"Disease / Virus / Disorder / Injury" Essays

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Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,489 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Eradicating this disease from the society can turn out to be a painstaking job for the government of America. It may require mass and robust campaigns to educate the society about this disease and to get a large amount of citizens vaccinated. In order to eliminate this disease from the country and to secure the lives of citizens different programs… [read more]

Diseases I.E. Lung Cancer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,195 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


According to estimation, 30-35% of Americans are fat or obese ("obesity," 2012). The main cause of obesity is the intake of additional calories than the energy requirement as the surplus calories are stocked up in the body as fat. Other factors that may contribute to obesity are immobility and inadequate exercise. Overeating may be a consequence of unhealthy patterns of… [read more]

Communicable Disease - HIV Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Current Prevention Efforts

As stated above, professionals are currently focusing on universal access to prevention through the use of condoms, testing and treatment (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). Prevention interventions in the form of testing and education are being used to identify, inform and change the behavior of people with HIV to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to their sex/drug partners (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Health care professionals have also found that improving access to high quality health care for populations traditionally highly affected by HIV, including nonwhite and gay/bisexual men, educating/encouraging HIV patients to stay in treatment, and providing preventive measures to the partners of HIV patients are all fundamental preventive strategies (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Through education, testing, treatment access/continuation and preventive measures, the health care industry is directly confronting the significant crises posed by HIV / AIDS.

Future Goals for Prevention

The ultimate goal of health care professionals and agencies dealing with HIV is the prevention of HIV and related illness and death (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). To that end, the National HIV / AIDS Strategy has established 3 primary goals: lowering the number of people becoming infected with HIV; raising health care access and enhancing treatment outcomes for HIV patients; lowering health disparities related to HIV (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Mirroring and aggressively enhancing measures currently used by health care professionals are believed to be the most effective goals/measures for prevention of HIV / AIDS.

Nurse's Role in Education and Prevention

The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such… [read more]

Autoimmunity the Immune System Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fortunately, now the cause is known and this information has been verified by several researchers, moreover, the rate of healing of RA this scheme is between 78 and 95%. There are several kinds of joint diseases; the three most prominent are the Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and Gouty Arthritis. At least 13,000,000 people suffer from RA in the United States (Munz, Lunemann, Getts, Miller, 2009).The name of the disorder refers to a large group of diseases associated with damage to connective tissue rich in collagen. So far RA has had no solution but peculiarly since 1964 a researcher in England has clarified this issue and has implemented a treatment and in 80% of cases the patient has been cured. Their findings have been widely documented and confirmed by other researchers but have received no official attention.

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Arthritis is the inflammation of the joints but the term rheumatism includes a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain and tenderness of muscles and joints. This disorder is extremely widespread and most people develop some form of arthritis or rheumatism in their lifetime. RA apart from joint and muscle pain can also involve tendons, bones and nerves and can present as rheumatic fever, sciatica, lumbago, spondylitis, bursitis, neuritis and myositis. Warm and swollen joints increase in number with time. The patient also has night sweats, depression and lethargy (Wucherpfennig, 2001). Those affected by this disease are mainly young people and is three times more common in women than in men.

Early symptoms include redness, swelling and joint pain. Often the joints are affected symmetrically and can lead to nodules and then deformity. The treatment consists mainly of NSAIDs or anti-inflammatory action to relieve pain and physical therapy to maintain joint mobility, but this may only slow down or reverse the deterioration of the disease (Wucherpfennig, 2001). In extreme cases, some people require a joint replacement that is surgically done.

Primary Cause

When for some reason foreign molecules enter the bloodstream, the immune system produces specific antibodies against them that they adhere to form antigen-antibody complexes. This triggers a series of biochemical events leading to the destruction of these substances. The damage from RA is due to the presence of these antigen-antibodies by the continued presence of antigen in the blood (Wucherpfennig, 2001). These complexes are deposited in the joints but also often elsewhere. This is why the term rheumatic may refer to any organ or tissue.


Besides genetic predisposition to autoimmunity, drugs, microorganisms; environmental factors are also known to be one of the causes of autoimmune diseases. However, a lot of research and experiments need to be done in order to find out more about autoimmune diseases.


Munz C, Lunemann JD, Getts MT, Miller SD (2009) Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity? Nat Rev Immunol; 9: 246-258.

Rioux JD and Abbas AK (2005). Paths to understanding the genetic basis of autoimmune disease. Nature…… [read more]

Tracking Dengue Fever in China Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In summary, a number of different findings consistently support concluding that the Guangzhou 2010 dengue outbreak was the result of an introduced DENV-4 strain from Thailand.


DVBD (Division of Vector Borne Diseases). (2011). Information on Aedes albopictus. U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/arbor/albopic_new.htm.

Jing, Qin-Long, Yang, Zhi-Cong, Luo, Lei, Xiao, Xin-Cai, Di, Biao, He, Peng et al. (2012). Emergence of dengue virus 4 genotype II in Guangzhou, China, 1010: Survey and molecular epidemiology of one community outbreak. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12,

NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases). (2007). Dengue Fever. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/DengueFever/Understanding/Pages/Symptoms.aspx.

Shepherd, Suzanne M. (2012). Dengue. Medscape Reference. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215840-overview.

TDR (Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases). (2011). Dengue vector control research completed in Asia: 5-year initiative focused on eco-bio-social strategies. World Health Organization. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from http://www.who.int/tdr/news/2011/dengue-control/en/index.html.

Weaver, Scott C. And Vasilakis, Nikos. (2009). Molecular evolution of dengue virues: Contributions of phylogenetics to understanding the history and epidemiology of the preeminent arboviral disease. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 9, 523-540.

WHO (World Health Organization). (2012). Dengue and severe dengue: Fact Sheet. WHO Media Centre. Retrieved 18 Apr. 2012 from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/index.html.


1. Genotype -- DNA sequencing of the virus genome reveals the exact sequence of bases.

2. Nucleocapsid -- a protein shell contains and protects the viral RNA genome.…… [read more]

Cardiac Disorders and Sleep Apnea Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,079 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 14


Typical breathing pattern with Cheyne-Stokes respiration with hyperpnoeic and apnoeic sequences in sleep stage 2. There are fluctuations in oxygen saturation in response to periodic breathing, with delay of the transit time from the lungs to the fingertip of the left hand.

Figure 2

Source: Kohniein, Welte, Tan and Elliott (2002)

It is reported that the presence of period breathing… [read more]

Sensorimotor Disorder Restless Legs Syndrome Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Complementary interventions include vitamins, acupuncture, prayer, meditation, and music (Mitchell, 2011). These interventions have generally not been scientifically investigated with the exception of acupuncture. However, researchers have suggested that there is insufficient evidence that acupuncture for the treatment of restless legs syndrome is any more effective than no treatment at all (Mitchell, 2011). Furthermore, research has demonstrated a considerable response to placebo in relation to restless legs syndrome (Mitchell, 2011). Specifically, it has been shown that more than one third of individuals with restless legs syndrome exhibit a significant improvement in symptoms following placebo treatment (Mitchell, 2011). This indicates that expectation of relief from a treatment somehow effectively reduces the experience of symptoms possibly through dopaminergic agents and opioids which are involved in placebo response (Mitchell, 2011).


Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.

Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.

Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.

Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.

Scholz, H., Benes, H., Happe, S., Bengel, J.,…… [read more]

Homeopathic Remedies for Anxiety Homeopathy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Causes of Anxiety Disorder:

Choices of lifestyle

Caffeine, Alcohol and certain drugs

Emotional trauma

Lack of balance of some specific chemicals in the brain.

Heredity (Coulter and Dean, 2007)

Symptoms of Anxiety Disorder:

Needless, impractical and out of control concerns about daily things

Increase in heartbeat

Stiffness in muscles




Dizziness and trembling

Changes in mood

Feeling of… [read more]

Oral Health and Heart Disease Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The study consisted of 10 monozygotic twin pairs, with one twin presenting with coronary heart disease and one twin an absence of heart disease. All the subjects underwent detailed dental examinations including radiographic imaging, as well assessments of teeth, gums, and soft tissue health, hygiene, measurement of periodontal pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. Results indicated that twins with coronary heart disease demonstrated significantly more symptoms of periodontal disease than twins without heart disease, while no significant difference was found for any other factors including marital status, smoking, employment, education, income, or body mass index (Tabrizi et l., 2007). Furthermore, a shared genetic factor may be considered to be less likely of a confounding variable in the association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease based on the results of this study (Fisher et al., 2010).

The potential involvement of infection as a significant factor involved in coronary heart disease and periodontal disease was investigated and discussed in a review conducted by Fisher et al. (2010). This review recognized the impact that coronary heart disease has on population health, with over 500,000 people dying every year in the United States from coronary heart disease (Fisher et al., 2010). The important role that chronic inflammation plays in the manifestation and progression of coronary heart disease is recognized by the authors, as well as how periodontal disease contributes to systemic inflammation, thus indicating an association between the two conditions. In particular, it is explained by the authors how periodontal disease is related to C-reactive protein, a systemic inflammatory reactant that has been shown to be a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease (Fisher et al., 2010). It is furthermore suggested by this review that steps taken toward improving oral health, such as improved dental self-care and professional periodontal assessment and therapy may decrease the risk for the development of coronary heart disease (Fisher et al., 2010).


1. To investigate the association between oral health and cardiovascular health. In particular, it will be explored whether severity of periodontal conditions are significantly related to the presence of cardiovascular disease.

Hypothesis: A significant, positive association will be observed between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease.

2. To examine factors involved in the association between oral health and mortality from cardiovascular disease

Hypothesis: Certain symptoms of periodontal disease, such as tooth loss, will prove to be more significantly predictive of mortality due to cardiovascular disease.

3. To determine specific mechanisms responsible for the association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease.

Hypothesis: Bacterial infection and chronic inflammation are the most likely mechanisms involved in the manifestation of cardiovascular disease associated with poor oral health.


Dietrich, T., Jiminez, M., Krall Kaye, E.A., Vokonas, P.S., Garcia, R. (2008). Age-dependent associations between chronic periodontitis/edentulism and risk of coronary heart disease. Journal of the American Heart Association, 117, 1668-74.

Fisher, M.A., Borgnakke, W.S., Taylor, G.W. (2010). Periodontal disease as a risk marker in coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 19, 519-26.

Geismar, K.,… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Stages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,031 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


As the disease spreads and worsens, the tasks will have to change accordingly and the skills and abilities will have to be rechecked in order to fix the tasks to adjust the routine. It is important for the families and communities to work together to create a successful environment to keep the mind of the patient stable.

The four essential… [read more]

Addison's Disease Etiology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (521 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The clinical manifestations are subtle (weakness, fatigue, anorexia, orthostasis, nausea, myalgias, and salt craving), and a high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose adrenal insufficiency before an adrenal crisis. Screening patients with type 1A diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, and polyendocrine autoimmunity for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies is recommended. If present, yearly monitoring with an ACTH stimulation test is performed to allow early diagnosis and prevent an adrenal crisis. Forty percent to 50% of patients with Addison disease will have another autoimmune disease, necessitating lifelong monitoring for associated autoimmune conditions.


Patients with Addison's disease require mineralocorticoid replacement, i.e., fludrocortisone 0.05-0.20 mg once daily. Starting doses of glucocorticoids should be 15-20 mg for hydrocortisone or 20-30 mg for cortisone acetate, divided into two or three doses, and preferentially weight-adjusted. There are indications that the synthetic glucocorticoids have undesirable metabolic long-term effects, which make them less suitable as first-line treatment. Timed-release hydrocortisone tablets and continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion are promising new treatment modalities. Studies of replacement with the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in adrenal failure have shown inconsistent benefit on HRQoL. DHEA, or possibly testosterone replacement is likely to be beneficial for selected groups of patients with Addison's disease but this remains to be shown.

Works Cited

Lovas K, Husebye E.S. (2008) Replacement therapy for Addison's disease: recent developments. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 17(4): 497-509.

Martorell, P.M., Roep, B.O., Smit, J.W.A. (2002) Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 60: 269.

Michels, A. & Eisenbarth G. (2010)…… [read more]

Basal Ganglia the Control Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The only accepted treatment for early stage disease is L-dopa, which is a dopamine precursor capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Unfortunately, the side-effects can be debilitating and its use is therefore limited and no treatment currently exists for the more advanced stages of disease.

Parkinson's patients reveal cognitive deficits similar to those found in patients with Huntington's disease (reviewed by Stocco, Lebiere, and Anderson, 2010). These include nondeclaritive and working memory deficits, although L-dopa administration can improve working memory. When Parkinson's patients with mild to moderate disease were challenged with a probabilistic category task, they performed significantly worse than healthy controls (Shohamy, Myers, Onlaor, and Gluck, 2004). Performance improved over time for both patients and controls, but patients always performed worse in the task; however, on the first of three days of testing the difference was not statistically significant. The authors discovered that the learning strategies employed by patients and controls were essentially the same on the first day, but only the controls began to rely on a more complex strategy during the next two days of testing. Parkinson's patients were therefore unable to acquire a multi-cue strategy required for optimal performance on the task and continued to rely on a single-cue strategy.

