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Disease Control Essay

… 5. Lateral gene transfer is very common among bacteria.

a. Describe 3 mechanisms of lateral gene transfer.

i. Transformation: genetic alteration of a cell

ii. Transduction: bacterial DNA is moved from one bacteria to another iii. Conjugation: bacteria transfers genetic material to another cell through contact

b. How can lateral gene transfer be beneficial to bacteria?

This process allows bacteria to respond and adapt to their environments more rapidly by acquiring larger DNA sequences from other bacteria.

c. How can lateral gene transfer complicate the study of phylogenetic relationships among bacteria & possibly the 3 domain system?

DNA becomes mixed between different bacteria and therefore the individual genetic material can become complicated, making it difficult to understand the clear differences between organisms.

6. Woese's studies led to the 3 domain system that replaced the 5 kingdom system.

a. Why did the 5 kingdom system become "obsolete"?

Protista, fungi, plantea, and animalea have all been placed under the category eukarya while bacteria are so diverse that they have required their own classification.

b. Discuss why nucleotide sequencing of ribosomal RNA has been useful in evolutionary biology.

Since RNA sequences differ between species due to mutations, biologists can examine the nucleotide sequence and determine potential connections between species which are no longer similar but may have a shared evolutionary ancestor.

c. Name a few unexpected outcomes of Woese's studies & 3 domain system.

i. Organisms originally given their own kingdom have been linked and shown to be genetically close

ii. Easier to determine a common ancestor iii. Determination of niche role of organisms.

d. Name some similarities that have been retained by members of the 3 domains of life that clearly indicate their common (but ancient) ancestry.

i. Similar genetic codes

ii. Evidence of prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells iii. Evidence of evolution and adaptation.

7. Viruses are not cellular & thus not considered to be living organisms.

a. Give 4 reasons for studying viruses in biology courses despite the above.

i. They interact with living things

ii. Viruses have genetic information and can reproduce iii. Viruses are found in nearly every ecosystem on earth

iv. Immunizations can be made from viral material

b. The origin of viruses is subject to the same common dilemma of: "who came first, the chicken or the egg?" Discuss some evidence from molecular studies that would help you resolve the dilemma around the origin of viruses (did viruses or cells evolve first?)

Cells… [read more]

Periodontal Disease and Respiratory Essay

… Moreover, the authors note that all three of the diseases in question (periodontal, pneumonia, and COPD) are "complex, multifactorial, and have many risk factors," (p. 7). Some of the potential intervening variables include smoking status, medical history, age, dental caries, missing teeth, dysphagia, and low socio-economic status (p. 7).

Low socio-economic status is something that practitioners should be taking into account when treating patients. The authors point out that, "Canadians living in urban, low socioeconomic areas are 2.7 times more likely to be hospitalized from COPD than those in higher socioeconomic areas," (p. 3). Age and physical condition is also a factor that practitioners need to take into account. This is especially true with regards to aspiration pneumonia, which can be caused "when food or liquids from the mouth, gastric contents, or oropharyngeal secretions are inadvertently inhaled into the lower respiratory tract," (p. 3). The elderly or infirm dependent on external feeding mechanisms or who are missing teeth might be particularly susceptible. The authors note that elderly living in long-term care facilities are also to be classified as a high-risk community. In fact, there are several identifiable mechanisms by which oral bacteria can precipitate or cause a respiratory infection. High risk communities, including the elderly and people who smoke, should be examined more closely by dentists due to the potentially debilitating if not fatal impact of developing a respiratory illness. Even if there is no direct causal relationship, the literature does support a general concern for these risk factors.

Inadequate oral hygiene is another potential precipitating factor. Although no direct causal relationship can be revealed, poor oral remains a major risk factor for at least periodontal disease. The presence of oral bacteria due to poor oral hygiene is likely to exacerbate pre-existing tendencies to develop respiratory infections. Therefore, it is important to promote oral hygiene in general to prevent the build up of bacteria that could lead to or exacerbate an existing respiratory condition.

Community-based oral hygiene programs are a good way of raising awareness about the risk factors related to respiratory disease and periodontal disease. The community health programs can highlight the consequences of poor oral hygiene, and the consequences of contracting a respiratory illness. Because many of the highest risk populations are seniors living in long-term care facilities, who may have dependency on nurses for feeding and oral care, it is also critical to target nursing homes and senior care facilities. For instance, the dentist and hygienists need to know if the patient uses mechanical ventilation or tube feeding tubes. Educating caregivers about the importance of oral hygiene for elderly patients will help reduce the problems associated with both periodontal disease and respiratory illnesses.

It has been postulated that, "one in ten deaths from pneumonia in dependent elderly may be prevented by improving oral hygiene," (p. 8). Therefore, prevention and intervention are critical factors for an oral hygiene practice. Practices should take into account patient history regarding respiratory illness, smoking status, and age-related issues such as feeding dependencies.… [read more]

Grave's Disease Is an Autoimmune Term Paper

… Only a very small percentage of people will have to deal with the direst aspects of Grave's disease.

Those who have Grave's disease are often prescribed antithyroid medications which slow down the function of the thyroid. Methimazole is the most… [read more]

Pathophysiology Lesion Characteristics Assessed to Aid Determination Term Paper

… Pathophysiology

Lesion characteristics assessed to aid determination of the lesion's cause

Lesion is caused by disease or trauma. In order to determine the cause of lesion you have to examine the patient and determine different aspects. First the practitioners can assess Cysts. Infection causes cysts and a doctor has to assess the cyst's size, pain caused by cyst and the role it plays when the doctor makes a decision to remove a splenic cyst. In case of motile cysts or many cancer cells the patient may require a surgery called splenectomy, to remove the spleen from the body. A patient with cysts acquires lesion from a disease.

Secondly, practitioner can assess traumatic injuries. Injuries as a result of accident or fighting in the lower abdomen can cause injury to the spleen. Doctors should take this spleen trauma with seriousness because it can cause spleen rupture leading to internal bleeding then death. Doctors can determine whether to remove ruptured spleen immediately or let it heal while providing proper care.

How systemic disorder affects nail and hair growth

Systemic disorder affects different organs and tissues or the whole body. The disorder causes dysfunction in many organs including the growth of hair and nails. Some systemic disorders cause disruption in the growth of figure and toenails. Nail plate or the hard keratin cover is generated by nail matrix which is located under the cuticle. During the growth process the area close to penetrate outside forms a deeper layer of nail plate and the part which remain deeper in the figure forms the superficial layer. The some process occurs in the growth of hair. Systemic disorders affect the growth process of hair by forming extra cells or reduce the numbers of cells required. Systemic disorders affect the connecting tissues which helps the growth of nails and hair (McCance & Huether, 2010).

Skin disorders which occur in different age groups

i) Acne; this is a skin disorder symbolized by pimples and sometimes pain. There two types which include blackheads and whiteheads. This skin disorder mostly affects teenagers.

ii) Eczema; this type of skin disorder has three forms. The first one, called Atopic dermatitis mostly affects children. It causes itchy rashes in the knees, elbows and crux. The second form is nummular dermatitis symbolized by red coin shapes on the skin. The third form is Allergic dermatitis commonly in adults. It is caused by environmental factors like cosmetics.

iii) Seborrheic dermatitis; this is another type of skin disorders and it causes waxy and oily patches on the skin. It can affect small children at the age of six-month.

iv) Skin cancer; this is a skin disorder common in many states. It is common to adult than in children. It can be caused by both genetic and environmental attributes like exposure to the sun rays and other ultra rays.

v) Psoriasis; this type is a genetic disease and is common to all people but mostly affects grownups than in children.

How superficial and deep pressure ulcers differ… [read more]

Prostate Cancer Is a Slow Growing Essay

… Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer that develops in men's prostate gland. Prostate gland is a gland located in the male reproductive system (Cookson,2001).Most cases of this kind of cancer are slow growing even though aggressive kinds have been reported (Baade, Youlden & Krnjacki,2009).The cancer cells may spread (metastasize) from the prostate gland to other parts of the patient's body (especially to lymph nodes and bones). Prostate cancer may cause severe pain, difficulty in urinating, sexual intercourse problems as well as erectile dysfunction. During the later stages of the disease, other symptoms may be seen.

The rates of detection varies widely across the globe with fewer cases being detected in South and East Asian and more cases being detected in Europe and the United States. This type of cancer is most common in men over the age of fifty (Siegel,2011).Globally, prostate cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer-related deaths (Baade, Youlden & Krnjacki,2009).This kind of cancer is most common in developed nations but its rates are increasing in the developing world. Unfortunately, most men with prostate cancer never experience any symptoms of the disease, never undergo therapy and are eventually taken ill and even die of other unrelated complications. Several factors like diet and genetics have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is noted to remain a cery common kind of cancer in mean aged over 50 (with an exclusion of skin cancer) with an estimated new cases in 2000 of 180,400. This figure represents a sharp decline from 334,500 cases that were reported sometime in January of 1977. Early detection as a result of PSA testing is what is credited with the sharp decline (AMA,2000;Landis et al.,1998).As noted earlier failure to detect this disease early and employ interventions leads to severe pain, difficulty in urinating, sexual intercourse problems as well as erectile dysfunction and death.


