"Drugs / Alcohol / Tobacco" Essays

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Drugs and Alcohol Issues Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There are probably recovered substance abusers who can eventually learn to limit their consumption to appropriate levels and to appropriate circumstances while eliminating excessive consumption or consumption patterns that are problematic. Meanwhile, there are also probably other individuals who have had substance abuse problems whose addictive personalities and tendencies make it unrealistic for them to adopt any sort of flexible approach instead of the absolute abstention from those substances in the future.

Chances are there are both biological factors such as addictive tendencies as well as environmental and personal psychological factors that determine behavior and the relative ability of every individual to moderate alcohol consumption, for example. In general, people who developed substance abuse problems as ways of coping with unrelated problems may eventually be able to resume drinking (for example) once those other problems are resolved and assuming they receive the necessary counseling and support to help them recognize warning signs and avoid falling into the same pattern again if similar problems develop that could trigger excessive consumption. Other individuals might be able to control their tendency toward over-consumption through rules that impose limits, such as to the number of times they drink in a week, how much they are allowed to consume on any given occasion, or what circumstances and environments (or people) to avoid because it is those associations and…… [read more]

Drugs and Alcohol Issues Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,331 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Meanwhile, other people become obese or obsessed with computer gaming or alcoholics. There appear to be genetic components to addictive behavior because it is often evident in different generations within families.

However, addiction is probably more of a dysfunctional behavior pattern and the product of various coping attempts of individuals through the wrong means. A person who discovers that drinking dulls the pain of some emotional issue may begin drinking more and more because of that reward. Another person may find emotional solace in eating sugary deserts or doughnuts. They may also exchange one addiction for another. But, in those cases, their addiction occurred as a specific result of the underlying issues and not because the person was necessarily afflicted with a disease of addiction. In many cases, addiction can even express itself over healthy behaviors, such as exercise. It may also fulfill some of the same subconscious needs as less healthy addictions. All of those types of addictions may have complex psychological and physiological components, but that does not necessarily mean that they are evidence of disease in the classic sense.

4) Which drug (drug classification) do you think has the most detrimental effect on the body's nervous system?

From my understanding, methamphetamines can be devastating to the neurological system. They alter the way that neurons communicate and the way that neurotransmitters are released and reabsorbed. Apparently, regular use of various kinds of amphetamines and other drugs such as MDMA or "ecstasy" can destroy the neurons that produce important mood-regulating neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. They can also interfere with the ability of neuron receptors to respond to those neurotransmitters the way they are supposed to. In the long-term, those kinds of physiological changes can be the cause of clinical depression because the brain and mood of the drug user is no longer capable of being regulated through the normal process of mood regulation.

5) FOUR LOKO is a drink comprised of 23 and a half ounces, with 12-percent alcohol and the caffeine equivalent of at least two cups of coffee. Energy drink consumption has been on the rise over the last 3-5 years. A number of deaths have been associated with energy drink consumption in otherwise healthy young adults. Combined with alcohol many young people are using these types of drinks to stay awake yet intoxicated. SB 39 aims to block the selling of caffeinated beer beverages in CA and is waiting to be signed by Governor Brown. What is your opinion on the safety of energy drink consumption?

What is your opinion on caffeinated alcohol drinks? Would you support the passage of SB 39?

I understand why caffeinated alcohol drinks might be more of a problem than other types of alcoholic beverages. I also understand why it might make sense to restrict their sale in bars or in various other retail situations where they could contribute to problematic behaviors associated with energetic intoxicated people in groups. However, I think a complete ban on the product is too… [read more]

Alcohol and Drug Policies at Drexel Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Alcohol and Drug Policy in Drexel

Drug and alcohol policy

I like where the paper ends up . . . As I see it you're arguing that the current system at Drexel treats drugs and alcohol as fundamentally different problems, and that this crude distinction leads to misperceptions: 1) that alcohol isn't really as serious a concern as it should be, but also 2) that some drugs are realistically worse than others. An approach that labeled all of them as "drugs" but treats them on a sliding scale from least to most offensive would help to remedy both issues.

I like that idea, but it seems like very little in the paper leads us there. When you're arguing for a policy change like this it makes sense to name what that proposal is up front, so that everything we read in the essay lends support to it. After the first paragraph we get a description of the drug and alcohol policy at Drexel (but with little discussion as to why it's a problem), and then this is followed by the summary of a lot of information about alcohol and drugs from the AA website which just talks about why drugs are a problem in the workplace. Some of this is indirectly useful, but you need to make the effort of explaining how it relates to students, and it would be better to simply start with a source that talks about student drug and alcohol use in its own right. The bottom line though is that several pages come off as being just about why drugs and alcohol are a problem, not why one policy may be better than another for addressing it. I feel like you there are good arguments you can make in defense of your policy statement, but you have to actually make them: how might you demonstrate that students have misconceptions about how harmful alcohol is in relation to drugs? What have you read that confirms that this kind of misconception is harmful -- and often stems from poorly designed drug and alcohol policies? In what ways have Drexel students been harmed by the one-size-fits-all-zero-tolerance policy for drugs? Can you think of specific instances or students whose stories you could tell? This might also help us see where you're coming from and give you the opportunity for stronger appeals to pathos.

Grade: C

Justin Cohen

Here at Drexel students have to follow certain rules and guidelines set up by the school. These guidelines address not only the welfare of its students, but ensure the safety and security of its students. Some might…… [read more]

Economics of Alchohol Abuse Alcohol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


g. A cartel in which the maintenance of the monopoly is done through force) (Schenk, 2010).

The purpose of a monopoly is to define and regulate market competition. In economics, imperfect competition is a situation in a given market where the conditions for perfect competition (equal market power) do not exist. .). Rarely, if ever, markets reach a state of market power called perfect competition, in which there are infinite buyers and sellers, no entry and exit barriers, and completely free and open information structures. To be a viable market, most economists believe there should be appropriate competition. There are several conditions that must occur, however, to reach this market goal: 1) Quantity of businesses -- there should a number of firms in the market, ideally at a similar sales level; 2) Entry and exit into and out of the market should be relatively easy; 3) Products should be homogenous; 4) Information should be forthcoming to all stakeholders (price, quality, production, ethics, etc.); 5) Price elasticity should be fairly even between competitors (Friedman, 1990).


Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from: http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/

Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run

Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from: http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill

Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.

Chaloupka, F. (1998). "The Impact of Proposed Cigarette Price Increases." Health Science

Analysis Project. Policy Analysis Number 9, 1-14.

Fogarty, J. (2006). The Own-Price Elasticity of Alcohol: A Meta-Analysis. The University of Western Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.animals.uwa.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/102528/04_01_Fogarty.pdf

Friedman, D. (1990). Price Theory. DavidFriedman.com. Retrieved from:


Mankiw, N.G. (2011). Principles of Macroeconomics. Mason, OH: Cenage-Brain.

Schenk, R. (2010). Cybernomics. Saint Joseph's College. Retrieved from:


Williams, R., Christ, K. (July 2009). Taxing Sin. Mercatus Center. George Mason University. Retrieved from: http://mercatus.org/publication/taxing-sin… [read more]

Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Two of the passengers in Jacqui's car were killed and two others escaped safely, but Jacqui was trapped inside when the car caught fire. She was burned over 60% of her body. Her hair, ears and one eyelid were burned off. Since then Jacqui has had to suffer more than 50 operations and is permanently and severely disfigured. Reggie Stephey, the driver of the other vehicle, was sentenced to seven years in prison and had to pay a fine of $20,000. His life was destroyed as well.

Finally, drug and alcohol abuse can take a heavy toll on a young person's relationships. Teens that are using drugs or alcohol often experience a change in personality. Their moods change rapidly and can fluctuate between highs and lows. They can become emotionally unstable. The drug or alcohol abuser may also lose interest in caring for their appearance and may begin looking unkempt and messy. A substance abuser may steal money or other valuables from loved ones in order to purchase drugs or alcohol. They can become deceitful, hostile, uncommunicative and even abusive towards loved ones. All of these personality changes can affect relationships between friends and family.

In summary, the use of drugs and alcohol among teenagers and young adults can change their lives in dramatic ways. Teens that abuse drugs are alcohol may cause themselves permanent bodily damage or death by the drugs themselves. In addition, they are far more likely to do harm to themselves or to another person while under the influence. Their actions may have a far reaching impact on themselves and on others that do not necessarily lead to death, but can lead to devastating consequences. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse lead to personality changes, and this can have a serious impact on relationships with friends and family.


Hafetz, David. Jacqueline and Amadeo: Chasing Hope. Austin American Statesman. 2002 May. February 13, 2010. < http://www.helpjacqui.com/pdf/jacqui.pdf>

National Drug Statistics Summary. Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base. 2007. February 13,…… [read more]

Drinking Alcohol Together With Tobacco Use Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,119 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Drinking Alcohol

Together with tobacco use, drinking alcohol is one of the ways that people in the United States can legally kill themselves. Although binge drinking has decreased somewhat in recent years, alcoholism remains a national healthcare problem and the social and economic costs associated with alcohol use are truly staggering. Although full-blown alcoholism is the end result… [read more]

Tobacco Alcohol and Gambling the Evolution of Vice Advertising Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Tobacco, Alcohol and Gambling: The Evolution of 'Vice Advertising'

Tobacco, alcohol, gambling, all are vices and all get advertised. The amazing thing about vices, both big and small, is that there has always been a demand for them and there always will be, regardless of the fact that they are not necessities - and thus competition between suppliers (brands) can… [read more]

Adolescents Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Adolescent Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

Adolescence represents a sensitive stage of development posing a high risk for contacting dangerous addictive behaviors. Drugs and alcohol abuse present a single most serious problem within this population making them vulnerable for serious delinquent behavior. Statistics show that around 50% of American adolescents have used alcohol atleast once while 20% admitted to have been drunk. [NIAAA] Research studies indicate that substance abuse and alcohol indulgence among adolescents create severe impairment of cognitive functions resulting in poor academic performance. Asides the general decline in academic performance, adolescent drinking and drug usage results in increased risk for committing serious crimes such as rape and theft. Alcohol inhibits the central nervous system, which severely impairs the judgment capacity of the person. Consequently, intoxication with drugs or alcohol makes it difficult for the person to successfully overcome sexual advances or sexual violence. A recent survey of high school girls revealed that around 10% of them have been raped under the influence of alcohol. [NIAAA]. By altering the perceptions of the individual alcohol incites aggressive and criminal tendencies in the person.

Sexual assaults

Several studies have confirmed the fact that alcohol indirectly aids in sexual aggression by altering the perception of sexual arousal in their partners. Under intoxication sexual advances are considered as appropriate behaviors. Norris et.al (2001) confirmed these changing perceptions among drinkers. Several studies have indicated that the point of separation between consensual sex and a rape is very thin. While under the influence of alcohol, it becomes even more difficult for the person to understand the cues and to stop what starts as a consensual kissing from becoming a forced or unwanted rape.. [Abbey, 2003] the increase in the number of HIV cases among adolescents also indicates the amount of risk they take under the sway of alcohol. Even more alarming is the increasing incidence of sexual assaults and rapes between associates. Today, every college campus is flooded with ecstasy or other 'date rape drugs' like gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Rohypnol. These drugs totally halt the rational thinking process, impair memory and leave the victim unconscious and without any chance of resisting unwanted sexual activity. [Holly Harner, 2003]

Drunken Driving

Drunken driving is another problem of serious proportions among adolescents and is reported to cause twice the number of fatal accidents than among adults. As per the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), alcohol was directly responsible in around 22% of the fatal accidents involving adolescents and young adults (15 to 20). In 2003 alone there were more than 1750 fatal accidents involving drunken adolescents. A study conducted by the University of Michigan revealed that substance abuse among adolescents had a direct effect on their driving outcomes. Thus high risk driving behavior is directly correlated to substance…… [read more]

Drugs Legal Drug Prohibition Causes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (539 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Although record numbers of contraband confiscations and seizes are made and the supply reduced, it is estimated that the volume of drugs trafficked successfully in United States has not changed. More alarming is the fact that after all these efforts the demand for drugs has also not changed. The Government's only response is that it is morally correct to fight a losing and impossible battle against drugs.

Advocates of drug enforcement stress the adverse effects of drugs on the human body. But, are these moralistic and medical concerns enough to justify an increase in corruption, phenomenally escalating criminal activity and cost of the war on drugs? Every new President proposes more funds to support the war on drugs and they would not admit failure of the policy and consequent long-term failures in the future.

If drugs are made legal then the excess government resources can be used to finance criminal investigations. The drug policy would be similar to that for alcohol. Usage by minors will be restricted and any person under influence who endangers others would be jailed. When the government had prohibited alcohols, the liquor laws became unenforceable, wide spread gang wars and corruption took place. These are effects very similar to the current situation.

In a liberal society the only authentic way of reducing drug abuse is through education, moral and social pressures on adult users. Future generations may wonder why the United States adopted a self defeating drug prohibition policy.


