"Drugs / Alcohol / Tobacco" Essays

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AA Meeting From a Student Nurse Perspective Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

AA Meeting from a Student Nurse Prospective

Response Paper for Alcoholics Anonymous

I attended Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meeting of Northeastern Maryland Intergroup Council at the St. Paul's Lutheran Church on 210 Mount Royal Ave., Aberdeen, Maryland. The meeting was held on August XX, 2011 at 7:00 P.M. As in almost all AA meetings, the participants vary and their ages ranged from people in their teens to adults in their 60s and even 70s. The social and economic demographics of the participants are also diverse from students to professionals and even some retired people. The major part of the AA meeting aside from the regular sequence of events that occur at every meeting is the testimonial given by one of the participants. In the meeting I attended, Leroy, a 52-year-old recovering alcoholic gave his testimonial. He had been sober for the last nine years but he became an alcoholic while he was only 13 years old. For about 30 years, he was an alcoholic and he has been from one rehabilitation center to another. By far, the Alcoholics Anonymous and accepting Leroy's Christian faith have been instrumental in his being sober for the last few years.

Several issues have been addressed from how one becomes an alcoholic and how this event takes a toll not only on the person but on that person's family and friends as well. There were even discussions regarding worst case scenarios for alcoholics when they end up committing criminal acts -- knowingly and unknowingly, because of the influence of alcohol. Some of the stories presented were cases involving physical abuse of partners and children by the alcoholic and this caused not only the destruction of the alcoholic's family but landed the person in jail.

Joining any Alcoholics Anonymous chapter is not done alone but rather, a sponsor is involved to guide the new member. But the sponsor does not only facilitate entry into AA but "often develops when the prospect is willing to be helped, admits having a drinking problem, and decides to seek sobriety as a solution (Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 2010). The sponsors provides the lifeline to the recovering alcoholic especially when the person relapse back into his or her drinking problem. Aside from having a sponsor,…… [read more]


Bingeing Became the New College Sport Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Bingeing Became the New College Sport," written by Barrett Seaman appeared in Time magazine on August 21, 2005. Published just prior to the fall semester, it seems as if this article will be a warning for parents about the dangers of college binge drinking. Seaman, who is also the author of the book, Binge: What Your College Student Won't Tell You, reports on the practice of "pregaming" in which under age students drink large amounts of alcohol in their dorm room or apartment prior to going to a party. Seaman argues that reducing the drinking age to 18 will reduce this practice and help college students become adults who drink responsibly.

Prior to reading this article, I was not familiar with the practice of pregaming. According to the Urban Dictionary, pregaming derives its name from tailgating prior to sporting events and now means drinking prior to any event. The Urban Dictionary adds further that this usually occurs because the party or event will require identification for the consumption of alcohol. I have not had any experience with this practice, but I have seen binge drinking among college students. College students, who are experiencing life without supervision from their parents for the first time, often want to experiment with as many experiences as possible.

I have several questions about the content of this article. First of all, how widespread is the practice of pregaming? Is the practice more common among males or females? I saw a news report recently that discussed how girls, in an effort to avoid consuming too many calories, will go the entire day without eating if they know they will be drinking at night. Are the practices related? The…… [read more]


Economics in Healthcare - Policy Memo Kathleen Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Economics in Healthcare - Policy Memo

Kathleen Sebelius, Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary

FROM: XYZ, Policy Analyst

Proposal for Imposing a National Sin Tax on Alcoholic Beverages

The proposal for imposing National Sin Tax on alcoholic beverages might be beneficial for our society. It is likely to discourage the excessive use of alcohol which is prevalent in our society. Excessive consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages has posed many challenges for policy makers. The over-usage of alcohol does not only affect the user but the effects are generally passed on the society as a whole. Sin taxes on the usage of alcohol might provide increased tax revenues for the government, on one hand while imposing an additional monetary burden on the user on drinkers on the other hand.

Harms from Alcohol Consumption

It is a fact that consumption of alcohol is the major reason for most of the crimes in United States. (Eric 15-16) Alcohol consumption is not only dangerous for the consumer but it also have various economic and social harms for the society as well as users' immediate environment. It means that alcohol can affect not only the drinker but other people in the form of violence or road accidents. Alcohol consumption also plays a vital role in violent crimes e.g. sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse and domestic violence. Thus, we can say that the usage of alcohol can lead to a wide range of personal as well as societal harms.

Approximate Quantifications of Harms from Alcohol Usage

The consumption of alcohol is one of the three major reasons for increased death rate in United States.

Almost 95,000 people died due to over-consumption of alcohol in United Sates in early 2000s.

In United States, approximately 7000 people die under the age of 21 due to excessive usage of alcohol.

In 2006, 1.6 million people were hospitalized in United States.

According to government estimates, the economic costs of alcohol were estimated to be $220 billion in 2010.

According to another government estimate, $686…… [read more]


UCC v. Government Contracting Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Government and UCC Contracts Revision (Reduced length of paper)

Understanding Contract Theories and Formation

Relationship of FAR and UCC in subcontracting. Gabbard, E.G. (2011). Relationship of far and ucc in subcontracting. Retrieved June 10, 2011 from http://www. fasmg. org/farucc. HTML The first article titled "Relationship of FAR and UCC in Subcontracting" by Ernest G. Gabbard director of procurement at Teledyne Enterprises. In formulating a Government contract, the requirement is to have specific contracting authority as one of the consenting parties. There are formalized Termination & Convenience clauses and certain mandated terms. The offer and acceptance by the parties is unequivocal and cannot easily be rescinded.

Consider this second article from a government contract case law example:

Agredano v. U.S., -F.3d- (2010 WL 537160, Fed. Cir., 2010).

Article 2: Vehicle bought from the government should include buyer beware.

Cengage Learning, (2011). Buyer beware applies to vehicle bought by the government. June 12, 2010 from http://www.swlearning.com/blaw/cases/sales/0410_sales_01.html

Buyer beware applies to vehicle bought by the government.

The plantiff purchased a vehicle from a government auction where autos seized or forfeited were for sale. Agredano then signed a contract agreement to buy the car 'as is' (Cengage, 2011). This implies there is no warranty or return of the vehicle if there is a mechanical failure or the auto is no longer wanted by the buyer.

The car was a Nissan manufactured in 1987. While traveling in Mexico, the plantiff was pulled over and the car was searched. The car had been used previously by drug dealers. During the search of the vehicle, some marijuana was found in the vehicle (Cengage, 2011). Though the marijuana had been there prior to Agredano's purchase, he was put in prison for a period of one year. Agredano appealed the verdict and was freed after convincing the appellate court that the drugs were not his. Agredano then focused his attention on pursuing a case against the government auction site that sold him a vehicle that had illegal drugs in it. His argument was that there was the implied in fact warranty that would cover the presence of illegal drugs (Cengage, 2011). The result was a court ruling in Agredano's favor. But the government appealed this verdict, the Government contract formed with Agredano stated the purchase warranty was 'as 'is' and that it did not include an implication of legal nor illegal drugs. The appellate court maintained that there was no obligation for the government to locate or eliminate any drugs from the vehicle. The buyer purchased the car 'as is' thereby releasing the government of any responsibility.

