"Drugs / Alcohol / Tobacco" Essays

123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Usage Among Youths Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,677 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Alcohol, Tobacco & Drug Use by Adolescents

The use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by adolescents in the United States has been a concern of parents, teachers, administrators and community leaders for many years and in many contexts. The purpose of this proposal for a dissertation is to embrace a number of research studies and scholarly articles that bring a… [read more]

Drug Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,315 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Drug/Alcohol Abuse

Drug and alcohol abuse has been a growing problem across the world especially in young adults. In U.S. alone, alcohol is the most often used substance. Almost 90% of adults state some experience with alcohol consumption. Alcohol is a depressant that impairs the nervous system activity. Besides, it can also affect judgment, mental state, agility, physical coordination and… [read more]

Drugs and Alcohol's Influence Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Drugs are also tied to crime as well. The same study showed that 45.8% of inmates surveyed had used illicit rugs within a month of being arrested. Additionally, 19% of Canadian inmates studied in this survey had used drugs daily prior to their arrest, with an astounding 34% of inmates having used drugs at least once a week before they were apprehended (Brochu et al. 1999). The drug most used on the day the crime was committed was cocaine, according to (Brochu et al. 1999). Moreover, the research shows that the type of drug used is often associated with particular types of crimes. For example, use of cocaine and its derivatives is mostly associated with the crimes of theft and robbery, while marijuana use was tied mostly to break ins (Brochu et al. 1999). Therefore, the literature does show a common relationship between drugs / alcohol and crime.

I personally believe that an internship experience would only further validate the issues raised in the current body of literature. Actually being able to experience dealing with people under the influence of drugs and alcohol would help show their increased erratic behaviors. More importantly, having a such a close relationship with people who abuse drugs and alcohol might help allow me to ask in-depth questions regarding the nature of their behavior. I believe that upon asking why crimes were committed, alcohol and drugs would have a large role to play in a number of cases. Essentially, the close proximity to those who abuse drugs and alcohol would only confirm the close relationship presented in the research between drugs / alcohol and crime.


Brochu, S.; Cournoyer, L.G.; Motiuk, L.; & Pernanen, K. (1999). Drugs, alcohol and crime: Patterns among Canadian federal inmates. Bulletin on Narcotics, L1(1). Web. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1999-01-01_1_page006.html

Hart, Timothy C. & Rennison, Callie. (2003). Reporting crime to the police, 1992-2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. U.S. Department of Justice. Web. http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rcp00.pdf

Parker, Robert Nash & Auerhahn, Kathleen. (1998). Alcohol, drugs, and violence. Annual Review of Sociology,…… [read more]

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana: The Argument Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,476 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Alcohol, Tobacco, And Marijuana: The Argument for Unifying Vice Enforcement Legislation

Argument - Unified Paternalism

Government paternalism refers to the governmental exercise of legislative or regulatory authority over the individual for his benefit rather than for the benefit of others in society (Taylor, 1982). In a sense, much of governmental legislation includes paternalistic components, but in general principle, the essential… [read more]

Contingency Management Alcohol Marijuana Studies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  41 pages (11,354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Contingency Management


The purposes of this review are to gain an understanding of the controlled studies using contingency management (CM) in the substance abuse field, and where applicable emphasize those studies that incorporate CM with community reinforcement approach (CRA). This paper should offer a critical review of the literature with an eye toward identifying important and… [read more]

Substance Abuse Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


In short, "certain drugs have served as a proxy for racial and ethnic bias," and this has been true throughout American history (Wilson and Kolander, p. 8).

Environmental, social and individual on influences all contribute to drug use, including parents, peers, and the community combined with genetic predisposition, personality traits and individual attitudes and beliefs. Youthful experimentation and rebelliousness are… [read more]

Drug Survey Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (334 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Drug Survey

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is a yearly survey conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services. The NSDUH aims to determine the incidence of drug, alcohol, tobacco, and substance abuse, prevention, and treatment each year. For this analysis, the 2007 NSDUH report is used, reported last year, in September 2008. The NSDUH provides interesting information for end-users like researchers, health practitioners, and policy makers, mainly because of the rich information it contains, detailing the yearly trend for different types of illegal abuses, and providing a profile of users and abusers for each type of illegal abuse. The report stated that among the illicit drugs, marijuana was the most common type of illicit drug abused by individuals aged 12 years old or older in 2007. Meanwhile, past month nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs (12 years or older) was lower in 2007 compared to 2006. Pain relievers are the most common type…… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  5 pages (1,586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Third, these decisions should be used to design effective System-wide: alternative programs for dealing with addiction; screening and assessment in order to decide which people should be merely prosecuted and which people need alternatives such as substance abuse treatment. Fourth, the System needs to empower and encourage all members of the Criminal Justice System to use effective alternatives to sentencing. Fifth, the System needs to empower and encourage all members of the Criminal Justice System to supervise people being helped by those alternatives, using the power of their positions to encourage each person's cooperation. By adopting a System-wide approach to substance abuse, the Criminal Justice System can more effectively and ultimately inexpensively deal with our rampant drug/alcohol-related criminal problems.

In closing, I want to thank the Department again for allowing me to explain my life, goals and opinion of the most important change needed in the Criminal Justice System. I also want to extend my offer of any additional information or documentation the Department may need in order to make its decision about my qualifications. I look forward to your decision and sincerely hope that I will be given the opportunity to learn and contribute as a member of the Masters of Criminal Justice Program.… [read more]

Counseling Assessment Candy Barr Client ID Number Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,228 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Counseling Assessment

Candy Barr Client ID Number: 55555

Gender: Female

Date of Birth: 05-05-1974 Client's age

-2006 Time of Assessment: 2:30 P.M.

Time Spent: 1.30 hours

Identifying Information: Ms. Barr is a 28-year-old Caucasian referred by her human resource representative for depression. This writer by observation would assess if Ms. Barr's body weight appear to be average for her height… [read more]

Drug Policy American Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,213 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The United States has spent a great deal of money on all phases of the "war" to try and make sure that drugs do not come into the county, or, at least, that they do not come into the country in the amounts that they have. Douglas Husak offers some figures associated with the war on drugs.

In 2000 the… [read more]

Issues of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Over the last several decades, the issues of drug and alcohol abuse have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been an effort on the federal and state levels to increase awareness. As the problem has continued to become worse, despite the tremendous amounts of resources that are spent on these programs.… [read more]

College Students and Alcohol Use Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  17 pages (5,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


College Students and Alcohol Use


International Perspective

Findings of studies conducted in 13 countries found that college students are at a high risk for heavy drinking with serious immediate health consequences (Karam, Kypri & Salamoun, 2007). These consequences included drink-driving and other substance use and longer-term consequences, such as alcoholism. Perilous drinking appears more prevalent… [read more]

Alcohol, Drugs, and Domestic Violence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,539 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, they conclude, animal studies "Have failed...to produce the anticipated clear-cut results." Why? The list of possible variables which may have been miscalculated is lengthy. But their research does show that when Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), when a low concentration of alcohol is placed in their tank, did indeed show an "aggressive response" in a rather bizarre experiment, beyond… [read more]

Social Problem Drug Abuse Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,108 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Social Problem - Drug Abuse

Drug Abuse

Drug abuse refers to excessive use of drugs with an intention of altering one's mood, emotion or state of consciousness. Buddy T. (2011) further indicates that drug abuse is "the use of illicit drugs or the abuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are indicated or… [read more]

Effects of Drug and Alcohol Addicts on Our Society Specifically Economically and Socially Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,365 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Drug and Alcohol

The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society, specifically economically and socially

The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society

The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society

There is little doubt that drug and alcohol addiction has become a pervasive part of our modern society. The increasing number of especially… [read more]

Drug Abuse Prevention or Treatment Strategy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,253 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Drug Abuse Prevention or Treatment Strategy

Every Government reserves the right to fight against the use and the abuse of illicit drugs, like for example, prescribed drugs like psycho stimulants, and the use of other drugs like tobacco and of alcohol. The Australian government has launched the National Illicit Drug Strategy entitled the 'Tough on Drugs' campaign in the year… [read more]

History of American Drug Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Drug Policies


History of American Drug Policies

This paper is about the history of the non-medical use of drugs. It is interesting to note than in the early 1900s there were far more people addicted to drugs in this country than there are today (Whitebread, 1999). Estimations reveal that between two and five percent of the entire adult… [read more]

Smoking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



After a while, I learned to get used to it. The common disappearances my Dad would make, usually for 30 minutes at a time, to take a drive or take a walk. His quick retreat into the shower when he returned. The faint aroma of tobacco, lingering on his person, in his car, in his jackets and hats. But I never gave these glimpses, these hints, very much thought until I reached middle school. He was my Dad, after all. The man who had taught me right from wrong. The one who said that alcohol, drugs, and tobacco use was wrong, and was best to be avoided.