Lynch, Timothy. War no more: The folly and futility of drug prohibition. National Review, Feb 5, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1282/2_53/69388682/p4/article.jhtml?term=Accessed 4/3/04… [read more]

Alcohol Consumption and Symptoms Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  8 pages (3,907 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Alcohol Consumption and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

Depression and anxiety are related to cognitive as well as psychological impairments. Both these disorders not only affect the life of the ones suffering from it, but also that of the people in the surrounding. Similarly, alcoholism is also another multifaceted social and health concern. It has been well-documented that… [read more]

Alcohol Pricing and Consumption Rates Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,443 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Normally, the core purpose of the guidelines when applied to products by and large is to contain anticompetitive pricing, consequently shielding minute traders as well as manufacturers from the market power of huge traders like the supermarket chains, as well as facilitating up-to-the-minute entrants into the market. These kinds of prohibitions never lay down a minimum price for an item… [read more]

Drug Treatment and Prevention Program Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


We are a society of peers. We strive to make known our program of recovery, not individuals who participate in the program." (A.A., p. 1)

This position is also underscored by a core set of values in relation to the funding of the program. The counselor with whom I spoke noted that A.A. does not allow any outside funding because it wishes not to compromise its core values for any political or commercial imperatives. Therefore, the program is strictly supported by its own membership. Within the scope of this arrangement, the organization also takes precautions to ensure that its members aren't subjected to exploitation. The A.A. site supports the information provided by my interview subject. Additionally, it notes that the organization limits the amount of any individual member's contributions to a total of $3,000. (A.A.)

Also, specific to our community, the counselor notes that he offers his number to members, who he invites to contact him when they are feeling tempted, day or night. He notes that this is not part of protocol for the nationwide chain but that he considers it his responsibility and part of his pledge to ensure total abstinence from alcohol and complete sobriety for the members of his chapter.

The effectiveness in treatment or prevention of drug use and abuse.

The results recorded by A.A. typically survey as being among the best in the area of alcoholism treatment and prevention. According to Arkowitz & Lillenfeld (2011), A.A.'s track record exceeds that of most treatment programs. Their report notes that '" The AA-based approach seemed to work and compared favorably with the other therapies. In all three groups, participants were abstinent on roughly 20% of days, on average, before treatment began, and the fraction of alcohol-free days rose to about 80% a year after treatment ended." (Arkowitz & Lillenfeld, p. 1)

Results as not as clear-cut as they seem though. According to the same article, roughly 40% of all participants actually drop out in the first year, meaning that the least likely candidates to succeed in the program are not accounted for in its records of success. (Arkowitz, & Lillenfeld, p. 1)

That said, according to my interview subject, those who did stick with the program recorded significant changes in lifestyle, habits and prospects for long-term sobriety.

Works Cited:

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). (2012). A.A. At a Glance. AA.org.

Arkowitz, H. & Lillenfeld, S. (2011). Does Alcoholics Anonymous Work? Scientific American.

Kurtz, E. (2002). Alcoholics Anonymous and the Disease Concept of Alcoholism. Silkworth.net.… [read more]

Effects of Alcohol on the Human Body Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,478 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Alcohol consumption is the most widely acknowledged harmful factor of the human body, and a primary cause for illness, disability and mortality. Indeed, its negative impact on a global level was found by World Health Organization in 2009 to be surpassed only by unsafe sex and childhood underweight status, yet it exceeded in prevalence the incidence of common risk factors… [read more]

People's Response to Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Using an example from a research a driver who was dosed with moderate marijuana perceived to be driving at a higher speed than the actual speed. Another issue is that the perceptions of enhanced sex under marijuana are believed only exist in temporary distortions (Galizio & Maisto, 2010).

Drugs may be the facilitating factor behind altered individual perceptions. On the… [read more]

Poor Predictors of Fetal Alcohol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (922 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Of the dependent variables, head size correlated the least with drinking severity. The authors also examined interactions between a number of other factors known to affect birthweight, including nicotine and marijuana use, but accounting for these factors did not change the results.


Two contemporary studies had produced conflicting evidence on this topic and Sampson and colleagues (1994) attributed this difference to the incorrect use of multiple linear regression analysis. While the authors of the current study also reported their analysis of the data using multiple regression, their report emphasized the results of simple correlations. Their argument was that multiple regression can produce different results even if all the data and covariates are similar, because all too often covariates do not have a strong enough effect to produce a clear result over and above interactions with the primary dependent variables.

The authors also critiqued the value of the outcome measures in predicting the effects of alcohol. For example, birthweight is more strongly correlated with sex and maternal body size than with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Due to the strong interactions between birthweight and so many other factors, the authors concluded that the use of birthweight as a primary indicator is not recommended because the effect is small and transient.

Critical Thinking

The important conclusion of the study by Sampson et al. (1994) is that researchers and clinicians should probably focus less on birthweight and size as an indicator of fetal alcohol syndrome and more on the neurobehavioral effects that become apparent as the child develops. In a recent report published by the National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the UK, reduced birth weight and size is still used as one of the main indicators of fetal alcohol syndrome (Blackburn, Carpenter, and Egerton, 2009). By comparison, neurobehavioral deficits are emphasized in the U.S. (NIAAA, 200). Accordingly, Sampson and colleagues (1994) identified three infants in their cohort that met the diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome, but their birthweight and size during the course of the study would not have predicted this diagnosis.


Blackburn, Carolyn, Carpenter, Barry, and Egerton, Jo. (2009). Facing the Challenge and Shaping the Future for Primary and Secondary Aged Students with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FAS-eD Project). National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, UK. Retrieved 5 Feb. 2013 from http://www.networks.nhs.uk/nhs-networks/foetal-alcohol-syndrome-an-spectrum-and-associated/documents/FAS-eD%20PROJECT%20LITERATURE%20REVIEW-1.pdf.

NIAAA (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). (2000). Alcohol Alert. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 5 Feb. 2013 from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa50.htm.

Sampson, Paul D., Bookstein, Fred L., Barr, Helen M., and Streissguth, Ann P. (1994). Prenatal alcohol exposure, birthweight, and measures of child size from birth to age…… [read more]

Drugs on the Economy History Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  10 pages (2,964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Department of Justice, 2010). Opiates were the primary drug of choice followed by marijuana and stimulants. A half of the admissions were taken to ambulatory facilities as opposed to residential facilities. Drug users react adversely to drugs including non-fatal overdoses. These individuals have to go to the hospital for medical attention. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) in 2006 posited… [read more]

Drug Legalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,788 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Drug Legalization

As the country was turning into the 20th century, drugs that were in the market were largely unregulated. There were medical remedies that often contained derivatives of cocaine and heroin. These were freely distributed over-the-counter without a prescription and without the consumer being much aware of which drugs were more potent and which were not. There was a… [read more]

Drug Addiction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,652 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Social Problem of Drug Addiction

Drug Addiction

The Social Problem of Drug Addiction and the Role of the Community

The Social Problem of Drug Addiction and the Role of Community

Drug addiction is a multifaceted human issue that breeds biological, economic, and social consequences. The social impact of drug abuse and addiction affects the family, the community, and resonates with… [read more]

Alcohol Available in Corner Stores in Ontario Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,078 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … alcohol and drug addictions. Specifically it will discuss whether alcohol should be available for sale in corner stores in Ontario, as it is right now in Quebec. Currently, the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) a government agency that regulates the sales of most alcohol in the province, controls alcohol sales in Ontario. Selling liquor outside of government-owned or approved locations could be in the future, as that has happened in Quebec, and Alberta has privatized liquor sales, leading to more liquor stores in that province. Studies indicate that privatizing liquor sales could be beneficial to the province and to consumers.

In Ontario, liquor sales are strictly controlled, and that is the case in most provinces. People buy their liquor at the state LCBO stores, or even online, or they can go over the border into the U.S. And bring back liquor, those are essentially the only choices. Because of this, there is very little competition to keep prices down, or to keep prices low for consumers.

Ontario does allow sales from other sources, but they are all under government control, like the Beer Stores, retail winery stores, and other locations. In Quebec, the Societe des alcools du Quebec (SAQ) is the provincial agency regulating alcohol sales, and they do allow sales in grocery stores and in corner stores, unlike Ontario. Alberta is the only province that has privatized liquor sales, and many people believe doing the same in Ontario would actually be beneficial to the government and the people.

Government regulation helps keep prices higher, but many people feel that it helps keep alcohol consumption under control, as well, which keeps alcohol addiction down in provinces with strict regulations. The LCBO contributes to alcohol awareness by offering social responsibility courses in schools and businesses, and by collecting money to support organizations such as MADD and other alcohol-related causes and events. They also run a recycling program and support local charities and organizations. In addition, they contribute billions of dollars to the economy of Ontario, as well. They run an aggressive advertising campaign, and some people believe that helps contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, and that in effect the province, by regulating alcohol sales, is helping promote alcohol addiction and abuse in the communities.

By contrast, most everyone is well aware that in Amsterdam, in the Netherlands, marijuana is legal in cafes called coffee shops, and because it is less regulated, they have far fewer problems with addiction and abuse in Amsterdam. They do have problems with organized crime, and announced in late 2008 that they would close some coffee shops and other shops due to criminality, but not due to health related or addiction concerns (Sterling).

In a survey conducted by a marketing group, most Quebec residents approve of the monopoly on liquor sales, essentially because of the revenue it brings the province, and they do not want that to change, they want the province to continue to manage liquor sales. A percentage believe that liquor… [read more]

Tobacco vs. Other Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,055 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Tobacco vs. Other Drugs

Nowadays people more and more intensively argue that our present life is significantly different from that of our predecessors, 100 years ago, for example; we hear all the times about the dangers we are continuously exposed to, because of our stressful existence, combined with other harmful factors such as pollution, bad food and, most important of… [read more]

Peer Pressure on Alcohol and Drug Use Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Peer Pressure on Alcohol and Drug Use (1485 words+refs)

As children move into early adolescence, involvement with peers and the attraction of peer identification increases. As pre-adolescents begin rapid physical, emotional and social changes, they begin to question adult standards and the need for parental guidance. They find it reassuring to turn for advice to friends who understand… [read more]

Legalizing Activities Such as Recreational Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.

Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a…… [read more]

Hypnosis to Treat Drug Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (750 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


, 2003). Traditional treatment options can be very expensive, and even if a person has insurance he or she is not usually covered for drug or alcohol programs. That allows these people to fall through the cracks, or keeps them from focusing on getting some help in order to conquer their addiction and improve things for themselves and the people who care about them. Hypnosis for drug addiction could be one of the ways to start changing this, and to start making a difference in the lives of these people. While there are no guarantees of it working, the same can be said for methods that are already in use. Since the success rates for traditional treatments are not high, it is clear that something new should be attempted.

The worst that will happen is that hypnosis will not prove any more helpful than other treatment options, but it appears to have a great deal of promise. Since there is so much promise seen, it is definitely worth attempting. Because there is such a strong connection between the body and the mind, it would stand to reason that manipulating the mind would be among the best ways to adjust what is taking place within the body (Astin, et al., 2003; Elkins & Rajab, 2004). Hypnosis has been used to help people succeed in their desires to stop smoking, and the urge and desire to smoke are very powerful in many cases (Elkins & Rajab, 2004). If it is possible for a person to stop smoking through the use of hypnosis, it is certainly possible to extend the value of hypnosis to other types of substances that can also be eliminated from a person's life (Elkins & Rajab, 2004). As a less expensive alternative to many of the more traditional treatment avenues, hypnosis can be an excellent choice for anyone who is susceptible to it and interested in getting clean and sober.


Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D.M., & Forys, K.L. (2003). Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners, 16(2): 131 -- 147.

Elkins, G.R. & Rajab, M.H. (2004). Clinical hypnosis for smoking cessation: Preliminary results…… [read more]

Risk Factors Associated With Alcohol Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (933 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This study shows that there is proof of transmission of psychological and social problems from the parents to the children. This article gave a good insight about how parental actions and behavior goes on to affect the children. Parents and the society as a whole always keep an eye out for things like bullies, peer pressure, smoking, and drugs. All go these agents are known to make a bad influence on the child. However, this study clearly shows that parental habits and actions do tend to affect children as well. It should be noted that alcohol dependence, child depression and familial conflicts are all interlinked. For the man of the house, it could just be vicious cycle that he cannot get out of.

I did like the future implications that were listed in the article. This problem is very prevalent in the society today and it needs to be tamed down. It is also noted that children who have a rough child hood and see alcohol dependence in their family; they are more likely to become alcoholics themselves. As mentioned earlier, it is a viscous cycle and the family needs to work like a unit to break away from it. The family educators and therapists need to be aware of all the problems that are present in the family. This means that the therapists should know about the income problems, alcohol problems. The problem can only be combated if every aspect of conflict is looked into.

