"Drugs / Alcohol / Tobacco" Essays

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Effects of Tennessee Smoking Ban Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Tennessee Smoking Ban

The negative effects of smoking upon the individual's health are undisputed, but they seem insufficient to convince the population to renounce this habit. As such, more and more state governments implement a wide variety of laws to prohibit smoking in several public places. Such a state is Tennessee and they banned smoking in places such as restaurants, bars, hotels, and even the workplace. The law does not ban individuals from smoking in their own time, but prohibits this during work hours. "Employee may not be fired for use of a lawful product during nonwork hours as long as employee observes workplace policy when at work."

After years of discussions, the Tennessee authorities, including organizations such as the Memphis and Shelby County Health Department, have agreed to implement the final form of the smoking ban, effective starting with the first day of October 2007. This raised numerous supporters as well as disclaimers, but also generated a wide series of effects.

The first of these effects have health implications on both active as well as passive smokers. The ban reduced the smoking rate encouraging as such numerous smokers to quit the habit. When they found out they were no longer allowed to smoke in bars, restaurants and at the work place, many of them found it too much of a trouble to go to special places where they could smoke. For others, the ban was a signal which made them realize the serious negative effects of smoking. To others, it was just the push they needed in order to quit. However, not sufficient people have quitted. And even if they didn't quit, they at least reduced the number of smoked cigarettes per day, which is also an improvement.

Then, aside from the health improvements on the former smokers, the effects were also felt by the non-smokers, who are no longer forced to breath in the noxious smoke. This refers to all individuals walking on the street near a lit cigarette, employees who were basically forced to stand the smoke, but most importantly, the employees and patrons of bars and restaurants, who breathe the unhealthy smoke every day. But this has also meant less customers, unsatisfied with the regulations, who instead of going out, preferred to stay within their homes, where they could smoke as much as they wanted. In other words, whereas the ban had a positive effect on heath, it had a negative effect on business. But this conclusion would be more relevant in a context where the law is clear and respected by all. And this is not currently the case, as the law is filled with inconsistencies which only encourage the search for loopholes in the system. For instance, the smoking ban is lifted from "age-restricted venues, most commonly known as bars; private homes, private residences and private motor vehicles unless used for child care or day care; open-air patios, porches, decks or any area enclosed by a garage-type door when all of those… [read more]


Quit Smoking Over the Next Eight Weeks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Quit Smoking over the Next Eight Weeks

Smoking is one of America's largest silent killers behind heart problems. The American people, once glamorized through the thick wall of smoke, are now realizing how serious the complications related to smoking actually are. The 2005 National Health Survey (NHIS, 2005), reported staggering numbers of Americans, 29.5 million males and 20.7 million females, were smoking and thus considered themselves as smokers. Having been a smoker for a decade now, I see the need to drop the habit in hopes of preventing serious disease and pain in my future years. I no longer have much of a decision in the act of quitting, it's either I quit, or I give myself a death sentence. With that in mind, I am proposing to change my dangerous habit, and over the course of the next eight weeks completely eliminate smoking from my daily life.

Quitting smoking is much more difficult than most might imagine. Of the thousands of people who try to quit each year, only a few remain successful in their fight against nicotine. Most smokers quit for a period of time, only to regain their habit after a brief separation. In fact, it is the first few months which prove the most critical, "Most patients relapse within the first six to 12 months of a smoking cessation attempt," (Mallin, 2002). Through other people's failures, physicians have also discovered that quitting without any plan of action leads to an even higher percentage rate of ex-smokers succumbing to their old habits. An overwhelming 95% of smokers who quit without implementing any sort of program to assist in their endeavors, actually stay smoke free, (Reynolds, 2002). These drastic figures attest to the importance of formulating…… [read more]


Smoking Negatively Impacts Health, the Economy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (672 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Smoking negatively impacts health, the economy and our very social structure. In our modern life, the differences between smokers and non-smokers could not be more obvious. With a legalized segregation of the two populations becoming the norm throughout the world and, in particular, the United States, what divides smokers and non-smokers is not just the nature of the habit, but the law as well.

Legally, it is the non-smokers who are being protected from the effects of the smoking habit: second hand-smoke, eye and lung irritation, unpleasant smells, the detritus associated with smoking, and the related direct-costs of cancer, emphysema, pneumonia, cataracts, periodontitis and aneurysm, (Associated Press). On the smoker's side, there is still the air (no pun intended) of "cool" and "rebellion" about the act and, most significantly, addiction and, often death. Smoking crosses many lines, but is most prevalent among people with lower levels of completed education. Socially, smokers have been shifted from the norm to the "abnormal" over the course of the past several decades. The result of this shift has been felt in truly significant ways. Starting with the warning labels and continuing with a two-pronged approach of increasing the price of tobacco products while simultaneously decreasing the number of places people can publicly smoke has resulted in year-over-year declines in the prevalence of smoking throughout the Western world. This, then, is a very good thing because the overall effect of tobacco is to damage the health of those who smoke and those around the smoker. Smoking negatively impacts health, the economy and our very social structure.

When we consider the effects of smoking, overall, upon the entire population, what we see is an apparent never-ending list of primary and secondary health, as well as significant economic, social and political effects. The most significant of all the effects of smoking is that it has a direct and immediate negative effect upon the body of the smoker. The chemicals in tobacco, of which there can be hundreds depending upon the "blend," have both…… [read more]


Biopsychosocial Study Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,418 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

Social Work - Biopsychosocial Case Study

SOCIAL WORK: BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL CASE STUDY

The client is a divorced, 37-year-old Hispanic mother of three girls, aged 11, 9, and 4. She has been employed for almost a decade as an X-ray technician. She is a repeated victim of domestic violence on the part of her ex-husband and of numerous instances of date rape… [read more]


Define Emotional and Mental Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (694 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Emotional and Physical Abuse

Define Emotional & Physical Abuse

In simple terms, emotional abuse is the opposite of physical abuse in one way that seems rather obvious. Emotional abuse happens when someone's emotions i.e. self-esteem, or perceptions of self and others are obscured or influenced in a negative way by the words or behavior of another person. Emotional abuse has the ability to have long-term and debilitating effects and may be linked to various disorders i.e. anorexia, and bulimia. People have formed these eating disorders in an attempt to gain a sense of control, since they feel they do not have control over their emotions or even at times their surroundings. Smullens, indicates that emotional abuse is a form of psychological manipulation and acute victimization. The writer goes further to explain that emotional abuse is often covert; and there is often a lack of acceptance of the severity and longevity of the impact of emotional abuse.

Emotional abuse can take many forms but some examples include taunting, withholding money, openly flaunting sexual interest in someone other than one's partner, refusing to discuss matters of importance or making light of someone's feelings every time he or she shows the courage to express them. Emotional abuse can also be found in insults, blame, the silent treatment, and threats of abandonment. (Smullens)

From external appearances, it is impossible to assess with accuracy who may be a charismatic and gregarious father in public but a bullying, belittling force behind closed doors. Similarly, it is impossible to know which mother may appear to want nothing but the best for her child, yet be in fact so terrified of being alone, that her efforts to keep the child safe and satisfied are really intended to prevent that child's healthy individuation. (Smullens) These are just some of the things that go without clarification in the case of emotional abuse. So often, there is no road map to indicate whom, when, and why. This makes it difficult to know when you have an individual suffering from emotional abuse; as well as what the…… [read more]


Illegal Aliens Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,682 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Undocumented Foreign Nationals in the U.S.

