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Global Health Human Div and Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,107 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Global Health, Human DIV and Disease

Contributing Factors for avian influenza (H5N1) in Europe

As the first recognition of avian influenza (H5N1) in Europe surfaced in the later months of 2005 and early months of 2006, through the use of Euro barometer study from April till May 2006 have actually given an opportunity to analyze the understanding of participants throughout… [read more]

Disease Control Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


5. Lateral gene transfer is very common among bacteria.

a. Describe 3 mechanisms of lateral gene transfer.

i. Transformation: genetic alteration of a cell

ii. Transduction: bacterial DNA is moved from one bacteria to another iii. Conjugation: bacteria transfers genetic material to another cell through contact

b. How can lateral gene transfer be beneficial to bacteria?

This process allows bacteria to respond and adapt to their environments more rapidly by acquiring larger DNA sequences from other bacteria.

c. How can lateral gene transfer complicate the study of phylogenetic relationships among bacteria & possibly the 3 domain system?

DNA becomes mixed between different bacteria and therefore the individual genetic material can become complicated, making it difficult to understand the clear differences between organisms.

6. Woese's studies led to the 3 domain system that replaced the 5 kingdom system.

a. Why did the 5 kingdom system become "obsolete"?

Protista, fungi, plantea, and animalea have all been placed under the category eukarya while bacteria are so diverse that they have required their own classification.

b. Discuss why nucleotide sequencing of ribosomal RNA has been useful in evolutionary biology.

Since RNA sequences differ between species due to mutations, biologists can examine the nucleotide sequence and determine potential connections between species which are no longer similar but may have a shared evolutionary ancestor.

c. Name a few unexpected outcomes of Woese's studies & 3 domain system.

i. Organisms originally given their own kingdom have been linked and shown to be genetically close

ii. Easier to determine a common ancestor iii. Determination of niche role of organisms.

d. Name some similarities that have been retained by members of the 3 domains of life that clearly indicate their common (but ancient) ancestry.

i. Similar genetic codes

ii. Evidence of prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells iii. Evidence of evolution and adaptation.

7. Viruses are not cellular & thus not considered to be living organisms.

a. Give 4 reasons for studying viruses in biology courses despite the above.

i. They interact with living things

ii. Viruses have genetic information and can reproduce iii. Viruses are found in nearly every ecosystem on earth

iv. Immunizations can be made from viral material

b. The origin of viruses is subject to the same common dilemma of: "who came first, the chicken or the egg?" Discuss some evidence from molecular studies that would help you resolve the dilemma around the origin of viruses (did viruses or cells evolve first?)

Cells… [read more]

Periodontal Disease and Respiratory Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,100 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Moreover, the authors note that all three of the diseases in question (periodontal, pneumonia, and COPD) are "complex, multifactorial, and have many risk factors," (p. 7). Some of the potential intervening variables include smoking status, medical history, age, dental caries, missing teeth, dysphagia, and low socio-economic status (p. 7).

Low socio-economic status is something that practitioners should be taking into account when treating patients. The authors point out that, "Canadians living in urban, low socioeconomic areas are 2.7 times more likely to be hospitalized from COPD than those in higher socioeconomic areas," (p. 3). Age and physical condition is also a factor that practitioners need to take into account. This is especially true with regards to aspiration pneumonia, which can be caused "when food or liquids from the mouth, gastric contents, or oropharyngeal secretions are inadvertently inhaled into the lower respiratory tract," (p. 3). The elderly or infirm dependent on external feeding mechanisms or who are missing teeth might be particularly susceptible. The authors note that elderly living in long-term care facilities are also to be classified as a high-risk community. In fact, there are several identifiable mechanisms by which oral bacteria can precipitate or cause a respiratory infection. High risk communities, including the elderly and people who smoke, should be examined more closely by dentists due to the potentially debilitating if not fatal impact of developing a respiratory illness. Even if there is no direct causal relationship, the literature does support a general concern for these risk factors.

Inadequate oral hygiene is another potential precipitating factor. Although no direct causal relationship can be revealed, poor oral remains a major risk factor for at least periodontal disease. The presence of oral bacteria due to poor oral hygiene is likely to exacerbate pre-existing tendencies to develop respiratory infections. Therefore, it is important to promote oral hygiene in general to prevent the build up of bacteria that could lead to or exacerbate an existing respiratory condition.

Community-based oral hygiene programs are a good way of raising awareness about the risk factors related to respiratory disease and periodontal disease. The community health programs can highlight the consequences of poor oral hygiene, and the consequences of contracting a respiratory illness. Because many of the highest risk populations are seniors living in long-term care facilities, who may have dependency on nurses for feeding and oral care, it is also critical to target nursing homes and senior care facilities. For instance, the dentist and hygienists need to know if the patient uses mechanical ventilation or tube feeding tubes. Educating caregivers about the importance of oral hygiene for elderly patients will help reduce the problems associated with both periodontal disease and respiratory illnesses.

It has been postulated that, "one in ten deaths from pneumonia in dependent elderly may be prevented by improving oral hygiene," (p. 8). Therefore, prevention and intervention are critical factors for an oral hygiene practice. Practices should take into account patient history regarding respiratory illness, smoking status, and age-related issues such as feeding dependencies.… [read more]

Grave's Disease Is an Autoimmune Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,201 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Only a very small percentage of people will have to deal with the direst aspects of Grave's disease.

Those who have Grave's disease are often prescribed antithyroid medications which slow down the function of the thyroid. Methimazole is the most common of these medications, but propylthiouracil is also prescribed (Homsanit 2001,-page 385). Antithyroid medicines prevent iodine from bonding and prevent… [read more]

Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient Article

Article  |  11 pages (3,435 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


He ignored the lesion believing it was only a minor injury. No consultation or treatment was carried out. Within three weeks, the leg swelling and a high grade fever raised concerns and prompted him to seek medical attention.

A physical examination confirmed bone tenderness and tissue inflammation. A battery of tests including blood cultures revealed elevated white blood cell counts… [read more]

Occupational Health and Safety Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" (World Health Organization, 1995, p.1) The World Health Organization document entitled "Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All: The Way to Health at Work" reports that necessary are goals for preparing, developing, and strengthening the "…necessary infrastructures, information systems and awareness of the needs and possibilities of occupational health activities, development of occupational health services for all working people, and building up the necessary sup-port services and human resources needed for implementing the new Strategy." (1995, p.1)

The International Labor Organization reports that work-related accidents and diseases are both very expensive with "many serious direct and indirect effects on the lives of workers and their families." (2011, p.1) Some of the direct costs for workers include:

(1) the pain and suffering of the injury or illness;

(2) the loss of income;

(3) the possible loss of a job; and (4) health-care costs. (International Labor Organziation, 2011, p.1)

Reported as costs to employers of occupational accidents and illnesses are the following stated direct costs:

(1) payment for work not performed;

(2) medical and compensation payments;

(3) repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment;

(4) reduction or a temporary halt in production;

(5) increased training expenses and administration costs;

(6) possible reduction in the quality of work;

(7) negative effect on morale in other workers. (International Labor Organization, 2011, p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

It is imperative that employees and employers alike understand occupational health and safety regulations and adhere to these to avoid injury, disease and associated costs to both the employer and employee when the health and safety rules and regulations are not followed.


Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, Occupational Health, and Safety Specialists,

on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/occupational-health-and-safety-specialists.htm (visited September 11, 2012).

Introduction to Occupational Health and Safety (2011) International Labor Organization. Retrieved from: http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/osh/intro/inmain.htm

Global strategy on occupational health for all: The way to health at work (1995) Occupational Health. World Health Organization. Retrieved…… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



No cure exists for Alzheimer's disease. However, research indicates that certain lifestyle factors can have a formidable impact in preventing the illness. Individuals who engage in regular physical activity are 50% less likely to develop the disease, a rate which increases to 60% for women who exercise (Peeke 2004: 8). Regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin or ibuprofen has also been correlated with lower rates of the illness: a 35% reduction in the in one study. Maintaining a healthy weight; engaging in sustained mental activity; and eating many fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants, fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, and nuts have all been linked to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Diet and exercise, along with a low-dose aspirin regime, may reduce the risk because of their anti-inflammatory properties. "One study of elderly women showed that those who ate the most green, leafy and cruciferous vegetables (spinach, kale, and dark salad greens) had the thinking ability of slightly younger women than those who ate few of these vegetables" (Peeke 2004: 8).

Consuming foods high in cholesterol have been linked to an increased likelihood of developing Alzheimer's. "Several studies have been published during the last years linking diet with the development of Alzheimer's disease and dementia and especially too much cholesterol have been found to be particularly bad. This is probably because the brain is an organ that is especially rich in cholesterol and where cholesterol has many functions, and therefore is tightly regulated" (Hills 2009: 38). The gene the most common gene variant associated with Alzheimer's ApoE4 "is found in 15-20% of the population" and is involved in the metabolism of cholesterol (Hills 2009: 28). "Mice that had been genetically modified to mimic the effects of ApoE4 in humans" showed "an increase in phosphate groups attached to tau, a substance that forms the neurofibrillary tangles observed in Alzheimer's patients, which prevents the cells from functioning normally and eventually leads to their death. They also saw indications that cholesterol in food reduced levels of another brain substance, Arc, a protein involved in memory storage" (Hills 2009: 28). High blood pressure has also been linked to a greater likelihood of developing the illness.

These findings regarding cholesterol and dietary factors that can affect the progression of the illness confirm what scientists have long suspected, that Alzheimer's is not caused by either nature or nurture in most subjects, particularly late-onset subjects, but rather is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Although a healthy diet, exercise, and cognitive stimulation cannot prevent Alzheimer's, these practices can possibly counteract some genetic tendencies to develop the disorder. No drug treatments have been shown to consistently slow the progression of Alzheimer's in all patients. "There is no strong evidence that Folate (vitamin B6), vitamin B12, and vitamin E prevent AD or slows the disease once it occurs," and "high-quality studies have not shown that ginkgo biloba lowers the chance of developing dementia" (Jasmin 2010).