This study has therefore opened gates for many other correlations to be looked into. It is clear that parental behavior and habits make an impact on the child. Along with alcohol, parental drug abuse can also be looked into. Abuse of things like marijuana, cocaine or even excessive smoking can cause behavioral and depression related problems in the child. Therefore in my opinion, parental drug abuse and its effect on children needs to be studied in more detail.

In order to get a better grasp on the subject of alcohol dependence and familial problems, this study can be made more reliable and assorted. To further modify this study, the same methods can be used in families of different decent. This study was carried out in white catholic families. Using the same idea, studies can be conducted in varied households and in people of different races. Furthermore, the affect of cultural background and upbringing can also be looked into. If these studies are carried out on a large scale, parents can figure out how to reduce their addiction problems and improve relations with their children.


Tubman, J. (1993). Family risk factors, parental alcohol use, and problem behaviors among school-age children.…… [read more]

Common Substances of Abuse Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (828 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Substance Abuse and Dependency

Discuss the social effects of psychoactive substance use and abuse. What are some risk factors for first experimenting with alcohol and drugs? What are some intervention strategies?

The article by Grinsteinner (2006) highlights the permeation of alcohol in teen culture. For many teens, consuming alcohol is something of a rite of passage. This denotes that social dimensions play a great role in the decision to begin drinking. Indeed, while tobacco and marijuana use are observable among teens, the social effects of alcohol in particular are considerable. Grinsteinner relays that "according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, roughly 10.8 million underage persons ages 12 to 20 (28.7%) reported current alcohol use. Of these underage drinkers, 4.4 million were ages 12 to 17." (Grinsteinner, 1)

Grinsteinner goes on to point out that teens who drink alcohol before they are of age are four times more likely to form an addictive relationship with alcohol as they enter their post-adolescent and adult years. Moreover, more than 5000 teens are killed annually in alcohol-related traffic incidences. (Grinsteinner, p.1) These figures suggest that teen drug abuse, especially in this most common form, can have irreversible consequences.

The best intervention strategies are education and outreach programs. It may be a misnomer to suggest 'peer pressure' is responsible for high levels of cultural permeation where teen drug abuse is concerned. Instead, teens often insulate themselves in groups where substance abuse becomes an accepted normative behavior. In these context, little thought is given to the potential consequences. In a non-restrictive and dialogue-based context, parents and educators must take steps to make teens aware of the potentially irreversible consequences of substance abuse, particularly at so young and formative an age.

2. Identify the impact of crisis, disaster, and other trauma-causing events on persons with addiction.(a) level of addiction, (b) abuse or dependence, (c) social use, and (d) cultural specific intervention strategies.

Individuals suffering addition or dependence may find the symptoms of their condition intensified by the occurrence of crisis or disaster. Indeed, there is a considerable overlapping of substance abuse or chemical dependency and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Individuals returning for military combat, for instance, are highly vulnerable to PTSD and, therefore, are often especially vulnerable to alcoholism and habitual drug abuse.

There is also evidence that the cross-over between anxiety disorders and chemical dependency can made treatment of both conditions especially challenging. These may be interdependent disorders that are highly entwined dissonant response mechanisms. For…… [read more]

Economics Taxation on Tobacco Discussion Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Taxation on Tobacco Discussion

When the World Health Organization argued for increased taxation on tobacco, this was a normative statement. I certainly understand that the urge to raise taxes on tobacco is a part of a strategy to incite smoking cessation on a massive scale. There are startling statistics published by various reputable sources every year that describe the massive number of deaths directly and indirectly related to smoking cigarettes. There are staggering statistics about the amount of money and resources dedicated to smoking related health problems in the long and short-term. Furthermore, there is a lot of information about the revenue generated by the tobacco industry annually and overall. All of this information together is what makes me hesitate to agree. I would agree with this initiative if it were a part of a multi-pronged strategy for smoking cessation around the world. Just to suggest higher taxes on tobacco is ineffective and incomplete, though I appreciate the implied intentions to get people to stop smoking and improve their health.

2. Other ways that are available to societies to reduce cigarette consumption would be the legalization of marijuana, and to remove the harmful chemicals from cigarettes. Tobacco is a plant that has moderate addictive properties, but cigarettes do not contain only tobacco, often extremely dangerous or fatal ingredients that increase the addictive properties as well as increase the nefarious side effects upon health. People often smoke cigarettes to relax; societies could make greater efforts to reduce the stress in their cultures and provide widespread free ways to elevate stress so that people have more alternatives to stress reduction rather than smoking. Societies could additionally…… [read more]

Reasons Why People Use Drugs Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Drug Usage

The war on drugs in the United States has been active for many decades. However, the number of individuals selling drugs, and most importantly, using them, has not gone down or reduced in any format (Allen et al., 2003). People, who choose to use drugs, do so for a variety of reasons. Their reasoning may vary from one another, but the negative effects felt by the person and those around him or her are practically the same. For the most part, people start using drugs at a very negative point in their lives, usually to escape their own reality (Miller, 2010). Another reason why people use drugs is to experiment with them. At times there may be moments where people feel pressured to fit in and try drugs in order to be part of a certain crowd. When young individuals start to use drugs, they may do it at a point in their lives where they may be rebelling (Allen et al., 2003).

The biggest reason why people choose to do drugs is to escape their current reality. There are times where personal events in an individual's life may prompt the usage of narcotics. This is done so that they may forget what they are emotionally going through. Another reason why individuals would want to use drugs as a distraction is when they are trying to escape their environment (Miller, 2010). When people either have absolutely no control or feel like they do not have any control, over the situation that they are living in, they may choose to find solace in drugs. This is seen in low-income communities that are usually plagued with crime, violence, and drugs to begin with. Not only does the hope of escaping their own environment prompt them to experiment with narcotics, these drugs are also more accessible in these types of ambiance (Miller, 2010).

Individuals may also choose to use drugs if they feel that doing so will allow them to be a part of a particular crowd. This is the case for many young people who experiment with a drug, but then end up getting addicted to these substances (Allen et al., 2003). Rebelling is a part of human nature, and at many times, the rebelling of adolescents, teenagers, and young adults, may have dire consequences. Choosing to use drugs as a way to fit in may have more negative results than positive ones, since the usage of narcotics and the participation in other illegal activities go hand in hand. Although this is not guaranteed, the correlation between the two is relatively high (Allen et al., 2003).

In order to tackle such a growing problem, strategies need to be implemented that will sufficiently serve the needs of those who need them most. Problems with drugs and alcohol can be treated in a variety of…… [read more]

War on Drugs for Roughly a Century Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


War on Drugs

For roughly a century, the United States government has been using their resources to police the substances known as drugs. In the last few decades the regulation of certain substances has resulted in an all-out "war" on drugs. Today in the United States, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 55% of federal prisoners and 21% of… [read more]

Drug Culture Midterm Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For His Son was also memorable, especially in the scenes that highlight the son's cocaine addiction and depravity, because of its commentary on the drug and beverage business. Ironically, the drink that the father creates for his son in the film is similar to Coca-Cola, which until 1929 still contained cocaine. Altered States is full of memorable scenes, however, one of the scenes that stands out among the rest is when Dr. Jessup arrives to a party being hosted by Arthur Rosenberg. When Dr. Jessup arrives, he appears to be bathed in bright light, which makes it appear as though he is entering into a sensory deprivation capsule and stepping into the darkness that is the party. Also memorable in this film are the chaotic, hallucinogenic montages full of religious iconography that bombard Dr. Jessup's psyche. In The Big Lebowski, one of the most memorable sequences occurs when The Dude is drugged and has a dream about bowling and Maude Lebowski. This scene is not only artistic, but also allows the viewer to see the things that are most important…… [read more]

Big Lebowski Drugs Essay

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The Dude is also shown drinking beer on one other distinct occasion as he is both drinking and driving and smoking up and driving while attempting to allude a mysterious blue Volkswagen Beetle that has been following him. However, The Dude's drink of choice is a white Russian. He is shown drinking the cocktail soon after he wakes up, at Maude's studio when he first meets her and later when she asks him to come over, on his limo ride home from Maude's studio, at the bowling alley, and after having sex with Maude. The Dude is also shown drinking a white Russian at Jackie Treehorn's house, which has been laced with an unknown hallucinogenic drug that almost immediately knocks him out. While marijuana is not shown to have any hallucinogenic effect on The Dude, the unknown substance in the white Russian leads him to have a surreal dream in which he is a character in a Jackie Treehorn produced film called Gutterballs that combines his love of bowling with his infatuation of Maude.

The Dude is also shown smoking marijuana on at least five different occasions. The first time The Dude is shown smoking a joint is when he is called to a meeting by Mr. Lebowski who wants The Dude to help him deliver a ransom for his allegedly kidnapped wife, Bunny. The Dude is also shown smoking marijuana while taking a soak in the tub before he is attacked by the German nihilists, after he has sex with Maude, and right before he is picked up/kidnapped by Jackie Treehorn's goons. There are two scenes in which drugs or drug paraphernalia are shown but The Dude is not smoking. The first is when The Dude is making a police report after his car is stolen; in this scene there is drug paraphernalia on the coffee table between him and the police officers and possibly on a side table. The second scene in which drugs are shown but not used is when he accidentally slams down a joint he keeps in his pocket on the diner counter when he is slamming down coins to pay for his coffee before he storms out.

While drugs do not necessarily influence the narrative, they do help to make The Dude a more sympathetic character. He is attacked, harassed, and taken advantage of for no other reason other than the fact he shares his name with a broke millionaire who will do anything for money. It is interesting see how social stigma regarding drug use is not echoed in films like The Big Lebowski. While society continuously argues the negative effects of marijuana consumption, drug films rarely, if ever, depict the negative effects of the drug. Contrarily, marijuana forces characters out of their comfort zone and makes them participate in new adventures while simultaneously demonstrating how they develop as individuals.… [read more]

Drug Use and Abuse Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,027 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The participants averaged 32 years of age and 59% were male; males were more likely to use alcohol, heroin, cocaine, crack cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana and hallucinogens than females; moreover, males reported using alcohol, marijuana and hallucinogens at "…a significantly younger age than females (Shannon, 98). The reason the study was done in eastern Kentucky included the fact that eastern Kentucky… [read more]

Michael Lauren Who Is Struggling Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Heart, liver and brains are the most effective body organs by drinking alcohol. Alcohol even deprives and robs away the essential vitamins and minerals from the body that are imperative for proper cell functioning.

The people addicted to alcohol also demonstrate the symptoms that include distressing way of walking, shivering hands, blind headaches, and hallucinations. Blurred visions, drowsiness, irritated emotional state and nausea are also few of the widespread effects of drinking alcohol. Other long-term effects observed amongst people drinking alcohol in heavy quantity are lesser desire for food, stomach illness and diseases, memory loss and damage to nervous system.

People, who are in the transition phase of Marijuana withdrawal, they are likely to exhibit symptoms such as depression, craving, change in appetite, weight loss, anger, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, sleep disruptions, dreaming, insomnia and aches. These symptoms are noticed amongst the people in few days only after quitting the intake of marijuana.

However, overdose of Marijuana has adverse impacts that can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of self-identification, hallucinations, paranoia, severe breathing problem, high blood pressure, and reduced motor and reasoning skills. Nevertheless, the harsh and far-reaching impact of marijuana overdose may cause in brain hemorrhage, heart attack, strokes, even failure of the respiratory system of the people and elevates the probability of lung cancer.

Alcohol intake to a disproportionate level typically causes fatal damage to the entire body in terms of permanent brain damage due to loss of brain tissues, intellectual impairment, irregular breathing patterns, damaged immune system, heart diseases, coma, hypertension, liver damage and cancer.

The withdrawal symptoms amongst the people vary from the severity of the drinking habits of the people. However, the widespread and frequent symptoms noticed amongst the withdrawals of alcohol take account of agitation, anxiety, irritability, emotional instability, depression, sweating, nausea, panic attacks, dreaming, confusion, weakness, insomnia and various others.

Primary prevention technique is one of the effective methods that can be practiced where the young people should be the key focal groups who are not involved in such addictions. Appropriate education and coaching regarding the impact of these drugs on their lives, body, nervous system, emotions and social relationships would be a driving force to keep these youngsters away from such addictions.

Secondary prevention program is another way to cater and aim at those people that have already experienced the intake of drugs but they are not under its adverse consequences. Through targeting these people, the program intends to prevent these people from making them involved in more perilous substances.

Selective Prevention is another technique that can aim at the group of population that are on the high-risk and has been much involved in the intake of illicit drugs. These young people can be classified from a number of aspects such as poor performance in school, unusual behaviors at home and various others.