Therefore the government prevailed stating "the government had no responsibility to remove drugs from forfeited vehicles does not provide a contractual warranty to future purchases of the vehicles" (Cengage, 2011). The government is not liable for any neglect to remove illegal drugs from the vehicle and there is no "contractual remedy" since the car was sold "as is" (Cengage, 2011). In addition to this the buyer was aware that the car had… [read more]


Cigarette Smoking Kills Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

The ratio of fats within the bloodstream can become increased fourfold in the course of smoking several cigarettes in succession (CDC, 2011).

Tar from cigarette smoke is deposited as a viscous, sticky substance on the internal membranes of the mouth, larynx, esophagus, and lungs. Twenty cigarettes smoked per day over the duration of a year will result in the deposition of over two hundred grams (one cup) of tar into the smoker's body. Cigarettes with reduced tar content have been tried and proven ineffective, as their lowered tar content becomes balanced by the tendency of addicted smokers to inhale the smoke more deeply, as well as hold it in their lungs for longer periods of time. In some cases, these modified habits with reduced-tar cigarette products can actually increase the depth of tar deposition into lung tissues, and raise the overall ingestion rate of nicotine into the bloodstream (Johnson, 2011).

Among America's youth, 75% of deaths from heart disease are directly attributed to smoking. Smokers overall have a 1000% greater likelihood of dying from lung cancer than their non-smoking counterparts. Pregnant females who smoke expose their infants to severe risks, including miscarriage, premature birth, and low birth weight (Johnson, 2011). Falconi (1971) identified over thirty distinct ailments or diseases attributable to smoking as the primary cause, or major contributor. Each cigarette smoked is estimated to reduce overall life expectancy by eight to fourteen minutes. The annual death rate attributable to the various forms of smoked tobacco exceeds the combined deaths from all other causes. There can be little doubt that cigarette smoking is intensely harmful to the human body, and is the cause of immeasurable human malaise, disease, and death.

References

CDC - Fact Sheet - Smoking & Tobacco Use. (2011, March 21). Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/

Falconi, O. (1971). Smoking Facts. Facts About Smoking. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://www.nutri.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.facts_about_smoking

Johnson, L. (2011). Harmful Health Effects Of Smoking Cigarettes. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://www.quit-smoking-stop.com/harmful-smoking-effects.html

The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke. (2006). U.S. Surgeon General. Retrieved May 30, 2011 from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/report/fullreport.pdf… [read more]


Legalizing Marijuana Would Have on Prison Population Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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¶ … Legalizing Marijuana would have on Prison Population

The recent war on drugs campaigns have had limited to no efficiency, as one can actually claim that society has experienced great problems as a result of the techniques authorities used in trying to fight drugs. There has been much controversy regarding the topic of legalizing marijuana during the last few… [read more]


Effects of Illegal Immigration on the North America Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,600 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Illegal immigration is tearing apart the United States. According to Katel (2005), "More than 10 million illegal immigrants live in the United States, and 1,400 more arrive every day." Immigrants are changing the social and cultural composition of the United States of America. Because most of the illegal immigrants are poor and purposefully enter the United States to find jobs,… [read more]


Chemistry of Adderall Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,505 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chemistry of Adderall

Amphetamines

These compounds were first synthesized in 1887 by Lazar Edeleanu at the University of Berlin (Harrison 2007). He initially called them "phenylisopropylamine." These were among the first series of compounds purified two years earlier by Nagayoshi Nagai. They were related to the plant derivative ephedrine. The pharmacological use of amphetamine was not discovered until 1927 when… [read more]


Boljevac ) Investigated How Living Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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The community controls against drinking variable was transformed from purely quantitative data to a qualitative variable by developing 10 questions, examining their relations, and then reverse coding items for the proscriptive scale (prohibitive community controls) to develop a factor where high scores would indicate perceptions of increased community controls against adolescent drinking and lower scores indicating perceptions of little or no controls against adolescent drinking. Often existing survey questions had to be modified to fit the target group. Rewording of other survey data such as a survey designed to assess urban community supportiveness to reflect rural data indicates qualitative changes and considerations. In addition, four perceived alcohol prevalence usage in peers items were adapted from a larger adult scale and reworded for adolescents. The qualitative nature of the survey design is required as the researchers to pay particular attention to the wording of items, the perceptions of subjects concerning their peers, others, and the community in general, as well as the subjects' own attitudes.

There are several ethical and cultural concerns addressed in this study. First, the authors reported that parental consents were used in 14 of the 22 communities, so there may be underreporting of adolescent alcohol usage in this study, which of course would confound the findings. We are not told if the parental consents were obtained from communities with higher community controls against drinking, which would again be a big confound. Only of 20% of parents were surveyed (randomly) and parents' responses were not matched against their own children's responses so no direct relationships between parent perceptions and behavior and adolescent perceptions and behavior could be determined. The sample in the study is highly Caucasian and restricted to a certain demographic location limiting generalizations to minority samples and other rural areas.

However, like all good research the study answers questions and in turn asks questions based on the findings. This can generate improved research to examine these issues.

References

DeHaan, L. & Boljevac, T. (2010). Alcohol Prevalence and Attitudes among Adults and Adolescents: Their Relation to Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in…… [read more]


Fresh: A Biopsychosocial Assessment Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,163 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

(Baker & Bell, 1999).

Meanwhile, African-American therapists -- particularly those who share a similar background with African-American patients -- must be aware of and take measures to prevent emotional transference or identity confusion in patients of color.

African-American therapists and therapists of color must be sensitive to issues of countertransference and premature interpretation. Even if the patient and therapist have had similar experiences with society and education and have similar interests, the therapist still needs to learn about and understand the specific choices that patient has made and the techniques that the patient has used to cope with psychosocial stresses. If the patient and therapist have very dissimilar backgrounds and life experiences, the therapist will need to be aware that some verbal and nonverbal behavior, such as an active, probing interview or the nonverbal listening stance, may be perceived as rejecting by the patient. (Baker & Bell, 1999)

The next step to rehabilitation, therefore, is successfully pairing Fresh with a therapist willing and able to communicate with him in a way he can understand, and one who is sensitive to the particular issues relating to racial and cultural differences and their effects.

Evaluation Plan

In order to develop an effective treatment plan for Fresh, the following conditions must be evaluated:

Cognitive ability (intelligence level).

Pre-existing depression.

Pre-existing anxiety.

Mental and emotional preparedness to engage in treatment.

To begin, I would recommend administering the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule (SPES). Consisting of 15 yes or no questions, "The SPES can be administered in five minutes and can alert the clinician to a greater severity of symptoms than is spontaneously reported by the patient" (Baker & Bell, 1999). The SPES is particularly useful in evaluating children and persons who are despondent or prone to emotional avoidance, as many witnesses or victims of violence tend to be.