Alzheimer's remains a complex, multifactoral… [read more]

Glycogen Storage Diseases Are Caused Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


, 2000). The structure of the catalytic unit (G6Pase) consists of a nine-transmembrane helical structure, with the N-terminus and four loops positioned on the ER luminal surface. One of these transmembrane sections is home to 25 missense mutations that cause GSD type Ia, suggesting the resulting amino acid changes and this transmembrane section are critical to the catalytic activity of G6Pase. Another disease-linked missense mutation is located in the N-terminus and the remaining seven missense mutations that have been identified are located in two of the four loops. The only regions not linked to disease-causing mutations are the cytoplasmic loops and one luminal loop.

Overall, the majority of GSD type Ia cases are the result of just three mutations: R83C, Q347X, and 727GT (Rake et a., 2000). All other mutations individually account for less than 5% of disease prevalence and some have only been found in one patient or family. The arginine to cysteine change that occurs in patients with the R83C mutation results in a G6Pase protein without detectable phosphohydrolase activity (Lei, Shelly, Pann, Sidbury, and Chou, 1993). The Q347X mutation results in the conversion of a glutamine codon to a stop codon, which truncates the carboxy terminal by 11 residues and completely destroys the catalytic activity of G6Pase (Lei, Pan, Shelly, Liu, and Chou, 1994). The 727GT mutation affects the splicing of exons 4 and 5, despite the retention of the wild-type splice sites, and results in a G6Pase protein truncated by 146 amino acids (Kajihara et al., 1995). Other mutations similarly have been shown to abolish or significantly…… [read more]

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, a Critical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,543 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


STIs can cause serious side effects and aid in generation of other diseases such as PID. People need to know the relevancy of PID and sexually transmitted disease. Because PID is known to cause infertility in women, public health becomes a concern. Infertility along with the diseases that come from unprotected sex (what causes the PID, and the infertility) form… [read more]

Senior Citizens and the Growing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Anderson reports that "according to Patricia Hawkins, associate executive director of the D.C.-based Whitman-Walker Clinic, the popularity of medications such as Viagra has also contributed to the surge of HIV and AIDS among this group. 'Viagra has contributed a lot to this because there is so much more sexual activity among seniors and yet they are not often using contraception… [read more]

Cushing's Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Radiation treatments may occur after surgery (or if surgery cannot be performed), as well as the prescription of medicines that are "cortisone-like" for several months following the tumor removal (Kirk, 1134).

Cushing's syndrome is not so easily remedied, if the illness for which the steroids are being used is severe enough to cause than the Cushing's syndrome itself. If the medicines are stopped, the body will return to its normal condition. In these extreme cases, the syndrome is managed through diet and medications (for high blood sugar), replacement of potassium, treatment of the high blood pressure, increased calcium intake, as well as adjusting the steroid intake during severe illnesses, any surgical procedures, or injuries (Margulies).

The life of someone with either Cushing's disease or Cushing's syndrome depend on the severity of the cortisol excess, the duration, the overall health of the person, and the type (as well as curability) of the Cushing's syndrome. Resolution of the symptoms after being cured can take 2-18 months, during which time some patients are frustrated with the slow progression of their recovery (Margulies). When Cushing's syndrome cannot be cured, a lifetime of dealing with persistent fatigue, weakness in the muscles, abdominal and facial weight gain, depression, and all the aforementioned symptoms (Margulies).

Little progress has been made, though surgery has advanced with the development of the transsphenoidal technique. Before, both the adrenal glands were usually removed, causing Nelson's syndrome - excessive pituitary growth (Margulies). The syndrome is manageable, and curable in some instances. When steroids are being taken, the condition is all too common, and incurable. In adults, women seem to be more affected by pituitary related Cushing's disease than men, with the total incidence is "5 to 25 cases per million people per year" (Margulies). Infertility in women can occur, though it is treatable with hormone replacement therapy.

Dr. Harvey Cushing first had a patient (a woman) with the symptoms and signs of the disease in 1912. Thirty years later, in 1932, he linked the overproduction of cortisol in the adrenal glands to an abnormality in the pituitary gland (Margulies). Since that time, many leaps and bounds have been made medically, though patients with certain types of Cushing's will never be cured.

Works Cited

Kirk M.D., Lawrence F., Hash M.D., Robert B., Katner M.D., Harold P., Jones M.D., Tom. "Cushing's Disease: Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation." American Family Physician. Vol. 62, No. 5. pp. 1119-27

Kirk M.D., Lawrence F., Hash M.D., Robert B., Katner M.D., Harold P., Jones M.D., Tom. "Patient Information: Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease." American Family Physician. Vol. 62, No. 5. pp. 1133-4

Margulies M.D., Paul. "Cushing's Syndrome: The facts you need to know." NADF Online. http://www.medhelp.org/www/nadf4.htm21Mar 2002… [read more]

Women and AIDS in New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,287 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The cost of their treatment has to be absorbed by city services and other agencies, creating a constant and significant financial drain.

In the next decade, New York City will have to find solutions to these multiple problems: providing adequate diagnosis and treatments for women with HIV or AIDS; finding homes for children left parentless by AIDS; and solving the… [read more]

Rosacea Is a Skin Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Rosacea is also ascribed to some genetic disorder, which finds expression during the early middle age. In the cases of acute Rhinophyma there is a clear relation with the sebaceous glands leading us to infer that rosacea may be induced by the abnormal activity of the sebaceous glands. Still this doesn't fully account for the cause, as there was no trace of sebaceous gland malfunction in some cases of early stage rosacea lesions. In ocular rosacea there is a clear deformation of the epithelial tissue leading to gritty sensation and sometimes-corneal damage with the accompanying loss of visual acuity is also experienced. [Marian.S. Macsai]


Since we have not yet clearly identified the cause for rosacea there is no complete cure and treatment methodologies revolve around prevention rather than cure. While mild symptoms can be treated with antibiotic tablets (tetracycline) and topical gels (metronidazole) very acute and chronic cases need surgical procedures. Although Corticosteroids can be very useful in suppressing symptoms of rosacea they are not advisable for long-term treatment due to adverse side effects. However observations have made it clear that discontinuation of either topical gels or oral antibiotics would incur the relapse of the symptoms.


Though there is no full cure for rosacea there are lots of remedial solutions, which can greatly limit the intensity of the symptoms. One of the most basic treatment is the use of tetracycline tablets. Another very useful method is the use of metronidazole gels. Studies have indicated significant results in patients with more than 95% of them showing positive response to treatment. The anti-inflammatory effect of these medicines is the key in treating rosacea. Accutane tablets are also found to be very effective in preventing eruptions but they are not to be prescribed for pregnant women as it is found to cause serious birth related abnormalities. However in the case of severely affected patients (as in the case of Rhinophyma) medical treatment has little effect. Laser treatment is best advocated in these cases.

Laser pulses can be used to treat the symptoms of rocasea. Results have indicated a positive response when laser treatment is used in combination with other therapies. Laser treatments remove telangiectasia and greatly reduce the redness. Dr. Amy Forman Taub, director, dermatology division of the Northwestern Memorial Physicians Group, Northbrook, Ill says, "Lasers can get rid of blood vessels," "You've got somebody a lot better with medical treatment, but then you have fixed and dilated vessels and background redness that you can't get to go away. Lasers pick up where the medical treatment leaves off." [Fred Wilson] Currently Co2 lasers are used for treatment of rosacea symptoms. Though not fatal the disease has debilitating consequences on the personality of the patient and hence necessitates a thorough understanding and professional treatment.


Fred Wilson "Laser Offers relief in diminishing Rosacea," July 1st, 2002 http://www.dermatologytimes.com/dermatologytimes/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=24834

2) Jonathan Wilkin, "Standard Classification of Rosacea" "A Special report,"

Journal of American Academy of dermatology" April 2002, Vol 46

3) Designed by "Simon Darken,"… [read more]

Heart Disease (CAD: Coronary Artery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Patients' reaction to stress causes high blood pressure increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and cardiac arrest. The issue of Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association reported that Japanese women who are highly stressed are at double risk of heart disease-related deaths compared to those with low levels of stress (Journal Report, 2002).

Prevention Strategies

Some of the methods doctors recommend to reduce the risk of heart diseases are:

Weight loss - Obesity is among the diseases that is considered a risk factor in heart diseases. Thus, weight loss may lessen fats in the body, minimizing the possibility of developing heart diseases.

Smoking Cessation

Balanced and Healthy Diet - good eating habits reduces the development of diseases.

Treatment Options

To recover or prevent heart diseases, doctors usually offer the following options to patients (wral.com, 2003).

Change in Lifestyle - this includes a healthy diet, daily exercise, and quitting from vices that cause heart diseases such as smoking and too much intake of alcohols.

Medication - this involves treatment of diseases, that cause heart disease, through drugs and medications such as aspirin and nitrates.

Surgery - this is the last resort of treatment doctors recommend. This is especially essential in cases where there are internal disorders in the heart and arteries.


Coronary Artery Disease.

HeartPoint. 20 August 2003. http://www.heartpoint.com/coronartdisease.html

Heart Attack, Stroke, and Cardiac Arrest Warning Signs.

American Heart Association. 20 August 2003. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3053#Heart_Attack

Heart Attack Symptoms and Warning Signs.

HeartInfo.Org. 21 August 2003. http://www.heartinfo.com/search/display.asp?ID=600

Heart Disease Treatment Options.

Wral.Com. 22 August 2003. http://www.wral.com/hearthealth/1938335/detail.html

Heart Info News.

HeartInfo.Org. 22 August 2003. http://www.heartinfo.com/… [read more]

Immune System and Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Herpes is spread by shedding. The stress in *****es is found when they are forced to travel long distances to breed. (Wakeman, 2003) This often happens in formal dog training. Mice with herpes infection, whose social organization of colonies were restructured succumbed to the stress and began showing symptoms of herpes. Social stress does play an important role: social reorganization… [read more]

Public AIDS Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The reference to 'cancer' is ironic, because, although many AIDS sufferers were blamed for contracting the ailment through sexual practices, individuals such as a grandmother who smoked and contracts lung cancer, or a man who has a heart attack after eating unhealthy foods for many years, are often not similarly blamed for their ailments, nor is the contribution of personal behavior in cancer and heart disease seen as a reason that more public funds should not be diverted to curtailing the epidemic.

