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Cirrhosis Liver Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,409 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cirrohsis (liver Disease)


When liver tissue is damaged by infection, toxin or ailment, it leads to a scarring called Cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is not reversible and is dangerous and it cannot be treated. Diseases of the liver can be instigated by hepatitis, some inherited diseases and alcoholism and in most of the cases, no indications exist for these diseases. Fatty… [read more]

Biological Virus vs. Bacteria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Virus v. Bacteria virus is a small particle that infects cells in biological organisms. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites; they can reproduce only by invading and controlling other cells as they lack the cellular machinery for self-reproduction. The term virus usually refers to those particles which infect eukaryotes (multi-celled organisms and many single-celled organisms), while the term bacteriophage or phage is used to describe those infecting prokaryotes (bacteria and bacteria-like organisms).

Typically these particles carry a small amount of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by some form of protective coat consisting of proteins, lipids, and glycoproteins. Importantly, viral genomes code not only for the proteins needed to package its genetic material, but also for proteins needed by the virus during lysogenic and lytic cycles, the reproductive cycles. A virus reproduces by causing a host cell that it infects to create copies of itself. When found outside of a host cell, viruses consist of genomic nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (depicted as blue), surrounded by a protein coat, or capsid, with or without a glycoprotein envelope. There are three types of viruses: a bacterial virus, otherwise called a bacteriophage, an animal virus, and a retrovirus.

A phage (also called bacteriophage) is a small virus that infects only bacteria. Like viruses that infect eukaryotes, phages consist of an outer protein hull and the enclosed genetic material (which consists of double-stranded DNA in 95% of the phages known) of 5 to 650 kbp (kilo base pairs) with a length of 24 to 200 nm. The vast majority of phages (95%) have a tail to let them inject their genetic material into the host. Phages were discovered independently by Frederick Twort in 1915 and by Felix d'Herelle in 1917.

Phages infect only specific bacteria. Some phages are virulent, meaning that upon infecting a cell they immediately begin reproducing, and within a short time lyse (destroy) the cell, releasing new phages. Some phages (so-called temperate phages) can instead enter a relatively harmless state, either integrating their genetic material into the chromosomal DNA of the host bacterium, much like endogenous retroviruses in animals, or establishing themselves as plasmids. These endogenous phages, referred to as prophages, are then copied with every cell division together with the DNA of the host cell. They do not kill the cell, but monitor (via some proteins they code for) the status of their host. When the host cell shows signs of stress (meaning it might be about to die soon), the endogenous phages become active again and start their reproductive cycle, resulting in the lysis of the host cell. Sometimes, prophages even provide benefit to the host bacterium while they are dormant, by adding new functions to the bacterial genome, a phenomenon called lysogenic conversion. A famous example is the harmless Vibrio bacteria strain, which is turned into Vibrio cholerae by a phage, causing cholera.

Phages play an important role in molecular biology as cloning vectors to insert DNA into bacteria. Phage therapy has been used since the… [read more]

HIV and AIDS Content Knowledge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,508 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conversely, the mistrust and lack of openness makes caring dentists, as well as other medical professionals, feel frustrated, betrayed and somewhat abused. The primary focus in all situations is base on each person's personal condition. Dentists and all other dental professionals cannot plead ignorance as a reason for refusing to treat an HIV infected individual. Codes of conduct for dentists… [read more]

Sickle Cell Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sickle cell disease or Sickle Cell Anemia (as it used to be called) is a disease of the red blood cells, which in inherited. It was first reported in Western Literature in 1910, when a midwestern physician described a patient from the West Indies who had an anemia, which was characterized, by unusually shaped cells. In the 1920s, it was… [read more]

Health Psychology Eating Disorders Among Asian American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Eating disorders among Asian-Americans

The following study attempts to explore and delineate the problem of eating disorders among Asian-Americans. The study presents an overview of the issue and found that there exists a serious problem with regards to eating disorders among Asian-Americans, particularly among women. This syndrome is exacerbated by the complexity of acculturation in American society. These and other… [read more]

Minamata Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Environmental Science

Minamata Disease

This is a paper on Minamata Disease. There are six references used for this paper.

There are a number of diseases which have had profound affects on people throughout the world. It is important to examine Minameta Disease and determine how it was discovered, its causes, how it was settled, the roles played by the government… [read more]

Hemophilia Is an Inherited Disorder That Limits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


HEMOPHILIA is an inherited disorder that limits blood-clotting activity in the body. Usually after a wound, the body starts the process of blood clotting but this ability is impaired in Hemophiliacs and the result is excessive bleeding. While most girls are likely to be the carriers of this disease, it amazingly affects male offspring more often than men. Some believe that only males are affected but that might not be entirely true as we shall discuss later. In cases, where a male is born to a female carrier, the chances of him developing hemophilia are 50%. The male hemophilic would transmit the disease to all his female children but cannot transmit it to his sons making females the sole carriers. There are two well-known types of this disease namely hemophilia a and hemophilia B.

Hemophilia is an inherited disorder that prevents blood from clotting normally. People with hemophilia are at risk for serious and sometimes life-threatening bleeding episodes. Individuals with hemophilia a, the most common of these disorders, are deficient in a specific blood clotting component called factor VIII." (FDA Consumer; 2003)

Hemophilia causes severe problems for the patient when the bleeding is internal or when the wound is deep. In most minor injury cases, blood clotting works like it would in a non-hemophiliac but in other cases, excessive bleeding is accompanied by pain, swelling and sometimes even serious permanent damage. Symptoms appear in toddlers when their joins begin to swell up.

There is still no permanent cure for the disease; however there have been some treatments that help patients in easing of their symptoms. Prior to 1960s, the main treatment included complete blood transfusion or plasma replacement but in 1960s, another much better treatment was discovered. The infected patient could be infused with concentrated clotting factors that was simple procedure and could even be administered at home. However this treatment for all its simplicity and ease turned out to be major cause of concern in 1980s when it was found that most patients were affected with hepatitis or HIV (AIDS) due to contamination in concentrated clotting factor. Because of this, blood donors are now carefully screened and factors donated are given heat treatment…… [read more]

Thousands of Diseases Afflicting Humans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … thousands of diseases afflicting humans throughout the world. It is important to look at gigantism and determine its causes, symptoms, the population likely to suffer from the disease and any prevention or treatments that are available.

What is Gigantism

Gigantism is a disease which results in a person having "extraordinary physical proportions (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)." There have been reports throughout history of individuals exhibiting these qualities, and the "concept of superhuman size, whether in the form of Goliath, Hercules, of Bigfoot, has consistently inspired a sense of awe and enthrallment (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)."

Causes of Gigantism

Gigantism is caused by an excessive amount growth hormone (GH) being secreted by the pituitary (Simmons, 1999). This excess of GH occurs "during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)."

Almost every case of gigantism is caused by a "benign tumor of the pituitary gland, known as a growth-hormone-producing pituitary adenoma (www.mayoclinic.com)."

It can be "caused by eosinophilia or chromophobe adenoma and its usual course is insidious (www.medfamily.org/diagnosis/P/diagnosis-terms-Pituitary_gigantism)." Other causes include:

somatotropic cell adenoma of the pituitary somatotropic cell adenoma of mixed cell somatotropic cell adenoma of stem cell bronchial adenoma pancreatic islet cell tumor carcinoid tumor ectopic growth hormone production (www.medfamily.org/diagnosis/P/diagnosis-terms-Pituitary_gigantism)."


Gigantism is characterized by "craniofacial overgrowth, with the mandible being more affected than the maxilla (Simmons, 1999)." person may experience headaches, loss of vision or other problems with the central nervous system if there is a large pituitary tumor.

Gigantism can also exhibit the following "signs and symptoms:

Abnormally tall stature

Disproportionately large hands, feet and facial bones

Enlargement of the heart

Degenerative arthritis

Excessive sweating

Snoring and sleep apnea

High blood pressure

Diabetes (www.mayoclinic.com)." doctor may suspect gigantism if there is "inappropriate excessive growth spurt, dorsal kyphosis, manifestations of generalized osteoporosis, thickening of skin and soft tissue growth (www.thedoctorslounge.net/clinlounge/diseases/endocrinology/gigantism)."


If a physician suspects an individual has gigantism, tests are run which include:

Glucose tolerance test: Normally growth hormone is suppressed after oral intake of 50mg of glucose due to inhibition of GHRH secretion. In cases of gigantism, growth hormone levels fail to suppress or may even rise.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, somatomedin C) assays: are always elevated in gigantism and do not fluctuate like growth hormone levels (www.thedoctorslounge.net/clinlounge/diseases/endocrinology/gigantism)."


Treatments of a "pituitary tumor may include radiation therapy, medications to decrease growth hormone production or block its action, or surgery to remove the tumor. Surgery can cure the disease if the entire tumor can be removed. The chances of cure are much higher when the tumor is small and has not spread beyond the pituitary gland (www.mayoclinic.com)."

Surgical options include "tranfenoidal adenectomy or hypophysectomy of the acidophil adenoma. Drugs used to reduce growth hormone levels include bromocriptine and cabergonline, which is another dopaminergic agent. External radiotherapy is an option in treating acidophil adenomas (www.thedoctorslounge.net/clinlounge/diseases/endocrinology/gigantism)."

In 2002, it was announced that a new group of proteins, which were discovered in 1997 by Australian researchers, may offer hope to sufferers of gigantism.

This protein group is known as… [read more]

Neuro Assessment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Neurological Disorders: Viral Induced

Neurological disease can be attributed in some cases to complications of a serious nature stemming from a virus infection. This paper intends to research neurological disorders and to further research what is considered proper assessment of the patient suspected of having a neurological disorder.

Neurological disorders caused by virus infections can be distinguished by those which are acute diseases and those which are chronic syndromes. In the case of acute neurological syndromes the virus reaches the brain either by traveling throughout the blood stream or through spreading along peripheral nerves. The causes of these type neurological disorders are that of Asymptomatic Infection which is inclusive of the disease:

Acute Viral Encephalitis: Symptoms include fever, headache, neck stiffness, confusion, and possibly convulsions.

Flaccid Paralysis: Symptoms are that of headache, fever and affectations of paralysis to lower limbs.

Aseptic meningitis: Symptoms are headache and stiffness in the neck along with a fever as well as photophobia.

Post infectious encephalomyelitis: Harder to detect due to the long incubation and slow progression of the symptoms of the disease.

II. Chronic Neurological Disease:

Subacute-sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

Progressive multifocal leuco-encephalopathy (PML)

Retrovirus disease

Spongiform encephalopathies

III. Assessment of the Neurological Disease:

Assessment of the patient when implementing a neurological examination starts with observation of the patient while querying the patient for health history. Watching the pace and coordination with which the patient moves will help in the assessment as well as paying attention to the "demeanor, dress, responses, errors in language or speech patterns as well as whether or not the patient seems to have trouble with recall."