A variety of treatment modality for marijuana is present that can be used; however, the treatment modality recommended for Michele would be rehabilitation centre, because of its revitalizing environment that… [read more]

Health Science Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,482 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Those running DARE program must have taken the war on drugs/zero tolerance frame into consideration and that is why they charged the law enforcement agencies with the primary responsibility of addressing illicit drug use. This made the DARE program to be diffused widely without concrete evidence on its effectiveness. Effectiveness of the DARE program should be premised on research findings… [read more]

Alcoholism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Alcohol has long been known as an enormous social problem and health problem, and according to statistical data, there are more than 12 million alcoholics in the United States. Alcohol is the number one drug problem in the U.S. And an estimated three quarters of all adults consume alcohol at some level, and 6% of those are alcoholics (Mogul,… [read more]

Drug Abuse the Findings Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,258 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Financial Despair

Addiction has a huge impact on the finance of a person. Based on the addict drug of choice, the financial ramification may turn to be radical and overwhelming, especial when one is addicted to some types of drugs like cocaine. Stocks plus the saving tend to vanish as time goes and it continues to any other liquid assets or disposable income as these items are sold in a bid to finance the heavy purchase of drugs. The outcome is that bills will not be paid, daily expenses will be stressful. Losing their jobs is inevitable as this sign and symptoms will be seen openly, (eHow Contributor, 2012).

Health Decline

When this addiction goes on for along time, it will be accompanied by health issues. Since sleep cycle of the addict will be disrupted, it leads to weaker immune system, paving way for respiration viruses, (Rahul Pandita 2012). Failures of oral hygiene results to gum disease, tooth decay and even periodontal disease. Finally, it may cause shutting down of vital organs and possibly death.


Being addicted makes an individual to be always in life of lies and cover-ups. They will at all times try to convince their loved ones that drug addiction does not exist, and establishes self-centered world. When the family as well as friends do not accept the drug addiction, their world remains to be on them as individual and the only friend becomes his drugs.

Resources available


This is opened to every person who happened to suffer through drug addiction. Usually it is a support group meant for family members as well as friends of the addict, applying a12-step program for assisting members with this desperation plus assisting the addicts into recovery. They offer free meetings and they have their online information.

Families Anonymous

It is meant for providing support for the family members and friends who are hurt by the actions from the addicted persons. They have established meetings in most of the places around the world. They as well provide online meetings for the people who cannot get access to their places of meetings. When in the meeting they share stories about their experiences with the addicts learning ways of helping and handling their addicted family members or friends. These members work together in helping their members at difficult times as they use a 12-step method, (Adam Johnson, 2012).

Co-dependents Anonymous

This helps members to develop a healthy relationship with one another. The group tries to assist in identifying patterns of co-dependency and come up with a solution to establishing a better support structures in relationships. Not only to the addicts, unhealthy co-dependent relationships is capable of encouraging individuals to begin or maintain other addiction as a means of coping with their relationships.


More initiatives should be put in place to help families and the drug abusers so that the families can know more about ways of handling the drug abusers and even the drug abusers can receive help, since they… [read more]

Drug Profile Drug Addiction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Hallucinogens alter mood and perception, and include such drugs as LSD, ecstasy, ketamine, and PCP. The most commonly used form of cannabis is marijuana, and can induce a sense of well-being and relaxation (Joseph, 2005). Advances in drug development have increased the availability of prescription medications. The prevalence of prescription drugs with addictive potential has consequently increased the probability for users to misuse these substances. Each drug class represents a variety of drugs that can cause psychological dependence, if not physical dependence, which ultimately instigates drug addiction.


Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.

Joseph, D.U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. (2005). Drugs of abuse. Retrieved from website: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/abuse/doa-p.pdf

U.S. Department of health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2006). Prescription medications: Misuse, abuse, dependence, and addiction. Substance Abuse Treatment Advisory, 5(2), 1-4. Retrieved from: http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/advisory/pdfs/prescription-meds.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2007). Drugs, brains, and behavior, the science of addiction (NIH Pub No. 07-5605).… [read more]

War on Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,198 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hence, it was here that many researchers studied the link between terrorism and drugs management not only within the Columbian and Latin American region but also in the United States (The Economist, 2001).

According to study conducted by Falcoff in 2000, in 1998 the Columbian government had huge profit margins from drug trafficking with figures reaching up to U.S.$236 million resulting from kidnapping, U.S.$311 million resulting from extortion and nearly U.S.$551 million resulting from drug links (Falcoff, 2000). The FARC organization alone earned huge percentages that year: 6% resulting from cattle rustling, % resulting from kidnapping, 36% resulting from extortion and 48% resulting from drug sources (Suarez, 2000). This percentage breakdown shows why more and more people are easily recruited by the drug agencies; they can easily pay their employees 2 to 10% more than any government organization within the region. This was again proven by the Falcoff study where he presented stats that showed an increase of employees from 7,000 in 1995 to nearly 20,000 by the end of the year 2000 (Falcoff, 2000). Similarly, other organizations like the AUC saw an increase in the number of employees from 4,500 in 1995 to nearly 8,000 by the end of 2001 (The Economist, 2001). This shows that the overall potential of drug traffickinking making profits through the manipulation of the vulnerable Americans can lead to disastrous financial breakthroughs which could cripple the entire economy and results in an economic hand-over to the third party terrorist groups, industrialists and drug traffickers in the region.

Another important aspect of the war on drugs is it link to taxes that are levied and that motivate the penetration of drug traffickers. Laqueur, in his research, explains that the main reason for the terrorists being funded by the drug traffickers is because they don't want to pay the heavy government taxes and fees that are offered for the safe trade of crops and other accessories. Furthermore, the constant monitoring and examinations by the government does not allow the free flow of illegal drugs. Hence, the terrorists borrowed the idea of taxes for protection in order to suitably and regularly fund their terrorist activities (Laqueur, 1999).


In conclusion, it is thus important that the war on drugs continue on a much more aggressive scale and that they following questions be tackled when focusing on the patterns of war on drugs in the future: what patterns lead to strong drug-terrorism links? What leadership patterns can be determined from the drug-terrorism links formed over the years? How can this be countered? What changes in policies are required to restrict the drug trafficking within the region? What motivational factors other than finance can be provided to the masses to divert them from finding employment within the drug trafficking industry? What structures need to be put in place to create long-term stability and peace within regions after drug-terrorism links have been reduced? What form of taxes and fees need to revised and/or new ones to be levied on the… [read more]

Tobacco Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In fact, British American Tobacco Australia has approximated that more than 57,500 full-time jobs were created by the demand for tobacco products in Australia (PricewaterhouseCoopers). This increase in employment is certainly substantial, especially in times of high worldwide unemployment rates. An industry capable of such considerable augmentation to unemployment rates is one that will be seldom overlooked by governments.

Moreover, governments will also have a hard time overlooking the proliferation of revenues generated by tobacco companies. Retail sales of cigarettes and tobacco products comprise a hefty percentage of total sales in many countries (including Australia). For instance, in 2006-07 tobacco sales reached more than $10.1 billion, which represents about 5% of total retail sales in Australia (Australia Bureau of Statistics). Therefore, as one can deduce, the revenues garnered by the Australian government as a result of tobacco are quite sizeable. This trend also exists in several other developed nations. Despite the real monetary gains attributable to tobacco, some who doubt the future of this industry claim that resultant healthcare expenditures negate any and all fiscal benefits accrued from tobacco production and sales. However, according to a study done by Macquarie University Professor Dr. David Collins and Queensland University Professor Dr. Helen Lapsley, the actual numbers favor the continuation of the tobacco industry:

(Collins and Lapsley 71)

The above table elucidates the financial impact of tobacco on the federal budget of Australia during the years of 2004-05. As is illustrated, the revenues generated from the tobacco industry greatly outweigh those relevant expenditures on healthcare. Consequently, despite the relatively high healthcare expenses spawned by this industry, tobacco remains a strong macroeconomic revenue generator.

Ultimately there is a great deal of controversy surrounding the tobacco industry. While the pros of sustaining this industry may be a bit more complex to elucidate than lung cancer, the cumulative economic benefits produced by big tobacco are unmistakable. With global issues like unemployment, lackluster government credit ratings, corruption, war and countless others facing the modern world, it certainly seems like the strengthening of governments and the bolstering of employment opportunities will continue to be attractive. All of the aforementioned remunerations along with the rich history of this industry and its entanglement in the function of several economies and microeconomies must all be diligently considered before any government of global organization attempts to ban these lucrative products.


Action on Smoking and Health. "ASH Research Report." 1 August 2007. Tobacco: Global Trends. 21 October 2011 .

Australia Bureau of Statistics. "Australian National Accounts, National Income, Expenditure and Product." 6 September 2006. Household Final Consumption HFCE Australia. 21 October 2011 .

Collins, David J. And Helen M. Lapsley. "The Costs of Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit Drug Abuse to Australian Society in 2004/05." 1 January 2008. National Drug Strategy. 21 October 2011 .

PricewaterhouseCoopers. "Sales of Cigarettes and Tobacco Products by Type of Retail Business." 7 January 2005. An Analysis of the Significance of Sales of Cigarettes and Tobacco Products to Tobacco Retailers in Australia. 21 October 2011 .

Yach,… [read more]

Biological Psychology Is Marijuana a Dangerous Drug Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,006 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Biological Psychology

Activity #1

Biological psychology: Is marijuana a dangerous drug?

In the year 1970, there was a huge problem for the U.S. government -- marijuana use was on the rise. In response to the increased popularity, Congress authorized $1 million for a national commission to study marijuana (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). The National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, often simply called the Shafer Commission, was led by the former Governor of Pennsylvania -- Raymond Shafer (1997). There were 12 other members that consisted of four doctors, two lawyers, and four members of Congress (1997).

The Shafer Commission looked at the claims about marijuana's dangers dating all the way back to the 1920s, many of these same claims from the 1920s were believed in the 1970s (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). The commission, which had hired outside consultants to come in and review all the evidence, found some gaps in evidence and so Congress provided money so that new studies could be performed (1997). The commission held hearings all around the U.S. where lawyers, doctors, researchers, teachers, students, and law enforcement authorities could go and offer their own insights and opinions about marijuana -- including its effects and the laws that were against it (1997).

The Shafer Commission found no convincing evidence whatsoever that marijuana led to "crime, insanity, sexual promiscuity, an 'amotivationl' syndrome, or that marijuana was a stepping stone to other drugs" (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). There were animal studies that showed that there was no amount of marijuana that could be taken that would ever be fatal to humans (1997). It was also found that even the largest dosage of marijuana did not damage any of the body's tissues or organs (1997). There was also the evidence from one study, one of the commission's own, that showed that even after men in a lab who had unlimited access to marijuana for 21 days showed absolutely no sings of psychological or intellectual impairment after a high-dosage (1997). There were also studies funded by the U.S. government and carried out in Jamaica and Greece that found that no physical or mental problems occurred in men who had used marijuana heavily for several years (1997).

While there is the general consensus that drug use, overall, of any substance, is not good for humans, there was also the notion that smoking marijuana was akin to the harmful effects of tobacco. There was also the notion that driving after using marijuana was akin to driving drunk and that it could cause car accidents. There was also the idea that people who smoked marijuana heavily for years would become maladjusted in society (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). Yet, they reported after the studies that "marijuana related problems, which occur only in heavy, long-term users," had "been over-generalized and over-dramatized" (1997). The Shafer Commission concluded that "from what it now known about the effects of marijuana, its use…does not constitute a major threat to public health" (1997).

In the 1970s there was a race to… [read more]

Drug Legalization of Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,087 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Drug Legalization

Legalization of drugs

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

The legalization of drugs of abuse has been an ongoing controversy in the United States for quite some time following the development of a widespread belief in the failure of the current prohibition regulations. It is not one that has found any significant resolution with strong arguments being made on… [read more]

Gore Vidal -- Drugs in a Piece Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gore Vidal -- Drugs

In a piece in the New York Times in 1970 Gore Vidal, famous political provocateur, declared in no uncertain terms that, to stop drug addition in the United States, the government should "simply make all drugs available and sell them at cost." Vidal makes no distinction between drugs here -- marijuana, cocaine and heroin are all up for grabs in his free market drug economy. After all, he has tried "almost every drug and liked none," without becoming an addict; why shouldn't the rest of us have the same opportunity? Making all drugs legal, he argues, will "stop most drug addiction…within a very short time." Vidal also makes searing accusations against the government; not only that the war on drugs is a dismal failure on the scale of prohibition in the 1920s, but that the government itself is responsible for some addicts' deaths. I cannot be sure how Vidal's argument read in 1970, before the twin scourges of crack cocaine and meth entered the drug scene, but in the current context of drug addition, his argument rings hollow and comes off as the whining of a petulant teenager rebelling against his parents' house rules. As policy, Vidal's ideas would wreak havoc on the criminal justice system, increase bureaucracy and have a negligible effect on the number of addicts or the nature of their addictions.