Even worse, he was a doctor. Of all people, he alone should know just how detrimental cigarette smoke is for a person. How it can erode one's health, and slowly become the most dominant factor in such a person's life, coming between love, and joy and all the specialness of familial ties.

Still, I never said anything. I couldn't. I had never actually see him do it and, despite the obvious signs, it was somehow easier to pretend. To believe the fantasies, that he was all a man could be and that I was his daughter, and that our lives were above and beyond common addiction and his repeated failed attempts to quit. So I never asked him about it, never brought up the subject even though it was always around up. I was scared of the truth.

Then one dya the truth came and wrenched me from my fantasy. My friend called and told me, "I ran into you Dad while he was lighting up. Didn't know he smoked."

I was crushed. I couldn't believe I could be so disappointed. I felt so many different things, pity for my father, anxiety about his health, embarrassment at having learned in such a manner, and a little angry at his having kept such a vital part of his life from me. I was finally confronted with the ugly truth, and it was painful.

The rest of that summer I just stewed, silently, not saying anything. I avoided my Dad whenever I could. During the drive back to school to begin my sophomore year in college in 1998, I couldn't get away from him -- nor from the burden that had kept us apart. It was just he and I alone in the car, with the faint trace of cigarette smoke. Despite the smell, the car was always clean. Sometimes, it smelled a little too clean.

With nothing but two hours of open highway in front of us, I told him about my friend's revelation. He didn't seem surprised, and even mentioned that he thought he had seen her that day. His manner was very guarded, and not at all the carefree, loving manner he had shown for the first 19 years of my life. I got him to admit that he smoked at least once a day, and that he had tried to… [read more]

Final Response Drug Culture Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,767 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Drug Culture Final

The second half of this course has both reinforced my previous definitions of drug culture in film and has also introduced me into the different aspects thereof. Additionally, the films that were watched during the second half of the course complement the films that were watched during the first half of the course, and in some ways,… [read more]

Drug Problem in America Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Drug Abuse

Estimates on the cost of substance abuse in the United States are staggering. The total cost of substance abuse in the United States including the costs of estimated lost productivity, medical bills, and loss of life are estimated to exceed 560 billion dollars per year (National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA], 2008). This alone suggests that the drug problem in the United States is a significant problem that needs attention. Typically people think of substance abuse costs being associated with illicit drug use; however, this issue is not limited to just illicit drugs but legal substances as well such as tobacco and alcohol (which together account for nearly 380 billion dollars of the total costs per year; NIDA, 2008). However, historically certain factions in the U.S. such as politically motivated interest groups have historically picked what drugs are designated as "evil" and what drugs are acceptable. For instance, the prohibition of alcohol in the early 1900s, a terrible failure, was motivated by political aspirations of those tied to the early the temperance movement (Brown, 1981). Tobacco, while certainly as dangerous, was never banned as it played an important role in American economy. Likewise, the creation of the American Medical Association in concert with the federal government guidelines/sanctions on certain drugs has resulted in the sanctioning of certain drugs for dispersion by physicians and the banning of certain drugs that essentially have the same pharmacological properties and effects. For instance cocaine (a banned drug) and Ritalin have nearly identical pharmacological properties and effects (so much so that users and scientists blind to the drug cannot tell them apart; DeGrandpre, 2006). Essentially, the use of substances to alter mood and emotional states has a long history in American society and in all cultures worldwide for the Eskimos of Alaska (Brown, 1981; DeGrandpre, 2006).

In essence the use of substances like alcohol, tobacco, cocaine etc. And the subsequent demonizing of some and acceptance of others has been politically motivated. Moreover, with the advent of big pharmacological corporations certain types of addictions and abuses are encouraged (e.g., caffeine, sugar, fast food, pain killers, antidepressant medications, sleeping aids, etc.; DeGrandpre, 2006).

The major issue here is that of a drug culture in a country that fails to recognize it. This attitude towards drug use starts early. The transmission of parental values or tendencies would most likely be an important factor in contributing to a child's expectations regarding the use of any substance (Kandel & Andrews, 1987). As we would expect the probability of any type of substance use in a person would increase with use by one of both parents. Social learning can occur as a result of watching parents…… [read more]

Effects of Drugs and Alcohol on the Individual and Damages They Cause Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Substance Abuse and Society

Substance abuse represents one of the most pervasive problems in the United States. It is a problem that affects all levels and segments of the society. In terms of their effects on individuals and on society, all forms of substance abuse, whether it is alcohol or drugs has a similar affect on society and on the… [read more]

Mexican Drug War Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,189 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Mexican Drug War

Mexico is waging a hard battle against the drug cartels. Widespread corruption, threats and intimidation by the drug lords have resulted in a crisis situation. There is every hope that the positive initiatives undertaken by the Mexican president, the anti-corruption task force and the military intervention will help crack down the drug mafias. It is in the… [read more]

Legalizing Marijuana Will Boost the Economy Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,620 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7



The Practical and Economic Benefits of Decriminalizing Marijuana

The United States is in a state of serious recession. States, municipalities and the nation as a whole are struggling with diminished revenue, loss of jobs and a decline in productivity. As the federal government resorts to expensive bailouts, our budgetary scenario remains frighteningly precarious. Simultaneously, the United States has dedicated… [read more]

Reefer Madness Sex Drugs and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Reefer Madness Sex, Drugs, And Cheap Labor in the American Black Market

Schlosser, Eric. Reefer Madness Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market.

New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003.

The black market is America's 'hidden' economy. Pornography, drug use, and illegal labors are some of its prime 'commodities.' In his book entitled Reefer Madness Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor, muckraking journalist Eric Schlosser examines the impact of these clandestine markets on our daily lives, and the often futile and hypocritical efforts of legislators to regulate them. Of course the hypocrisy of the American public is partially to blame: while electing moralistic legislators, we are also avid consumers of these illegal industries. Black market profits total an estimated $1.5 trillion dollars in unreported income (Schlosser, 2003, p.5). Illegal labor keeps luxury costs low of everything from eating out (illegal laborers act as dishwashers and process our meat) to lawn services, even while people profess horror at the threat illegal immigrants pose to 'American jobs.'

Schlosser's section on the drug trade points out how America is supposedly waging an official 'war on drugs' while Washington is dominated by the powerful lobbies of alcohol and drug companies. One of the profiles in Schlosser's book, Mark Young, was given a life sentence for selling marijuana, a harsher sentence than he would have received for committing rape (Schlosser, 2003, p.8). Instead of treating drug addiction as a crime, Schlosser advocates treating it like an illness: decriminalizing simple possession of marijuana and repealing mandatory and 'three strikes you're out' sentencing guidelines would free more funds for drug treatment. Also, much of current legislation is patently unjust: individuals who are merely friends and family members of drug traffickers may have their assets seized. It is a lie that socially acceptable drugs like tobacco are less harmful than illegal drugs like cannabis: the black market and notions of drug illegality rest on vague, emotional notions of what drugs are 'worse' rather than objective, scientific facts.

Attitudes about sexuality are even more hypocritical. For example, the United States has some of the strictest rules…… [read more]

Official Legal Definition of Contradiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … official legal definition of contradiction is that there exists between two ideas an incompatibility and evident opposition of two idea which share the subject of one and the same proposition. In simpler words, this means that when a party who is accused of a crime contradicts himself, it is presumes that he is guilty, since by definition truth… [read more]

Drug Usage as a Multicultural Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Drug Abuse

The subject of drug usage is an issue that has plagued people all over the world for many years. Indeed, the issue of drug usage is multicultural and pervades many different people groups. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on the drug usage as a multicultural issue. This discussion will focus on a report published by… [read more]

Drugs How Poverty Contributes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Because drugs make them feel better, these people may come to depend on them, both physically and emotionally.

Mental illness and drug dependence show the difficulties of distinguishing between poverty's causes and its effects. Mentally ill and drug-dependent people often have trouble holding steady jobs and maintaining relationships, causing them to fall into poverty. They may also have trouble getting out of poverty. Similarly, poverty itself appears to contribute to mental illness and drug dependence.

Studies show that drug addiction in the United States is disproportionately concentrated among the unemployed and undereducated. Alcohol and drug use is strongly related to difficulties in gaining and retaining employment. It is an ongoing cycle, as people who have had long-term alcohol and drug problems tend to have difficulty in entering or re-entering the employment market.

Alcohol and drug use can also be associated with problems in finishing school or acquiring any type of qualifications. The absence of further qualifications can significantly reduce an individual's ability to gain employment, or adequately paid secure employment.

According to Massing (1999): " To maintain that we must end poverty and discrimination in order to combat drug abuse seems a prescription for paralysis. The key is to find a strategy that is humane, affordable and sellable-to find a strategy, in short, that could actually work."


In conclusion, rather than trying to eliminate poverty -- a doomed mission -- leaders should attempt to deal with the problem in another way. Adequate employment programs for people who have alcohol and drug problems are needed to diminish this link between alcohol and drug use and poverty. In addition, providing support for people experiencing drug and alcohol problems and the educational institutions they attend can help keep people with alcohol and drug problems at school while they are seeking treatment for their alcohol and drug problem. These efforts may reduce the link between poverty and drug abuse.