While Fresh has no known history of personal substance abuse, I would nonetheless recommend a routine toxicity screen, given the nature of his former work and former environment. Once it has been determined that no substance abuse exists, a mini-mental state examination (MMSE) should be administered as an evaluation of his general intelligence level -- which I suspect is quite high -- followed by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). After these initial evaluations are complete, the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) can be used to monitor any changes in the patient's emotional state.

While these tests and scales are by no means the only instruments available to therapists, they are some of the most effective and therefore the most popular methods of clinical evaluation. In any case,

The clinician should establish that any instrument being considered for use with an African-American patient has been evaluated and found reliable in this population. If the clinician has special concerns about an instrument, such as the potential for education or socioeconomic status to affect its results, the choice of another instrument without the potential biases would be preferable. (Baker & Bell, 1999)

Analytical Summary

When dealing with a… [read more]


Evidence Inference and Policy Decision Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Evidence, Inference, And Policy Decision

Criminology is a fascinating field of study. Every aspect of it is subject to scholarly inquiry. Research scientists investigate criminal behavior and conduct evaluations of programs designed to curb different kinds of criminal behavior. Much of this research is relevant to the duties and responsibilities of this organization. We can use the findings of such research and program evaluations to help us create policy, but we must make sure that we are focusing our information gathering on the best research. Not all research is conducted equally. Some research methods are sounder than others, and some findings and evaluations are more usefully reported than others. When selecting research and program evaluations on which to base our policy decisions, we need to apply standards to ensure we reference only those that use sound research methodologies and detailed report writing. David P. Farrington offers some examples of straightforward standards for measuring the quality of research studies and program evaluations (Farrington, 2003).

Edward Tufte quotes social scientist David T. Campbell who wrote in 1969 that developed countries "should be ready for an experimental approach to social reform… in which we try out new programs designed to cure specific social problems, in which we learn whether or not these programs are effective, and in which we retain, imitate, modify or discard them on the basis of apparent effectiveness." Campbell went on to observe that "most ameliorative programs end up with no interpretable evaluation" (Tufte, 1974, p. 6). By analyzing the research and program evaluations in criminology, we can learn to avoid the mistakes of the failures and build on the gains of the successful. To select those most successful, we need to employ standards to discern the useful from the unhelpful.

Farrington's standards of quality are clear and hierarchical in nature. Most important is that the cause or intervention produces the expected effect or outcome, which is a direct measure…… [read more]


Medical Marijuana Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,012 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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Medical Marijuana

There is presently much controversy regarding the topic of Medical Marijuana, given that numerous people cannot detach themselves from employing a traditional perspective concerning the matter-considering that the substance has little to no medicinal attributes and that it is actually a way of legally using it with recreational purposes. In order to be able to look at the… [read more]


Marijuana Legalization, or Decriminalization for Medical Purposes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … marijuana legalization, or decriminalization for medical purposes, entails significant challenges for sociologists. Supports of legalization argue that the benefits of medicinal usage outweigh any personal or social harms; however, opponents argue that any pro-marijuana policy would have detrimental effects on society as a whole. In this paper, I will evaluate several key contributions to the sociological literature on marijuana policy, ultimately arguing that a federal policy sanctioning private, medical use of marijuana will ultimately offset social problems associated with deviant behaviors such as crime. Moreover, the increased revenue generated by taxation and regulation will ultimately benefit state economies while lessening the strain on prison systems, police enforcement, as well as state and local budgets.

The current national policy is one of non-enforcement of state decisions. Voters in many states have either upheld or rejected specific legalization policies with varying degrees of strictness. California residents, for example, can visit dispensaries upon receipt of a doctor's prescription. Washington state residents are given a list of licensed "dealers" once receiving a prescription. Along this spectrum of legality, the federal government's position has entailed simply looking the other way, prohibiting the Drug Enforcement Agency from prosecuting marijuana-related charges. When left to the discretion of local and state enforcement agencies, most of these charges are dropped following an arrest for possession.

States who oppose marijuana legalization frequently cite the correlation between "innocent" marijuana use, and more serious drug offenses, arguing that marijuana use is correlated with increased probability of moving on to more significant drug use later in life. Leading research proves that marijuana does not cause people to use hard drugs and asserts that this gateway theory presents the statistic association between common and uncommon drugs as a causal relationship rather than…… [read more]


Illegal Immigrant Reform Controversy Involving Arizona Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,177 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Illegal Immigrant Reform

Illegal immigration has always been a controversial topic in the United States. While some people believe that every individual has a right to live a good life, irrespective of the country he or she is born in, others argue that it can cause social and economic problems if left unchecked. Legal immigration, on the other hand, is… [read more]


Living With Illegals Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Immigration -- the Challenge

Illegal immigration has economic, security and law and order implications. In a dynamic economy such as the United States it would be a shortsighted measure to focus on confronting illegal immigration as a purely economic defense as labor mobilization is a natural response to the capitalist labor market demands. However, as a national security policy and a law and order problem, illegal immigration should definitely be addressed effectively. A multifaceted approach involving enforcing stringent employment regulations and severe sanctions on failing employers, building a physical fence along the entire stretch of the border, and allocating more resources and patrolling force is suggested. Legalizing and regularizing the flow of immigrants according to the market demands is as important as any of these other measures to effectively tackle the illegal immigration problem.

Introduction

Illegal Immigration has become a hot political, economical and now even a healthcare issue in the U.S. with every year a swarming population of more than a million illegal aliens entering the U.S. along the land routes. Managing illegal immigration along the U.S. - Mexican border presents a huge problem as it involves a land stretch, which is approximately 2000 miles long. From San Diego, California in the west to Arizona, New Mexico and Texas in the east, the border patrol area is very wide. Also the sparsely populated areas across the Arizona desert and other border zones make a haven for the illegal Mexican drug cartels. The recent row about the increasing percentage of violent crimes perpetuated by illegal aliens in the state of Arizona has spurred more public and political pressure on the government. The impact of illegal immigration on the law and order situation in the bordering states has amplified the need for a more secure border and immigration system. While national security and border surveillance are crucial it is also essential to understand the economic impact of immigration on America. The article by Michael Barone titled "Living with Illegals?" briefly discusses the much-debated topic of illegal immigration in America touching upon these vital issues. This paper is a brief overview of the author's viewpoints alongside a discussion of personal perspectives on the issue.

Economic and Social Consequences of Illegal Immigration

Though the author does not delve in depth about the economic implications of illegal immigration, he does not have a narrow-minded view of the illegal immigration issue. The article clearly highlights his understanding of the dynamic nature of the U.S. economy. So instead of a blind sighted approach wherein only the consequences but not the cause of illegal immigration is analyzed, the author provides a balanced approach to the problem. An economic appraisal of the problem is very essential as it is the success of the U.S. economy that attracts immigrants from very many countries. Written in 2006 when the border security bill was still debated in the congress, the article suggests that providing a legal way to enter America would be an important aspect of the solution to the illegal… [read more]


Harm Reduction Model in Substance Abuse Treatment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Harm Reduction Model for Substance Abuse -- Pros and Cons

The Harm Reduction Model (HRM) is one of the more liberal approaches to substance abuse intervention and treatment. Instead of requiring complete cessation of substance abuse and absolute sobriety, the HRM allows the drug user to continue using drugs but in a safer and less socially detrimental manner. Cessation of drug use is frequently incorporated as a goal within HRM treatment, but the principal difference between the HRM and traditional substance abuse treatment is that complete cessation is merely an ancillary objective in the former instead of the primary focus as in the latter. The same concept has also been applied much more generally to many other forms of behavior, such as smoking, alcoholism, prostitution, and precocious or unsafe sexual behavior. On balance, the HRM approach in connection with substance abuse seems to have established a record of relative effectiveness; on the other hand, it is still opposed by some, mainly on the fundamental objection to permitting continuation of illicit activity on principle.