Vidal seems to lack a basic understanding of how drug addiction truly works. His assertion, first, that he has tried most drugs and has never become an addict is a great anecdote, but it cannot possibly speak for everyone who tries drugs. After all, everyone who is a currently an addict had to try a drug for the first time. No one plans on becoming an addict, Mr. Vidal. Vidal also argues that the way to keep people from becoming addicts is to simply educate them about the dangers of the drugs, which would require "heroic honesty" on the part of the government, which would presumably manage the entire system. I wonder how Mr. Vidal would explain cigarette addiction. Warning labels first appeared on tobacco products in 1965, five years before Vidal's article appeared. In the years since, the warning have become more severe, basically saying, "Cigarettes kill. Don't smoke them." And yet, smoking rates over the past decade have not declined and smokers make up about 20% of the adult population (Number). Vidal argues that "it seems most unlikely that any reasonable sane person will become a drug addict if he knows in advance what addiction is going to be like." This argument makes absolutely no sense. Who among us does now know what the consequences of smoking are? We've all seen the X-rays of healthy lungs and smoker's lungs side-by-side. Many of us personally know people who have succumbed to the terrible, slow, ugly death of lung disease. And yet people start smoking, many of them in their teens, illegally. As I said before, no one plans on becoming an… [read more]

Drug Source Interpretations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … drugfreeworld.org

The public service announcements on DrugFreeWorld.org are very effective in showing the negative consequences of both licit and illicit drug use. Each announcement reenacts a real life situation caused by the use of specific drugs and the addiction that accompanies such drug use. These public service announcements present 'The Lie' in its original form, how it is… [read more]

Alcohol and Drugs Among Elderly Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,427 words)
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Black Studies: Social Issues

Alcohol And Drugs Among Elderly

The focus of this work in writing is to examine alcohol and drug use among elderly individuals and specifically in regards to historical information, demographics, culture, strengths weaknesses, current issues and advocacy issues, public policy, options or suggestion for change and other practical views on this area of study.

Numbers and… [read more]

Employees Suffering From Drug and Alcohol Abuse Policy Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (677 words)
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Human Resources

Employees Suffering from Drug and Alcohol Abuse Policy

Drug and alcohol abuse is not a new problem in our society. During various times throughout history there have been movements to address substance abuse and its effects. The issue of drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace has traditionally been met by a dismissive attitude. It has often been reacted to by trying to sweep the problem under the carpet, based more on moral precepts than a concern for the health issues involved. Yet, drug and alcohol abuse is coming to be much more widely understood as being harmful to both companies and workers (Drug and alcohol abuse - an important workplace issue, 2009).

A company's policy should be to employ a workforce that is free from the use of illegal drugs and abuse of alcohol. Any employee that is determined to be in violation of this policy would be subject to disciplinary action, which may include termination. In order to maintain the standard of a drug free workplace companies are employing several different polices. An employee that reports to work visibly impaired and unable to perform their job functions are not allowed to work. If after meeting with the employee the supervisor determines that their indeed is substance abuse, the employee is sent home (Klingner and O'Neil, 1991).

Companies are implementing and maintaining Employee Assistance Programs which provide help to employees and their families who suffer from alcohol or drug abuse. Through this program the companies are providing appropriate assessment, referral to treatment, and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse. Employees are often granted leave with a conditional return to work depending on the success of their treatment program. A condition of their return is often that they must be willing to submit to random drug tests (Klingner and O'Neil, 1991).

Random drug screens for current employees are put into place to identify employees who use illegal drugs or alcohol, either one or off the job. Companies are making it a condition of employment to submit…… [read more]

Drug Use "House Passes Drug Safety Legislation Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Drug Use

"House Passes Drug Safety Legislation" (http://www.texpirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/house-passes-drug-safety-legislation)

According to a press release posted on TexPRIG, a web site that focuses on the problems of powerful interests, the federal house passed an important bill in 2007, which greatly affected the public's knowledge of prescription drugs. The act, which was eventually passed in September of 2007, forced the Food and Drug… [read more]

Drug Abuse and Multidimensional Family Therapy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,773 words)
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Drug Abuse and Multidimensional Family Therapy: Literature Review Only

Review of the Relevant Literature

By any measure, substance abuse represents a serious problem in the United States today among adolescents and adults alike, but younger people in particular can experience some life-altering changes as a result of such abusive practices. According to Burrow-Sanchez (2006), although many adolescents, and perhaps most,… [read more]

Drug Abuse Has Reached an Alarming Level Essay

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Drug abuse has reached an alarming level in the present, with substances on nearly every street corner available to buy for virtually anyone. For several decades, the U.S. authorities have launched a war to fight drugs and so far it has stopped large amounts of substances from reaching the open market. However, in spite of the efforts being done to bring drug traffic to an end, the business is still working strong all over the country.

During the first half of the 20th century, substance abuse had not been disturbing when considering the amounts of drugs being trafficked and consumed in the world. People from the time had also been unaware of the effects of most drugs because of the fact that substances were being sold and consumed in small quantities.

The second half of the 20th century came with a boom in the productions of illegal substances. The numbers of people abusing them had also experienced a remarkable growth. The drug trafficking business had also advanced, and now millions of people had got involved. The traffickers now had acquired the money to bribe police officers and get away with mostly anything.

To this day, the drug war has not proved to be effective because the quantity of drugs being brought illegally into the U.S. has experienced a constant growth. Apparently, the billions of dollars involved in combating the production, sale and consumption of drugs have been spent inefficiently.

The bottom line is that it requires an abnormal effort to fight drugs efficiently. As long as drug traffickers will be named "lords, barons," and such impressive names, some people will be charmed and attracted by the advantages that drugs bring. In order for the drug wars to be effective, the funds intended for them should be spent on special programs destined to prove the destructive effects the substances have. Presently, authorities use most of the money intended to fight drugs for means that involve violence.

The Criminal Justice System has changed with the emergence of drug wars. From the early 80s and until now, the number of inmates has experienced a steady increase as drug-related criminals were coming in larger packs.

The first notable funds intended for drug wars have been given during the Nixon administration, as $65 million had been spent in 1969. Nixon's successors continued to give large sums of public money for the fight against drugs. The Reagan administration provided the war with $1.6 billion, while the Clinton administration gave away $17.1 billion for the combat against drugs. (Gonsalves, Sean 2000)

The total of 581,000 arrests in 1980 nearly tripled to a record high of 1,584,000 by 1997 and continues close to that level with 1,532,300 in 1999. In 1999, four of five (80.5%) drug arrests were for possession and one of five (19.5%) for sales. Overall, 40.5% of drug arrests were for marijuana offenses. (the Sentencing Project)

Drug wars have proved to be successful when concerning the number of people arrested. However, the number of people… [read more]

Drugs and Crime Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (530 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Criminal Justice - Drugs & Crime


The illicit use of narcotics generates a tremendous amount of crime in the United States, ranging from petty street crimes to serious trafficking and violence, including murder associated with the illegal black market. In this respect, there is a link between drug use and crime; however, in other respects, this association is deceiving because it results more from the effect of restrictive anti-drug legislation rather than to anything directly attributable to drug use in and of itself.

The Relationship Between Drugs and Serious Crime and the Lesson of Prohibition:

From 1920 until 1933, alcohol sales and consumption were prohibited throughout the United States by federal law. To meet the continuing desire of the public for alcohol, numerous criminal enterprises emerged to provide alcohol in illegal speakeasies in conjunction with rampant political corruption in the form of payoffs from criminals to politicians willing to overlook their profiting from this vice. By 1933, public resistance to adhere to legal prohibitions restricting alcohol and so exceeded the reasonable capacity of law enforcement to enforce that the federal restriction was repealed relegating the issue to state legislation instead.

The illegal trade in alcohol proved so profitable that it financed the largest criminal syndicate in the history of the country, which eventually grew to wield profound influence throughout many major metropolitan areas including New York and Chicago in particular. By the 1970's a significant percentage of all construction expenses incurred in connection with major infrastructure construction and other industries like commercial waste transport and interstate trucking were largely controlled by the…… [read more]

Drugs and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,307 words)
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Drugs and Society

Our society consistently holds a delicate and complicated relationship between it's members and the drugs which they use. Many are quick to allocate drug problems with those who use illicit drugs; however, our society is completely immersed in legal drug use. Therefore, a hypocritical double standard represents the nature of drug use and abuse in the United States. Since the first of the major four pharmaceutical revolutions appeared in the pages of history, our society has held a very complex love hate relationship with the drugs which both help and destroy us.

Most people were very reluctant to put their trust in pharmacology until the introduction of vaccines by revolutionaries such as Louis Pasteur. These new drugs won over popular opinion when major diseases were all but eradicated off the face of the earth. Diseases such as small pox and polio were diminished, and so came the first major wave of reliance on drugs by the public. The next revolution only solidified the need for drugs within the average citizen. Antibiotics offered people safety from various viruses and infections. Psychotropic drugs provided magical release from psychological issues, leaving Americans even more reliant on various drugs for their general well-being. Then oral contraceptives gave people ultimate control over what they chose their body to do or not to do. All of these drugs are favored highly, but yet any illicit drugs are seen as a plague, leaving some to question the true differences between the two.

1b. The popularity of psychotropic drugs and oral contraceptives within the 1950s and 1960s opened up a wide range of drugs to the average public who had never had been exposed to such mind altering substances. Because these drugs were prescribed by their doctors and psychiatrists, they were considered completely acceptable and necessary. Many individuals became dependent on drugs for the first time on a daily basis. People took drugs everyday for years, rather than strictly when they were sick or diseased. This allowed for the wide spread acceptance of licit drugs as a part of normal every day life.

However, this budding dependence set the stage for later drug usage as seen the social revolutions of the 1960s. The cultural misfits within the movement in the 1960s put a much different face on the use of illicit drugs. The sons and daughters of the middle class were following in their parent's footsteps with their much more common and daily drug use. However, these were not psychotropic drugs which helped calm anxiety or ease depression, these were drugs used strictly for recreational purposes. Recreational drugs use was previously set aside for lower classes and minorities in the eyes of the majority of upper class Americans. These years shocked many Americans with the use of such drug by middle class Americans for fun rather than for medical or psychological issues. This forever changed the face of the drug user and the addict. Although the stigma still haunts many poorer classes, it is no… [read more]

Illegal Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (881 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Drama - Drugs in Society


Drug use and trafficking are both extremely harmful to society, but most of those harms are either direct or indirect consequences of their illegal status. If illicit narcotics were simply controlled, regulated and taxed by the government in the same manner as tobacco products and alcohol, the problem of illegal drug trafficking would be approximately as extensive as the problem of interstate cigarette smuggling and unlicensed liquor distillation and sales, which is to say inconsequential (Brecher 1991).

Primarily as a result of their illegal status, penal institutions are unnecessarily crowded with individuals whose only moral "vice" is preferring marijuana to alcohol, organized crime maintains a lucrative drug trafficking business, and law enforcement resources are needlessly wasted battling something that, more often than not, is exclusively a private matter.

The Logical Basis of Penal Law: The most important fundamental purpose of establishing societal rules that are enforced through the State's police power to define certain types of conduct as punishable criminal matters is to provide protection to its citizens from being harmed by other citizens. Without law enforcement, the weak and intellectually unsophisticated would be at the mercy of the strong and intellectually gifted. That is a very necessary function of modern government (Coleman, Butcher & Carson 1994).

Penal law and the threat of arrest and incarceration is often the only way of ensuring that businesses do not take advantage of customers, that landlords do not terrorize tenants for higher rent at will, and probably the only reason that there are not many more drunk drivers on the road every day. Critics of criminalizing recreational drug use are not opposed to penalizing any conduct associated with drug use that presents danger to others, or any illegal circumvention of legislative requirements to comply with licensing and distribution of recreational drugs any more than they object to the same types of government regulation of liquors and food sales. They object to the illogical application of penal concepts to private drug use because it is absolutely no different from governmental regulation of private liquor consumption, smoking cigarettes at home, or eating more doughnuts than nutritionists recommend.

Unjustifiable Modern Criminal Laws:

Because recreational drugs are illegal and socially unacceptable, the majority of drug users most people come into contact with are those from the segment of the population likely to be relatively disconnected from society; respectable individuals who choose to use drugs in private usually do it secretly (Coleman, et al. 1994) so as not to damage their reputations and credibility. For just one of many examples, renowned astronomer and…… [read more]

Legalized Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Legalized Drugs

As the DEA points out, drugs are illegal for a reason: they are harmful. When considering the debate about legalizing drugs, it is important to reconsider the role of the federal government. Most people would agree that government must control and ensure public safety and welfare; the government must protect individuals from harm without unduly infringing on their rights.

The government does not, for example, ban fast food even though it has been proven beyond a shadow of a doubt that such substances are harmful. Citizens are allowed to engage in highly risky activities like rock climbing without government interference. Prohibition of alcohol likewise was proven ineffective on this and other grounds, as Boaz points out. Alcohol causes direct deaths from poisoning and from drunk driving but the government chooses to allow its citizens to choose whether or not they want to flirt with danger in such a way. Alcohol is, however, a controlled substance. Minors are prohibited form ingesting it and no citizen is allowed to drive drunk because of the danger such an action would pose to others.