The arguments surrounding the issue of undocumented foreign nationals, or illegal aliens, in the United States are intense. The issues reflect a broad spectrum of topics such as medical services and health risks posed by illegal aliens; crime; education; jobs; unemployment; Social Security; disability benefits - and there is really no end… [read more]


Explore the Pros and Cons of Methadone for Heroin Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (671 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Methadone Treatment for Heroin Addiction

The Pros and Cons of Methadone Treatment for Heroin Addiction

Methadone, a synthetic opiate, has been used as an effective and relatively safe treatment for heroin addiction for more than 35 years. It has a number of advantages and disadvantages. This brief paper describes both these pros and cons.

Pros

Methadone effectively reduces craving for heroin by occupying the opioid receptor in the brain. Since craving is the major reason for relapse in most heroin addicts, methadone treatment has a high success rate ("Methadone: Fact Sheet," 2000).

If taken in the prescribed dose, methadone does not have intoxicating or sedating effects; hence it does not interfere with every-day activities such as driving or operating machinery. It is generally considered to be medically safe for long-term use and significantly improves the quality of life of former heroin addicts, enabling them to lead stable and productive lives (Ibid.)

Methadone's effect lasts four to six times longer than that of heroin; hence once-a-day dose is enough for treatment, which is easy to administer and maintain. Moreover, as methadone is usually taken orally, it has a significant positive effect on the spread of HIV / AIDS infection, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases.

Since methadone is much cheaper than heroin and is a legal drug, former addicts on methadone therapy are no longer required to live a life of crime to support their habit. It also enables the former addict to move away from the drug culture of drug dealers, fellow "druggies" and criminals, increasing his/her chances of a normal life. Some studies have suggested that such treatment has a cost benefit ratio of 4:1 for the society, i.e., every dollar spent on methadone treatment, yields $4 in economic benefits. (Ibid.)

Methadone is known to reduce the narcotic effects of heroin and other opiates, i.e., patients being treated with methadone do not feel the euphoric high of a heroin 'hit.' This is a major deterrent against the use of…… [read more]


Cigarette Taxes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,336 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Cigarette Taxes

INTRODUCTION simple review of cigarette taxes in the individual U.S. states reveals that range of taxes charged on a purchase of a pack of cigarettes is between $0.17 per pack up to $3.00 a pack. Accompanying the tax hikes on cigarettes have are much more serious problems as this work will illustrate.

CIGARETTE TAXES and CRIME

The work of Patrick Fleenor entitled: "Cigarette Taxes, Black Markets and Crime: Lessons from New York's 50-Year Losing Battle" states: "As large state government budget gaps have opened in the past year, lawmakers across the country are turning to cigarette taxes for added revenue." (2003) for those who support these taxes, the taxes are portrayed as "innocuous levies that improve public health." (Fleenor, 2003) the fact is that since the first imposition of taxes on cigarettes purchases in the 1920's "black markets and related criminal activity have plagued high-tax jurisdictions. Such activity has proven to be resistant to law enforcement curtailment efforts." (Fleenor, 2003) Cigarette taxes are highest in New York City at $3.00 per pack. The response of consumers to these high taxes on cigarettes is stated to be a "turning to the city's bustling black market and other low-tax sources of cigarettes." (Fleenor, 2003) Fleenor relates: "During the four months following the recent tax hikes, sales of taxed cigarettes in the city fell by more than 50% compared to the same period in the prior year."(2003) This is not surprising in New York City since it has a "long history of cigarette tax evasion." (Fleenor, 2003) it is additionally related by Fleenor (2003) that over several decades "a series of studies by federal, state, and city officials has found that high taxes have created a thriving illegal market for cigarettes in the city. The market has diverted billions of dollars from legitimate businesses and governments to criminals." Accompanying this diversion of tax money is the more heinous crimes, which are stated to have been engaged in by "smalltime crooks and organized crime" who have "engaged in murder, kidnapping, and armed robbery to earn and protect their illicit profits. Such crime has exposed average citizens, such as truck drivers and retail store clerks to violence." (Fleenor, 2003) Fleenor makes the critical observation that: "Too often, policymakers do not consider these effects in the erroneous belief that people do not respond to government -created economic incentives." (2003) the following figure illustrates the New York cigarette tax rates per capita taxed sales relative to the U.S. average between 1955 and 2002.

New York Cigarette Tax Rates and Per Capita Taxed Sales Relative to U.S. Average

Source: Fleenor (2003)

II. The DEMISE of TRUCKING COMPANIES HAULING CIGARETTE CARGO

Fleenor relates the demise of Marion Auto Trucking who had "performed general hauling services for the Lorillard tobacco company in New York City and part of New Jersey" (2003) This company was managed well and had been operating since the decade of the 1920s and "had made substantial investments to modernize its fleet, including equipping trucks… [read more]


Occam's Razor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (643 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Scientific Method

What is Ockham's Razor? Can you think of instances where Ockham's Razor would show up in sociological research?

Ideally, the scientific method of posing a research question, and then embarking upon the process of logical deduction should proceed in an orderly fashion. A scientist creates a hypothesis based upon previous research. Then, through the experimental process, he or she proves or disproves the hypothesis. In creating the hypothesis, Ockham's razor holds that assumptions "should not be multiplied unnecessarily" (Wudka, 1998). A scientific hypothesis may be formed by previous research, but too much confidence in its accuracy before testing it in the real world is likely to produce inaccurate results during the process of experimentation.

For example, in the social sciences, which deal with the complicated, messy lives and thought processes of human beings, it is easy to subconsciously have prejudices about different groups of individuals. Social scientists are human beings and subject to common assumptions about what is 'correct' just like everyone else. Also, it is far more difficult to eliminate extraneous variables when examining the implications of different behavioral groups. For example, social scientists embarking upon a study of obese individual's exercise habits may have the assumption that physical activity is less frequent in this group, based upon their previous assumptions and research, and these assumptions are made even more difficult to overcome by the fact that it is hard to accurately measure how much someone moves in a day.

In such instances of sociological study, it is even more important to allow that the most intuitively obvious theory that verifies common assumptions of what is correct may not always be the right one. For example, when establishing causality, it might be tempting to assume that marijuana use 'causes' an individual to use harder drugs, because these behaviors are often manifested in the same individuals. But it might also be that people who abuse hard drugs think little…… [read more]


Border Security in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,032 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … border security in the United States. Specifically it will discuss whether efforts to restructure U.S. immigration policy should focus primarily on securing the nations borders. Alternatively, should the reformers' priority be facilitating illegal immigrants' ability to obtain a work permit or attain U.S. citizenship? One thing is certain. The nation will never be the same after the terrorist… [read more]


Compare Black Cat & Masque of the Red Death Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,108 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Poe

Through the creative and often garish work of Edgar Allen Poe many people have glimpsed symptoms of reality. Poe demonstrated an incredible sense of wordplay that could in fact have been describing a real scene or a real event, but that was guised in the anonymous. Within the two works, the Masque of Red Death and the Black Cat there is a sense of foreboding that is almost tactile, even in the translation of the modern reader. Though the stories differ in content and character they remain examples of Poe's well crafted ability to make the unbelievable believable as well as fantastic, simultaneously. Within these two works there is are similarities; they both express real life examples of the corruption of wealth and power upon men, one in a position of regional leadership and one in the position of a household, and they both starkly challenge two more extreme social problems seen in Poe's day, alcoholism and disconnection between those who serve and those who are served.

