Study "Drugs / Alcohol / Tobacco" Essays 1-51

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Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Usage Among Youths Research Proposal

… Alcohol, Tobacco & Drug Use by Adolescents

The use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by adolescents in the United States has been a concern of parents, teachers, administrators and community leaders for many years and in many contexts. The purpose… [read more]

Drug Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

… Drug/Alcohol Abuse

Drug and alcohol abuse has been a growing problem across the world especially in young adults. In U.S. alone, alcohol is the most often used substance. Almost 90% of adults state some experience with alcohol consumption. Alcohol is… [read more]

Drugs and Alcohol's Influence Essay

… Drugs are also tied to crime as well. The same study showed that 45.8% of inmates surveyed had used illicit rugs within a month of being arrested. Additionally, 19% of Canadian inmates studied in this survey had used drugs daily prior to their arrest, with an astounding 34% of inmates having used drugs at least once a week before they were apprehended (Brochu et al. 1999). The drug most used on the day the crime was committed was cocaine, according to (Brochu et al. 1999). Moreover, the research shows that the type of drug used is often associated with particular types of crimes. For example, use of cocaine and its derivatives is mostly associated with the crimes of theft and robbery, while marijuana use was tied mostly to break ins (Brochu et al. 1999). Therefore, the literature does show a common relationship between drugs / alcohol and crime.

I personally believe that an internship experience would only further validate the issues raised in the current body of literature. Actually being able to experience dealing with people under the influence of drugs and alcohol would help show their increased erratic behaviors. More importantly, having a such a close relationship with people who abuse drugs and alcohol might help allow me to ask in-depth questions regarding the nature of their behavior. I believe that upon asking why crimes were committed, alcohol and drugs would have a large role to play in a number of cases. Essentially, the close proximity to those who abuse drugs and alcohol would only confirm the close relationship presented in the research between drugs / alcohol and crime.


Brochu, S.; Cournoyer, L.G.; Motiuk, L.; & Pernanen, K. (1999). Drugs, alcohol and crime: Patterns among Canadian federal inmates. Bulletin on Narcotics, L1(1). Web.

Hart, Timothy C. & Rennison, Callie. (2003). Reporting crime to the police, 1992-2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. U.S. Department of Justice. Web.

Parker, Robert Nash & Auerhahn, Kathleen. (1998). Alcohol, drugs, and violence. Annual Review of Sociology,… [read more]

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana: The Argument Term Paper

… Alcohol, Tobacco, And Marijuana: The Argument for Unifying Vice Enforcement Legislation

Argument - Unified Paternalism

Government paternalism refers to the governmental exercise of legislative or regulatory authority over the individual for his benefit rather than for the benefit of others… [read more]

Contingency Management Alcohol Marijuana Studies Term Paper

… Contingency Management


The purposes of this review are to gain an understanding of the controlled studies using contingency management (CM) in the substance abuse field, and where applicable emphasize those studies that incorporate CM with community… [read more]

Substance Abuse Research Paper

… In short, "certain drugs have served as a proxy for racial and ethnic bias," and this has been true throughout American history (Wilson and Kolander, p. 8).

Environmental, social and individual on influences all contribute to drug use, including parents,… [read more]

Drug Survey Essay

… Drug Survey

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is a yearly survey conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services. The NSDUH aims to determine the incidence of drug, alcohol, tobacco, and substance abuse, prevention, and treatment each year. For this analysis, the 2007 NSDUH report is used, reported last year, in September 2008. The NSDUH provides interesting information for end-users like researchers, health practitioners, and policy makers, mainly because of the rich information it contains, detailing the yearly trend for different types of illegal abuses, and providing a profile of users and abusers for each type of illegal abuse. The report stated that among the illicit drugs, marijuana was the most common type of illicit drug abused by individuals aged 12 years old or older in 2007. Meanwhile, past month nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs (12 years or older) was lower in 2007 compared to 2006. Pain relievers are the most common type… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Admission Essay