IREX. (2003). Poverty. International Research & Exchanges Board Newsletter.

Massing, Michael. (September 20, 1999). A forum -- Beyond legalization: New ideas for ending the war on drugs. The Nation; Volume: 269; Issue: 8; p.…… [read more]

Drug Education the Dare Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,833 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There is no rationale to suppose that students will robotically make sound options when they employ in values clarification gatherings. It is fairly likely that when students are supported to increase plain and reliable values, they will choose those that center on material possessions, power, authority and self-indulgence (3).

Misgivings By the Parents

In spite of its reputation, in latest… [read more]

Genetics and Drug Abuse Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,814 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


" (Volkow, nd, p. 1) Because of the chronic nature of the disease, relapse to abuse of the individual's drug of choice is considered to be "not only possible but likely, with relapse rates similar to those for other well-characterized chronic medical illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma." (Volkow, nd, p.1) Treatment involves the change of behaviors that are… [read more]

Anabolic Steroids. This Drug Has an Effect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … anabolic steroids. This drug has an effect of the dihydrotestosterone or the testosterones on the body and is more commonly known as the "steroids" and the technical term used for them is "anabolic-androgen steroids (AAS)." The word anabolic has been derived from the Greek word "

" anabole which means "something which is thrown up" and androgenic is… [read more]

Drugs and Crime Zabransky, T. ) Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (918 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Drugs and Crime

Zabransky, T. (2007). Methamphetamine in the Czech Republic. Journal of Drug Issues. 37, 156-180. Retrieved from http://www2.criminology.fsu.edu/%7Ejdi/samples/zabransky.pdf

This journal entry details the lengthy history of methamphetamine in the Czech Republic by evaluating factors such as drug use estimates, treatment demands, and mortality rates associated with this problem, which are then related to criminal activities. The article provides a comprehensive overview of the historical development of this narcotic in the Czech Republic, and how it has influenced crime there. It was written by PHD and MD Tomas Zabransky, who consults with drug policy providers for the European Union and the United Nations, for the purpose of providing a foundation for further research on this subject. "This paper attempts to provide as complex a picture of this phenomenon as possible by analyzing what is known about the Czech methamphetamine situation through scientific monitoring and research (Zabransky, 2007)."The historical narration of the problem of methamphetamine in this country is valuable since it can be used as a model for future drug related research for other countries.

Cardoso, F.H. Gaviria, C. Zedillo, Ernesto. (2009, February 23). The War on Drugs is a Failure. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123535114271444981.html

This article details the failure to prevent large amounts of violence and narcotics trafficking, primarily in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Columbia and Brazil. It offers recommendations for refocusing the efforts of the War on Drugs to ameliorating the conditions and harm of drug users and also suggests targeting the organized crime structures which propagate drug use. This source is based upon findings in the Latin Amrican Commission on Drugs and Democracy, and is intended to persuade governmental officials to shift their drug policies away from prohibition and criminalization of narcotics. The story was written by former presidents of Brazil, Columbia, and Mexico, respectively, and is valuable to future research in this are by presenting an insider's view of the political machines that have targeted civilians in the war on Drugs. "Both the U.S. And the EU share responsibility for the problems faced by our countries, since their domestic markets are the main consumers of the drugs produced in Latin America (Cardos, Gaviria, Zedillo, 2009)."

Abt Associates Inc. (2009). 2008 ADAM II Report. Retrieved from http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/pdf/adam2008.pdf

The 2008 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring report was prepared for the Office of National Drug Control Policy, which is an Executive Office of the President, by Abt Associates Inc., a research consulting firm with offices in virtually 40 countries. The report documents information regarding drug use and criminality from male offenders, taken within two days of their time of arrest. Its data can best be used for estimating trends in drug use and elucidating the link between crime and drugs for future research.…… [read more]

Domestic Marijuana Production and Regulation Marijuana Leaf Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,694 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Domestic Marijuana Production and Regulation

Marijuana leaf or "cannabis" is a cultivatable herb capable of producing a euphoric psychological change in users, roughly comparable in its degree (if not in its specific effects) to the effects of drinking alcohol (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). It alters various aspects of mood and focus and has been used for thousands of years in… [read more]

Alcohol and Alcoholism by Definition Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,090 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Alcohol and Alcoholism

By definition, alcohol "is a legal depressant... obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast or distillation. There are many different types of alcohol, but ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is the type that is generally used to make alcoholic beverages," such as wine, beer and whiskey ("Alcohol," Internet). In chemistry terms, alcohol, in this instance ethyl alcohol, is a compound "derived from a hydrocarbon by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with an equal number of hydroxyl radicals" and is classified as either monohydric, dihydric or trihydric (Glanze, 2003, p. 39). It should be pointed out that most alcoholic beverages like wine and beer usually contain less than 15% alcohol, while beverages like whiskey, gin and vodka generally contain more than 40% alcohol.


Much like any other drug, alcohol affects the human body in many different ways. The most frequent medical consequences related to the consumption of alcohol includes damage to the central nervous system and what is known as cirrhosis of the liver, "a chronic degenerative disease in which the lobes of the liver are covered with fibrous tissue, thus leading to the excessive buildup of fat" (Glanze, 2003, p. 262). Also, as a result of consuming too much alcohol, the vital functions of the liver, such as vitamin absorption, gastro-intestinal function and hormonal metabolism, deteriorate.

In the late stages of alcoholism, the human body experiences other medical conditions which hold the potential to lead to a premature death. These include pancreatitus, "an inflammatory condition of the pancreas which results in damage to the biliary tract," gastritis, "an inflammation of the lining of the stomach which is either acute or chronic," anemia, cardiomyopathy (heart disease), malnutrition, ulcers and gastro-intestinal bleeding ("Alcohol," 2008, Internet).


Three of the most common conditions related to consuming alcohol and the human brain are Korsakoff's dementia, Wernicke's encephalopathy and central pontine myelinolysis. With the first condition, this is a form of amnesia often found in chronic alcoholics and is characterized by a loss of short-term memory and the inability to learn new skills. The causes of this condition can often be traced to degenerative changes in the thalamus as a result of a deficiency of B. complex vitamins, especially thiamin and B12 (Jefferson, 2004, p. 216).

With the second condition which is similar to Korsakoff's dementia, the human brain experiences inflammation and degenerative processes which are characterized by lesions in several parts of the brain including the hypothalamus and tissues surrounding ventricles and aqueducts. Wernicke's encephalopathy is also caused by a thiamin deficiency and is usually present in chronic alcoholics who have consumed large amounts of alcohol over a long period of time (Masterson, 2004, p. 167). As to central pontine myelinolysis, this condition is a process which dissolves the myelin sheaths that surround specific nerve fibers in the brain, such as the pons, "a prominence on the ventral surface of the brain stem, located between the medulla oblongata and the cerebral surface… [read more]

Drug Testing in High School Not Just Dealing With Drug Testing Athletes but All Students Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,700 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Drug Testing in High School

The objective of this work is to examine the issue of drug testing in high school and not just in terms of drug testing athletes but of all students and the explain why drug testing in high schools is an important policy issue and the direct impact on education that drug testing of all students… [read more]

Drug Enforcement Strategies Supply Reduction vs. Demand Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,653 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Drug Enforcement Strategies

There are several different tactics that Police Drug enforcement Divisions use to reduce supplies of drugs on the streets. Five strategies are listed below. The writer will use the Orlando, Florida Police Department as an example of how a typical Police Drug Enforcement Division goes about utilizing all of these strategies. Then a strategy will be chosen… [read more]

Natural Remission Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the first instance the subjects are "told that they must enter treatment to recover." However in the traditional 12 step-based treatment patients are informed that they will never fully recover. "This duality seems to be therapeutically unproductive, and largely unnecessary." ( ibid)

Nelson also states that there is ample evidence from various studies that reveal that "... successful natural… [read more]

Economic Effect of Legalizing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,438 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The report puts that as the foremost health problem in the nation; substance abuse puts a huge load on the health care system of the country and plays a part in the increased expenses of health care. Indeed, substance abuse -- the challenging consumption of alcohol, illegal drugs and tobacco puts huge burden on the American people in totality. The… [read more]

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  53 pages (14,685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Zoccolillo et al., 1999) Thus, the AAOD student is at a clear disadvantage in terms of successfully completing a high-school diploma and moving on to a career-oriented post-secondary education.

Additionally, high school is generally also a milieu in which the adolescent learns other non-academic life skills, including mature means of relating to peers and supervisors, responsible treatment of deadlines… [read more]

Hypnotherapy as a Treatment for Substance Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Positive thoughts, higher self-esteem, these two things play a vital role in any recovery. So why shouldn't it work in hypnosis? All this combined may give hypnotherapy enough success to become part of standard treatment for substance abuse and mental disorders.