In the Masque of Red Death a story is told of a pampered prince who chose to separate himself from a persistent plague that was ravaging his people by locking himself up in a monastery which he converted into a den of luxury. The prince, called Prospero decorated the rooms of this palace fortress carefully and proceeded to live his life as if nothing were wrong, among his people, including holding a garish and elaborate masquerade ball, with many in attendance. The plague that had so troubled his people was significant in that is spread easily and covered the faces of the newly afflicted with a red mask of death and killed them within a matter of ten minutes. The ball was well attended and near its conclusion an unknown person attended who at first the onlookers believed to be playing a cruel joke on the party, as he was dressed and masked as if he were afflicted with the plague, yet upon further observation the man really was a plague victim and in attempting to unmask him the entire party was killed by the disease.

The mask of death distinctly challenges power and priviledge by stressing the real danger of separating ones self from those who serve you. The descriptive decadence of the temporary fortress of Prospero clearly demonstrates his wealth and power, as well as expressing in stark contrast the gore that must have been visited on the people he was supposed to protect and aide. The story specifically intones that the prince was not alarmed and had little care for the loss of half of his charge to the plague,

Prince Prospero was happy and dauntless and sagacious. When his dominions were half depopulated, he summoned to his presence a thousand hale and light-hearted friends from among the knights and dames of his court, and with these retired to the deep seclusion of one of his castellated abbeys.

The decadence of the masquerade ball that would end… [read more]


Coffee Is One of the Widely Consumed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Coffee is one of the widely consumed beverages in the world. Its rich aroma and ultimate taste experience makes one craves for more. Coffee used to be just our breakfast buddies; nevertheless it is not taboo to see people drinking a cup anytime during the day. For some, their day would not start unless they got hold of a mug of coffee. For others, it has become part of their lifestyle. They drink it while having dessert or used it as refreshment between meals, often accompanied with a selection of foods such as cookies, muffins and pastries.

Coffee promotes social interaction. It is evident from the emergence of coffee houses in the 16th century to modern day Cafes. Coffee does not only give us increased sense of pleasure in our taste buds but makes us more than ready to indulge in social interaction, socializing and enjoying good conversation with friends and colleagues. Hence with the perks of drinking coffee, it is quite intriguing to know its impact in a person's physical and mental condition, as well as how to utilize the love of it in the healthiest way possible.

The subsequent paragraphs will discuss on the health benefits of drinking coffee and making it an essential part of the daily life.

Coffee content caffeine is a powerful psychostimulant. It increases cognitive performance such as understanding and reasoning and improves perception of well-being in individuals deprived of sleep for two days.

Coffee can be very useful during late night stay to study. When studying is tedious and boring, coffee helps give energy, focus and attention. Being caffeine as one of coffee's major components, it helps stimulates the body's central nervous system. It excites brain cells and in turn, improves concentration, reaction time, reduces fatigue and temporarily wards off drowsiness. Also, caffeine can increase the speed of rapid information processing by 10%

Furthermore, studies have shown that the effects of coffee can battle symptoms experienced by night workers such as tendency to be less attentive and be of slower response. Two large cups of coffee containing 200 mg of caffeine can reduce tendency to sleep and increase alertness, concentration and make it possible to perform their work at the energy level same as those working during daytime.

Coffee is also commonly used to take away hangovers and to get moving "the morning after." Likewise, drinking coffee may help protect against alcohol-related cirrhosis of the liver.

Researchers found that people who drank one cup of coffee a day were, on average, 20% less likely to have alcoholic cirrhosis.

In addition, coffee helps decrease risk of Parkinson's disease, a degenerative disorder of central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination. A person with this condition also suffers slow movement, imbalance, facial paralysis and communication problems such as writing and speech. Its symptoms begin to appear when brain cannot produce enough dopamine, a neurotransmitter essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system. Researches observed that coffee and caffeine consumption prevents and…… [read more]


Sexual Dysfunction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sexual dysfunction is a problem that affects millions of Americans; however it is a taboo topic in today's society. General treatment for sexual dysfunction has existed since the early 1980s, and popularized through marketing campaigns for such products as Viagra. However, the exploding growth of underground sexual dysfunction drugs through online sales and other illegal mediums shows how much social stigma is associated with this mental disorder. Shubalade Smith explores this theme within her article "Sexual Dysfunction: the Forgotten Taboo." Smith's article examines how sexual dysfunction as a damaging side effect of many modern medication and the implications of it upon patient recovery and use. She explains that survey analysis shows the one side effect that is most often complained about in association with drug prescription is sexual dysfunction, and yet almost all anti-psychotic drug prescription has unintended affects of related to sexual dysfunction. She argues that this is one of the implicit reasons that males with psychosis or schizophrenia do not consistently take their medication.

Smith's article raises several very important and interesting problems associated with sexual dysfunction on both a medical and social level. She argues that while sexual dysfunction in relation to drug use is one of the most common side effects, few people report such problems. Nurses at the same time list sexual dysfunction as one of the least popular patient inquiries. It appears that on a societal level, the problem of sexual dysfunction is still extremely taboo. This is because it is commonly associated with masculinity, and therefore especially for males it is a problem that they are extremely embarrassed to discuss. Of course, impotence may be a mental disease, but as explained by Smith, in many cases it is the side effects of drug use. Dopamine, one of the most common anti-psychotic agents manipulated through medication, and it also happens to be one of the main controls for testosterone release. Although there is abundant medical information to testify that sexual dysfunction is caused by drug use and could be easily rectified through lower dosages, or other counter measures, few if any men will come forward to admit their problem.

I agree with Smith's conclusion that many patients who actively ignore their prescription doses for drugs do so to avoid sexual dysfunction, and that they are unwilling to query a medical alternative for this problem because it is extremely embarrassing and goes against the grain of social judgment. The majority of men would definitively feel emasculated if they were to reveal their sexual impotence, and it does not…… [read more]


Smashed Oral Report: Koren Zalickas' Smashed: Story Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Smashed

Oral Report: Koren Zalickas' Smashed: Story of a Drunken Girlhood

Everyone in this room knows someone like Koren Zalickas the author of Smashed, or at least someone very much like the author. She's pretty and popular, but she doesn't see herself as pretty. Instead, she thinks people like her because she's the best friend of pretty and popular girls. Everyone likes her, but she thinks it's just because she knows where the best parties are, and where it's easy to get the best booze. And maybe she has a boyfriend, but deep down inside she suspects he just likes her because of the fact that drinking makes her seem fun, not because he really cares.

The subtitle of Koren Zalickas' memoir is Story of a Drunken Girlhood. Like many girls of her generation, Zalickas began drinking long before she was twenty-one. Zalickas spent her sweet sixteen celebration not behind the wheel of a shiny new car but by getting her stomach pumped. She can't remember much of the night, but she calculates that at 5'2 and 105 pounds, it would take about an hour of downing 7-10 drinks to kill someone of her size, and she was easily drinking more than that at the beginning of the evening (95).

By 16, Koren was a pro. Even as a child she says she learned that alcohol "steadies strained social conventions," as a potential BFF named Natalie offered her a first taste of one of the leftovers from her parent's cocktail party (13). Koren wanted to seem cool, so she took a swing. Koren was thirteen, a full year older than the average of thirteen, the age when most girls have the first drink (4).