American Cancer Society (2000).Cancer Facts and Figures. Atlanta, Ga: The Society; 2000:1-40.

Baade, PD; Youlden, DR; Krnjacki, LJ (2009). "International epidemiology of prostate cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends.." Molecular nutrition & food research 53 (2): 171-84. PMID 1910194

Cookson, MS (2001).Prostate Cancer: Screening and Early Detection. Cancer Control, Vol. 8,(2).

Landis SH, Murray T, Bolden S, et al.(1998) Cancer statistics.CA Cancer J. Clin. 1998;48:6-29

Siegel R, (2011). "Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths.." CA Cancer J. Clin 61: 212 -- 36. doi:10.3322/caac.20121. PMID 21685461.

Module 8 (a)

Burn Injuries

Burn, a term that McCance and Huether (2010) noted to be a generic term that is used in referring to the cutaneous injury that is caused by thermal, electrical or chemical agents is a major source of extensive tissue injury as well as destruction. The injury and destruction has far reaching effects in multiple organs. The most common causes of burn injuries are thermal, electrical, chemical as well as radioactive elements/agents.

How burn degree and severity are determined

There are several types of burn injuries. These are classified… [read more]

Osteoarthritis Victims of Intimate Violence Research Paper

… In diagnosing the disease, medical practitioners apply methods such as physical examination, x-ray, lab tests, and medical history. Following the diagnosis process, it is essential to adopt and implement effective methods for the management of the disease. This relates to incorporation of drug therapy, surgical measures, and physical mechanisms in the minimization of the conditions of the disease. These methods are essential in the minimization of pain and stiffness of the joints thus enhancing the mobility of the affected individuals.


Hunter DJ, Lo GH. (2009). The management of osteoarthritis: an overview and call to appropriate conservative treatment. Med Clin North Am.;93:127-43, xi.

Richmond J, Hunter D, Irrgang J, et al. (2009). Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

(nonarthroplasty). J Am Acad Orthop Surg.;17:591-600.

Walker, J. (2011). Management of Osteoarthritis. Nursing Older People, 23(9), 14-19.

Stukstette, et al., (2012). A multidisciplinary and multidimensional intervention for patients with hand osteoarthritis. Clinical Rehabilitation, 26(2), 99-110.


Mann, C. (2012). Recognising and meeting the needs of people with osteoarthritis. Primary Health Care, 22(7), 32-39.

Tan, Y., & Conaghan, P.G. (2012). Insights into osteoarthritis from MRI. International

Journal Of Rheumatic Diseases, 15(1), 1-7. doi:10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01677.x

Koutoukidis, G., Stainton, K., Hughson, J., & Tabbner, A.R. (2013). Tabbner's nursing care:

Theory and practice. Chatswood, N.S.W: Churchill Livingstone.…… [read more]

Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient Article

… He ignored the lesion believing it was only a minor injury. No consultation or treatment was carried out. Within three weeks, the leg swelling and a high grade fever raised concerns and prompted him to seek medical attention.

A physical… [read more]

Occupational Health and Safety Research Paper

… " (World Health Organization, 1995, p.1) The World Health Organization document entitled "Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All: The Way to Health at Work" reports that necessary are goals for preparing, developing, and strengthening the "…necessary infrastructures, information systems and awareness of the needs and possibilities of occupational health activities, development of occupational health services for all working people, and building up the necessary sup-port services and human resources needed for implementing the new Strategy." (1995, p.1)

The International Labor Organization reports that work-related accidents and diseases are both very expensive with "many serious direct and indirect effects on the lives of workers and their families." (2011, p.1) Some of the direct costs for workers include:

(1) the pain and suffering of the injury or illness;

(2) the loss of income;

(3) the possible loss of a job; and (4) health-care costs. (International Labor Organziation, 2011, p.1)

Reported as costs to employers of occupational accidents and illnesses are the following stated direct costs:

(1) payment for work not performed;

(2) medical and compensation payments;

(3) repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment;

(4) reduction or a temporary halt in production;

(5) increased training expenses and administration costs;

(6) possible reduction in the quality of work;

(7) negative effect on morale in other workers. (International Labor Organization, 2011, p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

It is imperative that employees and employers alike understand occupational health and safety regulations and adhere to these to avoid injury, disease and associated costs to both the employer and employee when the health and safety rules and regulations are not followed.


Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, Occupational Health, and Safety Specialists,

on the Internet at (visited September 11, 2012).

Introduction to Occupational Health and Safety (2011) International Labor Organization. Retrieved from:

Global strategy on occupational health for all: The way to health at work (1995) Occupational Health. World Health Organization. Retrieved…… [read more]

Renal and Urologic System Essay

… Exercises

How are urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine values used to assess kidney function?

Urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine values are all important in the assessment of to assess kidney functions.

Urinalysis is noted by the National Kidney Foundation (2002) to be a simple, safe and noninvasive study of urine that requires urination only on the part of the given human subject. The process has no risk, no adverse responses and more importantly, no direct side effects. It is one of the mostly ordered clinical procedures/tests in pediatrics (Patel,2006).Urinalysis is used in the assessment of kidney problems by the physical, microscopic and chemical examination of urine (McPherson, Ben-Ezra, Zhao,2006). The test is performed by the examination of the physical color as well as appearance of urine (yellow, cloudy) as well as urine's specific gravity. The microscopic appearance of the urine is also performed in order to identify urine crystals, cells, mucous and any other substances whose presence signifies the presence of abnormal kidney functions. The chemical appearance of the urine is also determined in order to ascertain the existence of various substances in the human urine.

The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test on the other hand is the measure if the level of blood nitrogen in the form of urea. It is a critical measure of renal function. Urea is a major by-product of protein metabolism which is removed by the human kidney. The normal adult's blood contains between 7-21mg of urea per a hundred milliliters of blood (Deepak et al.,2007) a high/increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) signifies an impaired kidney function.

In regard to the serum creatinine values, Banfi and Del Fabrro (2006) noted that the concentration of creatinine in the human blood is the most widely employed method and the commonly accepted one for measuring renal function in the context of clinical medicine. Any disorder in the renal function leads to a reduction in the level of secreted creatinine. The result is an increase in the level of blood creatinine levels. The levels of serum creatinine provide an approximation of a person's kidney glomerular filtration rate. Increase levels of serum creatinine indicate an impaired renal function.

How are the locations of renal pain and findings on urinalysis used to differentiate the causes of kidney disease?

The locations of renal pain and findings on urinalysis are useful in the differentiation of the causes of kidney disease.This is because renal pains are often experienced at the lower abdominal area and at the lower back of the sufferer. The back pain could be due to a muscular pain or any other ailments. It is therefore necessary for a detailed urinalysis to be used to confirm the presence of kidney problems (such as kidney stones).

How do prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal types of acute renal failure differ in etiology, prognosis, clinical manifestations, and management?

Prerenal acute renal failure is due to the conditions that effectively impairs the human renal blood flow (perfusion) like cardiac failure, hypovolemia, hypotension as… [read more]

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Essay

… ("Genital Herpes - CDC Factsheet") Between outbreaks, when sores and blisters are not present, the viruses can also be transferred from person to person through the skin. Pregnant women can also transmit this disease to their unborn children and should be careful not to contract the disease during pregnancy. While there can be psychological trauma associated with contracting the disease, the most common affects of Genital Herpes are painful sores on the genital and rectal areas which recur over time. Like Syphilis, the best way to avoid Genital Herpes is to avoid sexual contact with infected persons, but the use of condoms has also been demonstrated to reduce the risk of infection.

If a person is already infected with a sexually transmitted disease (STD), they are between two and five times more likely contract the AIDS, or HIV, virus. ("The Role of STD Detection.") Like both Syphilis and Genital Herpes, AIDS is also transmitted through sexual contact. As a virus, HIV is easily spread through secretions, particularly genital secretions, and is often associated with other STD's. For example, genital sores resulting from Syphilis or Genital Herpes, often result in breaks in the skin or the genital lining. This can provide both an excellent point of entry for the HIV virus, or a perfect way to infect another person. When infected, early signs often resemble the flu; fever, headache, fatigue, and swelling in lymph nodes. ("The Role of STD Detection") But as the disease progresses, symptoms can include weight loss, skin conditions such as blisters and sores, secondary infections like chicken pox or pneumonia, periodontal disease, dementia, brain tumors, and other neurological complications. ("The Role of STD Detection") As with both Syphilis and Genital Herpes, both avoiding sexual contact with the infected, and the use of condoms can reduce the chance of contracting the disease.