The patient that is unable to pay attention or does not seem fully cognitive should tip-off the health care professional that a Mini-Mental Status Examination is in order.…… [read more]

Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem

"New Approaches to Treatment." (2002). The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all_page-item_id=4702

'Radiation Therapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Radiation_Therapy_20.asp?rnav=cri

"What Are the Key Statistics for Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1X_What_are_the_key_statistics_for_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri 'What Are the Risk Factors for Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004) American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_What_are_the_risk_factors_for_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri

Also known as Hodgkin's Lymphoma

The lymphatic system is a network of small vessels that carry lymph, a fluid containing white blood cells that help to fight infections and is part of the body's immune system an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus

The "B-cells" and the "T-cells" are the two main types of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes which mature in the bone marrow or lymphatic organs and are called "B-cells"; the ones that mature in the thymus gland, located behind the breast bone are called "T-cells."

large cells that contain several nuclei lowered resistance is due to low white blood cell counts due to low blood platelets due to low red blood cells

Vinorelbine, idarubicin, and gemcitabine are some of the new chemotherapy drugs that are being studied. ("What's New ... " 2004)… [read more]

Bacteria Virus Eukaryote Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Statistics and Part Maintenance

L. Jones

Infectious Bacteria, Viruses, Eukaryotes:

When one considers the possibilities of human disease, be it originating from a virus, bacteria, or even eukarote, it is important to first consider possible ports of entry. Most disease causing organisms prefer specific entry points to gain access to their hosts. These entry points are known as "ports of… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Currently Affects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One area of cognitive-behavioral research into the prevention of Alzheimer's involves the study of the link between leisure pursuits and dementia prevention. Specifically, investigators believe that activities such as chess, crosswords or reading that engage a person's cognitive abilities may have some ability to prevent the development of Alzheimer's. A study done in 2003 (Vergese et al.) examined the effects… [read more]

Parkinson's Disease Is a Neurological Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There is a positive relation between depression and Parkinsonism and in at least 30% to 50% of patients depression is found to be a co-existing condition. Dysphagia is again a severe complication and the patient may even require a feeding tube. [Jeff Blackmer]

Medical treatment

Medical treatment of Parkinson's disease is broadly divided under two main categories namely surgical and… [read more]

Public AIDS Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The reference to 'cancer' is ironic, because, although many AIDS sufferers were blamed for contracting the ailment through sexual practices, individuals such as a grandmother who smoked and contracts lung cancer, or a man who has a heart attack after eating unhealthy foods for many years, are often not similarly blamed for their ailments, nor is the contribution of personal behavior in cancer and heart disease seen as a reason that more public funds should not be diverted to curtailing the epidemic.

One of the most controversial allegations of Shilt's book is that one of the leading AIDS researchers, Dr. Gallo did not truly care about researching potential cures or methods of limiting the ailment until he felt he would be rewarded financially and with public acclaim for doing so. However, the fact that the epidemic has been contained through education and through continued research into new drug treatments ultimately is more important than such backward-looking name-calling. It is more important to draw important lessons from the epidemic. Much like the frequent quote about the Holocaust, that the Nazis took everyone until 'there was no one left to speak for me,' eventually public health epidemics take and threaten everyone, or at least someone from someone's family or neighborhood. Disease does not vote, it knows no culture, race, ethnicity, gender, or sexuality, and thus politicians and activists must strive however imperfectly to be equally democratic in their efforts to generate funding for research and education to fight ailments of the future.

Works Cited

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.

Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.… [read more]

Immune System and Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Herpes is spread by shedding. The stress in *****es is found when they are forced to travel long distances to breed. (Wakeman, 2003) This often happens in formal dog training. Mice with herpes infection, whose social organization of colonies were restructured succumbed to the stress and began showing symptoms of herpes. Social stress does play an important role: social reorganization… [read more]

Heart Disease (CAD: Coronary Artery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Patients' reaction to stress causes high blood pressure increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and cardiac arrest. The issue of Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association reported that Japanese women who are highly stressed are at double risk of heart disease-related deaths compared to those with low levels of stress (Journal Report, 2002).

Prevention Strategies

Some of the methods doctors recommend to reduce the risk of heart diseases are:

Weight loss - Obesity is among the diseases that is considered a risk factor in heart diseases. Thus, weight loss may lessen fats in the body, minimizing the possibility of developing heart diseases.

Smoking Cessation

Balanced and Healthy Diet - good eating habits reduces the development of diseases.

Treatment Options

To recover or prevent heart diseases, doctors usually offer the following options to patients (wral.com, 2003).

Change in Lifestyle - this includes a healthy diet, daily exercise, and quitting from vices that cause heart diseases such as smoking and too much intake of alcohols.

Medication - this involves treatment of diseases, that cause heart disease, through drugs and medications such as aspirin and nitrates.

Surgery - this is the last resort of treatment doctors recommend. This is especially essential in cases where there are internal disorders in the heart and arteries.


Coronary Artery Disease.

HeartPoint. 20 August 2003. http://www.heartpoint.com/coronartdisease.html

Heart Attack, Stroke, and Cardiac Arrest Warning Signs.

American Heart Association. 20 August 2003. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3053#Heart_Attack

Heart Attack Symptoms and Warning Signs.

HeartInfo.Org. 21 August 2003. http://www.heartinfo.com/search/display.asp?ID=600

Heart Disease Treatment Options.

Wral.Com. 22 August 2003. http://www.wral.com/hearthealth/1938335/detail.html

Heart Info News.

HeartInfo.Org. 22 August 2003. http://www.heartinfo.com/… [read more]

Rosacea Is a Skin Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Rosacea is also ascribed to some genetic disorder, which finds expression during the early middle age. In the cases of acute Rhinophyma there is a clear relation with the sebaceous glands leading us to infer that rosacea may be induced by the abnormal activity of the sebaceous glands. Still this doesn't fully account for the cause, as there was no trace of sebaceous gland malfunction in some cases of early stage rosacea lesions. In ocular rosacea there is a clear deformation of the epithelial tissue leading to gritty sensation and sometimes-corneal damage with the accompanying loss of visual acuity is also experienced. [Marian.S. Macsai]


Since we have not yet clearly identified the cause for rosacea there is no complete cure and treatment methodologies revolve around prevention rather than cure. While mild symptoms can be treated with antibiotic tablets (tetracycline) and topical gels (metronidazole) very acute and chronic cases need surgical procedures. Although Corticosteroids can be very useful in suppressing symptoms of rosacea they are not advisable for long-term treatment due to adverse side effects. However observations have made it clear that discontinuation of either topical gels or oral antibiotics would incur the relapse of the symptoms.


Though there is no full cure for rosacea there are lots of remedial solutions, which can greatly limit the intensity of the symptoms. One of the most basic treatment is the use of tetracycline tablets. Another very useful method is the use of metronidazole gels. Studies have indicated significant results in patients with more than 95% of them showing positive response to treatment. The anti-inflammatory effect of these medicines is the key in treating rosacea. Accutane tablets are also found to be very effective in preventing eruptions but they are not to be prescribed for pregnant women as it is found to cause serious birth related abnormalities. However in the case of severely affected patients (as in the case of Rhinophyma) medical treatment has little effect. Laser treatment is best advocated in these cases.

Laser pulses can be used to treat the symptoms of rocasea. Results have indicated a positive response when laser treatment is used in combination with other therapies. Laser treatments remove telangiectasia and greatly reduce the redness. Dr. Amy Forman Taub, director, dermatology division of the Northwestern Memorial Physicians Group, Northbrook, Ill says, "Lasers can get rid of blood vessels," "You've got somebody a lot better with medical treatment, but then you have fixed and dilated vessels and background redness that you can't get to go away. Lasers pick up where the medical treatment leaves off." [Fred Wilson] Currently Co2 lasers are used for treatment of rosacea symptoms. Though not fatal the disease has debilitating consequences on the personality of the patient and hence necessitates a thorough understanding and professional treatment.


Fred Wilson "Laser Offers relief in diminishing Rosacea," July 1st, 2002 http://www.dermatologytimes.com/dermatologytimes/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=24834

2) Jonathan Wilkin, "Standard Classification of Rosacea" "A Special report,"

Journal of American Academy of dermatology" April 2002, Vol 46

3) Designed by "Simon Darken,"… [read more]

Women and AIDS in New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,287 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The cost of their treatment has to be absorbed by city services and other agencies, creating a constant and significant financial drain.

In the next decade, New York City will have to find solutions to these multiple problems: providing adequate diagnosis and treatments for women with HIV or AIDS; finding homes for children left parentless by AIDS; and solving the… [read more]

Cushing's Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Radiation treatments may occur after surgery (or if surgery cannot be performed), as well as the prescription of medicines that are "cortisone-like" for several months following the tumor removal (Kirk, 1134).

Cushing's syndrome is not so easily remedied, if the illness for which the steroids are being used is severe enough to cause than the Cushing's syndrome itself. If the medicines are stopped, the body will return to its normal condition. In these extreme cases, the syndrome is managed through diet and medications (for high blood sugar), replacement of potassium, treatment of the high blood pressure, increased calcium intake, as well as adjusting the steroid intake during severe illnesses, any surgical procedures, or injuries (Margulies).

The life of someone with either Cushing's disease or Cushing's syndrome depend on the severity of the cortisol excess, the duration, the overall health of the person, and the type (as well as curability) of the Cushing's syndrome. Resolution of the symptoms after being cured can take 2-18 months, during which time some patients are frustrated with the slow progression of their recovery (Margulies). When Cushing's syndrome cannot be cured, a lifetime of dealing with persistent fatigue, weakness in the muscles, abdominal and facial weight gain, depression, and all the aforementioned symptoms (Margulies).

Little progress has been made, though surgery has advanced with the development of the transsphenoidal technique. Before, both the adrenal glands were usually removed, causing Nelson's syndrome - excessive pituitary growth (Margulies). The syndrome is manageable, and curable in some instances. When steroids are being taken, the condition is all too common, and incurable. In adults, women seem to be more affected by pituitary related Cushing's disease than men, with the total incidence is "5 to 25 cases per million people per year" (Margulies). Infertility in women can occur, though it is treatable with hormone replacement therapy.

Dr. Harvey Cushing first had a patient (a woman) with the symptoms and signs of the disease in 1912. Thirty years later, in 1932, he linked the overproduction of cortisol in the adrenal glands to an abnormality in the pituitary gland (Margulies). Since that time, many leaps and bounds have been made medically, though patients with certain types of Cushing's will never be cured.

Works Cited

Kirk M.D., Lawrence F., Hash M.D., Robert B., Katner M.D., Harold P., Jones M.D., Tom. "Cushing's Disease: Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation." American Family Physician. Vol. 62, No. 5. pp. 1119-27

Kirk M.D., Lawrence F., Hash M.D., Robert B., Katner M.D., Harold P., Jones M.D., Tom. "Patient Information: Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease." American Family Physician. Vol. 62, No. 5. pp. 1133-4

Margulies M.D., Paul. "Cushing's Syndrome: The facts you need to know." NADF Online. http://www.medhelp.org/www/nadf4.htm21Mar 2002… [read more]

Discovery This Neurological Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Treatment and Other Interesting Facts About the Disorder

No known or developed cure at present

Medications for seizures when they occur

Occupational therapy, physiotherapy and hydrotherapy recommended for prolonging mobility

Intervention programs to increase social interaction and increasing attention span

Music therapy to reduce repetitious hand movements

Equipment tailored for individual requirements such as braces to inhibit scoliosis, splints for controlling hand movements

Despite severe impairments, majority believed to be able to reach adulthood (up to ages 40s), but with increased risk of death

Occurrence of sudden and unexplained death possible with brain stem malfunction or dysfunction and breathing stoppage

Continued research work in the fields of neuropathology, neurochemistry, neuroimaging, nutrition and genetics, primarily by the Rett Center. Center established in 1985 by Dr. Alan Percy and funded by the National Institutes of Health as source of new information on the disorder


Baker, O (1999). Faculty Control Gene Underlines Retardation (Rett Syndrome).

Science News, Science Service, Inc.

Gene Today ... Gone Tomorrow (October 1999). Nature Genetics

Lewis, Jackie and Debbie Wilson (1998). Pathways to Learning in Rett Syndrome.

David Fulton Publishers

Pevsner, John (2001). Rett Syndrome 2001, handout. And slides. Kennedy Krieger Institute…… [read more]

Infectious Disease of Animals Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


TB transmission in households can be prevented through adequate ventilation, education on cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene. In healthcare facilities workers who provide acre to patients with TB should follow control procedures so as to prevent the infection from passing from one person to another (Knechel, 2009).


People with TB should not be stigmatized in the society but embraced. If there is no stigmatization of TB then people will not be afraid to get tested and hence get the treatment required hence prevent any spreading of the disease. Political leaders should advocate for and provide funds for programs that help in the creation of TB awareness to the public. In this way people with get adequate information on TB and hence will be on the look out to ensure that they prevent any further spread of the disease.