All of this may make Koren seem like a classic burnout teen alcoholic, a cautionary tale. But she wasn't. What's so striking about all of her stories is how normal her suburban girlhood was from the outside. She might have drunk more than some of her friends, but they all drank with her, and many of their social lives revolved around drinking. Koren was an honors student, and became an undergraduate at the prestigious Syracuse University. Syracuse is a school known for its competitive academics and high rate of underage drinking. Syracuse promises a "total college experience" for students. It has rousing basketball games, snowy hills, and signs all over the dorms that tell students not to binge drink. But when Koren joined a sorority, partying hard after working hard became to seem natural. Koren was the type of girl who would be ahead in her reading, just so she wouldn't feel bad about having a forgotten weekend, as she partied on, desperately looking for a friend and for a guy to find her attractive.

Much of Koren's sexual and romantic life in college, she admits, is hidden in a drunken haze. Why else, she jokes with typical…… [read more]


Medical Model vs. Developmental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Medical Model v. Developmental Model

Biological, Developmental, and Holistic Models of Treatment

The modern biological approach to human behavior originated in the 19th century "with the discovery that brain damage could result in thought and mood disturbances and bizarre behavior" ("The Biological Model," 2004, the Science Museum: Making the Modern World Today). Within the history contemporary medicine, "each physical illness is generally characterized by a particular set of symptoms. A doctor attempting to help a sick patient will typically seek to reach a diagnosis by comparing the patient's particular symptoms to the characteristics of various illnesses" ("The biological model," 2004, the Science Museum: Making the Modern World Today).

But the treatment and diagnosis of ailments remains more difficult to diagnose and to treat.

For example, "substance abuse treatment may be based on one of several traditional approaches: the Medical Model which focuses on the recognition of addiction as a bio/psycho/social disease," thus "the need for life-long abstinence, and the use of an ongoing recovery program to maintain abstinence," versus "the Social Model which stresses "the need for self-help recovery groups to maintain sobriety," although "many programs use a combination of some aspects of the various models in order to facilitate the most appropriate treatment for the individual and to give patients options," in a holistic fashion. ("Chapter 2: Understanding Addiction, Substance Abuse Treatment, and Recovery Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground," 1999,a Report to Congress on Substance Abuse and Child Protection)

The largest single study of substance abuse program treatment outcomes undertaken to date found that in the "the final set of significant program effects" found that "on-site primary medical care improves patients' addiction-related outcomes...The availability of on-site medical care is significantly related to longer time in treatment, which in turn promotes abstinence and reduced drug use." (Henrich & Fournier 2005: 10) "Cross-modality substance abuse treatment practices," that included "treatment retention, counseling intensity, self-help group participation, and the availability and use of medical services," were associated with treatment effectiveness (Henrich & Fourier, 2005: 1). But the authors of the study acknowledged that the difficulty of empircally proving the effectiveness of non-biologically rooted factors. There…… [read more]


America Has Become an Overmedicated Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,989 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

America: An Overmedicated Society

America has Become an Overmedicated Society

The abuse of prescription medications in the United States is an alarming problem. This is an issues which affects millions of American families, but it does not receive very much attention in the national media. This paper is intended as a factual instrument which will argue that the problem, including… [read more]


UCC v. Government Contracting Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Government and UCC Contracts Revision (Reduced length of paper)

Understanding Contract Theories and Formation

Relationship of FAR and UCC in subcontracting. Gabbard, E.G. (2011). Relationship of far and ucc in subcontracting. Retrieved June 10, 2011 from http://www. fasmg. org/farucc. HTML The first article titled "Relationship of FAR and UCC in Subcontracting" by Ernest G. Gabbard director of procurement at Teledyne Enterprises. In formulating a Government contract, the requirement is to have specific contracting authority as one of the consenting parties. There are formalized Termination & Convenience clauses and certain mandated terms. The offer and acceptance by the parties is unequivocal and cannot easily be rescinded.

Consider this second article from a government contract case law example:

Agredano v. U.S., -F.3d- (2010 WL 537160, Fed. Cir., 2010).

Article 2: Vehicle bought from the government should include buyer beware.

Cengage Learning, (2011). Buyer beware applies to vehicle bought by the government. June 12, 2010 from http://www.swlearning.com/blaw/cases/sales/0410_sales_01.html

Buyer beware applies to vehicle bought by the government.

The plantiff purchased a vehicle from a government auction where autos seized or forfeited were for sale. Agredano then signed a contract agreement to buy the car 'as is' (Cengage, 2011). This implies there is no warranty or return of the vehicle if there is a mechanical failure or the auto is no longer wanted by the buyer.

The car was a Nissan manufactured in 1987. While traveling in Mexico, the plantiff was pulled over and the car was searched. The car had been used previously by drug dealers. During the search of the vehicle, some marijuana was found in the vehicle (Cengage, 2011). Though the marijuana had been there prior to Agredano's purchase, he was put in prison for a period of one year. Agredano appealed the verdict and was freed after convincing the appellate court that the drugs were not his. Agredano then focused his attention on pursuing a case against the government auction site that sold him a vehicle that had illegal drugs in it. His argument was that there was the implied in fact warranty that would cover the presence of illegal drugs (Cengage, 2011). The result was a court ruling in Agredano's favor. But the government appealed this verdict, the Government contract formed with Agredano stated the purchase warranty was 'as 'is' and that it did not include an implication of legal nor illegal drugs. The appellate court maintained that there was no obligation for the government to locate or eliminate any drugs from the vehicle. The buyer purchased the car 'as is' thereby releasing the government of any responsibility.

Therefore the government prevailed stating "the government had no responsibility to remove drugs from forfeited vehicles does not provide a contractual warranty to future purchases of the vehicles" (Cengage, 2011). The government is not liable for any neglect to remove illegal drugs from the vehicle and there is no "contractual remedy" since the car was sold "as is" (Cengage, 2011). In addition to this the buyer was aware that the car had… [read more]


Economics in Healthcare - Policy Memo Kathleen Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Economics in Healthcare - Policy Memo

Kathleen Sebelius, Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary

FROM: XYZ, Policy Analyst

Proposal for Imposing a National Sin Tax on Alcoholic Beverages

The proposal for imposing National Sin Tax on alcoholic beverages might be beneficial for our society. It is likely to discourage the excessive use of alcohol which is prevalent in our society. Excessive consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages has posed many challenges for policy makers. The over-usage of alcohol does not only affect the user but the effects are generally passed on the society as a whole. Sin taxes on the usage of alcohol might provide increased tax revenues for the government, on one hand while imposing an additional monetary burden on the user on drinkers on the other hand.

Harms from Alcohol Consumption

It is a fact that consumption of alcohol is the major reason for most of the crimes in United States. (Eric 15-16) Alcohol consumption is not only dangerous for the consumer but it also have various economic and social harms for the society as well as users' immediate environment. It means that alcohol can affect not only the drinker but other people in the form of violence or road accidents. Alcohol consumption also plays a vital role in violent crimes e.g. sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse and domestic violence. Thus, we can say that the usage of alcohol can lead to a wide range of personal as well as societal harms.

Approximate Quantifications of Harms from Alcohol Usage

The consumption of alcohol is one of the three major reasons for increased death rate in United States.

Almost 95,000 people died due to over-consumption of alcohol in United Sates in early 2000s.

