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Delinquency Biological Factors and Juvenile Essay

… Thus, there is a strong indication that there is a biological 'profile' for adolescents of an addictive, risk-seeing personality which can put their health at risk. The evidence supports the notion that the biological effects of the drugs themselves are not causing the weight gain. Even cigarette smoking, which is usually associated as a weight loss strategy amongst adults was associated with higher BMIs in students as they progressed through school.

It has also been noted that addiction fundamentally alters the brain, and the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to influence from the dangers of substance abuse. A risk-seeking personality may drive an adolescent to use drugs and 'act out.' Once the inhibitory mechanisms are lowered and the need to replicate the high of using after drugs has been sharpened, the adolescent may turn to food as another coping mechanism to replicate the highs of addiction.

The authors do not deny that environmental factors, like access to healthy foods and places to exercise have no impact upon weight gain. However, certain individuals are more sensitive to obesity-promoting factors in the environment based upon their genetic profile. Similarly, some individuals are more prone to addiction and aggressive behavior, based upon biological vulnerabilities which they possess. The evidence suggests that there is a strong link in terms of the genetic profile of persons who are highly vulnerable to a variety of addictive behaviors. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, the association of substance abuse and BMI remained strong. More evidence is needed about how the genes and a vulnerability to addiction function in relationship to the environment to help persons suffering from addiction, or ideally -- prevent it.


Pasch, K.E., Velazquez, C.E., Cance, J.D., Moe, S.G., & Lytle, L.A. (2012). Youth

substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(1), 14-26. doi: [read more]

Substance Misuse Issues Term Paper

… Substance Misuse Issues

Substance Misuse: A Multifaceted Human Issue

There are few nations, both developed and developing, that are not affected by some facet of substance misuse. Substance misuse represents a widespread medical, psychological, and human issue that is defined… [read more]

Theories and Models of Addiction Substance Abuse Essay

… Psychology

Theories and Models of Addiction/Substance Abuse

A lot of people do not know why or how people become addicted to drugs. It is sometimes implicit that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop utilizing… [read more]

Police Courts and Corrections Research Proposal

… References:

ACLU (2010). The Persistence of Racial and Ethnic Profiling in the United States: A Follow-Up Report to the U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Retrieved from:

Adorno, T., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D., Sanford, N. (1993). The Authoritarian Personality, Studies in Prejudice Series, Volume 1. New York: Harper & Row, 1950 W.W. Norton & Company paperback reprint edition, 1993

Apter & Desselles (2001) in Motivational Styles in Everyday Life: A Guide to Reversal Theory. Washington: APA Books.

Baird, F.E.; Kaufmann, W. (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Campbell, D.J., Hernandez, R.P. (2006). IACP Diversity Coordinating Panel. The Police Chief, 73, 9

Cartwright, W.S. (1999). Costs of drug abuse to society. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. 2, 133 -- 134.

Clinard, M.B., Meier, R.F. (2010). Sociology of Deviant Behavior. New York; Wadsworth Publishing.

Degenhardt, L., Chiu W-T., Sampson N., Kessler RC., Anthony JC., et al. (2008). Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLoS Med 5(7): e141. doi:10.1371/journal. pmed.0050141.

Greenwald, G. (2009). Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies. CATO INSTITUTE. Washington, D.C.

Harwood, H. (2000). Updating Estimates of the Economic Costs of Alcohol Abuse in the United States: Estimates, Update Methods and Data. Report prepared for the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse.

Heron M.P., Hoyert D.L., Murphy S.L., Xu J.Q., Kochanek K.D., Tejada-Vera B. (2009). Deaths: Final data for 2006. National vital statistics reports; vol 57 no 14. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from:


Irwin, J., Schiraldi, V. And Ziedenberg, J. (2010) America's One Million Nonviolent Prisoners. Retrieved from:

Kirton, M.J. Adaption-Innovation In the Context of Diversity and Change. Oxford: Routledge, 2004.

LaFollette (2006). Retrieved from:

MacCoun, R. And Reuter, P. (2001). Drug War Heresies: Learning from Other Vices, Times, and Places. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Merrill, J., Fox, K. (1999). The Impact of Substance Abuse on Federal Spending. Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from:

Mokdad, Ali H., Marks, J.S., Stroup, D.F., Gerberding, J.L. (2004). Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association. 291(10), 1238-1245.

National Police Misconduct Statistics and Reporting Project (2010). Online article retrieved from:

New York Academy of Medicine (2004). Executive Office of the President Office of National Drug Control Policy. The Economic Costs the United States 1992 -- 2002. Washington, D.C. Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from:

Patillo, M., Weiman, D., Western, B. (eds.). 2004. Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Patton, S. (2009). America On Lockdown: New Facts About America's Prisons & Prisoners. Online article retrieved from:

Patton, S. (2009). America On Lockdown: New Facts About America's Prisons & Prisoners. Online… [read more]

Inhalant and Solvent Abuse Among Adolescents Term Paper

… Adolescent Inhalant Abuse

Inhalant abuse refers to the deliberate misuse of products such as aerosol sprays, paints, glues, and gaseous propellants in pressurized food canisters as a form of recreational drug use or experimentation. More specifically, users typically "sniff" or "huff" the chemicals in these products for their mind-altering properties. Generally, they either inhale the vapors directly or they spray them into receptacles such as paper bags or balloons and inhale the fumes given off by the products from the receptacles.

