis and myositis. Warm and swollen joints increase in number with time. The patient also has night sweats, depression and lethargy (Wucherpfennig, 2001). Those affected by this disease are mainly young people and is three times more common in women than in men.

Early symptoms include redness, swelling and joint pain. Often the joints are affected symmetrically and can lead to nodules and then deformity. The treatment consists mainly of NSAIDs or anti-inflammatory action to relieve pain and physical therapy to maintain joint mobility, but this may only slow down or reverse the deterioration of the disease (Wucherpfennig, 2001). In extreme cases, some people require a joint replacement that is surgically done.

Primary Cause

When for some reason foreign molecules enter the bloodstream, the immune system produces specific antibodies against them that they adhere to form antigen-antibody complexes. This triggers a series of biochemical events leading to the destruction of these substances. The damage from RA is due to the presence of these antigen-antibodies by the continued presence of antigen in the blood (Wucherpfennig, 2001). These complexes are deposited in the joints but also often elsewhere. This is why the term rheumatic may refer to any organ or tissue.


Besides genetic predisposition to autoimmunity, drugs, microorganisms; environmental factors are also known to be one of the causes of autoimmune diseases. However, a lot of research and experiments need to be done in order to find out more about autoimmune diseases.


Munz C, Lunemann JD, Getts MT, Miller SD (2009) Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity? Nat Rev Immunol; 9: 246-258.

Rioux JD and Abbas AK (2005). Paths to understanding the genetic basis of autoimmune disease. Nature… [read more]

Multiple Sclerosis the Disease Term Paper

… Multiple Sclerosis

The disease multiple sclerosis, often shortened to MS, affects the central nervous system. The disease inflames the nervous system and scars nerve receptors leading to scarring and a process called demyelination. The cause of the disease is still under debate, but it is a combination of genetic and infectious. Despite having genetic factors that cause the disease to recur in families anywhere from a fifth to a third of the time once it happens to one family member, the disease is not considered hereditary and is driven by a lot of environmental factors. Overall, the basic cause of MS is not known at this time and there is no known cure to the disease.

Symptoms of the disease include weakness in the muscles, loss of balance and spasms with the early symptoms being weakness, blurred vision, numbness and tingling throughout the body. The disease can be triggered by stress and other nerve disorders often team up with MS to attack the patient. Viral infections such as the flu can also cause increased attacks and discomfort within a patient. Less common symptoms of MS include slurred speech and cognitive issues. Rarer still are instances of seizure and breathing problems.

The effects of MS can be managed but cannot really be stopped. The prognosis for an MS patient is generally not short-lived but the nervous system attacks that occur have to be managed. Drugs taken for MS include interferon beta drugs such as Betaseron, Avonex and Rebif. Also used are Glatiramer, Novantrone and therapies such as Tysabri and Cytoxan. Less common drugs that are used when others do not work are steroids, Baclofen and Gilenya.

1). Stimulation by the autonomic nervous system results in the increase insulin secretion from the pancreas during and after a meal. This increased production of insulin is a result of parasympathetic stimulation. An example of a parasympathetic function would be salivation. Also, acetylcholine agonists will stimulate insulin secretion. These are agents such as poisons and drugs that imitate or stimulate parasympathetic functions. Nicotine is one of many such substances.

2). When a person consumes a substantial amount of nicotine, the response is an increase in parasympathetic and sympathetic responses. Parasympathetic responses and sympathetic responses oppose each other but in a symbiotic way. Parasympathetic would be body functions such as salivation, digestion and defecation whereas sympathetic relates to organ function.

3). The cochlear neurons are stimulated by hairs in the inner ear which allows people to hear. Death of these hairs leads to deafness.

4). When people… [read more]

AIDS and Human Rights What Is the Best Approach Research Paper

… human rights approach to HIV / AIDS

Human rights approach to HIV

AIDS, a health problem that was first clinically identified more than thirty years ago has grown to become one of the major diseases affecting mankind. Since it began,… [read more]

Respiratory Infections Research Paper

… The patients with non-atopic asthma do not have elevated levels of IgE in blood serum and they do not have hypersensitivity to any allergens. However, there are certain immunologic mechanisms that have not been demonstrated Clark et al., 1999()

The… [read more]

Tracking Dengue Fever in China Research Paper

… In summary, a number of different findings consistently support concluding that the Guangzhou 2010 dengue outbreak was the result of an introduced DENV-4 strain from Thailand.


DVBD (Division of Vector Borne Diseases). (2011). Information on Aedes albopictus. U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from

Jing, Qin-Long, Yang, Zhi-Cong, Luo, Lei, Xiao, Xin-Cai, Di, Biao, He, Peng et al. (2012). Emergence of dengue virus 4 genotype II in Guangzhou, China, 1010: Survey and molecular epidemiology of one community outbreak. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12,

NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases). (2007). Dengue Fever. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from

Shepherd, Suzanne M. (2012). Dengue. Medscape Reference. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from

TDR (Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases). (2011). Dengue vector control research completed in Asia: 5-year initiative focused on eco-bio-social strategies. World Health Organization. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from

Weaver, Scott C. And Vasilakis, Nikos. (2009). Molecular evolution of dengue virues: Contributions of phylogenetics to understanding the history and epidemiology of the preeminent arboviral disease. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 9, 523-540.