In Support of the Harm Reduction Model

Some of the most effective examples of the use of the HRM approach to reducing undesirable behavior (in general) include the dramatic reduction in new HIV / AIDS infection rates in New York City through public service information campaigns about safe sex, counseling centers, and the distribution of free condoms (Brocato & Wagner, 2003; Denning, 2000). More specifically with respect to substance abuse, the crossover information resulting from the close connection between HIV / AIDS prevention programs and heroin addiction programs in New York further illustrated the potential value of the HRM approach in the simultaneous reduction of HIV / AIDS infection through needle sharing as a function of free needle exchange programs (Denning, 2000).

Various formal peer reviewed clinical studies conducted both by public and private sector researchers have documented very similar benefits in several European nations achieved through the HRM strategy instead of strict enforcement under the penal laws of those countries (Brocato & Wagner, 2003; Ghetti, 2004; Tuukka, 2004). Specifically, Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland have all experienced success through the implementation of HRM drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation programs. Some of those programs rely on the traditional substitution of methadone to treat heroin addiction, but others have demonstrated better success with certain patients through supplying maintenance doses of heroin (Brocato & Wagner, 2003; Ghetti, 2004; Tuukka, 2004).

In theory, the main concept of HRM does not reject the position that absolute cessation of illicit drug use (and of other harmful behaviors) is always desirable (Brocato & Wagner, 2003; Ghetti, 2004; Tuukka, 2004). However, the HRM concept recognizes that (1) cessation may not necessarily always be achievable and (2) many of the worst consequences of substance abuse (and of other harmful behaviors) is only indirectly related to the substance abuse problem rather than directly attributable to…… [read more]


Impact of Immigration and Crime in the U.S Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Immigration and crime in the United States seem to be shrouded in a fog of confusion, especially with regard to illegal immigration (largely from Mexico). Interestingly, if someone were in Mexico illegally, they would be considered a felon. While United States laws are cumbersome and unclear, Mexico's are crystal clear and enforced evenly and with no guilty consciences. In an era when legal scholars suggest that the United States should look to foreign legal precedents and laws in considering the structure of our legal system, no one is suggesting that we copy Mexico's immigration laws. For this reason, this author attacks the problem primarily from a law enforcement perspective. This clears up many of the misconceptions and shows the problems in an international, cross-border context. This also gives access to the best hard data on illegal immigration and crime in the United States.

It is precisely liberal immigration laws such as are in the United States that gives the ability for drug gangs to operate on both sides of the United States-Mexican border. This is the bottom line reason why illegal immigration represents a huge threat to American sovereignty. It is reflected in gangs that operate internationally and for whom illegal immigration is part of their business. Without such illegal immigrants, they would not have scouts and intelligence to work on the American. side of the border.

Essay Mapping

In this essay, the author will document how drug gangs that employ illegal aliens scout the U.S. southern border to commit their illegal acts. Secondly, they will document their relationship to illegal immigrant gangs who are their street soldiers in U.S. urban centers. Thirdly, it will be shown their extensive ties with Al-Qaeda and international terrorism.

Claim One:

International gangs that employ illegal aliens to scout out both sides of the borders for drug operations are becoming the rule in the Arizona border area. Before employing statistics from sources such as the FBI on this problem, the first thing a reader needs to know is an example in order to frame this problem exactly.

Two off-duty police officers near Nogales, Arizona made a large marijuana arrest. They received a threat after the arrest that a Mexican drug cartel will put them in its crosshairs if they conduct such arrests again. The threats come from the Sinaloa Cartel headed by Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman-Loera (Rhett-Miller). Mexican drug cartels such as the Sinoloa Mexican have operate on American soil by maintaining lookout and reconnaissance bases in strategic areas in the hills of southern Arizona. From these hills their scouts monitor movements made by law enforcement officials (Houseley). Such gangs not only include the Sinoloa, but also the Gulf cartel are active in the drug trade to the United States The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration reports that Mexican drug syndicates that currently operate along America's Southwest border are much more sophisticated and dangerous than organized criminal groups in previously in law enforcement history. These drug cartels, and the smuggling networks and gangs they employ… [read more]


Health in the Media Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Health in the Media

What is the health issue presented?

Anti-meth Promotion (The 8 Most Terrifying Anti-Meth Ads)

Through what media outlet is the health issue(s) presented?

The Montana Meth project has been criticized, copied, and is now part of the subculture on YouTube for advertisers and recovery groups alike. While specifically located in the State of Montana, and funded by a wealthy rancher, the controversial ads have become so popular that they have been emulated in other areas. According to the research, these sets of ads show the following:

As of September 2005, Montana was #5 nationally in Meth abuse; 50% of inmates in Montana were incarcerated for Meth and 50% of foster Placements also the result of Meth.

Campaign -- 71,000 TV Ads, 64,000 radio ads, 140,000 print impressions, 2,100 billboards.

Impact -- Remeasures after the campaign ran: Montana now 39th globally in Meth abuse; Teen meth use declined 63%, adult meth by 72% and meth related crime decreased by 62% (Montana Meth Project Summary Results).

For what population is the information or message intended?

Some ads designed for teens and younger people, like the one presented above; others for adults. All based on shocking issues, but focused on high risk groups.

What is the main idea of the health issue presented?

Meth abuse leads to anti-social, criminal, and mind-numbing behavior; unbelievable when viewed "straight." Meth abuse is endemic, and people who push meth or supply meth are not friends. Any responsibility one has goes awry…… [read more]


AA Meeting Observation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

AA Meeting Observation

Alcoholism is one of those tragic diseases that seldom affects only the person who suffers from it. It is often a problem that affects and destroys families, friendships, and professional relationships. Indeed, the alcoholic is often forced to hit "rock bottom" before realizing the destructive road he or she is on and seeking help for the problem.

Alcoholics Anonymous is a well-known association that provides peer and professional support for addiction problems. The meetings encourage adherence to a 12-step program, as well as a "higher power" in order to help the individual not only overcome their problems, but also face them in the process.

This is a description of an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting that I attended, and the learning experience it was to me. The most important lesson was that parental alcohol use, even if not perceived as alcoholism, can serve as a driver for future alcoholism in the children of such a family. Furthermore, I have learned how careful parents should be in allowing their children the opportunity to become familiar with alcohol use, even if this is only done moderately. If children begin to drink at a young age, the likelihood of future alcoholism increases.