… Third, these decisions should be used to design effective System-wide: alternative programs for dealing with addiction; screening and assessment in order to decide which people should be merely prosecuted and which people need alternatives such as substance abuse treatment. Fourth, the System needs to empower and encourage all members of the Criminal Justice System to use effective alternatives to sentencing. Fifth, the System needs to empower and encourage all members of the Criminal Justice System to supervise people being helped by those alternatives, using the power of their positions to encourage each person's cooperation. By adopting a System-wide approach to substance abuse, the Criminal Justice System can more effectively and ultimately inexpensively deal with our rampant drug/alcohol-related criminal problems.

In closing, I want to thank the Department again for allowing me to explain my life, goals and opinion of the most important change needed in the Criminal Justice System. I also want to extend my offer of any additional information or documentation the Department may need in order to make its decision about my qualifications. I look forward to your decision and sincerely hope that I will be given the opportunity to learn and contribute as a member of the Masters of Criminal Justice Program. [read more]

Counseling Assessment Candy Barr Client ID Number Term Paper

… Counseling Assessment

Candy Barr Client ID Number: 55555

Gender: Female

Date of Birth: 05-05-1974 Client's age

-2006 Time of Assessment: 2:30 P.M.

Time Spent: 1.30 hours

Identifying Information: Ms. Barr is a 28-year-old Caucasian referred by her human resource representative… [read more]

Drug Policy American Research Paper

… The United States has spent a great deal of money on all phases of the "war" to try and make sure that drugs do not come into the county, or, at least, that they do not come into the country… [read more]

Issues of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

… Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Over the last several decades, the issues of drug and alcohol abuse have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been an effort on the federal and state levels to increase awareness.… [read more]

College Students and Alcohol Use Research Proposal

… College Students and Alcohol Use


International Perspective

Findings of studies conducted in 13 countries found that college students are at a high risk for heavy drinking with serious immediate health consequences (Karam, Kypri & Salamoun,… [read more]

Alcohol, Drugs, and Domestic Violence Term Paper

… However, they conclude, animal studies "Have produce the anticipated clear-cut results." Why? The list of possible variables which may have been miscalculated is lengthy. But their research does show that when Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), when a low… [read more]

Social Problem Drug Abuse Research Paper

… Social Problem - Drug Abuse

Drug Abuse

Drug abuse refers to excessive use of drugs with an intention of altering one's mood, emotion or state of consciousness. Buddy T. (2011) further indicates that drug abuse is "the use of illicit… [read more]

Synopsis of Drug Abuse Resources Summary Essay


The public service announcements on are very effective in showing the negative consequences of both licit and illicit drug use. Each announcement reenacts a real life situation caused by the use of specific drugs and… [read more]

Effects of Drug and Alcohol Addicts on Our Society Specifically Economically and Socially Thesis

… Drug and Alcohol

The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society, specifically economically and socially

The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society

The effects of drug and alcohol addicts on our society

There is little… [read more]

Drug Abuse Prevention or Treatment Strategy Term Paper

… Drug Abuse Prevention or Treatment Strategy

Every Government reserves the right to fight against the use and the abuse of illicit drugs, like for example, prescribed drugs like psycho stimulants, and the use of other drugs like tobacco and of… [read more]

History of American Drug Policies Term Paper

… Drug Policies


History of American Drug Policies

This paper is about the history of the non-medical use of drugs. It is interesting to note than in the early 1900s there were far more people addicted to drugs in… [read more]

Smoking Term Paper

… Smoking

After a while, I learned to get used to it. The common disappearances my Dad would make, usually for 30 minutes at a time, to take a drive or take a walk. His quick retreat into the shower when… [read more]

Final Response Drug Culture Essay

… Drug Culture Final

The second half of this course has both reinforced my previous definitions of drug culture in film and has also introduced me into the different aspects thereof. Additionally, the films that were watched during the second half… [read more]