"Genital Herpes - CDC Factsheet." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Website. Retrieved from

"Syphilis - CDC Factsheet." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Website. Retrieved from

"The Role of STD Detection and Treatment in HIV Prevention" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website. Retrieved from… [read more]

Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Research Paper

… The effective management of the large pyogenic granumola coupled with the treatment of periodontal inflammation before pregnancy helps in controlling periodontitis and gingivitis. While small pyogenic granumolas may disappear suddenly, large lesions require treatment through surgery, lasers, electrocautery, and freezing. However, the most common way for treating the unusual large pyogenic granumolas is through surgical therapy or excision.


Periodontal disease is a disease that affects the structures of the teeth and can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes like pre-term birth. This disease can be prevented and controlled through promotion of good oral health or hygiene and management of pyogenic granumola.


Avula, H. & Avula, J. (2011). Periodontal Infections and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The

Oral Health -- Fetal Connection. Journal of Gynecologic Surgery, 27(1), 1-4.

Babalola, D.A. & Omole, F. (2010, June 29). Case Report: Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy

Outcome. Journal of Pregnancy, 2010. Retrieved from

Guilbeau, J.R. & Hurst, H. (2009, December). Brush Up: Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy.

Nursing for Women's Health, 496-499.

Han, Y. (2011, October 4). Gum Disease and Pregnancy. Retrieved March 29, 2012, from

Lindenmuller et. al. (2010, February 19). CO2 Laser-assisted Treatment of a Giant Pyogenic

Granumola of the Gingiva. Official Journal of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists, 8, 249-252.

Morgan, et. al. (2009, September). Oral Health During Pregnancy.…… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Essay

… Treatment

No cure exists for Alzheimer's disease. However, research indicates that certain lifestyle factors can have a formidable impact in preventing the illness. Individuals who engage in regular physical activity are 50% less likely to develop the disease, a rate which increases to 60% for women who exercise (Peeke 2004: 8). Regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin or ibuprofen has also been correlated with lower rates of the illness: a 35% reduction in the in one study. Maintaining a healthy weight; engaging in sustained mental activity; and eating many fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants, fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, and nuts have all been linked to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Diet and exercise, along with a low-dose aspirin regime, may reduce the risk because of their anti-inflammatory properties. "One study of elderly women showed that those who ate the most green, leafy and cruciferous vegetables (spinach, kale, and dark salad greens) had the thinking ability of slightly younger women than those who ate few of these vegetables" (Peeke 2004: 8).

Consuming foods high in cholesterol have been linked to an increased likelihood of developing Alzheimer's. "Several studies have been published during the last years linking diet with the development of Alzheimer's disease and dementia and especially too much cholesterol have been found to be particularly bad. This is probably because the brain is an organ that is especially rich in cholesterol and where cholesterol has many functions, and therefore is tightly regulated" (Hills 2009: 38). The gene the most common gene variant associated with Alzheimer's ApoE4 "is found in 15-20% of the population" and is involved in the metabolism of cholesterol (Hills 2009: 28). "Mice that had been genetically modified to mimic the effects of ApoE4 in humans" showed "an increase in phosphate groups attached to tau, a substance that forms the neurofibrillary tangles observed in Alzheimer's patients, which prevents the cells from functioning normally and eventually leads to their death. They also saw indications that cholesterol in food reduced levels of another brain substance, Arc, a protein involved in memory storage" (Hills 2009: 28). High blood pressure has also been linked to a greater likelihood of developing the illness.

These findings regarding cholesterol and dietary factors that can affect the progression of the illness confirm what scientists have long suspected, that Alzheimer's is not caused by either nature or nurture in most subjects, particularly late-onset subjects, but rather is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Although a healthy diet, exercise, and cognitive stimulation cannot prevent Alzheimer's, these practices can possibly counteract some genetic tendencies to develop the disorder. No drug treatments have been shown to consistently slow the progression of Alzheimer's in all patients. "There is no strong evidence that Folate (vitamin B6), vitamin B12, and vitamin E prevent AD or slows the disease once it occurs," and "high-quality studies have not shown that ginkgo biloba lowers the chance of developing dementia" (Jasmin 2010).


Alzheimer's remains a complex, multifactoral… [read more]

Death and Disease Analysis for California Research Paper

… Healthcare

Death and Disease Analysis for California

Cancer is a large collection of diseases that are distinguished by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the disease is not controlled or kept in check, it consequences in death. However, many cancers can be cured if detected and treated quickly, and a lot of others can be prevented by lifestyle changes, particularly by avoiding tobacco use. Between 1988 and 2009, California saw overall cancer occurrence rates decrease by 11%. In this same time period, mortality rates went down by 23%. However, it is still estimated that in 2012 144,800 Californians will be diagnosed with cancer. This is equal to more than 16 new cases every hour of every day. It is estimated that 55,415 people will die of the disease next year, which works out to almost 150 people every day (California Cancer Facts & Figures, 2012).

In 2004-2008, the overall cancer occurrence rate in California was lower that than of the entire nation. "California cancer incidence rates for Asian/Pacific Islanders, African-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites were between one and three percent lower than the nation. Hispanics in California had a nearly 9% lower incidence rate than other Hispanics in the nation" (California Cancer Facts & Figures, 2012).

Doctors frequently cannot clarify why one person develops cancer and another does not. But research shows that certain risk factors augment the chance that a person will develop cancer. These are the most widespread risk factors for cancer: growing older, tobacco, sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals and other substances, some viruses and bacteria, certain hormones, family history of cancer, alcohol and poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight. A lot of these risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as family…… [read more]

Causes Complications Diagnosis Latest Discoveries Research Paper

… The objectives of treatment are to curb inflammation, correct nutritional challenges and alleviate symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhoea and intestinal bleeding. It must be noted that treatment only inhibits the condition by reducing the number of times of recurrence but… [read more]

Glycogen Storage Diseases Are Caused Research Paper

… , 2000). The structure of the catalytic unit (G6Pase) consists of a nine-transmembrane helical structure, with the N-terminus and four loops positioned on the ER luminal surface. One of these transmembrane sections is home to 25 missense mutations that cause GSD type Ia, suggesting the resulting amino acid changes and this transmembrane section are critical to the catalytic activity of G6Pase. Another disease-linked missense mutation is located in the N-terminus and the remaining seven missense mutations that have been identified are located in two of the four loops. The only regions not linked to disease-causing mutations are the cytoplasmic loops and one luminal loop.

Overall, the majority of GSD type Ia cases are the result of just three mutations: R83C, Q347X, and 727GT (Rake et a., 2000). All other mutations individually account for less than 5% of disease prevalence and some have only been found in one patient or family. The arginine to cysteine change that occurs in patients with the R83C mutation results in a G6Pase protein without detectable phosphohydrolase activity (Lei, Shelly, Pann, Sidbury, and Chou, 1993). The Q347X mutation results in the conversion of a glutamine codon to a stop codon, which truncates the carboxy terminal by 11 residues and completely destroys the catalytic activity of G6Pase (Lei, Pan, Shelly, Liu, and Chou, 1994). The 727GT mutation affects the splicing of exons 4 and 5, despite the retention of the wild-type splice sites, and results in a G6Pase protein truncated by 146 amino acids (Kajihara et al., 1995). Other mutations similarly have been shown to abolish or significantly…… [read more]

Neuropathological Disorders Essay

… Psychology

Neuropathological Disorders

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease is a neurological disorder that causes steady deterioration of the body's nerves and muscles. The cause of the disease is not known, and it affects men and women on an equivalent basis. At first, a person with Lou Gehrig's disease will experience a lack of coordination and not being able to hold on to objects and trouble performing everyday tasks. They could also feel tiredness, along with muscle twitches and trouble speaking. Because the disease usually occurs in middle to older age, it is often confused with the normal aging process (Carlson, 2011).

As the disease advances, the person will have trouble walking. They may also lose the capability to control their hands, to the point where they can't dress or bath themselves. Eventually, they will need a motorized wheel chair for transportation because they will not be able to use a manual one. In the later stages of the disease as the muscles continue to atrophy, the person's nerve and muscle function will worsen to the point where they will need a ventilator to help them breathe. Paralysis will continue to spread throughout the body, and limb function will cease. A person may also be unable to chew or swallow (Carlson, 2011).

Approximately ninety percent of people with ALS do not have a family history of ALS in any closely related family members. In these people, the cause of ALS is complex, resulting from a mixture of both genetic and environmental variables. Genes involved in the non-familial form of ALS are occasionally called susceptibility genes because they augment the risk to get the disease. Susceptibility genes are believed to act together with other genes as well as the environment to cause ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), 2005).