Drugs should be treated in the same fashion. After all, alcohol is a drug. Another reason why prohibition did not work was…… [read more]

Relationship Between Different Personality Types and Addiction to Drugs and Alcohol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,103 words)
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Personality Type as a Predictor of Addictions

Evidence linking substance abuse, either alcohol or other substances, to an increased incidence of personality disorders. This study expands on previous studies and explores the link between happiness and depression stemming from a number of personality disorders. The hypothesis postulates that a link correlation will be found between a higher incidence of depression… [read more]

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse: Pros &amp Cons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

The topic of drug legalization is one of heatedly contested debate. Both sides of the debate have reasoning that has them firmly entrenched in their beliefs. This paper will review both the pros and cons of legalizing drugs of abuse.

Pros of Illicit Drug Legalization:

Proponents of drug legalization most often begin their… [read more]

Drug Usage Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,084 words)
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Drug Usage

The use drugs to affect conscious states dates back almost to the origins of humanity. In fact, the pollen of eight medicinal plants was found in a 60,000-year-old tomb in Iraq, and in the Assurbanipal library, researchers found lists of medicinal plants inscribed on tablets (Changeux 1998). Shamans and other mystical and spiritual teachers have long used substances… [read more]

Elderly Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Elderly Substance Abuse

Stereotypes of elderly people include the crotchety grandfather, the kindly grandmother or a gentle older person who tells stories of years gone by. The elderly are associated with concepts such as infirmity, illness and wisdom. Furthermore, as baby boomers retire, the "post-60" years are being seen as times of continued activity and productivity. More advances are therefore… [read more]

War on Drugs in 2003 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,332 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … War on Drugs

In 2003, the United States Federal Government spent over $19 billion dollars on the War on Drugs, a rate of approximately $600 per second, and the budget since has been increased by over a billion dollars (Drug pp). And state and local governments spent at least another $30 billion (Drug pp).

For the year 2005 arrests for law violations are expected to exceed the 1,678,192 arrests of 2003, in fact, someone is arrested every twenty minutes (Drug pp).

In the year 2002, 45.3% of the 1,538,813 total arrest for drug abuse violations were for marijuana, resulting in a total of 697,082 and of these, 613,986 were for marijuana possession alone (Drug pp). Since December 31, 1995, the United States prison population has grown an average of 43,266 inmates per year, and roughly 25% are sentence for drug law violations (Drug pp).

The Financial Action Task Force, FATF, hired Peter Reuter, a well-known economist who has done extensive work on illegal drug markets, to find the size of the world illegal drug market (Economics pp). The United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, UNDCP, opened its data bank for the research, which resulted in an estimated range between $45 and $280 billion (Economics pp). According to the United Nations, "profits in illegal drugs are so inflated that three-quarters of all drug shipments would have to be intercepted to seriously reduce the profitability of the business" (Economics pp). Currently, only 13% of heroin shipments and 28% of cocaine shipments are intercepted (Economics pp). The United Nations reports that in 2001, a kilogram of heroin in Pakistan sold for an average of $610, while in the United States it averaged $25,000 per kilogram (Economics pp). The United States Office of National Drug Control Policy claims that the cost of heroin at the retail level declined from an estimated $1, 974.49 per gram in 1981 to $361.95 per gram in 2003 (Economics pp). Moreover, the average purity of heroin in the U.S. market increased during that time as well, going from a retail level of 11% in 1981 to an average of 46% in 2003 (Economics pp).

According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the $18.822 billion spent by the federal government on the drug war in 2002 breaks down as follows:

Treatment (with Research): $3.587 Billion (19.1% of total)

Prevention (with Research): $2.548 Billion (13.5% of total)

Domestic Law Enforcement: $9.513 Billion (50.5% of total)

Interdiction: $2.074 Billion (11.0% of total)

International: $1.098 Billion (5.8% of total)

Economics pp).

In other words, 67% was directed to supply reduction, while 32.6% was directed toward demand reduction (Economics pp).

Since 1982, the total justice expenditures has more than quadrupled, from $36 billion to over $167 billion, resulting in a 366% increase, while the average annual increase for all levels of government between 1982 and 2001 was 8% (Economics pp). Local police spending represented 30% of the Nation's total justice expenditure, and State corrections accounted for the… [read more]

Suicide Drug Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Suicide and Drug Abuse

There is a current trend to support the right to suicide or to die with dignity. This trend does not reflect popular view and I do not support the view that one has the right to commit suicide or in other words the right to die or to die with dignity. There are several reasons why… [read more]

Drugs Past and Current Substance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In addition to abuse of illicit substances, teens have consistently demonstrated tendencies toward the use and abuse of tobacco and alcohol products.

The use of mind-altering substances increased considerably during the 1960s, when recreational drug use became "fashionable among young, white, middle class Americans," ("Thirty Years of America's Drug War," 2000). Prior to the 1960s, American mainstream culture did not encourage or support the use of drugs; since then, drugs have been glamorized and even promoted as a tool to enhance self-image. Drugs have also been touted as a means by which to rebel against established authorities. American culture continues to support, even encourage drug use by the ways it is portrayed in the media. The government's so-called "war on drugs" has not helped prevent drug abuse. In fact, "many blame the war on drugs for a host of societal ills, including racial profiling, violation of privacy and civil liberties and a burgeoning prison population," ("The War on Drugs" 2000).

Substance abuse creates significant health problems in the United States, problems that have political, economic, and social consequences. Drug abuse can account for many deaths, from car crashes to overdoses to suicides. Drug abuse can also lead to acute or chronic health problems: smoking tobacco causes a host of diseases, and alcohol abuse leads to a wide range of health problems. Drugs that require the use of a needle can cause infectious diseases like HIV / AIDS and Hepatitis C to spread. Therefore, substance abuse in the United States is a serious public health issue, one that needs to be seriously addressed by the popular culture.

Works Cited

'High School and Youth Trends." (2004). National Institute on Drug Abuse. .

'Nationwide Trends." (2004). National Institute on Drug Abuse. .

"The War on Drugs." (2000). Salon.com. .… [read more]

Drug Legalization of Recreational Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (950 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Upon considering the merits of the respective positions concerning the decriminalization of illicit narcotics, it appears that the views espoused by proponents of decriminalization are more consistent with the overall good of society on multiple levels.

First, it is simply irreconcilable, from a logical perspective, that cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold completely legally, while private use and the mere possession of marijuana and any other agent containing THC such as hashish are severely penalized in many states. Opponents of decriminalization believe that government owes a duty of paternalistic protection of its citizens, but critics point out that even the most well motivated paternalistic laws must reflect a consistency in their application and effect (Taylor, 1982). Meanwhile, cigarettes account for more deaths in this country than all drugs, alcoholism, violent crime and vehicular accidents, combined (Brecher, 1972).

Second, alcohol abuse so closely parallels the effects of drug abuse that it is equally unjustifiable to permit alcohol sale and consumption to account for tremendous corporate revenue while criminalizing private use of narcotics altogether. Naturally, even under a liberal analysis, personal rights and freedoms end wherever they conflict with the well being and safety of others. Accordingly, proponents of repealing drug laws suggest that laws addressing the criminal operation of motor vehicles and dangerous equipment while under the influence of alcohol should be the extent of penal control of narcotics.

Third, rather than resulting in increased criminality, legalization of private narcotics possession and use would actually decrease criminality associated with drug use, because current legislation creates criminals, by punishing otherwise lawful citizens whose only contact with the criminal justice system arises from their private, victimless crime. Furthermore, redirecting public monies currently funding the "War on Drugs" to appropriate legislation and taxation modeled after tobacco legislation would benefit society, both by generating taxes and more importantly, by dramatically lowering prices, which are currently grossly inflated by the very black market economics that it creates.

Finally, the improved quality of government-regulated narcotics would probably eliminate medical emergencies currently caused by adulterated, impure product, as well as eliminate the widespread transmission of HIV via shared needles. In this regard, modern narcotics prohibitions precisely parallel the horrible cost in lives lost to unscrupulous use of poisonous alcohols (and formaldehydes) instead of ethanol during Prohibition. Rather than learn from past mistakes, opponents of decriminalization are poised to repeat them.


Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, A. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age

New York: Little Brown & Co.

Goldman, B., Klatz, R. (1992) Death in the Locker Room II:Drugs & Sports

Tucson: The Body Press

Gottlieb, A. (1976) The Pleasures of Cocaine.

Manhattan Beach, CA: Twentieth Century Alchemist

Let Judges Be Judges: Mandatory Sentencing Laws Deny Judicial Branch's

Discretion; Syracuse Post-Standard. Jul 10/03

Taylor,…… [read more]

Alcohol Prohibition From 1920 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Drug maintenance and substitution programs can also play an important role in harm reduction efforts. Methadone maintenance programs-most of which provide counseling and other medical and social services in addition to Methadone-have proven effective in reducing heroin and other illicit drug consumption, drug-related criminality and the transmission of HIV and other infectious diseases. Methadone is now dispensed in dozens of… [read more]

Teens Abuse Drugs Peer Pressure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Believe it or not, peer pressure begins in the tender years of toddlerhood. Children look up to others to see what they should be doing or shouldn't be doing. In a way, youngsters are trained in the early years to more or less do what the adult says or does." (Today's Teen Problem) During the toddler years, it is not as apparent as it is during the teen years. "For a toddler or young child under the age of five, peer pressure can present itself in the way of a toy that a friend has that your child just has to have, too. Your child may not just want this toy because it is fun, but because she desires to be part of a group. (Witmer)

The most susceptible teens for illicit drug use are those that do not connect with their parents, school, or non-deviant peer groups. Teens pick their friends on the principle that these allies will reinforce their beliefs. Therefore, more often than not, teens share the social, economic, political and religious views of their immediate peers and those common bonds make it easier to except things -- good and bad. The need to be accepted by one's peers creates an internal pressure that all teens face. Many psychologists and medical professionals used to suggest that some personality disorder or personality type was a type to take drugs. But that is not the case, "... addiction and drug use resulted more from chance, curiosity, peer pressure, and associations than any fundamental personality disorders. There is no evidence to indicate that any personality type whatever in any part of the social hierarchy is immune to addiction, he noted." (Morgan)

In conclusion, peer pressure is not just some phase teens go through. Peer pressure is a very real entity that can be either positive or negative. This report attempted to demonstrate the reality of the thesis: Teens abuse drugs because of peer pressure. Peer pressure for this report was defined as an influence from peers or friends. Our youths today have new things to deal with that previous generations couldn't imagine and drugs are a major part of that. As shown, teens today get involved with illegal drugs in many ways but the main underlying cause is peer pressure.

Works Cited

Helping Your Teen Deal With Peer Pressure. Ed. PageWise. PageWise. 6 May 2004 http://ca.essortment.com/teenspeerspres_rkde.htm.

Horn, Wade F. "Drug Conversation an Eye-Opener for Dad." The Washington Times [Washington] December 15, 1998.

Morgan, H. Wayne. Drugs in America: A Social History, 1800-1980. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1981.

Preparing Youth for Peer Pressure. Ed. PRIMEDIA Company. PRIMEDIA Company. 6 May 2004 http://parentingteens.about.com/cs/peerpressure/?terms=positive+youth.

Today's Teen Problem. Ed. Troubled Teen Options. 2003. Troubled Teen Options. 6 May 2004 http://www.informaticaparatodos.com/girl_boarding_school.htm.

Witmer, Denise. "Negative and Positive Peer Pressure." Parenting of Adolescents 2004.

Teens and drugs… [read more]

Drug Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


..was a disease, not a crime, that harsh criminal penalties were destructive" (Major pp). Yet, the United States has the harshest drug policies in the world and as a result has the largest prison population (Facts). In 1993, over sixty percent of federal prison inmates were incarcerated on drug related charges (Block 2000). In the United State there are approximately… [read more]

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Further, NOFAS and the NCBDDD argue emphatically that pregnant women should never drink, and women who do not use birth control should not drink. Perhaps this is understandable given NOFAS and the NCBDDD's mandates to reduce FAS in the general population.

In conclusion, FAS is a devastating, but preventable, disorder. While the Streissguth, Jacobson & Jacobson, the NCBDDD, and NOFAS provide valuable technical information on FAS, Berk's textbook gives a human side to the disease. This distinction is important, as understanding the human impact of FAS is likely to motivate women to avoid alcohol during pregnancy much more than a simple recounting of facts about FAS.


Berk, Laura E. 2001. Infants and Children Prenatal Through Middle Childhood, 4th ed. Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Jacobson, Joseph L. Ph.D., and Jacobson, Sandra W., Ph.D. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Child Development. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, prepared June 2003. 06 March 2004. http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh26-4/282-286.htm

National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (NOFAS). What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? 06 March 2004. http://www.nofas.org/main/what_is_FAS.htm

Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz. 1997. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities. Paul H. Brookes Pub Co.