On the other hand, I have also learned that recovered alcoholics can draw encouragement from potential harm that they cause not only to themselves, but also to others in their lives. This is what the 12-step program is designed to achieve: an acknowledgement that no individual functions only by him- or herself, but that all individual actions affect other people as well.

Alcoholics Anonymous was started as an organization to help provide support for people addicted to alcohol, and who wanted to stop their self-destructive practices. The association is based…… [read more]


Increasing Law Enforcement to Secure the US Border Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Law Enforcement to Secure the U.S. Border

Illegal immigrants in the United States have always been an issue of great division and controversy in the United States. On the one hand, the country's image as safe harbor for those who would work hard to achieve their dream, this on the other hand is clouded by the fact that… [read more]


Smoking Cessation Methods Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  6 pages (2,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25

SAMPLE TEXT:

Smoking Cessation Programs

Smoking Cessation

Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Programs

Smoking is a national health epidemic that claims the lives of many individuals annually. This is particularly alarming due to the preventable nature of smoking related illnesses. Smoking is associated with many pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular issues, as well as cancers. Individuals who smoke throughout their life decrease their life expectancy… [read more]


Advantages of Medical Marijuana Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Nursing

Advantages of Medical Marijuana

Marijuana has been a chief ingredient in natural remedies for thousands of years. Marijuana products were used in China and India as early as 3000 B.C. To treat a variety of ills, from easing the pain of childbirth to relieving asthma and epilepsy, even improving appetite and disposition. Over the years Marijuana has been used to treat a number of different diseases. In the United States, as many as 30 marijuana-based medicines were distributed as recently as 1937, when the Marijuana Tax Act closed the door on further medical use of the drug. But the door didn't stay shut. As the use of Marijuana has expanded, researchers have begun to reconsider the possible therapeutic uses of this drug. A lot of the interest has been ignited by smokers themselves, who have reported that the drug helps to relieve a variety of problems (Parker, 2007).

In the beginning, interest focused on common ills such as headaches and menstrual cramps. Recently however, pot has been looked at in regards to more serious conditions, including glaucoma, the wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and such movement disorders as multiple sclerosis and Tourette's syndrome. it's the treatment of these issues that it has been thought to have the greatest therapeutic potential. Its potential was deemed great enough and public support strong enough that, by 1997, then-national drug czar Barry McCaffrey commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a comprehensive two-year study of pot's value as a therapeutic drug (Parker, 2007).

The Academy's report, Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base, probably disappointed both sides in the debate, by concluding that marijuana and its active ingredients known as cannabinoids show promise against a range of conditions, but not always to the extent that some advocates had hoped. According to this report, marijuana is most useful in treating pain and in relieving the nausea and vomiting that occurs with many cancer therapies (Parker, 2007).

Until it was banned in 1937, extract of Cannabis sativa was one of the top three most prescribed medications in the United States. When it became illegal, its use as a medicine became limited. Despite these rules research on the medical use of marijuana has continued to be done. Recently, there have been some states that have decided to legalize smoked marijuana for certain patients. Because of this medical marijuana has become the subject of much controversial debate (Cannabis in the Clinic?: The Medical Marijuana Debate, 2010).

The active compounds that are found in marijuana are just like to a class of molecules in our bodies known as endocannabinoids. Both bind to receptors in the brain and throughout the body called cannabinoid receptors. This process helps to manage the immune system, protects nerve cells from early death, and influences mood, memory, appetite, sleep and movement. Research has suggested that there are several conditions for which medical marijuana may be the most effective treatment. These include:

Cancer -- it relieves nausea during…… [read more]


Future of Medicinal Cannabis Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Medical Cannabis Research Study

In 1999 the University of California was commissioned to begin a scientific research program, the Center for Medical Cannabis Research (CMCR), to "expand the public scientific knowledge on purported usages of marijuana (Grant, Atkinson, Mattison, and Coates, 2010)." The program, conducted by Igor Grant, M.D., J. Hampton Atkinson, M.D., Andrew Mattison, PhD., and Thomas J. Coates, PhD., all of the University of California, San Diego, was concluded and the findings published February 11, 2010, by the University of California, San Diego, Health Sciences. The question that served as the focus of the study was: "Does marijuana have therapeutic value? (p. 2)" To answer this question, the program approved a total of fifteen studies, including seven clinical trials, and at the time of publication of the program's report, on February, 2010, five clinical trials had been completed, and two continued in progress (p. 2). Five clinical studies were discontinued because there was an insufficient patient population for participation in the cancelled studies (p. 15).

The program and studies conducted under the program had the benefit of being fully funded, and were conducted under the direct supervision qualified medical professionals. In this regard, the studies conducted should be reliable, with the highest levels of clinical methodology having been employed. These are certainly important elements of medical studies.

The data yield underwent CMCR review. Scientists from around the nation were engaged to participate in the review process. Those scientists became members of the Scientific Review Board (SRB), after having been first reviewed for eligibility by the Research Advisory Panel of California (RAP-C), the Office of Public Health and Science of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This comports with the highest level of professionalism, review, and oversight. It lends credibility to the mission and research objectives by way of a highly developed infrastructure within which to engage scientists and under whose purview the studies were conducted. The 2010 reports succinctly summarizes the quality of professionalism and the high degree of clinical trial standards maintained saying:

"In establishing the University of California CMCR, the California Legislature enabled the creation of what is now arguably a world-class resource for both state-of-the-art clinical trials on medicinal cannabis and its derivatives, and for developing knowledge on the potential and limitations cannabinoid therapeutics for selected indications (p. 16)."

The program clinical studies that were subsequently published or submitted for publication covered: Cannabis for Treatment of HIV-Related Peripheral Neuropathy; Vaporization as a Smokeless Cannabis Delivery System; Short-Term Effects of Cannabis Therapy on Spasticity in MS; Placebo-Controlled Double Blind Trial of Medicinal Cannabis in Painful HIV Neuropathy; Analgesic Efficacy of Smoked Cannabis; and Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of Smoked Cannabis on Neuropathic Pain (p. 2). There were separate and distinct populations selected for the study.…… [read more]


How Law Effects the Bar Business in North Carolina Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,765 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Dream and the Nightmare

Bar Ownership in North Carolina

Bar ownership is a dream many people hold near and dear to their hearts. Some scrimp and save to buy one in retirement; others endure years of menial labor to buy out the boss. The fantasy is always the same and is lived out on television in shows like… [read more]


Effects of Narcotics Anonymous Meetings Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Narcotics Anonymous

The primary purpose of the Narcotics Anonymous program is very similar to the first similar program, Alcoholics Anonymous. In principle, the concept is based on the recognition that social embarrassment and shame are significant barriers to seeking treatment for substance addiction. Therefore, the central feature of all such programs is the guarantee of anonymity. This allows substance abusers, addicts, and alcoholics to obtain counseling services in a supportive environment without worrying about social embarrassment or the stigma that is generally associated with publicly disclosing problems of this nature.