The remaining ten percent of people with ALS have the familial form of the disease, in which numerous family members are affected by ALS. The familial form of ALS includes both small families where as few as two family members have ALS to families with a lot of…… [read more]

Sarcoidosis Is a Granulomatous Disease That Primarily Research Paper

… Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung and lymphatic organs Although progress has been made in understanding the immunological, clinical, and pathological features of the disease, appropriate therapy and intervention still has not been discovered as well as the fact that certain other areas of the disease remain unresolved. Sarcoidosis is a disease that has a predictably adverse impact on patient's quality of life but how much and to what extent remains indefinite. Part of the problem is the fact that sole research studies have included cross sectional methods. Still to be investigated is progression of disease and correlation effect on QOL as part of follow up studies and this involves longitudinal experimentation.

What Sarcoidosis is

Sarcoidosis, first discovered in 1877, is a granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung and lymphatic organs but may, particularly in patients with progressive Sarcoidosis, involve various organs (Wiegand & Brutsche, 2006). It involves the central nervous system in approximately 5% of the cases (Bona et al., 1998), but the disease is, in most cases, limited although others may become excessively ill and even die from unmitigated progression of the disease. Although progress has been made in understanding the immunological, clinical, and pathological features of the disease, appropriate therapy and intervention still has not been discovered. For all these reasons and since the cause of Sarcoidosis is still unknown, the disease continues to intrigue clinicians and researchers.

Sarcoidosis may affect all ages but most commonly the young and middle-aged. Symptoms are bilateral hilar lymphadenophy, pulmonary infection, and ocular and skin lesions. Other organs such as the heart, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, salivary glands, muscles, bones, and nervous system may be affected too.

Immunological features most associated with the disease are degrading of cutaneous-delayed- hypersensitivity and the conspicuousness of a T cell type 1 immune response at localizations of the disease. Indications of B cell hyperactivity may also be witnessed.

Sarcoidosis is a global disease affecting both sexes and all ages. There is no consistent case definition, neither is there any homogenous manner of disease appearance. For that reason, clinicians and scientists have found it hard to tag a definition to the disease. Similarly, reliable and decisive diagnostic tests still have to be created, resulting, in the meantime, in misdiagnosis and, in too many quarters, ignorance of the disease. There is insufficient research, too, on epidemiological causes of Sarcoidosis.

The disease seems to peak in adults who are 20 to 29 years old and seems to subside before 20 and in ages older than 40, although in Japan and in Scandinavian countries women older than 50 seem to evidence peeks in the disease, too. Women seem to be more susceptible than men to the disease, whilst in the U.S. The rate of Sarcoidosis for White is 0.85% compared to that of Blacks (2.4%). Sarcoidosis is approximately 1 out of 40 cases, with Swedes, Danes, and U.S. Blacks having the highest incidence. It is possible too, although not conclusively proves that Sarcoidosis is… [read more]

Oral Health Link to Increase Cardiovascular Disease Research Paper

… ¶ … periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases (Mizoue et al.,2008). The role that oral health plays in the etiology of the cardiovascular disease has been given a lot of attention (Oliveira, Watt and Hamer,2010).Several epidemiological studies have concluded that there is a link between periodontal diseases and the health risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD).Poor oral health as well as heart diseases are prevalent in the United States. According to the statistics from the American Heart Association, about 36.3% (Representing 1 in 2.8) of all deaths in the year 2004 were as a result of cardiovascular disease (Xu et al.,2006). The 2010 statistical update from the American Heart Association indicated that more than 81 Million adults (more than 1 in 3) in the U.S. have one or more types of heart disease / cardiovascular disease (CDV) (Lloyd-Jones, Adams, Brown,2010).Meurman and Hamalainen (2006) found out that there is a relationship between poor dental health and high mortality rate among the elderly population. A survey conducted by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999-2002 effectively investigated the oral health of the American population. The outcome of the study indicated that about 41% of children aged between 2 and 1 years, 50% of children aged between 12-15 years as well as 68% of adolescent between the age of 16 and 19 had decayed primary teeth. In adults, the prevalence of teeth decay was 87% among individuals between the ages of 20-39 and 95% of those aged between 40 -59.Twenty five percent of adults who are aged over 60 were indicated to have lost all their teeth. As a consequence of these shocking prevalence statistics, the determination of the correlation between periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases is very important since oral health may act as an avenue that can be used in controlling the rate of cardiovascular mortality.The work of Janket et al., (2003) and Khader et al., (2004) have indicated that the risk of coronary heart diseases as well as cerebrovascular diseases are increased by periodontal infections. Amar and Han (2003) conducted a study that indicated that infectious as well as inflammatory process in a person may promote the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). These oral microbiological diseases and infections may go along way into affecting the general health status of a person.Tonetti et al. (2007) conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and the outcome indicated that the improvement in an individual's endothelial function is achieved through an intensive treatment targeting periodontitis. Scannapieco (1999) implicated oral bacteria in the occurrence of pneumonia. Azarpazhooh and Leake (2006) conducted a study which found a correlation between oral health and pneumonia.Several longitudinal studies have investigated the associations that exists between mortality and several oral markers (Jansson et al., 2002; Hamalainen et al., 2005; Abnet et al.,2005). Abnet et al. (2005) carried out a study which associated tooth loss with increased death rates as well as deaths due to heart diseases, stroke and upper gastrointestinal cancer. The work of Abnet et al., further examined… [read more]

Krabbe Disease Research Paper

… Krabbe disease (also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy) is defined as a degenerative disorder that affects the nervous system. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (2011) Krabbe disease is brought about by galactosylceramidase deficiency, which is an enzyme… [read more]

Disease Caused by a Microbe Research Paper

… ¶ … disease known as influenza is a respiratory illness and it is caused by flu viruses. Influenza is not to be confused with the common cold. It may originally start out that way, with some cold-like symptoms, but very… [read more]

Blood Disorders Term Paper

… Blood Disorders

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma is the cancerous proliferation of a patient's lymphoid cells. The presence of Reed-Sternberg cells is a necessary precondition of the diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, although R-S cells are identified with other disorders. "The primary diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma from the histopathologic examination of a lymph node requires the identification of Reed-Sternberg cells in an appropriate, reactive cellular background. If a diagnosis of HD has been established on lymph node biopsy, the criteria for diagnosis of extranodal sites can be relaxed - requiring only mononuclear R-S cells and their variants in an appropriate background- not classic bilobed R-S cells" (Lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma (Part 1), 2010, University of Virginia). This is one reason why identification of R-S cells at the lymph nodes is so critical during the early diagnostic stages and not at extranodal sites, where R-S cells may not be present.

Hodgkin's lymphoma is divided into two major groups, the first of which is nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma. The second type is classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, subdivided into nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin's lymphoma; mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin's lymphoma; lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's lymphoma; and lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is mainly manifested in women and lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is mainly manifested in AIDS patients (Lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma (Part 2), 2010, University of Virginia). With lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin's there are many R-S cell variants and most patients are at Stage III or Stage IV when diagnosed making their prognosis poor (Hemopathology, 2010, University of Utah). These latter types would be seen as unlikely suspects for the patient Mr. H.D.'s illness.

Mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is more common in men (Lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma (Part 2) 2010, University of Virginia). Prognosis of this type is fair, as most patients are at stage III when diagnosed (Hemopathology,…… [read more]

Sickle Cell the Outcome of Preoperative Transfusion Multiple Chapters

… Sickle Cell

The Outcome of Preoperative Transfusion Therapy in Sickle Cell Disease Patients Undergoing Surgery: A survey of Practice in Saudi Arabia

Sickle cell disease was first discovered and described in 1904, in a dentistry student in Chicago (Savitt &… [read more]

Emerging Infectious Diseases Human Monkeypox Research Paper

… ¶ … Infectious Diseases: Human Monkeypox

Monkeypox is an uncommon viral illness that takes place typically in middle and western Africa. It is known as monkeypox since it was first discovered in 1958 in lab monkeys. Blood examinations of animals in Africa later established that other kinds of animals most likely had monkeypox. Scientists also discovered the virus that leads to monkeypox in an African squirrel. These kinds of squirrels might be the ordinary congregation for the disease, but rats, mice, and rabbits can get monkeypox, as well. Monkeypox was found in people for the first time in 1970 (What You Should Know about Monkeypox, 2008).

In early June 2003, monkeypox was reported in the midst of numerous people in the United States. The majority of these people got ill after coming into contact with pet prairie dogs that were ill with monkeypox. This is the primary instance that there has been an eruption of monkeypox in the United States. The illness occurs because of the Monkeypox virus. It belongs to a collection of diseases that comprises the smallpox virus (What You Should Know about Monkeypox, 2008).

In humans, the indications and symptoms of monkeypox are comparable to those of smallpox, but more often than not they are less. An additional variation is that monkeypox makes the lymph nodes to swell up. About twelve days after being contaminated with the virus, a person will get a muscle aches, fever, headache and backache. Their lymph nodes will swell and they will feel drained. One to three days after the fever begins, a person will get a rash. This rash turns into elevated bumps packed with liquid and often begins on the face and spreads, but it can begin on other areas of the body as well. The bumps go throughout numerous stages before they get hard, scab over, and go away. The sickness typically sticks around for two to four weeks (What You Should Know about Monkeypox, 2008).