The National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD). Fetal Alcohol Information. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Last updated Thursday, March 04, 2004. 06 March 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fas/fasask.htm… [read more]

Drugs and Children Article Review

Article Review  |  6 pages (2,461 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … 1971, American president Richard Nixon decaled war on drugs. It was assumed that via federal policing, drug trafficking could be significantly stopped in the United States within a short period of time. That war on drugs, started in the 1970s, rages on even today. The price paid for this war on drugs is beyond approximations in terms of… [read more]

Drugs &amp Kids Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Drugs and Kids

Kids and Drugs

Monitoring of the Future -- Key Findings

The primary reasons for the decrease in the thirty day prevalence and the lifetime prevalence both decreased. The reasons given are that fewer young people are trying cigarettes and there are also increasing levels of risk and disapproval among the demographics. There have been major attitudinal changes in the last decade and more youth disapprove of smoking and even state that they would not date someone who smoked.

One surprising fact presented in the overview relates to smokeless tobacco which one might reasonable expect to follow the same trajectory in usage as smoked tobacco. However, the usage rates of smokeless tobacco did not decrease the same way as smoking did. This is interesting and the changes in the environments you are allowed to smoke may have had some impact on young people's choice of tobacco products.


a. The usage rates of marijuana in 12th graders has seen peaks and valleys; then peaks again. The rate was over half of the 12th grade population in 1979, declined to 22% in 1992, and rose again to nearly forty percent in 2013.

b. The risk and disapproval among 12th graders have both been falling fairly steadily since the early 1990s.

3. Individuals may have certain characteristics that place them at higher risks of drug use. Psychological factors are one example of this and among these are sensation seeking behavior, low harm avoidance, and poor impulse control. Researchers are investigating if there are genetic predispositions for these types of behaviors.

4. Stern & Morr

a. The movie portrayals of substance use do not generally depict any of the negative effects that are…… [read more]

Alcohol Use in the U.S Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In this regard, Seitz and Becker (2007) report that, "Epidemiologic studies have unequivocally identified chronic alcohol consumption as an important risk factor for the development of cancers of the organs and tissues of the respiratory tract and the upper digestive tract, liver, colon or rectum, and breast" (p. 38). Moreover, while the revenues generated by the alcohol industry in the United States run into the billions, there are other problems associated with alcohol use and misuse as well that offset these economic benefits. In fact, more than 100,000 Americans die each year from deaths related to alcohol consumption (Howard & Flora, 2004). The health care costs and associated lost productivity from alcohol-related deaths, injuries, and illness in the United States each year have been estimated at nearly $150 billion (Howard & Flora, 2004).


The research showed that the sale of beer, wine and spirits in the United States generates billions of dollars in revenues but the impact on human health exacts a high toll as well. Consumed in small quantities on a regular basis, alcohol consumption can help prevent heart disease but consumed in larger quantities, alcohol can lead to alcohol dependence and alcoholism. It is reasonable to conclude that alcohol remains the most popular drug of choice for tens of millions of Americans today and the vast majority of consumers enjoy alcoholic beverages are they are intended to be enjoyed. For some, though, alcohol is a powerful drug that can destroy lives.


Economic contributions of the distilled spirits industry. (2014). Distilled Spirits Council of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.discus.org/economics/.

Economic ripple effect. (2014). Beer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.beerinstitute.


Howard, K.A. & Flora, J.A. (2004, Fall). Alcohol point-of-purchase advertising and promotions: Prevalence, content, and targeting. Contemporary Drug Problems, 31(3),


Seitz, H.K. & Becker, P. (2007, January 1). Alcohol metabolism and cancer risk. Alcohol Research, 30(1), 38-42.

2012 wine sales in U.S. reach new record. (2013). Wine Institute. Retrieved from http://www.


U.S. drinks the lowest amount of alcohol in the developed world. (2011, February 17). The…… [read more]

Inhalants and Deviant Behaviors Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Because of the wide ranging and heavy consequences of inhalant use and related stigmas, researchers from the interactionist tradition formulated a range of policy alternatives that would result to the reduction of social death that accompanies the formal penalization and labeling of substance users. Reintegrating shaming programs and restoration of justice. These programs seek to reduce the long lasting implications caused by stigma. Labeling theorists believe the harshness of the formal reaction to deviance would lead to the reduction of the lasting impacts of stigma on deviant offenders. Consistent implementation of this idea would lead to the elimination of compulsory minimums for felony disenfranchisement, drug offenses, and three-strike felony laws (Dick & Bierut, 2006).

In conclusion, we see that inhalants are the ordinary household products that are sniffed or inhaled by individuals so as to get high. They include gasoline, hair spray, fabric protector, air conditioner fluid, nail polish remover, and correction fluid, propellants in aerosol, cleaning fluids and cooking spray. These products are mainly bagged, sniffed, snorted so as one to get high. They cause a number of long-term and short-term effects such as muscle weakness, weight loss, inattentiveness, irritability, depression, disorientation, and lack of coordination. Sometimes they can cause death it is thus advisable that one avoid taking inhalants without the prescriptions from doctors.


Dick, DM & Bierut, LJ (2006). "The Genetics of Alcohol Dependency." Current Psychiatric Reports 8 (2): 151 -- 7

Ksir, Oakley Ray; Charles (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th Ed.). Boston

[u.a.]: McGraw-Hil

Morse, RM & Flavin, DK (August 26, 1992). "The definition of alcoholism, The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism." The Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (8): 1012 -- 4

Peele, S. (1989, 1995), Diseasing of America: How we allowed recovery zealots and the treatment industry to convince us we are out of control. Lexington, MA/San Francisco: Lexington Books/Jossey-Bass

Hanson, G.R,…… [read more]

Criminalisation, Legalization and the Mixed Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Symbolic politics as mentioned by Himmelstein, may help in dissecting society's perception of marijuana and perhaps offer a way to alter said perception. "As with the other two concepts, "symbolic politics" may prove useful in understanding drug ideology as well as drug controls" (Himmelstein, 1983, p. 18).

Furthermore, looking into politics and policy, one of the main reasons the United States had and continues to have such a difficult time with legalization of marijuana is because of the personal interests and agendas of politicians. Bulman-Pozen writes:

State officials often further their interests and effectively oppose federal policy when they participate in the same statutory scheme as federal actors instead of operating in a separate, autonomous sphere. At the same time, state officials frequently rely on the autonomous lawmaking and executive powers of state governments to advance a decidedly national agenda, acting in cooperation with federal officials rather than independently of them (Bulman-Pozen, 2013, p. 1).

Politicians to some extent want to further their careers and their political power going either with or against the desires of the public and the government in order to gain popularity or favor. In reality if enough politicians viewed marijuana legalization as a benefit to their career, more and more people within the government would push for policy reform. Everything connects in the sense that society's image, along with the personal pursuits of politicians, and the actions of the government, all work together to either promote or criminalize something.

In reality marijuana is about or less deadly than cigarettes and alcohol. Hall and Lynskey explain: "Research on adolescent drug use over the past quarter century in the U.S.A. has consistently found that alcohol and tobacco are used before cannabis, which in turn, is used before hallucinogens and 'pills', and heroin and cocaine" (HALL & LYNSKEY, 2005, p. 39). Therefore the logic that "marijuana use" leads to addictive behavior becomes null in the sense that tobacco and alcohol use could do the same, yet are still legal. In order for drug policy to change, it must be changed through society. Society must alter its perceptions of marijuana for all the other pieces to fall in place. Marihuana itself is not a necessarily harmful substance. It is something that grows in nature and has been used throughout the world to treat a number of ailments. Even with medicinal use of marijuana growing in the U.S., its image is still tainted. Brought on by the demonization of the 1960's an image makeover might be the only thing that could truly make marihuana a legal substance throughout the country.


Bulman-Pozen, J. (2013). Unbundling Federalism: Colorado's Legalization of Marijuana and Federalism's Many Forms. University of Colorado Law Review, 85(4), 1-14. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2366388

Fraser, S., & Moore, D. (2011). Cannabis in cultural and legal limbo: Criminalisation, legalisation and the mixed blessing of medicalization in the U.S.A. In The drug effect: Health, crime, and society (pp. 171-184). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

HALL, W.D., & LYNSKEY, M. (2005). Is cannabis a… [read more]

Prescription Drug Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Measures that have been undertaken thus far are the aforementioned laws banning not having a drug in the bottle it was issued in, making giving out of drugs a felony and so forth. Other drugs, including many over-the-counter drugs are tracked and must be sold, literally, over the counter by a pharmacist even though a prescription is not required (such… [read more]

Alcohol Abuse Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,022 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alcohol Abuse

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2013), the numbers of deaths in the United States alone per year resulting from alcohol, including deaths classified as accidents and homicides, is 25,692. An additional 15,990 people die from alcohol-related liver diseases per year (CDC, 2013). The numbers do not include alcohol-related injuries, such as those that were incurred by one of the passengers that Nicole Baukas hit after consuming 17 shots and four beers over the course of five hours. After her binge at a Spring, Texas bar called On the Rox, Baukus remarkably drove her car and ended up driving on the wrong side of a highway and colliding with a vehicle containing three people. Two of those people are dead: Trauvis Saunders and Nicole Adams.

The crash occurred in June of 2012, and Baukus was sentenced to 38 years in prison in August of 2013. She pleaded guilty to two counts of intoxication manslaughter, and one count of intoxication assault. The sentencing was logically broken down into two successive fifteen-year sentences for the manslaughter charges and one eight-year sentence for the assault (Abrahams, 2013). Baukus has reportedly appealed the sentence on the grounds that it is "cruel and unusual," but some sources say that the maximum sentence was legally set at 50 years (Williams, 2013).

Media sources vary in their coverage of the case. Some emphasize the victims and their families; others focus on Baukus; and others yet present a balanced approach to the trial and the issues it raises. There seems to be a general consensus that Baukus should be punished severely for what she did, given that she killed two innocent people. However, many Americans feel that the law should extend responsibility beyond Baukus herself. Already On the Rox has had to pay one million dollars, all of which goes to the state rather than the victims (Abrams, 2013).

It appears the Nicole Baukus case has gotten completely out of hand recently, with the state attorney's office deciding to prosecute James Duran, a patron at the bar that Baukus was drinking at the night she killed two teenagers. Duran is being charged under a provision in the Texas Alcohol and Beverage Act, which is being invoked simply because Duran happened to have bought a few of Baukus's dozen-plus drinks (Abramson, 2013).

No bar patron can be held accountable for the actions of another patron. To press charges against Duran opens a legal can of worms, suggesting that innocent bystanders are responsible for the actions of others. It is sufficient to charge Baukus, and to extend culpability to irresponsible bartenders and managers. Charging Nicole Baukus with manslaughter is understandable and appropriate. Furthermore, the On the Rox bar managers do share some responsibility for not being more aware of the health of their clients. However, Duran had absolutely no responsibility for Baukus. Charging him would be like charging the liquor company for selling drinks. A more sensible approach to alcohol abuse in the United… [read more]

Anti-Drug Campaign for Teens Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Scrutinizing the verbal strategies

In February of 2002, the director of ONDP Walters designed a task force to focus on the weaker links of the campaign and the causes which made it weak in outlook. The group identified some major changes in the campaign strategy. Now the target was the slightly older group of teens between age bracket of 14 to 16 who drastically went over to the dark side marijuana offered. Teens were not targeted this time. The ads were supposedly made more cut throat and competitive. Previously, not all ads were tested and proven before airing on national television. Now all these ads were to be given the green signal before airing on national television. The standards were now more cutthroat and competitive. Also, ONDP would be involved in the ad development process (Eddy, 2003).

Another sizeable change came with the Westat's evaluation in May 2002. Now it was focusing on eliminating the gate drug marijuana as it led to higher forms of drugs. In a hearing Walters said that "It is futile to make effort in reducing the drug abuse as long as the gate drug marijuana isn't stopped as it's the basic drug leading to higher forms of drugs. Marijuana was the drug of choice for youth and its widespread usage is worrisome" (U.S. Congress, 2002).

Then a series of controversial began screening at the Super Bowl of 2002 when drug users were portrayed as the supporters of terrorism. They were blamed to be providing blood money. The ads took severe national and public heat as they were cited as false and accusatory. The ads were termed as misleading and failed as an attempt to curb drug use. The critics think along the lines that drug laws instigate drug purchase and that alone can fund the acts of terrorism. The drug users are innocent on all counts. Huge illegal profits are amassed for terrorist acts. The ads were also subjected to controversy as the drug users comprised of teenage population who didn't fall under the mass drug use bracket and couldn't account for drug revenues for terrorist acts. The ONDP stopped airing these ads due to friction between PDFA and ONDP. PDFA deemed the ads as way off the mark and accusatory. The ads came to a close in May 2003 (Teinowitz, 2003).