WHO (World Health Organization). (2012). Dengue and severe dengue: Fact Sheet. WHO Media Centre. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from


1. Genotype -- DNA sequencing of the virus genome reveals the exact sequence of bases.

2. Nucleocapsid -- a protein shell contains and protects the viral RNA genome.… [read more]

Cardiac Disorders and Sleep Apnea Research Paper

… Typical breathing pattern with Cheyne-Stokes respiration with hyperpnoeic and apnoeic sequences in sleep stage 2. There are fluctuations in oxygen saturation in response to periodic breathing, with delay of the transit time from the lungs to the fingertip of the… [read more]

Sensorimotor Disorder Restless Legs Syndrome Research Paper

… Complementary interventions include vitamins, acupuncture, prayer, meditation, and music (Mitchell, 2011). These interventions have generally not been scientifically investigated with the exception of acupuncture. However, researchers have suggested that there is insufficient evidence that acupuncture for the treatment of restless legs syndrome is any more effective than no treatment at all (Mitchell, 2011). Furthermore, research has demonstrated a considerable response to placebo in relation to restless legs syndrome (Mitchell, 2011). Specifically, it has been shown that more than one third of individuals with restless legs syndrome exhibit a significant improvement in symptoms following placebo treatment (Mitchell, 2011). This indicates that expectation of relief from a treatment somehow effectively reduces the experience of symptoms possibly through dopaminergic agents and opioids which are involved in placebo response (Mitchell, 2011).


Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.

Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.

Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.

Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.

Scholz, H., Benes, H., Happe, S., Bengel, J.,… [read more]

Influence of Disease on the Revolution Essay

… Smallpox in the Revolutionary War

The disease that caused the most serious problems during the Revolutionary War in America was smallpox. There were other diseases that afflicted the soldiers, but nothing took the terrible toll that smallpox did. This paper delves into some of the issues created by the smallpox outbreaks during the Revolutionary War.

The Literature on Smallpox in the Revolutionary War

"During the American Revolution, a huge epidemic of smallpox killed more Americans than did the war itself. Rumors of the British using smallpox as an early form of germ warfare had the American soldiers and colonists living in fear" (Furgang, 2010, p. 22).

Why did the war create the opportunity for such epidemics? Author Peter McCandless explains that the British suffered from smallpox to nearly the same degree that the Americans did. The British knew the "perils of warm-weather campaigning in the southern coastal lands," McCandless writes. The fact that the British were able to beat the revolutionaries in Florida and Georgia produced "their greatest victories to date but severely undermined the health of their forces" (McCandless, 2011, p. 84). Fighting in warm weather where viruses can grow faster, created the opportunity for the British to become sick.

Also, the patriots got sick in some instances because as McCandless explains on page 87, tents were in short supply forcing men to "…sleep exposed to the damp night air" which contributed to the disease's spread. In war, supplies are not always where they are needed when they are needed. On page 93, McCandless explains that the "spread of these diseases was facilitated by the constant movement of soldiers and residents." Elizabeth Fenn writes that when people who were stricken with smallpox moved "…from one place to another…they also carried microbes" (Fenn, 2002, p. 47).

What preventative measures were possible against this killer? Some of the troops were inoculated with the smallpox vaccination (although General George Washington was against soldiers getting inoculated, many went ahead against his orders), especially those that had not been exposed to smallpox in other campaigns. (Fenn, 2002). Washington tried to prevent the spread by keeping his troops "…at a certain distance from the small pox hospital" (Fenn, 48). Washington also… [read more]

Homeopathic Remedies for Anxiety Homeopathy Research Paper

… Causes of Anxiety Disorder:

Choices of lifestyle

Caffeine, Alcohol and certain drugs

Emotional trauma

Lack of balance of some specific chemicals in the brain.

Heredity (Coulter and Dean, 2007)

Symptoms of Anxiety Disorder:

Needless, impractical and out of control concerns… [read more]

Infectious Disease Influenza Research Paper

… ¶ … transmission and symptoms of the flu, treatments that are currently available, and how your organization can help mitigate the spread of this disease.

The first and possible the most effective method in regard to mitigating the spread of influenza is to properly educate the consuming public. This education campaign will allow others to be aware of the profound impact that the virus can have on an individuals day-to-day activities. This education can take many forms that can be adapted depending on the individual states needs. For example, states with high immigration rates such as Texas, Florida, and California are especially susceptible to the flu epidemic as immigrants are not properly vaccinated when entering the company. This in part, is a failure of the federal government to enforce immigration constraints and existing laws. This is also in part to the desire of many immigrants to obtain a better quality of life in American. As such, I believe the federal government should mandate the individual state health departments to determine what course of education would be appropriate in regards to the flu epidemic. This serves two purposes; first, the individual states can prioritize what aspects of the education campaign will be the most important heading into the upcoming flu season. I believe that individual states can prioritize their own needs better than the U.S. Federal Government can (1). By allowing the states to utilize their own methods, the spread of influenza will be better mitigated. As I mentioned previously, states with high immigration rates would particularly emphasis vaccination of immigrates and education of both children and parents of immigrants entering into the country. In contrast, states within the heartland of America could focus on the transmission of the virus through contact with agriculture, or in manufacturing plants due to unsanitary conditions. Second, by allowing the states to have this power, the government is allowing a market system to flourish which will better mitigate the spread of the virus. One state may develop a method far superior to the others in regards to the mitigation of the flu virus. In such instances, if other states deem it necessary, they too can implement the change and the nation will be better served because of it.