Man is vulnerable to a variety of poxvirus infections, but only two of these, smallpox and human monkeypox,…… [read more]

Celiac Disease Term Paper

… Nutrition

Celiac Disease

What can you find out about the digestive system and nutrition?

The precise cause of celiac disease has still yet to be determined. The intestines contain projections which are known as villi. The function of villi is to take up nutrients. When celiac disease is not diagnosed or left untouched, these villi become compressed. This has an effect on the capability to absorb nutrients correctly. Taking away all harmful grains from one's diet is the greatest significant measure that one can do in order to get healthy and stay that way (Celiac disease -- sprue, 2010).

What can you learn about Celiac Disease?

Celiac disease is an ailment of the digestive system that harms the small intestine and hinders the uptake of nutrients that come from food. Patients who suffer from celiac disease are not able to endure gluten, which is a protein that is found in rye, wheat, and barley. Gluten is contained primarily in foods but can also be found in daily products such as drugs, vitamins, and lip balms. When patients who suffer from celiac disease eat foods or utilize things that include gluten, their immune system responds by damaging or harming villi. The function of villi is to permit nutrients from food to be captivated by way of the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. A patient who does not have strong villi can become malnourished, despite the amount of food that is consumed on a daily basis (Celiac Disease, 2008).

What can you see from tracking the effects of this condition?

Celiac disease if left untreated can become life threatening. Celiacs are further prone to be bothered with troubles connecting to malabsorption, comprising of osteoporosis, tooth enamel defects, central and peripheral nervous system disease, pancreatic disease, internal hemorrhaging, organ disorders such as liver, gall bladder, spleen and gynecological disorders. Untouched celiac disease has also been associated with an augmented danger of definite kinds of cancer, particularly that of intestinal lymphoma (FAQ, n.d.).

What are some possible diseases…… [read more]

Physiotherapy Management of Whiplash Associated Disorders Term Paper

… ¶ … Physiotherapy management of whiplash associated disorders: A Literature Review

Biopsychosocial aspects of WAD

Physiotherapy and WAD

Preliminary Literature Review

Physical symptoms following whiplash

Psychological and cognitive aspects of WAD

Social and cultural aspects of WAD

Management aspects of… [read more]

Parkinson's Disease Research Paper

… Anatomy

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a condition that is a disorder of the motor system . It results in a loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The four main indicator of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; stiffness, or inflexibility of the limbs and trunk; or sluggishness of progression; and postural shakiness, or impaired balance and coordination. As these symptoms become more prominent, patients may have trouble walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. PD typically affects people who are over the age of 50. Premature symptoms of PD are understated and occur gradually. In some people the disease progresses more quickly than in others (NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page, 2010).

As the disease advances, the shaking, or tremor, which affects the preponderance of PD patients may begin to interfere with daily activities. Other symptoms may consist of depression and other emotional changes that include difficulty in swallowing, chewing, and speaking; urinary troubles or constipation; skin problems; and trouble sleeping. There are presently no blood or laboratory tests that have been established to help in diagnosing sporadic PD. Therefore the diagnosis is founded on medical history and a neurological examination. The disease can be difficult to diagnose precisely. Doctors may sometimes want to do brain scans or laboratory tests in order to rule out other diseases (NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page, 2010).

There are many risk factors for Parkinson's disease. These include: age -young adults rarely experience Parkinson's disease. It normally begins in middle or late life, and the risk continues to increase with age, heredity - having a close relative with Parkinson's amplifies the chances that a person will also develop the disease, although their risk is still no higher than about four to six percent, sex -men are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than women are and exposure to toxins - continuing exposure to herbicides and pesticides puts a person at slightly increased risk of Parkinson's (Parkinson's Disease, 2010).

It is believed that there are as…… [read more]

Eating Disorders Research Proposal

… ¶ … Eating Disorders

Over the last few decades, society has had an obsession about being thin. In the case of Hispanic women this is in response to various cultural norms and standards. An example of this can be seen… [read more]

What Is Huntington's Disease? Essay

… ¶ … Huntington's disease and laboratory investigation of this disease. Huntington's disease can attack just about anyone, but it is involved in the genetics of a family. Today, Huntington's disease is treatable, but it is still a devastating disease that… [read more]

Massage Affects on Hodgkins Lymphoma Research Paper

… Hodgkin

Massage Affects on Hodgkins Lymphoma

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Massage Affects on Hodgkin Lymphoma

Definition of the disease/disorder

A common definition of Hodgkin disease or Hodgkin Lymphoma is a form or type of cancer of the lymphatic system ("Hodgkin's Disease," 2009).… [read more]

Addison's Disease Research Paper

… Addison's disease is basically an endocrine disorder in which the normal functioning of the adrenalin gland is seriously affected. This disorder affects 1 in 100,000 people and occurs equally among men and women and across different age groups. [NIDDK] Among the important functions of the adrenal gland is the secretion of Cortisol and Aldosterone, two important hormones that are essential to regulate blood pressure, cardiovascular function, inflammatory response, as well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism of the body. Aldosterone belongs to a class of hormones known as mineralocorticoids and plays a big role in maintaining the potassium sodium balance in the body. This salt balance is critical to maintain healthy blood pressure. Since the kidneys require aldosterone for sodium absorption and potassium excretion aldosterone insufficiency critically affects the kidneys ability to regulate the salt balance in the body, which in turn affects the blood pressure. Also referred to differently as Hypocortisolism or chronic adrenal insufficiency this disorder is potentially fatal if left untreated. [NIDDK]

The main cause of Addison's disease is the underfunctioning of the adrenal gland. This maybe due to the damage to the adrenal cortex by the inflammatory response of autoimmune disorders, infections, or neoplasms of the adrenal gland. Of these, adrenal gland damage by autoimmune disorders is known to be the primary cause of Addison's disease. When normal cortisol synthesis is affected directly due to the adrenal gland dysfunction the disorder is termed as primary adrenal insufficiency. However, since cortisol secretion is also dependent on the performance of another endocrine gland, the pituitary gland, pituitary anomalies will also affect the adrenalin cortisol secretion. The pituitary gland secretes ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), the hormone that triggers the adrenal to secrete cortisol. The ACTH secretion by pituitary in turn is controlled by another hormone CRH (Corticotropin releasing hormone) that is secreted by the hypothalamus in response to stress. Thus insufficient production of CRH would affect ACTH production and consequently cortisol secretion by adrenalin. Tumor or any disease of the pituitary gland may thus affect the normal adrenalin functioning. This is known as secondary adrenalin deficiency. Also, sometimes, prolonged corticosteroid therapy and some specific drugs used for the treatment of fungal infections affect natural cortisol secretion. [AAFP]

The Typical symptoms of Addison's disease include fatigue, muscle weakness, appetite loss and severe weight loss. Also, some patients may have (low blood sugar) hypoglycemia, fainting and development of dark patches on the skin (hyperpigmentation). Loss…… [read more]

Kidney Disease in Children Term Paper

… Kidney Disease Children

Although kidney diseases are rarer in children than they are among the adult population, they can cause serious life-threatening complications. About one or two out of every 100,000 children in the United States develop kidney disease in the United States each year (National Institutes of Health). That risk is higher for boys than it is for girls, as "boys are nearly twice as likely as girls to develop kidney failure from birth defects, polycystic kidney disease, or other hereditary diseases," (National Institutes of Health).

Kidney diseases in children are generally caused by genetic factors, although many of the symptoms can be alleviated via lifestyle changes and medications. A number of birth defects and other preexisting conditions can cause kidney disease. For example, a narrow urethra condition called posterior urethral valve obstruction is one of the urinary tract problems that can lead to more serious kidney complications. Some kidney problems are the result of inadequate organ development in the fetus ("Kidney Diseases in Childhood"). Narrowing or enlargement of one or both kidneys, a disease known as fetal hydronephrosis, can occur while the child is developing in the womb or in early childhood ("Some causes of kidney disease in children"). Infants and toddlers may also develop urinary tract infections, which are difficult to detect in young children and which can lead to kidney disease when left untreated ("Some causes of kidney disease in children"). Therefore, it is imperative to understand the warning signs and early indicators of kidney disease in infants and toddlers.

Detecting kidney diseases early helps parents and doctors administer treatments and encourage the child to follow dietary restrictions if necessary. Prenatal testing may be used to detect certain types of kidney disorders. Other kidney diseases can only be detected later, after the toddler or young child has manifested symptoms such as a urinary tract infection or high blood pressure ("Kidney Diseases in Childhood").