People who suffer basal ganglia brain lesions will experience some of the same deficits. Rieger and colleagues (2003) evaluated non-Parkinson's and non-Huntington's patients with frontal, non-frontal, and basal ganglia lesions using neuropsychiatric tests and a stop-signal test. When compared to healthy controls, the patients with basal ganglia lesions performed significantly worse on the intellectual functioning test, which included verbal comprehension, reasoning, word fluency, space, field dependence, and closure. Patients with frontal or basal ganglia lesions also performed significantly worse on a verbal learning and memory test. When the stop-signal reaction times were assessed, patients with frontal or basal ganglia lesions performed significantly worse. These findings reveal significant cognitive and motor response inhibition deficits in patients with basal ganglia lesions.


Whether the damage or dysfunction comes from environmental toxins, genetic inheritance, or physical trauma, the basal ganglia have been shown to be important for a number of essential cognitive tasks, including motor response inhibition. Unfortunately for patients, adequate treatments are still in the future, although a few drugs are providing measurable relief.


Rieger, Martina, Gauggel, Siegfied, and Burmeister, Katja. (2003). Neuropsychology, 17(2), 272-282.

Shohamy, D., Myers, C.E., Onlaor, S., and Gluck, M.A. (2004). Role of the basal ganglia in category learning: How do patients with Parkinson's disease learn? Behavioral Neuroscience, 118(4), 676-686.

Stocco, Andrea, Lebiere, Christian, and Anderson, John R. (2010). Conditional routing of information to the cortex: A model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination. Psychological Review, 117(2), 541-574.

Wilson, Josephine F. (2013). Biological…… [read more]

Crohn's Cronh's Disease and Ulcerative Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,100 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Furthermore, with Crohn's the inflammation may appear in random patches while the inflammation in the UC is more uniform and generally the colon wall is thinner and more likely to produce bleeding from the rectum during bowel movements.

Figure 1 - Primary Differences (Columbia St. Mary's, N.d.)

There is no cure for either disease however the symptoms of both diseases can be mitigated to some extent. With Crohn's surgery may be performed to remove the diseased sections since they occur in patches. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are similar. The mainstays of treatment, 5-ASA medications and corticosteroids, are used to treat both conditions. However, there are some medications that have only proved effective in treating one form of IBD or the other. For instance, Cimzia (certolizumab pegol) and Humira (adalimumab) are currently only used to treat Crohn's disease, although they are under study for use in ulcerative colitis (Tresca, 2013).

A 40-year-old male patient that you are caring for has been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He reports that one of his aunts was diagnosed with Crohn's disease years ago and wants to know whether there is any similarity. I would be honest with this patient and tell them that they have a long and difficult path ahead. However, at the same time the research on both diseases is progressing rapidly and there may be breakthrough treatments ahead. There is no reason to be pessimistic about the future of living with such a disease. On the other hand, there are several reasons that one can still find optimism despite a diagnosis of Crohn's or UC.

Both Crohn's and UC are serious conditions that must be taken seriously. Crohn's has a small advantage in the fact that there are more options with surgery to remove diseased sections of the intestines that have been harmed. That can provide some relief to patients. UC is more uniform in regard to its damage to the intestine and can cause complications for long stretches in the intestinal tract. Therefore there are fewer options to combat a diagnosis of UC since surgery could not possibly remove that much tissue in the intestines. Therefore there is a small advantage in the comparison that favors Crohn's, yet this advantage is minimal considering the seriousness of both conditions.

Works Cited

Anderson, C., & al, e. (2009). Investigation of Crohn's Disease Risk Loci in Ulcerative Colitis Further Defines Their Molecular Relationship . Gastroenterology, 523-529.

Columbia St. Mary's. (N.d.). Differences Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved from Gastroenterology Services: http://www.columbia-stmarys.org/Crohn_vs_Ulcerative_Colitis

Hugot, J., Puig, P.R., Olson, J., Lee, J.B., naom, I.D., Gossum, A., . . . Thomas, G. (1996). Mapping of a susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease on chromosome 16. Nature, 821-823.

Shaw, S., Blanchard, J., & Bernstein, C. (2011). Association Between the Use of Antibiotics and New Diagnoses of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2133-2142.

Tresca, A. (2013, October 13). The Differences Between Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease. Retrieved from… [read more]

Cardio-Vascular Disease (CVD) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cognitive therapy would be aimed at symptom removal by identification and correction of the patient's distorted, negatively biased, moment-to-moment. This study is important because it provides an overview of the contemporary modalities that are available. The reference provides a comprehensive review of the methods to be used in their study.

The researchers proposed using The Subjective Index of Physical and… [read more]

Smallpox as a Weapon Against Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,783 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 1947 there was a single case of small pox reported (Manning, 2003). It was reported in New York City and within four weeks almost 6.5 million Americans had received vaccines. While most experts agree that vaccinating the entire American population at this time is not necessary, it is necessary to be prepared to do so if an outbreak ever occurs (Manning, 2003).


In 1979 the world believed that small pox had become extinct, but recent terrorist developments have raised concerns that it may be returning through the use of terrorist attacks. The nation has developed enough vaccine to vaccinate the entire nation but at this time the government is not recommending a general public vaccination. While military and health personnel are receiving the recommend vaccination the rest of the public is receiving education about the virus, what to do if there is an outbreak and what the chances of that outbreak are. Education seems to be the key at this point and the United States is working to stay ahead of the possibility of a surprise attack.


GEORGE GEDDA, Associated Press Writer, U.S. says some countries may have hidden smallpox viruses., AP Worldstream, 11-05-2002

Author not available, U.S. draws up smallpox plan., The Toronto Star, 09-24-2002.

Author not available, EXPERTS ARE RIGHT TO PLAN DEFENSE AGAINST SMALLPOX., Portland Press Herald (Maine), 07-10-2002, pp 8A.

Author not available, Health officials call for renewed smallpox vaccinations., Agence France Presse English, 03-29-2002.

Anita Manning, How prepared are we against SMALLPOX?., USA Today, 03-06-2003, pp 01D.

Preston, Richard. The Demon in the Freezer: A True Story…… [read more]

West Nile Virus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,522 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Risk through medical procedures is also low. The risk of getting WNV through blood transfusions and organ transplants is very small (CDC, Possible West Nile Virus Transmission to an Infant through Breast-Feeding - Michigan, 2002, 2002)

West Nile virus infection can be suspected in a person based on clinical symptoms and patient history. Laboratory testing is required for a confirmed… [read more]

Diabetic Vascular Disease State Caused Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When they can cast light on the particularities of the national marketplace, informations about market dynamics and policies which are specific to countries and cultural issues are also enhanced. ("Diabetes in France")

Diabetes is thus not just one disease but it is at least two diseases grouped as type1 and type2. Though there are many other types, the vast mainstream can be divided into these two types. In type1 diabetes the body destroys the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin and thus insulin is required for survival. In type2 diabetes, which affects Hispanics, Blacks, Asians and American Indians more often, one must have some amount of insulin as well as a resistance to the effects of the insulin. Hence more insulin is demanded. Control of blood glucose for both type1 and type2 can lessen the risks of complications, particularly those involving the eyes, the kidney and the nerves. People with should see to the following tests being performed regularly by their doctor. This includes a dilated eye exam annually to assess for diabetic retinopathy, annual analysis of urine albumin, which is the first sign of kidney disease and an annually complete foot exam assessing for identifying the prevalence of neuropathy and vascular disease (the leading cause of lower extremity amputation in the U.S.). ("Diabetes Basics-Conclusion")


Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004

The Diabetic Foot and Peripheral vascular disease," retrieved at http://www.abcdiabetescare.org.uk/diabetic_foot_and_peripheral_vas.htm. March 3, 2004

Exercise Helps Control Diabetic Vascular Disease," retrieved from www.healthandage.com/PHome/gid2=2032Accessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetic Eye Disease: Low Vision Basics" retrieved at http://www.defeatdiabetes.org/Articles/eye030929.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Vascular risk factors and markers of endothelial function as determinants of inflammatory markers in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB prospective Complication Study-Pathophysiology/complications " retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/mOCUH/7_26/107119539/p1/article.jhtml-15kAccessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetic foot ulcer," retrieved at http://health.discovery.com/encyclopedias/2759.html. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes in France," retrieved at http://www.marketresearch.com/map/prod/862071.html. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes Basics-Conclusion" retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetes/10Accessed on March 3, 2004… [read more]

Disorders of the Brain Alzheimer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This is because the areas that are affected by the disorder are the ones that are responsible for these functions in an individual. Therefore the damage in these regions due to the disorder greatly affects the development and behavior of an individual (Remedy Health Media, LLC .2014).

Doctors recommend magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when carrying out investigations of whether a person has Alzheimer's disease or not. This is intended to rule out any other possible cause for the cognitive impairment like brain tumor or even blood clots. This involves a painless outpatient procedure that involves the use of a tube-like machine; MRI gives a detailed picture of internal organs parts of the brain included. A physician may request for an MRI if a patient has symptoms that are commonly associated with Alzheimer disease such as memory loss, problems with executing functioning and confusion problems. It is important to not that MRI can not be used to determine who is likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. It is however used to assist in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease through the evaluation of particular patterns of brain atrophy which occurs in patients that have the disorder (Remedy Health Media LLC., 2014).

Biochemical investigations indicate that onset of the symptoms that are associated wit this disorder indicate that selective neurotransmitter pathology occurs in the early cause of the disease. The presynaptic makers of the cholinergic system appear reduced in a way that is not uniform. Two alternative misfoldings hypotheses also suggest that either tau protein or amyloid beta also initiate the onset. Acetylcholine is associated with muscle activation; learning and memory .therefore Alzheimer's disease is associated with this neurotransmitter. Peptide neurotransmitters are also believed to be associated with this disorder. This is because they are associated with the mediation of pain perception.


Remedy Health Media, LLC.(2014). Alzheimer's disease. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.healthcommunities.com/alzheimers-disease/overview-of-alzheimers.shtml… [read more]

Atherosclerosis and Gender Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There is statistical evidence of this prejudice: more likely to be prescribed statins than women, despite the fact that the drugs are considered equally effective for both genders (Ricciotti 2003).

The risks which make one more prone to atherosclerosis are similar for women as they are for men: a poor diet, lack of exercise, and genetic susceptibility. But heart attacks are more deadly in women than men: a woman is 50% more likely to die during heart surgery than a man. This may be due to the greater 'subtlety' of signs that cause them to be missed, despite the fact that women are more likely to go to the doctor than men for regular check-ups. But it could also be due to "fundamental difference" in women's hearts vs. men's (Ricciotti 2003). Not only do "women have smaller hearts and smaller arteries than men" but there is evidence that "women also have a different intrinsic rhythmicity to the pacemaker of their hearts, which causes them to beat faster" (Ricciotti 2003). This means that a standard EKG may be less accurate for women than for men. "A 2000 article published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported that of 10,000 people who reported to a hospital emergency room, a small number had heart problems but were mistakenly sent home instead of being hospitalized. These people were more likely to be women under the age of 55, minorities, and people whose electrocardiogram (EKG) was normal" (Ricciotti 2003).

Although deaths from heart disease have been dropping for the past 30 years, they have not dropped nearly as fast for women as they have for men because of these physical and cultural biases. For many years, most medical research on heart disease was primarily conducted on male subjects, leading to a gap in knowledge of how hardening of the arteries differs in the two genders. Knowledge on how heart disease manifests itself in women in different ways is still playing 'catch up' with what is known about the progression in men.