In addition to properly education, I would allow for more emphasis to be placed on medicine and subsequent treatment of the virus. Currently, treatment does exist, which I believe is quite effective in abating the spread of influenza. However, the treatment in many instances requires a shot to be administered to the patient. It is my contention that if a more ubiquitous… [read more]

Oral Health and Heart Disease Research Paper

… The study consisted of 10 monozygotic twin pairs, with one twin presenting with coronary heart disease and one twin an absence of heart disease. All the subjects underwent detailed dental examinations including radiographic imaging, as well assessments of teeth, gums, and soft tissue health, hygiene, measurement of periodontal pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. Results indicated that twins with coronary heart disease demonstrated significantly more symptoms of periodontal disease than twins without heart disease, while no significant difference was found for any other factors including marital status, smoking, employment, education, income, or body mass index (Tabrizi et l., 2007). Furthermore, a shared genetic factor may be considered to be less likely of a confounding variable in the association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease based on the results of this study (Fisher et al., 2010).

The potential involvement of infection as a significant factor involved in coronary heart disease and periodontal disease was investigated and discussed in a review conducted by Fisher et al. (2010). This review recognized the impact that coronary heart disease has on population health, with over 500,000 people dying every year in the United States from coronary heart disease (Fisher et al., 2010). The important role that chronic inflammation plays in the manifestation and progression of coronary heart disease is recognized by the authors, as well as how periodontal disease contributes to systemic inflammation, thus indicating an association between the two conditions. In particular, it is explained by the authors how periodontal disease is related to C-reactive protein, a systemic inflammatory reactant that has been shown to be a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease (Fisher et al., 2010). It is furthermore suggested by this review that steps taken toward improving oral health, such as improved dental self-care and professional periodontal assessment and therapy may decrease the risk for the development of coronary heart disease (Fisher et al., 2010).


1. To investigate the association between oral health and cardiovascular health. In particular, it will be explored whether severity of periodontal conditions are significantly related to the presence of cardiovascular disease.

Hypothesis: A significant, positive association will be observed between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease.

2. To examine factors involved in the association between oral health and mortality from cardiovascular disease

Hypothesis: Certain symptoms of periodontal disease, such as tooth loss, will prove to be more significantly predictive of mortality due to cardiovascular disease.

3. To determine specific mechanisms responsible for the association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease.

Hypothesis: Bacterial infection and chronic inflammation are the most likely mechanisms involved in the manifestation of cardiovascular disease associated with poor oral health.


Dietrich, T., Jiminez, M., Krall Kaye, E.A., Vokonas, P.S., Garcia, R. (2008). Age-dependent associations between chronic periodontitis/edentulism and risk of coronary heart disease. Journal of the American Heart Association, 117, 1668-74.

Fisher, M.A., Borgnakke, W.S., Taylor, G.W. (2010). Periodontal disease as a risk marker in coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 19, 519-26.

Geismar, K.,… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Stages Term Paper

… As the disease spreads and worsens, the tasks will have to change accordingly and the skills and abilities will have to be rechecked in order to fix the tasks to adjust the routine. It is important for the families and… [read more]

Addison's Disease Etiology Research Paper

… The clinical manifestations are subtle (weakness, fatigue, anorexia, orthostasis, nausea, myalgias, and salt craving), and a high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose adrenal insufficiency before an adrenal crisis. Screening patients with type 1A diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, and polyendocrine autoimmunity for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies is recommended. If present, yearly monitoring with an ACTH stimulation test is performed to allow early diagnosis and prevent an adrenal crisis. Forty percent to 50% of patients with Addison disease will have another autoimmune disease, necessitating lifelong monitoring for associated autoimmune conditions.


Patients with Addison's disease require mineralocorticoid replacement, i.e., fludrocortisone 0.05-0.20 mg once daily. Starting doses of glucocorticoids should be 15-20 mg for hydrocortisone or 20-30 mg for cortisone acetate, divided into two or three doses, and preferentially weight-adjusted. There are indications that the synthetic glucocorticoids have undesirable metabolic long-term effects, which make them less suitable as first-line treatment. Timed-release hydrocortisone tablets and continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion are promising new treatment modalities. Studies of replacement with the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in adrenal failure have shown inconsistent benefit on HRQoL. DHEA, or possibly testosterone replacement is likely to be beneficial for selected groups of patients with Addison's disease but this remains to be shown.

Works Cited

Lovas K, Husebye E.S. (2008) Replacement therapy for Addison's disease: recent developments. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 17(4): 497-509.

Martorell, P.M., Roep, B.O., Smit, J.W.A. (2002) Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 60: 269.