There are two basic types of kidney diseases in children: acute and…… [read more]

Traumatic Brain Injury Individuals Regarding Employment and Their Social Life Research Paper

… Psychology & Nbsp;(general)

Taumatic brain injury indiviiuals regarding employment and their social life


Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often struggle with basic tasks and social skills, primarily due to the impact the injury may have on particular neurological… [read more]

Anthrax as a Disease, Anthrax Primarily Affects Research Proposal

… ¶ … Anthrax

As a disease, anthrax primarily affects farm animals, such as cattle, goats, pigs, sheep and horses, and is caused by the bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis which is almost always fatal in these types of animals. Humans… [read more]

H1N1 Term Paper

… A typical flu including the new strain of the swine flu will produce symptoms like: fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headaches, chills, fatigue, sometimes diarrhea and vomiting. In these mild cases the CDC recommends staying home until at least 24 hours after the fever is gone and resting, getting plenty of fluids.

The problem areas where immediate medical attentions are recommended have very different symptoms. In children the signs include quick breathing or more severe trouble breathing, a bluish tint to the skin, not taking in any fluids, not waking up or interacting normally, getting extremely irritable or not wanting to be held. These are all severe, but doctors have found that this particular warning sign is most urgent: flu-like symptoms improve and then a few hours or days later a severe fever returns with an equally severe cough and fever with a rash. At that point the emergency room is mandatory.

For adults the emergency room needed symptoms are a little different but just as important to notice and act on. Adults suffer with a difficulty in their breathing or just a shortness of breath, pain and/or pressure in the chest area and stomach, dizziness, confusion and severe and persistent vomiting bouts.

Proposed solutions

The Stark County Combined General Health District serves over 240,000 individuals living in 17 Townships, 13 Villages, and the 3 larger cities of Louisville, North Canton, and Canal Fulton. A viable plan to keep the tenth biggest health district in Ohio healthy is needed. The plan should stay on the same lines as the national plan offered by the CDC but on any obviously much smaller scale.

One of the more important issues is for all residents to stay informed by visiting the county web site or getting information from local radio, television and news outlets. Stay informed in order to not miss community wide outreach by the Stark County Combined General Health District. Community announcements will include when, who and where vaccinations are going to be taking place.

These announcements are an important part of keeping our community residents healthy because the information really is power. The county web site has a great deal of information available at no fee at 'H1N1 FLU RESOURCES AND UPDATES.' For example, here some local dates throughout Stark County to get H1N1 vacinations:

H1N1 Elementary School Clinic dates and times



Nov 3

Fairless elementary clinic

4 -- 6pm

Nov 4



Tuslaw High School


Nov 5

Marlington Middle School


Nov 9

Minerva elementary


Nov 10

Perry High School


Nov 12

Faircrest Middle School


Nov 13

Sauder Elementary School


Nov 16

Northwest High School


Nov 17

Louisville Elementary School


Nov 19

Lake/Hartville elementary

4 -- 7pm

Lake Center evening

3:15 -- 5pm


In conclusion, I chose this topic because of the impact the H1N1 virus and swine flu have had on the nation and the world. Stark County and the Ohio Department… [read more]

Virus H5N1 Bird Flu Thesis

… ¶ … H5n1

Avian Influenza

Much like other communicable diseases, the H5N1 Avian influenza virus, also known as bird flu, has a long history steeped in exploration, discovery and revelation, dating back more than one hundred years to 1878 in the country of Italy, where poultry farmers were struck with an epidemic then called "Fowl Plague." Some fifty years later, this type of avian flu virus ended up in the United States, either by being transmitted through immigrants from Italy and elsewhere in Europe or by the importing of virus-infected birds like chickens from Italy and the greater Mediterranean area ("History of Avian Flu," Internet). In 1955, this "Fowl Plague" was quickly identified as being the transmitter for this type of influenza which generally affects all domesticated animals and especially birds. Technically, this type of flu is known as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza a virus and belongs to a subtype known as H5 ("History of Avian Flu," Internet).

Within the last ten years or so, the H5N1 flu virus has managed to spread to all regions of the world, particularly to Asian nations like China, Japan, and South Korea, and to European nations like Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands, where a serious outbreak of the H5N1 virus occurred in 2003. The H5N1 virus has also been reported in Central and South America, Mexico, the Middle East and even Australia. Obviously, this type of influenza holds the potential to greatly affect not only a country's population but also its economy via destroying poultry industries which have often been forced to slaughter "millions of chickens, geese and turkeys to prevent further transmission" of this particular virus ("History of Avian Flu," Internet).

The H5N1 virus has also been responsible for a number of serious outbreaks in recent years, especially in Asia, where the poultry industry serves tens of millions of Chinese on a daily basis. Although the transmission of this subtype of flu virus from animals to humans is relatively rare as compared to other influenza strains, the World Health Organization is now quite concerned "about the Avian virus's potential to swap genes with a common flu virus," thus creating a deadly and perhaps untreatable form of the illness which could spread globally in the shape of a pandemic ("History of Avian Flu," Internet).

As a member of the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Influenzavirus a, B, the H5N1 virus is generally transmitted through two basic ways -- first, by inhaling infected droplets from a virus carrier (i.e., an animal, bird or human) which has been shown to be the most common transmission mode and by direct physical contact with the droplets via the environment or human-to-human. Once exposed, the virus quickly infects the upper respiratory system, the sinuses, or both areas simultaneously with an incubation period ranging from two days and upwards to eight days or longer, depending on the amount of exposure and the type of transmittal (Beigel, et al., 1376).

As to symptoms associated with the H5N1 virus, the infected person… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Is a Progressive Research Proposal

… Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss, language deterioration, impaired ability to mentally manipulate visual information, poor judgment, confusion, restlessness, and mood swings. Alzheimer's disease is a form of a mental disorder known as dementia. Dementia is a brain disorder that causes the loss of mental functions; such as thinking, memory, and reasoning. Dementia is not a disease itself, but rather a group of symptoms that are caused by various diseases or conditions. It restricts the brain's ability to process rational or normal thought and prevents normal daily activities.

Alzheimer's disease usually begins after age 65, but its onset may occur as early as age 40, appearing first as memory decline and, over several years, destroying cognition, personality, and ability to function. Confusion and restlessness may also occur (Stephens).

History of Alzheimer's

In the early 1900's, Alois Alzheimer, a German physician, provided care for a middle-aged patient who experienced progressive problems with memory, language, and behavior. After the patient died, Alzheimer identified two changes in brain tissue. He found neurofiber tangles and neuritic plaques that are now a defining feature for diagnosing what we call Alzheimer's Disease today.

Psychology of Alzheimer's

The management and care associated with patients with severe Alzheimer disease frequently presents difficult decisions for medical professionals and the caregiver. The disease often requires full time care and assistance with day-to-day basic activities.

Alzheimer's can be a crippling experience for both the disease sufferer and the family that is involved. There are many moments of misunderstanding or confusion for most, and the symptoms can become frustrating and difficult. The loss of memory and other associated factors can often cause immense separation in families and can create a nervous tension on relationships that is not necessary if suitable information is available and utilized by all parties involved.

Alzheimer's is a progressive brain disorder. The effects on the brain are relentless as the memory is progressively destroyed and the capability to learn, make judgments, and communicate and carry out normal daily tasks is greatly diminished to the point of total extinction. It is often painfully difficult to watch a family member seemingly "waste away" in their own mind; the struggle to maintain a form of sanity is often too much for many relatives and they, sadly, distance themselves from the sufferer (Living With Alzheimer's).

What makes this disease so frustrating for both the patient and their family members is the loss of "oneself" associated with the dementia. The person with Alzheimer's disease can't grasp the changes that are happening within themselves. Family members are upset and saddened by the loss of the "person" they once knew. It is common for some family members to disconnect with the loved one in the later stages of Alzheimer's because the personality displayed by the patient is so different from the personality they once knew.

The personality changes can be frightening and unpredictable with some general personality changes happening from the onset of the disease. The changes can be insignificant… [read more]

How Does One Develop a Disease Resistant Personality? Thesis

… ¶ … Disease-Resistant Personality

The idea that human personality affects health, wellness, and disease is hardly new, dating back to Hippocrates, the author of the medical oath of ethics still governing the practice of modern medicine today (Selye, 1956). In the era of high-tech scientific research, substantial empirical evidence has corroborated the long-noted anecdotal observations that certain types of personalities and chronic behavioral responses to environmental stressors correspond to different degrees of susceptibility to a wide range of physiological ailments and diseases (Flannery & Flannery, 2006; Friedman, 1990). To a large extent, many medical conditions with bona fide physical symptoms and physiological effects are attributable either all or in part to psychological factors in the realm of personality in general and in the realm of response and coping mechanisms in relation to stress in particular.


Renowned physician and author John E. Sarno has published a considerable volume of research and analysis on the relationship between emotional stress and physiological ailments of a wide variety. His work has demonstrated that lower back pain in particular, which afflicts more than three-quarters of all adults at one time or another, is substantially attributable to purely psychological causes (Sarno, 2007). Lower back pain alone is responsible for a tremendous amount of money, disability, and lost working hours spent on palliative relief and rehabilitation.