Heart attack symptoms in women. (2014). AHA. Retrieved from:


How does heart disease affect women? (2013). NIH. Retrieved from:


Ricciotti, H. (2003). Heart disease -- differences between men and women. BIDMC. Retrieved


What is atherosclerosis? (2013). NIH. Retrieved from:

https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis/… [read more]

Etiology of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,743 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Supranuclear Palsy

A discussion of the neurological etiology of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is an unusual neurodegenerative situation that leads to severe executive dysfunction. The traditional findings in PSP reveal that executive functions are the most severely affected, including lack of initiative, increasing information processing time, decreased verbal fluency and loss of mental flexibility.… [read more]

End Stage Renal Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,177 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


End Stage Renal Disease

End-Stage Renal Disease


This study addresses a patient named 'George White', born 7/15/1950. He is married to Donna White, born 1/5/65, and has two children: Jamal (male), born 9/25/92, and Rasheeda (female), born 7/11/97. Mr. White has a 2nd daughter and two grandchildren. His oldest child Kia, from prior relationship, was born 10/23/70, and she… [read more]

Addison's Disease Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Addison's disease is basically an endocrine disorder in which the normal functioning of the adrenalin gland is seriously affected. This disorder affects 1 in 100,000 people and occurs equally among men and women and across different age groups. [NIDDK] Among the important functions of the adrenal gland is the secretion of Cortisol and Aldosterone, two important hormones that are essential to regulate blood pressure, cardiovascular function, inflammatory response, as well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism of the body. Aldosterone belongs to a class of hormones known as mineralocorticoids and plays a big role in maintaining the potassium sodium balance in the body. This salt balance is critical to maintain healthy blood pressure. Since the kidneys require aldosterone for sodium absorption and potassium excretion aldosterone insufficiency critically affects the kidneys ability to regulate the salt balance in the body, which in turn affects the blood pressure. Also referred to differently as Hypocortisolism or chronic adrenal insufficiency this disorder is potentially fatal if left untreated. [NIDDK]

The main cause of Addison's disease is the underfunctioning of the adrenal gland. This maybe due to the damage to the adrenal cortex by the inflammatory response of autoimmune disorders, infections, or neoplasms of the adrenal gland. Of these, adrenal gland damage by autoimmune disorders is known to be the primary cause of Addison's disease. When normal cortisol synthesis is affected directly due to the adrenal gland dysfunction the disorder is termed as primary adrenal insufficiency. However, since cortisol secretion is also dependent on the performance of another endocrine gland, the pituitary gland, pituitary anomalies will also affect the adrenalin cortisol secretion. The pituitary gland secretes ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), the hormone that triggers the adrenal to secrete cortisol. The ACTH secretion by pituitary in turn is controlled by another hormone CRH (Corticotropin releasing hormone) that is secreted by the hypothalamus in response to stress. Thus insufficient production of CRH would affect ACTH production and consequently cortisol secretion by adrenalin. Tumor or any disease of the pituitary gland may thus affect the normal adrenalin functioning. This is known as secondary adrenalin deficiency. Also, sometimes, prolonged corticosteroid therapy and some specific drugs used for the treatment of fungal infections affect natural cortisol secretion. [AAFP]

The Typical symptoms of Addison's disease include fatigue, muscle weakness, appetite loss and severe weight loss. Also, some patients may have (low blood sugar) hypoglycemia, fainting and development of dark patches on the skin (hyperpigmentation). Loss…… [read more]

Massage Affects on Hodgkins Lymphoma Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,867 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Massage Affects on Hodgkins Lymphoma

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Massage Affects on Hodgkin Lymphoma

Definition of the disease/disorder

A common definition of Hodgkin disease or Hodgkin Lymphoma is a form or type of cancer of the lymphatic system ("Hodgkin's Disease," 2009). It was first discovered or identified by Thomas Hodgkin in England in 1832 and is described as a form of… [read more]

What Is Huntington's Disease? Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,975 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Huntington's disease and laboratory investigation of this disease. Huntington's disease can attack just about anyone, but it is involved in the genetics of a family. Today, Huntington's disease is treatable, but it is still a devastating disease that has no cure, but researchers are working on long-term treatment for the disease.

Huntington's disease (HD) appears in families, and… [read more]

Sickle Cell the Outcome of Preoperative Transfusion Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  10 pages (2,782 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


Sickle Cell

The Outcome of Preoperative Transfusion Therapy in Sickle Cell Disease Patients Undergoing Surgery: A survey of Practice in Saudi Arabia

Sickle cell disease was first discovered and described in 1904, in a dentistry student in Chicago (Savitt & Goldberg 1989). Admitted to a hospital suffering from "anemia," Walter Clement Noel -- a wealthy man from the West Indies… [read more]

Emerging Infectious Diseases Human Monkeypox Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Infectious Diseases: Human Monkeypox

Monkeypox is an uncommon viral illness that takes place typically in middle and western Africa. It is known as monkeypox since it was first discovered in 1958 in lab monkeys. Blood examinations of animals in Africa later established that other kinds of animals most likely had monkeypox. Scientists also discovered the virus that leads to monkeypox in an African squirrel. These kinds of squirrels might be the ordinary congregation for the disease, but rats, mice, and rabbits can get monkeypox, as well. Monkeypox was found in people for the first time in 1970 (What You Should Know about Monkeypox, 2008).

In early June 2003, monkeypox was reported in the midst of numerous people in the United States. The majority of these people got ill after coming into contact with pet prairie dogs that were ill with monkeypox. This is the primary instance that there has been an eruption of monkeypox in the United States. The illness occurs because of the Monkeypox virus. It belongs to a collection of diseases that comprises the smallpox virus (What You Should Know about Monkeypox, 2008).

In humans, the indications and symptoms of monkeypox are comparable to those of smallpox, but more often than not they are less. An additional variation is that monkeypox makes the lymph nodes to swell up. About twelve days after being contaminated with the virus, a person will get a muscle aches, fever, headache and backache. Their lymph nodes will swell and they will feel drained. One to three days after the fever begins, a person will get a rash. This rash turns into elevated bumps packed with liquid and often begins on the face and spreads, but it can begin on other areas of the body as well. The bumps go throughout numerous stages before they get hard, scab over, and go away. The sickness typically sticks around for two to four weeks (What You Should Know about Monkeypox, 2008).

Man is vulnerable to a variety of poxvirus infections, but only two of these, smallpox and human monkeypox,…… [read more]

Celiac Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Celiac Disease

What can you find out about the digestive system and nutrition?

The precise cause of celiac disease has still yet to be determined. The intestines contain projections which are known as villi. The function of villi is to take up nutrients. When celiac disease is not diagnosed or left untouched, these villi become compressed. This has an effect on the capability to absorb nutrients correctly. Taking away all harmful grains from one's diet is the greatest significant measure that one can do in order to get healthy and stay that way (Celiac disease -- sprue, 2010).

What can you learn about Celiac Disease?

Celiac disease is an ailment of the digestive system that harms the small intestine and hinders the uptake of nutrients that come from food. Patients who suffer from celiac disease are not able to endure gluten, which is a protein that is found in rye, wheat, and barley. Gluten is contained primarily in foods but can also be found in daily products such as drugs, vitamins, and lip balms. When patients who suffer from celiac disease eat foods or utilize things that include gluten, their immune system responds by damaging or harming villi. The function of villi is to permit nutrients from food to be captivated by way of the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. A patient who does not have strong villi can become malnourished, despite the amount of food that is consumed on a daily basis (Celiac Disease, 2008).

What can you see from tracking the effects of this condition?

Celiac disease if left untreated can become life threatening. Celiacs are further prone to be bothered with troubles connecting to malabsorption, comprising of osteoporosis, tooth enamel defects, central and peripheral nervous system disease, pancreatic disease, internal hemorrhaging, organ disorders such as liver, gall bladder, spleen and gynecological disorders. Untouched celiac disease has also been associated with an augmented danger of definite kinds of cancer, particularly that of intestinal lymphoma (FAQ, n.d.).

What are some possible diseases…… [read more]

Parkinson's Disease Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a condition that is a disorder of the motor system . It results in a loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The four main indicator of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; stiffness, or inflexibility of the limbs and trunk; or sluggishness of progression; and postural shakiness, or impaired balance and coordination. As these symptoms become more prominent, patients may have trouble walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. PD typically affects people who are over the age of 50. Premature symptoms of PD are understated and occur gradually. In some people the disease progresses more quickly than in others (NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page, 2010).

As the disease advances, the shaking, or tremor, which affects the preponderance of PD patients may begin to interfere with daily activities. Other symptoms may consist of depression and other emotional changes that include difficulty in swallowing, chewing, and speaking; urinary troubles or constipation; skin problems; and trouble sleeping. There are presently no blood or laboratory tests that have been established to help in diagnosing sporadic PD. Therefore the diagnosis is founded on medical history and a neurological examination. The disease can be difficult to diagnose precisely. Doctors may sometimes want to do brain scans or laboratory tests in order to rule out other diseases (NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page, 2010).

There are many risk factors for Parkinson's disease. These include: age -young adults rarely experience Parkinson's disease. It normally begins in middle or late life, and the risk continues to increase with age, heredity - having a close relative with Parkinson's amplifies the chances that a person will also develop the disease, although their risk is still no higher than about four to six percent, sex -men are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than women are and exposure to toxins - continuing exposure to herbicides and pesticides puts a person at slightly increased risk of Parkinson's (Parkinson's Disease, 2010).

It is believed that there are as…… [read more]

Eating Disorders Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Eating Disorders

Over the last few decades, society has had an obsession about being thin. In the case of Hispanic women this is in response to various cultural norms and standards. An example of this can be seen in the HBO documentary Real Women Have Curves, which would highlight how various eating disorders are affecting this group. (Alexander,… [read more]

Disease Caused by a Microbe Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … disease known as influenza is a respiratory illness and it is caused by flu viruses. Influenza is not to be confused with the common cold. It may originally start out that way, with some cold-like symptoms, but very quickly the person affected by the flu virus will suffer far more serious symptoms. According to the Centers for Disease… [read more]

Blood Disorders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Blood Disorders

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma is the cancerous proliferation of a patient's lymphoid cells. The presence of Reed-Sternberg cells is a necessary precondition of the diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, although R-S cells are identified with other disorders. "The primary diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma from the histopathologic examination of a lymph node requires the identification of Reed-Sternberg cells in an appropriate, reactive cellular background. If a diagnosis of HD has been established on lymph node biopsy, the criteria for diagnosis of extranodal sites can be relaxed - requiring only mononuclear R-S cells and their variants in an appropriate background- not classic bilobed R-S cells" (Lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma (Part 1), 2010, University of Virginia). This is one reason why identification of R-S cells at the lymph nodes is so critical during the early diagnostic stages and not at extranodal sites, where R-S cells may not be present.

Hodgkin's lymphoma is divided into two major groups, the first of which is nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma. The second type is classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, subdivided into nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin's lymphoma; mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin's lymphoma; lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's lymphoma; and lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is mainly manifested in women and lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is mainly manifested in AIDS patients (Lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma (Part 2), 2010, University of Virginia). With lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin's there are many R-S cell variants and most patients are at Stage III or Stage IV when diagnosed making their prognosis poor (Hemopathology, 2010, University of Utah). These latter types would be seen as unlikely suspects for the patient Mr. H.D.'s illness.

Mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is more common in men (Lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma (Part 2) 2010, University of Virginia). Prognosis of this type is fair, as most patients are at stage III when diagnosed (Hemopathology,…… [read more]

Physiotherapy Management of Whiplash Associated Disorders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  40 pages (11,600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Physiotherapy management of whiplash associated disorders: A Literature Review

Biopsychosocial aspects of WAD

Physiotherapy and WAD

Preliminary Literature Review

Physical symptoms following whiplash

Psychological and cognitive aspects of WAD

Social and cultural aspects of WAD

Management aspects of WAD

Methodology / Method

Critical Review

Description of results

Critical review of results

Recent studies in the physiotherapy management of… [read more]

Kidney Disease in Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Kidney Disease Children

Although kidney diseases are rarer in children than they are among the adult population, they can cause serious life-threatening complications. About one or two out of every 100,000 children in the United States develop kidney disease in the United States each year (National Institutes of Health). That risk is higher for boys than it is for girls, as "boys are nearly twice as likely as girls to develop kidney failure from birth defects, polycystic kidney disease, or other hereditary diseases," (National Institutes of Health).

Kidney diseases in children are generally caused by genetic factors, although many of the symptoms can be alleviated via lifestyle changes and medications. A number of birth defects and other preexisting conditions can cause kidney disease. For example, a narrow urethra condition called posterior urethral valve obstruction is one of the urinary tract problems that can lead to more serious kidney complications. Some kidney problems are the result of inadequate organ development in the fetus ("Kidney Diseases in Childhood"). Narrowing or enlargement of one or both kidneys, a disease known as fetal hydronephrosis, can occur while the child is developing in the womb or in early childhood ("Some causes of kidney disease in children"). Infants and toddlers may also develop urinary tract infections, which are difficult to detect in young children and which can lead to kidney disease when left untreated ("Some causes of kidney disease in children"). Therefore, it is imperative to understand the warning signs and early indicators of kidney disease in infants and toddlers.

Detecting kidney diseases early helps parents and doctors administer treatments and encourage the child to follow dietary restrictions if necessary. Prenatal testing may be used to detect certain types of kidney disorders. Other kidney diseases can only be detected later, after the toddler or young child has manifested symptoms such as a urinary tract infection or high blood pressure ("Kidney Diseases in Childhood").

There are two basic types of kidney diseases in children: acute and…… [read more]

Krabbe Disease Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Krabbe disease (also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy) is defined as a degenerative disorder that affects the nervous system. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (2011) Krabbe disease is brought about by galactosylceramidase deficiency, which is an enzyme which assists in myelin maintenance which is a protection around some nerve cells responsible for transmission of nerve impulses.