In United States, approximately 7000 people die under the age of 21 due to excessive usage of alcohol.

In 2006, 1.6 million people were hospitalized in United States.

According to government estimates, the economic costs of alcohol were estimated to be $220 billion in 2010.

According to another government estimate, $686…… [read more]


Bingeing Became the New College Sport Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (569 words)
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¶ … Bingeing Became the New College Sport," written by Barrett Seaman appeared in Time magazine on August 21, 2005. Published just prior to the fall semester, it seems as if this article will be a warning for parents about the dangers of college binge drinking. Seaman, who is also the author of the book, Binge: What Your College Student Won't Tell You, reports on the practice of "pregaming" in which under age students drink large amounts of alcohol in their dorm room or apartment prior to going to a party. Seaman argues that reducing the drinking age to 18 will reduce this practice and help college students become adults who drink responsibly.

Prior to reading this article, I was not familiar with the practice of pregaming. According to the Urban Dictionary, pregaming derives its name from tailgating prior to sporting events and now means drinking prior to any event. The Urban Dictionary adds further that this usually occurs because the party or event will require identification for the consumption of alcohol. I have not had any experience with this practice, but I have seen binge drinking among college students. College students, who are experiencing life without supervision from their parents for the first time, often want to experiment with as many experiences as possible.

I have several questions about the content of this article. First of all, how widespread is the practice of pregaming? Is the practice more common among males or females? I saw a news report recently that discussed how girls, in an effort to avoid consuming too many calories, will go the entire day without eating if they know they will be drinking at night. Are the practices related? The…… [read more]


AA Meeting From a Student Nurse Perspective Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (749 words)
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AA Meeting from a Student Nurse Prospective

Response Paper for Alcoholics Anonymous

I attended Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meeting of Northeastern Maryland Intergroup Council at the St. Paul's Lutheran Church on 210 Mount Royal Ave., Aberdeen, Maryland. The meeting was held on August XX, 2011 at 7:00 P.M. As in almost all AA meetings, the participants vary and their ages ranged from people in their teens to adults in their 60s and even 70s. The social and economic demographics of the participants are also diverse from students to professionals and even some retired people. The major part of the AA meeting aside from the regular sequence of events that occur at every meeting is the testimonial given by one of the participants. In the meeting I attended, Leroy, a 52-year-old recovering alcoholic gave his testimonial. He had been sober for the last nine years but he became an alcoholic while he was only 13 years old. For about 30 years, he was an alcoholic and he has been from one rehabilitation center to another. By far, the Alcoholics Anonymous and accepting Leroy's Christian faith have been instrumental in his being sober for the last few years.

Several issues have been addressed from how one becomes an alcoholic and how this event takes a toll not only on the person but on that person's family and friends as well. There were even discussions regarding worst case scenarios for alcoholics when they end up committing criminal acts -- knowingly and unknowingly, because of the influence of alcohol. Some of the stories presented were cases involving physical abuse of partners and children by the alcoholic and this caused not only the destruction of the alcoholic's family but landed the person in jail.

Joining any Alcoholics Anonymous chapter is not done alone but rather, a sponsor is involved to guide the new member. But the sponsor does not only facilitate entry into AA but "often develops when the prospect is willing to be helped, admits having a drinking problem, and decides to seek sobriety as a solution (Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 2010). The sponsors provides the lifeline to the recovering alcoholic especially when the person relapse back into his or her drinking problem. Aside from having a sponsor,…… [read more]


Effects of Illegal Immigration on the North America Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,600 words)
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Illegal immigration is tearing apart the United States. According to Katel (2005), "More than 10 million illegal immigrants live in the United States, and 1,400 more arrive every day." Immigrants are changing the social and cultural composition of the United States of America. Because most of the illegal immigrants are poor and purposefully enter the United States to find jobs,… [read more]


Legalizing Marijuana Would Have on Prison Population Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,879 words)
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¶ … Legalizing Marijuana would have on Prison Population

The recent war on drugs campaigns have had limited to no efficiency, as one can actually claim that society has experienced great problems as a result of the techniques authorities used in trying to fight drugs. There has been much controversy regarding the topic of legalizing marijuana during the last few… [read more]


Issues of Illegal Immigration Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,172 words)
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Illegal Immigration

It is generally believed that there are more than 11 million illegal immigrants currently living in the United States. (Yen) While they come from many countries around the world, the vast majority come from Latin America, and of those, the majority come from Mexico. Whether legal or illegal, immigration can provide definitive benefits to both the United States and the Latin American countries from where people emigrate from. For instance, "immigration increases the incomes of the U.S. residents by allowing the economy to utilize domestic resources more efficiently." (Hanson 19) It also increases the total number of laborers, which in turns increases the amount of resources that can be successfully exploited. Fruits and vegetables can be harvested more efficiently leading to cheaper overall prices for the consumer. But it is not only the United States that benefits from the productivity of the illegal immigrant, their home countries, particularly in Latin America, benefit greatly as well. Billions of dollars, earned by Mexicans who are illegally working in the United States, are sent back to Mexico each year; besides the petroleum and tourism industries, this is Mexico's largest influx of capital. While many see illegal immigration as a problem, it can have positive benefits to both the United States and the home country of the immigrant.

But there are those who see illegal immigration as a problem and point to the many negative aspects which accompany it. Many Latin American villages have been all but deserted, and local culture and society destroyed, by the emigration of the people to the United States. And the journey across the border is a dangerous one where criminal gangs take advantage of illegal immigrants, force them to transport drugs, and even leave them to die in the dessert. (Orrenius 2) Instead of positively impacting labor and wages, some claim that illegal immigration has a "negative wage depressing effect" which keeps wages in the United States artificially low. (Liu 3) Because of the problem with illegal immigrants, the United States is forced to spend billions of dollars monitoring and guarding the border, as well as tracking down illegal immigrants inside the United States. And since many illegal immigrants are used a "drug mules," many of those entering America illegally are also transporting drugs and other illegal substances into the country. And with the inclusion of drugs, there is the ever increasing problem of violence being associated with illegal immigrants as different drug gangs compete for access to the United States.

Those illegal immigrants who already hold jobs in the U.S. should be given legal status because of the fact that they are already in America and contributing to American society. If they have jobs then they already pay income taxes, as well as paying all the state and local taxes involved in the purchase of food, gas, clothes, rent, etc.. Secondly, if illegal immigrants who hold jobs and pay taxes are not given legal status, the American government will be forced to spend billions of… [read more]


Alexandria's Quality of Life A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  3 pages (723 words)
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Alexandria's Quality of Life: I would look at the conventions that the City of Alexandria has styled over the last year to assess whether that sentence is correct. Secondly, I would investigate the quantity and quality of museums, libraries and other cultural institutions that the city has.

(Answers to Update # 1: The indicator measures the variables that go into definition of Quality of Life (QOL). It is important because it provides us with a way of measure. The operational definition defines / spells out / operationalizes characteristics of QOL (for instance in this case) such as 'happiness'. It is most times measured using reliable tools that have been consistently performed on large diverse samples of randomly selected people. When Likert scales are used, the spectrum of scores granted to question (the variable's scale) ranges from 1 to 5 (i.e. from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" or the reverse).

Logic model # 1 research -- laws / conventions of City of Alexandria over the last 10 years -- investigation of the quality of these conventions -- grounded theory / phenomenology -- other statistical tools. The purposes of this assignment would be to assess whether indeed the laws drafted within the last decade generally reflect the truth of the phrase.