Even worse, Dr. Sarno (2007) has demonstrated empirically that the conclusions of other researchers (Acosta, 1990; Flannery & Flannery, 2006, & Friedman, 1990) that a large percentage of surgeries are performed for medical conditions attributable to stress rather than to any organic causes. The list of medical conditions considered highly susceptible to the influence of personality include a wide range of gastrointestinal conditions, arthritis, fibromyalgia, heart disease, high blood pressure, sciatica, and even various systemic infection and apparent local chronic injuries such as lateral epicondylitis or "tennis elbow" (Flannery & Flannery, 2006, Sarno, 2007).

In that regard, the specific mechanism identified is primarily a function of: (1) the psychological repression of negative emotions such as anger and rage, fear, anxiety, guilt, and shame; (2) the resulting displacement of that stress from the conscious mind in alternate areas where it manifests itself as physical symptoms; (3) the influence of chronically high levels specific hormones associated with the biological stress response, such as cortisol; (4) chronic overwork of the circulatory and respiratory systems; and (5)

the chronic reduction of re-oxygenation of tissues through blood flow (Sarno, 2007).

To a certain extent, susceptibility to the long-term medical consequences of stress are subject to hereditary influence. In that respect, different individuals have very different natural physiological responses to various triggers of exposure to environmental stress (Friedman, 1990). Nevertheless, many of the differences that enable some individuals to avoid the secondary consequences of unavoidable stress can be taught…… [read more]

Disease of Interest Thesis

… Disease of Interest

Life is unpredictable, as everything can change in a matter of minutes and anyone can be diagnosed with having Paranoid Schizophrenia. The Paranoid form of Schizophrenia involves people having brain disorders causing delusions of grandeur, persecution, or… [read more]

Disease Thesis

… Disease in the News: The Bird Flu

Critical Review

This critical review will examine a newspaper article published by the New York Times and entitled: 'Avian Influenza' published February 25, 2009, reviewed by Linda Vorvick, MD, a Family Physician, and Seattle Site Coordinator and Lecturer.

It was reported in the February 25, 2009 edition of The New York Times in an article entitled: 'Avian Influenza' that the avian influenza virus, also known as 'Bird Flu' historically is a virus that "infected pigs and mixed with pig influenza viruses" however "the viruses exchanged genetic information which led to the formation of a new virus." (The New York Times, 25 Feb, 2009) It was this genetic exchange that enabled the new virus to "infection humans and easily spread from person to person." (The New York Times, 25 Feb, 2009) The article relates that many of the previous flu pandemics began in this manner.


This article relates that the first avian influenza virus to infect humans "directly occurred in Hong Kong in 1997, during an avian flu epidemic on the island." (The New York Times, 25 Feb 2009) This outbreak is stated to have been "linked to chickens and classified as avian influenza A (H5N1)." (he New York Times, 25 Feb 2009)


It is related in this article that following the outbreak in Hong Kong that the bird flu virus continued to spread across the Asian continent. In October 2005, avian influenza virus was discovery in the countries of Romania and Turkey in poultry with hundreds of individuals being infected with the disease and many of them dying from the bird influenza.

This report relates that chance of the disease spreading worldwide is dependent upon the area in which the bird influenza spreads. Those who work with poultry, including farmers and individuals who travel and visit countries infected with the bird influenza are at…… [read more]

Huntington's Disease Research Proposal



National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Huntington's disease "results form genetically programmed degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in certain areas… [read more]

Infectious Disease Essay

… Infectious Diseases

94065 Spreading and Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases

From the European plague to the smallpox that resulted in the destruction of thousands of Native Americans, infectious diseases have been some of the worst murderers in history. Since science has learned to understand how infectious diseases are spread, however, people have been able to learn how to prevent disease from wrecking havoc on themselves and their families. A personal knowledge of how infectious diseases spread and how they can be prevented is another good to insure you are protected against them.

According to the Mayo Clinic, infectious diseases can spread from person to person through either direct or indirect contact ("Infectious Diseases" 2007). This means that while a person must come into contact with the germ that does the diseases spreading in order to get sick, that person may or may not come into contact with a sick person. Contact can be considered the first link in the chain of spreading infectious diseases. In fact, the most common type of contact is person-to-person contact, in which a person coughs on, kisses, or exchanges fluid with sick person. In addition to person-to-person contact, several other ways of spreading infectious diseases exist. Animal to person contact -- in which a sick animal or animal waste passes a bacterium or virus to a human -- and mother to unborn child contact are two other methods of direct contact. Infectious diseases can also be passed from person to person through indirect contact. An example of indirect person to person contact touching the same pencil that a person with the flu has touched. Two other types of contact, or ways infectious diseases are spread, are through the air and through vehicles such as bites and stings ("Infections Diseases" 2007). In fact the United Nations suggests that environmental changes may be releasing long buried infectious diseases into the air ("Environmental Changes" 2005). Regardless, the easiest way to prevent infectious diseases is to prevent the person-to-person contact that usually spreads those diseases.

Once a person has come into contact with an infectious disease, the second link in the chain that causes infectious diseases to spread from person to person is the germ's incubation in the body. Germs include bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths, or parasites that are most commonly associated with ringworm. While…… [read more]

Crohn's Disease Thesis

… Crohn's Disease: Promising New Findings About Its Molecular Basis

Like it or not, the human digestive system requires bacteria to operate. But if these friendly bacteria penetrate the wall of the intestine the bacteria can become harmful rather than helpful. "This is why a thin, continuous layer of interconnected cells, called an epithelium, lines the intestinal surface creating a barrier that prevents bacteria from crossing that border"("Researchers Identify Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease," 2007, European Molecular Biology). Until recently, the mechanisms that control the epithelium were unknown. Now scientists have discovered what they call "NF-kB," a signaling molecule that helps cells cope with stress by reducing inflammation in the intestinal epithelium "("Researchers Identify Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease," 2007, European Molecular Biology). Scientists created a mouse that does not express NEMO, a protein needed to activate NF-kB, in intestinal epithelial cells. "As a result, these mice developed severe chronic intestinal inflammation very similar to the human disease known as Crohn's" ("Researchers Identify Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease," 2007, European Molecular Biology).

Crohn's disease impairs the lives of more than four million people worldwide ("Researchers Identify Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease," 2007, European Molecular Biology). It is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can produce abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Traditional treatment therapies for Crohn's disease involve antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, and surgery (Feller 2001:1). Crohn's appears to run in families. Previous research indicated that it was caused by a combination of genetic and environmental causes, the degree to which appeared uncertain. For example, two Swedish studies suggested that the risk of contracting Crohn's disease might be increased in individuals whose mothers had contracted measles during pregnancy, but subsequent research discounted the data collection involved in the studies, and found no correlation or causation in the proposed connection (Metcalf 1998:1).

The most promising research prior to the study of NB-kB research suggested that the standard treatment of first giving Crohn's patients traditional corticosteroids and then turning to newer types of anti-inflammatory drugs should be reversed. Researchers randomly assigned 65 Crohn's patients to get a combination of anti-inflammatory drugs and then steroids while a group of 64 other Crohn's patients received the conventional treatment of steroids first, followed later by the same two anti-inflammatory drugs used in the other trial. After 6 months, 60% of those who initially received infliximab and azathioprine, the anti-inflammatory drugs, were entirely free of Crohn's disease symptoms, while only 36% of those getting steroids were asymptomatic, a heartening result given the severe side effects of steroids in comparison to these other drugs (such…… [read more]

Human Papillomavirus Term Paper

… Disease - HPV


Human Papilloma Virus Defined:

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) includes both non-sexually transmitted and sexually transmitted disease (STD) forms that comprises many individual viruses characterized by the development of non-cancerous wart-like tumors… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease According to the American Term Paper


According to the American Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's is a progressive and fatal brain disease which currently affects more than five million Americans and as a disease "destroys brain cells, causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior" and can negatively affect a person's overall lifestyle and social life. Alzheimer's is also the most common form of dementia, known in the past as senile dementia or common senility, and currently, no cure is known, yet researchers have managed to come up with treatments for the symptoms of Alzheimer's which can extend a person's life by many years if treatment is done early ("What Is Alzheimer's?" 2008, Internet).


As to the disease of Alzheimer's as it relates to physiology and biology, the most striking abnormality in the human brain is its appearance as compared to a normal human brain. The amount of brain substance in the folds of the brain surface known as gyri is much less in the Alzheimer's brain and are greatly enlarged. The cerebral cortex which occupies the exterior portion of the brain and serves as the basis for thinking and rational thought, is also greatly shrunken or atrophied as compared to that of a normal brain (Cohen, 1999, 56).

The main culprit for these and other distortions of the human brain are due to what is known as amyloid plaques which are composed of a protein called B-amyloid protein which is a smaller part of a larger protein called amyloid precursor or APP. These proteins live in normal brain cell membranes and follow prescribed paths into the cell membranes, but in Alzheimer's, these pathways result in abnormal processes which leads to dementia (Powell & Courtice, 1993, 156).