Drug Problem in America Essay

… Drug Abuse

Estimates on the cost of substance abuse in the United States are staggering. The total cost of substance abuse in the United States including the costs of estimated lost productivity, medical bills, and loss of life are estimated to exceed 560 billion dollars per year (National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA], 2008). This alone suggests that the drug problem in the United States is a significant problem that needs attention. Typically people think of substance abuse costs being associated with illicit drug use; however, this issue is not limited to just illicit drugs but legal substances as well such as tobacco and alcohol (which together account for nearly 380 billion dollars of the total costs per year; NIDA, 2008). However, historically certain factions in the U.S. such as politically motivated interest groups have historically picked what drugs are designated as "evil" and what drugs are acceptable. For instance, the prohibition of alcohol in the early 1900s, a terrible failure, was motivated by political aspirations of those tied to the early the temperance movement (Brown, 1981). Tobacco, while certainly as dangerous, was never banned as it played an important role in American economy. Likewise, the creation of the American Medical Association in concert with the federal government guidelines/sanctions on certain drugs has resulted in the sanctioning of certain drugs for dispersion by physicians and the banning of certain drugs that essentially have the same pharmacological properties and effects. For instance cocaine (a banned drug) and Ritalin have nearly identical pharmacological properties and effects (so much so that users and scientists blind to the drug cannot tell them apart; DeGrandpre, 2006). Essentially, the use of substances to alter mood and emotional states has a long history in American society and in all cultures worldwide for the Eskimos of Alaska (Brown, 1981; DeGrandpre, 2006).

In essence the use of substances like alcohol, tobacco, cocaine etc. And the subsequent demonizing of some and acceptance of others has been politically motivated. Moreover, with the advent of big pharmacological corporations certain types of addictions and abuses are encouraged (e.g., caffeine, sugar, fast food, pain killers, antidepressant medications, sleeping aids, etc.; DeGrandpre, 2006).

The major issue here is that of a drug culture in a country that fails to recognize it. This attitude towards drug use starts early. The transmission of parental values or tendencies would most likely be an important factor in contributing to a child's expectations regarding the use of any substance (Kandel & Andrews, 1987). As we would expect the probability of any type of substance use in a person would increase with use by one of both parents. Social learning can occur as a result of watching parents… [read more]

Effects of Drugs and Alcohol on the Individual and Damages They Cause Research Paper

… Substance Abuse and Society

Substance abuse represents one of the most pervasive problems in the United States. It is a problem that affects all levels and segments of the society. In terms of their effects on individuals and on society,… [read more]

Mexican Drug War Thesis

… Mexican Drug War

Mexico is waging a hard battle against the drug cartels. Widespread corruption, threats and intimidation by the drug lords have resulted in a crisis situation. There is every hope that the positive initiatives undertaken by the Mexican… [read more]

Legalizing Marijuana Will Boost the Economy Thesis

… Marijuana

The Practical and Economic Benefits of Decriminalizing Marijuana

The United States is in a state of serious recession. States, municipalities and the nation as a whole are struggling with diminished revenue, loss of jobs and a decline in productivity.… [read more]

Reefer Madness Sex Drugs and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market Research Paper

… Reefer Madness Sex, Drugs, And Cheap Labor in the American Black Market

Schlosser, Eric. Reefer Madness Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market.

New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003.

The black market is America's 'hidden' economy. Pornography, drug use, and illegal labors are some of its prime 'commodities.' In his book entitled Reefer Madness Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor, muckraking journalist Eric Schlosser examines the impact of these clandestine markets on our daily lives, and the often futile and hypocritical efforts of legislators to regulate them. Of course the hypocrisy of the American public is partially to blame: while electing moralistic legislators, we are also avid consumers of these illegal industries. Black market profits total an estimated $1.5 trillion dollars in unreported income (Schlosser, 2003, p.5). Illegal labor keeps luxury costs low of everything from eating out (illegal laborers act as dishwashers and process our meat) to lawn services, even while people profess horror at the threat illegal immigrants pose to 'American jobs.'