Hypnosis is and will always be seen as a means to open a door into the subconscious. "Hypnosis often overcomes the boundary between conscious awareness and what has been kept unconscious or sidetracked from someone's awareness" (Krippner, 2005, pp. 99). It offers people a way to gain insight into themselves and their subconscious thought patterns. It also offers hope to some who have no hope. Although it is not a definitively proven method, it has shown some positive results. With continued research and new studies, it should reveal that hypnosis is more than just a parlor trick. It goes beyond imagination into the realm of echoes. "The role played by imagination is ventral to both indigenous rituals and hypnosis" (Krippner, 2005, pp. 99).


Golabadi,, M., Tabad, H., Yaghoubi, M., & Gholamrezaei, A. (2012). Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Opium Addiction: A Pilot Study. Integrative Medicine, 11(3), 19-22.

Gruzelier, J.H. (2006). Frontal functions, connectivity and neural efficiency underpinning hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(1), 15-32.

Huynh, M.E., Vandvik, I.H., & Diseth, T.H. (2008). Hypnotherapy In Child Psychiatry: The State Of The Art. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13(3), 377-393.

Kankaanpe, A., Liukkonen, R., & Ariniemi, K. (2007). Determination of g-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: A salting-out approach. Forensic Science International, 170, 133-138.

Krippner, S. (2005). Trance and the Trickster: Hypnosis as a Liminal Phenomenon. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 53(2), 97-118.

Pekala, R., Kumar, V.K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N., Moon, E., & Mullen, K. (2009). Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Negative Effects during A Phenomenological Hypnotic Assessment Within A Substance Abuse Population. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57(1), 64-93.

Pekala, R.J., Maurer, R., Kumar, V.K., Elliott, N.C., Masten, E., Moon, E., et al. (2004). Self-Hypnosis Relapse Prevention Training With Chronic Drug/Alcohol Users:…… [read more]

Substance Abuse During Pregnancy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,000 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Substance Abuse During Pregnancy

Using and abusing substances during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the mother and the developing fetus (Hoffman, 2011; Pregnancy, 2013). Unfortunately, that realization does not always stop pregnant women from getting involved with drugs, alcohol, smoking, and other behaviors that can harm the child who is growing in their womb. With a better understanding of the issues, pregnant women can be taught healthier habits and can take better care of their children, even before those children are born (Soby, 2006). The implications of substance abuse as well as how to get help for the issue both must be addressed, however, before these women will come to terms with the serious risks at which they are putting their unborn children.

Pathophysiology and Psychosocial Implications

Substance abuse can mean many things, but it most commonly refers to illegal drugs and alcohol (Soby, 2006). Smoking is also a problem for pregnant women, because it is very damaging to the fetus (Pregnancy, 2013). When a pregnant woman smokes, drinks, or uses illegal (or legal) drugs of any kind, they work their way into her body and blood stream (Soby, 2006). From that point they are able to cross over to the fetus via the umbilical cord and the placenta (Hoffmann, 2011). This is a very important ability when it comes to food and other nourishment, but it can be highly dangerous where other substances are concerned. Since it is not possible to only provide some of the substances ingested by the mother to the fetus, the mother must be very careful what she puts into her body (Hoffmann, 2011). That is why drinking alcohol, smoking, and taking drugs (whether legal or illegal) is so dangerous for a mother to consider. Stopping these kinds of behaviors, however, is not always easy, and women can need help to stay clean and sober during their pregnancy.

Typical Labs, X-Rays, or Other Diagnostic Studies

The most common way to determine whether a pregnant woman is using or abusing substances is through lab testing of her blood (Hoffman, 2011). X-rays will not provide information about what a woman has ingested, but a blood test will detect smoking, drinking alcohol (recently), and drug use (Soby, 2006). Of course, that is also depending on the type of drug she has used, the quantity of it, and the amount used (Soby, 2006). Blood tests are common during pregnancy anyway, because they test for issues such as gestational diabetes and other health problems (Soby, 2006). When these tests are being done, they can also be used to locate expectant mothers who have issues with substance abuse. From that point, these women can receive help and counseling that will allow them to break their addiction, thereby giving their unborn children a much better chance of being healthy. While not all women will be responsive to interventions of this kind, many women will be willing to at least make an attempt at staying clean for the duration of their pregnancy,…… [read more]

Meth Addiction and Abuse Problems Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,363 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


This disorder resembles schizophrenia after they stop using methamphetamine. These symptoms last for more than 6 months and do not even respond to treatment (Barr, Panenka, MacEwan, Thornton, Lang, Honer, Lecomte, 2006).

People also develop tolerance to methamphetamine. The development of tolerance is not fully understood. However, it is know that the development is based on a cascade of mechanisms… [read more]

Substance Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


The drug courts have implemented compulsory minimum jail terms for repeat and chronic drug offenders and for firearm crimes as well as career criminal and revised three-strikes sentencing laws (Reamer, 2005).

Chronic drug abusers/addicts frequently suffer from dire mental disorders. Some of the familiar calamitous mental illnesses associated with persistent drug misuse include schizophrenia, bipolar disorders; attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), generalized anxiety disorders, neurotic-compulsive disorders, post-trauma stress disorders, panic disorders, manic depression and antisocial personality disorders (Bennett & Holloway, 2005).

Different states and countries have introduced numerous measures in order to solve the drug and substance abuse crisis. States such as New York have relaxed their drug laws with the aim of allowing the judges to send the abusers to treatment centers, rather than to prisons (Schuckit, 2006). Texas on the other hand has identified that the only way to help the chronic drug addicts who have found themselves chronically homeless and are stuck in the cycle of going to prison and drug possession, then back to substance abuse and being homeless, is by providing the addicts with homes and enabling them to access treatment rather than putting them behind bars. Other states and countries such as Australia, where almost 80% of inmates are incarcerated in prisons as a result of drug predicaments have established community-based drug treatment centers that offer rehabilitation services to addicts who have served time due to drug (Reamer, 2005).

The community from which the offenders of crimes that are linked to drugs come from should be sensitized in order to enable the abusers who have been through rehabilitation integrate successfully into the community without discrimination as acceptance by the community plays a big role in ensuring that the offenders do not relapse into the crime (Miron, 2004). It has been proved that community reentry for offenders is a challenging period. The fact that they have a criminal record makes it difficult for them to get a job therefore making them return to the same environment they were from and also relapse into drug abuse.

The judges should hold regular status hearing for high risk partakers and should be trained on the best practices on judicial demeanor and successful communication with the participants. The courts on the other hand should expand partaker eligibility so as to include both persons with mental problems and those with histories of violent crimes (Mears, 2010). The programs should include drug treatment and regular drug tests administration carried out more than once a week during the first phase of the program.


Mears, D, P. (2010). American Criminal Justice Policy: An Evaluation Approach to Increasing Accountability and Effectiveness. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.

Bean, P. (2008). Drugs and Crime. ABINGDON: Willan Publishing.

Bennett, T., & Holloway, K. (2005). Understanding drugs, alcohol and crime: Crime and justice. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill International.

Reamer, F.G. (2005). Heinous crime:cases, causes, and consequences. New York: Columbia University Press.

Schuckit, M.A. (2006). Drug and alcohol abuse: a clinical guide to diagnosis and treatment. Basel: Birkhauser.

Miron, J, A… [read more]

Use of Military Force in Mexico Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Military Forces in Mexico

American Military in Mexico

Mexico is embroiled in a drug war and a prolonged battle with the drug cartels. The country is the largest producer and the biggest supplier of marijuana, cocaine and met amphetamines to the U.S. Statistics show that 90% of these drugs are supplied to the U.S. from Mexico. [Colleen W.… [read more]

Substance Abuse in Young Adults Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Substance Abuse in Young Adults: Issues to be Addressed by a Nurse Practitioner in Primary Care Settings

Young adulthood can be a turbulent period in many people's lives when new roles are assumed, careers and started and relationships forged. For instance, according to Mcconaughy and Wadsworth, "The transition from adolescence to adulthood usually involves many lifestyle changes, including moving out… [read more]

Agency Administration Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,991 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Criminal Justice Agency Administration

Drug Enforcement Administration (dea)

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States Department of Justice law enforcement agency whose task is to suppress the sale of recreational drugs by enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and is an agency that shares concurrent jurisdiction with the FBI in matters of enforcing narcotics control. The… [read more]

Budgetary Politics the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (5,817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


While the program is aimed at destroying crops that produce illegal substances, on another front it is also responsible for the destruction of a large quantity of legitimate crops and livestock that are the chief providers of revenue to the Colombian people.

It has also been reported that the chemical being used in the process, Roundup Ultra, has made many… [read more]

Teenage Issues in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. youth. In addition, a violent environment makes teenagers worldwide more likely to smoke, drink alcohol and take illegal substances.

Drug and alcohol abuse is a major concern for teens in the U.S. Studies show that more than half of teens aged 12-17 reported that drugs were easy to obtain in 1998 (Sound Vision, 2003). Approximately 13% of the population reporting that someone selling drugs had approached them in the past month.