One of the most controversial allegations of Shilt's book is that one of the leading AIDS researchers, Dr. Gallo did not truly care about researching potential cures or methods of limiting the ailment until he felt he would be rewarded financially and with public acclaim for doing so. However, the fact that the epidemic has been contained through education and through continued research into new drug treatments ultimately is more important than such backward-looking name-calling. It is more important to draw important lessons from the epidemic. Much like the frequent quote about the Holocaust, that the Nazis took everyone until 'there was no one left to speak for me,' eventually public health epidemics take and threaten everyone, or at least someone from someone's family or neighborhood. Disease does not vote, it knows no culture, race, ethnicity, gender, or sexuality, and thus politicians and activists must strive however imperfectly to be equally democratic in their efforts to generate funding for research and education to fight ailments of the future.

Works Cited

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.

Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.… [read more]

Parkinson's Disease Is a Neurological Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There is a positive relation between depression and Parkinsonism and in at least 30% to 50% of patients depression is found to be a co-existing condition. Dysphagia is again a severe complication and the patient may even require a feeding tube. [Jeff Blackmer]

Medical treatment

Medical treatment of Parkinson's disease is broadly divided under two main categories namely surgical and… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Currently Affects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One area of cognitive-behavioral research into the prevention of Alzheimer's involves the study of the link between leisure pursuits and dementia prevention. Specifically, investigators believe that activities such as chess, crosswords or reading that engage a person's cognitive abilities may have some ability to prevent the development of Alzheimer's. A study done in 2003 (Vergese et al.) examined the effects… [read more]

Treating Cardiovascular Disease Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (3,112 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Cardiovascular Case Study

Case study evaluation

An analysis of the disorder

One of the leading causes of death in the U.S. is Cardiac arrest. It accounts for almost 50% of all fatalities each year and affects nearly 14 million Individuals in America. This number contains those with angina pectoris (chest pain) and individuals with congestive heart failure, resulting in inadequate… [read more]

Ebola Outbreak Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,697 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Ebola Virus and Its Effect on Humans

The Ebola Virus

How ebola Virus Affects Host

The ebola Symptoms

Transmission of the Disease

The Spread of the Disease

Diagnosis of Ebola Virus

Investigation of Ebola

Management of Ebola

Fluid and electrolyte replacement

Treatment of Ebola Symptoms

The Emerging Treatments


Ebola is one of the latest killer diseases that have affected… [read more]

Gum Disease Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Gum Disease Can Lead to Stillbirth," by Lisa Merolla, discussed the recently discovered connection between stillbirths and oral infection in mothers. Although the medical community had suspected a link between gum disease and pregnancy loss, there was no data to corroborate the controversial hypothesis. However, scientists recently isolated a strain of bacteria called F. nucleatum in a stillborn fetus. They ran a DNA probe that checked to determine if there was a matching strain of bacteria in the mother. The researchers discovered that the bacteria had originated in the mother's mouth. The mother had been experiencing heavy gum bleeding because of gingivitis, a disorder that is commonly associated with pregnancy. The gum bleeding allowed the bacteria to enter into the mother's bloodstream and from there it was transmitted to the unborn fetus. Merolla quoted Yiping Han, a microbiologist from Case Western University, who indicated that normally the immune defense systems would stop the bacteria from entering the placenta, but in this instance the mother's immune system was weakened because she had been suffering from an upper respiratory infection. Novak, as cited by Merolla, noted that "while physicians work to control vaginal and other bodily infections in pregnant women, the mouth is often overlooked" (2). He indicated that it was not common practice to control oral infections during pregnancy. Eschenbach, who was also cited by Merolla, summarized the article by stating, "Oral health is important anytime, especially during pregnancy" (2).

The author's purpose for writing the article was to inform the audience that there was an incontrovertible link between gum disease and pregnancy loss. By detailing how the infant became infected through the mother's excess gum bleeding, Merolla showed how a pregnancy could be lost because of gingivitis. This study and the article are both important because, as Novak mentioned, gum infections among pregnant women are rarely treated as a cause for concern. Her article brings awareness to the…… [read more]

Gum Disease Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Gum Disease Can Lead to Stillbirth

The idea that being a dental hygienist can help save lives seems exaggerated, but according to a recent article in Cosmos Magazine, it is a very real possibility. Merolla (2010) reports that researchers have recently found conclusive evidence that gum disease can lead to stillbirth. While there had previously been evidence of this connection in mice, the correlation between gum diseases and stillborn births was not made conclusive in humans until a recent case study analyzed at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.

The discovery was made when a woman in California who had a stillborn baby underwent DNA testing. It turned out that the bacteria responsible the stillbirth, Fuscobacterium nucleatum, can only originate in the mouth. The researchers found that the mother "had experienced excessive gum bleeding, a symptom of pregnancy-associated gingivitis. This gum bleeding, which affects about 75% of pregnant women, most likely allowed the oral bacteria to enter the mother's bloodstream" (p. 1). Normally, the human immune system would be able to fight off the bacteria, but because this woman's immune system was already weak due to another illness, the bacteria survived and resulted in the unfortunate stillbirth.

This article really hit home for me because as an aspiring dental hygienist I have always understood the importance of dental health, but realizing that it can actually save lives was very eye-opening. Any part I can play at helping people live fuller, healthier lives I am happy to take on.

Although I know the magazine probably had only limited space for the article, there is a lot more information I would have liked to have had. For example, Why did the researchers choose this particular woman to do…… [read more]

Electronic Health Records (EHR) -- Pharmacy Cystic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Electronic Health Records (EHR) -- Pharmacy

Cystic Fibrosis

Research a Disease of the Human Body:

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease that affects the lungs and digestive system, with epithelial cells producing viscous mucus that inhibits essential system functioning and causes life-threatening infections. A number of drug therapies such as antibacterial agents have become established as effective… [read more]

Autoimmune Disorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



President George H.W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States, suffered Graves' disease or autoimmune hyperthyroidism. He was treated for this disease and has taken thyroid hormone replacement therapy to treat resulting hypothyroidism. The first symptoms the former President exhibited were atrial fibrillation, severe fatigue, hand-tremors, and a mild goiter. Approximately 13 million Americans suffer from thyroid disorders, most of whom are women. Strangely, more than half of these people don't know they suffer from it. Surprisingly, Barbara Bush was diagnosed with the same disorder.

According to experts, thyroid disorders are among the most undiagnosed and misdiagnosed cases in the United States, because doctors typically do not examine the thyroid. Further, the disorder worsens slowly and the symptoms can be difficult to identify. "The test, which is a simple blood test, is not part of a routine exam and is becoming less so because of managed care," said Dr. Robert J. McConnell, a thyroid specialist and an associate attending physician at New York Presbyterian Hospital. "Managed care groups don't like fishing expeditions. They don't like to pay for tests for no good reason." Therefore, the test must usually be ordered by a patient or doctor in order for it to take place. For unknown reasons, women are eight times more at risk than men to suffer from thyroid disorders. Thyroid inflammation stems from mistakes in the immune system. (Wilkinson)

The thyroid is a major part of the body. The butterfly-shaped gland at the stem of the neck makes important hormones, such as thyrozine and triiodothyronine. These two chemicals affect metabolism growth, nerves, muscles, and…… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Howenstine, J.A. ) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,418 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Alzheimer's Disease

Howenstine, J.A. (2010) How to heal Alzheimer's disease. Townsend Letter 321: 78-85

This is a peer-reviewed 15-page article by James a. Howenstine, MD, a board-certified specialist in internal medicine, who is convinced that natural therapies are more effective, safer, and less expensive than pharmaceutical drugs for Alzheimer's disease treatment. The report includes a list of the items that… [read more]

Autism Spectrum Disorders Wang, K, Zhang Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Autism Spectrum Disorders

Wang, K, Zhang, H., Ma., D., Bucan, M., Glessner, J…. & Hakonarson, H. (2009). Common genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders. Nature 459: 528-33.

These authors set out to examine the specific genetic factors that might be responsible for an increased susceptibility to the developments if autism spectrum disorders, building on previous research that strongly suggested a genetic factor in the development of such disorders. Noting a rising trend in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in children throughout the world and specifically in the United States, the authors explain that research does not support environmental or at least purely environmental causes explaining this trend. Instead, certain correlative indicators that suggested a genetic basis for the disorder and a lack of diagnosis in previous generations rather than an actual increase in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders due to environmental or other factors.

Both direct and indirect research supports the conclusion that there is a large genetic factor involved in the development of autism spectrum disorders. Previous research had shown that certain other genetic disorders appearing in many individuals with autism, and observations of genome sequencing and chromosomal changes have also yielded some clues in this area. It is against this backdrop that these researchers conducted their own investigations, examining specific gene loci in several populations with wide backgrounds, all of European ancestry. Their research had the purpose of adding to specific knowledge regarding the genetic causes of autism spectrum disorders.


Two separate cohorts were selected for this study, both by using the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange, with 943 families (4,444 total subjects) identified in the first population and 780 families (3,101 subjects) in the second. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was used to diagnose individuals with autism spectrum disorders, and the specific genetic tests that were applied to samples were the Pedigree Disequilibrium test for autosomes, and a process identified as X-APL for the X-chromosome. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip at the Center for Applied Genomics at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Results of all of these genetic tests were then compares to family groupings and appearances of autism spectrum disorder, and compared across the population study to determine the correlation between genetic results and disorder presentation.


Initial testing did not yield any statistically significant correlations between specific genome expressions and the emergence of autism spectrum disorders. Through comparisons with other studies and an increase in the power of observations made by the researchers at lower p values, however, the authors did discover certain expressions at the 5p14.1 gene locus that were correlated with the development of autism spectrum disorders. These findings were confirmed in both research populations and was also borne out through a comparison to the control groups also tested and subjected to genetic typing in this study.


The researchers actually focus their discussion on the neural and physiological effects of the genetic changes observed to be correlated with the development of autism spectrum disorders.… [read more]

Ergonomics Also Known as Human Factors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Also known as human factors, ergonomics is "the scientific discipline that seeks to understand and improve human interactions with products, equipment, environments and systems," (Taylor & Francis 2009). Therefore, any study of ergonomics works within systems theory to design equipment and workspaces that promote human wellness. The study of physiology contributes to ergonomics, but management and policy issues are… [read more]

Alzheimer's Immunology Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Alzheimer's Immunology

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become widely associated with aging since its "re-discovery" and accompanying research in the 1970s. In fact, AD is thought to affect over 25 million people worldwide (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). AD is diagnosed as a result of "progressive memory loss and a decline in cognitive abilities" (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Many pathological conditions are thought to contribute to the onset and progression of AD, including: amyloid-? (a?) peptide extracellular plaques, tau protein aggregates from intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, gliosis, inflammation, neuritic dystrophy, neurotransmitter level changes, and overall neuron loss (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Currently, there are no "disease-modifying therapies" available for the treatment of AD (Lemere & Masliah, 2010).