The design of the Narcotics Anonymous program is a series of voluntarily attended group meetings with other individuals facing similar substance abuse issues, addiction, and the problems that are typically associated with abuse and addiction. The group meetings are usually led by someone who has already achieved long-term sobriety after previous completion of the Narcotics Anonymous program. Group members introduce themselves to others by their first names or, if they so choose, by an alias to completely preserve their anonymity.

The system is based on the fundamental beliefs that the key to sobriety is fulfilment of the Twelve-Step principles of recovery from substance addictions and other compulsive behaviors. Another important element of the Narcotics Anonymous concept is the assignment of "sponsors" who are ordinarily more experienced group members who are available at any time to their assigned members. The purpose of this element is to provide a support system at times of crisis such as situations where members fear they cannot resist the urge to relapse into substance abuse. Members are supposed to call their designated sponsor at any time of…… [read more]


Brand Loyalties in Alcoholic Beverage Markets Thesis

Thesis  |  35 pages (8,770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Brand Loyalties in Alcoholic Beverage Markets

Brand Loyalty Analysis

The perception of alcoholic beverages depends, to a great degree, on the personal experiences with alcohol consumption. Had the observer witnessed a family tragedy created around alcohol consumption, then his perception would be a strongly negative one. If on the other hand, the individual consumer has not had a negative experience… [read more]


Nursing and the Law Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Nursing and the Law

Over the last several years, the issue of medical marijuana has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a variety of experts have lined up on both sides of this issue touting the benefits and drawbacks. An example of the differences in opinions can be seen by looking no further; than with in the… [read more]


Cost of Underage Drinking Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (541 words)
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¶ … Underage Drinking

The number and extremity of the crimes that underage drinking increases the incidence of is truly staggering. The association of alcohol abuse and a rise in violent crimes such as domestic abuse has been a long-established relationship, with anecdotal and observational evidence for this trend stretching back almost to the beginnings of recorded history. The specific problems of youth crime and violence as they relate to underage drinking, however, are not things I had been aware of previously, and the cost even in terms of simple dollars that this underage drinking causes for the states is mind boggling. The article's inclusion of both absolute dollar costs and per-capita figures also puts the problem of underage drinking in a much clearer perspective than either one of these figures alone would have, presenting a more accurate appraisal of what needs to be accomplished.

Specifically, there is a high degree of relevance to social workers in community practice in these findings, with suggestions of ways to tackle larger social issues through education and outreach programs targeted at stopping youth drinking. Providing structured after-school programs that provide supervision and mentoring, for instance, could greatly reduce incidents of underage drinking and thus bring down rates of violence, high risk sexual behaviors, poisonings, etc. Such preventative programs have many additional benefits that would actually focus on the advancement and development of the affected youth, with the prevention of underage drinking and related problems occurring as a byproduct of inclusion. In addition to reducing the real cost to the states of dealing with the outcomes of underage drinking, investment in such programs would…… [read more]


Effects of Marijuana Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Marijuana

Why the topic is important: Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug in the United States, with at least 4% of the total population smoking pot at least once per year ("Marijuana Use and Its Effects").

As with all drugs, marijuana causes a wide range of physical, neurological, and psychological effects; not all these effects are positive.

The… [read more]


Crack Capturing the Audience's Attention Smoking Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (673 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Crack

Capturing the audience's attention

Smoking crack "offers the most wonderful state of consciousness, and the most intense sense of being alive, the user will ever enjoy," ("In Search of the Big Bang" nd). Unfortunately, what goes up must come down. The crash experienced from crack takes a major toll on the human body and psyche, creating a vicious addictive cycle.

Crack is a highly processed form of cocaine hydrochloride that has been around since the 1980s. Unlike powdered cocaine, crack is cheap and is usually smoked. Crack wreaks havoc on individuals and whole communities.

Addiction to crack is both a cause and an effect of underlying social, political, and economic issues.

Key point

Crack is more affordable than powdered cocaine, which is why crack addiction has affected low-income neighborhoods and individuals.

A. Supporting details (Give citation)

Because crack was "cheap and affordable," abuse spread rapidly throughout the United States since the 1980s (American Council for Drug Education 2001).

B. Supporting details (Give citation)

The "gross and the profit margins were bigger" for crack than for most other illicit drugs, which is why gangs pushed crack hard on the streets of impoverished communities (Cowen 2005)

C. There is more of a stigma surrounding crack addiction than other addictions, which prevents poor addicts from leading normal lives ("Crack Addicts Face Added Stigma in Housing" 2007).

III. Key point

Crack is associated with high levels of crime, especially in politically disenfranchised communities in which crack flourishes.

A. Supporting details (Give citation)

"Murder rates rise dramatically when crack comes," especially into black communities (Cowen 2005).

B. Supporting details (Give citation)

Crack use "elevates city violent crime rates beyond levels expected on the basis of known sociodemographic determinants," (Baumer 1994).

C. Supporting details

Crack creates psychological precursors to violent and criminal behavior including paranoia and aggression (American Council for Drug Education 2001).

IV. Key point

Crack tears apart individuals as well as communities; the drug can lead to permanent deleterious effects on the body and mind and even affect future…… [read more]


Union Between Mexico and U.S Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (999 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The United States and Mexico have been developing a more productive partnership that will improve both countries. At this point it only makes sense to strengthen that link. A political union between the United States and Mexico would lead to numerous benefits including improving the environment, increasing trade power, improving wages, and lowering rates of crime. The debate over illegal immigration would end in the United States, and less money would be spent on the prosecution of immigrants. Families would no longer be torn apart, too. The drug cartels would also suffer, because a union between the United States and Mexico would make it easier for law enforcement officials to crack down on organized crime. Therefore, a political union between Mexico and the United States would be beneficial for both countries because of environmental, economic, and social reasons.

Because Mexico is a poor country, there is little funding to improve the environment. Most Mexicans do not have access to safe drinking water, let alone clean air. Hazardous waste is often disposed of improperly, raw sewage is being dumped into rivers and other waterways, and deforestation occurs rapidly ("Mexico Environment"). Diseases are linked to Mexico's environmental problems, which are also affecting the United States especially around the border areas (States News Service). According to the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (EPA), there is an initiative in place to address some of the environmental concerns plaguing both countries. The program is called Border 2012 and it is "a collaboration between the United States and Mexico to improve the environment and protect the health of the nearly 12 million people living along the border," (States News Service). If such programs are already in place, then unification of the United States and Mexico is the next step. A union would strengthen programs like Border 2012. The EPA and other agencies would run more efficiently if their human resources were pooled. Agents from both sides of the border now have to go through their respective channels to communicate about issues related to the environment, whereas one nation would mean ease of communication. Also, an increasing number of employees from both sides of the border would be bilingual if there was a union between the United States and Mexico. If one government presided and made decisions about the environment, then policies would be clearer and easier to enforce.