Michels, A. & Eisenbarth G. (2010)… [read more]

Hepatitis Disease Term Paper

… Hepatitis

The liver is one of the most important organs in the body, performing many functions such as detoxifying the body and keeping many of its necessary processes and its general homeostasis in balance. When the liver is negatively affected by disease, life threatening symptoms can develop, and this is the reason that the disease Hepatitis is so dangerous. There are actually several different types of hepatitis that can be brought on by viral infection (with different specific viruses causing Hepatitis A, B, and C), bacterial infections, and even certain drugs and medications, and each different type and/or cause of hepatitis can have different specific symptoms. All hepatitis types affect liver function, however, and at times people can go for decades with a hepatitis infection and not even know it -- it is only when enough damage has been done to the liver over time that symptoms can actually be felt, and at that point a patient can already be in or near total liver failure.

The symptoms of hepatitis can include such minor and common things as fevers, fatigue, and nausea, but these symptoms can become sever and other more serious symptoms can also develop. Abdominal distension or swelling can occur, with pain and tenderness in the area of the liver, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and/or eyes) can occur due to a build up of chemicals that the liver normally helps to eliminate from the body, and due to hormonal changes men can even experience breast development, which has attendant pain and can have certain complications. General itching can also occur, and urine and stool both take on a different color and odor in many cases of different types of hepatitis.

Not all cases of hepatitis become sever enough to… [read more]

Heart Disease Contrary to Popular Belief Term Paper

… Heart Disease

Contrary to popular belief, cancer is not the leading cause of death among people in America. According to the American Heart Association, heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women. There are many conditions that contribute to heart disease which are: arrhythmia, high cholesterol, hypertension, congenital heart disease and several others ( Because there are so many conditions that can cause heart disease, this paper will focus on heart disease in women. Many women are more concerned with breast or ovarian cancer and are not aware that heart disease kills more women than both of these types of cancer. Many women with heart disease aren't even aware that they have the disease which is why increased awareness of the disease in necessary. The more informed the woman is, the more she can do to prevent heart disease.

The symptoms of heart disease can include fatigue, shortness of breath, and numbness of extremities and vomiting, yet many women brush these symptoms off until they become too severe to ignore (Banks 430). With the busy lives that many women lead, they make take these symptoms as the result of having a stressful day and think that it is normal. Stress does play a role in heart disease as well as diet and physical activity. While some women may have hereditary factors which contribute to their condition, there are still many precautions that can be taken to reduce the risk of heart disease. Small changes can build up to gradual and long lasting improvements. It is important for women to make time to relax and reduce stress. Also, even though fast food is convenient it is often unhealthy so women must learn to prepare healthful meals and get to moving. Banks states that women are different physiologically from men in that their coronary vessels are much smaller making it easier for arteries to become blocked. She says that moderate physical activity such as walking for thirty minutes at least five times a week can help to prevent this blockage (432, 435).

Of particular note concerning heart disease in women is women of color, especially African-American women. Heart disease is extremely prevalent in minority… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Is a Fatal Neurological Condition Term Paper

… Alzheimer's disease is a fatal neurological condition that typically appears first in elderly individuals; it is a progressive disease with no cure that causes the gradual deterioration of cognitive functions, eventually rendering patients completely incoherent and unable to process cognitive… [read more]

Epidemiology Sexual Transmitted Diseases Thesis


Epidemiology-sexual transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

Sexually transmitted diseases: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

Primary: Health promotion and specific prevention strategies

Despite the increased publicity regarding the role of condom use in the prevention… [read more]

Communicable Disease Research Proposal

… Communicable Disease

Epidemiology has been defined as the study of the allocation and determinants of disease and injury in human populations. Epidemiologist study the differences of disease in relation to age, sex, race, occupational and social characteristics, place of residence,… [read more]

Anorexia Nervosa Parkinson's Disease All People Contract Essay

… Anorexia Nervosa

Parkinson's Disease

All people contract a disease sooner or later, and their well-being depends on the severity in form of the respective malady. There are numerous diseases known to mankind and some of them go back to the… [read more]

Coronary Artery Disease Thesis

… Coronary Artery Disease

The heart is a structurally equipped and well-functioning muscle, which sustains life. Healthy coronary arteries are clean, smooth, flexible and can expand to respond to the need of the heart for more oxygen. But faulty, fatty diet,… [read more]

West's Niles Virus in Horses Thesis

… West Nile Virus in Horses

The objective of this work is to examine West Nile Virus in horses in terms of its' origin, prevention and critical analysis for the reason of increase or decrease in statistical data related to West… [read more]

Occupational Health and Safety and Lighting Term Paper

… ¶ … Risk and Hazard Factors of Bright Blue Light

The public is constantly being inundated by advertising that states that the intensity and range of colors offered by lamps that replicate sunshine and daylight are necessary for best vision… [read more]

HIV / AIDS Virus Has Claimed Term Paper

… HIV / AIDS virus has claimed more lives in the past two decades than many other leading causes of death. To date more than 40 million people around the globe are affected by HIV / AIDS with sub-Saharan Africa being… [read more]