Research on AD and possible therapies has been abundant for decades. Other possible pathogenic causes involve metalloproteinases (MMP); some possible treatments include inhibition of "selective gamma-secretase inhibitors" for "lowering a? production," the use of generous amounts of curcumin (from curry) in cooking, or high intake of antioxidants such as Moringa oleifera (MO) (Stomrud & al, 2010; Basi & al, 2010; Schardt, 2007; Ganguly & al, 2005).

The most widely-discussed causes of AD involve amyloid-? (a?) peptide extracellular plaques and inflammation; past and current findings on these topics will be discussed further in the following sections.

Inflammation Hypothesis

Although the role of inflammation in AD development and progression has "emerged relatively recently," it is still linked to a buildup of proteins such as a? And tau (Zotova & al, 2010). However, as a result of research specifically on the role of inflammation, scientists have suggested the use of both anti-inflammatory drugs and immunization procedures against a? (Zotova & al, 2010).

The inflammation hypothesis was developed when "immune-related antigens and cells around amyloid plaques in the brains of patients" with AD were discovered (Zotova & al, 2010). This discovery was made in the 1980s and provided evidence that the human brain is not "immunologically isolated" (Zotova & al, 2010). Furthermore, studies from the 1990s found "activated complement factors" to neuroinflammation such as cytokines in the brains of AD patients (Zotova & al, 2010). Still, these inflammatory factors are considered to be the result of "amyloid within the CNS bringing about activation of microglia, initiating a pro-inflammatory cascade that results in the release of potentially neurotoxic substances, including cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and various proteolytic enzymes, leading to degenerative changes in neurons. However, the exact role of inflammation in the pathology of AD and its mechanisms in terms of the cells involved - microglia, astrocytes and T. lymphocytes are still debated" (Zotova & al, 2010).

Other evidence in support of the inflammation hypothesis includes observations of a negative correlation between rheumatoid disease patients who are treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and the incidence of AD, miscellaneous studies showing a protective mechanism between anti-inflammatory treatments and the onset of AD, and human studies showing that NSAIDs may "reduce or prevent" AD (Zotova & al, 2010).

The Alzheimer's rat model (max 200 words)

McGill University scientists have developed genetically-mutated… [read more]

Chagas Disease Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,287 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Chagas disease is one of the most ignored of the tropical diseases, yet millions of people are contaminated with it. There are currently only two existing drugs to treat it, both of which are more than forty years old and neither is thought to be ideal. As the worldwide population has become more globally mobile, Chagas disease has spread from Latin America to become an international threat (Chagas Disease, 2009)

Chagas disease is named after the Brazilian doctor Carlos Chagas, who revealed the disease in 1909. It is caused by the scrounger Trypanosoma cruzi. It is carried to animals and people by way of insects that are initiated only in the Americas, mainly in country areas of Latin America where poverty is prevalent. Chagas disease is also known as American trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease, 2009)

It is thought that between eight and eleven million people in Mexico, Central America, and South America suffer from Chagas disease, although the majority do not know they are contaminated. If not treated, infection is permanent and can be deadly. The force of Chagas illness is not restricted to the country regions in Latin America in which vectorborne communication takes place. Significant populace travels from country to city areas of Latin America and to added areas of the earth have augmented the geographic movement and altered the epidemiology of Chagas illness. In the United States and in additional areas where Chagas is currently located but is not widespread, management approaches must center on stopping spread from blood transfusions, organ transplantations, and mothers to babies (Chagas Disease, 2009)

Chagas disease happens because of a parasite. It is ordinary in Latin America but not in the United States. Contaminated blood-sucking insects, sometimes known as kissing bugs, are what carry it. When a contaminated insect bites someone, typically on their face, it deposits infected feces. They can obtain the disease if they then wipe it in their eyes or nose, the bite site or a scratch. The sickness can also extend by way of tainted food, blood transfusions, a donated organs or from mother to infant throughout pregnancy (Chagas Disease, 2010).

The acute stage of Chagas sickness, which continues for weeks or months, may be free of symptoms. When signs and indications do happen, they are typically gentle and might include: inflammation at the contamination spot, fever, tiredness, skin irritation, and body aches, headache, loss of hunger, queasiness, diarrhea or vomiting, inflamed glands and inflammation of the liver or spleen. Signs and indicators that extend throughout the acute stage typically go away by themselves. Nevertheless, if untouched, the disease perseveres and moves forward to the chronic stage (Symptoms, 2010).

Signs and indications of the chronic stage of Chagas disease may take place ten to twenty years after initial infection, or they may never arise. In severe instances, though, Chagas disease signs and symptoms may comprise: unbalanced heartbeat, swollen, enlarged heart, congestive heart failure, and abrupt cardiac arrest, trouble swallowing due to an inflamed esophagus and abdominal tenderness or constipation… [read more]

Gingivitis Periodontal Disease Periodontitis Onset Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Periodontal disease


Onset of gingivitis

Other diseases

Four stages

There are two primary types of periodontal disease. One is described as gingivitis and is relatively mild. It can be treated successfully and usually it is done so by a brisk oral treatment. Untreated, gingivitis can proceed to develop into a more destructive periodontal disease that can affect the… [read more]

Alzheimers Disease Alzheimer's Disease in Search Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,504 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Alzheimers Disease

Alzheimer's Disease in search of a cure

The risk for dementia, a major contributor to incapacitation and institutionalization, rises rapidly as we age, doubling every 5 years after age 65. Tens of millions of new Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementia cases are projected as elderly populations increase around the world, creating a projected dementia epidemic for which… [read more]

Eating Disorders Bulimia Obesity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Eating Disorders

An eating disorder is present when a person experiences severe instability in eating behaviors. This consists of a large decrease of food intake or severe overeating, or feelings of extreme distress or concern about one's body weight or shape. A person with an eating disorder often begins by consuming smaller or larger amounts of food than normal. But at some point, their eating gets out of control. Eating disorders are very difficult to understand and in spite of a lot of scientific research, the biological, behavioral and social causes of these illnesses remain mysterious. There are two chief types of eating disorders. These are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A third type is that known as eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). This includes several deviations of eating disorders. Most of these disorders are very similar to anorexia or bulimia but have very different natures. Binge-eating disorder is an example of an EDNOS (Eating Disorders, 2009).

Eating disorders often come to the surface during adolescence or young adulthood. There have been some reports that have indicated that they can develop during childhood or later in adulthood. Females are thought to be more likely than males to have an eating disorder. Eating disorders are very treatable but they often have complex fundamental psychological and biological causes. A person often has other psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance abuse, or anxiety disorders at the same time. People who have eating disorders often also suffer from many other physical health difficulties (Eating Disorders, 2009). Eating disorders are often continuing illnesses that require a lot of treatment. The earlier that these disorders are diagnosed and treated the more likely a person is to have a full recovery (Eating Disorders, n.d.).

People who have anorexia often develop strange eating habits such as staying away from food and meals, picking out a few foods and eating them in small amounts, weighing their food, and counting the calories of everything that they consume. They may also be obsessed with exercising. People who have bulimia tend to eat a large amount of food at a single time and almost at once make themselves vomit in order to get rid of the food in their bodies. This behavior is known as the binge/purge cycle. People with bulimia often have a strong fear of gaining weight. People with this disorder often undergo regular episodes of obsessive overeating. All through these food binges, people often eat alone and quickly. Afterwards they often feel shame or guilt over their actions. Not like in anorexia and bulimia, binge-eating disorder is thought to happen almost as often in men as in women (Eating Disorders, n.d.).

So far it has not been determined that there is any single cause for eating disorders. While anxiety about weight and body shape plays a part in all eating disorders, the actual cause of these disorders has not yet been determined. These are thought to include cultural and family pressures along with emotional and personality disorders.… [read more]

Multiple Sclerosis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Multiple Sclerosis


Multiple Sclerosis

Description, Population and Challenges

Multiple sclerosis or MS is a most afflicting and challenging condition. It is a common, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system or CNS (Borazanci et al., 2009 p 229; Litzinger & Litzinger, 2009 p HS3). It is called a "whole-brain" disease for its powerful immune response against… [read more]

Brain Structures/Systems Are Affected in Parkinsons Disease? Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … brain structures/systems are affected in Parkinsons disease? What do the cognitive and emotional symptoms of the disease tell us about the possible functions of the different parts of these systems?"

Parkinsons Disease is a crippling, degenerative disorder that mainly affects a movement center of the brain. The disorder creates a shortage or limiting of action of the neurotransmitter… [read more]

Assessing the Completeness of Reporting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnoses Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Reporting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnoses

Hall, Irene H., Ruiguang Song, John E. Gerstle III, & Lisa M. Lee (2006). Assessing the completeness of reporting of human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses in 2002 -- 2003: Capture-recapture methods. 164 (4): 391. Retrieved June 17, 2010 at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/164/4/391

What is the research problem being investigated?

One of the most seismic epidemiologically-related… [read more]

Behavior Related to Drug Abuse Article Review

Article Review  |  10 pages (3,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Substance use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are often interrelated conditions. Although globally, injection drug use is related to between five and ten percent of HIV infections, in certain countries in Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North America, and South America, up to 80% of all HIV infections are related to injection drug users (Von Unger… [read more]

Munchausen's Syndrome Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Munchausen's Syndrome

Is there a biological basis or genetic predisposition for this disorder?

There remains a paucity of timely and relevant studies concerning the basis for Munchausen's syndrome. In this regard, Cohen notes that, "It has been difficult to assemble patients to study in more detail, since -- once confronted -- they usually become defensive and leave, only… [read more]

Search Engine Heart Disease Lovenox vs. Aspirin Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Search Engine

Heart disease

Lovenox vs. aspirin: Search engine PICO study

Lovenox vs. aspirin: Search engine PICO study

Heart disease claims the lives of many Americans. However, despite the common nature of the condition, the right cocktail of pharmacological treatments for patients continues to be fine-tuned. Aspirin therapy has long been the most commonly recommended drug treatment for coronary disease. For some patients Lovenox has also been used in conjunction or substitution with traditional aspirin therapy. Lovenox is an anticoagulant therapy that can help reduce the risk of developing DVT, or deep vein thrombosis.