A union between the United States and Mexico would increase the trade power that has already been enhanced by NAFTA. Currently, only goods can flow between countries. The NAFTA agreement only seems to help big businesses that thrive from the supply chains. Under a new government that united both Mexico and the United States, trade would be simplified greatly to benefit small businesses too. More importantly, goods would not be the only thing that could be traded between the two countries. Labor -- human resources -- could also move freely between Mexico and the United States. This…… [read more]


Bartenders and Their Responsibility Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,818 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

Therefore, bartenders should not be held responsible for patrons' actions after they leave the bar, they should take responsibility for their own actions.

Opponents say that bartenders have to be held accountable, because they are the people that have the contact and the experience to recognize an intoxicated patron, and act accordingly. Many states have laws that state that it is illegal for bartenders and servers to serve anyone who seems intoxicated or drunk. Another writer notes, "Bartenders are expected to ensure that the state and local laws concerning the serving of alcoholic beverages are strictly observed" (Caprione 42). Some studies also indicate that server training for responsible service can help reduce drunk driving in some areas. Another author notes, "These studies indicate that server training may reduce the level of intoxication among customers at licensed establishments and possibly decrease alcohol-related injuries" (Buka, and Birdthistle 27). However, not all these studies have been conclusive.

In conclusion, bartenders have a job to do, and so do the police. People should not confuse the two. Bartenders are responsible to their employers and to themselves, and patrons should be responsible for themselves and their actions, as well.

References

Buka, Stephen L., and Isolde J. Birdthistle. "Long-Term Effects of a Community-Wide Alcohol Server Training Intervention." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 60.1 (1999): 27.

Caprione, Carol Ann. Opportunities in Food Service Careers. Revised ed. Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons, 2000.

Editors. "County Attorney Unfair to Bar Owners." Seacoastonline.com. 2009. 30 Oct. 2009.

.

Lindquist, Julie. A Place to Stand: Politics and Persuasion in a Working-Class Bar. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Selley, Chris. "Whose Fault is it That You Got Drunk?" NationalPost.com. 2009. 30 Oct. 2009.

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Staff. "UCF Helped Organize Undercover Stings. KnightNews. 2009. 30 Oct. 2009.

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Zabjek, Alexandra. Alberta Bartender Cleared of Criminal Charges in Drinking Death." Edmonton Journal. 2009. 30 Oct. 2009.… [read more]


Cigarette Smoking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (793 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Cigarette Smoking

Smoking is and has always been a fashionable and very destructive activity in the same time. Thousands of people die every day as a result of having smoked directly or passively, and, in spite of that, people continue to be attracted to the performance. Smoking is one of the simplest ways of affecting the body and, eventually, of committing suicide. This activity has been presumably carried out by people for several millennia, at first by shamans or priests, and, in the recent centuries, by people everywhere. People take up smoking as a pleasurable activity and gradually get caught up by the addicting effects that nicotine has, to the point that they cannot escape the habit.

It is a mystery how individuals continue to smoke consequent to the first time that they inhale the mix of toxic substances. It is definitely not an enjoyable performance, with the feeling that it gives being more than irritating.

People in the west become aware of the dangers of smoking in the recent decades, and, as a result, consume of tobacco has decreased notably there. However, smoking continues to be an important threat, as it is related to the appearance of cardiovascular diseases, impotence, and numerous lung affections.

Smoking has become widely used worldwide ever since it has first appeared in Europe. Even with its clear harmful nature, people continue to smoke tobacco, regardless of the effects that it has on their bodies.

In the present day people generally start to smoke from an early age, because of various reasons. Firstly, they do so because they see it in adults, and, thus, they consider it to be something that is risk-free. Young people are also influenced by their entourage to start smoking, as consequent to seeing a popular friend smoke leads them wanting to also smoke, in hope that it would bring them popularity. The human race has always been attracted to performing new activities and to experimenting. Certain activities have proved to be beneficial subsequent to people having tried them. However, the smoking of tobacco is definitely not one of the respective activities.

When parents warn their children that smoking is dangerous and that they are not allowed to do it, they indirectly set off something that has children being attracted to the action. When relating to smoking, a great number of people can remember the times when…… [read more]


Treatment for Alcoholism: Older and Wiser Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (869 words)
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Alcoholism Reading Critique

Alcoholism has been a present and persistent problem since the time alcoholic beverages were first fermented, meaning that it has been an issue of one degree or another since human civilization first began, and possibly even earlier. The past twenty years however, as the authors of this article note, have led to dramatic changes in the medical and social understandings of the disorder. According to the findings listed in this study in fact, the concept of alcoholism has not simply undergone a refinement of understanding, but truly a re-conception and re-definition. Viewing alcoholism not as a discrete disease but rather as a continuum of disorders has had a huge effect on the way it is viewed by both medical and social establishments, and the way that the condition(s) is/are treated in practical and individual settings. Some of the conclusions drawn by the authors of this piece actually seem to run counter to the general wisdom regarding alcoholism that has become a part of the public's -- or at least some of the public's -- consciousness.

This does not invalidate the claims of the authors. Of course, nor of the voluminous number of sources that they cite in drawing their conclusions, but it does require the careful reader to regard both these conclusion and the heretofore accepted knowledge regarding alcoholism with a greater deal of skepticism. One wonders, for instance, at the conclusion that most alcoholics can control their drinking without fully abstaining; would the same conclusion be drawn with a cocaine addict, or a cigarette smoker? These substances, of course, have different chemical effects and levels of social acceptance and availability, but in the past addiction was studied as a single phenomenon, not dependent on the particular substance.

It is difficult, however, to argue with the methodology employed by the authors here. There is no direct experimentation, which would necessarily have been limited in size and scope and therefore would have yielded results that would have been more suspect when extrapolated to the wider population. Instead, the authors relied on an extensive review of contemporary and historic (as far back as 1849) sources, many of them published results of experimental studies, to show that despite the perceived rate of relapse in patients treated for alcoholism, treatment is actually highly effective at reducing mortality and preventing continued degradation of general circumstances and quality of life. Their careful analysis of the various treatment methods offered is also a reliable method of determining best practices for providing treatment and long-term care for alcoholic patients.

The logic presented in this article stems directly form the…… [read more]


Smoking Social Marketing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (3,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25

SAMPLE TEXT:

Social Marketing: Anti-Smoking

Smoking - Social Marketing

Social marketing: 'Unfriending' smoking through a Facebook campaign

Conduct a situational analysis 'If your friend jumped off of a bridge, would you do it?' Perhaps the sobering answer to that question is not simply 'yes,' but that 'if my friend, or my friend's friend did so, I just might take the leap.' In… [read more]


Someone Who Become Addicted With Caffeine Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Caffeine Addiction Someone Who Become Addicted With Caffeine Addiction

Caffeine is the most commonly used mood-altering drug in the world and is commonly defined as a "…moderately strong stimulant which is found in coffee, tea, chocolate, some soft drinks, and some medications" (Addicted to caffeine). It affects the nervous system and causes an increase of insulin and adrenalin in the… [read more]


Working Conditions Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,016 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Working Conditions

Smoking bans in New York City Restaurants: Saving the lives of those who serve the public 'their daily bread'

Smoking is legal because it is presumed to be a behavioral choice; albeit one that has major consequences for society in terms of healthcare costs. Yet workers in the restaurant and hospitality industry have no choice but to breathe in carcinogenic fumes for hours and hours simply to do their jobs. The words 'second-hand smoke' may sound benign, but "the smoke that burns off the end of a cigarette or cigar actually contains more harmful substances than the smoke inhaled by the smoker. This means that people who don't smoke but are regularly around those who smoke are exposed to the health risks of cigarette smoking" (the dangers of second-hand smoke, 2009, the Cleveland Clinic). In fact, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies secondhand smoke as a Group a carcinogen, putting it in the same category as radon and asbestos (Filler 2006, p.1).