The… [read more]

Traumatic Brain Injury Individuals Regarding Employment and Their Social Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,753 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Psychology & Nbsp;(general)

Taumatic brain injury indiviiuals regarding employment and their social life


Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often struggle with basic tasks and social skills, primarily due to the impact the injury may have on particular neurological functions. Depending on the severity of the injury and the parts of the brain that are impacted, individuals with TBI… [read more]

Anthrax as a Disease, Anthrax Primarily Affects Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Anthrax

As a disease, anthrax primarily affects farm animals, such as cattle, goats, pigs, sheep and horses, and is caused by the bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis which is almost always fatal in these types of animals. Humans most often acquire this disorder when a break in the skin comes into contact with an infected animal, but it… [read more]

H1N1 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


A typical flu including the new strain of the swine flu will produce symptoms like: fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headaches, chills, fatigue, sometimes diarrhea and vomiting. In these mild cases the CDC recommends staying home until at least 24 hours after the fever is gone and resting, getting plenty of fluids.

The problem areas where immediate medical attentions are recommended have very different symptoms. In children the signs include quick breathing or more severe trouble breathing, a bluish tint to the skin, not taking in any fluids, not waking up or interacting normally, getting extremely irritable or not wanting to be held. These are all severe, but doctors have found that this particular warning sign is most urgent: flu-like symptoms improve and then a few hours or days later a severe fever returns with an equally severe cough and fever with a rash. At that point the emergency room is mandatory.

For adults the emergency room needed symptoms are a little different but just as important to notice and act on. Adults suffer with a difficulty in their breathing or just a shortness of breath, pain and/or pressure in the chest area and stomach, dizziness, confusion and severe and persistent vomiting bouts.

Proposed solutions

The Stark County Combined General Health District serves over 240,000 individuals living in 17 Townships, 13 Villages, and the 3 larger cities of Louisville, North Canton, and Canal Fulton. A viable plan to keep the tenth biggest health district in Ohio healthy is needed. The plan should stay on the same lines as the national plan offered by the CDC but on any obviously much smaller scale.

One of the more important issues is for all residents to stay informed by visiting the county web site or getting information from local radio, television and news outlets. Stay informed in order to not miss community wide outreach by the Stark County Combined General Health District. Community announcements will include when, who and where vaccinations are going to be taking place.

These announcements are an important part of keeping our community residents healthy because the information really is power. The county web site has a great deal of information available at no fee at 'H1N1 FLU RESOURCES AND UPDATES.' For example, here some local dates throughout Stark County to get H1N1 vacinations:

H1N1 Elementary School Clinic dates and times



Nov 3

Fairless elementary clinic

4 -- 6pm

Nov 4



Tuslaw High School


Nov 5

Marlington Middle School


Nov 9

Minerva elementary


Nov 10

Perry High School


Nov 12

Faircrest Middle School


Nov 13

Sauder Elementary School


Nov 16

Northwest High School


Nov 17

Louisville Elementary School


Nov 19

Lake/Hartville elementary

4 -- 7pm

Lake Center evening

3:15 -- 5pm


In conclusion, I chose this topic because of the impact the H1N1 virus and swine flu have had on the nation and the world. Stark County and the Ohio Department… [read more]

Virus H5N1 Bird Flu Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,376 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … H5n1

Avian Influenza

Much like other communicable diseases, the H5N1 Avian influenza virus, also known as bird flu, has a long history steeped in exploration, discovery and revelation, dating back more than one hundred years to 1878 in the country of Italy, where poultry farmers were struck with an epidemic then called "Fowl Plague." Some fifty years later, this type of avian flu virus ended up in the United States, either by being transmitted through immigrants from Italy and elsewhere in Europe or by the importing of virus-infected birds like chickens from Italy and the greater Mediterranean area ("History of Avian Flu," Internet). In 1955, this "Fowl Plague" was quickly identified as being the transmitter for this type of influenza which generally affects all domesticated animals and especially birds. Technically, this type of flu is known as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza a virus and belongs to a subtype known as H5 ("History of Avian Flu," Internet).

Within the last ten years or so, the H5N1 flu virus has managed to spread to all regions of the world, particularly to Asian nations like China, Japan, and South Korea, and to European nations like Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands, where a serious outbreak of the H5N1 virus occurred in 2003. The H5N1 virus has also been reported in Central and South America, Mexico, the Middle East and even Australia. Obviously, this type of influenza holds the potential to greatly affect not only a country's population but also its economy via destroying poultry industries which have often been forced to slaughter "millions of chickens, geese and turkeys to prevent further transmission" of this particular virus ("History of Avian Flu," Internet).

The H5N1 virus has also been responsible for a number of serious outbreaks in recent years, especially in Asia, where the poultry industry serves tens of millions of Chinese on a daily basis. Although the transmission of this subtype of flu virus from animals to humans is relatively rare as compared to other influenza strains, the World Health Organization is now quite concerned "about the Avian virus's potential to swap genes with a common flu virus," thus creating a deadly and perhaps untreatable form of the illness which could spread globally in the shape of a pandemic ("History of Avian Flu," Internet).

As a member of the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Influenzavirus a, B, the H5N1 virus is generally transmitted through two basic ways -- first, by inhaling infected droplets from a virus carrier (i.e., an animal, bird or human) which has been shown to be the most common transmission mode and by direct physical contact with the droplets via the environment or human-to-human. Once exposed, the virus quickly infects the upper respiratory system, the sinuses, or both areas simultaneously with an incubation period ranging from two days and upwards to eight days or longer, depending on the amount of exposure and the type of transmittal (Beigel, et al., 1376).

As to symptoms associated with the H5N1 virus, the infected person… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Is a Progressive Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss, language deterioration, impaired ability to mentally manipulate visual information, poor judgment, confusion, restlessness, and mood swings. Alzheimer's disease is a form of a mental disorder known as dementia. Dementia is a brain disorder that causes the loss of mental functions; such as thinking, memory, and reasoning. Dementia is not a disease itself, but rather a group of symptoms that are caused by various diseases or conditions. It restricts the brain's ability to process rational or normal thought and prevents normal daily activities.

Alzheimer's disease usually begins after age 65, but its onset may occur as early as age 40, appearing first as memory decline and, over several years, destroying cognition, personality, and ability to function. Confusion and restlessness may also occur (Stephens).

History of Alzheimer's

In the early 1900's, Alois Alzheimer, a German physician, provided care for a middle-aged patient who experienced progressive problems with memory, language, and behavior. After the patient died, Alzheimer identified two changes in brain tissue. He found neurofiber tangles and neuritic plaques that are now a defining feature for diagnosing what we call Alzheimer's Disease today.

Psychology of Alzheimer's

The management and care associated with patients with severe Alzheimer disease frequently presents difficult decisions for medical professionals and the caregiver. The disease often requires full time care and assistance with day-to-day basic activities.

Alzheimer's can be a crippling experience for both the disease sufferer and the family that is involved. There are many moments of misunderstanding or confusion for most, and the symptoms can become frustrating and difficult. The loss of memory and other associated factors can often cause immense separation in families and can create a nervous tension on relationships that is not necessary if suitable information is available and utilized by all parties involved.

Alzheimer's is a progressive brain disorder. The effects on the brain are relentless as the memory is progressively destroyed and the capability to learn, make judgments, and communicate and carry out normal daily tasks is greatly diminished to the point of total extinction. It is often painfully difficult to watch a family member seemingly "waste away" in their own mind; the struggle to maintain a form of sanity is often too much for many relatives and they, sadly, distance themselves from the sufferer (Living With Alzheimer's).

What makes this disease so frustrating for both the patient and their family members is the loss of "oneself" associated with the dementia. The person with Alzheimer's disease can't grasp the changes that are happening within themselves. Family members are upset and saddened by the loss of the "person" they once knew. It is common for some family members to disconnect with the loved one in the later stages of Alzheimer's because the personality displayed by the patient is so different from the personality they once knew.

The personality changes can be frightening and unpredictable with some general personality changes happening from the onset of the disease. The changes can be insignificant… [read more]

How Does One Develop a Disease Resistant Personality? Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (926 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Disease-Resistant Personality

The idea that human personality affects health, wellness, and disease is hardly new, dating back to Hippocrates, the author of the medical oath of ethics still governing the practice of modern medicine today (Selye, 1956). In the era of high-tech scientific research, substantial empirical evidence has corroborated the long-noted anecdotal observations that certain types of personalities and chronic behavioral responses to environmental stressors correspond to different degrees of susceptibility to a wide range of physiological ailments and diseases (Flannery & Flannery, 2006; Friedman, 1990). To a large extent, many medical conditions with bona fide physical symptoms and physiological effects are attributable either all or in part to psychological factors in the realm of personality in general and in the realm of response and coping mechanisms in relation to stress in particular.


Renowned physician and author John E. Sarno has published a considerable volume of research and analysis on the relationship between emotional stress and physiological ailments of a wide variety. His work has demonstrated that lower back pain in particular, which afflicts more than three-quarters of all adults at one time or another, is substantially attributable to purely psychological causes (Sarno, 2007). Lower back pain alone is responsible for a tremendous amount of money, disability, and lost working hours spent on palliative relief and rehabilitation.

Even worse, Dr. Sarno (2007) has demonstrated empirically that the conclusions of other researchers (Acosta, 1990; Flannery & Flannery, 2006, & Friedman, 1990) that a large percentage of surgeries are performed for medical conditions attributable to stress rather than to any organic causes. The list of medical conditions considered highly susceptible to the influence of personality include a wide range of gastrointestinal conditions, arthritis, fibromyalgia, heart disease, high blood pressure, sciatica, and even various systemic infection and apparent local chronic injuries such as lateral epicondylitis or "tennis elbow" (Flannery & Flannery, 2006, Sarno, 2007).

In that regard, the specific mechanism identified is primarily a function of: (1) the psychological repression of negative emotions such as anger and rage, fear, anxiety, guilt, and shame; (2) the resulting displacement of that stress from the conscious mind in alternate areas where it manifests itself as physical symptoms; (3) the influence of chronically high levels specific hormones associated with the biological stress response, such as cortisol; (4) chronic overwork of the circulatory and respiratory systems; and (5)

the chronic reduction of re-oxygenation of tissues through blood flow (Sarno, 2007).

To a certain extent, susceptibility to the long-term medical consequences of stress are subject to hereditary influence. In that respect, different individuals have very different natural physiological responses to various triggers of exposure to environmental stress (Friedman, 1990). Nevertheless, many of the differences that enable some individuals to avoid the secondary consequences of unavoidable stress can be taught…… [read more]

Disease of Interest Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Disease of Interest

Life is unpredictable, as everything can change in a matter of minutes and anyone can be diagnosed with having Paranoid Schizophrenia. The Paranoid form of Schizophrenia involves people having brain disorders causing delusions of grandeur, persecution, or reference. The malady can be contracted by any person, regardless to the environment that they gave been subjected to or… [read more]

Disease in the News Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (629 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Disease in the News: The Bird Flu

Critical Review

This critical review will examine a newspaper article published by the New York Times and entitled: 'Avian Influenza' published February 25, 2009, reviewed by Linda Vorvick, MD, a Family Physician, and Seattle Site Coordinator and Lecturer.

It was reported in the February 25, 2009 edition of The New York Times in an article entitled: 'Avian Influenza' that the avian influenza virus, also known as 'Bird Flu' historically is a virus that "infected pigs and mixed with pig influenza viruses" however "the viruses exchanged genetic information which led to the formation of a new virus." (The New York Times, 25 Feb, 2009) It was this genetic exchange that enabled the new virus to "infection humans and easily spread from person to person." (The New York Times, 25 Feb, 2009) The article relates that many of the previous flu pandemics began in this manner.


This article relates that the first avian influenza virus to infect humans "directly occurred in Hong Kong in 1997, during an avian flu epidemic on the island." (The New York Times, 25 Feb 2009) This outbreak is stated to have been "linked to chickens and classified as avian influenza A (H5N1)." (he New York Times, 25 Feb 2009)


It is related in this article that following the outbreak in Hong Kong that the bird flu virus continued to spread across the Asian continent. In October 2005, avian influenza virus was discovery in the countries of Romania and Turkey in poultry with hundreds of individuals being infected with the disease and many of them dying from the bird influenza.

This report relates that chance of the disease spreading worldwide is dependent upon the area in which the bird influenza spreads. Those who work with poultry, including farmers and individuals who travel and visit countries infected with the bird influenza are at…… [read more]

Huntington's Disease Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,806 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+




National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Huntington's disease "results form genetically programmed degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in certain areas of the brain." (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2009) Caused by the degeneration is "uncontrolled movements, loss of… [read more]

Infectious Disease Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (779 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Infectious Diseases

94065 Spreading and Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases

From the European plague to the smallpox that resulted in the destruction of thousands of Native Americans, infectious diseases have been some of the worst murderers in history. Since science has learned to understand how infectious diseases are spread, however, people have been able to learn how to prevent disease from wrecking havoc on themselves and their families. A personal knowledge of how infectious diseases spread and how they can be prevented is another good to insure you are protected against them.