Patient/population: Patients with heart disease

Intervention: Drug treatment (as opposed to lifestyle alterations)

Comparison: Is aspirin or Lovenox a superior method of treating patients with heart disease?

Outcome: Combination therapy is indicated but the benefits of aspirin therapy seem to be confirmed in almost all available studies (Ramanath & Eagle 2007)

Timeframe: Literature review -- not specified

Search process

At first, I plugged the words 'aspirin' and 'Lovenox' into the search engine of the National Center for Biotechnology Information of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, but unsurprisingly got many irrelevant studies focusing on aspirin. Writing 'aspirin' and 'Lovenox' and 'heart disease' also brought forth far too many results, and far too many useless responses. Finally, after writing aspirin, Lovenox, and coronary disease, I retrieved a study in the American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 2007; 7(2):95-116 pertinent to my question entitled: "Evidence-based medical therapy of patients with acute coronary syndromes" by V.S. Ramanath and K.A. Eagle. The study reviewed current pharmacologic therapies for coronary disease, including antiplatelet therapies such as aspirin and anticoagulants such as unfractionated and low molecular weight heparin. The study found that combination therapies of antiplatelet drugs, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, ACE inhibitors to treat high blood pressure, and lipid-lowering agents such as statins showed the clearest benefit in ameliorating study participant's heart disease.

The study design was qualitative in the sense that it was a literature review, but it did include quantitative studies in its examination of different treatments for the condition. "With new clinical trials being conducted, our knowledge of latest therapies for ACS continually evolves. In this article, we review currently available medical therapies and provide evidence-based…… [read more]

Breast Cancer Thesis

Thesis  |  16 pages (4,768 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Breast Cancer is a disease that has destroyed the lives of many people and their families. The presence of the disease has changed the manner in which the medical community functions as it pertains to diagnosis and treatment. Throughout the past few decades there has been a great deal of research conducted concerning the causes, diagnosis and treatment of Breast… [read more]

Biology There Are Several Possible Methods Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



There are several possible methods and steps for determining the causative agent of Pasadena Fever. An initial analysis of the observed spread and prevalence of the disease could point to specific delivery methods within a community, such as a contaminated water supply or perhaps back to an animal reservoir. Mapping of the spread of infection would be essential in… [read more]

Biological Warfare How Disease or Infection Could Spread Through Population Centers From Urban Entry Point Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,144 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Biological Warfare

Dramatic technological advances in molecular biology over recent decades have significantly increased the possibility of illicit weaponization of biological agents, leading to the increased danger of clandestine and terrorist biological warfare (Ryan & Glarum; Fidler & Gostin; Linden; Petsko). The development of technical innovations allows facile manipulation of bacteria and viruses such that individuals with an undergraduate education… [read more]

Bse and Vcjd Fact Sheet Bovine Spongiform Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (380 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


BSE and vCJD Fact Sheet

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

Progressive neurological disorder within cattle, leads spongy detioration of the brain and nerve tissue

Causative agent of transmission is a self-replicating protein known as a prion

Originated in UK cattle as a result of contaminated animal feed from sheep


Over 180,000 cases of BSE have been reported in the UK since 1986, 3000 within other countries not including the U.S., and 3 within the U.S.

Occurrence and spread of BSE has been limited as a result of measures taken to ban use of animal by-products within feed and effective monitoring

Transmission to humans

Consumption of contaminated bovine products may lead to the transmission of disease to human, resulting in a condition known as Variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (vCJD)

Contaminated beef products which contain non-muscle tissue, such as brain or other internal organs, may increase risk of transmission

Disease may also be transmitted via vaccines which contain bovine materials, although evidence is limited

Variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (vCJD)

Progressive disease characterized by degeneration of the brain and nerve tissues within humans

Symptoms include motor dysfunction and rapid onset of dementia, including: ataxia, seizures,…… [read more]

Varicella Zoster Herpesvirus 3 Chickenpox Shingles Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,514 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Herpesvirus 3, one of the eight known herpes viruses currently known to be contagious for humans is also known as chicken-pox in children and adolescents, and shingles and neuralgia (postherpetic) in adult populations. By nomenclature, it is the varicella-zoster virus, abbreviated as HHV-3 ("Varicella," 2009). General overview of the virus includes symptoms consisting of a skin rash of blister lesions,… [read more]

Lou Gehrig's Disease Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,440 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Lou Gehrig's Disease: Etiology And Pathology

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a motor neuron disease which causes muscular degeneration. ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, causes the death of the nerve cells in the central nervous system, resulting in a debilitating disruption of voluntary motor capabilities. As these nerve cells die off, the body becomes increasingly unable to send messages… [read more]

Biology Qs Microbes Exist All Around Us Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,525 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Biology Qs

Microbes exist all around us, and despite our rampant use of antibacterial sap most of them are actually still willing to help us out in a variety of ways. Certain bacteria like E. coli and other microorganisms in our intestines are essential to our digestion, helping to break down the food we eat so we can process it.… [read more]

Hepatitis Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,011 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Hepatitis B is the known as the most serious of the common liver infections in the world. It is estimated that approximately 350 million people are chronic carriers of HBV or the hepatitis B virus in the world and of these more than 250,000 die from liver-related disease each year. (Hepatitis B Overview) The Hepatitis B infection is caused by… [read more]

Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Keys to Diagnosing Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Keys to Diagnosing Early

Autism is a spectrum disorder, characterized as such for the broad array of symptoms and developmental possibilities reflected in those who suffer there from. At its core definition, autism is qualified as such by a "qualitative impairment in social interaction" which may result in an individual with severe impairment in any combination… [read more]

Rabies Is the Oldest and Deadliest Disease Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,593 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Rabies Is the Oldest and Deadliest Disease Known to Mankind, Killing 55,000 Persons Worldwide Each Year

Oklahoma Department of Health

("World Rabies Day…," ¶ 2).

Transmission of a Deadly Disease

Each year, the disease known as canine rabies kills approximately 55,000 persons worldwide ("World Rabies Day…"; "Rabies Deaths from…"; McMaster University; "West Lafayette…"). In the news article, "World Rabies Day… [read more]

Honey Bee Mystery Pesticides Thesis

Thesis  |  13 pages (3,437 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Honeybee Mystery/Pesticides

HoneyBee Mystery

The mystery of the honeybees vanishing remains a largely unsolved puzzle. Thus far, no single cause has been established for the Colony collapse disorder and scientists are beginning to approach the problem as a multifactorial symptom. The indiscriminate and systemic use of pesticides threatens to destroy the keystone species -- the honeybee that drives our agricultural… [read more]

Neuroborreliosis Borrelia Burgdorferi or Bb Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,247 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 12



Borrelia burgdorferi or Bb is a species of spirochetes or small and round-shaped bacteria, which cause lyme disease in human beings.

They are delivered to the human body by any of the several strains of Ixodes ticks, which suck on white-footed mice and white-tailed deer. The Lone Star tick is also a suspect species for transmitting relapsing fevers. Ixode… [read more]

Parkinson's Disease: Family &amp Cultural Study Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,214 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Parkinson's Disease


Brown, Rumsby, Capleton, Rushton and Levy (2006) state that Parkinson's disease (PD) is "...idiopathic disease of the nervous system characterized by progressive tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability." It is reported by Wood-Kaczmar, Gandhi and Wood (2006) that Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is both common and incurable. The majority of cases are sporadic and of unknown origin but several genes have been identified that, when mutated, give rise to rare, familial forms of the disease. The work of Hancock et al. (2008) states that Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by "...progressive depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that manifests clinically as resting tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Causal genetic variants in multiple genes (parkin, ?-synuclein, DJ-1, PINK1, and LRRK2) have been identified, but altogether, these rare genetic risk factors account for a small fraction of the overall prevalence of PD. The remaining majority of PD cases are likely due to genetic susceptibility variants, environmental influences, and complex gene-environment interactions."

II. Objective

The focus of this present study is to examine a specific population of individuals in regards to prevalence of this group in developing Parkinson's disease. This study has chosen to examine a population that has been exposed to farming chemicals and well water and who have developed this disease.

III. Literature Review

A. Environmental Factors

It was reported by Priyadarshi, Khuder, Schaub and Priyadarshi (2001) in the work entitled: "Environmental Risk Factors and Parkinson's disease: A Metaanlysis" that a study was conducted in order to examine the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and exposure to environmental factors such as living in a rural area, well water use, farming, exposure to farm animals, or living on a farm, and pesticides. A series of metaanalyses of peer-reviewed studies were performed, using 16 studies for living in rural area, 18 studies for well water drinking, 11 studies for farming, and 14 studies for pesticides."

It is reported that the larger part of the studies reported consistently that risk of PD was elevated upon exposure to rural living and farming environmental factors. However, "Dose-response relationships could not be established due to the imprecise nature of the reported data. Our findings suggest that living in a rural area, drinking well water, farming, and exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for developing PD." (Priyadarshi, Khuder, Schaub and Priyadarshi, 2001)

In a 2008 report entitled: "Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Family-Based Case-Control Study" it is stated that "pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g. exposure to well-water and farming) are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) but few family-based studies have examined these relationships." (Hancock, et al., 2008)

In a separate study reported by Fleming, et al. (1994) entitled: 'Parkinson's Disease and Brain Levels of Organoclorine Pesticides" states as follows:

Epidemiological studies have suggested an etiologic relationship between pesticide exposure and Parkinson's disease (PD). Organochlorine pesticides were assayed in postmortem brain samples from 20 PD, 7… [read more]

Heart Disease According to the Centers Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Heart Disease

According to the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC), heart disease currently causes almost a third of all deaths in the United States: about 652,091 per year. The National Institutes of Health calls heart disease the "number one killer" in the United States. The statistics are alarming not only in their sheer numbers but also in the fact that heart disease is a partly a preventable problem. Although heredity plays a major role in heart disease etiology, lifestyle choices tremendously increase risk for heart disease. Smoking, poor dietary habits, and a sedentary lifestyle are all major causes for increased risk for heart disease, and are preventable. Obesity and diabetes, which can also be caused by lifestyle factors, increase risk for heart disease. High cholesterol places persons at a greater risk for heart disease, and in most cases cholesterol levels can be lowered by changes to diet. Similarly, high blood pressure can be a precursor to heart disease and can be readily controlled with dietary and lifestyle changes. Other risk factors that are less linked to lifestyle include arrhythmias (irregular heart beats) and peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Some individuals are born with defects that can lead to serious heart complications and disease. Although risk for heart disease increases with age, children born with congenital heart defects may develop heart disease at a younger age than the general population. Individuals who increase their risk by smoking or becoming overweight may develop heart disease at a relatively young age. Women are more likely to develop heart disease after menopause because of the lack of estrogen production ("The Heart Truth").