One of the policies that can be implemented to stop the spread of tuberculosis is mandatory screening. This can be implemented especially in areas where TB is prevalent. In order for this policy to work people have to be ready to go for regular screening in order to ascertain that they are TB free. This also needs a lot of investment in terms of time and resources so as to educate people on the importance of undergoing TB screening.


Mandal, A. (2014). History of Tuberculosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx

Knechel, N. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical Features, and Diagnosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/29/2/34.short

Mathema, B., Kurepina, N., Bifani, P., & Kreiswirth, B. (2006). Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights. Retrieved October 18, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592690/… [read more]

Controversies Surrounding Autism Spectrum Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Brain Development, 35(2), 119-27.

Campos-Outcalt, D. (2011). Should all children be screened for autism spectrum disorders? No: Screening is not ready for prime time. American Family Physician, 84(4), 377-8.

CDC. (2014a). Vaccine safety. Retrieved 24 Apr. 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/Autism/Index.html.

CDC. (2014b). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years: Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63(2), 1-21.

CDC. (2014c). Births and natality. Retrieved 26 Apr. 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/births.htm.

CDC. (2014d). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Retrieved 24 Apr. 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/hcp-dsm.html.

Daniels, A.M., Halladay, A.K., Shih, A., Elder, L.M., & Dawson, G. (2014). Approaches to enhancing the early detection of autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review of the literatures. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(2), 141-52.

Gadad, B.S., Hewitson, L., Young, K.A., & German, D.C. (2013). Neuropathology and animal models of autism: Genetic and environmental factors. Autism Research and Treatment, 2013, 731935. Doi: 10.1155/2013/731935.

Leonard, Helen, Dixon, Glenys, Whitehouse, Andrew J.O., Bourke, Jenny, Aiberti, Karina, Nassar, Natasha et al., (2010). Unpacking the complex nature of the autism epidemic. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4, 548-554.

Lipkin, P.H. & Hyman, S.L. (2011). Should all children be screened for autism spectrum disorders? Yes: Merging science, policy, and practice. American Family Physician, 84(4), 361-7.

Reichow, B., Barton, E.E., Boyd, B.A., & Hume, K. (2012). Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 10, CD009260.

Rice, C.E. (2011). The changing prevalence of the autism spectrum disorders. American Family Physician, 83(5), 515-20.

Ridker, P.M. & Wilson, P.W. (2013). A trial-based approach to statin guidelines. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(11), 1123-4.

Roberts, A.L., Lyall, K., Hart, J.E., Laden, F., Just, A.C., Bobb, J.F. et al. (2013). Perinatal air pollutant…… [read more]

Application of the Three Levels of Prevention Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (794 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Community Health Advocacy

Three levels of prevention

The three levels of prevention, primary secondary and tertiary represent the different stages of disease, which they target. The primary prevention level is used to prevent the person from getting the disease. As argued by Ureda and Yates (2005), this is the true preventive strategy since it aims at preventing the occurrence of the disease. Primary prevention strategies reduce the incidence and prevalence of the disease by encouraging people to protect themselves from exposure to disease risk factors. A quintessential example given by Green (1971) is using sunscreen to protect from the ultraviolet rays of the sun as a prevention mechanism against skin cancer. Other forms of primary prevention include immunization, public health education through health promotion activities, chlorination of water, and legislative activities such as speed limits to prevent road accidents.

For a community health nurse, the first level of prevention, primary prevention, is of extreme importance since it includes getting involved with activities such as health promotion, immunizing the population against communicable diseases and providing health advise against risky activities such as smoking. Primary prevention as a community health nurse also involves improving host resistance through proper nutrition and promoting healthy behaviors and fostering safe and clean environments to reduce the disease risk.

The second level of prevention, secondary prevention is where the disease has already occurred by happens before the person notices there is anything wrong. As stated by Flaskerud (1992), secondary prevention is aimed at detecting diseases and responding to the treatment needs as soon as possible. For certain diseases whose progression is slow, it is effective at reducing the impact of the disease on individuals and communities. One approach to secondary prevention that is common is screening. This is essentially the use of different test to detect early signs of disease. Such as computerized tests that are noninvasive aiming at detecting early signs of heart disease. This test, which uses computerized tomography scans, looks for arterial calcium deposits that are early signs of heart disease. Other forms of secondary prevention include eye tests to check for glaucoma, pap smears for cervical cancer, mammography for breast cancer, and PSA (prostate-specific-antigen) test for prostate cancer.

In community health nursing, the second level of prevention is important because it involves being involved in activities such as screening procedures such as routine blood sugar tests for patients above 40…… [read more]

Merkel Cancers Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


From an epidemiological perspective, the cancer occurs most often in Caucasian males between 60-80, males being twice as likely to contract the disease. It is commonly mistaken as another type of histological cancer, but the incidence is increasing rapidly. As well, immune suppression may robustly increase the odds of developing the disease -- MCC occurs more than 30 times more often in individuals with chronic leukemia and 14 times more often in individuals with HIV. Because it is still relatively uncommon, though, treatments have typically been focused upon surgery, radiation/chemotherapy and sentinel lymph node biopsies.

Another interesting aspect of the disease is that MCPyV negatively regulates transcriptional activation and limits the cellular mechanisms ability to repair itself chemically. Polyomavirus STs do have important functions in viral replication and transformation, which is why it is often difficult to discern the actual expression of MCPyV on cellular protein-based molecules.

There is a previously undiscovered function of MCPyV and antigens as a cellular inhibitor that may, in certain cases, explain the relationship between the virus and the manner in which MCC so aggressively and quickly attacks other cellular structures of the body. What appears to be happening is that the combination of the MCPyV and small and large antigens work in tandem to destabilize the body's natural immune response, which particularly when the individual's immune system is already compromised, increases the seriousness and likely persistent infection of not only the host cell but the surrounding cells. It also appears that certain aspects of ultraviolet light may act in conjunction with MCPyV to enhance the virus' natural tendency towards rapid and efficacious infection. This may, in part, be due to particular mutations caused by heavy exposure to certain light frequencies, which then tend to damage the interactions between cellular proteins and cellular phosphatase subunits that, in healthy cells, tend to act with proteins as a protectant and mediation unit to repair damaged structures.


Griffiths, D., et al. (2013). Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T. Antigen Targets the NEMO Adaptor Protein To Disrupt Inflammatory Signaling. Journal of Virology. 87 (24): 13853. DOI:…… [read more]

Diabetes Insipidus: Parental Education Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,283 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Diabetes Insipidus: Parental Education

Diabetes Insipidus

This case study involves a 10-year-old male child who has been diagnosed with diabetes insipidous and the goal of this essay is to develop a plan to educate his parents about the pathophysiology of the disease. The primary forms of diabetes insipidus are central, nephrogenic, and primary polydipsia; therefore, discussing the pathophysiology of this disease will require addressing the many different causes.

Diabetes Insipidus (DI)

The percentage of water in a healthy person's blood is tightly controlled by the brain through the regulated release of a hormone called antidiuretic hormone, otherwise known as arginine vasopressin (Simmons, 2010). If either the brain or the kidneys develop problems then the percentage of water in the blood can drop until a person becomes severely dehydrated. The lost water is excreted through urination. The specific gravity of water is 1.000 and that for normal urine is between 1.005 and 1.030.

In contrast, DI patients will experience excessive thirst (polydipsia), excessive urination (polyuria), dehydration, and blood thickening due to the loss of water (Simmons, 2010). Dehydration will be evident by cracked lips, fever, weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and weight loss, while the symptoms associated with blood thickening (hypernatremia) include restlessness, diminishment of deep tendon reflexes, and seizures. Laboratory tests will reveal high serum sodium concentrations exceeding 145 mEq/L, compared to the normal range of 135-145 mEq/L.

Central DI (CDI)

There are several dozen unique genetic mutations that can lead to the production of inactive vasopressin hormone in the brain, thereby causing familial CDI (Di Lorgi et al., 2012). Most patients will have had a parent who had CDI (autosomal dominant), but there are a few patients have the disease because they inherited the defective gene from both parents (autosomal recessive). Up to half of all CDI cases are considered idiopathic or cause unknown, but with medical imaging advances and screening for auto-antibodies (antibodies against self) against vasopressin-secreting cells in the brain, the causes of most forms of CDI can now be explained. The detection of circulating antibodies to vasopressin-secreting brain cells is one sign of autoimmune disease. If a head MRI scan reveals a swollen pituitary then autoimmune disease is a likely diagnosis. A possible precipitating event for autoimmune CDI is a viral infection, which occurs in about 25% of idiopathic CDI cases.

A number of other conditions can cause CDI, including traumatic brain injury, surgery, or cancer (Di Lorgi et al., 2012). These causes are easily diagnosed using patient history and imaging technology. Some other causes of CDI are vascular disease, sarcoidosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, brain malformation, or malformations of the skull.

In the absence of a family history of CDI, head trauma, cancer, history of surgery, auto-antibodies to vasopressin-secreting cells, or imaging that shows a thickened pituitary stalk or brain/skull malformation, it seems unlikely that the 10-year-old boy, who is the subject of this case study, is suffering from CDI. A possible genetic cause, however, cannot be ruled out.

Primary Polydipsia

Primary polydipsia is observed in up to… [read more]

Cancer: A Deep Study Essay

Essay  |  25 pages (8,806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Cancer: A deep study through ages

Oncology is the study of cancer. It's a field in which numerous doctors and scientists have worked all across the world. Their work in chemistry, physiology, anatomy and epidemiology transformed oncology into what it is today. Oncology is the fastest developing field in science with cancer understanding and technological breakthroughs. It is a quickly… [read more]

Polycythemia Vera and Lou Gehrig Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Symptoms and Causes

The earliest and perhaps most common symptoms of ALS include chewing and/or swallowing difficulties, slurred speech, general weakness of the muscles -- particularly arm and leg muscles, stiffness of muscles, occasional cramps, etc. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- NINDS, 2013). As NINDS further points out, in later stages of the disease, individuals affected could in addition to experiencing difficulties in breathing also have an increased risk of pneumonia.

The exact cause of ALS according to the ALS Association (2010) is yet to be fully understood. There is however ongoing scientific research with bodies like NINDS conducting further biomedical studies on ALS.


In addition to triggering or bringing about breathing problems, ALS has also been associated with dementia. With regard to breathing, ALS causes paralysis of some breathing muscles. The condition could also affect an individual's swallowing control muscles.


According to ALS Association (2010), currently, there are no drugs or medical procedures that have the ability to either completely halt or reverse ALS. However, riluzole which according to the association is an FDA approved drug has been shown to slow ALS progression. Some symptoms and complications of the disease can be managed via the utilization of specialized medical devices.


ALS Association. (2010). What is ALS? Retrieved from http://www.alsa.org/about-als/what-is-als.html

Hines, R.L. & Marschall, K.E. (2012). Stoelting's Anesthesia and Co-existing Disease (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.

MedicinePlus. (2013). Polycythemia Vera. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000589.htm

Mills, E.J. (2005). Handbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- NINDS. (2013). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/amyotrophiclateralsclerosis/detail_ALS.htm… [read more]

Parkinson Disease Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Instead, it will logically divide the tasks, based upon the strengths of the individual. When this happens, the report will be more detailed and accurate.

Questions you will pose to the audience or other participation methods you will incorporate into your presentation

The audience will be asked a series of questions. These include:

How many people have relatives who were impacted by Parkinson disease?

Do you think old age or genetics are playing role?

How does this impact the individual and their family?

The participating method will focus on encouraging the audience to become involved in the discussion and share their experiences on Parkinson disease. This will make the presentation more lively and informative. When this happens, the audience will be more interested in the topic and can use these findings for their own knowledge.