Sickle Cell Disease Term Paper

… Sickle cell disease is a severely debilitating genetic disorder that has no real cure except the risky bone marrow transplantation. Pharmacological interventions are thus largely focused on symptomatic management and in reducing the discomfort and pain for the patient. The… [read more]

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Is a Frightening Term Paper

… Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a frightening name for an all-too common illness. It is the most common type of heart disease and the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women ("What Is Coronary… [read more]

Eating Disorder Is an Issue Term Paper

… Eating disorder is an issue for many people and there is significant ratio of eating disorder many people are still suffering. There are different types of eating disorders people suffer. The eating disorder is a situation in which people usually do not feel well and they behave differently either they eat too much or do not eat anything. There are different types of eating disorder and many people face problem with these habits and they check for eating disorders. Eating disorder not only disturbs your physical health but also your mental health and sometimes it has severe effect on the body of human being. The main eating disorder includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge eating disorder. Once you are able to identify what type of eating disorder you are serving from then you can easily cure it but for that you must have to eliminate the root causes. (wikipedia, 2007)

Anorexia Nervosa:

Anorexia Nervosa is a special type of eating disorder and people who suffer from this usually have low body weight and their body image is distorted. People who are conscious about their weight and do not take care of their diet properly they usually suffer with Anorexia Nervosa. In America most of young females are suffering from Anorexia Nervosa. There are different reasons people suffer from this these and most of them are voluntary controls of their diet like starving from proper diet, vomiting, doing excessive exercises and usage of other weight control measures that can cause for Anorexia Nervosa. The ratio of Anorexia Nervosa is comparatively high in females as compare to males so the reason behind this is most of American females are very conscious about their weight and they sometimes go beyond limits to reduce their weight by using different types of pills so ultimately they also suffer from Anorexia Nervosa and also from side effects of those pills that may put severe problems for them after using. In America many people die due to this disease and most of people do not know about this disease. (Cohen Juliet)

The Anorexia Nervosa is harmful for body image and it also put strain on the major body parts. It causes physical disorder as well as emotional disorder in the people. It also cause hurdles and impediments on the functioning of heart and cardiovascular system of human being. There are many doctors that are suggesting that it can disturb heart beat and usually results in slow heart beat that can be dangerous for any person if the heart beat slows so much. People suffering from Anorexia Nervosa usually suffer from Heart failure, weakness of their muscles and dysfunction of immune. You will find many websites that are providing information on causes, symptoms and treatments of Anorexia Nervosa. In youngsters especially who have… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease: The Onset as Alzheimer's Diseases Term Paper

… Alzheimer's Disease: The Onset

As Alzheimer's diseases is believed to be the "dementing order" because of the recognized changes in the behavior and line of thinking of the person with the said disease. From the researchers' and the physicians' point-of-view,… [read more]

West Nile Virus Was First Term Paper

… In 2002 a Michigan woman contracted the virus through a blood transfusion she received shortly after giving birth, and some weeks later, an analysis of the baby's blood showed presence of the West Nile virus (West1). Moreover, there are at least two other reported cases of the virus transmission through breast-feeding (West1). And again in 2002, two microbiologists who were involved in West Nile virus surveillance and research, contracted the virus through skin wounds acquired while working with infected animals (West1).

The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, APHIS, is part of the United States Department of Agriculture and is responsible for protecting and promoting agricultural health, administering the Animal Welfare Act, and carrying out wildlife damage management activities (Guidelines). The APHIS Veterinary Services, VS, is concerned about horses and other equine (Guidelines). Since the first detection of the West Nile virus in the United States in 1999, there have been 85 cases of illness in horses that have attributed to the West Nile virus infection, and 32, or 38%, of those horses died or were euthanatized (Guidelines). Many additional horses that did not develop clinical illness have been found to be infected with the virus based on detection of antibodies to the virus, however no transmission of the virus has been documented from horses, either directly or through mosquitoes (Guidelines). To prevent exposure of equine to the virus it is essential to prevent their exposure to mosquitoes, by taking measures such as eliminating stagnant water sources where mosquitoes may breed, and by insect proofing stables and other measure that reduce exposure of equine to mosquitoes (Guidelines). There is no vaccine currently available, however vaccine development is moving forward and a product may soon be approved for use in horses (Guidelines).

Work Cited

Guidelines for Investigating Suspect West Nile Virus Cases in Equine. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:

NIAID Research on West Nile Virus. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious

Disease. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:

West1 Nile Virus: Signs and Symptoms; Causes. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:

West Nile Virus. The National Biological Information Infrastructure. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from:

West2 Nile Virus Poliomyelitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Retrieved November 09, 2005 from: [read more]

Patient's Perspective of Parkinson's Disease Term Paper

… Parkinson's Disease: A Patients Perspective

Being diagnosed with a progressive neurological disease is never easy for a patient or family member. Recently my father was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. A proud man, it took a lot of strength and courage… [read more]

West Nile Virus Term Paper

… Furthermore, New York and Newark both have active ports, where ships carrying goods from Israel dock. It does not require a stretch of the imagination to consider the fact that the West Nile Virus outbreak in America in 1999 was caused by the accidental transport of infected mosquitoes from Israel.