Alcohol apparently is the drug of choice for many teens. More than 40% of teens admitted drinking when they are upset; 31% said they drink alone; 25% said they drink when they are bored; and 25% said they drink to "get high" (Sound Vision, 2003). On an annual basis, teenagers spend $5.5 billion on alcohol, considerably more than they spend on soft drinks, tea, milk, juice, coffee or books combined. Sixty percent of college women diagnosed with an STD reported being drunk at the time of infection (Advocacy Institute, 1992). Alcohol is a major concern for the U.S. As eight young people are killed in alcohol-related crashes every day. We are simply losing too many teens and wasting too many lives to allow this problem to continue.

The impacts of teenage drug abuse are great. Alcohol is implicated in more incidents of sexual violence, such as rape, than any single drug (The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1996). Alcohol use -- by the victim, the perpetrator or both -- is implicated in 46 to 75% of date rapes of college students. Thirty-eight percent of incarcerated sex offenders were under the influence of alcohol at the time of the crime (23% under the influence of alcohol alone, 15% under alcohol and drugs) and 5% were under the influence of drugs alone.

Prison costs for substance-involved sex offenders totaled $1.6 billion in 1998. In addition, women who have alcohol and drug problems are likelier to have been sexually abused as children or sexually assaulted. These implications pose a serious threat to American society.

According to Karzon (2003): "Juveniles are the future of any society and require special care and attention. Due to their susceptibility they respond to social malfunctioning and other anomalies in ways not approved by social norms and values. Their resistance to the dominant culture indicates the necessity of reorganizing the social institutions and spatial attention being given to promote the cause of juveniles."

The greatest challenges facing American teens are overcoming the obstacles to living in today's society, receiving a good education, and being equipped to compete for jobs in the modern economy (The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1996). Obstacles such as violence, drug and alcohol use, and sexual peer pressure place incredible burdens on American teens. If parents, teachers and elected officials do not address these problems and look for real solutions, the cycle of neglect in our communities is bound to be passed on to the next generation.


Dew, Diane. (March 11, 1995). The Troubles Teens Face. The Covington News.

Karzon,…… [read more]

Legalization of Marijuana Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


While opponents of marijuana say that marijuana has harmful side effects, there has been no proof for these theories.

For example, some claim that marijuana leads to violence, crime, memory damage, and damage to the immune system, but they have no proof of these theories. The government should not rely on theories without a solid basis. Contrary to common opinion, there has not been a single reported death due to an overdose of marijuana. This shows that smoking weed cannot kill a person. Therefore, the same government that allows Americans to ease the stresses of modern life with Xanax, Tylenol PM, Lotto and alcohol immediately should put an end to the anti-marijuana project and legalize the drug.


Marijuana Policy Project (MPP). (March 30, 1998). Multiple Sclerosis Patient Arrested for Using Medicinal Marijuana in U.S. Rep. Jim Rogan's Office. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.mpp.org/releases/nr033098.html.

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (1999). Federally Commissioned Study Supports Medical Marijuana, Dismisses Drug's "High Potential For Abuse. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org/medical/iomresponse.shtml.

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. (1999). Testimony of R. Keith Stroup, Esq. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org/recreational/testimony99.shtml.

Rosenthal, Ed. Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. Thundermouth Press.

Sharpe, Robert. (April 3, 2003). Legalize Marijuana And End Organized Crime. The Era-Banner.

The University of Michigan-Dearborn. (April 15, 1996). The Issues at Hand: Legalization of Marijuana. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.umd.umich.edu/HyperNews/get/106/finmj/19.html.

Turnpike.net. (December 1, 1999). Legalization of Marijuana Long Overdue. 8 June 1993. Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved from the Internet at http://turnpike.net/~jnr/bucklong.htm.… [read more]

History of Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


org, 2014).


Over the years, the perception of the public with regards to dangers of specific substance abuse has changed. It is said that the labels on tobacco packing has gradually made people aware of how addictive narcotics. Recognition of fetal alcohol syndrome brought about the inclusion of warning labels on the alcohol products that were in the market. Addictive nature of some of the prescription drugs like diazepam was now known and caffeine was also scrutinized. Drug laws have tried to keep up with the changing perceptions that people have on drugs and the real dangers of abusing these substances. By 1970 there were numerous federal drug laws as well as state laws that specified a variety of punitive measures that included imprisonment or even death penalty.in order to make clarifications the Comprehensive Drug Abuse prevention Act of 1970 replaced, repealed or updated previous federal laws which were concerned with narcotics and other drugs considered to be dangerous. Possession of drugs was made illegal but severe punishment was left for illicit distribution or the manufacture of these drugs. This act also dealt with treatment of drug abuse as well as controlling drug traffic.


Pearson Education, (2006). Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/drug-addiction-drug-abuse-history.html

William, W., (2010). Significant Events in the History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.*****/pr/AddictionTreatment&RecoveryInAmerica.pdf

Melemis, S.M.(2014). The Genetics of Addiction. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.addictionsandrecovery.org/is-addiction-a-disease.htm

Senwor, W., (2010). History of Addiction. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.slideshare.net/Senwor680/history-of-addiction

Sheldon, J.(2010). HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOLANDOTHER DRUG USE.Retrieved March 7,2014 from http://www.fredonia.edu/athletics/health/davis/drug_book/chapter1.htm

The Partnership at Drugfree.org, (2014). Former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, Who Targeted Tobacco, Dies. https://www.drugfree.org/join-together/government/former-surgeon-general-c-everett-koop-who-targeted-tobacco-dies… [read more]

Traumatic Events Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Traumatic Events

How to identify a child going through abuse or neglect

Within the school district there are many students who have gone through and others are still going through traumatic events. Some of these traumatic events are sexual, physical, mental abuse and issues of abandonment. There are various ways that can be used to identify children who are going through traumatic experiences.one indicator is any change in behavior. If a child's behavior has suddenly changed or their performance has gone down then they might be going through a traumatic event. Another way to identify a child going through traumatic events is if they have learning problems or simply cannot concentrate which can not be linked to particular physical or psychological causes. Children going through traumatic events are always watchful as though they are always preparing for a bad thing to happen. They are also passive, compliant or withdrawn (Child welfare information gateway, 2007).

Traumatic events, delinquency and crime

The abuse that children go through has often been linked to delinquency and crime development in these children. This is because the abuse and neglect ends up leaving lasting scars in the child. Some of the scars are emotional and they damage the child's sense of self and their ability to function. They end up developing high risk behaviors such as drug abuse which lead to crime. This is because they will need money to satisfy their drug problems and thus get involved in crime so as to get this money. There are other children who the abuse makes brings a change in behavior such that they become very aggressive. Such children end up being serial killers or even sex offenders.

Intervention on child abuse

There are various ways through which child abuse and neglect can be dealt with. There is the child abuse prevention and enforcement act came to the conclusion that in majority of the cases financial assistance is required to help prevent and report any incidence of child abuse and neglect. This financial assistance is also used to establish programs for education as well as the prevention of child abuse. If funds are accessible then there will be success and efficiency in prevention and bringing…… [read more]

Delinquency Biological Factors and Juvenile Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Thus, there is a strong indication that there is a biological 'profile' for adolescents of an addictive, risk-seeing personality which can put their health at risk. The evidence supports the notion that the biological effects of the drugs themselves are not causing the weight gain. Even cigarette smoking, which is usually associated as a weight loss strategy amongst adults was associated with higher BMIs in students as they progressed through school.

It has also been noted that addiction fundamentally alters the brain, and the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to influence from the dangers of substance abuse. A risk-seeking personality may drive an adolescent to use drugs and 'act out.' Once the inhibitory mechanisms are lowered and the need to replicate the high of using after drugs has been sharpened, the adolescent may turn to food as another coping mechanism to replicate the highs of addiction.

The authors do not deny that environmental factors, like access to healthy foods and places to exercise have no impact upon weight gain. However, certain individuals are more sensitive to obesity-promoting factors in the environment based upon their genetic profile. Similarly, some individuals are more prone to addiction and aggressive behavior, based upon biological vulnerabilities which they possess. The evidence suggests that there is a strong link in terms of the genetic profile of persons who are highly vulnerable to a variety of addictive behaviors. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, the association of substance abuse and BMI remained strong. More evidence is needed about how the genes and a vulnerability to addiction function in relationship to the environment to help persons suffering from addiction, or ideally -- prevent it.