A list of at least four scholarly references from which you will obtain information on your disease or syndrome

The list of sources that will be used in the primary research include: Sanchez (2009), Follet (2010), Cummings (1992) and Leroy (1998). These different areas will highlight the research which has been conducted and the impact this is having on those affected by the condition. This is when specific insights can be provided. That is showing potential causes and where new breakthroughs are taking place. In the future, this will educate everyone about Parkinson disease and how modern medicine is playing a role in seeking out a cure. (Sanchez, 2009) (Follet, 2010) (Cummings, 1992) (Leroy, 1998)


Cummings, J. (1992). Depression and Parkinson Disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149 (4), pp. 443 -- 454.

Follet, J. (2010). Pallidal vs. Subthalamic. New England Journal of Medicine,…… [read more]

Animal Studies Relating to Neurological Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Among them, they note that excess significance can mean that there is a problem with the study, up to and including bias, but excess significance alone absolutely does not mean that there is definitely bias. Rather, it just means there could and might be, not that it's proven or that it actually exists. They also note that given the relatively small size of some of the samples, this makes parsing or verification of any of the relevant results quite difficult to pull off. Indeed, the median sample size was 16. As such, such a study would only allow for eight pairs of two each and that is on the small side if being definitive and sure is the goal.


In the end, the study reviewed for this report was clearly focuses on a few facets of prior studies and how they offer an incorrect if not incomplete picture of what is being research. Indeed, only doing a study on 16 subjects (or even less) is not going to allow for definitive and wide-reaching conclusions. In addition, studies that have even a hint of possible or verifiable bias are not going to be upheld by the commonly held virtues of validity and reliability. If a different group of researchers doing the same study and on the same size sample and in the same way do not get the same result at least the vast majority of the time, that is a clear sign that there are problems with the research methodology or the political/ideological axes to be grinded by the people running the study.


Tsilidis, K. (2013). Evaluation of Excess…… [read more]

Cognitions Pertaining to Illness Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For example, during their recruitment of subjects, they administered a hypochondriasis scale test without their knowledge or permission, and depending on the results of this test, subjects were invited to participate in a fictitious study about a fictitious disease in a deceptive health care-appearing setting in return for an undisclosed amount of money. More importantly, the researchers were not health care professionals but still based their eligibility criteria on their lay interpretation of the results that emerged from this telephonic administration of the hypochondriasis scale test to exclude diabetic and hypoglycemic individuals. The potential for error here was high and the implications of a mistake could have been severe. In addition, the saliva test used by the researchers was also a fake and provided consistent results irrespective of the health care status of the individual respondents.

More significantly, despite the researchers assurances that none of the subjects appeared to experience any distress from being falsely advised about their test results, it is reasonable to conclude that at least some of these young people experienced significant distress upon learning they suffered from a condition that might have serious health care implications, even if just for a little while. Indeed, it is entirely possible that some of the subjects, preoccupied with their newfound diseased state, might not have listened to or understood the information provided in the debriefing and may still believe that they suffer from this deficiency and are at risk of developing pancreatic disorders, including diabetes. There was no follow-up indicated to ensure that the subjects fully understood the nature of this study. Finally, there was no institutional review board approval mentioned by the researchers.

Suggested possible explanations of the findings

The finding that the subjects in the high-prevalence conditions estimated that a greater percentage of the college-age population suffers from the fictitious deficiency described to the subjects by the researchers is explainable by the fact that misery loves company and no one wants to feel like an isolated leper in a population of otherwise-healthy people. Likewise, the finding that the subjects in the low-prevalence group rated the fictitious condition as being more serious compared to those in the low-prevalence group is explainable by the fact that the former were comfortably excluded from the deficiency and therefore did not have a personal investment in the condition, while the latter did have a personal investment in the condition and therefore elected to view it as less serious as a coping mechanism.

Finally, the fact that more of the subjects who believed they suffered from the fictitious deficiency requested more information about the condition compared to their counterparts that did not just makes common sense. After all, people who suffer from a broken toe would likely be more interested in information to help their real problem rather than information about a condition that does not affect them.


The research topic of interest in this study was the effect of personal relevance on the perceived prevalence of a fictitious deficiency related to… [read more]

Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Consider the similarities and differences of the disorders.

The condition of osteoarthritis is marked by the loss of cartilage in the joints that causes in pain and a loss of functioning, primarily in the knees and hips (Woolf & Pleger, 2003). In addition, metabolic changes resulting from obesity have been suggested as one possible mechanism of osteoarthritis (Lee & Steffes, 2007). Where it is available, joint replacement surgery has been shown to provide effective relief (Woolf & Pfleger, 2003).

By contrast, the precise cause of rheumatoid arthritis remains unknown, but what is known is that an external trigger (e.g., cigarette smoking, infection, or trauma) can cause an autoimmune reaction in some people that results in synovial hypertrophy and chronic joint inflammation (Rheumatoid arthritis, 2013). What is also known for certain is that rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that typically involves more than one joint (Woolf & Pfleger, 2003). The defining characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis is a persistent symmetric polyarthritis that involves the feet and hands; however, any joint that has a synovial membrane lining can be affected (Rheumatoid arthritis, 2013).

The continuing inflammation that is associated with the condition frequently resulted in the destruction of affected joints; however, the condition is controllable with medications (Woolf & Pfleger, 2003). The clinical course of rheumatoid arthritis varies significantly from patient to patient, but many sufferers have experienced improvements as a result of new treatments (Reinseth & Kjeken, 2012). Nevertheless, despite the availability of new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, remission is only achieved by approximately 10-36% of early rheumatoid arthritis patients (Reinseth & Kjeken, 2012). Although the overall incidence of rheumatoid arthritis is declining, the increase in the number of elderly in some parts of the world makes it difficult to estimate the prevalence rate of the disease in the future (Woolf & Pfleger, 2003).

Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior.…… [read more]

Diabetes According to America Diabetes Association Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



According to America Diabetes Association there have been 25.8 million adults and children that have been diagnosed with diabetes in the United States. There are approximately 2 million new cases of diagnosis that are done each year and close to 79 million are considered to be in the pre-diabetes state. These masses of people have the risk of several alterations which include heart diseases, neuropathy, stroke, kidney failure and even blindness. The paper will look at a comparison between diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus

Pathophysiology of diabetes insipidus

In order for one to clearly understand the pathophysiology of diabetes they should have the basic knowledge of the metabolism of carbohydrates and how insulin functions. When it comes to diabetes insipidus the underlying pathophysiological defect is the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells found in the pancreas. With the beta cells destroyed, an individual is absolutely deficient of insulin and they can no longer produce insulin. This autoimmune destruction is triggered by factors such as environmental events like viral infections. Genetically determined factors for susceptibility might increase of the autoimmune destruction. Due to the inability to produce insulin diabetes mellitus patients totally depend on insulin which is administered exogenously in order for them to survive (Mealey, 2010).

Electrolyte and volume homeostasis is normally a very complex mechanism which creates a balance in the requirements for the blood pressure and electrolytes sodium and potassium. Volume regulation is normally preceded by electrolyte regulation. Diabetes insipidus is related the production of ADH which is produced in the hypothalamus. ADH functions as a regulator of water levels in the body through controlling urine produced within the liver. Those suffering from diabetes insipidus their ADH fails to regulate the level of water in the body thus a lot of urine is produced from the body.

Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus

The underlying pathophysiological defect in diabetes mellitus is characterized by three main disorders which are; a peripheral resistance to insulin particularly within muscle cells, an increase in glucose production within the liver and an alteration…… [read more]

Health Topic With a Sociological Analysis Inequalities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Health Topic With a Sociological Analysis

Inequalities, policies, gender and stress of H.I.V and AIDS infection

V is a virus that causes the disease (AIDS) "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." The disease is a progressive failure of the human immune system. This failure of the immune system causes threatening opportunistic infections and death. H.I.V and AIDS infection have negative impacts on the… [read more]

Asthma Case Scenario Pathophysiological Mechanisms Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Asthma Case Scenario

Pathophysiological Mechanisms

One could argue that asthma is always a chronic condition as it is a chronic, difficult to control, inflammation of the airways of an individual. One of the main features of asthma is that it is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration which contributes to "airway hyperresponsiveness, airflow limitation, respiratory symptoms, and disease chronicity; in some patients, persistent changes in airway structure occur, including sub-basement fibrosis, mucus hypersecretion, injury to epithelial cells, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis; gene-by-environment interactions are important to the expression of asthma" (nih.gov, 2013). In fact, it's worth noting that viral respiratory infections are one of the most overwhelming causes of asthma exacerbation and can also contribute to the evolution and development of asthma (nih.gov, 2013).

With both conditions there are three overwhelming factors which the individual generally experiences: bronchoconstriction, airway edema and hyperresnsiveness of airways (nih.gov, 2013). The overwhelming dynamic which occurs in both chronic and aggravated asthma is that the airways become narrowed. "In acute exacerbations of asthma, bronchial smooth muscle contraction (bronchoconstriction) occurs quickly to narrow the airways in response to exposure to a variety of stimuli including allergens or irritants" (nih.gov, 2013). Thus, when a child or adult suffers from asthma, a variety of stimulants can cause this narrowing of the airways: cold air, exercise, irritants, stress, etc. (nih.gov, 2013). With certain cases of chronic asthma and with aggravated forms of the disease which experience more persistent and progressive forms of inflammation, factors like edema, inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and certain structural changes (nih.gov, 2013). The hyperresponsiveness of the airways is a major factor and can be influenced the inherent inflammation which occurs with asthma or the defunct neuroregulation or overall structural changes (nih.gov, 2013).

When it comes to arterial gases, the changes in these patterns are most distinct when the disease progresses from mild to extreme (MEE, 2012). For instance, when an asthma attack commences, "the normal PaO2 of 100 mm Hg falls (e.g. To 60mm Hg), the PaCO2 of 40 mm Hg falls (e.g. To 30 mm Hg) and the pH of 7.40 rises (e.g.…… [read more]

Health Care Bill Formulation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Health Care Bill Formulation

Oral health is a state of oral and related tissues structures in the body that contribute to physical, mental and social well-being positively, enabling the individual to enjoy all the possibilities of life. A good state of oral health allows a person to speak, eat and socialize without any hindrance by discomfort, embarrassment or pain (Mason,… [read more]

Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In a study that was conducted under the PraxArt project, it was found that OA has a negative effect on the quality of life of patients. The study also reveals that when a patient-centered intervention that allows for longer follow-up is not applied, the quality of life of patients which is measured by their satisfaction, presence of comorbidities and levels… [read more]

Diseases the World Health Organization Global Infobase Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The World Health Organization Global Infobase (World Health Organization, 2011). presents a disturbing map with distributions of respiratory illnesses throughout the globe. Focusing on the male population, the distribution reveals that in Asia, mortality rates are highest in China, India, Cambodia and Vietnam. Sub-Saharan Africa also has high rates of mortality related to respiratory diseases among males. Most of Western Europe, Canada, and Australia have among the lowest respiratory illness related disease mortality rates among males (World Health Organization, 2011). Interestingly, when the map is aggregated for the female cohort worldwide, the results are the same.

There is nothing genuinely surprising about this map. Given that there will be two main causes of respiratory illness: smoking and air pollution, the countries with right rates of mortality are the countries most associated with poor air pollution and high smoking rates. China and India are especially interesting in that males are more likely to smoke than females, but the rates of death from respiratory illness are even between the sexes. That would suggest that air pollution and second hand smoke are both linked to the greater number of respiratory illness deaths. It is unsurprising that the most developed and wealthy nations in the world have the lowest rates of respiratory illness. Canada, Australia, and most of Western Europe have the lowest rates of mortality from respiratory illness (World Health Organization, 2011). This is due in part to clean air and reduced emissions policies related to automobiles and factories; and it is also due in part to public awareness campaigns related to smoking cessation. Anti-smoking campaigns are less robust in the countries with high rates of mortality, and regulations on pollution are even less robust in countries with high rates of mortality from respiratory illness.