In support of the idea that the West Nile Virus was accidentally introduced to America by mosquitoes brought over from Israel is the fact that, in the summer of 1999, there were also two cases of malaria in New York City. Like West Nile Virus, malaria is a disease that is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes. Like West Nile Virus, one would expect malaria to occur in semi-tropical regions that traditionally have had malaria outbreaks. In the United States, those regions are generally confined to the southern half of the country. However, as previously indicated, the same conditions that promote mosquito growth in the South exist in the summer in New York City. In addition, most cases of malaria in America occur from travelers who have gone to infected regions without taking the proper precautions. There is no evidence that there was any link between the cases of malaria and West Nile Virus that occurred in New York City in 1999.

Furthermore, there is a final reason that argues against the idea that West Nile Virus was

Purposely introduced to the United States by terrorists; its relatively limited scope. Had a terrorist organization been determined to attack the United States with a biological agent, it would have been relatively simple to infect mosquitoes for that purpose. The limited scope of the virus, as well as the fact that it has appeared in the same populations (birds and horses) as in outbreaks around the world, help support the idea that the West Nile Virus has spread to the United States accidentally, and not as the result of terrorist intervention .

Works Referenced

"Background: Virus History and Distribution." West Nile Virus. 2004. Centers for Disease

Control and Prevention. 24 Apr. 2005


Giladi, Michael, Einat Metzkor-Cotter, Denise A. Martin, Yardena Siegman-Igra, Amos D.

Korczy, Raffaele Rosso, Stephen A. Berger, Grant L. Campbell, and Robert S. Lanciotti. "West Nile Encephalitis in Israel, 1999: The New York Connection." West Nile Virus. 2001. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 24 Apr. 2005 [read more]

Huntington's Disease Affects Families Term Paper

… This was because it was Huntington that happened to present the disease in all its clarity of symptoms, and was also able to identify the hereditary nature of the disease, a fact that had not been discovered until that time.… [read more]

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Term Paper

… Respiratory Syncytial Virus / Bronchiolitis

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a very common cause of pneumonia and bronchitis, especially in children that are under one year of age. Generally, children develop a runny nose, fever, coughing, and sometimes wheezing as well. The first time children have RSV infection, generally between 25 and 40% of them show signs of pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Of those,.5% to 2% require a hospital stay. Generally, it takes between 8 and 15 days for children to recover. Many of the children that are hospitalized for this type of infection are in their first six months of life. It can generally cause repeated infections throughout an individual's life span as well, usually associated with cold-like symptoms that are moderate to severe. It is spread through close contact with individuals that already have the infection or contact with objects or surfaces that are contaminated. This can occur through contact with the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, or nose or contact with any type of infectious material, or when the virus is inhaled through the sneezes or coughs of other individuals. These are the most likely times for an infant to contract RSV. In climates that are very temperate outbreaks usually occur during the late fall, or early spring, but they can also take place in winter. It spreads very quickly among children and most children by two years of age have evidence of having had an RSV infection at some point (,2005).

In general, it is the most common cause of any type of lower respiratory tract infection in children throughout the world, and virtually all of them will contract it by the age of three. In infants, it is the strongest cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia and also plays a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In patients that have immunodeficiency, such as premature and very young infants that have not built up a strong immune system yet, there is a significant chance of morbidity and mortality as it spreads extremely easily. There have been two specific types of RSV identified, subtype a and subtype B. Subtype B is generally asymptomatic… [read more]

Diabetic Vascular Disease State Caused Term Paper

… When they can cast light on the particularities of the national marketplace, informations about market dynamics and policies which are specific to countries and cultural issues are also enhanced. ("Diabetes in France")

Diabetes is thus not just one disease but it is at least two diseases grouped as type1 and type2. Though there are many other types, the vast mainstream can be divided into these two types. In type1 diabetes the body destroys the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin and thus insulin is required for survival. In type2 diabetes, which affects Hispanics, Blacks, Asians and American Indians more often, one must have some amount of insulin as well as a resistance to the effects of the insulin. Hence more insulin is demanded. Control of blood glucose for both type1 and type2 can lessen the risks of complications, particularly those involving the eyes, the kidney and the nerves. People with should see to the following tests being performed regularly by their doctor. This includes a dilated eye exam annually to assess for diabetic retinopathy, annual analysis of urine albumin, which is the first sign of kidney disease and an annually complete foot exam assessing for identifying the prevalence of neuropathy and vascular disease (the leading cause of lower extremity amputation in the U.S.). ("Diabetes Basics-Conclusion")


Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from on March 3, 2004

Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from Accessed on March 3, 2004

Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from Accessed on March 3, 2004

Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at Accessed on March 3, 2004

The Diabetic Foot and Peripheral vascular disease," retrieved at March 3, 2004

Exercise Helps Control Diabetic Vascular Disease," retrieved from on March 3, 2004

Diabetic Eye Disease: Low Vision Basics" retrieved at Accessed on March 3, 2004

Vascular risk factors and markers of endothelial function as determinants of inflammatory markers in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB prospective Complication Study-Pathophysiology/complications " retrieved at on March 3, 2004

Diabetic foot ulcer," retrieved at Accessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes in France," retrieved at Accessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes Basics-Conclusion" retrieved from on March 3, 2004 [read more]

West Nile Virus Term Paper

… Risk through medical procedures is also low. The risk of getting WNV through blood transfusions and organ transplants is very small (CDC, Possible West Nile Virus Transmission to an Infant through Breast-Feeding - Michigan, 2002, 2002)

West Nile virus infection… [read more]

Smallpox as a Weapon Against Term Paper

… In 1947 there was a single case of small pox reported (Manning, 2003). It was reported in New York City and within four weeks almost 6.5 million Americans had received vaccines. While most experts agree that vaccinating the entire American population at this time is not necessary, it is necessary to be prepared to do so if an outbreak ever occurs (Manning, 2003).