The ONDP Chief of Staff Chris Marston revealed two more changes in March 2003 at a trail in House Committee on Government Reform. Sixty percent of the ads are targeted towards the adults who mentor children and adolescents. The remaining 40% were for the adolescents themselves. From July 2003, the ratio will be turned around. Moreover, Marston believed that next move would be to introduce treatment of drugs in the campaign advertisements. A focus will be made on early intervention. The idea here is to reach out to the youth who embarks on a permanent road to drug usage (Eddy, 2003).

Amassing together the cumulative effort according to Marston, the campaign has turned… [read more]

OTC and Prescription Drugs Curbing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


But when taken to extreme, they can over-stimulate the nervous system. Sleep aids are another group of OTC drugs, which are often mis-used. When taken in extreme, they can lead to narcolepsy, a neurological disorder, characterized by strongly disrupted sleep. Users abruptly fall asleep at dangerous times, such as when driving, climbing the stairs or performing risky tasks (Saar).

Dependence or Addiction

Addiction is a condition of dependence on something for one's normal functioning

(Salmon 2008). It creates a mental state, which later creates physical dependence. In that state, the person relies on the substance for relief to the condition. It develops into an addiction when the drug tolerance reaches a high level. Addiction to prescribed drugs can happen without overdosing. One can become addicted or dependent on any drug according to his perception of addiction or dependence. It is addiction or dependence to rely or become inclined towards any substance or thing in order to function or survive. In such a case, the problem lies in the personality and not on the substance or thing (Salmon).

Drug addiction is the result of the nature of the drug, the personality make-up of the user and the circumstances attending to the abuse (Salmon 2013). It is primarily brought about by the personality weakness of the person. Most often, his emotional response to some personal setback or peer pressure opens him to dependence or addiction to mind-quieting drugs. It is not the drugs themselves that lead to it. Tranquilizers, heroin and alcohol are the major addictives when taken in heavy doses and frequently. Moreover, dependence and addiction are two different things. Dependence occurs when one stops using the substance. It is a tolerance problem. Addiction, on the other hand, means deliberately using the drug, a chronic problem symptom (Salmon).

FDA Regulation of OTC Drugs

The criteria for drug manufacturers to follow are safety, effectiveness, dosage and cost (Terzo 2013). The FDA approved around 270 active ingredients, which manufacturers can use to synthesize their drug products. They can still be purchased without a doctor's prescription. And they remain more affordable than prescription drugs. Buyers can now be confident that they can purchase OTC without need for a doctor's prescription but with the FDA's guarantee that these drugs are safe and effective (Terzo).


Anti-drug abuse campaigns have created the awareness on the fatal consequences of addiction and dependence on dangerous drugs. Narcotics are on top of the list of major addictives and this is why they are strictly regulated by special prescription by a qualified medical doctor. But not only prescription drugs but also non-prescription drugs can produce addiction or dependence. Not only do some OTC drugs contain addictive ingredients. Users with weak personality make-ups are also especially prone to the influence of either prescription or non-prescription drugs. All drugs are at least potentially habit-forming or addictive. Aware of this situation, the Food and Drug Administration set up certain criteria for drug manufacturers.


Alta Mira. An Overview of Highly Addictive Drugs. Alta… [read more]

Health Care Policy Bill Formulation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Health Care Policy Bill Formulation

What the legislation will target

The talking points

Bill writing

Policy to monitor and regulate drug abuse and trafficking

Legislative action

Health Care Policy Bill Formulation: substance abuse

The issue of substance abuse is a societal menace that is gritting the world economies to the ground due to its enormous negative effects. The term substance… [read more]

Drug Use Crime Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Legalizing drug use would only cost societies long-term prosperity and therefore it should not be legalized.

According to the bureau of justice statistics, drugs are related to crime in multiple ways. Most directly, it is a crime to use, possess, manufacture, or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse. Cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines are examples of drugs classified that have a large amount of abuse (Seabrooks, 2012). Drugs are also related to crime through the effects they have on the user's behavior and by generating violence and other illegal activity in connection with drug trafficking. This is the primary reason drugs should not be legalized as the violence may be reduced but the behaviors corresponding to drug use will increase (Summary, 2012). Below is a chart depicting drug use and crime in visual form.

Some substances aren't meant for human consumption, yet their ability to alter consciousness has made them into attractive sources of intoxication for those looking for a high. Inhalants such as glue or aerosols have been abused to this end, with disastrous consequences. Most abused drugs have some affect on the cardiovascular system, according to the National Institutes on Drug Abuse (Seabrooks, 2012). Drugs can increase heart rate and cause heart attacks. Cocaine is known to cause heart arrhythmias and deaths from cardiac arrest. Tobacco is a legal drug that is known to cause the blood vessels to constrict, leading to high blood pressure and hardening of the arteries (Walter, 1979. Drugs that are injected intravenously can damage the blood vessels, causing veins to collapse. Dirty needles and contaminated drugs can introduce bacteria into the bloodstream that damage the heart valves. Certain drugs have demonstrated the ability to cause brain damage in users. Inhalants, for instance, have been shown to damage areas of the brain that control cognition, movement, vision and hearing. These substances, which include solvents and aerosol sprays, may provoke varying degrees of destruction to the brain tissue, resulting in cognitive abnormalities ranging from mild impairment to severe, permanent dementia (Glasscote, 1932). When it comes to brain damage, legal drugs are not safe either. Chronic alcohol abuse can cause a syndrome known as "wet brain," or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. A thiamine deficiency linked to alcoholism causes brain cell death and alters brain structure. If caught early enough, wet brain may be partially remedied through thiamine supplementation, according to the Choose Help website. The liver is faced with the task of removing the drugs from the body. As a result of chronic drug use, the liver can become damaged and diseased . Alcoholism is a known… [read more]

Drugs and Pregnancy the Habit Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Even though policy-makers advocate punitive as well as coercive measures having reasons of protecting the fetus, this approach has failed in obtaining such results. Having fear of being punished, women might fail to seek prenatal care. Also even if they are jailed, some may be still in a position to get the drugs on top of being denied medical care or prenatal care at the time of pregnancies, hence counterproductive if compared to the rehabilitative approach.

Narrow perspective on just use of drug during prenatal as the main fetus source of harm has also been noted to divert attention from the rest of the well-known and hypothesized causes of fetal harm, some of which go with illicit use of drug. Risk factors and influences, for example smoking, lack of prenatal care, socioeconomic status and environmental conditions, are always overlooked in any case involving use of illicit drug. This renders meaningful researches on how to protect the fetuses neglected and the protection of the fetus from drugs rendered unachievable.

There is therefore preference among experts and women for a program that puts together medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term after-care for preventing relapse, and help with the concrete needs like housing and day care.

As a nurse, there is then the need to shift my approach to the fetus protection bearing in mind the various lessons learnt from the session and the effects of drug on fetuses. My function as a nurse will have hence to vary as I will be a collaborator with the other nurses and medical practitioners as well as with the target population in tackling the drug abuse. To the team members, I will be a leader as I will engage in formulating the program and leading colleagues toward implementing the program. Since I will have patients that I will be responsible for, I will be their manager, directing them on what to do and the direction of their medication. I will also be an advocator within this community for the fight against drugs and use my medical background to do the same with the prime target being the pregnant women. For those who will be already in the drug abuse, I will be their clinician and give them the necessary medical attention to help them out as well as save the infants. All these cannot be possible if the community is not educated on the significance of keeping off drugs, seeking medical attention for pregnant women already using drugs and how to handle the pregnancy once on withdrawal from drug abuse, hence I will be their educator on these.


Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.

Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse… [read more]

Opium in China Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … opium in China with that of the United States after the Civil War? Provide an analysis as to how the early problems with opiates influenced the drug problems of the 1970s worldwide.

Narcotics and drug abuse is common all over the world. The use of drugs dates back to 5000 BC (all the way up to the New… [read more]

Alcohol Poisoning Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Negative Effects of Alcohol Poisoning:

Alcohol poisoning is considered as a fatal condition that is caused by drinking excessive amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. However, this condition is also associated with other negative effects including & #8230;

Ineffective Functioning of the Body:

As previously mentioned, a person's blood alcohol concentration increases as he/she consumes more alcohol, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. The higher the blood alcohol concentration level, the more the severity of its effects on body functioning. One of the major negative effects of alcohol poisoning is ineffective functioning of the body because alcohol affects nerves that control the body's automatic functions or actions like breathing. Since alcohol depresses these nerves, more consumption will ultimately stop involuntary actions and functions ("Facts About Alcohol Poisoning," p.1).

Notably, a person's blood alcohol concentration can continue to rise even when he/she has passed out. Moreover, alcohol in the intestine and stomach continues to get into the bloodstream and circulate in the entire body even after the individual stops drinking. Therefore, it is extremely dangerous to assume that such an individual will be fine through sleeping off the drunkenness.

While it is normal for a person who drank excessive alcohol to vomit because the drink is an irritant to the stomach, a victim of alcohol poisoning faces the danger of choking on vomit. This could contribute to death by asphyxiation for an unconscious patient because of the resultant intoxication.

Dependence of Alcohol:

Alcohol poisoning is likely to contribute to alcohol dependence because of addiction to the drink. Since alcohol poisoning affects involuntary actions of the body, the individual is likely to become dependent on alcohol to an extent that he/she experiences withdrawal symptoms when trying to stop the habit. The dependence on alcohol may make the person unable to function effectively without taking some amount of alcohol.

Negative Health Effects:

As a life-threatening consequence of binge drinking, alcohol poisoning can lead to severe health effects on the patient or victim. Some of these negative health effects include low blood pressure, drop in body temperature, double or blurred vision, reduced blood sugar concentration, impaired judgment, inadequate muscular coordination, and coma ("Why is Binge Drinking Bad for You?" par, 7).

When alcohol poisoning occurs frequently for an extended period of time, it is likely to contribute to some long-term negative effects such as diseases in the digestive system, heart problem, kidney damage, brain damage, liver disease, skeletal muscle damage, psychological problems, and sexual and hormonal dysfunction. The other effects of this condition include child developmental problems and high risk of accidents and injuries.

In conclusion, alcohol poisoning is a condition attributed to various factors including binge drinking and excessive drinking. This condition has severe health effects on a person, particularly on mental and physical functioning of the body. This implies that an individual with this condition should seek proper medical attention to avoid severe impacts.

Works Cited:

"Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms." MD-Health.com - Better Health Information from Doctors. MD-Health.com, n.d. Web.… [read more]

Prescription Drug Oxycontin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Prescription Drug Abuse: OxyContin

Drug abuse continues to be one of the most negative elements of our modern society. Some of the most commonly abused drugs include but they are not limited to cocaine, marijuana, and heroin. It is however important to note that people are increasingly making use of prescription medications for purposes other than their intended use. OxyContin,… [read more]

Substance Abuse Upon a Fetus Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,460 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


(Curet et al., 2002)

Drug abuse during pregnancy is completely avoidable. The damage that is done to the fetus during pregnancy as a result of drug abuse is again, completely avoidable. When women become pregnant unexpectedly, they still have power over their bodies and their babies. Education and healthy living are key to keeping the fetus safe during pregnancy. Women… [read more]

Legalization of Marijuana Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


By denying sick people the right to legally use beneficial medicine, more moral and ethical harm is being done. The legalization of marijuana will allow millions of individuals to live pain-free and stress-free lives.

Many other drugs on the market right now are plenty more harmful than marijuana. To begin with pot is considered a much safer drug than alcohol. There have been no documented deaths attributing cause solely to marijuana. About 37,000 people die annually as a direct result of alcohol poisoning -- not including those individuals that die because of driving drunk or as a result of another person driving drunk (YES on 64). There is no case of marijuana overdose ever recorded. Alcohol causes more damage to the body than marijuana ever has. Liver damage, brain tissue loss, and cancer have all been linked to chronic alcohol usage, while marijuana has been cited as being beneficial to all of the previously mentioned ailments (Ferner). Alcohol is remarkably more addictive for people than pot is (Ferner). Aside from the dangers associated with alcohol, another legal substance that causes a lot more damage is tobacco. Tobacco usage is associated with decreased lung capacity and function, while marijuana has shown no negative effects on this front (Robesonian.com). In the Netherlands, 75% of all marijuana users do not even touch other drugs, including cigarettes and alcohol because pot can be legally used; this has attributed to the overall healthier state of the Dutch, compared to the health risks that Americans constantly deal with (ABC 20/20).

In all, marijuana should be a legalized substance. There are plenty more benefits to enacting government regulations than there are in banning it all together. The economic benefits associated with legalizing pot can save the country from its current financial state. More resources can be given to areas that need it most, and less money can be spent on a war on drugs that has clearly already malfunctioned. The health benefits associated with marijuana use overrides any possible detriments cited. By reducing the number of people who are sick, health costs can also be reduced, further adding to the economic power of this substance. Lastly, substances such as alcohol and tobacco that have clear health risks are considered legal; marijuana has been proven to be safer and is even able to alleviate some of the damage caused by some of these legal substances. The legalization of marijuana will be the only next logical step.


ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Robesonian.com. "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30… [read more]

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