According to the Mayo Clinic, infectious diseases can spread from person to person through either direct or indirect contact ("Infectious Diseases" 2007). This means that while a person must come into contact with the germ that does the diseases spreading in order to get sick, that person may or may not come into contact with a sick person. Contact can be considered the first link in the chain of spreading infectious diseases. In fact, the most common type of contact is person-to-person contact, in which a person coughs on, kisses, or exchanges fluid with sick person. In addition to person-to-person contact, several other ways of spreading infectious diseases exist. Animal to person contact -- in which a sick animal or animal waste passes a bacterium or virus to a human -- and mother to unborn child contact are two other methods of direct contact. Infectious diseases can also be passed from person to person through indirect contact. An example of indirect person to person contact touching the same pencil that a person with the flu has touched. Two other types of contact, or ways infectious diseases are spread, are through the air and through vehicles such as bites and stings ("Infections Diseases" 2007). In fact the United Nations suggests that environmental changes may be releasing long buried infectious diseases into the air ("Environmental Changes" 2005). Regardless, the easiest way to prevent infectious diseases is to prevent the person-to-person contact that usually spreads those diseases.

Once a person has come into contact with an infectious disease, the second link in the chain that causes infectious diseases to spread from person to person is the germ's incubation in the body. Germs include bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths, or parasites that are most commonly associated with ringworm. While…… [read more]

Crohn's Disease Thesis

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Crohn's Disease: Promising New Findings About Its Molecular Basis

Like it or not, the human digestive system requires bacteria to operate. But if these friendly bacteria penetrate the wall of the intestine the bacteria can become harmful rather than helpful. "This is why a thin, continuous layer of interconnected cells, called an epithelium, lines the intestinal surface creating a barrier that prevents bacteria from crossing that border"("Researchers Identify Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease," 2007, European Molecular Biology). Until recently, the mechanisms that control the epithelium were unknown. Now scientists have discovered what they call "NF-kB," a signaling molecule that helps cells cope with stress by reducing inflammation in the intestinal epithelium "("Researchers Identify Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease," 2007, European Molecular Biology). Scientists created a mouse that does not express NEMO, a protein needed to activate NF-kB, in intestinal epithelial cells. "As a result, these mice developed severe chronic intestinal inflammation very similar to the human disease known as Crohn's" ("Researchers Identify Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease," 2007, European Molecular Biology).

Crohn's disease impairs the lives of more than four million people worldwide ("Researchers Identify Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease," 2007, European Molecular Biology). It is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can produce abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Traditional treatment therapies for Crohn's disease involve antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, and surgery (Feller 2001:1). Crohn's appears to run in families. Previous research indicated that it was caused by a combination of genetic and environmental causes, the degree to which appeared uncertain. For example, two Swedish studies suggested that the risk of contracting Crohn's disease might be increased in individuals whose mothers had contracted measles during pregnancy, but subsequent research discounted the data collection involved in the studies, and found no correlation or causation in the proposed connection (Metcalf 1998:1).

The most promising research prior to the study of NB-kB research suggested that the standard treatment of first giving Crohn's patients traditional corticosteroids and then turning to newer types of anti-inflammatory drugs should be reversed. Researchers randomly assigned 65 Crohn's patients to get a combination of anti-inflammatory drugs and then steroids while a group of 64 other Crohn's patients received the conventional treatment of steroids first, followed later by the same two anti-inflammatory drugs used in the other trial. After 6 months, 60% of those who initially received infliximab and azathioprine, the anti-inflammatory drugs, were entirely free of Crohn's disease symptoms, while only 36% of those getting steroids were asymptomatic, a heartening result given the severe side effects of steroids in comparison to these other drugs (such…… [read more]

Human Papillomavirus Term Paper

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Disease - HPV


Human Papilloma Virus Defined:

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) includes both non-sexually transmitted and sexually transmitted disease (STD) forms that comprises many individual viruses characterized by the development of non-cancerous wart-like tumors known as papillomas (Taylor, et al. 2005). While initially benign, certain types of HPVs have been identified as high-risk precursors… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease According to the American Term Paper

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According to the American Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's is a progressive and fatal brain disease which currently affects more than five million Americans and as a disease "destroys brain cells, causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior" and can negatively affect a person's overall lifestyle and social life. Alzheimer's is also the most common form of dementia, known in the past as senile dementia or common senility, and currently, no cure is known, yet researchers have managed to come up with treatments for the symptoms of Alzheimer's which can extend a person's life by many years if treatment is done early ("What Is Alzheimer's?" 2008, Internet).


As to the disease of Alzheimer's as it relates to physiology and biology, the most striking abnormality in the human brain is its appearance as compared to a normal human brain. The amount of brain substance in the folds of the brain surface known as gyri is much less in the Alzheimer's brain and are greatly enlarged. The cerebral cortex which occupies the exterior portion of the brain and serves as the basis for thinking and rational thought, is also greatly shrunken or atrophied as compared to that of a normal brain (Cohen, 1999, 56).

The main culprit for these and other distortions of the human brain are due to what is known as amyloid plaques which are composed of a protein called B-amyloid protein which is a smaller part of a larger protein called amyloid precursor or APP. These proteins live in normal brain cell membranes and follow prescribed paths into the cell membranes, but in Alzheimer's, these pathways result in abnormal processes which leads to dementia (Powell & Courtice, 1993, 156).

Also, the brains of Alzheimer's patients are abnormal related to what is known as neurofibrillary tangles which are made of different proteins called tau protein. In ordinary human brains, these proteins are attached to structures called microtubules, but in Alzheimer's, these proteins become hyperphosphorated which then results in overactive enzymes called kinases. The byproduct of this overactive process allows hyperphosphorated proteins to bind together to form helical structures called paired helical filaments or tangles which eventually result in cell damage and death in the brain (Powell & Courtice, 1993, 158).


Statistically, as of 2005, there is an estimated five million Americans who currently suffer from Alzheimer's disease with only about half of this number having been diagnosed. An unknown number have what is called "mild cognitive impairment" which is often a precursor to full-blown Alzheimer's. Also, according to Patricia B. Coughlin, by the year 2030 when the so-called "baby boomer" generation attains the beginnings of old age, the number of Americans diagnosed with Alzheimer's has been estimated to be around eight million and by 2050 over fourteen million. Of course, these numbers are dependent on whether or not a cure for Alzheimer's is found within the next ten years. Not surprisingly, the costs associated with these numbers will be staggering, due to increases in… [read more]

Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV Term Paper

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an RNA negative-sense stranded enveloped virus. Infection with the virus is implicated in the condition bronchiolitis, which is a condition which affects predominantly infants. The condition is characterized by flu-like symptoms, including runny nose, fever, coughing and wheezing. Often there is little need for laboratory diagnosis as the clinical symptoms and history allow for accurate… [read more]

Should Drug Addiction Be Considered a Disease Term Paper

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Sociology - Drug Addiction Theory


Drug addiction is unlike other medical diseases, primarily because it is the result of voluntary behavior rather from exposure to bacterial organisms, viruses, or from genetic disorder. Whereas symptoms normally associated with organic diseases are well defined in strictly objective terms, the symptoms of addiction rely on subjective definition, and to a large degree, on cultural norms and expectations (Reinarman, 2005).

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), drug addiction is a brain- based disease, but many researchers dispute that conclusion, because the brain studies upon which it is based pertain equally to other non-medical behaviors, such as gambling, exercise, sex, eating, and even shopping, all of which are also capable of being indulged without resulting in addiction. In many respects, addiction characterizes a particular response among some individuals to behaviors indulged benignly by many others.

Admittedly, addiction may represent numerous social and behavioral components, as well as genetic predisposition that varies significantly from individual to individual.

No single component of behavior and no single aspect of inherent predisposition necessarily results in addiction on its own. Furthermore, certain individuals with the genetic predisposition do not develop addiction, even after indulging in the behavioral component that gives rise to addiction in others.

Therefore, it may very well be that defining addiction strictly, either as a behavior or strictly as a disease, is impossible without at least some element of subjective classification that reflects the underlying belief of the researcher, as well as social norms and cultural expectations (Reinarman, 2005).

Distinguishing Disease and Behavior in Drug Addiction:

Ordinarily, persons suffering from organic disease present very specific symptoms by which the disease is identified. While many symptoms of disease are not, by themselves, associated only with a disease, certain combinations of symptoms are universally characteristic of specific diseases, with well-defined expected durations and outcomes. Where human disease or condition is a function of organic physiological abnormality, every individual plagued with the specific abnormality that characterizes a particular disease or condition presents the same types of symptoms, with relatively few exceptions. Likewise, where the etiology of a disease is linked to exposure to bacterial organisms or other naturally-occurring or synthetic contaminants, that exposure nearly always results in disease onset, except in cases of natural immunity. Unlike different responses to addiction-prone drugs, instances where immunity confers protection are capable of being definitively identified and their mechanisms understood, strictly in objective principle.

A fundamental difficulty in characterizing drug addiction as a disease is that so many individuals indulge in the very same behavior without developing any symptoms of addiction at all (Sullum, 2003). Conversely, other researchers suggest that addictive behaviors like adult alcoholism are capable of prediction far in advance, by quantifying general behaviors of pre-adolescence and adolescence (LeGrand, 2005). However, the observations relied upon by LeGrand for this conclusion likely pertain just as accurately to many other adult behaviors, including antisocial conduct, family violence, and criminality, in general. None of those behaviors qualifies… [read more]

Concept of Disease a General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective Term Paper

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¶ … Disease: A General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective

General Medicine Concepts of Disease

Homeopathic Medicine Concepts of Disease

The Concept of Disease: A General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective

We shall find that, even when there is no clear differentiation of the leech from other members of society, mankind has theories of the causation of disease,… [read more]

Speech and Language Disorders in Adults Term Paper

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Speech Pathology in Degenerative Central Nervous System Diseases

Speech and Language in Adults with Diseases of the Central Nervous System

Speech and language difficulties accompany a number of diseases of the central nervous system in adults. Sometimes the speech difficulty might be the reason for seeking medical help, or it might be one of many factors that cause a person… [read more]

Oral Health Link to Increase Cardiovascular Disease Research Paper

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¶ … periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases (Mizoue et al.,2008). The role that oral health plays in the etiology of the cardiovascular disease has been given a lot of attention (Oliveira, Watt and Hamer,2010).Several epidemiological studies have concluded that there is a link between periodontal diseases and the health risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD).Poor oral health as well as heart diseases are prevalent in the United States. According to the statistics from the American Heart Association, about 36.3% (Representing 1 in 2.8) of all deaths in the year 2004 were as a result of cardiovascular disease (Xu et al.,2006). The 2010 statistical update from the American Heart Association indicated that more than 81 Million adults (more than 1 in 3) in the U.S. have one or more types of heart disease / cardiovascular disease (CDV) (Lloyd-Jones, Adams, Brown,2010).Meurman and Hamalainen (2006) found out that there is a relationship between poor dental health and high mortality rate among the elderly population. A survey conducted by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999-2002 effectively investigated the oral health of the American population. The outcome of the study indicated that about 41% of children aged between 2 and 1 years, 50% of children aged between 12-15 years as well as 68% of adolescent between the age of 16 and 19 had decayed primary teeth. In adults, the prevalence of teeth decay was 87% among individuals between the ages of 20-39 and 95% of those aged between 40 -59.Twenty five percent of adults who are aged over 60 were indicated to have lost all their teeth. As a consequence of these shocking prevalence statistics, the determination of the correlation between periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases is very important since oral health may act as an avenue that can be used in controlling the rate of cardiovascular mortality.The work of Janket et al., (2003) and Khader et al., (2004) have indicated that the risk of coronary heart diseases as well as cerebrovascular diseases are increased by periodontal infections. Amar and Han (2003) conducted a study that indicated that infectious as well as inflammatory process in a person may promote the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). These oral microbiological diseases and infections may go along way into affecting the general health status of a person.Tonetti et al. (2007) conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and the outcome indicated that the improvement in an individual's endothelial function is achieved through an intensive treatment targeting periodontitis. Scannapieco (1999) implicated oral bacteria in the occurrence of pneumonia. Azarpazhooh and Leake (2006) conducted a study which found a correlation between oral health and pneumonia.Several longitudinal studies have investigated the associations that exists between mortality and several oral markers (Jansson et al., 2002; Hamalainen et al., 2005; Abnet et al.,2005). Abnet et al. (2005) carried out a study which associated tooth loss with increased death rates as well as deaths due to heart diseases, stroke and upper gastrointestinal cancer. The work of Abnet et al., further examined… [read more]

Sarcoidosis Is a Granulomatous Disease That Primarily Research Paper

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Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung and lymphatic organs Although progress has been made in understanding the immunological, clinical, and pathological features of the disease, appropriate therapy and intervention still has not been discovered as well as the fact that certain other areas of the disease remain unresolved. Sarcoidosis is a disease that has a predictably adverse impact on patient's quality of life but how much and to what extent remains indefinite. Part of the problem is the fact that sole research studies have included cross sectional methods. Still to be investigated is progression of disease and correlation effect on QOL as part of follow up studies and this involves longitudinal experimentation.