In 1979 the world believed that small pox had become extinct, but recent terrorist developments have raised concerns that it may be returning through the use of terrorist attacks. The nation has developed enough vaccine to vaccinate the entire nation but at this time the government is not recommending a general public vaccination. While military and health personnel are receiving the recommend vaccination the rest of the public is receiving education about the virus, what to do if there is an outbreak and what the chances of that outbreak are. Education seems to be the key at this point and the United States is working to stay ahead of the possibility of a surprise attack.


GEORGE GEDDA, Associated Press Writer, U.S. says some countries may have hidden smallpox viruses., AP Worldstream, 11-05-2002

Author not available, U.S. draws up smallpox plan., The Toronto Star, 09-24-2002.

Author not available, EXPERTS ARE RIGHT TO PLAN DEFENSE AGAINST SMALLPOX., Portland Press Herald (Maine), 07-10-2002, pp 8A.

Author not available, Health officials call for renewed smallpox vaccinations., Agence France Presse English, 03-29-2002.

Anita Manning, How prepared are we against SMALLPOX?., USA Today, 03-06-2003, pp 01D.

Preston, Richard. The Demon in the Freezer: A True Story… [read more]

Cardio-Vascular Disease (CVD) Term Paper

… Cognitive therapy would be aimed at symptom removal by identification and correction of the patient's distorted, negatively biased, moment-to-moment. This study is important because it provides an overview of the contemporary modalities that are available. The reference provides a comprehensive… [read more]

Ebola Outbreak Research Paper

… Ebola Virus and Its Effect on Humans

The Ebola Virus

How ebola Virus Affects Host

The ebola Symptoms

Transmission of the Disease

The Spread of the Disease

Diagnosis of Ebola Virus

Investigation of Ebola

Management of Ebola

Fluid and electrolyte… [read more]

Treating Cardiovascular Disease Case Study

… Cardiovascular Case Study

Case study evaluation

An analysis of the disorder

One of the leading causes of death in the U.S. is Cardiac arrest. It accounts for almost 50% of all fatalities each year and affects nearly 14 million Individuals… [read more]

Senior Citizens and the Growing Research Paper

… Anderson reports that "according to Patricia Hawkins, associate executive director of the D.C.-based Whitman-Walker Clinic, the popularity of medications such as Viagra has also contributed to the surge of HIV and AIDS among this group. 'Viagra has contributed a lot… [read more]

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, a Critical Term Paper

… STIs can cause serious side effects and aid in generation of other diseases such as PID. People need to know the relevancy of PID and sexually transmitted disease. Because PID is known to cause infertility in women, public health becomes… [read more]

Stroke Research Paper

… Stress and depression is also another risk factor that those with exposure to other stroke risk factors should avoid.

Familial and Hereditary Factors Associated With Stroke

Person A's risk of suffering a stroke is regarded greater than of Person B.… [read more]

Physiology Psychology Essay

… Christopher Reeve Case Study

Christopher Reeve was one of the most famous actors of the late 1970s and 1980s. He will forever be known as the big screen Superman. To most people, Reeve was synonymous with the character. This made it all the more shocking when he was injured severely in a horse riding accident in 1995 which cost him the use of his legs amongst other horrific injuries. Rather than let this destroy his life, the accident ultimately determined Reeve's legacy as he became an advocate for the rights of the disabled.

What neurological disorder, disease, or accident took place to interrupt the individual's ability?

On May 27, 1995 Christopher Reeve was riding his horse Buck and was attempting to jump a fence, something he had done many times before. Reeves had been an experience rider and had no reason to suspect any negative effects. The horse made a refusal and stopped moving, sending Reeve over the fence. According to reports, he landed head first, with all 215 pounds of his body bearing down on him (Reeve 1998,-page 19). Fortunately he was wearing a helmet and did no damage to his brain; however he sustained a cervical spinal injury, shattering both the first and second vertebrae, totally paralyzing the actor from the neck down.

2. What behaviors were exhibited by this individual following the disorder, disease, or accident?

Immediately after the accident Christopher Reeve was highly depressed and even considered suicide. In an interview with the Washington Post, Reeve said, "The thought that kept going through my mind was: I've ruined my live. I've ruined my life, and you only get one…I'm an idiot. I've spoiled everything" (Crews 1998). However, during his recovery, Reeve went through physical therapy and psychological treatment wherein he determined to overcome the odds and live happily. His dedication to his own health also led to his becoming an activist, both for people with spinal injuries and then in support of stem cell research which has the potential to further recover people like him with severe spinal injuries.