Just as workers were exposed to asbestos many years ago, restaurant workers in establishments that allow smoking are exposed to health risks, up to 200 times the EPA-approved acceptable risk for lung cancer and 2,000 times the acceptable risk for heart disease, all through passive smoke exposure. There is no safe level of exposure for Group a toxins like secondhand smoke yet levels of this carcinogen are 1.6 to 2.0 times higher in restaurants and 3.9 to 6.1 times higher in bars than other businesses. Workers exposed to secondhand smoke in the workplace are 34% more likely to develop lung cancer than workers who are not subject to such exposure (Filler 2006, p.1). "A case study was conducted in a restaurant on employees before and after a smoking ban was passed. Researcher found that lung function increased among employees after the implementation of the ban, especially among non-smokers and asthmatics" (Filler 2006, p.2).

This is why calls to ban smoking in restaurants and bars have become so vociferous. In 2003, "moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure" that banned smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels (Frumkin 2003). Some opponents within the restaurant industry complained this would result in a loss of business, particularly restaurants and bars that cater European tourists in New York City, as most Europeans are still are accustomed to smoking while they eat or drink. Industry representatives argued that workers make the choice to work within an establishment that is filled with smoke. But the same argument could be made about workers who 'choose' to work with toxic chemicals or under hazardous conditions. There are regulations designed to minimize the exposure of healthcare workers to radiation, and landscapers to chemicals in pesticides -- why should waiters and bartenders be exempt from such legislative care and concern? For a career waiter or waitress, especially a recent immigrant with few English skills working as a busboy with few job opportunities, the idea of 'choosing' to work… [read more]


Argumentative Persuasion Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (602 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Drinking Age

The minimum drinking age in America should remain at the age of 21 for reasons that cannot be disputed. It is extremely difficult to argue with facts, especially when that argument is based in the general illogical consensus of "because I want to" or "if I'm old enough to go to war, I'm old enough to drink." The desire of someone under the age of 21 to have a drink is not enough to warrant that drink. If everyone experienced what they desired, the world would be a larger mess than it already is. Lowering the drinking age would only benefit those under 21 and those selling to them.

In an argument such as this, logic reigns because it is extremely difficult to dispute fact. The National Institute of Health released a fact sheet that states, "traffic related deaths per population have been cut in half with the greatest proportional declines among persons 16-20 years old" (NIH). At the time the fact sheet was released, it reported alcohol is involved in 40% of traffic fatalities and the percent of traffic fatalities between the ages of 16 and 20 is 36. The report also claims that the number of alcohol-related deaths among 16 to 20-year-olds decreased from "5,244 in 1982 to 2,115 in 2004 in large measure because the legal drinking age of 21 and Zero Tolerance' (NIH). In addition, the fact sheet reports that those who begin drinking before age 1 are "four times more likely to develop dependence during their lifetime than those who began drinking at age 21 or later" (NIH). These acts are more than enough to understand why the argument for keeping the minimum drinking age at 21 is not simply an argument but common sense. It is not simply a matter of…… [read more]


Criminal Profiling Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (443 words)
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Criminal Profiling

Is criminal profiling an acceptable practice within psychology?

According to Thomas Hildebrandt, James W. Langenbucher, Sasha J. Carr, and Pilar Sanjuan's 2007 article from Journal of Abnormal Psychology entitled "Modeling population heterogeneity in appearance -- and performance-enhancing drug users (APED)" the practice of profiling substance abusers is an acceptable and useful practice within the field of psychology. Researchers often generate profiles of various illicit drug abusers' behaviors and characteristics, although the authors try to make sure that such profiles are complex and fully realized as possible within the limitations of their studies

Researchers have long attempted to see if there are unique typologies within various substance-abusing populations. They have tried to identify genetic tendencies that predispose an individual towards abusing drugs and to see if there are differences in the profiles of casual vs. habitual users. One of the most controversial issues within sports today is that of anabolic steroid use. When examining whether there are unique profiles of different types of APED abusers, Hildebrandt (2007) used data from an Internet questionnaire submitted to voluntary respondents who were solicited from online message boards. This was to ensure respondent's confidentiality and honesty while still obtaining vital demographic information. Hildebrandt and his colleagues found four general patterns of APED abuse based upon different training goals and identities. The heaviest users of…… [read more]


Security Assessment Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,108 words)
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Security assessment is done to provide a picture of a business's security readiness. Only after conducting one can it clearly be seen where the gaps are and what needs to be done to close them. It needs to be determined what security threats are lurking, the areas where one is most vulnerable, and the best ways to mitigate the business risk (Conducting a Security Assessment, 2009). An effective security plan should address the multiple avenues of risk, as threats can emerge from almost anywhere. The first step is to simply acknowledge that there is risk present. Then to take a realistic look at the vulnerabilities and prioritizes efforts to address them (To Secure Your Business, Consider the Access Points, n.d.).

Recently a security assessment was performed at a local methadone treatment center. The goal of a methadone maintenance treatment center is to reduce illegal heroin use and the crime, death, and disease associated with heroin addiction. Methadone is often used to detoxify heroin addicts. The goal of a treatment center is to reduce and even eliminate heroin use among addicts by stabilizing them on methadone for as long as is necessary to help them avoid returning to previous patterns of drug use. The benefits have been established by hundreds of scientific studies, and there are almost no negative health consequences of long-term methadone treatment, even when it continues for twenty or thirty years (Methadone Maintenance Treatment, 2009). Because of the nature of the business that they are in it is very important to make sure that security is as tight as it can be.

During the security assessment, the following hazards and deficiencies were identified: the key control system within the facility is lacking definition and control, the signage at the facility needs to be updated, and the information security processes need to be revisited. Due to the nature of there being controlled substances on the premises it is very important that all of these security issues be evaluated and updated.

This is a relatively new business and some standard operating procedures have yet to be defined and recorded. One of these procedures has to do with the key to the facility. Everyone in the facility has a key. There are six full time employees in the facility. Since the opening of the business there have been a couple of positions that have experienced turn over. No one in the facility is quit sure what happened to those people's keys when they left. Due to the fact that these keys are now missing, it is recommended that new locks be installed and all new keys be issued to the current employees. A key sign-out/assignment system needs to developed and put into place. This would consist of a master key list with each person assigned a specific key and kept by the site manager. New locks for the entire facility along with new keys would run approximately $500.

The next problem that needs to be addresses is that of the signage… [read more]