Logic model # 2: divide the country into different parts- consult guidebooks -- involve help of people - count numbers of museums, libraries, cultural institutions (e.g. theaters etc.) -- visit them -- analyze them -- assess their quality. Doing so would be able to tell me the extent to which Alexandria values history, diversity and culture.

3. a. This question is unclear. By NI assume you mean total Number of Deliveries for 2009; 2010; and 2011 individually. N, accordingly, stands for 24 (2009); 32 (20110); 24 (2011). Some years witnessed higher / lower rate of delivery than others.

4. Mean Delivery (2009): = 2.4; (2010) =3.2; (2011) = 2.4

Median 2009= 2; 2010=3; 2011 = 2.

SD: 2009= 1.07497; 2010 = 1.54919; 2011= 0.84327

c. *The question doesn't make sense since Chicago has in each year only one score (i.e. 2 in 2009) You cannot work out mean etc. from this. Even…… [read more]


Medical Marijuana as More States Begin Allowing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,195 words)
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Medical Marijuana

As more states begin allowing the use of marijuana for medical purposes, many have begun to question the medical benefits of this drug. The federal government still considers marijuana a Schedule I substance, which allows the federal government to prosecute users of marijuana even in states where it is permitted for medical purposes. Opponents of legalizing marijuana cite… [read more]


Innovations and Inventions Research Paper

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Innovations and Inventions

Aspirin

Aspirin (also known as acetylsalicylic acid) is probably one of the best-know drugs of the recent century, considering that most people living in the late nineteenth, twentieth, or early twenty-first century have tried it at least once in their lifetime. Its therapeutic effects have assisted people ever since the nineteenth century and the contemporary society considers the drug one of its most important assets. Whether taking one as a result of a headache, in order to alleviate muscle soreness, or with the purpose of avoiding a hangover, one is likely to appreciate the substance's beneficial effects. In spite of the fact that it is one of the most basic pain reliever in the history of mankind, aspirin is most likley to preceed the doctor in a situation when someone experiences pain.

It would be inccorect for someone to claim that they know exactly who invented aspirin. The drug (as it is presently known) came to be invented through a series of medical advancements and collaborations. Its history goes back to the fifth century B.C. when one of the fathers of medicine, Hippocrates, described how one could use the bark or the leaves of willow trees in order to lessen pain and fever. The bark and the leaves of willow trees were effective in treating pain because they contained a substance named salicin, one of the principal ingredients of modern-day aspirin (Cohen). It was not until the nineteenth century that a series of chemists united in trying to extract salicin, transform it into salicylic acid, and decontaminate it in order for people to be able to consume it. French Researcher Charles Frederic Gerhardt managed to counteract some of its negative effects in 1853, but stopped before discovering aspirin in its true form. Later on, in 1897, one of the workers at Bayer discovered Gerhardt's studies and continued to experiment until he came to combine acetylating salicylic acid with acetic acid and eventually created acetylsalicylic acid -- aspirin (Aspirin). This substance was much more effective in this form because it was mild (salicin or salicylic acid was tough on the stomachs of those who used it) and because it did not appear to have a negative effect on its users. Even though he played an essential role in the invention of aspirin, Gerhardt never got any of the profits because he failed where others suceeded. Because he worked at Bayer, Felix Hoffman, the reputed inventor of aspirin, patented the drug and got actively engaged in marketing it to the world. Aspirin was the strong and comfortable pain reliever that a modern society was in desperate need of (Haven, 124).

Considering Bayer's success in selling aspirin, one might actually consider the substance emblematic for the company's early years. Early reactions even described the drug as being one of the greatest wonders that the medical world will ever generate. "The inspiration and drive to produce aspirin can be explained in terms of a medico-industrial relationship in which the pharmaceutical companies… [read more]


Clinical Problem of Interest Anabolic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
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How can it be bad to take a little extra? Often "a little extra" is actually not what is taken. Heavy doses of anabolic steroids are sometimes taken, especially by bodybuilders who are looking for muscle mass quickly. They cannot get to competition level rapidly and stay there if they do not use steroids, and competition level can mean money,… [read more]


Spousal Abuse Causes Term Paper

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Other researchers who analyze data from different case studies do not necessarily find a direct correlation between income levels among spouses and spousal violence. Rodriguez, Lasch, Chandra, & Lee (2001) find that spousal abuse can be related to a different set of issues such as alcohol misuse and psychological factors such as low self-esteem or the stigma of being poor. They analyze data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. The data is based on 4870 interviews of married and cohabiting families. Interestingly, they find that women are as likely as men to use violence in spousal quarrels, but they are also more likely to be injured and report domestic violence.

Contrary to many other studies suggesting a correlation between income and occupational levels of spouses and domestic violence, Rodriguez, Lasch, Chandra, & Lee did not find that non-employed spouses were more likely to become victims of spousal violence. They did, however, find that alcohol may interact with this relationship, leading to violence. They also did not find any evidence that ethnicity or race could play a factor in predicting violence. Here again, excessive alcohol consumption may increase the risk of violence. The study confirms that "alcohol is positively associated with violent arguments" (p. 176). Possible explanation for the correlation between alcohol and spousal abuse may be that under the influence of alcohol the desire to exert influence on others and even control them increases; leading to conflict and eventually violence. That is, psychological factors here may lead to social conflict in spousal relationships.

Using interdisciplinary approach to the study of social sciences is increasingly being employed by social scientists. Atkinson, Greenstein, & Lang (2005), using this complex approach, find that factors influencing spousal abuse can be different. They specifically test the widely-believed hypothesis that lower levels of economic positions for men increases the risk of violence against their female spouses. Atkinson, Greenstein, & Lang argue that such arguments are based on certain set of assumptions that are misleading. They argue that studies concluding that wives' share of relative income may lead to violence ignore cultural and social factors. For example, they say, not all men want to be breadwinners.

The argument that men use violence as a form of compensation for their shortage of resources may hold true in discussing traditional men only. Atkinson, Greenstein, & Lang find no fixed correlation between levels of income and spousal abuse. The roots of violence they find in gender ideology. For example, if men believe in the ideology of masculinity as being the dominant figure in gender relations, they are likely to try to offset women's relative economic power by resorting to violence. The authors explain: "When men equate masculinity and providership and are not primary breadwinners . . . their familial role does not allow them to reinforce their masculine identity. Under these conditions, men are much more likely to use violence to compensate for their lack of income" (Atkinson, Greenstein, & Lang, 2005, p.… [read more]


Old Smoke Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,536 words)
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Old Smoke Case Study

Darlene works for Redwood Associates in the personnel department. However, at times her job requires her to spend time in the main files room, where Frank and Alice work. Frank and Alice are smokers, but are always careful not to smoke around Darlene, and to open the windows and air the room out. Nevertheless, Darlene is… [read more]


Chemistry Pre-Labs Lab Report

Lab Report  |  5 pages (1,315 words)
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Measurement and Density Determination

Measurement is a critical tool that must be applied in an experimental science such as chemistry. The values are measured using the metric system, a common standard among scientists of the world, with the basic units being measured in multiples of ten. The basic units are different for each type of measurement; mass is measured in grams, distance in meters, temperature in degrees, and density in mass per volume (grams per liter). In each case the equations and measurement needs to have a corresponding unit associated with it or the measurement loses its meaning. In addition to this, the measurement precision and significant figures need to be careful considered. A measurement should be made to the number of decimal places specified and any equations should use conversion factors and mathematical operators, but the final result when applying these equations should be with the correct number of significant figures which can be no more than the least precise value.