The countries with the highest mortality rates from respiratory illness are also less likely to have the local and state-level funding for programs that are designed to change smoking behaviors. Therefore, the biggest obstacle to developing…… [read more]

Long-Term Depression and Increased Risk for Heart Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,845 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Long-Term Depression and Increased Risk for Heart Disease Later in Adulthood Compared to Individuals Who Do Not Have Depression: Systemic Review

Individuals with depression have been found to have a higher risk in later adulthood of developing heart disease than are individuals who do not have depression.

The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who have long-term… [read more]

Venous Thromboembolism Vte in USA Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,309 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 40


Venous Thromboembolism VTE in USA

Venous Thromboembolism VTE is a disease that has been untapped for years. Many are also unaware that Venous thromboembolism is the leading cause of maternal death. Most people that are over the ages of 45 develop this disorder much more faster. This paper shows that the risk factors are much higher when the person is… [read more]

Pulmonary Embolism in This Text Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In addition to controlling pain, the said interventions in this case also enhance the patient's comfort in an attempt to promote quick relief. In some cases, anticoagulation therapy comes with a risk of injury. With this in mind, evidence of bleeding should be assessed. The patient's pulse and blood pressure should be evaluated in an attempt to identify signs of bleeding. These interventions help in detecting hemorrhage or bleeding as a result of the said therapy. Signs of bleeding could include but they are not limited to low blood pressure and rapid pulse. In addition to being monitored for side effects associated with anticoagulants, patients should also be monitored for anxiety and pain. To relieve anxiety, Eckman (2010) recommends that the relevant procedures as well as treatments be explained to patients. According to the author, the patient's family should also be encouraged to participate in his or her care.


In conclusion, it is important to note that to prevent serious complications; pulmonary embolism should be treated immediately. Those who happen to be at high risk of the disease should consult their doctor before taking a long car trip or flight. This way, they can be well advised on the precautions to take to prevent the formation of blood clots.


Chohan, N. & Munden, J. (Eds.). (2006). Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Eckman, M. (2010). Professional Guide to Pathophysiology (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

NHLBI, NIH (2011, July 01). Explore Pulmonary Embolism. Retrieved February 8, 2013, from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health website: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pe/

Rhoades, R. & Bell,…… [read more]

AIDS in Japan Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


, 2007). Would this also play a role for Japan?

Japan's collectivism undeniably plays a role in its attitude towards AIDS. In a collectivist society, the actions of the individual are not simply viewed as harmful or helpful for that individual's future. Rather, they are viewed in terms of how the individual's actions relate to his or her family and community. When someone reveals he or she has AIDS in Japan, this is seen as reflecting badly upon his or her family. People are more likely to remain quiet about suffering from the disorder because of the shame they worry it will bring upon their family. They may be afraid of being ostracized from their community. Community plays a profound role in establishing an individual's identity in collectivist societies like Japan. In an individualistic culture, someone might think, 'I can join another community if my current one rejects me, I am still myself,' but in a collectivist culture identity is inextricably bound up with one's family and current social sphere, and a person may not feel he or she has a 'self' outside of…… [read more]

Fibromyalgia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


(Summary of Cochrane Review, 2012, p. 1) Another therapy for treatment of fibromyalgia is cognitive behavioral therapy which assists the individual in coping with negative thoughts, in keeping a diary of pain and other symptoms of Fibromyalgia, recognition of what makes the symptoms of Fibromyalgia worse, seeking out activities that the individual enjoys and setting limitations for themselves. Support groups have been found to be of great assistance. Additional recommendations include consuming a well-balanced diet, avoidance of caffeine, practicing good sleeping routines, and acupressure and acupuncture. In the case of severe fibromyalgia, a referral to a pain clinic may be required.

Prognosis of Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a disorder that is long-term and that is characterized many times by improvement of symptoms. The pain may worsen at other times and be ongoing for months and even years.

Research Studies on Fibromyalgia

The work of Demirbad and Erci (2012) examined the effects of sleep and touch therapy on symptoms of fibromyalgia and depression. It is reported that there are various interventions practiced in the attempt to bring about a reduction in fibromyalgia symptoms. The study reported by Demirbad and Erci (2012) was conducted in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Polyclinic in Trabzon Turkey between September 2009 and March 2011. The sample was comprised by 162 female patients with a previous diagnosis of fibromyalgia at least six months prior to the study. The sample contained two intervention groups and one control group containing 54 patients. A personal information form was used for collection of data as well as a Fibromyalgia Symptom Form and the Beck Depression Index. The study employed a pre-test/post-test control group design. A paired sample t-test was utilized to make comparison of the in-group scale points, the chi-square in the intergroup comparisons and the McNamer test in the in-group comparisons. Following the intervention it is reported that the depression levels in the touch-music-aroma therapy group "however a larger decrease (before: 22.01±5.3; after: 14.52±3.7) than in the sleep-music-aroma therapy group (before: 24.81±5.1; after: 20.16±4.9) and control groups (before: 23.73±4.4; after: 21.05±2.6). Symptoms such as restless sleep, headache, morning fatigue, exhaustion, feeling like crying and bowel complaints were also significantly reduced (P<… [read more]

Kyle Thornton Spina Bifida Statistics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


(Nicholas, Nicki, Brian & John, 1145-1257)


Individuals affected by spina bifida get around in different ways. This ranges from walking without any aids or assistance to using wheelchairs. Physical therapy has been recommended to improve the outlook of those patients who have some form of disability from this condition.

Physical therapy for spina bifida patients… [read more]

Conditions Associated With a Lack Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This means that one is particularly vulnerable to contract the malady if he or she has intercourse with a person from the college. It is thus essential for the authorities to focus on providing young individuals with the risks associated with HPV. With most HPV cases being resolved shortly after being contracted, individuals are inclined to believe that it would be absurd for them to worry about the condition. This is further amplified by the fact that most of these individuals are reluctant to share their condition with their friends or sexual partners because they consider it to be little more than a passing problem. However, HPV can cause cancer and similar diseases and this means that it is an extremely treacherous malady (Genuis and Genuis 1105).

Works cited:

Corbin, Charles B., and Lindsay, Ruth, "Fitness For Life," (Human Kinetics, 01.06.2006)

Evans, Lisa, "Obesity in England: why is it increasing?," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Guardian Website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/feb/23/obesity-problem-increasing

Genuis, Stephen J., and Genuis Shelagh K., "Managing the sexually transmitted disease pandemic: A time for reevaluation," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2004) 191, 1103-12

"Half of UK obese by 2030'," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the NHS Website: http://www.nhs.uk/news/2011/08August/Pages/half-of-uk-predicted-to-be-obese-by-2030.aspx

"Health," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Alcohol problems and solutions Website: http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/AlcoholAndHealth.html

"Passive smoking," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Oxygen Website: http://www.oxygen.org.au/downloads/sadownloads/infosheet_passive_smoking.pdf… [read more]

Exercises: Points Each) How Are Alveolar Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Exercises: (10 Points Each)

How are alveolar ventilation and oxygenation estimated and assessed?

Alveolar ventilation is equal to the tidal volume minus dead space times the breaths per minute. Ventilation as compared to perfusion is measured to ensure proper levels. Alveolar oxygenation can be using a non-invasive helium washout technique. Both of these are used to assess the levels in… [read more]

Ways in Which HIV AIDS and Nutrition Affect Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,271 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


HIV / AIDS and Nutrition:

According to statistics, there are over 40 million people living with HIV / AIDS and their number is increasing rapidly. In several environments, the pandemic is aggravated by a combination of various factors including increased malnutrition and food and nutrition insecurity. These factors combine to not only intensify but also accelerate the negative effects associated with HIV / AIDS pandemic. HIV / AIDS not only affects human development but it has a considerable interrelationship with nutrition. Consequently, nutrition acts as an opportune entry point for helping the affected communities to handle the pandemic. Nutrition is specifically used as an integrated approach to the care, health, and food security of the affected households. Therefore, there is a strong link between HIV / AIDS and nutrition, especially because of medications that contribute to various problems such as diarrhea and wasting or obesity.

Nutrition Medications and HIV / AIDS:

Nutrition management has emerged as an important aspect of dealing with the symptoms and impacts of HIV and AIDS. This approach is used in dealing with the disease because it involves to nutritional care and support and the fact that healthy nutrition is significant in the management of HIV / AIDS. Some of the major ways with which nutrition management is used as a means for dealing with the illness include the fact that certain antiretroviral medications require attention to dietary intake (Ada, Hendricks, Dong & Gerrior, 2009, p. 20). The use of nutrition management is also fueled by the effect of some nutrients like minerals and vitamins on how drugs are absorbed or metabolized. The interactions between the drugs and food can have considerable effects on the effectiveness of the drug or may result in extra or worsening adverse effects on the individual.

The significance of the relationship between HIV / AIDS and nutrition is evident on the basis that nutrition has usually acted as the most vital aspect of HIV care. During the initial years of the disease, clinical nutrition was not only necessary but it was an experimental and required to huge and normally fatal wasting or weight loss associated with the progession of the disease. While the need for improved knowledge and skills to manage the disease has continued to grow, the treatment of the disease includes best possible nutrition and healthy lifestyle interventions to assist the victims to live healthy and long lives (Pribram, 2010, p. 18). Nutritional approach is regarded as a significant aspect of managing HIV / AIDS because patients have experienced conditions like morbid obesity, wasting, metabolic disorders, cancers, renal failure, and other systemic problems.

A HIV patient's demand for food is enhanced by further infection or fever since the disease make the individual's defense system to work harder to fight the infection, which in turn increases his/her nutrient and energy requirements. The patient needs to eat more to meet the extra needs for food, extra energy and nutrients. Notably, the demand for food, nutritional requirements, and extra energy increases as… [read more]

Vitamin a For Autism Spectrum Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9



Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6

Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536

Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112

Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358

Lerer et-al. (2008). Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism: relationship to Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and cognition. Molecular Psychiatry.980-988

Jacob et-al. (2007). Association of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) in Caucasian Children and Adolescents with Autism, Neurosci Lett 1-8.

Riebold et al. (2011). All-trans retinoic Acid upregulates transcription in lymphblastoid line cells from Austrim Spectrum disorder. Feinstein Institute for medical research. 799-806.

Munese-et-al. (2008). Two genetic variants of CD38 in subjects with autism spectrum disorder and Controls Neuroscience Research Homepage. 181-191.

Nishimori, K. et al. (2008). "New aspects of oxytocin receptor function revealed by knockout mice: sociosexual behavior and control of energy balance" in Advances in Vasopressin and Oxytocin: From Genes to Behaviour to Disease, ed. Neumann, I. And Landgraf, R. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008).

Rogers SJ, Vismara L., A. (2008). Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism, J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol; 37(1):8 -- 38.

Wermter A-K, Kamp-Becker I, Hesse P,…… [read more]

Future Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


For instance, avian influenza is a strain commonly found in birds that can be transferred from bird to human and swine flu that can be transferred from pigs to humans and human to human.

Scientific and Technological Activities Exacerbating the Problem:

Many environmental concerns and problems have been exacerbated by human scientific and technological activities. Scientific activities like development of nuclear weapons and burning of fossil fuels have resulted in global warming or climate change. Climate changes because of these scientific activities brought by technological developments have affected precipitation events, heat waves, and storminess. As the activities lead to natural disasters and extreme events, they largely contribute to spread of infectious diseases, especially in the aftermath of such events.

Scientific Method and Non-scientific Solutions:

As the world continues to experience challenging times that have resulted in huge environmental problems, there is an increased demand for changing approaches in order to address the issues. The changing approaches towards solving the problems include both the scientific and non-scientific methods. However, there is no single scientific method that can be applied to solve environmental issues since every problem requires a specific scientific approach for achieving a solution. Generally, the scientific method to achieving a solution to the environmental problem is a means of doing research involving three major stages i.e. problem definition, seeking for explanations or solutions, and evaluating and experimenting ("Research: The Scientific Method," n.d.).