Schlosser's section on the drug trade points out how America is supposedly waging an official 'war on drugs' while Washington is dominated by the powerful lobbies of alcohol and drug companies. One of the profiles in Schlosser's book, Mark Young, was given a life sentence for selling marijuana, a harsher sentence than he would have received for committing rape (Schlosser, 2003, p.8). Instead of treating drug addiction as a crime, Schlosser advocates treating it like an illness: decriminalizing simple possession of marijuana and repealing mandatory and 'three strikes you're out' sentencing guidelines would free more funds for drug treatment. Also, much of current legislation is patently unjust: individuals who are merely friends and family members of drug traffickers may have their assets seized. It is a lie that socially acceptable drugs like tobacco are less harmful than illegal drugs like cannabis: the black market and notions of drug illegality rest on vague, emotional notions of what drugs are 'worse' rather than objective, scientific facts.

Attitudes about sexuality are even more hypocritical. For example, the United States has some of the strictest rules… [read more]

Official Legal Definition of Contradiction Term Paper

… ¶ … official legal definition of contradiction is that there exists between two ideas an incompatibility and evident opposition of two idea which share the subject of one and the same proposition. In simpler words, this means that when a… [read more]

Drug Usage as a Multicultural Issue Term Paper

… Drug Abuse

The subject of drug usage is an issue that has plagued people all over the world for many years. Indeed, the issue of drug usage is multicultural and pervades many different people groups. The purpose of this discussion… [read more]

Drugs How Poverty Contributes Term Paper

… Because drugs make them feel better, these people may come to depend on them, both physically and emotionally.

Mental illness and drug dependence show the difficulties of distinguishing between poverty's causes and its effects. Mentally ill and drug-dependent people often have trouble holding steady jobs and maintaining relationships, causing them to fall into poverty. They may also have trouble getting out of poverty. Similarly, poverty itself appears to contribute to mental illness and drug dependence.

Studies show that drug addiction in the United States is disproportionately concentrated among the unemployed and undereducated. Alcohol and drug use is strongly related to difficulties in gaining and retaining employment. It is an ongoing cycle, as people who have had long-term alcohol and drug problems tend to have difficulty in entering or re-entering the employment market.

Alcohol and drug use can also be associated with problems in finishing school or acquiring any type of qualifications. The absence of further qualifications can significantly reduce an individual's ability to gain employment, or adequately paid secure employment.

According to Massing (1999): " To maintain that we must end poverty and discrimination in order to combat drug abuse seems a prescription for paralysis. The key is to find a strategy that is humane, affordable and sellable-to find a strategy, in short, that could actually work."


In conclusion, rather than trying to eliminate poverty -- a doomed mission -- leaders should attempt to deal with the problem in another way. Adequate employment programs for people who have alcohol and drug problems are needed to diminish this link between alcohol and drug use and poverty. In addition, providing support for people experiencing drug and alcohol problems and the educational institutions they attend can help keep people with alcohol and drug problems at school while they are seeking treatment for their alcohol and drug problem. These efforts may reduce the link between poverty and drug abuse.


IREX. (2003). Poverty. International Research & Exchanges Board Newsletter.

Massing, Michael. (September 20, 1999). A forum -- Beyond legalization: New ideas for ending the war on drugs. The Nation; Volume: 269; Issue: 8; p.… [read more]

Drug Education the Dare Program Term Paper

… There is no rationale to suppose that students will robotically make sound options when they employ in values clarification gatherings. It is fairly likely that when students are supported to increase plain and reliable values, they will choose those that… [read more]

Genetics and Drug Abuse Essay

… " (Volkow, nd, p. 1) Because of the chronic nature of the disease, relapse to abuse of the individual's drug of choice is considered to be "not only possible but likely, with relapse rates similar to those for other well-characterized… [read more]