Pasch, K.E., Velazquez, C.E., Cance, J.D., Moe, S.G., & Lytle, L.A. (2012). Youth

substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(1), 14-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9706-y… [read more]

Substance Misuse Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Substance Misuse Issues

Substance Misuse: A Multifaceted Human Issue

There are few nations, both developed and developing, that are not affected by some facet of substance misuse. Substance misuse represents a widespread medical, psychological, and human issue that is defined as the misuse of illicit and licit drugs (Stark & Payne-James, 2003). Drugs that are legally prescribed and illegally obtained,… [read more]

Theories and Models of Addiction Substance Abuse Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Theories and Models of Addiction/Substance Abuse

A lot of people do not know why or how people become addicted to drugs. It is sometimes implicit that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop utilizing drugs merely by choosing to alter their behavior. Some people believe that drug addiction is a multifaceted illness, and quitting… [read more]

Police Courts and Corrections Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (2,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



ACLU (2010). The Persistence of Racial and Ethnic Profiling in the United States: A Follow-Up Report to the U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Retrieved from: http://www.aclu.org/files/pdfs/humanrights/cerd_finalreport.pdf

Adorno, T., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D., Sanford, N. (1993). The Authoritarian Personality, Studies in Prejudice Series, Volume 1. New York: Harper & Row, 1950 W.W. Norton & Company paperback reprint edition, 1993

Apter & Desselles (2001) in Motivational Styles in Everyday Life: A Guide to Reversal Theory. Washington: APA Books.

Baird, F.E.; Kaufmann, W. (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Campbell, D.J., Hernandez, R.P. (2006). IACP Diversity Coordinating Panel. The Police Chief, 73, 9

Cartwright, W.S. (1999). Costs of drug abuse to society. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. 2, 133 -- 134.

Clinard, M.B., Meier, R.F. (2010). Sociology of Deviant Behavior. New York; Wadsworth Publishing.

Degenhardt, L., Chiu W-T., Sampson N., Kessler RC., Anthony JC., et al. (2008). Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLoS Med 5(7): e141. doi:10.1371/journal. pmed.0050141.

Greenwald, G. (2009). Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies. CATO INSTITUTE. Washington, D.C.

Harwood, H. (2000). Updating Estimates of the Economic Costs of Alcohol Abuse in the United States: Estimates, Update Methods and Data. Report prepared for the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse.

Heron M.P., Hoyert D.L., Murphy S.L., Xu J.Q., Kochanek K.D., Tejada-Vera B. (2009). Deaths: Final data for 2006. National vital statistics reports; vol 57 no 14. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr57/nvsr57_14.pdf



Irwin, J., Schiraldi, V. And Ziedenberg, J. (2010) America's One Million Nonviolent Prisoners. Retrieved from: http://www.cjcj.org/jpi

Kirton, M.J. Adaption-Innovation In the Context of Diversity and Change. Oxford: Routledge, 2004.

LaFollette (2006). Retrieved from: http://kchr.ky.gov/

MacCoun, R. And Reuter, P. (2001). Drug War Heresies: Learning from Other Vices, Times, and Places. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Merrill, J., Fox, K. (1999). The Impact of Substance Abuse on Federal Spending. Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from: http://www.ppmrn.net/resources/reports/5737

Mokdad, Ali H., Marks, J.S., Stroup, D.F., Gerberding, J.L. (2004). Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association. 291(10), 1238-1245.

National Police Misconduct Statistics and Reporting Project (2010). Online article retrieved from: http://www.injusticeeverywhere.com/?page_id=3336

New York Academy of Medicine (2004). Executive Office of the President Office of National Drug Control Policy. The Economic Costs the United States 1992 -- 2002. Washington, D.C. Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/pdf/economic_costs.pdf

Patillo, M., Weiman, D., Western, B. (eds.). 2004. Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Patton, S. (2009). America On Lockdown: New Facts About America's Prisons & Prisoners. Online article retrieved from: http://www.thedefendersonline.com/2009/02/03/america-on-lockdown-new-facts-about-america%E2%80%99s-prisons-prisoners/

Patton, S. (2009). America On Lockdown: New Facts About America's Prisons & Prisoners. Online… [read more]

Inhalant and Solvent Abuse Among Adolescents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Adolescent Inhalant Abuse

Inhalant abuse refers to the deliberate misuse of products such as aerosol sprays, paints, glues, and gaseous propellants in pressurized food canisters as a form of recreational drug use or experimentation. More specifically, users typically "sniff" or "huff" the chemicals in these products for their mind-altering properties. Generally, they either inhale the vapors directly or they spray them into receptacles such as paper bags or balloons and inhale the fumes given off by the products from the receptacles.

Inhalant Abuse

Inhalant abuse is a problem that is most common among pre-adolescents and young adolescents, largely because these substances are much more easily available to this group of substance abusers than other types of illicit drugs (NIDA, 2010). In addition to the association between inhalant abuse and subsequent drug abuse of other types, inhalant abuse is extremely dangerous. Certain types of inhaled substances can cause permanent memory loss and other types of serious permanent brain damage (NIDA, 2010).

According to the U.S. Institute for Drug Abuse researchers in the fields of substance abuse and adolescent behavior, more than 700, 000 people over the age of 12 try inhalants for the first time in a given year (NIDA, 2010). Rates of inhalant abuse have declined in the last decade, mainly because of increased awareness, penal enforcement, and changes in the way that manufacturers design tamper-resistant containers, and the way that retailers have complied with new federal regulations prohibiting sales to minors (NIDA, 2010; Wu, Pilowsky, & Schlenger, 2004).

Experts in child psychology and adolescent behavior report that the risk of inhalant abuse is directly associated with other behavioral patterns and tendencies (NIDA, 2010; Wu, Pilowsky, & Schlenger, 2004). Specifically, those who already exhibit delinquent tendencies, social maladjustment, and other…… [read more]

Smoking From the Beginning of Time Man Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (325 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Smoking

From the beginning of time man has been searching for means through which pleasure could be obtained regardless of the counter effects that the respective means brought along. Drugs as tobacco, heroin, alcohol and several others have been initially produced by man mainly for recreational reasons, but most of them have proved to be harmful for the body. In response to the damaging effects that drugs had, people had conducted numerous anti-drug campaigns.

Thank you for smoking" is a motion picture inspired by Christopher Buckley's novel which brings into the spotlight the life of a man that promotes tobacco. The movie in its essence presents actor Aaraon Eckhart, an excellent spokesman, while going through hell in order to make Americans believe that smoking is not dangerous for the human body.

The remarkable thing about the film is that one can easily observe people as being extremely receptive to pro-smoking propaganda, even if everyone knows the damaging effects tobacco has.…… [read more]

Crisis Intervention Definition of Addiction Goodman ) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,027 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Crisis Intervention

Definition of addiction

Goodman (2007) suggested a comprehensive definition of addiction in behavioral terms: addiction defines "a condition in which a behavior that can function both to produce pleasure and to reduce painful affects is employed in a pattern that is characterized by two key features: (1) recurrent failure to control the behavior, and (2) continuation of the… [read more]

Substance Problem Dash for Survival Substance Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,454 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Substance Problem


Substance Abuse Among Women and Its Treatment

Recent studies say that 10% of the population abuses drugs or alcohol and that 20% of patients who consult physicians have substance abuse problems, which exclude tobacco use (Mersy 2003). Substance abuse has been defined as the problematic use of alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs. The National Institute… [read more]

Alcoholism Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,722 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … history of the problem, psychological causes for the disease, and current research and statistics. Studies and information have not always acknowledged women alcoholics. For many years, most researchers and scientists studied men who abused alcohol, and ignored the fact that many women can also have problems with alcoholic consumption and abuse. Historically, this has also been the case.… [read more]

Narcotics in Asian American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,811 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … decline within overall narcotic use within the United States over the past decade, one ethnic group has shown no steady decline within recent narcotic use trends. The Asian-Americans/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) as an aggregate group has maintained their consistent level of narcotic use within the past decade. Despite the irregularity within this data, this problem is seldom reported or… [read more]

Definition Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



There are numerous definitions of addiction and just what constitutes addictive behavior.

Social observers have applied the notion of addiction to many and varied human activities, including substance abuse, shopping, running, game-playing, working, eating, drinking water to intoxication, sex, and excessive computer use (Shaffer pp). Generally, addiction has most often been applied to substance-using behavior patterns, however, social observers have recently begun to apply the concept to other activities that do not include drugs or alcohol use (Shaffer pp). However, in both circumstances, when addiction is present, then the consequences of the activity are adverse (Shaffer pp). Ironically, addiction may provide positive effects for the sufferer, especially early in the process (Shaffer pp). For example, "an addiction can distract someone from more painful emotional problems or provide an identity that organizes everyday experiences" (Shaffer pp). This combination of positive and negative consequences is one reason why addictive behaviors are very difficult to change (Shaffer pp).

The negative consequences of addiction usually include social, psychological, and biological harms (Shaffer pp). The biological consequences often include the emergence of neuroadaptation, which is the technical term for the "tendency to increase the dose level of a drug to experience the same subjective effects as with a lower dose before and also to experience a stereotypical pattern of discomfort upon stopping the drug use" (Shaffer pp). Heroin users, for example, tend to increase their dose to get the same level of intoxication that they had previously experienced at a lower dose, or they get sick when they stop using the drug (Shaffer pp).