What Sarcoidosis is

Sarcoidosis, first discovered in 1877, is a granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung and lymphatic organs but may, particularly in patients with progressive Sarcoidosis, involve various organs (Wiegand & Brutsche, 2006). It involves the central nervous system in approximately 5% of the cases (Bona et al., 1998), but the disease is, in most cases, limited although others may become excessively ill and even die from unmitigated progression of the disease. Although progress has been made in understanding the immunological, clinical, and pathological features of the disease, appropriate therapy and intervention still has not been discovered. For all these reasons and since the cause of Sarcoidosis is still unknown, the disease continues to intrigue clinicians and researchers.

Sarcoidosis may affect all ages but most commonly the young and middle-aged. Symptoms are bilateral hilar lymphadenophy, pulmonary infection, and ocular and skin lesions. Other organs such as the heart, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, salivary glands, muscles, bones, and nervous system may be affected too.

Immunological features most associated with the disease are degrading of cutaneous-delayed- hypersensitivity and the conspicuousness of a T cell type 1 immune response at localizations of the disease. Indications of B cell hyperactivity may also be witnessed.

Sarcoidosis is a global disease affecting both sexes and all ages. There is no consistent case definition, neither is there any homogenous manner of disease appearance. For that reason, clinicians and scientists have found it hard to tag a definition to the disease. Similarly, reliable and decisive diagnostic tests still have to be created, resulting, in the meantime, in misdiagnosis and, in too many quarters, ignorance of the disease. There is insufficient research, too, on epidemiological causes of Sarcoidosis.

The disease seems to peak in adults who are 20 to 29 years old and seems to subside before 20 and in ages older than 40, although in Japan and in Scandinavian countries women older than 50 seem to evidence peeks in the disease, too. Women seem to be more susceptible than men to the disease, whilst in the U.S. The rate of Sarcoidosis for White is 0.85% compared to that of Blacks (2.4%). Sarcoidosis is approximately 1 out of 40 cases, with Swedes, Danes, and U.S. Blacks having the highest incidence. It is possible too, although not conclusively proves that Sarcoidosis is… [read more]

Neuropathological Disorders Essay

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Neuropathological Disorders

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease is a neurological disorder that causes steady deterioration of the body's nerves and muscles. The cause of the disease is not known, and it affects men and women on an equivalent basis. At first, a person with Lou Gehrig's disease will experience a lack of coordination and not being able to hold on to objects and trouble performing everyday tasks. They could also feel tiredness, along with muscle twitches and trouble speaking. Because the disease usually occurs in middle to older age, it is often confused with the normal aging process (Carlson, 2011).

As the disease advances, the person will have trouble walking. They may also lose the capability to control their hands, to the point where they can't dress or bath themselves. Eventually, they will need a motorized wheel chair for transportation because they will not be able to use a manual one. In the later stages of the disease as the muscles continue to atrophy, the person's nerve and muscle function will worsen to the point where they will need a ventilator to help them breathe. Paralysis will continue to spread throughout the body, and limb function will cease. A person may also be unable to chew or swallow (Carlson, 2011).

Approximately ninety percent of people with ALS do not have a family history of ALS in any closely related family members. In these people, the cause of ALS is complex, resulting from a mixture of both genetic and environmental variables. Genes involved in the non-familial form of ALS are occasionally called susceptibility genes because they augment the risk to get the disease. Susceptibility genes are believed to act together with other genes as well as the environment to cause ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), 2005).

The remaining ten percent of people with ALS have the familial form of the disease, in which numerous family members are affected by ALS. The familial form of ALS includes both small families where as few as two family members have ALS to families with a lot of…… [read more]

Causes Complications Diagnosis Latest Discoveries Research Paper

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The objectives of treatment are to curb inflammation, correct nutritional challenges and alleviate symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhoea and intestinal bleeding. It must be noted that treatment only inhibits the condition by reducing the number of times of recurrence but does not cure it as there is no cure. Treatment largely relies on the extremity of the disease, its location,… [read more]

Death and Disease Analysis for California Research Paper

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Death and Disease Analysis for California

Cancer is a large collection of diseases that are distinguished by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the disease is not controlled or kept in check, it consequences in death. However, many cancers can be cured if detected and treated quickly, and a lot of others can be prevented by lifestyle changes, particularly by avoiding tobacco use. Between 1988 and 2009, California saw overall cancer occurrence rates decrease by 11%. In this same time period, mortality rates went down by 23%. However, it is still estimated that in 2012 144,800 Californians will be diagnosed with cancer. This is equal to more than 16 new cases every hour of every day. It is estimated that 55,415 people will die of the disease next year, which works out to almost 150 people every day (California Cancer Facts & Figures, 2012).

In 2004-2008, the overall cancer occurrence rate in California was lower that than of the entire nation. "California cancer incidence rates for Asian/Pacific Islanders, African-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites were between one and three percent lower than the nation. Hispanics in California had a nearly 9% lower incidence rate than other Hispanics in the nation" (California Cancer Facts & Figures, 2012).

Doctors frequently cannot clarify why one person develops cancer and another does not. But research shows that certain risk factors augment the chance that a person will develop cancer. These are the most widespread risk factors for cancer: growing older, tobacco, sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals and other substances, some viruses and bacteria, certain hormones, family history of cancer, alcohol and poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight. A lot of these risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as family…… [read more]

Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Research Paper

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The effective management of the large pyogenic granumola coupled with the treatment of periodontal inflammation before pregnancy helps in controlling periodontitis and gingivitis. While small pyogenic granumolas may disappear suddenly, large lesions require treatment through surgery, lasers, electrocautery, and freezing. However, the most common way for treating the unusual large pyogenic granumolas is through surgical therapy or excision.


Periodontal disease is a disease that affects the structures of the teeth and can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes like pre-term birth. This disease can be prevented and controlled through promotion of good oral health or hygiene and management of pyogenic granumola.


Avula, H. & Avula, J. (2011). Periodontal Infections and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The

Oral Health -- Fetal Connection. Journal of Gynecologic Surgery, 27(1), 1-4.

Babalola, D.A. & Omole, F. (2010, June 29). Case Report: Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy

Outcome. Journal of Pregnancy, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2010/293439/

Guilbeau, J.R. & Hurst, H. (2009, December). Brush Up: Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy.

Nursing for Women's Health, 496-499.

Han, Y. (2011, October 4). Gum Disease and Pregnancy. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://www.netwellness.org/healthtopics/gumdisease/gdgumdiseaseandpregnancy.cfm

Lindenmuller et. al. (2010, February 19). CO2 Laser-assisted Treatment of a Giant Pyogenic

Granumola of the Gingiva. Official Journal of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists, 8, 249-252.

Morgan, et. al. (2009, September). Oral Health During Pregnancy.…… [read more]

Discovery This Neurological Disorder Term Paper

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Treatment and Other Interesting Facts About the Disorder

No known or developed cure at present

Medications for seizures when they occur

Occupational therapy, physiotherapy and hydrotherapy recommended for prolonging mobility

Intervention programs to increase social interaction and increasing attention span

Music therapy to reduce repetitious hand movements

Equipment tailored for individual requirements such as braces to inhibit scoliosis, splints for controlling hand movements

Despite severe impairments, majority believed to be able to reach adulthood (up to ages 40s), but with increased risk of death

Occurrence of sudden and unexplained death possible with brain stem malfunction or dysfunction and breathing stoppage

Continued research work in the fields of neuropathology, neurochemistry, neuroimaging, nutrition and genetics, primarily by the Rett Center. Center established in 1985 by Dr. Alan Percy and funded by the National Institutes of Health as source of new information on the disorder


Baker, O (1999). Faculty Control Gene Underlines Retardation (Rett Syndrome).

Science News, Science Service, Inc.

Gene Today ... Gone Tomorrow (October 1999). Nature Genetics

Lewis, Jackie and Debbie Wilson (1998). Pathways to Learning in Rett Syndrome.

David Fulton Publishers

Pevsner, John (2001). Rett Syndrome 2001, handout. And slides. Kennedy Krieger Institute…… [read more]

Neuro Assessment Term Paper

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Neurological Disorders: Viral Induced

Neurological disease can be attributed in some cases to complications of a serious nature stemming from a virus infection. This paper intends to research neurological disorders and to further research what is considered proper assessment of the patient suspected of having a neurological disorder.

Neurological disorders caused by virus infections can be distinguished by those which are acute diseases and those which are chronic syndromes. In the case of acute neurological syndromes the virus reaches the brain either by traveling throughout the blood stream or through spreading along peripheral nerves. The causes of these type neurological disorders are that of Asymptomatic Infection which is inclusive of the disease:

Acute Viral Encephalitis: Symptoms include fever, headache, neck stiffness, confusion, and possibly convulsions.

Flaccid Paralysis: Symptoms are that of headache, fever and affectations of paralysis to lower limbs.

Aseptic meningitis: Symptoms are headache and stiffness in the neck along with a fever as well as photophobia.

Post infectious encephalomyelitis: Harder to detect due to the long incubation and slow progression of the symptoms of the disease.

II. Chronic Neurological Disease:

Subacute-sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

Progressive multifocal leuco-encephalopathy (PML)

Retrovirus disease

Spongiform encephalopathies

III. Assessment of the Neurological Disease:

Assessment of the patient when implementing a neurological examination starts with observation of the patient while querying the patient for health history. Watching the pace and coordination with which the patient moves will help in the assessment as well as paying attention to the "demeanor, dress, responses, errors in language or speech patterns as well as whether or not the patient seems to have trouble with recall."

The patient that is unable to pay attention or does not seem fully cognitive should tip-off the health care professional that a Mini-Mental Status Examination is in order.…… [read more]

Bacteria Virus Eukaryote Term Paper

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Statistics and Part Maintenance

L. Jones

Infectious Bacteria, Viruses, Eukaryotes:

When one considers the possibilities of human disease, be it originating from a virus, bacteria, or even eukarote, it is important to first consider possible ports of entry. Most disease causing organisms prefer specific entry points to gain access to their hosts. These entry points are known as "ports of… [read more]

Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease Term Paper

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cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem

"New Approaches to Treatment." (2002). The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all_page-item_id=4702

'Radiation Therapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Radiation_Therapy_20.asp?rnav=cri

"What Are the Key Statistics for Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1X_What_are_the_key_statistics_for_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri 'What Are the Risk Factors for Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004) American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_What_are_the_risk_factors_for_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri

Also known as Hodgkin's Lymphoma

The lymphatic system is a network of small vessels that carry lymph, a fluid containing white blood cells that help to fight infections and is part of the body's immune system an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus

The "B-cells" and the "T-cells" are the two main types of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes which mature in the bone marrow or lymphatic organs and are called "B-cells"; the ones that mature in the thymus gland, located behind the breast bone are called "T-cells."

large cells that contain several nuclei lowered resistance is due to low white blood cell counts due to low blood platelets due to low red blood cells

Vinorelbine, idarubicin, and gemcitabine are some of the new chemotherapy drugs that are being studied. ("What's New ... " 2004)… [read more]

Thousands of Diseases Afflicting Humans Term Paper

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¶ … thousands of diseases afflicting humans throughout the world. It is important to look at gigantism and determine its causes, symptoms, the population likely to suffer from the disease and any prevention or treatments that are available.

What is Gigantism

Gigantism is a disease which results in a person having "extraordinary physical proportions (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)." There have been reports throughout history of individuals exhibiting these qualities, and the "concept of superhuman size, whether in the form of Goliath, Hercules, of Bigfoot, has consistently inspired a sense of awe and enthrallment (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)."

Causes of Gigantism

Gigantism is caused by an excessive amount growth hormone (GH) being secreted by the pituitary (Simmons, 1999). This excess of GH occurs "during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)."

Almost every case of gigantism is caused by a "benign tumor of the pituitary gland, known as a growth-hormone-producing pituitary adenoma (www.mayoclinic.com)."

It can be "caused by eosinophilia or chromophobe adenoma and its usual course is insidious (www.medfamily.org/diagnosis/P/diagnosis-terms-Pituitary_gigantism)." Other causes include:

somatotropic cell adenoma of the pituitary somatotropic cell adenoma of mixed cell somatotropic cell adenoma of stem cell bronchial adenoma pancreatic islet cell tumor carcinoid tumor ectopic growth hormone production (www.medfamily.org/diagnosis/P/diagnosis-terms-Pituitary_gigantism)."


Gigantism is characterized by "craniofacial overgrowth, with the mandible being more affected than the maxilla (Simmons, 1999)." person may experience headaches, loss of vision or other problems with the central nervous system if there is a large pituitary tumor.