Anabolic Steroids. This Drug Has an Effect Term Paper

… ¶ … anabolic steroids. This drug has an effect of the dihydrotestosterone or the testosterones on the body and is more commonly known as the "steroids" and the technical term used for them is "anabolic-androgen steroids (AAS)." The word anabolic… [read more]

Drugs and Crime Zabransky, T. ) Annotated Bibliography

… Drugs and Crime

Zabransky, T. (2007). Methamphetamine in the Czech Republic. Journal of Drug Issues. 37, 156-180. Retrieved from

This journal entry details the lengthy history of methamphetamine in the Czech Republic by evaluating factors such as drug use estimates, treatment demands, and mortality rates associated with this problem, which are then related to criminal activities. The article provides a comprehensive overview of the historical development of this narcotic in the Czech Republic, and how it has influenced crime there. It was written by PHD and MD Tomas Zabransky, who consults with drug policy providers for the European Union and the United Nations, for the purpose of providing a foundation for further research on this subject. "This paper attempts to provide as complex a picture of this phenomenon as possible by analyzing what is known about the Czech methamphetamine situation through scientific monitoring and research (Zabransky, 2007)."The historical narration of the problem of methamphetamine in this country is valuable since it can be used as a model for future drug related research for other countries.

Cardoso, F.H. Gaviria, C. Zedillo, Ernesto. (2009, February 23). The War on Drugs is a Failure. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from

This article details the failure to prevent large amounts of violence and narcotics trafficking, primarily in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Columbia and Brazil. It offers recommendations for refocusing the efforts of the War on Drugs to ameliorating the conditions and harm of drug users and also suggests targeting the organized crime structures which propagate drug use. This source is based upon findings in the Latin Amrican Commission on Drugs and Democracy, and is intended to persuade governmental officials to shift their drug policies away from prohibition and criminalization of narcotics. The story was written by former presidents of Brazil, Columbia, and Mexico, respectively, and is valuable to future research in this are by presenting an insider's view of the political machines that have targeted civilians in the war on Drugs. "Both the U.S. And the EU share responsibility for the problems faced by our countries, since their domestic markets are the main consumers of the drugs produced in Latin America (Cardos, Gaviria, Zedillo, 2009)."

Abt Associates Inc. (2009). 2008 ADAM II Report. Retrieved from

The 2008 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring report was prepared for the Office of National Drug Control Policy, which is an Executive Office of the President, by Abt Associates Inc., a research consulting firm with offices in virtually 40 countries. The report documents information regarding drug use and criminality from male offenders, taken within two days of their time of arrest. Its data can best be used for estimating trends in drug use and elucidating the link between crime and drugs for future research.… [read more]

Domestic Marijuana Production and Regulation Marijuana Leaf Essay

… Domestic Marijuana Production and Regulation

Marijuana leaf or "cannabis" is a cultivatable herb capable of producing a euphoric psychological change in users, roughly comparable in its degree (if not in its specific effects) to the effects of drinking alcohol (Gerrig… [read more]

Alcohol and Alcoholism by Definition Thesis

… Alcohol and Alcoholism

By definition, alcohol "is a legal depressant... obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast or distillation. There are many different types of alcohol, but ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is the type that is generally used to make… [read more]

Drug Testing in High School Not Just Dealing With Drug Testing Athletes but All Students Research Proposal

… Drug Testing in High School

The objective of this work is to examine the issue of drug testing in high school and not just in terms of drug testing athletes but of all students and the explain why drug testing… [read more]

Drug Enforcement Strategies Supply Reduction vs. Demand Term Paper

… Drug Enforcement Strategies

There are several different tactics that Police Drug enforcement Divisions use to reduce supplies of drugs on the streets. Five strategies are listed below. The writer will use the Orlando, Florida Police Department as an example of… [read more]

Natural Remission Term Paper

… In the first instance the subjects are "told that they must enter treatment to recover." However in the traditional 12 step-based treatment patients are informed that they will never fully recover. "This duality seems to be therapeutically unproductive, and largely… [read more]

Economic Effect of Legalizing Term Paper

… The report puts that as the foremost health problem in the nation; substance abuse puts a huge load on the health care system of the country and plays a part in the increased expenses of health care. Indeed, substance abuse… [read more]

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments Term Paper

… " (Zoccolillo et al., 1999) Thus, the AAOD student is at a clear disadvantage in terms of successfully completing a high-school diploma and moving on to a career-oriented post-secondary education.