After identifying the problem, the most creative stage in the scientific method is recognizing the possibility of change or need for improvement. In this case, the environmental problems can be solved through identifying and implementing alternative ways to lessen the emission of greenhouse gases such as use of solar energy rather than fossil fuels. On the contrary, the alternative solution to the scientific method in addressing these environmental problems is for people to change their lifestyles. Since most of these problems originate from human activities, changes in people lifestyles could help provide an inexpensive way for dealing with the issues.


The influenza virus is an infectious disease that continues to have devastating impacts on the lives of many people throughout the world. While the pandemic is attributed to increased human activities, it can be solved by both scientific method and non-scientific solutions.


"Chapter One: Unintended Consequences." (n.d.). Department of Health and Ageing. Retrieved from Australian Government website: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/62447BB3FD99D740CA256F1900041F2D/$File/chapter1.pdf

"Research: The Scientific Method." (n.d.). Small Island Environmental Management. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from http://islands.unep.ch/siemh1.htm… [read more]

Chemistry Alzheimer's: The Disease Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


(Jasmin et al., 2011)

There are a few medications for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Physicians prescribe these drugs with the intent of delaying or preventing symptoms from worsening and assisting in controlling some of the behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's, which can be as difficult as the physical ones. (NIA, 2012) The current medications are: Razadyne, Exelon, Aricept, and Cognex. (NIA, 2012) For the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's, there are medications such as Namenda and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA). (NIA, 2012) Each drug has unique side effects and the side effects depend upon the medical history of the patient, the dosages prescribed by the patient's physician, and the patient's reactions to the medication. There are similar characteristics shared among them such as dizziness, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, appetite loss/weight loss, and muscle weakness. (NIA, 2012)

In addition to medications, there are also therapeutic interventions for the patient and for the family members of the patient. Alzheimer's Disease grows more prevalent with passing time. Hopefully a combination of treatments can alleviate some of the symptoms to make the remaining years of patients and their families as easy as possible.


Jasmin MD, PhD, L. & Zieve MD, MHA, D. (2011) Alzheimer's disease: Senile dementia -- Alzheimer's type (SDAT); SDAT. U.S. National Library of Medicine -- The World's Largest Medical Library http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001767/. 2012 June 28.

National Institute of Aging. (2012) Alzheimer's Disease Medication Fact Sheet. Available from http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-medications-fact-sheet. 2012 June 27.

The Alzheimer's Association. (2012 February 15) What is Alzheimer's? Alzheimer's Association http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp. 2012 June 27.… [read more]

AIDS in Afica HIV Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Despite the growing support from local leaders, there are significant obstacles to overcome. Even though the epidemic may seem like the world's greatest health crisis to outside viewers, locally unemployment is consistently identified as a more important issue that AIDS and this creates a situation in which much of the local population isn't receptive to any external assistance (Youde).

Works Cited

Cohen, B. Preventing and Mitigating AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Research and Data Priorities for the Social and Behavioral Sciences. New York: National Academies Press, 1996. Print.

Essex, M., et al. AIDS in Africa. New York: Springer, 2002. Print.

Iwelunmor, J. And A. Collins. "Cultural Implications of Death and Loss from AIDS among Women in South Africa." Death Studies (2012): 134-151. Web.

Johnson, K. "Between Self-Help and Dependence: Donor Funding and the Fight Against HIV / AIDS in South Africa." Africa (2008): 496-519. Web.

Justesen, M. "Too Poor to Care? The Salience of Aids in Africa1." Afro Barometer (2011): 1-23. Web.

Mills, E., et al. "Engaging Men in Prevention and Care for HIV / AIDS in Africa." PLOS Medicine (2012): 1-3. Web.

Shisana, O., et al. "Gender and Poverty in South Africa in the Era of HIV=AIDS: A Quantitative Study." Journal of Women's Health (2010): 39-46. Web.

Youde, J.…… [read more]

Microbiome Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,528 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Although there have been over 50 bacterial phyla described to date, the human gut microbiota is dominated by only 2 of them: the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes, whereas Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Cyanobacteria are present in minor proportions. Estimates of the number of bacterial species present in the human gut vary widely between different studies, but it has been generally accepted that it contains (Predators, 2012).

In conclusion, Microbiomes make the largest component bacteria in the of human being body which make it more vitally for human life. Besides, it might lead to certain diseases such as obesity if the diet is not maintained properly.


NAS. Interplay of the Microbiome, Environmental Stressors, and Human Health [workshop], 27 -- 28 April 2011, Washington, DC. Washington, DC:National Academies of Sciences (2011). Available: http://tinyurl.com/4xotab3 [accessed 19 Jul 2011]

Rappaport SM, Smith MT. Environment and disease risks. Science 330(6003):460 -- 461. 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1192603

The Human Microbiome Project is an NIH program intended to characterize microbial communities at several different sites on the human body (nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and urogenital tract) and to investigate their role in health and disease.

The European Commission's Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract consortium investigates associations between human intestinal microbiota,…… [read more]

Genetic Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,363 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


However, the morphological expression of the disease did not differ between index cases and siblings, suggesting the location of severe disease manifestation is determined by genetic factors.

After correcting for age and sex, as well as obesity, hypertension, LDL/HDL ratio, diabetes, and smoking status, a number of proximal locations were found to score high in terms of heritability (Fischer et… [read more]

Nursing Instructions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The first barrier is the body itself; the skin and hair act as walls to invaders keeping them at bay. Once the first barrier has been breached, the immune system is alerted to the presence of an invader (such as a cold or flu virus) and immediately alerts fighters whose job it is to eliminate the invader. The lymph system is a key component in this fight against the invader. It contains a clear liquid that engulfs and smothers the foreign bacteria. The spleen, thymus, bone marrow cells, and antibodies are also part of the overall system and are in charge of destroying the invading bacteria or virus.

The inflammatory process can best be described as another manner in which the body provides signs that something is wrong; it is the body answer to a cellular injury. What inflammation is a sign of is injury. If the body is injured, the cells surrounding the injury site will respond in a rapid manner to attack the initial cause of the injury, and to rid the body of the results of that injury.

There are four main areas of hypersensitivity, but in general hypersensitivity can best be described as an "excessive, undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system" (Ghaffar, 2010). In other words, the immune system is provoked into a more than adequate response -- responding in a manner that is more than enough. There are normally for types of hypersensitivity, they are based on the 'mechanisms involved and the time taken for the reaction' (Ghaffar).

Infections can attack the entire or specific parts of the body, and they are often classified depending on whether they attack the entire body or a certain area. They are classified as either viral or bacterial; viral usually means the infection attacks the entire body (ie fatigue, cough, congestion) while bacterial can be an infection from a cut, scrape or injury.

Stress lowers the effectiveness of the body's immune system allowing bacteria and other foreign invaders of the body to establish and maintain a stronghold that might not otherwise by available. The level body does not react in the same quick and effective manner when under a lot of stress.


Ghaffar, A.; (2010) Immunology -- chapter seventeen: Hypersensitivity reactions, accessed on March 12, 2012 at http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/ghaffar/hyper00.htm

Selby, M.; (2011) Neurological diseases, Practice Nurse, Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 35-41

Williams, B.B.; Li, D.; Wegrzynowicz, M.; Vadodaria, B.K.; Anderson, J.G.; Kwakye, G.F.; Aschner, M.; Erikson, K.M.; Bowman, A.B.; Disease-toxicant screen reveals a neuroprotective interaction between Huntington's disease and manganese exposure, Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol.…… [read more]

Epidemiology Descriptive Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Hypertension is a major problem because it can lead directly to heart failure. Diabetes mellitus can also lead to kidney failure and has been the main reason for new hospital admissions for kidney related problems in the past decade. However, the main problem people with diabetes complain of is the way that there blood vessels react to a diagnosis of diabetes. People have issues healing because there is a restriction of blood flow related to the disease. Many will also have problems feeling there extremities (called neuropathy) which can lead to further injuries that cannot heal. These two problems are why individuals with diabetes often have amputations later in life. This is a disease which has some short-term detriments, but the long-term consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are much more dire.

People in the United States have trended toward jobs that are more sedentary, as mentioned previously, which has increasingly placed them in danger of contracting diabetes (Schreinemachers, 2006). Diabetes is not a disease that can be translated from person to person like an airborne virus, but there is a familial/genetic predisposition which is suggestive. Families tend to have similar body types, and they also tend to learn patterns of health from those they are most associated with. Obese people are more likely to have obese parents, and families that have an issue with obesity (Case & Paxson, 2005). This is a fact that has been related in more than one study, and it can be seen in these cases that diabetes can actually be translated from family member to family member. Although it is not like the common cold, there could be both a genetic predisposition for people to contract obesity, other poor health habits and diabetes.

It can be seen also, that in the last few decades people have become more likely to have jobs which are inside and which require less physical activity than before. It has been noted that the United States has moved from being a nation of producers to a service industry nation. Most of the manufacturing jobs in the United States have slowly moved overseas where labor is cheaper and more plentiful, and where the laws are more favorable to large, tax-producing corporations. In the last fifty years the American workforce has moved to offices where the people can act as service industry employees rather than work a more physically demanding manufacturing job. This means that the national girth has also increased drastically. It is no great leap to assume that this increase in girth and increased lack of exercise has lead to an increase in the incidence in diabetes mellitus in the population.

From a map it can be seen that the prevalence for this disease has occurred mainly in the Upper Midwest, along the Atlantic seaboard and in the South. In years past these were great industrial and agricultural centers that required employees to be in shape in order to do their jobs. However, many of the high tech jobs which require… [read more]

Autism 'Cures' and Treatment Controversies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


, 2011). However, research continues in this area and study designs are becoming more rigorous. For example, a recent randomized control study comparing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model and found that 44% of the autistic children enrolled were reclassified as PDD-NOS after two years in the program. By comparison only 29% of the control children receiving more traditional treatments were given a less severe diagnosis after two years. Although EIBI methods are effective, they can hardly be called a cure.

Pharmaceutical Interventions

Only one prescription medication has been FDA approved for treating ASD and this is the antipsychotic medication risperidone for irritability (Rossignol, 2009, p. 213). The use of any others are generally provided 'off-label' for non-FDA-approved uses and confined to treating the symptoms associated with ASD. What is most troubling about using medications off-label is that the short-term and long-term benefits are usually unknown, especially in children, and the risk of side effects generally high.