Purpose

The purpose of this experiment is to determine how to measure various parameters using the metric system. These parameters include mass, temperature, density and pH and various equations and conversion equations need to be understood.

Pre-lab Assignment

None required.

Procedures

1. Place a weighing paper on a top-loading balance and record the weight in your notebook.

2. Place 7-8 pieces of aluminum shot on pre-weighed paper and record the new weight.pl

3. Place another weighing paper on the balance, measure, and then remeasure with and 4.0 grams of sodium chloride.

4. Record the number of the unknown liquid in your notebook, place the graduated cylinder on the balance and measure its weight, then add 7 to 8 mL of the unknown liquid and record its weight and total volume.

5. Wash the ten mL graduated cylinder and fill it with 5 to 6 mL of deionized water and measure, and record the volume and weight in your notebook.

6. Place the aluminum shot measured previously and record the new volume.

7. Fill a 250 mL beaker one-third full of water and read the temperature with a thermometer.

8. Fill a 100 mL beaker with crushed ice and add it to the water and remeasure the temperature at the bottom of the beaker without stirring.

9. Add sodium chloride from step 3 and measure the temperature after stirring for 1 minute.

10. Add 4.0 mL of solution a into a 10 mL beaker and put a strip of pH paper in the solution.

11. Add 4.0 mL of solution B. In another 10 mL beaker and repeat the pH measurement.

12. Pour solution a into solution B. And repeat the pH measurement.

February 17, 2012

Up in Smoke

Introduction

Due to the recent admission of cigarette companies that cigarettes are dangerous and significantly increase the risk of lung cancer to smokers, laws have been enacted by banning smoking in public places. This so-called environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is of concern to the population because it has been determined… [read more]


High-Risk Behaviors Among Victims of Sibling Violence Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,095 words)
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Sibling Violence

High Risk Behavior Among Victims of Sibling Violence

In this study, authors Button and Gealt (2010) use feminist theory and social learning theory to understand the prevalence of high risk behavior among victims of sibling violence. They follow the recommendations Hoffman et al. (2004, 2005) who argued that feminist theory and social learning theory might be most helpful in understanding sibling violence. They also use the discussion of feminist theory by Liddle (1989) in formulating its definition and relevance to their own study.

Button and Gealt (2010) note that feminist theory can be helpful because it "posits that violence against women is directly connected to the patriarchal organization of society," and that "men's use of violence as a mechanism of control, particularly of women, is supported and maintained by the structural organization of society" (p. 133). According to feminist theory, traditional gender roles normalize patriarchal assumption suggesting that men are in the position of power and control and they resort to violence when they experience powerlessness because the use of violence allows them to reestablish their dominance. Button and Gealt also theorize that younger siblings and females, due to lack of physical strength, are more likely to be victimized by other siblings.

"Social learning theory," according to Button and Gealt (2010), "contends that behavior is learned through imitation and reinforcement, leading to a series of definitions favorable to the behavior . . . . As with feminist theory, the social learning paradigm argues that because violence is reward with compliance and dominance, those who engage in violence and aggression internalize and utlize the advantages of such methods" (p. 134). This theory also suggests that children learn by observing violence in their surroundings (parents, other siblings, in the street, school, etc.) and imitate the behavior because of the assumption that the use of violence allows them to take advantage of such methods. The learning theory therefore posits that children who experience other forms of violence are more likely to be victims or perpetrators of sibling violence.

The purpose of the study, as outlined by the authors, is four-fold: to estimate the prevalence of sibling abuse, investigate the relationship between sibling abuse and high risk behaviors (substance abuse, aggression, and delinquency), examine the interplay between sibling abuse and other forms of familial abuse in predicting high risk behaviors, and test feminist and social learning theories. The authors note that most of the recent academic work on familial violence focused on parent-child and intimate partner relationships. Some researchers began to pay attention to violence against the elderly, but sibling violence, despite being well-documented "as the most common form of intrafamilial abuse . . . has been largely overlooked from an academic, research perspective, as well as from a social and legal standpoint" (Button & Gealt, 2010, p. 131).

Sibling violence takes three forms: psychological, physical, and sexual. The authors in this study investigate only psychological and physical abuse. Psychological violence usually makes an emotional harm to the victim, and includes ridiculing,… [read more]


Chromatography the Purpose of This Experiment Lab Report

Lab Report  |  2 pages (635 words)
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Chromatography

The purpose of this experiment is to observe/demonstrate one technique for separating mixtures or compounds we find in the world, and to understand the principles behind this technique. This knowledge and experience provides insights into the scientific method and some of the knowledge derived through this method of empirical investigation.

Much if not most of the world we interact with is made up of mixtures or compounds, from the clothes we wear to the drinks we imbibe to the fuels we put in out cars. Sometimes it becomes necessary to separate the individual constituent parts from each other and identify them and their quantities, for a variety of reasons. Chromatography is a broad set of techniques that enable this separation and identification by using combinations of stationary and moving phases to "stretch out" a substance in a manner that separates its constituent parts. This experiment demonstrates one specific type of chromatography using a filter paper, water, and a the test mixture whose parts will be variably attracted to the paper and the water, leading to different rates of progress through the filter paper. As the water is drawn through the paper, the parts of the text mixture more attracted to the paper will travel slower, while those more attracted to the water will travel faster.

Pre-Lab Question

The pre-lab question appears to be either, which student will get to the library first? or, which colors are mixtures, and what are they mixtures of? The answer to the first question is: the new kid will arrive at the library first. With fewer other people (molecules) attracted to him and blocking his way, he has a free course to travel (analogous to a substance more attracted to water). The popular student will have other people (molecules) clinging to him, slowing his progress (like a substance with strong attraction to the filter paper. When it comes to typical markers,…… [read more]


Habit to Break, Newsweek's Brook Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (531 words)
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This feature article illustrates many aspects of globalization. The article mentions, for example, how a previous government suspension of joint ventures with tobacco companies in the mid-1990s was applauded by health activists. Though the suspension was for economic reasons, barring the entry of foreign cigarettes also served a social purpose, in terms of stemming the tide of tobacco-related illnesses.

However, these social gains soon took a backseat to economic demands. To gain membership into the WTO, the Chinese government had to address its smuggling and counterfeit problems. China also had to once again open its vast market to the onslaught of tobacco products.

In this article, globalization is presented as a thundering economic force -- one that is unmindful of China's "fiefdom" economic system and the possible health consequences of saturating a market with products that cause diseases like cancer and emphysema. While global economic accords such as the WTO agreement promote greater international ties, the "globalization" that is occurring is actually a one-way phenomenon. In opening its markets to foreign tobacco industries, China is paving the way for the loss of its fiefdom-based economic system and exposes more of its citizens to significant health risks. Furthermore, the influx of tobacco multinationals will most likely drive local tobacco manufacturers out of business.