Additionally, high school is generally also a milieu in which… [read more]

Hypnotherapy as a Treatment for Substance Abuse Term Paper

… Positive thoughts, higher self-esteem, these two things play a vital role in any recovery. So why shouldn't it work in hypnosis? All this combined may give hypnotherapy enough success to become part of standard treatment for substance abuse and mental disorders.

Hypnosis is and will always be seen as a means to open a door into the subconscious. "Hypnosis often overcomes the boundary between conscious awareness and what has been kept unconscious or sidetracked from someone's awareness" (Krippner, 2005, pp. 99). It offers people a way to gain insight into themselves and their subconscious thought patterns. It also offers hope to some who have no hope. Although it is not a definitively proven method, it has shown some positive results. With continued research and new studies, it should reveal that hypnosis is more than just a parlor trick. It goes beyond imagination into the realm of echoes. "The role played by imagination is ventral to both indigenous rituals and hypnosis" (Krippner, 2005, pp. 99).


Golabadi,, M., Tabad, H., Yaghoubi, M., & Gholamrezaei, A. (2012). Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Opium Addiction: A Pilot Study. Integrative Medicine, 11(3), 19-22.

Gruzelier, J.H. (2006). Frontal functions, connectivity and neural efficiency underpinning hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(1), 15-32.

Huynh, M.E., Vandvik, I.H., & Diseth, T.H. (2008). Hypnotherapy In Child Psychiatry: The State Of The Art. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13(3), 377-393.

Kankaanpe, A., Liukkonen, R., & Ariniemi, K. (2007). Determination of g-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: A salting-out approach. Forensic Science International, 170, 133-138.

Krippner, S. (2005). Trance and the Trickster: Hypnosis as a Liminal Phenomenon. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 53(2), 97-118.

Pekala, R., Kumar, V.K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N., Moon, E., & Mullen, K. (2009). Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Negative Effects during A Phenomenological Hypnotic Assessment Within A Substance Abuse Population. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57(1), 64-93.

Pekala, R.J., Maurer, R., Kumar, V.K., Elliott, N.C., Masten, E., Moon, E., et al. (2004). Self-Hypnosis Relapse Prevention Training With Chronic Drug/Alcohol Users:… [read more]

Substance Abuse During Pregnancy Term Paper

… Substance Abuse During Pregnancy

Using and abusing substances during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the mother and the developing fetus (Hoffman, 2011; Pregnancy, 2013). Unfortunately, that realization does not always stop pregnant women from getting involved with drugs, alcohol,… [read more]

Meth Addiction and Abuse Problems Research Paper

… This disorder resembles schizophrenia after they stop using methamphetamine. These symptoms last for more than 6 months and do not even respond to treatment (Barr, Panenka, MacEwan, Thornton, Lang, Honer, Lecomte, 2006).

People also develop tolerance to methamphetamine. The development… [read more]

Substance Abuse Term Paper

… The drug courts have implemented compulsory minimum jail terms for repeat and chronic drug offenders and for firearm crimes as well as career criminal and revised three-strikes sentencing laws (Reamer, 2005).