A retrospective analysis of all known or suspected pharmaceutical treatments for ASD was performed recently and each was graded on the quality of research performed (Rossignol, 2009). The most promising treatments that were supported by well-controlled studies include melatonin, vitamin C, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil, galantine), and naltrexone. Melatonin seems to be well tolerated and one study showed improved sleep in 80% of the children studied. Vitamin C significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in a small group of children and had no adverse effects. The advantages of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were a decrease in the severity of autistic symptoms, but the adverse side effects were sometimes significant and included nausea, diarrhea, irritability, and hyperactivity. Naltrexone also reduced the severity of symptoms…… [read more]

Laboratory-Based Practical Work Undertaken Assessment

Assessment  |  13 pages (4,132 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


This can overestimate original values. Other methods for creatinine estimation include the enzymatic method. This method requires a smaller sample size and is faster. (Kanagasabapathy & Kumari, 2000)


C reactive protein, CRP, is an acute phase reactant. This protein is produced by liver in response to ongoing inflammation in the body. The measurement of CRP is not… [read more]

Emerging Diseases and Laboratory Biorisk Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,273 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Status of World-Level Laboratory Biorisk Management

Recent innovations in biotechnology have contributed to improved healthcare and agricultural productivity, among others, in ways that have substantively contributed to the well-being of humankind. A concomitant of these innovations, though, has been an increased potential for biorisk hazards that can have enormous adverse consequences. In this regard, Finley emphasizes that, "Unfortunately,… [read more]

SARS State Which Disease Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,343 words)
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State which disease you are discussing. Discuss the history of the emergence of this disease, particularly among human populations. I would like to discuss Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) which is a serious form of pneumonia. SARS is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Basic Information about SARS. 2005, p. 1). It is caused by a highly contagious virus that was first identified in 2003. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress (severe breathing difficulty) and sometimes death. World Health Organization (WHO) physician Dr. Carlo Urbani identified SARS as a new disease in 2003. He diagnosed it in a 48-year-old businessman who had traveled from the Guangdong province of China, through Hong Kong, to Hanoi, Vietnam. The business-man and the doctor who first diagnosed SARS both died from the illness (Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). 2001. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia). Over the next few months, the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained (Basic Information about SARS (3 May 2005), p. 1). It infected thousands of people. Schools closed throughout Hong Kong and Singapore. National economies were affected. The WHO identified SARS as a global health threat, and issued a travel advisory. WHO updates closely tracked the spread of SARS. It wasn't clear whether SARS would become a global pandemic (SARS (2001). A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia). The fast global public health response helped to stem the spread of the virus. By June 2003, the number of new cases was down enough that on June 7, the WHO stopped its daily reports. But even though the number of new cases dwindled and travel advisories began to be lifted, every new case had the potential to spark another outbreak. The outbreak, now estimated to have cost $50 billion, was largely contained by the summer of 2003, although sporadic cases have been suspected since (see Wroth, 2005, p. 2). Briefly describe the disease in humans. What is the mortality rate of the disease? In general, SARS begins with a high fever (temperature greater than 100.4°F [>38.0°C]). Other symptoms may include headache, an overall feeling of discomfort, and body aches. Some people also have mild respiratory symptoms at the outset. About 10% to 20% of patients have diarrhea. After 2 to 7 days, SARS patients may develop a dry cough. Most patients develop pneumonia (Basic Information about SARS (3 May 2005), p. 1). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a total of 8,098 people worldwide became sick with SARS during the 2003 outbreak. Of these, 774 died. In the United States, only eight people had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV infection. All of these people had traveled to other parts of the world with SARS. SARS did not spread more widely in the community in the United States (Basic Information about SARS (3 May 2005), p. 1). Briefly explain how the disease is transmitted to and among humans: The… [read more]

Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


West Nile Virus

Emerging Infectious Disease: West Nile Virus

The West Nile Virus (WNV) as in an infectious disease that has been historically determined as originating from the West Nile region of Uganda in 1937. The WNV, usually found in tropical and temperate regions, is characterized to cause non-neuroinvasive diseases such as asymptomatic infection, but could lead to serious neuroinvasive disease -- meningitis or encephalitis. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) traces the history of WNV for as early as 1937 in Uganda; in the 1950s, a virus characteristic of WNV was found in Egypt and Israel. From 1994 to 2003, WNV encephalitis in humans has occurred from Africa to Eastern Europe, and eventually, to United States (North America). Aside from humans, records of horses and birds dying from WNV encephalitis have been documented from 1996 to 2002 in Africa, Europe (France and Italy), and United States.

The West Nile virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, and is a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus. Historically, WNV is known to infect birds, but cases of infection among other animals such as horses, cats and dogs have also occurred. Human infection of WNV is through a mosquito bite. CDC identifies this primary mode of transmission as resulting from mosquitoes feeding on birds infected with WNV. WNV symptoms can manifest differently, particularly in humans. At the very least, asymptomatic infection or non-neuroinvasive disease is manifested in humans infected with WNV. However, the most serious manifestation of WNV in humans is the neuroinvasive disease, leading to fatal meningitis or encephalitis, characterized by the following symptoms: fever and headache, general fatigue, enlarged nymph nodes, profound muscular weakness, and neurological signs such as "perivascular hemorrhage, dilation of the ventriculi of the brain, dislocation of the brain trunk, hydropericarditis and acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis" (Bourne, 2011). Incubation of WNV ranges from three to six days; similarly, recovery period could be within 3 to 6 days, although full recovery could extend up to 2 weeks.

Transmission of WNV infection, as mentioned earlier, mainly comes from mosquitoes feeding on infected birds. Human infection results from bites from WNV-infected mosquitoes. However, there have been reported cases in the CDC wherein transplanted organs, blood transfusion, mother-to-child (transplacental) and laboratory worker exposure have become alternative modes of transmission of WNV. Apart from the bite of an infected mosquito, humans could get infected with WNV when bare-handed contact with dead, infected animals occurs. However, infection among humans and animals (horses, birds, cats and dogs) are known to have not developed into other infectious diseases, thus lowering their susceptibility as potential hosts to WNV-caused diseases. WNV transmission "peaks" during rainy season in…… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Course Project Part III Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (470 words)
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Alzheimer's Disease

Course project part III: Describe current initiatives


Pre-screening and early intervention in the identification and treatment of AD is essential. One recent NIH-funded study used DNA samples from more than 56,000 study participants and "analyzed shared data sets to detect gene variations that may have subtle effects on the risk for developing Alzheimer's" (Studies find possible new genetic links for Alzheimer's disease, 2011, National Institute on Aging). The study found several new gene variants indicating "risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of the disorder" (Studies find possible new genetic links for Alzheimer's disease, 2011, National Institute on Aging).

This is a form of primary intervention, or preventative treatment. Identifying genes can allow for improved early drug treatment studies of the disorder. The interaction between genetics and the environment, and what causes these genes to be expressed can also be studied. Does every person with these genes develop AD? Under what circumstances?


Studies find possible new genetic links for Alzheimer's disease. (2011). National Institute on Aging. National Institute of Health. Retrieved October 10, 2011 at http://www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers/ResearchInformation/NewsReleases/PR20110404GWAS.htm


Poverty and illiteracy significantly increases the probability that an individual will manifest Alzheimer's Disease, along with other health-related complications. One study of a population of Israeli Arabs noted for their high degree of manifesting Alzheimer's found that hypertension (which can be diet-related, and linked to poverty, given that a less healthy…… [read more]

Nursing Managing Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Measurable outcomes for these goals include the following: 1. No further outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the unit, 2. Symptom control and improved health status in the affected residents 3. Identified possible causes of the gastroenteritis, 4. Review of the unit's infection control practices (Garibaldi, 1999).

A single case of gastroenteritis in an elderly resident in an aged care facility may… [read more]

Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis Artery Diseases Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


13). This work has shown shear stress and cyclic strain in combination may better predict sites of proatherogenic gene expression. Low shear stress also influences adhesion of leukocytes to activated endothelium through enhanced expression of adhesion molecules (Cunningham & Gotlieb 2005, p. 14). Nitric oxide is also involved in the regulation of vascular caliber to moderate blood flow and normalize endothelial shear stress. As previously indicated, the mechanisms of NO are critical to vascular biology, signaling, locating free radicals, and also have heavy impact on shear stress.

The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is complex and multifactorial. Atherosclerosis has gained significant research attention due to its relation with common cardiovascular conditions and cardiovascular mortality. The disease is identified by the build up of plaque within blood vessels, as artery walls thicken due to the accumulation of fatty materials. Once these symptoms become clinically apparent, however, the disease is far too advanced for medical treatments to advert the pathogenic process. Endothelial dysfunction is the trademark of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. One initiating factor for atherosclerosis is the loss of nitric oxide bioactivity in the endothelium, which is associated with the causal complex of thrombosis, inflammatory cell adhesion and recruitment. The development of atherothrombosis is understood to be mediated by the inflammatory cascade, in which leukocytes cross the endothelial barrier, recruiting monocytes, releasing cytokines, and subsequently leads to the accumulation of foam cells to form an atherosclerotic lesion. Shear stress has also been shown to influence vessel inflammatory processes and affect endothelial gene expression. Atherosclerosis is a disease that develops over time, and clinical evidence is typically not apparent until after the pathogenic process is set. Identifying and treating atherosclerosis from its inception requires focus on a multitude of contributing inflammatory factors for the disease.


Channon, K. (2002), 'The endothelium…… [read more]

Homelessness in Orange County California Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Overall, $3 million was cut from the Health Care Agency (providing public health, medical, and mental health services), $8.8 million was cut from the Social Services Agency (administering welfare, foster care, and other benefits), and $12.7 million was cut from the alternative defense budget (providing private defense attorneys for low-income adults and juveniles). The County's Co-ordinator of Homeless Services was… [read more]

Elderly Population With Diabetes Age Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,299 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Descriptive epidemiology is confined to the recognition and examination of the affected person, place and time of the disease or health event. The person is described and examined according to certain factors, such as age, education, socio-economic status, availability of health services, race and gender. Also pertinent to the person are information on behavior, such as use or abuse of… [read more]

Chemical and Biological Terroism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,146 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Communication is another integral facet for the preparation of attacks via chemical and biological terrorism. One of the advantages of the network of laboratories proposed by the Centers for Disease Control is the fact that information will be able to disseminate between agencies within states and the country. The utilization of the news media, either through the internet, television, or… [read more]

Diseases That Are Not Native Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


By the time that Europeans set out to conquer the new world they had built up a stronger immunological system. The Europeans relatively strong immunological system was built up after several generations and hundreds of years. When plagues occurred only the strongest survived, these survivors with strong immunological systems mated with each other and birthed newer generations that were progressively more immune to diseases and germs. Native populations in America had no such luck, as they did not engage in the farming and domestication of animals like their European counterparts.

Essentially the lifestyle and cultural practices that the Native populations of America employed sealed their fate, by providing them with very little defense against disease. Europeans also introduced slaves native to Africa in the Americas; this increased the spread of diseased more rapidly due to the rich abundance of viruses and diseases that originated in the African continent. As Albert E. Cowdrey points out; the fragmented lifestyle of Indians did not help them build immunological strength. Native Americans lived in communities and tribes that where separate from each other, this prevented the spread of germs and illnesses' between their populations. This left them virtually defenseless to the viruses and germs that were imported by the Europeans and their African slaves.

Works Cited

Ashburn, P.M., and Frank Davis Ashburn. The ranks of death, a medical history of the conquest of America . Ann Arbor, Mich.: Xerox University Microfilms, 1975. Print.

E. Cowdry, Albert. This land, this South: an environmental history . Lexington: The University of Kentucky Press, 1996. Print.

J. Bollet, Alfred. Plagues and Poxes: the impact of human history on epidemic…… [read more]

Autism Spectrum Disorders Wang, K, Zhang Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Autism Spectrum Disorders

Wang, K, Zhang, H., Ma., D., Bucan, M., Glessner, J…. & Hakonarson, H. (2009). Common genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders. Nature 459: 528-33.

These authors set out to examine the specific genetic factors that might be responsible for an increased susceptibility to the developments if autism spectrum disorders, building on previous research that strongly suggested a genetic factor in the development of such disorders. Noting a rising trend in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in children throughout the world and specifically in the United States, the authors explain that research does not support environmental or at least purely environmental causes explaining this trend. Instead, certain correlative indicators that suggested a genetic basis for the disorder and a lack of diagnosis in previous generations rather than an actual increase in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders due to environmental or other factors.

Both direct and indirect research supports the conclusion that there is a large genetic factor involved in the development of autism spectrum disorders. Previous research had shown that certain other genetic disorders appearing in many individuals with autism, and observations of genome sequencing and chromosomal changes have also yielded some clues in this area. It is against this backdrop that these researchers conducted their own investigations, examining specific gene loci in several populations with wide backgrounds, all of European ancestry. Their research had the purpose of adding to specific knowledge regarding the genetic causes of autism spectrum disorders.