3. What were the individual's deficits as a result of this disorder, disease, or accident?

Following the accident, Christopher Reeve went from an able-bodied and highly athletic person to a man confined to a wheelchair which could only be moved by blowing air into a pipe. He was completely paralyzed from the neck down and had issues with protein levels and had low levels of hemoglobin in his body. It is believed that his injuries diminished his immune system (Hall 2005). Doctors report that he developed a pressure ulcer which was causing sepsis and had several infections which were attributed to his bone marrow. His constant need for antibiotics eventually harmed his organs and he died of cardiac arrest. Many believe the negative reaction to the medication led to the heart attack.… [read more]

Improving Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries Research Paper

… Improving Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries

The developing nation that I believe would benefit greatly from a refined disease surveillance system is India. Such a system would provide early warnings of outbreaks of diseases and consistently monitor their progress (WHO, 2006, p. 1). India's developmental situation is curious. Despite having overthrown the yoke of British colonization some time ago, there are still parts of the country where there are childhood prostitutes, children regularly eschew school to beg for money (No author, 2012), and preventable disease -- particularly tuberculosis is rampant. In fact, a 2012 publication from the World Health Organization maintains that "India and China together account for almost 40% of the world's TB cases) (WHO, 2012, p. 2). When examining all of the various aspects of economic prowess that China has in the contemporary market, it would be difficult to call that nation 'developing'. Thus, it is quite clear that India still has a significant amount of gains to be made by the full-fledged implementation of a disease surveillance system.

It is important to realize that in India, like in many other locations throughout the world in which there is a high incidence of tuberculosis, the primary form of combatting the spread of this disease is in reporting cases of it. Without reporting cases, it is virtually impossible to stop the tuberculosis from dominating a particular population. Therefore, it is all the more crucial to realize that India actually does have a form of monitoring system for this particular disease. Since at least 2011, health care officials in the country have made attempts to implement "new policy measures, including mandatory case notification by all care providers via an electronic web-based system" (WHO, 2012, p. 2) Thus, the country has made some strides to regularly report cases of tuberculosis. However, an examination of the research in this country regarding this specific issue certainly alludes to the fact that there can be improvements made to the current system which would enable the country to have state of the art disease surveillance system capabilities to truly make a difference.

The current monitoring procedures in India are substantial, yet not as advanced and as specific as they could be. The country has devoted a number of resources towards counteracting the noxious effects of this disease, including the National Tuberculosis Control Programme, as well as the DOTS TB control program. Moreover, it has enacted some specific measures to account for reporting instances of tuberculosis regardless of whether an individual's disease is identified and treated in the public and the private sector. There are a fair amount of tuberculosis cases that are identified by the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) of WHO. However, the trouble with the current reporting system in India and in other countries is that there are some individuals who do not rely on NTPs for reporting of this disease. Therefore, the current national surveillance system is not fully 'national', and requires augmentation from both the private… [read more]

History of Disease Surveillance Research Paper

… Disease Surveillance

Evolution of disease surveillance systems: A brief historical perspective

Long before the causes of modern pathologies were fully understood, governments tried to track the spread of communicable diseases. The first official attempts to do so existed in the forms of death records in Europe from the 1700s. In 19th century England, public health specialists began to study "variations in mortality rates from diseases such as cholera, dysentery, or workplace-related death (e.g., due to mining accidents)" to see if they "suggested socioeconomic, work-related, and environmental causes" (Ritz, Tager, & Balms 2005). This data, which eventually resulted in such findings as the association of cholera with fetid sewage in the drinking water, proved to be invaluable in tracking and ultimately curing many major infectious diseases.

Likewise, in the U.S. In 1878, "Congress authorized the U.S. Marine Hospital Service (the forerunner of today's Public Health Service {PHS}) to collect morbidity reports on cholera, smallpox, plague, and yellow fever from U.S. consuls overseas; this information was used to institute quarantine measures to prevent the introduction and spread of these diseases into the United States" (Historical perspective, 1996, MMWR). Soon after, reports were regularly published on these pathogens because of the likelihood of the deadly and potentially epidemic nature of the diseases. "By 1928, all states, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were reporting 29 infectious diseases to the Surgeon General" (Historical perspective, 1996, MMWR). By 1946, all state health offices submitted statistics on the reports of diseases considered to be threats to the public health via telegram. However, "because the reporting frequency varied for different conditions (i.e., weekly, monthly, or annually), the precise number of conditions considered nationally reportable in 1946 is unclear" (Historical perspective, 1996, MMWR).

Although surveillance has remained a consistent principle of public health improvement, the specific diseases flagged to be significant have varied over the years. In 1996, "gonorrhea, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), salmonellosis, shigellosis, hepatitis a, tuberculosis, primary and secondary syphilis, Lyme disease, hepatitis B, and pertussis" were the most significant, in contrast to previous… [read more]

Global Health Human Div and Disease Term Paper

… Global Health, Human DIV and Disease

Contributing Factors for avian influenza (H5N1) in Europe

As the first recognition of avian influenza (H5N1) in Europe surfaced in the later months of 2005 and early months of 2006, through the use of… [read more]

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