Chronic drug abusers/addicts frequently suffer from dire mental disorders.… [read more]

Use of Military Force in Mexico Term Paper

… ¶ … Military Forces in Mexico

American Military in Mexico

Mexico is embroiled in a drug war and a prolonged battle with the drug cartels. The country is the largest producer and the biggest supplier of marijuana, cocaine and met… [read more]

Substance Abuse in Young Adults Essay

… Substance Abuse in Young Adults: Issues to be Addressed by a Nurse Practitioner in Primary Care Settings

Young adulthood can be a turbulent period in many people's lives when new roles are assumed, careers and started and relationships forged. For… [read more]

Agency Administration Thesis

… Criminal Justice Agency Administration

Drug Enforcement Administration (dea)

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States Department of Justice law enforcement agency whose task is to suppress the sale of recreational drugs by enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act… [read more]

Budgetary Politics the United States Term Paper

… While the program is aimed at destroying crops that produce illegal substances, on another front it is also responsible for the destruction of a large quantity of legitimate crops and livestock that are the chief providers of revenue to the… [read more]

Teenage Issues in America Term Paper

… S. youth. In addition, a violent environment makes teenagers worldwide more likely to smoke, drink alcohol and take illegal substances.

Drug and alcohol abuse is a major concern for teens in the U.S. Studies show that more than half of teens aged 12-17 reported that drugs were easy to obtain in 1998 (Sound Vision, 2003). Approximately 13% of the population reporting that someone selling drugs had approached them in the past month.

Alcohol apparently is the drug of choice for many teens. More than 40% of teens admitted drinking when they are upset; 31% said they drink alone; 25% said they drink when they are bored; and 25% said they drink to "get high" (Sound Vision, 2003). On an annual basis, teenagers spend $5.5 billion on alcohol, considerably more than they spend on soft drinks, tea, milk, juice, coffee or books combined. Sixty percent of college women diagnosed with an STD reported being drunk at the time of infection (Advocacy Institute, 1992). Alcohol is a major concern for the U.S. As eight young people are killed in alcohol-related crashes every day. We are simply losing too many teens and wasting too many lives to allow this problem to continue.

The impacts of teenage drug abuse are great. Alcohol is implicated in more incidents of sexual violence, such as rape, than any single drug (The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1996). Alcohol use -- by the victim, the perpetrator or both -- is implicated in 46 to 75% of date rapes of college students. Thirty-eight percent of incarcerated sex offenders were under the influence of alcohol at the time of the crime (23% under the influence of alcohol alone, 15% under alcohol and drugs) and 5% were under the influence of drugs alone.

Prison costs for substance-involved sex offenders totaled $1.6 billion in 1998. In addition, women who have alcohol and drug problems are likelier to have been sexually abused as children or sexually assaulted. These implications pose a serious threat to American society.

According to Karzon (2003): "Juveniles are the future of any society and require special care and attention. Due to their susceptibility they respond to social malfunctioning and other anomalies in ways not approved by social norms and values. Their resistance to the dominant culture indicates the necessity of reorganizing the social institutions and spatial attention being given to promote the cause of juveniles."

The greatest challenges facing American teens are overcoming the obstacles to living in today's society, receiving a good education, and being equipped to compete for jobs in the modern economy (The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1996). Obstacles such as violence, drug and alcohol use, and sexual peer pressure place incredible burdens on American teens. If parents, teachers and elected officials do not address these problems and look for real solutions, the cycle of neglect in our communities is bound to be passed on to the next generation.


Dew, Diane. (March 11, 1995). The Troubles Teens Face. The Covington News.

Karzon,… [read more]

Legalization of Marijuana Term Paper

… While opponents of marijuana say that marijuana has harmful side effects, there has been no proof for these theories.

For example, some claim that marijuana leads to violence, crime, memory damage, and damage to the immune system, but they have no proof of these theories. The government should not rely on theories without a solid basis. Contrary to common opinion, there has not been a single reported death due to an overdose of marijuana. This shows that smoking weed cannot kill a person. Therefore, the same government that allows Americans to ease the stresses of modern life with Xanax, Tylenol PM, Lotto and alcohol immediately should put an end to the anti-marijuana project and legalize the drug.