Proximate causes of heart disease include atherosclerosis, the hardening of the arteries due to a buildup of fat and plaque. Diet is the predominant cause of artherosclerosis. The most common type of heart disease is coronary heart disease, which can cause heart attacks. Signs that a heart attack is taking place include chest pain or discomfort, pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, neck or stomach, and shortness of breath (CDC).

Populations most at risk for developing heart disease include all whose lifestyle habits put them at risk, combined with the presence of congenital heart defects or a history of heart problems including high blood pressure. However, some ethnic groups have a higher prevalence of heart disease. Heart disease is more prevalent among African-American women than white women ("The Heart Truth"). Latinas also have a high risk of heart disease, which is the leading cause of death among Latinas. Most of the risk factors affecting African-American and Latina women are the same for those that affect white women including those that are preventable like diet, smoking habits, and exercise. African-American women do tend to develop high blood pressure earlier than white women, which likely increases their risk of developing heart disease ("The Heart Truth").

Lifestyle changes can reduce risk for heart disease by as much as 82% ("The Heart Truth for Latinas"). Lifestyle factors like diet and exercise require only the… [read more]

Musculosketal Studies Lower Extremity Overuse Injuries Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,106 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Musculosketal Studies

Lower extremity overuse injuries and flat feet:

Patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibal band syndrome, and metarsal stress fractures

Traditionally, 'flat feet,' or feet not possessing a normal arch, have been associated with a variety of orthotic conditions affecting the lower extremities. This is because the position of the foot affects the individual's entire gait. Flat feet can be a particularly detrimental condition, previous literature suggests, for individuals involved in the sport of running, or for military recruits who must run and march for long periods of time and long distances. Repetitive stress exacerbates the orthopedic difficulties experienced by individuals with flat feat. A 1982 study of 50 runners with chronic orthopedic disorders found that 44% had flat feet, as opposed to 29% who were normal-arched and 32% with high-arched feet. A 1981 study of 4,000 patients seeking treatment at an orthopedist's office found that 40% had flat feet. While the "only established causative factor" in running injuries is miles per week, it has been commonly assumed that there is a strong correlation between flat-footedness and a high incidence of injuries (Hunter, Dolan & Davis, 1995, p. 30).

The knee pain known as patellofemoral pain is extremely common, especially in runners and other sports where overuse injuries tend to occur. The likelihood of flat-footedness being an exacerbating factor for such knee pain seems logical. When feet do not have strong arches the foot has a tendency to roll inwards or pronate which means the knee has to compensate for the inward movement more than an individual with normal-arched feet (Patellofemoral pain, 2008, Patient UK). "Over-pronation occurs when there is excessive mobility in the sab-taler joint of the foot which causes hyper-mobility of the foot. The increased mobility causes the medial arch to flatten out and causes the foot to roll in too much while walking and running. This increased mobility adversely affects all the muscles in the foot and can even affect the lower leg, upper leg and cause back pain. This mechanical imbalance is highlighted during running due to the increased forces being applied to the body. Orthotics are often prescribed for such individuals to lessen the pain" (Flat feet and running, 2008, Runner's rescue).

However, iliotibal band syndrome is more often associated with cavus, or high-arched feet than flat feet. High-arched feet tend to under-pronate, which lessens the ability of the body to absorb the shocks of pounding the pavement (Hunter, Dolan & Davis, 1995, p.31). IB syndrome is usually "characterized by a sharp burning pain on the outer side of the knee, just below the joint line. Pain may be localized at the side of the knee, or it may radiate up the side of the thigh. The pain worsens with continued movement, and resolves with rest. The knee may feel like it 'snaps' when it is bent and then straightened. Some individuals may also experience a 'snapping hip,' in which the muscles that cross the outside of the hip feel like they snap or click while… [read more]

Eating Disorders the Media's Obsession With Weight Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Eating Disorders

The media's obsession with weight and its relentless portrayal of 'desirable' women with unrealistically thin figures has made eating disorders one of the leading health concerns of modern-day living, especially among young women. With as many as 11 million Americans currently suffering from eating disorders and about 80% of women reporting dissatisfaction with their appearance, it is no… [read more]

Environmental Science the City and the Problem Essay

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Environmental Science

The City and the Problem

Hazard identification Does exposure to substance cause increased likelihood of adverse health effect such as cancer or birth defects?

According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, exposure to the pesticide Malathion is hazardous to human health but the substance has relatively low toxicity to humans, other mammals, and birds compared with other insecticides. Although intentional exposure to pregnant women would hardly be recommended, it should be noted that genetic toxicology studies indicate that Malathion do not cause gene mutations in bacteria. In contrast, according to the CDC (Center for Disease Control) West Nile Fact Sheet, in a small number of cases, West Nile Virus has been spread during breastfeeding and even during pregnancy from mother to baby.

Mild exposure to both West Nile Virus and the insecticide designed to prevent it by killing the carrier mosquitoes can cause headaches, nausea and vomiting, and general weakness. 80% of those exposed to West Nile show no symptoms at all, but 1 in 150 can sustain permanent neurological damage. High doses of Malathion include hypertension, pallor, abdominal pain, sweating, blurred vision, poor concentration, confusion, and memory loss. Thus, as serious as these symptoms may be, the consequences of contracting West Nile virus can be far more severe, although there is also a greater likelihood the individual will show no symptoms at all if he or she is bitten by an infected mosquito.

Step 2. Dose-response assessment. What is relationship between amount of exposure (dose) and seriousness of adverse health effect? A person exposed to a low dose may have no symptoms, whereas a high dose may result in illness.

In a test study of Malathion, a single exposure to 10% Malathion (95% pure) induced contact sensitization in almost half the participants and 0.1 and 0.01% concentrations of 99.3% Malathion evoked positive responses in previously sensitized participants. Higher doses thus result in more severe symptoms, and a greater likelihood of the individual showing severe symptoms. In contrast, the response of the individual to West Nile is not based upon degree of exposure, but more due to the state of the person's health or sensitivity to the virus. This tends to suggest that, given the unpredictability of the response to West Nile, it would be better to apply the insecticide.

Critics allege that as many as 90 cases of Malathion-related illnesses could result proposed application program with as many as four fatalities, compared with one individual out of 150 sustaining permanent neurological damage. But the ability to guard one's self against a spraying entirely is more realistic than a multiplying insect population.

Step 3. Exposure assessment How much, how often, and how long are humans exposed to substance in question? Where humans live relative to emissions is also considered.

While it is possible that certain individuals might be exposed to higher doses of the pesticide than is desirable, the idea expressed by opponents of…… [read more]

Periodontal Disease Essay

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Periodontal disease has different degrees and stages of severity but can result in loss of teeth in the later more severe stages. However, what is disturbing is that this disease is becoming more prevalent in our modern 'developed' societies. (Albandar, Brunelle and Kingman, 1999) Even more disturbing is the fact that the link between periodontal disease and other illnesses are… [read more]

Hodgkin's Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,766 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Hodgkin's Disease - Human Lymphatic System

The "Bump" in the Road

You never know....," the start of the statement by Pennsylvania's Senator Arlen Specter (Republican) when he related the recurrence of Hodgkin's disease to the press during April 2008, aptly leads into this paper exploring Hodgkin's disease and its effects on an individual's body.

Senator Specter states one word best… [read more]

Disease Pathology Treatment and Prevention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (515 words)
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Disease Pathology

Clinical Impression: Pertussis


age of the child - 5 weeks old, infants are very susceptible in acquiring this disease

day history of choking spells which began with repetitive coughing until he was gasping for breath post-tussive vomiting in respiratory distress - respiratory rate = 72/min and heart rate of 160 beats/min leukocytosis - 15,500/ul - increased WBC count is one of the laboratory findings in pertussis nasopharyngeal swab culture - Gram (-) bacilli. Pertussis is a Gram negative bacilli that inhabits respiratory epithelium from the nasopharynx to the bronchioles.

Were this child's clinical course and chest radiograph consistent with his infection? Explain.

The child's clinical course and chest radiograph is inconsistent with his infection since a patient with pertussis may have an abnormal chest radiograph that show perihilar infiltrate, (butterfly appearance), peribronchial cuffing and variable atelectasis due to hypersecretion of the respiratory mucosa and increased inthrathoracic pressure brought about by coughing. The patient is an infant and does not fit the classical pertussis which has usually a 6-week clinical course and is divided into catarrhal, paroxysmal and convalescent stage. He may have been in the paroxysmal stage which is marked by the onset of coughing. The coughing is usually a dry, intermittent, irritative hack that evolves into paroxysm. In infants, manifestation of pertussis in the paroxysmal stage include choking, gasping, flailing the extremities with face reddened.

2. How might this disease be prevented?

Active immunization against pertussis (diphtheria - tetanus - acellular pertussis or DTaP) is the best standard measure against this disease which…… [read more]

Multiple Sclerosis Etiology Multiple Sclerosis, Some Researchers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Multiple Sclerosis Etiology

Multiple sclerosis, some researchers argue, constitutes "a disease of unknown etiology," which reportedly implies a single causal organism triggers MS. Numerous infectious agents suspected as possible etiological agents include: "the corona, measles, Epstein-Barr, herpes simplex type 6, and canine distemper viruses, the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I, an 'MS-associated agent' and, most recently, Chlamydia." (Poser 12) No… [read more]

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Types and Prevention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,244 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are those that can be transmitted through the organs used for sexual contact: penis, vagina, mouth and anus. STDs can (in one way) be classified based on the type of entity that transmits them. These are bacterial, viral, parasitic, protozoan and fungal. In call cases, if medication is not available (and even if it is) prevention generally involves protected sex and sex between monogamous partners and indulgence in low risk behaviors.