Gigantism can also exhibit the following "signs and symptoms:

Abnormally tall stature

Disproportionately large hands, feet and facial bones

Enlargement of the heart

Degenerative arthritis

Excessive sweating

Snoring and sleep apnea

High blood pressure

Diabetes (www.mayoclinic.com)." doctor may suspect gigantism if there is "inappropriate excessive growth spurt, dorsal kyphosis, manifestations of generalized osteoporosis, thickening of skin and soft tissue growth (www.thedoctorslounge.net/clinlounge/diseases/endocrinology/gigantism)."


If a physician suspects an individual has gigantism, tests are run which include:

Glucose tolerance test: Normally growth hormone is suppressed after oral intake of 50mg of glucose due to inhibition of GHRH secretion. In cases of gigantism, growth hormone levels fail to suppress or may even rise.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, somatomedin C) assays: are always elevated in gigantism and do not fluctuate like growth hormone levels (www.thedoctorslounge.net/clinlounge/diseases/endocrinology/gigantism)."


Treatments of a "pituitary tumor may include radiation therapy, medications to decrease growth hormone production or block its action, or surgery to remove the tumor. Surgery can cure the disease if the entire tumor can be removed. The chances of cure are much higher when the tumor is small and has not spread beyond the pituitary gland (www.mayoclinic.com)."

Surgical options include "tranfenoidal adenectomy or hypophysectomy of the acidophil adenoma. Drugs used to reduce growth hormone levels include bromocriptine and cabergonline, which is another dopaminergic agent. External radiotherapy is an option in treating acidophil adenomas (www.thedoctorslounge.net/clinlounge/diseases/endocrinology/gigantism)."

In 2002, it was announced that a new group of proteins, which were discovered in 1997 by Australian researchers, may offer hope to sufferers of gigantism.

This protein group is known as… [read more]

Hemophilia Is an Inherited Disorder That Limits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


HEMOPHILIA is an inherited disorder that limits blood-clotting activity in the body. Usually after a wound, the body starts the process of blood clotting but this ability is impaired in Hemophiliacs and the result is excessive bleeding. While most girls are likely to be the carriers of this disease, it amazingly affects male offspring more often than men. Some believe that only males are affected but that might not be entirely true as we shall discuss later. In cases, where a male is born to a female carrier, the chances of him developing hemophilia are 50%. The male hemophilic would transmit the disease to all his female children but cannot transmit it to his sons making females the sole carriers. There are two well-known types of this disease namely hemophilia a and hemophilia B.

Hemophilia is an inherited disorder that prevents blood from clotting normally. People with hemophilia are at risk for serious and sometimes life-threatening bleeding episodes. Individuals with hemophilia a, the most common of these disorders, are deficient in a specific blood clotting component called factor VIII." (FDA Consumer; 2003)

Hemophilia causes severe problems for the patient when the bleeding is internal or when the wound is deep. In most minor injury cases, blood clotting works like it would in a non-hemophiliac but in other cases, excessive bleeding is accompanied by pain, swelling and sometimes even serious permanent damage. Symptoms appear in toddlers when their joins begin to swell up.

There is still no permanent cure for the disease; however there have been some treatments that help patients in easing of their symptoms. Prior to 1960s, the main treatment included complete blood transfusion or plasma replacement but in 1960s, another much better treatment was discovered. The infected patient could be infused with concentrated clotting factors that was simple procedure and could even be administered at home. However this treatment for all its simplicity and ease turned out to be major cause of concern in 1980s when it was found that most patients were affected with hepatitis or HIV (AIDS) due to contamination in concentrated clotting factor. Because of this, blood donors are now carefully screened and factors donated are given heat treatment…… [read more]

Minamata Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Environmental Science

Minamata Disease

This is a paper on Minamata Disease. There are six references used for this paper.

There are a number of diseases which have had profound affects on people throughout the world. It is important to examine Minameta Disease and determine how it was discovered, its causes, how it was settled, the roles played by the government… [read more]

Health Psychology Eating Disorders Among Asian American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Eating disorders among Asian-Americans

The following study attempts to explore and delineate the problem of eating disorders among Asian-Americans. The study presents an overview of the issue and found that there exists a serious problem with regards to eating disorders among Asian-Americans, particularly among women. This syndrome is exacerbated by the complexity of acculturation in American society. These and other… [read more]

HIV and AIDS Content Knowledge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,508 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conversely, the mistrust and lack of openness makes caring dentists, as well as other medical professionals, feel frustrated, betrayed and somewhat abused. The primary focus in all situations is base on each person's personal condition. Dentists and all other dental professionals cannot plead ignorance as a reason for refusing to treat an HIV infected individual. Codes of conduct for dentists… [read more]

Sickle Cell Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sickle cell disease or Sickle Cell Anemia (as it used to be called) is a disease of the red blood cells, which in inherited. It was first reported in Western Literature in 1910, when a midwestern physician described a patient from the West Indies who had an anemia, which was characterized, by unusually shaped cells. In the 1920s, it was… [read more]

Biological Virus vs. Bacteria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
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Virus v. Bacteria virus is a small particle that infects cells in biological organisms. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites; they can reproduce only by invading and controlling other cells as they lack the cellular machinery for self-reproduction. The term virus usually refers to those particles which infect eukaryotes (multi-celled organisms and many single-celled organisms), while the term bacteriophage or phage is used to describe those infecting prokaryotes (bacteria and bacteria-like organisms).

Typically these particles carry a small amount of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by some form of protective coat consisting of proteins, lipids, and glycoproteins. Importantly, viral genomes code not only for the proteins needed to package its genetic material, but also for proteins needed by the virus during lysogenic and lytic cycles, the reproductive cycles. A virus reproduces by causing a host cell that it infects to create copies of itself. When found outside of a host cell, viruses consist of genomic nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (depicted as blue), surrounded by a protein coat, or capsid, with or without a glycoprotein envelope. There are three types of viruses: a bacterial virus, otherwise called a bacteriophage, an animal virus, and a retrovirus.

A phage (also called bacteriophage) is a small virus that infects only bacteria. Like viruses that infect eukaryotes, phages consist of an outer protein hull and the enclosed genetic material (which consists of double-stranded DNA in 95% of the phages known) of 5 to 650 kbp (kilo base pairs) with a length of 24 to 200 nm. The vast majority of phages (95%) have a tail to let them inject their genetic material into the host. Phages were discovered independently by Frederick Twort in 1915 and by Felix d'Herelle in 1917.

Phages infect only specific bacteria. Some phages are virulent, meaning that upon infecting a cell they immediately begin reproducing, and within a short time lyse (destroy) the cell, releasing new phages. Some phages (so-called temperate phages) can instead enter a relatively harmless state, either integrating their genetic material into the chromosomal DNA of the host bacterium, much like endogenous retroviruses in animals, or establishing themselves as plasmids. These endogenous phages, referred to as prophages, are then copied with every cell division together with the DNA of the host cell. They do not kill the cell, but monitor (via some proteins they code for) the status of their host. When the host cell shows signs of stress (meaning it might be about to die soon), the endogenous phages become active again and start their reproductive cycle, resulting in the lysis of the host cell. Sometimes, prophages even provide benefit to the host bacterium while they are dormant, by adding new functions to the bacterial genome, a phenomenon called lysogenic conversion. A famous example is the harmless Vibrio bacteria strain, which is turned into Vibrio cholerae by a phage, causing cholera.

Phages play an important role in molecular biology as cloning vectors to insert DNA into bacteria. Phage therapy has been used since the… [read more]

Cirrhosis Liver Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,409 words)
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Cirrohsis (liver Disease)


When liver tissue is damaged by infection, toxin or ailment, it leads to a scarring called Cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is not reversible and is dangerous and it cannot be treated. Diseases of the liver can be instigated by hepatitis, some inherited diseases and alcoholism and in most of the cases, no indications exist for these diseases. Fatty… [read more]

Disease HIV Disease Is Viewed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,273 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Disease

HIV disease is viewed as a continuing progressive damage to the immune system from the period of infection to that of the manifestation of severe immunologic damages by means of neoplasms, opportunistic infections, wasting, or further by means of low CD4 lymphocyte count that indicate AIDS. (Epidemiology of Disease Progression in HIV) People first became aware of… [read more]

Aricept Alzheimer's Disease Is a Progressive Form Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive form of pre-senile dementia, which similar to senile dementia, except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s, and with initial symptoms of impaired memory, then impaired thought and speech and, finally, complete helplessness (Lexico Publishing Group LLC 2006). It is a disease in the brain, which makes the sufferer forget how to… [read more]

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (800 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


("Genital Herpes - CDC Factsheet") Between outbreaks, when sores and blisters are not present, the viruses can also be transferred from person to person through the skin. Pregnant women can also transmit this disease to their unborn children and should be careful not to contract the disease during pregnancy. While there can be psychological trauma associated with contracting the disease, the most common affects of Genital Herpes are painful sores on the genital and rectal areas which recur over time. Like Syphilis, the best way to avoid Genital Herpes is to avoid sexual contact with infected persons, but the use of condoms has also been demonstrated to reduce the risk of infection.

If a person is already infected with a sexually transmitted disease (STD), they are between two and five times more likely contract the AIDS, or HIV, virus. ("The Role of STD Detection.") Like both Syphilis and Genital Herpes, AIDS is also transmitted through sexual contact. As a virus, HIV is easily spread through secretions, particularly genital secretions, and is often associated with other STD's. For example, genital sores resulting from Syphilis or Genital Herpes, often result in breaks in the skin or the genital lining. This can provide both an excellent point of entry for the HIV virus, or a perfect way to infect another person. When infected, early signs often resemble the flu; fever, headache, fatigue, and swelling in lymph nodes. ("The Role of STD Detection") But as the disease progresses, symptoms can include weight loss, skin conditions such as blisters and sores, secondary infections like chicken pox or pneumonia, periodontal disease, dementia, brain tumors, and other neurological complications. ("The Role of STD Detection") As with both Syphilis and Genital Herpes, both avoiding sexual contact with the infected, and the use of condoms can reduce the chance of contracting the disease.


"Genital Herpes - CDC Factsheet." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Website. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/STDFact-Herpes.htm

"Syphilis - CDC Factsheet." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Website. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/STDFact-Syphilis.htm

"The Role of STD Detection and Treatment in HIV Prevention" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/hiv/STDFact-STD-HIV.htm… [read more]

Renal and Urologic System Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,196 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



How are urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine values used to assess kidney function?

Urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine values are all important in the assessment of to assess kidney functions.

Urinalysis is noted by the National Kidney Foundation (2002) to be a simple, safe and noninvasive study of urine that requires urination only on the part of the given human subject. The process has no risk, no adverse responses and more importantly, no direct side effects. It is one of the mostly ordered clinical procedures/tests in pediatrics (Patel,2006).Urinalysis is used in the assessment of kidney problems by the physical, microscopic and chemical examination of urine (McPherson, Ben-Ezra, Zhao,2006). The test is performed by the examination of the physical color as well as appearance of urine (yellow, cloudy) as well as urine's specific gravity. The microscopic appearance of the urine is also performed in order to identify urine crystals, cells, mucous and any other substances whose presence signifies the presence of abnormal kidney functions. The chemical appearance of the urine is also determined in order to ascertain the existence of various substances in the human urine.

The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test on the other hand is the measure if the level of blood nitrogen in the form of urea. It is a critical measure of renal function. Urea is a major by-product of protein metabolism which is removed by the human kidney. The normal adult's blood contains between 7-21mg of urea per a hundred milliliters of blood (Deepak et al.,2007) a high/increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) signifies an impaired kidney function.

In regard to the serum creatinine values, Banfi and Del Fabrro (2006) noted that the concentration of creatinine in the human blood is the most widely employed method and the commonly accepted one for measuring renal function in the context of clinical medicine. Any disorder in the renal function leads to a reduction in the level of secreted creatinine. The result is an increase in the level of blood creatinine levels. The levels of serum creatinine provide an approximation of a person's kidney glomerular filtration rate. Increase levels of serum creatinine indicate an impaired renal function.

How are the locations of renal pain and findings on urinalysis used to differentiate the causes of kidney disease?

The locations of renal pain and findings on urinalysis are useful in the differentiation of the causes of kidney disease.This is because renal pains are often experienced at the lower abdominal area and at the lower back of the sufferer. The back pain could be due to a muscular pain or any other ailments. It is therefore necessary for a detailed urinalysis to be used to confirm the presence of kidney problems (such as kidney stones).

How do prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal types of acute renal failure differ in etiology, prognosis, clinical manifestations, and management?

Prerenal acute renal failure is due to the conditions that effectively impairs the human renal blood flow (perfusion) like cardiac failure, hypovolemia, hypotension as… [read more]

Prostate Cancer Is a Slow Growing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer that develops in men's prostate gland. Prostate gland is a gland located in the male reproductive system (Cookson,2001).Most cases of this kind of cancer are slow growing even though aggressive kinds have been reported (Baade, Youlden & Krnjacki,2009).The cancer cells may spread (metastasize) from the prostate gland to other parts of the patient's body (especially to lymph nodes and bones). Prostate cancer may cause severe pain, difficulty in urinating, sexual intercourse problems as well as erectile dysfunction. During the later stages of the disease, other symptoms may be seen.