Marijuana Policy Project (MPP). (March 30, 1998). Multiple Sclerosis Patient Arrested for Using Medicinal Marijuana in U.S. Rep. Jim Rogan's Office. Retrieved from the Internet at

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (1999). Federally Commissioned Study Supports Medical Marijuana, Dismisses Drug's "High Potential For Abuse. Retrieved from the Internet at

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. (1999). Testimony of R. Keith Stroup, Esq. Retrieved from the Internet at

Rosenthal, Ed. Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. Thundermouth Press.

Sharpe, Robert. (April 3, 2003). Legalize Marijuana And End Organized Crime. The Era-Banner.

The University of Michigan-Dearborn. (April 15, 1996). The Issues at Hand: Legalization of Marijuana. Retrieved from the Internet at (December 1, 1999). Legalization of Marijuana Long Overdue. 8 June 1993. Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved from the Internet at [read more]

History of Addiction Term Paper

… org, 2014).


Over the years, the perception of the public with regards to dangers of specific substance abuse has changed. It is said that the labels on tobacco packing has gradually made people aware of how addictive narcotics. Recognition of fetal alcohol syndrome brought about the inclusion of warning labels on the alcohol products that were in the market. Addictive nature of some of the prescription drugs like diazepam was now known and caffeine was also scrutinized. Drug laws have tried to keep up with the changing perceptions that people have on drugs and the real dangers of abusing these substances. By 1970 there were numerous federal drug laws as well as state laws that specified a variety of punitive measures that included imprisonment or even death order to make clarifications the Comprehensive Drug Abuse prevention Act of 1970 replaced, repealed or updated previous federal laws which were concerned with narcotics and other drugs considered to be dangerous. Possession of drugs was made illegal but severe punishment was left for illicit distribution or the manufacture of these drugs. This act also dealt with treatment of drug abuse as well as controlling drug traffic.


Pearson Education, (2006). Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from

William, W., (2010). Significant Events in the History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from http://www.*****/pr/AddictionTreatment&RecoveryInAmerica.pdf

Melemis, S.M.(2014). The Genetics of Addiction. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from

Senwor, W., (2010). History of Addiction. Retrieved February 28, 2014 from

Sheldon, J.(2010). HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOLANDOTHER DRUG USE.Retrieved March 7,2014 from

The Partnership at, (2014). Former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, Who Targeted Tobacco, Dies. [read more]

Traumatic Events Research Paper

… Traumatic Events

How to identify a child going through abuse or neglect

Within the school district there are many students who have gone through and others are still going through traumatic events. Some of these traumatic events are sexual, physical, mental abuse and issues of abandonment. There are various ways that can be used to identify children who are going through traumatic indicator is any change in behavior. If a child's behavior has suddenly changed or their performance has gone down then they might be going through a traumatic event. Another way to identify a child going through traumatic events is if they have learning problems or simply cannot concentrate which can not be linked to particular physical or psychological causes. Children going through traumatic events are always watchful as though they are always preparing for a bad thing to happen. They are also passive, compliant or withdrawn (Child welfare information gateway, 2007).

Traumatic events, delinquency and crime

The abuse that children go through has often been linked to delinquency and crime development in these children. This is because the abuse and neglect ends up leaving lasting scars in the child. Some of the scars are emotional and they damage the child's sense of self and their ability to function. They end up developing high risk behaviors such as drug abuse which lead to crime. This is because they will need money to satisfy their drug problems and thus get involved in crime so as to get this money. There are other children who the abuse makes brings a change in behavior such that they become very aggressive. Such children end up being serial killers or even sex offenders.

Intervention on child abuse

There are various ways through which child abuse and neglect can be dealt with. There is the child abuse prevention and enforcement act came to the conclusion that in majority of the cases financial assistance is required to help prevent and report any incidence of child abuse and neglect. This financial assistance is also used to establish programs for education as well as the prevention of child abuse. If funds are accessible then there will be success and efficiency in prevention and bringing… [read more]

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