Also, the brains of Alzheimer's patients are abnormal related to what is known as neurofibrillary tangles which are made of different proteins called tau protein. In ordinary human brains, these proteins are attached to structures called microtubules, but in Alzheimer's, these proteins become hyperphosphorated which then results in overactive enzymes called kinases. The byproduct of this overactive process allows hyperphosphorated proteins to bind together to form helical structures called paired helical filaments or tangles which eventually result in cell damage and death in the brain (Powell & Courtice, 1993, 158).


Statistically, as of 2005, there is an estimated five million Americans who currently suffer from Alzheimer's disease with only about half of this number having been diagnosed. An unknown number have what is called "mild cognitive impairment" which is often a precursor to full-blown Alzheimer's. Also, according to Patricia B. Coughlin, by the year 2030 when the so-called "baby boomer" generation attains the beginnings of old age, the number of Americans diagnosed with Alzheimer's has been estimated to be around eight million and by 2050 over fourteen million. Of course, these numbers are dependent on whether or not a cure for Alzheimer's is found within the next ten years. Not surprisingly, the costs associated with these numbers will be staggering, due to increases in… [read more]

Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV Term Paper

… Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an RNA negative-sense stranded enveloped virus. Infection with the virus is implicated in the condition bronchiolitis, which is a condition which affects predominantly infants. The condition is characterized by flu-like symptoms, including runny nose, fever,… [read more]

Should Drug Addiction Be Considered a Disease Term Paper

… Sociology - Drug Addiction Theory


Drug addiction is unlike other medical diseases, primarily because it is the result of voluntary behavior rather from exposure to bacterial organisms, viruses, or from genetic disorder. Whereas symptoms normally associated with organic diseases are well defined in strictly objective terms, the symptoms of addiction rely on subjective definition, and to a large degree, on cultural norms and expectations (Reinarman, 2005).

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), drug addiction is a brain- based disease, but many researchers dispute that conclusion, because the brain studies upon which it is based pertain equally to other non-medical behaviors, such as gambling, exercise, sex, eating, and even shopping, all of which are also capable of being indulged without resulting in addiction. In many respects, addiction characterizes a particular response among some individuals to behaviors indulged benignly by many others.

Admittedly, addiction may represent numerous social and behavioral components, as well as genetic predisposition that varies significantly from individual to individual.

No single component of behavior and no single aspect of inherent predisposition necessarily results in addiction on its own. Furthermore, certain individuals with the genetic predisposition do not develop addiction, even after indulging in the behavioral component that gives rise to addiction in others.

Therefore, it may very well be that defining addiction strictly, either as a behavior or strictly as a disease, is impossible without at least some element of subjective classification that reflects the underlying belief of the researcher, as well as social norms and cultural expectations (Reinarman, 2005).

Distinguishing Disease and Behavior in Drug Addiction:

Ordinarily, persons suffering from organic disease present very specific symptoms by which the disease is identified. While many symptoms of disease are not, by themselves, associated only with a disease, certain combinations of symptoms are universally characteristic of specific diseases, with well-defined expected durations and outcomes. Where human disease or condition is a function of organic physiological abnormality, every individual plagued with the specific abnormality that characterizes a particular disease or condition presents the same types of symptoms, with relatively few exceptions. Likewise, where the etiology of a disease is linked to exposure to bacterial organisms or other naturally-occurring or synthetic contaminants, that exposure nearly always results in disease onset, except in cases of natural immunity. Unlike different responses to addiction-prone drugs, instances where immunity confers protection are capable of being definitively identified and their mechanisms understood, strictly in objective principle.

A fundamental difficulty in characterizing drug addiction as a disease is that so many individuals indulge in the very same behavior without developing any symptoms of addiction at all (Sullum, 2003). Conversely, other researchers suggest that addictive behaviors like adult alcoholism are capable of prediction far in advance, by quantifying general behaviors of pre-adolescence and adolescence (LeGrand, 2005). However, the observations relied upon by LeGrand for this conclusion likely pertain just as accurately to many other adult behaviors, including antisocial conduct, family violence, and criminality, in general. None of those behaviors qualifies… [read more]

Concept of Disease a General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective Term Paper

… ¶ … Disease: A General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective

General Medicine Concepts of Disease

Homeopathic Medicine Concepts of Disease

The Concept of Disease: A General Medical Practice and Homeopathic Medicine Perspective

We shall find that, even when there… [read more]

Speech and Language Disorders in Adults Term Paper

… Speech Pathology in Degenerative Central Nervous System Diseases

Speech and Language in Adults with Diseases of the Central Nervous System

Speech and language difficulties accompany a number of diseases of the central nervous system in adults. Sometimes the speech difficulty… [read more]

Aricept Alzheimer's Disease Is a Progressive Form Research Paper

… Aricept

Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive form of pre-senile dementia, which similar to senile dementia, except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s, and with initial symptoms of impaired memory, then impaired thought and speech and, finally, complete… [read more]

Disease HIV Disease Is Viewed Term Paper

… ¶ … Disease

HIV disease is viewed as a continuing progressive damage to the immune system from the period of infection to that of the manifestation of severe immunologic damages by means of neoplasms, opportunistic infections, wasting, or further by… [read more]

Cirrhosis Liver Disease Term Paper

… Cirrohsis (liver Disease)


When liver tissue is damaged by infection, toxin or ailment, it leads to a scarring called Cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is not reversible and is dangerous and it cannot be treated. Diseases of the liver can be instigated… [read more]

Biological Virus vs. Bacteria Term Paper

… Virus v. Bacteria virus is a small particle that infects cells in biological organisms. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites; they can reproduce only by invading and controlling other cells as they lack the cellular machinery for self-reproduction. The term virus usually refers to those particles which infect eukaryotes (multi-celled organisms and many single-celled organisms), while the term bacteriophage or phage is used to describe those infecting prokaryotes (bacteria and bacteria-like organisms).

Typically these particles carry a small amount of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by some form of protective coat consisting of proteins, lipids, and glycoproteins. Importantly, viral genomes code not only for the proteins needed to package its genetic material, but also for proteins needed by the virus during lysogenic and lytic cycles, the reproductive cycles. A virus reproduces by causing a host cell that it infects to create copies of itself. When found outside of a host cell, viruses consist of genomic nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (depicted as blue), surrounded by a protein coat, or capsid, with or without a glycoprotein envelope. There are three types of viruses: a bacterial virus, otherwise called a bacteriophage, an animal virus, and a retrovirus.

A phage (also called bacteriophage) is a small virus that infects only bacteria. Like viruses that infect eukaryotes, phages consist of an outer protein hull and the enclosed genetic material (which consists of double-stranded DNA in 95% of the phages known) of 5 to 650 kbp (kilo base pairs) with a length of 24 to 200 nm. The vast majority of phages (95%) have a tail to let them inject their genetic material into the host. Phages were discovered independently by Frederick Twort in 1915 and by Felix d'Herelle in 1917.

Phages infect only specific bacteria. Some phages are virulent, meaning that upon infecting a cell they immediately begin reproducing, and within a short time lyse (destroy) the cell, releasing new phages. Some phages (so-called temperate phages) can instead enter a relatively harmless state, either integrating their genetic material into the chromosomal DNA of the host bacterium, much like endogenous retroviruses in animals, or establishing themselves as plasmids. These endogenous phages, referred to as prophages, are then copied with every cell division together with the DNA of the host cell. They do not kill the cell, but monitor (via some proteins they code for) the status of their host. When the host cell shows signs of stress (meaning it might be about to die soon), the endogenous phages become active again and start their reproductive cycle, resulting in the lysis of the host cell. Sometimes, prophages even provide benefit to the host bacterium while they are dormant, by adding new functions to the bacterial genome, a phenomenon called lysogenic conversion. A famous example is the harmless Vibrio bacteria strain, which is turned into Vibrio cholerae by a phage, causing cholera.

Phages play an important role in molecular biology as cloning vectors to insert DNA into bacteria. Phage therapy has been used since the… [read more]

HIV and AIDS Content Knowledge Term Paper

… Conversely, the mistrust and lack of openness makes caring dentists, as well as other medical professionals, feel frustrated, betrayed and somewhat abused. The primary focus in all situations is base on each person's personal condition. Dentists and all other dental… [read more]

Sickle Cell Disease Term Paper

… Sickle cell disease or Sickle Cell Anemia (as it used to be called) is a disease of the red blood cells, which in inherited. It was first reported in Western Literature in 1910, when a midwestern physician described a patient… [read more]

Health Psychology Eating Disorders Among Asian American Term Paper

… Eating disorders among Asian-Americans

The following study attempts to explore and delineate the problem of eating disorders among Asian-Americans. The study presents an overview of the issue and found that there exists a serious problem with regards to eating disorders… [read more]

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