Earlier application of the term "addiction" were less onerous than today's current views, for when scientists began to consider the matter of behavioral addictions that did not require drug use, the construct of addiction became more plastic and complex (Shaffer pp). For example, clinicians have noticed that, 'in the absence of psychoactive substance use, excessive behavior patterns such as pathological gambling stimulate the development of tolerance and withdrawal typical of drug dependence, giving rise to important questions concerning the nature and meaning of addiction (Shaffer pp).

Addiction is actually a lay term, though it is often used by scientists, while "dependence" is a more scientific construct, that is occasionally used by lay people (Shaffer pp). There…… [read more]

Cigarettes Why Do People Smoke? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is the process by which the pattern of mortality and disease is transformed from one of high mortality among infants and children and episodic famine and epidemic affecting all age groups to one of degenerative and human-caused made diseases (such as those attributed to smoking) affecting principally the elderly or at least the adult (Pendell, 1996, p. 38).

Anti-smoking… [read more]

Cocaine Botanical Origins Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,382 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



False hallucinations are common among cocaine users. Tactile hallucinations - "cocaine bugs" - sensations of itching and particles moving under the skin, visual hallucinations - "snow lights" - the flashing of lights behind closed lids, olfactory hallucinations - smelling repulsive odors of feces, garbage, and urine, and digestive hallucinations - failure to detect strong food and drink - are often reported in users of short duration (i.e., three to six months) and become more pronounced as the abuse lengthens.

An addict will often display a personal fascination with their own thought processes and become quite philosophical about the meaning or core of things. Repetitious, almost compulsive behavior can be seen in the moderate to heavy user of cocaine.

Chronic use and defined addiction often leads to a "reverse tolerance," convulsive behavior, dysphoria, paranoid psychosis, insomnia, apathy, anxiety, and melancholy.

Morbidity and Mortality

Violence is usually present in the addicted cocaine user. Crack users have an even higher rate of hallucinations, paranoia, suicide attempts, violent behavior toward others, and assaults. A study was conducted in Los Angeles to determine the correlation between homicide and cocaine use/abuse. One of every five homicides was positive for cocaine at the time of autopsy. The majority died violent deaths, e.g., shootings and stabbings. Violence has a clear connection in those using cocaine with alcohol becoming a predictable cross-addictive chemical preferred by cocaine users.

Many researchers and forensic scientists have studied the relationship between cocaine, violence, and death. The emerging model seems to support that violent behavior is in direct proportion to the ingestion of cocaine. Another factor is the necessary violence in participating and distribution of an illegal drug. The behavior necessary to support an expensive cocaine habit (e.g., theft, armed-robbery, rape, murder) also contributed to the pattern of violence.

Interestingly, only the psychopharmacology has empirical data to support the validity of violence in association with cocaine use. Oral cocaine or placebo was given to 30 "average" volunteers. These volunteers were then placed into a controlled situation in which they could choose to give their opponent electrical shocks of different severity. The more aggressive the volunteer became (cocaine-induced aggression) the higher the shock that was delivered. The clinician's concluded that "cocaine intoxicated individuals do not need to be psychotic (paranoid) to be more aggressive."


Cocaine is the product of a naturally occurring botanical mixed with non-botanicals to produce an unnatural state of euphoria in the human brain. With the unpredictability of addiction - one never knows if they will fall victim to its lure - it is unwise to take the first "snort," smoke, or injection.

With the emerging data on the side effects, social stigma, naturally attendant aggressive and violent tendencies, illegality and criminal consequences, family decimation, economic drain, and psychological problems, which stem from its use, cocaine is a dangerous drug.

Flirting with this drug can result in a lifetime of problems - including poverty, loss of job, paranoid-affective inability to function, loss of family and support systems, diminished self-esteem, repeated… [read more]

Employee Drug Testing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


6 million drug tests performed, only 7.5% were positive for drug use. This was a drop of 0.9% from the previous year. (Positive Drug Tests...1995)

So are the new policies on pre-employment and random drug testing actually dissuading U.S. workers from using drugs? According to a recent article the new boom of drug tests has not decreased overall drug usage among workers but it has "spawned a whole (new) industry of tricks to (help employees) avoid being tested as positive."(New Trade Boom, 2000)

So what is the real business argument for drug testing in the work place? Why is it necessary and more over -- is it ethical? What are the legal implications of workplace drug testing? Should employers be responsible for what their employees do in their free time? "No employer has the civil liberty to ignore the consequences of substance abuse in the work-place and the impact that it has on the public...anyone who wants to argue on the contrary should (look at the facts)." (Langdon-Down, 1997)

Other people feel that as a general rule, this is definitely an issue of privacy and that employers should not take on the role of policing their workforce unless they exhibit behaviors often associated with drug abuse. (Langdon-Down)

However, this method often is subjective and may lead to claims of racial profiling and discrimination, which is why most employers opt to test randomly and do very little for-cause drug testing unless absolutely warranted.

I think the strongest argument in favor of drug testing lies in the fact that "employers face a number of potential liabilities, including personal injury and constructive discharge dismissal claims from employees harmed by someone who was under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and personal injury claims from members of the public (who are) harmed by an employee under the general vicarious liability procedure." (Langdon-Down) In other words if an employer knows (or should have known) that an employee was driving a company car or operating a forklift under the influence of drugs or alcohol, than the employer is vicariously liable should someone be injured or even killed as a result of their actions. With this in mind, I feel that drug testing makes good sense, and is an ethical practice. But what about the white collar worker? How can a banker, for instance, harm someone at work if he or she is on drugs? Well, I'm sure that many of us would think twice about entrusting our money to a bank whose employees were drug addicted. We might not be in physical danger from these employees, but our money might not be as safe as we would like.

In the end, every person has the right to refuse to submit to a drug test -- and conversely, employers have the right to conduct these programs and not extend offers of employment (or continued employment) for those that do not comply.


Castro, Janice, et al. (1986, March). Battling the Enemy Within:

Clarke, Allison (1998, November 19).… [read more]

Adolescent Substance Use and Addiction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,125 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Adolescent Substance Use and Addiction

Substance Use and Addiction

Adolescent substance abuse is a major national public health problem. The current levels of the problem remain high despite the existence of recent leveling-off of the substance use by adolescents. Adolescents who abuse substances consistently and persistently often experience an array of problems such as academic difficulties, health-related problems, criminal activities,… [read more]

Defense Mechanisms &amp Psychodynamically-Oriented Psychologists Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,319 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


The therapy clients along with participant substance abuse counselors will complete the necessary release forms and will also complete informed consent forms.

Assessments. Participant counselors will be administered the TAT cards in the standard TAT administration fashion with instructions as to explain what is happening in the picture, what led up to those events, what the characters are thinking and… [read more]

Poverty Macroeconomics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Over the years, the issue of poverty and its lasting consequences has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of the impact that it is having on society and the ability of individuals to live empowering lives. According to statistics compiled by the World Hunger Organization, they found that the total number of people who are dealing with the effects of poverty is 926 million worldwide. The below table is highlighting the different areas that are most susceptible to these issues. ("2012 World Hunger," 2012)

The Total Number of People Living in Poverty by Region


Number of People

Developed Countries


Near East / North Africa


Latin America / the Caribbean


Sub-Saharan Africa

239 million

Asia and the Pacific

578 million


926 million

("2012 World Hunger," 2012)

These figures are showing how poverty is having an adverse impact on a number of regions. To fully understand the overall scope of these challenges requires examining the economic effects of poverty on society and development. Together, these elements will highlight the lasting influences on everyone. ("2012 World Hunger," 2012)

The Effects on Poverty on Society

There are no clear definitions for poverty. Instead, it is a way of life that is embracing a number of characteristics. According to the World Bank, this definition is subject to different variables and interpretations with them saying, "The most commonly used way to measure poverty is based on incomes. A person is considered poor if his or her income level falls below some minimum level necessary to meet basic needs. This minimum level is usually called the 'poverty line'. What is necessary to satisfy basic needs varies across time and societies. Therefore, poverty lines vary in time and place, and each country uses lines which are appropriate to its level of development, societal norms and values." This is highlighting how the standards of poverty will vary from one region to the next. ("Definitions of Poverty," 2012)

However, the World Bank determined that the average rate for the international poverty line is $1.25 per day. This is the amount that someone must make to be able to sustain themselves, their families and provide the most basic necessities. These figures are commonly used by actuaries around the world, to determine the overall depth of poverty that is occurring inside a particular region. (Ravallion, 2009)

Poverty has been shown to have a negative impact on society. This is from the tremendous amounts of stress that someone is under will influence their mental and physical well-being. For example, children who are born into poverty will have to deal with a number of challenges including:

Health issues: This can affect the physical well-being of a child and their ability to cope with a variety of situations. What happens is the lack of resources and stress creates an environment that supports a number of behaviors (i.e. drug / alcohol addiction and physical / mental / sexual abuse). At the same time, these children are usually… [read more]

Pre-Sentence Investigation Onondaga County Probation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Legal Address: 4 Main Street

Aliases: "Zippy the Pinhead"


Charge(s) and Conviction(s)

1. John Zips was named in a one-count indictment filed in the Onondaga County Court on November 12, 2011, charging: on November 11, 2011, with intent to harass, annoy or alarm a 12-year-old female who lived in defendant's neighborhood, this 30-year-old Defendant lured the female into his home, locked the doors to his home, and held her against her will, which was likely to cause the female to reasonably fear physical injury or serious physical injury.