Human Papilloma Virus or HPV: This is a viral infection that is spread through anal, oral and vaginal sex. About 100 different kinds of HPV have been identified and these infect large number of people at some point in their lives. About 30 of the viruses are transmitted sexually. One of the manifestations of HPV is genital warts that arise on female and male sexual organs as well as the mouth, throat and buttocks. The genital warts can be burned off. In cases of low level infections, the body develops a natural immunity. There is no treatment and a vaccine is currently in development.

Herpes is spread by the Herpes Simplex Virus: There are two strains of this virus:HSV-1 which causes cold sores and HSV-2 which results in genital herpes. There is no treatment for genital herpes and the infection is for life. Infection takes place through skin-to skin contact during every type of intercourse. Symptoms appear approximately one week after infection. It starts with painful itching and burning, which is followed by lesions in the infected genital area. In women, there is also vaginal discharge.

The initial outbreaks are generally the worst. Subsequent outbreaks are less painful but occur for the rest of the life. The Herpes virus resides in the nerves. Pregnant women are at a risk of: 1) passing the virus to the fetus, which results in permanent brain damage; 2) premature births and deliveries forced by C-section. There is no cure for herpes though there is medication to temporarily relieve the symptoms. Research is ongoing in the creation of a vaccine.

Hepatitis B: Is a viral disease, which like Hepatitis a and C, primarily affects the liver. Serious liver disease and even death occur, following cirrhosis. HBV is spread by anal, oral and vaginal intercourse and through the use of infected needles for drug use and tattoos. There is currently a Hepatits B. vaccine, which provides immunity for life. Infected pregnant women have a significant risk of passing the virus to the fetus through the umbilical cord. Unless the body protects itself, there is no cure for HBV. But drugs like Interferon Alfa and Lamivudine can slow down the progress of the disease. Symptoms manifest about 15-21 weeks after infection. Symptoms vary: from mild effects much like the common flu to jaundice like symptoms -- yellowing of the skin, dark colored urination and feces, appetite loss, nausea and vomiting. Immediate medical attention is necessary if the side effect become extreme.

HIV / AIDS: The Human Immuno Deficiency Virus is often… [read more]

Schizophrenia Predisposing Factors Schizophrenia at Least Term Paper

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Predisposing Factors

Schizophrenia at least in part involves genetic predisposing factors. Genetics have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia since the disease was first classified as a mental illness. Research into genetic factors also helped differentiate schizophrenia from the more general and misleading term dementia praecox, which was a term used first by Benjamin Morel in the mid-nineteenth century.

In 1908, Eugen Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia and elucidated most of the common symptoms of the illness. Bleuler's classification and his description of the symptoms of the disease including flattened affect remain valid. As early as 1916, schizophrenia was investigated for its genetic predisposing factors (Faraone, Taylor and Tsuang 2002). Before the Human Genome Project, however, most studies involved circumstantial factors such as investigating the prevalence of schizophrenia among monozygotic twins separated at birth.

Thus, genetics partly set the stage for the disorder. Individuals who develop schizophrenia most likely have a genetic predisposition toward the disease. Those who suffer from the disorder are more likely to have had an immediate family member who was also diagnosed with schizophrenia. Faraone, Taylor & Tsuang (2002) point out that "the approximate lifetime risks to first-degree relatives were estimated to be 6% for parents, 9% for siblings, 13% for offspring with one schizophrenic parent and 46% for offspring with two schizophrenic parents." The more distant the relationship the less likely a person is to have genetic predisposing factors. Clearly, having two schizophrenic parents sets the genetic stage for the disease. Having one parent diagnosed with schizophrenia makes one more likely to suffer from the disorder than others too. However, having one or even both parents with schizophrenia does not automatically mean an individual will develop the disorder.

Environmental factors may also affect the disease etiology but environmental triggers are difficult to isolate in research. Research points more to genetic factors that predispose individuals toward developing the illness. In Finland, research into communities with high prevalence of the disease clarify possible genetic predisposing factors (Hovatta, Varilo, Suvisaari, Terwilliger, Ollikainen, Araj rvi, Juvonen, Kokko-Sahin, V is nen, Mannila, Lnnqvist & Peltonen 1999). Hovatta et al. (1999) were able to trace ancestry as far back as the seventeenth century to determine how strong the genetic causal factors for schizophrenia are in Finland. Genome scans make discovering genetic causes a valid and reliable source of research material, versus the more correlational studies that investigate environmental factors suspected in predisposing individuals toward developing schizophrenia.

However, research does point to issues like birth order in determining the etiology of the illness. Haukka, Suvisaari & Lnnqvist (2004) note that having a sibling who is five years older, or being the firstborn child elevates risk for developing the disease, whereas having siblings who are more than ten years older minimizes the risks for developing schizophrenia. Other causal factors are variable and no environmental factors seems more relevant than any other in triggering the onset of schizophrenia in persons predisposed to it genetically. Individuals who develop schizophrenia will almost always have… [read more]

Cystic Fibrosis Imaging of the Disease Term Paper

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Cystic Fibrosis in the Modern Era disease that steals a childhood, adolescence and adulthood in an assault on the lungs and other vital organs that cause every living action to revolve around the diagnosis, care, and treatment of the condition; it is Cystic Fibrosis (CF). In the United Kingdom, CF has been identified by the Cystic Fibrosis Trust as the… [read more]

Abnormal and Child Psychology Perspective on ADHD Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,058 words)
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Abnormal and Child Psychology - Perspective on ADHD


The disorder of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - ADHD relates to inattention and hyperactivity. It is a type of minimal brain dysfunction. It is seen in adults and children. There are many theories that are current as to why this condition exists. The person suffering from this disease shows symptoms like… [read more]

Rehabilitation Counseling Term Paper

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¶ … Head Injuries and Resultant Deafness

John Q. is a twenty-five-year-old male who suffered head injuries as the result of a roadside bomb in Iraq. Until this injury, John was a healthy young man with a wife, a child, and on a career path in the United States Army. The incident not only altered John's life plan for himself… [read more]

Management Analysis of the Center for Disease and Control Term Paper

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Management Analysis of the Center for Desease and Control


Analysis of the CDC

Management of CDC


Human Resource Management

System Design

Strategies of CDC


Discussion of CDC

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a governmental institution of the United States of America, belonging to the United… [read more]

Fragile X Syndrome Term Paper

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Fragile X Syndrome: causation and controversy

What is known as "Fragile X syndrome" actually refers to a specific collection of often quite diverse physical, behavioral, and mental afflictions -- but all have the same genetic origin. The common feature they share is that they are caused by gene changes in the same gene, the FMR1 gene ("What is Fragile X,"… [read more]

Corona Viruses Are the Largest Positive Strand Term Paper

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Corona viruses are the largest positive strand RNA viruses with a diameter of nearly 10 nanometers -- nm and are the largest genomes of any RNA virus. Both humans and animals get infected with corona viruses causing respiratory and enteric diseases. The corona viruses together with the toroviruses and anteriviruses are part of a group known as nidovirales that produce… [read more]

Heart Disease Gender Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,988 words)
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Gender Differences in Incidence of Heart Disease

Gender Differences in the Incidence of Heart Disease

Heart disease continues to represent a national health issue, with more men experiencing heart attacks at earlier ages than their female counterparts (Thom, Kannel, Silbershatz and D'Agostino 3). Women, though, continue to be at higher risk for some types of heart disease-related illnesses. For example,… [read more]

Renal Artery Stenosis Term Paper

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Renal Artery Stenosis

Rather than a single condition, renal artery stenosis refers to a group of diseases which are primarily characterized by the narrowing of the main renal artery as well as the branches of the artery. The narrowing of the artery secondary to atherosclerotic disease is most commonly seen in the 5th decade of life although prevalence is unknown since there is no recommended or cost effective screening mechanism. There is no gender difference in prevalence, although RAS is seen more frequently in patients with high cholesterol, smoking cigarettes, high blood pressure and diabetes, previous history of coronary artery disease, obesity, and peripheral vascular disease and those patients with a family history of RAS (although this is more commonly seen in those patients who have atherosclerotic disease..

Renal artery stenosis can also be caused by Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), a condition which causes a non-inflammatory and non-atherosclerotic change in any of the three layers of the artery. This condition is most commonly seen in the carotid and renal arteries. This condition usually affects women younger than 50, and its cause is not known.

While certain lab and physical exam findings can be suggestive of RAS, the workup usually requires initial ultrasonography. Ultrasound is done to evaluate the size of the kidneys. If one kidney is significantly larger than the other, then significant arterial stenosis is likely present. If the kidneys are equal in size, then further diagnostic testing is required. Significant discussion surrounds the use of further testing to evaluate RAS.

Techniques which are more invasive that ultrasound are felt to be more accurate but carry with them the risk of nephrotoxicity, and related deterioration of renal function. Magnetic resonance angiography is another alternative but tends to overestimate stenosis in…… [read more]

Sotos Syndrome Term Paper

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Sotos Syndrome is a disorder that is often misunderstood. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the etiology of the disorder, placing special emphasis on the neurological component of this syndrome. The research will also explore the other aspects of the brain that are affected, such as structures involved in memory. In addition the discussion will focus on the… [read more]

Pathophysiology Adaption Injury and Inflammation Term Paper

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Pathophysiology, Adaption, Injury and Inflammation

Inflammation is a protective way of the body whenever there is cell injury. It is a way of removing the causative pathogen and what it can do to the body. Inflammation is an important step for the tissue repair. Inflammation has two phases that involve the vascular and cellular reaction. That is the reason why redness, swelling, tenderness in the area of injury occur and why a good blood supply is necessary for its healing to progress.