Two separate cohorts were selected for this study, both by using the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange, with 943 families (4,444 total subjects) identified in the first population and 780 families (3,101 subjects) in the second. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was used to diagnose individuals with autism spectrum disorders, and the specific genetic tests that were applied to samples were the Pedigree Disequilibrium test for autosomes, and a process identified as X-APL for the X-chromosome. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip at the Center for Applied Genomics at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Results of all of these genetic tests were then compares to family groupings and appearances of autism spectrum disorder, and compared across the population study to determine the correlation between genetic results and disorder presentation.


Initial testing did not yield any statistically significant correlations between specific genome expressions and the emergence of autism spectrum disorders. Through comparisons with other studies and an increase in the power of observations made by the researchers at lower p values, however, the authors did discover certain expressions at the 5p14.1 gene locus that were correlated with the development of autism spectrum disorders. These findings were confirmed in both research populations and was also borne out through a comparison to the control groups also tested and subjected to genetic typing in this study.


The researchers actually focus their discussion on the neural and physiological effects of the genetic changes observed to be correlated with the development of autism spectrum disorders.… [read more]

Behavior Related to Drug Abuse Article Review

Article Review  |  10 pages (3,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Substance use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are often interrelated conditions. Although globally, injection drug use is related to between five and ten percent of HIV infections, in certain countries in Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North America, and South America, up to 80% of all HIV infections are related to injection drug users (Von Unger… [read more]

Addictive Virus -- Later Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,280 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In Peter J. Boyer's 2007 article on Monaghan for The New Yorker, entitled "The Deliverer: A Pizza Mogul Funds A Moral Crusade," it becomes clear that Monaghan's own motivations were, in fact, deeply reactionary:

In the autumn of 1983, he bought the Detroit Tigers, in the process becoming a kind of celebrity. This was before he decided that his real… [read more]

Ergonomics Also Known as Human Factors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Also known as human factors, ergonomics is "the scientific discipline that seeks to understand and improve human interactions with products, equipment, environments and systems," (Taylor & Francis 2009). Therefore, any study of ergonomics works within systems theory to design equipment and workspaces that promote human wellness. The study of physiology contributes to ergonomics, but management and policy issues are… [read more]

Alzheimer's Immunology Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Alzheimer's Immunology

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become widely associated with aging since its "re-discovery" and accompanying research in the 1970s. In fact, AD is thought to affect over 25 million people worldwide (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). AD is diagnosed as a result of "progressive memory loss and a decline in cognitive abilities" (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Many pathological conditions are thought to contribute to the onset and progression of AD, including: amyloid-? (a?) peptide extracellular plaques, tau protein aggregates from intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, gliosis, inflammation, neuritic dystrophy, neurotransmitter level changes, and overall neuron loss (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Currently, there are no "disease-modifying therapies" available for the treatment of AD (Lemere & Masliah, 2010).

Research on AD and possible therapies has been abundant for decades. Other possible pathogenic causes involve metalloproteinases (MMP); some possible treatments include inhibition of "selective gamma-secretase inhibitors" for "lowering a? production," the use of generous amounts of curcumin (from curry) in cooking, or high intake of antioxidants such as Moringa oleifera (MO) (Stomrud & al, 2010; Basi & al, 2010; Schardt, 2007; Ganguly & al, 2005).

The most widely-discussed causes of AD involve amyloid-? (a?) peptide extracellular plaques and inflammation; past and current findings on these topics will be discussed further in the following sections.

Inflammation Hypothesis

Although the role of inflammation in AD development and progression has "emerged relatively recently," it is still linked to a buildup of proteins such as a? And tau (Zotova & al, 2010). However, as a result of research specifically on the role of inflammation, scientists have suggested the use of both anti-inflammatory drugs and immunization procedures against a? (Zotova & al, 2010).

The inflammation hypothesis was developed when "immune-related antigens and cells around amyloid plaques in the brains of patients" with AD were discovered (Zotova & al, 2010). This discovery was made in the 1980s and provided evidence that the human brain is not "immunologically isolated" (Zotova & al, 2010). Furthermore, studies from the 1990s found "activated complement factors" to neuroinflammation such as cytokines in the brains of AD patients (Zotova & al, 2010). Still, these inflammatory factors are considered to be the result of "amyloid within the CNS bringing about activation of microglia, initiating a pro-inflammatory cascade that results in the release of potentially neurotoxic substances, including cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and various proteolytic enzymes, leading to degenerative changes in neurons. However, the exact role of inflammation in the pathology of AD and its mechanisms in terms of the cells involved - microglia, astrocytes and T. lymphocytes are still debated" (Zotova & al, 2010).

Other evidence in support of the inflammation hypothesis includes observations of a negative correlation between rheumatoid disease patients who are treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and the incidence of AD, miscellaneous studies showing a protective mechanism between anti-inflammatory treatments and the onset of AD, and human studies showing that NSAIDs may "reduce or prevent" AD (Zotova & al, 2010).

The Alzheimer's rat model (max 200 words)

McGill University scientists have developed genetically-mutated… [read more]

Chagas Disease Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,287 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Chagas disease is one of the most ignored of the tropical diseases, yet millions of people are contaminated with it. There are currently only two existing drugs to treat it, both of which are more than forty years old and neither is thought to be ideal. As the worldwide population has become more globally mobile, Chagas disease has spread from Latin America to become an international threat (Chagas Disease, 2009)

Chagas disease is named after the Brazilian doctor Carlos Chagas, who revealed the disease in 1909. It is caused by the scrounger Trypanosoma cruzi. It is carried to animals and people by way of insects that are initiated only in the Americas, mainly in country areas of Latin America where poverty is prevalent. Chagas disease is also known as American trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease, 2009)

It is thought that between eight and eleven million people in Mexico, Central America, and South America suffer from Chagas disease, although the majority do not know they are contaminated. If not treated, infection is permanent and can be deadly. The force of Chagas illness is not restricted to the country regions in Latin America in which vectorborne communication takes place. Significant populace travels from country to city areas of Latin America and to added areas of the earth have augmented the geographic movement and altered the epidemiology of Chagas illness. In the United States and in additional areas where Chagas is currently located but is not widespread, management approaches must center on stopping spread from blood transfusions, organ transplantations, and mothers to babies (Chagas Disease, 2009)

Chagas disease happens because of a parasite. It is ordinary in Latin America but not in the United States. Contaminated blood-sucking insects, sometimes known as kissing bugs, are what carry it. When a contaminated insect bites someone, typically on their face, it deposits infected feces. They can obtain the disease if they then wipe it in their eyes or nose, the bite site or a scratch. The sickness can also extend by way of tainted food, blood transfusions, a donated organs or from mother to infant throughout pregnancy (Chagas Disease, 2010).

The acute stage of Chagas sickness, which continues for weeks or months, may be free of symptoms. When signs and indications do happen, they are typically gentle and might include: inflammation at the contamination spot, fever, tiredness, skin irritation, and body aches, headache, loss of hunger, queasiness, diarrhea or vomiting, inflamed glands and inflammation of the liver or spleen. Signs and indicators that extend throughout the acute stage typically go away by themselves. Nevertheless, if untouched, the disease perseveres and moves forward to the chronic stage (Symptoms, 2010).

Signs and indications of the chronic stage of Chagas disease may take place ten to twenty years after initial infection, or they may never arise. In severe instances, though, Chagas disease signs and symptoms may comprise: unbalanced heartbeat, swollen, enlarged heart, congestive heart failure, and abrupt cardiac arrest, trouble swallowing due to an inflamed esophagus and abdominal tenderness or constipation… [read more]

Munchausen's Syndrome Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Munchausen's Syndrome

Is there a biological basis or genetic predisposition for this disorder?

There remains a paucity of timely and relevant studies concerning the basis for Munchausen's syndrome. In this regard, Cohen notes that, "It has been difficult to assemble patients to study in more detail, since -- once confronted -- they usually become defensive and leave, only… [read more]

Gingivitis Periodontal Disease Periodontitis Onset Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,014 words)
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Periodontal disease


Onset of gingivitis

Other diseases

Four stages

There are two primary types of periodontal disease. One is described as gingivitis and is relatively mild. It can be treated successfully and usually it is done so by a brisk oral treatment. Untreated, gingivitis can proceed to develop into a more destructive periodontal disease that can affect the… [read more]

Alzheimers Disease Alzheimer's Disease in Search Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,504 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Alzheimers Disease

Alzheimer's Disease in search of a cure

The risk for dementia, a major contributor to incapacitation and institutionalization, rises rapidly as we age, doubling every 5 years after age 65. Tens of millions of new Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementia cases are projected as elderly populations increase around the world, creating a projected dementia epidemic for which… [read more]

Eating Disorders Bulimia Obesity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Eating Disorders

An eating disorder is present when a person experiences severe instability in eating behaviors. This consists of a large decrease of food intake or severe overeating, or feelings of extreme distress or concern about one's body weight or shape. A person with an eating disorder often begins by consuming smaller or larger amounts of food than normal. But at some point, their eating gets out of control. Eating disorders are very difficult to understand and in spite of a lot of scientific research, the biological, behavioral and social causes of these illnesses remain mysterious. There are two chief types of eating disorders. These are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A third type is that known as eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). This includes several deviations of eating disorders. Most of these disorders are very similar to anorexia or bulimia but have very different natures. Binge-eating disorder is an example of an EDNOS (Eating Disorders, 2009).

Eating disorders often come to the surface during adolescence or young adulthood. There have been some reports that have indicated that they can develop during childhood or later in adulthood. Females are thought to be more likely than males to have an eating disorder. Eating disorders are very treatable but they often have complex fundamental psychological and biological causes. A person often has other psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance abuse, or anxiety disorders at the same time. People who have eating disorders often also suffer from many other physical health difficulties (Eating Disorders, 2009). Eating disorders are often continuing illnesses that require a lot of treatment. The earlier that these disorders are diagnosed and treated the more likely a person is to have a full recovery (Eating Disorders, n.d.).

People who have anorexia often develop strange eating habits such as staying away from food and meals, picking out a few foods and eating them in small amounts, weighing their food, and counting the calories of everything that they consume. They may also be obsessed with exercising. People who have bulimia tend to eat a large amount of food at a single time and almost at once make themselves vomit in order to get rid of the food in their bodies. This behavior is known as the binge/purge cycle. People with bulimia often have a strong fear of gaining weight. People with this disorder often undergo regular episodes of obsessive overeating. All through these food binges, people often eat alone and quickly. Afterwards they often feel shame or guilt over their actions. Not like in anorexia and bulimia, binge-eating disorder is thought to happen almost as often in men as in women (Eating Disorders, n.d.).

So far it has not been determined that there is any single cause for eating disorders. While anxiety about weight and body shape plays a part in all eating disorders, the actual cause of these disorders has not yet been determined. These are thought to include cultural and family pressures along with emotional and personality disorders.… [read more]

Assessing the Completeness of Reporting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnoses Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Reporting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnoses

Hall, Irene H., Ruiguang Song, John E. Gerstle III, & Lisa M. Lee (2006). Assessing the completeness of reporting of human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses in 2002 -- 2003: Capture-recapture methods. 164 (4): 391. Retrieved June 17, 2010 at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/164/4/391

What is the research problem being investigated?

One of the most seismic epidemiologically-related… [read more]

Multiple Sclerosis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Multiple Sclerosis


Multiple Sclerosis

Description, Population and Challenges

Multiple sclerosis or MS is a most afflicting and challenging condition. It is a common, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system or CNS (Borazanci et al., 2009 p 229; Litzinger & Litzinger, 2009 p HS3). It is called a "whole-brain" disease for its powerful immune response against… [read more]

Brain Structures/Systems Are Affected in Parkinsons Disease? Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … brain structures/systems are affected in Parkinsons disease? What do the cognitive and emotional symptoms of the disease tell us about the possible functions of the different parts of these systems?"

Parkinsons Disease is a crippling, degenerative disorder that mainly affects a movement center of the brain. The disorder creates a shortage or limiting of action of the neurotransmitter… [read more]

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