2. On November 13, 2012, Defendant appeared before an Onondaga County Court Judge and pleaded not guilty to the charge. Defendant was released after posting bond and was ordered to report to the Pretrial Services Agency. On December 11, 2011, in accordance with the terms of a written plea agreement, Defendant pleaded guilty to Stalking, 4th Degree. The Parties entered into a plea agreement calling for dismissal of the original indictment and filing of the charge of Stalking, 4th, a Class B Misdemeanor. Jones is scheduled to be sentenced on January 12, 2012.

3. According to his supervising pretrial services officer, Zips made a satisfactory adjustment while under pretrial supervision and reported as directed. Also, Zips maintained employment and there were no substance-related issues.

The Offense Conduct

4. The victim is a 12-year-old female neighbor who has been acquainted with the Defendant for 5 years.

5. The Defendant is a 30-year-old employee of Denny's restaurant who lives with his mother in the victim's neighborhood.

6. On November 11, 2011 at approximately 8:00PM, Defendant's mother was absent from their home and Defendant encountered the Victim as she walked to the corner store for her mother. Defendant asked the Victim what she was going to buy at the store. Victim replied that she was buying a can of coffee for her mother. Defendant replied that he and his mother had 10 cans of coffee given to them by a relative and that neither of them drinks coffee, so the Victim could have a can to take back to her mother without buying the coffee. Defendant invited the Victim into his home, supposedly for the can of coffee.

7. On that same date and upon Victim's entrance of Defendant's home, Defendant locked the doors to his home and told the Victim that he knew she was interested in him as a "boyfriend." Victim stated that she never thought of Defendant in that way and asked him to unlock the door and let her out of the house. Defendant refused, though Victim began to cry and shake, and begged the Defendant to open the front door and let her out of the house.

8. Defendant lured the Victim into his home under false pretenses, then held her against her will with intent to harass, annoy or alarm her, which was likely to and did, in fact, cause the Victim to reasonably fear physical injury or serious physical injury.

9. After approximately… [read more]

Health Risk Behaviors Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  8 pages (2,763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Health Risk Behaviors

Substance abuse particularly with excessive use of alcoholic beverages is considered as a form of maladaptive behavior that is exhibited by a person for a long period of time. It concerns health care officials because of numerous health risk consequences. There are significant ways that can exhibit substance abuse behaviors depending on the individual because each individual… [read more]

Variable Measure Reliability and Validity in Social Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Reliability and Validity in Social Work

Poverty and substance abuse addiction, risks for homelessness and panhandling

Number of individuals living at or below the poverty line as compared with 1990 and 2000 (interval): The overall trend in poverty in the United States is important to measure, given that there has been growing evidence that while the 'haves' have been getting richer, the poor have been getting poorer. The growth in the poverty epidemic and its relationship to substance abuse amongst the poor is one of the features of interest in this study.

Number of females and males living at or below the poverty line (nominal): Poverty is often characterized as a 'female' problem, particularly of young women with children. However, often the stereotypical image of homelessness and 'panhandling' is male. Understanding poverty's gender-based nature and its relationship to homelessness, substance abuse, and ways of making a living is a critical aspect of the study.

3. Number of individuals seeking federal and other types of assistance for housing (nominal): Is homelessness a problem of personal psychology or poverty? Identifying the number of individuals seeking assistance for housing helps clarify, to some degree, the voluntary nature of homelessness

4. Number of individuals self-identified as having used illicit drugs within the past month, year, and over the course of their lifetime (ordinal): The National Institute of Drug Abuse measures drug, alcohol, and cigarette use based upon individuals reporting using drugs in the past month, year, and over a lifetime to examine the different rates of experimental, casual, and chronic use and abuse. Is one population more or less apt to suffer from homelessness?

5. Number of individuals arrested for substance abuse-related crimes (nominal): This demonstrates the degree to which substance abuse has resulted in antisocial behavior, although of course not all individuals who abuse drugs are arrested for committing crimes.

6. Number of individuals spending time in homeless shelters (nominal): "Roughly 170,000 families spent at least one night in a shelter in 2009" according to the Department of Housing and Urban Development. While reliable statistics on homelessness can be difficult to obtain, the number of individuals who seek refuge in shelters is one indication of the extent of the problem (Morales 2010)

7. Number of individuals identified as homeless in nightly 'head counts' of homeless over a period of ten years (ordinal): Cities such as New York routinely do 'head counts' of numbers of the homeless overnight. While this is only a specific portrait of the city's homeless population, an indication that major cities are…… [read more]

Volunteers in Community Safety Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (1,978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Volunteers in Community Safety

The percentage of youth offenders in the UK has skyrocketed in the recent years. One of the main reasons for this saddening statistic is the increase in the number of drug/alcohol abusers among the youth. As a youth offender's officer, I deeply feel that there is a need of intervention so as to save the future… [read more]

Relationship of Bipolar Disorders and Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bipolar Disorder and Substance Addiction

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a psychiatric condition that affects more than 5.7 million people in the U.S. roughly equal to 2.6% of the national population above 18 years of age. Patients are usually diagnosed in their late teens and more than 50% of all cases are diagnosed before age 25. [NIMH] the disorder is characterized by unusual mood swings that affect the person's ability to carry on his day-to-day activities. These "mood episodes" range from overexcited state called mania and periods of very low emotional state called depression. These mood variations can be short-term or prolonged and seriously affect the patient's ability to perform normal functions. Majority of patients with bipolar disorder also have substance abuse problem. Several studies (Strakowski, et al., 1998, Merikangas, et al., 2007, etc.) have reported a high prevalence of substance use disorder among adults with bipolar disorder. [Willens et.al, 2008] Some studies have also reported a high rate of SUD among patients with early onset disorder. SUD is also highly observed among adolescents with bipolar disorder. A brief overview of BP disorder and some recent studies that focus on its association with substance addiction would provide important insight into the complex spectrum of bipolar disorder and its treatment.

Bipolar Disorder

There are four main types of BP disorder namely Bipolar 1, bipolar 2, Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP NOS) and cyclothymic disorder. BP1 is characterized by manic or mixed episodes that last for more than one week. There is a distinct change from normal behavior and hospital treatment is necessary. BP2 refers to a pattern of depressive episodes alternating with manic episodes without neither of them being fully blown. BP-NOS refers to special cases where the symptoms exhibited do not fit in to either BP1 or BP2 and are of very short duration. Finally cyclothymic disorder refers to a milder form of BP wherein the patient has episodes of hypomania with mild depression over a two-year period. BP disorders usually last a lifetime and appropriate medical treatment is necessary to control the symptoms and to enable the patients lead full productive lives.

BP and Comorbid substance addiction

Frank et.al (2006) was a Pittsburgh study that analyzed 170 patients who were enrolled in the 'Maintenance therapies for Bipolar Disorder' (MTBD). Of these 101 were women and 69 were men. The MTBD program had qualification requirements such as confirmed lifetime diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, age between 18 and 65 and the most recent episode within the last 5 years. Psychiatric evaluation tests such as 'Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia' (SADS) and 'Research Diagnostic Criteria' (RDC) was conducted for all the subjects at the time of intake. Also, data pertaining to the history of substance abuse was obtained using NIMH Life Charting Protocols. The researchers also used the 'Hamilton Depression Rating Scale' (HADS) and the 'Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale' (BRMS) to assess depression and mixed mania episodes. Statistical chi square tests were used to compare… [read more]

Impact of Substance Abuse on Disability Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,466 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Substance Abuse on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

What is the incidence of substance abuse in individuals with this disability?

According to a recent study by Janikowski, Donnelly and Lawrence (2007), "As a group, people with disabilities have a higher rate of alcohol and drug use problems when compared to the general population. Up to six million people with disabilities… [read more]

Marketing Analysis for the Olde Distillerie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,530 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Marketing Analysis for the Olde Distillerie

The spirits industry the world over has been faced with some tough challenges in recent years as more and more consumers make the switch to wine and beer. The Olde Distillerie has not been immune to these trends either. This company is a small independent Scotch whisky distillery based in Dumfrieshire, South-west Scotland. As… [read more]

Substance Abuse There Is a Significant Correlation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,631 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Substance Abuse

There is a significant correlation between drug addiction and the tendency to commit crime. The United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) in 1989 developed a comprehensive substance abuse treatment program in an attempt to alter both the criminal and substance abuse behaviors of inmates (Substance Abuse Treatment). The BOP reports that 50 institutions that are governed by the… [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.