The process of tissue repair involves inflammation in the early process. Various cells and tissues participate in these events which include fluid and proteins of plasma, circulating cells, blood vessels and cellular and extracellular constituents of connective tissues. In the vascular reaction, the participative cells are the circulating cells that include neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and platelets. These circulating cells travel in the blood vessels toward the injurious part of the body where they proliferate…… [read more]

Dealing With Disability Prevention or Control Term Paper

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¶ … Preventing Disabilities

Personal disabilities and challenges can be dealt with in three distinct ways. There are three distinct levels of prevention. These three levels include; 1.) Prevention by preventing the occurrence of the impairment, 2.) Prevention by preventing, limiting, or reversing the disability caused by the impairment, and 3.) Prevention by preventing the transition of the disability into unacceptable challenges or handicaps. This paper will briefly discuss each of the three levels of prevention.

The first level of prevention deals directly with preventing the occurrence of the impairment. This simply means that the disability can be prevented by general, public, and common health education. A good health education program that focuses on good health, hygiene, sanitation, nutrition, and disease and illness prevention are part of the first level of prevention. Preventing something before it occurs is the most effective way to assure that disabilities and challenges can be eliminated or conquered.

Many communities today offer public health education opportunities where people can obtain an ocean about medical conditions, treatments, preventions, and diagnosis. Many doctor's offices, clinics, hospitals, and other facilities are constantly publishing and presenting information on medical illnesses and their treatment. Being educated about good health is the most effective method for preventing disabilities and challenges before they occur.

The second level of…… [read more]

AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS, First Recognized Term Paper

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS, first recognized in 1981, is a fatal disease that is caused by a "rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders" (AIDS). The virus was isolated in 1983 and named the 'human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, of which there are two forms, HIV-1 and HIV-2 (AIDS). In 1999, HIV-1, by which the majority of cases are caused, was traced by an international team of genetic scientist to a closely related strain of the virus called simian immunodeficiency virus that infects a subspecies of chimpanzee in west-central Africa (AIDS). It is theorized that the virus passed from the blood of the chimps into humans through superficial wounds, since chimpanzees are hunted for food in this region, and that it may have begun as early as the 1930's (AIDS).

Although the disease is still not completely understood, what is known is that HIV infects the T-cells of the immune system, and as the body fights back, it is eventually overwhelmed, thus leaving the body vulnerable to infections and cancers (AIDS). While some people develop flu-like symptoms shortly after infection, others have not symptoms, and it may be months or years before serious symptoms develop in adults, however infants who are infected in the womb or at birth will generally develop symptoms with the first two years of life (AIDS). Prior to the occurrence of serious symptoms, an individual infected with HIV may experience "fever, weight loss, diarrhea, fatigue, skin rashes, shingles, thrush, or memory problems" (AIDS).

The disease is considered AIDS when the CD4-cell count drops from a normal count of 1,000 to below 200, or when certain infections and cancers appear, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, primary lymphoma of the brain, invasive carcinoma of the cervix, herpes simplex, pnuemocystis carinii pneumonia, and diarrheal diseases (AIDS). Moreover, hepatitis C is common among intravenous drug users and hemophiliacs with AIDS, and some 4-5 million people with tuberculosis are also co-infected with HIV (AIDS). Overall, HIV patients are thought to have a 1.5 to 2 fold increase in developing a malignancy, compared to the general population (Berger). HIV is transmitted by direct exchange of body fluids, such as "blood or blood products, breast milk, semen, or vaginal secretions," with the most common mode of transmission being sexual activity or needle sharing among drug users (AIDS). Bodily fluids such as saliva, tears, urine, feces, and sweat are not believed to transmit the virus (AIDS). For all that is known of the disease, AIDS remains somewhat of a mystery. For example, by 2001 approximately 800,000 cases of AIDS had been reported in the United States, and over that period the Centers for Disease Control found only 57 possible - not proven - instances of HIV infection of healthcare…… [read more]

Chemical and Biological Terroism Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 9


Communication is another integral facet for the preparation of attacks via chemical and biological terrorism. One of the advantages of the network of laboratories proposed by the Centers for Disease Control is the fact that information will be able to disseminate between agencies within states and the country. The utilization of the news media, either through the internet, television, or… [read more]

Elderly Population With Diabetes Age Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,299 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Descriptive epidemiology is confined to the recognition and examination of the affected person, place and time of the disease or health event. The person is described and examined according to certain factors, such as age, education, socio-economic status, availability of health services, race and gender. Also pertinent to the person are information on behavior, such as use or abuse of… [read more]

Homelessness in Orange County California Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Overall, $3 million was cut from the Health Care Agency (providing public health, medical, and mental health services), $8.8 million was cut from the Social Services Agency (administering welfare, foster care, and other benefits), and $12.7 million was cut from the alternative defense budget (providing private defense attorneys for low-income adults and juveniles). The County's Co-ordinator of Homeless Services was… [read more]

Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis Artery Diseases Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


13). This work has shown shear stress and cyclic strain in combination may better predict sites of proatherogenic gene expression. Low shear stress also influences adhesion of leukocytes to activated endothelium through enhanced expression of adhesion molecules (Cunningham & Gotlieb 2005, p. 14). Nitric oxide is also involved in the regulation of vascular caliber to moderate blood flow and normalize endothelial shear stress. As previously indicated, the mechanisms of NO are critical to vascular biology, signaling, locating free radicals, and also have heavy impact on shear stress.

The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is complex and multifactorial. Atherosclerosis has gained significant research attention due to its relation with common cardiovascular conditions and cardiovascular mortality. The disease is identified by the build up of plaque within blood vessels, as artery walls thicken due to the accumulation of fatty materials. Once these symptoms become clinically apparent, however, the disease is far too advanced for medical treatments to advert the pathogenic process. Endothelial dysfunction is the trademark of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. One initiating factor for atherosclerosis is the loss of nitric oxide bioactivity in the endothelium, which is associated with the causal complex of thrombosis, inflammatory cell adhesion and recruitment. The development of atherothrombosis is understood to be mediated by the inflammatory cascade, in which leukocytes cross the endothelial barrier, recruiting monocytes, releasing cytokines, and subsequently leads to the accumulation of foam cells to form an atherosclerotic lesion. Shear stress has also been shown to influence vessel inflammatory processes and affect endothelial gene expression. Atherosclerosis is a disease that develops over time, and clinical evidence is typically not apparent until after the pathogenic process is set. Identifying and treating atherosclerosis from its inception requires focus on a multitude of contributing inflammatory factors for the disease.


Channon, K. (2002), 'The endothelium…… [read more]

Nursing Managing Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Measurable outcomes for these goals include the following: 1. No further outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the unit, 2. Symptom control and improved health status in the affected residents 3. Identified possible causes of the gastroenteritis, 4. Review of the unit's infection control practices (Garibaldi, 1999).

A single case of gastroenteritis in an elderly resident in an aged care facility may… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Course Project Part III Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Alzheimer's Disease

Course project part III: Describe current initiatives


Pre-screening and early intervention in the identification and treatment of AD is essential. One recent NIH-funded study used DNA samples from more than 56,000 study participants and "analyzed shared data sets to detect gene variations that may have subtle effects on the risk for developing Alzheimer's" (Studies find possible new genetic links for Alzheimer's disease, 2011, National Institute on Aging). The study found several new gene variants indicating "risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of the disorder" (Studies find possible new genetic links for Alzheimer's disease, 2011, National Institute on Aging).

This is a form of primary intervention, or preventative treatment. Identifying genes can allow for improved early drug treatment studies of the disorder. The interaction between genetics and the environment, and what causes these genes to be expressed can also be studied. Does every person with these genes develop AD? Under what circumstances?


Studies find possible new genetic links for Alzheimer's disease. (2011). National Institute on Aging. National Institute of Health. Retrieved October 10, 2011 at http://www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers/ResearchInformation/NewsReleases/PR20110404GWAS.htm


Poverty and illiteracy significantly increases the probability that an individual will manifest Alzheimer's Disease, along with other health-related complications. One study of a population of Israeli Arabs noted for their high degree of manifesting Alzheimer's found that hypertension (which can be diet-related, and linked to poverty, given that a less healthy…… [read more]

Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


West Nile Virus

Emerging Infectious Disease: West Nile Virus

The West Nile Virus (WNV) as in an infectious disease that has been historically determined as originating from the West Nile region of Uganda in 1937. The WNV, usually found in tropical and temperate regions, is characterized to cause non-neuroinvasive diseases such as asymptomatic infection, but could lead to serious neuroinvasive disease -- meningitis or encephalitis. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) traces the history of WNV for as early as 1937 in Uganda; in the 1950s, a virus characteristic of WNV was found in Egypt and Israel. From 1994 to 2003, WNV encephalitis in humans has occurred from Africa to Eastern Europe, and eventually, to United States (North America). Aside from humans, records of horses and birds dying from WNV encephalitis have been documented from 1996 to 2002 in Africa, Europe (France and Italy), and United States.

The West Nile virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, and is a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus. Historically, WNV is known to infect birds, but cases of infection among other animals such as horses, cats and dogs have also occurred. Human infection of WNV is through a mosquito bite. CDC identifies this primary mode of transmission as resulting from mosquitoes feeding on birds infected with WNV. WNV symptoms can manifest differently, particularly in humans. At the very least, asymptomatic infection or non-neuroinvasive disease is manifested in humans infected with WNV. However, the most serious manifestation of WNV in humans is the neuroinvasive disease, leading to fatal meningitis or encephalitis, characterized by the following symptoms: fever and headache, general fatigue, enlarged nymph nodes, profound muscular weakness, and neurological signs such as "perivascular hemorrhage, dilation of the ventriculi of the brain, dislocation of the brain trunk, hydropericarditis and acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis" (Bourne, 2011). Incubation of WNV ranges from three to six days; similarly, recovery period could be within 3 to 6 days, although full recovery could extend up to 2 weeks.

Transmission of WNV infection, as mentioned earlier, mainly comes from mosquitoes feeding on infected birds. Human infection results from bites from WNV-infected mosquitoes. However, there have been reported cases in the CDC wherein transplanted organs, blood transfusion, mother-to-child (transplacental) and laboratory worker exposure have become alternative modes of transmission of WNV. Apart from the bite of an infected mosquito, humans could get infected with WNV when bare-handed contact with dead, infected animals occurs. However, infection among humans and animals (horses, birds, cats and dogs) are known to have not developed into other infectious diseases, thus lowering their susceptibility as potential hosts to WNV-caused diseases. WNV transmission "peaks" during rainy season in…… [read more]

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