The rates of detection varies widely across the globe with fewer cases being detected in South and East Asian and more cases being detected in Europe and the United States. This type of cancer is most common in men over the age of fifty (Siegel,2011).Globally, prostate cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer-related deaths (Baade, Youlden & Krnjacki,2009).This kind of cancer is most common in developed nations but its rates are increasing in the developing world. Unfortunately, most men with prostate cancer never experience any symptoms of the disease, never undergo therapy and are eventually taken ill and even die of other unrelated complications. Several factors like diet and genetics have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is noted to remain a cery common kind of cancer in mean aged over 50 (with an exclusion of skin cancer) with an estimated new cases in 2000 of 180,400. This figure represents a sharp decline from 334,500 cases that were reported sometime in January of 1977. Early detection as a result of PSA testing is what is credited with the sharp decline (AMA,2000;Landis et al.,1998).As noted earlier failure to detect this disease early and employ interventions leads to severe pain, difficulty in urinating, sexual intercourse problems as well as erectile dysfunction and death.


American Cancer Society (2000).Cancer Facts and Figures. Atlanta, Ga: The Society; 2000:1-40.

Baade, PD; Youlden, DR; Krnjacki, LJ (2009). "International epidemiology of prostate cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends.." Molecular nutrition & food research 53 (2): 171-84. PMID 1910194

Cookson, MS (2001).Prostate Cancer: Screening and Early Detection. Cancer Control, Vol. 8,(2).

Landis SH, Murray T, Bolden S, et al.(1998) Cancer statistics.CA Cancer J. Clin. 1998;48:6-29

Siegel R, (2011). "Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths.." CA Cancer J. Clin 61: 212 -- 36. doi:10.3322/caac.20121. PMID 21685461.

Module 8 (a)

Burn Injuries

Burn, a term that McCance and Huether (2010) noted to be a generic term that is used in referring to the cutaneous injury that is caused by thermal, electrical or chemical agents is a major source of extensive tissue injury as well as destruction. The injury and destruction has far reaching effects in multiple organs. The most common causes of burn injuries are thermal, electrical, chemical as well as radioactive elements/agents.

How burn degree and severity are determined

There are several types of burn injuries. These are classified… [read more]

Pathophysiology Lesion Characteristics Assessed to Aid Determination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Lesion characteristics assessed to aid determination of the lesion's cause

Lesion is caused by disease or trauma. In order to determine the cause of lesion you have to examine the patient and determine different aspects. First the practitioners can assess Cysts. Infection causes cysts and a doctor has to assess the cyst's size, pain caused by cyst and the role it plays when the doctor makes a decision to remove a splenic cyst. In case of motile cysts or many cancer cells the patient may require a surgery called splenectomy, to remove the spleen from the body. A patient with cysts acquires lesion from a disease.

Secondly, practitioner can assess traumatic injuries. Injuries as a result of accident or fighting in the lower abdomen can cause injury to the spleen. Doctors should take this spleen trauma with seriousness because it can cause spleen rupture leading to internal bleeding then death. Doctors can determine whether to remove ruptured spleen immediately or let it heal while providing proper care.

How systemic disorder affects nail and hair growth

Systemic disorder affects different organs and tissues or the whole body. The disorder causes dysfunction in many organs including the growth of hair and nails. Some systemic disorders cause disruption in the growth of figure and toenails. Nail plate or the hard keratin cover is generated by nail matrix which is located under the cuticle. During the growth process the area close to penetrate outside forms a deeper layer of nail plate and the part which remain deeper in the figure forms the superficial layer. The some process occurs in the growth of hair. Systemic disorders affect the growth process of hair by forming extra cells or reduce the numbers of cells required. Systemic disorders affect the connecting tissues which helps the growth of nails and hair (McCance & Huether, 2010).

Skin disorders which occur in different age groups

i) Acne; this is a skin disorder symbolized by pimples and sometimes pain. There two types which include blackheads and whiteheads. This skin disorder mostly affects teenagers.

ii) Eczema; this type of skin disorder has three forms. The first one, called Atopic dermatitis mostly affects children. It causes itchy rashes in the knees, elbows and crux. The second form is nummular dermatitis symbolized by red coin shapes on the skin. The third form is Allergic dermatitis commonly in adults. It is caused by environmental factors like cosmetics.

iii) Seborrheic dermatitis; this is another type of skin disorders and it causes waxy and oily patches on the skin. It can affect small children at the age of six-month.

iv) Skin cancer; this is a skin disorder common in many states. It is common to adult than in children. It can be caused by both genetic and environmental attributes like exposure to the sun rays and other ultra rays.

v) Psoriasis; this type is a genetic disease and is common to all people but mostly affects grownups than in children.

How superficial and deep pressure ulcers differ… [read more]

Osteoarthritis Victims of Intimate Violence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


In diagnosing the disease, medical practitioners apply methods such as physical examination, x-ray, lab tests, and medical history. Following the diagnosis process, it is essential to adopt and implement effective methods for the management of the disease. This relates to incorporation of drug therapy, surgical measures, and physical mechanisms in the minimization of the conditions of the disease. These methods are essential in the minimization of pain and stiffness of the joints thus enhancing the mobility of the affected individuals.


Hunter DJ, Lo GH. (2009). The management of osteoarthritis: an overview and call to appropriate conservative treatment. Med Clin North Am.;93:127-43, xi.

Richmond J, Hunter D, Irrgang J, et al. (2009). Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

(nonarthroplasty). J Am Acad Orthop Surg.;17:591-600.

Walker, J. (2011). Management of Osteoarthritis. Nursing Older People, 23(9), 14-19.

Stukstette, et al., (2012). A multidisciplinary and multidimensional intervention for patients with hand osteoarthritis. Clinical Rehabilitation, 26(2), 99-110.


Mann, C. (2012). Recognising and meeting the needs of people with osteoarthritis. Primary Health Care, 22(7), 32-39.

Tan, Y., & Conaghan, P.G. (2012). Insights into osteoarthritis from MRI. International

Journal Of Rheumatic Diseases, 15(1), 1-7. doi:10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01677.x

Koutoukidis, G., Stainton, K., Hughson, J., & Tabbner, A.R. (2013). Tabbner's nursing care:

Theory and practice. Chatswood, N.S.W: Churchill Livingstone.…… [read more]

Improving Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Improving Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries

The developing nation that I believe would benefit greatly from a refined disease surveillance system is India. Such a system would provide early warnings of outbreaks of diseases and consistently monitor their progress (WHO, 2006, p. 1). India's developmental situation is curious. Despite having overthrown the yoke of British colonization some time ago, there are still parts of the country where there are childhood prostitutes, children regularly eschew school to beg for money (No author, 2012), and preventable disease -- particularly tuberculosis is rampant. In fact, a 2012 publication from the World Health Organization maintains that "India and China together account for almost 40% of the world's TB cases) (WHO, 2012, p. 2). When examining all of the various aspects of economic prowess that China has in the contemporary market, it would be difficult to call that nation 'developing'. Thus, it is quite clear that India still has a significant amount of gains to be made by the full-fledged implementation of a disease surveillance system.

It is important to realize that in India, like in many other locations throughout the world in which there is a high incidence of tuberculosis, the primary form of combatting the spread of this disease is in reporting cases of it. Without reporting cases, it is virtually impossible to stop the tuberculosis from dominating a particular population. Therefore, it is all the more crucial to realize that India actually does have a form of monitoring system for this particular disease. Since at least 2011, health care officials in the country have made attempts to implement "new policy measures, including mandatory case notification by all care providers via an electronic web-based system" (WHO, 2012, p. 2) Thus, the country has made some strides to regularly report cases of tuberculosis. However, an examination of the research in this country regarding this specific issue certainly alludes to the fact that there can be improvements made to the current system which would enable the country to have state of the art disease surveillance system capabilities to truly make a difference.

The current monitoring procedures in India are substantial, yet not as advanced and as specific as they could be. The country has devoted a number of resources towards counteracting the noxious effects of this disease, including the National Tuberculosis Control Programme, as well as the DOTS TB control program. Moreover, it has enacted some specific measures to account for reporting instances of tuberculosis regardless of whether an individual's disease is identified and treated in the public and the private sector. There are a fair amount of tuberculosis cases that are identified by the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) of WHO. However, the trouble with the current reporting system in India and in other countries is that there are some individuals who do not rely on NTPs for reporting of this disease. Therefore, the current national surveillance system is not fully 'national', and requires augmentation from both the private…… [read more]

Physiology Psychology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (950 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Christopher Reeve Case Study

Christopher Reeve was one of the most famous actors of the late 1970s and 1980s. He will forever be known as the big screen Superman. To most people, Reeve was synonymous with the character. This made it all the more shocking when he was injured severely in a horse riding accident in 1995 which cost him the use of his legs amongst other horrific injuries. Rather than let this destroy his life, the accident ultimately determined Reeve's legacy as he became an advocate for the rights of the disabled.

What neurological disorder, disease, or accident took place to interrupt the individual's ability?

On May 27, 1995 Christopher Reeve was riding his horse Buck and was attempting to jump a fence, something he had done many times before. Reeves had been an experience rider and had no reason to suspect any negative effects. The horse made a refusal and stopped moving, sending Reeve over the fence. According to reports, he landed head first, with all 215 pounds of his body bearing down on him (Reeve 1998,-page 19). Fortunately he was wearing a helmet and did no damage to his brain; however he sustained a cervical spinal injury, shattering both the first and second vertebrae, totally paralyzing the actor from the neck down.

2. What behaviors were exhibited by this individual following the disorder, disease, or accident?

Immediately after the accident Christopher Reeve was highly depressed and even considered suicide. In an interview with the Washington Post, Reeve said, "The thought that kept going through my mind was: I've ruined my live. I've ruined my life, and you only get one…I'm an idiot. I've spoiled everything" (Crews 1998). However, during his recovery, Reeve went through physical therapy and psychological treatment wherein he determined to overcome the odds and live happily. His dedication to his own health also led to his becoming an activist, both for people with spinal injuries and then in support of stem cell research which has the potential to further recover people like him with severe spinal injuries.

3. What were the individual's deficits as a result of this disorder, disease, or accident?

Following the accident, Christopher Reeve went from an able-bodied and highly athletic person to a man confined to a wheelchair which could only be moved by blowing air into a pipe. He was completely paralyzed from the neck down and had issues with protein levels and had low levels of hemoglobin in his body. It is believed that his injuries diminished his immune system (Hall 2005). Doctors report that he developed a pressure ulcer which was causing sepsis and had several infections which were attributed to his bone marrow. His constant need for antibiotics eventually harmed his organs and he died of cardiac arrest. Many believe the negative reaction to the medication led to the heart attack.…… [read more]

Stroke Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Stress and depression is also another risk factor that those with exposure to other stroke risk factors should avoid.

Familial and Hereditary Factors Associated With Stroke

Person A's risk of suffering a stroke is regarded greater than of Person B. If Person A's sister, brother, grandparent, or even parent has in the past had a stroke. It is important to… [read more]

History of Disease Surveillance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Disease Surveillance

Evolution of disease surveillance systems: A brief historical perspective

Long before the causes of modern pathologies were fully understood, governments tried to track the spread of communicable diseases. The first official attempts to do so existed in the forms of death records in Europe from the 1700s. In 19th century England, public health specialists began to study "variations in mortality rates from diseases such as cholera, dysentery, or workplace-related death (e.g., due to mining accidents)" to see if they "suggested socioeconomic, work-related, and environmental causes" (Ritz, Tager, & Balms 2005). This data, which eventually resulted in such findings as the association of cholera with fetid sewage in the drinking water, proved to be invaluable in tracking and ultimately curing many major infectious diseases.

Likewise, in the U.S. In 1878, "Congress authorized the U.S. Marine Hospital Service (the forerunner of today's Public Health Service {PHS}) to collect morbidity reports on cholera, smallpox, plague, and yellow fever from U.S. consuls overseas; this information was used to institute quarantine measures to prevent the introduction and spread of these diseases into the United States" (Historical perspective, 1996, MMWR). Soon after, reports were regularly published on these pathogens because of the likelihood of the deadly and potentially epidemic nature of the diseases. "By 1928, all states, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were reporting 29 infectious diseases to the Surgeon General" (Historical perspective, 1996, MMWR). By 1946, all state health offices submitted statistics on the reports of diseases considered to be threats to the public health via telegram. However, "because the reporting frequency varied for different conditions (i.e., weekly, monthly, or annually), the precise number of conditions considered nationally reportable in 1946 is unclear" (Historical perspective, 1996, MMWR).

Although surveillance has remained a consistent principle of public health improvement, the specific diseases flagged to be significant have varied over the years. In 1996, "gonorrhea, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), salmonellosis, shigellosis, hepatitis a, tuberculosis, primary and secondary syphilis, Lyme disease, hepatitis B, and pertussis" were the most significant, in contrast to previous…… [read more]

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