In conclusion, the article presents an instance of economic globalization, where "global" is actually defined by the interests of multinational corporations. In this framework, globalization does not mean a merging of cultures from different parts of the world. Rather, globalization entails creating new markets and thus building a greater consumer…… [read more]


Brian's Franchise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (354 words)
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Brian's Franchise

The story of Brian's successful marijuana-growing operation franchise should inspire the decriminalization of the plant. The government should not prohibit the growing and selling of marijuana for several reasons illustrated in this story. First, marijuana generates huge cash revenues. These cash revenues were stimulating the local economies of Northern California and they would likewise stimulate any local economy that supports growing marijuana plants for personal use and profit. Furthermore, rather than spending billions of dollars on persecuting and prosecuting growers of marijuana, including costs for their incarceration, the government could channel those funds elsewhere, such as health care. In essence, the harsh stance on marijuana represents not only distorted legislation but unethical governmental policy. Money saved from criminalizing marijuana could be better spent on genuinely improving public safety and welfare. The government does not prohibit the manufacture or sale of deadly assault weapons, alcohol, cigarettes, or fast food; therefore it should not prohibit the growing and selling of marijuana which is no more harmful than any of the above. This stance is essentially libertarian and…… [read more]


Resistance and Reluctance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (510 words)
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Reluctant Help-Seeking Among Second Generation Black and Asian Heavy Alcoholic Drinkers in the English Midlands

Jim Orford et. al.'s (2004) study entitled "Drinking in second generation black and Asian communities in the English midlands" reports on a recently conducted survey on the level of alcohol drinking and extent of help seeking on alcoholic addiction among second-generation black and Asian community members in Britain.

The survey used a sample of 1,684 respondents through two methods, quota sampling and mainly, street surveys. The survey sought to identify three important variables that provide a comparative analysis of alcoholic drinking among ethnic minority groups in Britain: alcohol use, culture and ethnicity, and sources of help.

Survey findings show that the first variable, alcohol use, alcohol drinking is most prevalent among Indian Hindus (22.4%), followed by Indian Sikhs (22%). Pakistani, Bengali, and Black Caribbean respondents followed with 17%, 13.4%, and 11.9% alcohol use, respectively. Females predominate among respondents who drink alcohol with 52.6%, while alcohol drinking is prevalent among respondents who are in the age group of 20-24 years old (30.6%) (17).

Despite the large number of female respondents surveyed who drinks alcohol, most of the heavy drinkers are men, consuming more than 50 units of alcohol a week before the survey has been conducted. Among the ethnic minorities surveyed, Black Caribbean members drank most heavily (23%) followed by Indian Sikhs (10%). Indian Hindus, Pakistanis, and Bengalis rated lowly on this category (18).

44% of the respondents disclosed that their parents do not know about their alcohol drinking. Furthermore, non-disclosure…… [read more]


Why the US Government Should Pay for Smoking Cessation Programs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,131 words)
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¶ … smoking of cigarettes is a huge problem throughout our society. The leading causes of preventable death are caused by smoking.

The purpose of this discussion is to explain why smoking cessation programs should be sponsored by the government. We will attempt to understand why the smoking habit is so difficult to conquer.

In addition, we will discuss the cessation programs that already exist and the ways in which they benefit smokers. We will also explain why many smokers cannot afford a cessation program and need government assistance.

Quitting Smoking

Many smokers began smoking as teenagers. The epidemic of teen smoking has existed for a long time in the United States. According to an article found in the Washington Times cigarettes are easy to buy but it is difficult to stop smoking for teenagers. The article asserts, "According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 35% of high school students are smokers, meaning they smoked at least one cigarette in the 30 days before the survey. In 1991, 27.5% of students smoked."(Dean)

The teens featured in this article admit that there is a great deal of peer pressure associated with smoking. In addition, the nicotine found in smoke is highly addictive and it is the main reason why it is so difficult for teens and adults to quit once they have a habit. The article goes on to explain that through the Centers for Disease Control the government has spent a great deal of money attempting to keep teenagers from ever developing this habit.

Cessation Programs and Government Sponsorship

Several tactics are used to aid people in the cessation of smoking. These tactics include patches, gum, gold turkey, counseling and even hypnotism. The patches and the gum are designed to provide the smoker with doses of nicotine throughout the day, which keep them form wanting to smoke cigarettes. Cold turkey method is simply the act of quitting with no assistance; it is based on willpower. Counseling attempts to get to the root of the problem and helps the smoker to replace cigarettes with a healthier habit. Finally, hypnotism has become a popular way to help smokers quit. All of these methods with the exception of cold turkey can be rather expensive.

A book entitled Helping the Hard-Core Smoker: a Clinician's Guide explains that while some are able to stop smoking on their own, many will need clinical help in kicking the habit. The author explains that those that need the most help are usually hard-core smokers. (Covey) the book explains that for some smoking is just a habit but for others it is an addiction. The book asserts that habitual smokers usually use cigarettes to calm their anxieties or smoke in social situations. (Covey) on the other hand, those that are addicted continue to smoke even when they have been diagnosed with a serious medical condition caused by smoking. (Covey) in addition, hard-core users are usually defined as those that smoke more than 20 cigarettes in one day.… [read more]


Drinking Age Term Paper

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However she adds that they should be allowed to drink in controlled environments such as pubs, taverns or official school functions. This would ensure mature and sensible drinking behavior from the students. It is also not surprising to note that a majority of underage college students consume alcohol. They drink in an irresponsible manner as they feel that alcohol is… [read more]


Banning Smoking in Public Term Paper

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The more serious ethical paradox related to smoking, perhaps, is the fact that despite the inconvertible fact that smoking is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world, the tobacco industry continues to flourish all over the world. Even more seriously, cigarettes that contain higher than permissible limits of lethal contents are conveniently exported from the developed countries… [read more]


Ritalin, Generically Known as Methylphenidate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Medication can' t do that."

A major difficulty with depending on Ritalin to help a child with Attention Deficit Disorder is in the diagnosing of the disorder itself. ADD is not easily diagnosed with enough accuracy because its symptoms, inattention and behavior problems have been known to have other underlying causes such as nutritional deficiencies, poor eating habits, allergies to the environment and to food. Few children placed on Ritalin have been properly tested for these other causes.

Teachers now are faced with increasing pressures to produce students who are performing beyond a certain level. As Livingstone so outrightly states it, "teachers cannot respond to uncooperative and inattentive students by simply passing them on to the next grade. Teachers now become desperate seekers after anything that will enable them to improve the child's performance to the mandated level. Hence their eagerness to suggest the quick fix of drug therapy if the child's problem seems attentional." But he too argues that although the child on Ritalin may seem on-task for longer periods, what the Ritalin does not do is to produce long-term changes in cognitive functioning. What is needed instead of drug therapy is an overhaul of the education system. Education needs to seriously take into account individual needs of the students. Teachers must be able to tailor curriculum and materials to the different abilities and personalities of the children in any one class.

Since children, especially below the age of six are not able to give fully informed consent to drug use, it is up to the adults to protect the children from toxic drugs, especially when there is not sufficient reliable cause for prescribing such.

.References.

Livingstone, Ken. "Ritalin: miracle drug or cop-out." Public Interest. Spring 1997. 01 Dec. 2004

http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0377/is_n127/ai_19416353

Peterson, Roberta F. Is Ritalin right? 01 September 1999. 01 Dec. 2004

< http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1041/is_9_77/ai_55450079>… [read more]


Immigration Into the US From Mexican Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … legal migration [...] benefits of allowing legal migration from Mexico to the U.S. And the damaging effects of not allowing legal migration. In addition, it will analyze the problems and dangers that have come from the increased border patrols. Allowing more legal migration from Mexico into the United States is a controversial issue that has been addressed by… [read more]