Inhalant Abuse

Inhalant abuse is a problem that is most common among pre-adolescents and young adolescents, largely because these substances are much more easily available to this group of substance abusers than other types of illicit drugs (NIDA, 2010). In addition to the association between inhalant abuse and subsequent drug abuse of other types, inhalant abuse is extremely dangerous. Certain types of inhaled substances can cause permanent memory loss and other types of serious permanent brain damage (NIDA, 2010).

According to the U.S. Institute for Drug Abuse researchers in the fields of substance abuse and adolescent behavior, more than 700, 000 people over the age of 12 try inhalants for the first time in a given year (NIDA, 2010). Rates of inhalant abuse have declined in the last decade, mainly because of increased awareness, penal enforcement, and changes in the way that manufacturers design tamper-resistant containers, and the way that retailers have complied with new federal regulations prohibiting sales to minors (NIDA, 2010; Wu, Pilowsky, & Schlenger, 2004).

Experts in child psychology and adolescent behavior report that the risk of inhalant abuse is directly associated with other behavioral patterns and tendencies (NIDA, 2010; Wu, Pilowsky, & Schlenger, 2004). Specifically, those who already exhibit delinquent tendencies, social maladjustment, and other… [read more]

Smoking From the Beginning of Time Man Thesis

… ¶ … Smoking

From the beginning of time man has been searching for means through which pleasure could be obtained regardless of the counter effects that the respective means brought along. Drugs as tobacco, heroin, alcohol and several others have been initially produced by man mainly for recreational reasons, but most of them have proved to be harmful for the body. In response to the damaging effects that drugs had, people had conducted numerous anti-drug campaigns.

Thank you for smoking" is a motion picture inspired by Christopher Buckley's novel which brings into the spotlight the life of a man that promotes tobacco. The movie in its essence presents actor Aaraon Eckhart, an excellent spokesman, while going through hell in order to make Americans believe that smoking is not dangerous for the human body.

The remarkable thing about the film is that one can easily observe people as being extremely receptive to pro-smoking propaganda, even if everyone knows the damaging effects tobacco has.… [read more]

Crisis Intervention Definition of Addiction Goodman ) Term Paper

… Crisis Intervention

Definition of addiction

Goodman (2007) suggested a comprehensive definition of addiction in behavioral terms: addiction defines "a condition in which a behavior that can function both to produce pleasure and to reduce painful affects is employed in a… [read more]

Substance Problem Dash for Survival Substance Abuse Term Paper

… Substance Problem


Substance Abuse Among Women and Its Treatment

Recent studies say that 10% of the population abuses drugs or alcohol and that 20% of patients who consult physicians have substance abuse problems, which exclude tobacco use… [read more]

Alcoholism Women Term Paper

… ¶ … history of the problem, psychological causes for the disease, and current research and statistics. Studies and information have not always acknowledged women alcoholics. For many years, most researchers and scientists studied men who abused alcohol, and ignored the… [read more]

Narcotics in Asian American Term Paper

… ¶ … decline within overall narcotic use within the United States over the past decade, one ethnic group has shown no steady decline within recent narcotic use trends. The Asian-Americans/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) as an aggregate group has maintained their consistent… [read more]

Definition Addiction Term Paper

… Addiction

There are numerous definitions of addiction and just what constitutes addictive behavior.

Social observers have applied the notion of addiction to many and varied human activities, including substance abuse, shopping, running, game-playing, working, eating, drinking water to intoxication, sex, and excessive computer use (Shaffer pp). Generally, addiction has most often been applied to substance-using behavior patterns, however, social observers have recently begun to apply the concept to other activities that do not include drugs or alcohol use (Shaffer pp). However, in both circumstances, when addiction is present, then the consequences of the activity are adverse (Shaffer pp). Ironically, addiction may provide positive effects for the sufferer, especially early in the process (Shaffer pp). For example, "an addiction can distract someone from more painful emotional problems or provide an identity that organizes everyday experiences" (Shaffer pp). This combination of positive and negative consequences is one reason why addictive behaviors are very difficult to change (Shaffer pp).

The negative consequences of addiction usually include social, psychological, and biological harms (Shaffer pp). The biological consequences often include the emergence of neuroadaptation, which is the technical term for the "tendency to increase the dose level of a drug to experience the same subjective effects as with a lower dose before and also to experience a stereotypical pattern of discomfort upon stopping the drug use" (Shaffer pp). Heroin users, for example, tend to increase their dose to get the same level of intoxication that they had previously experienced at a lower dose, or they get sick when they stop using the drug (Shaffer pp).

Earlier application of the term "addiction" were less onerous than today's current views, for when scientists began to consider the matter of behavioral addictions that did not require drug use, the construct of addiction became more plastic and complex (Shaffer pp). For example, clinicians have noticed that, 'in the absence of psychoactive substance use, excessive behavior patterns such as pathological gambling stimulate the development of tolerance and withdrawal typical of drug dependence, giving rise to important questions concerning the nature and meaning of addiction (Shaffer pp).

Addiction is actually a lay term, though it is often used by scientists, while "dependence" is a more scientific construct, that is occasionally used by lay people (Shaffer pp). There… [read more]

Cigarettes Why Do People Smoke? Term Paper

… This is the process by which the pattern of mortality and disease is transformed from one of high mortality among infants and children and episodic famine and epidemic affecting all age groups to one of degenerative and human-caused made diseases… [read more]

Cocaine Botanical Origins Term Paper

… Behavior

False hallucinations are common among cocaine users. Tactile hallucinations - "cocaine bugs" - sensations of itching and particles moving under the skin, visual hallucinations - "snow lights" - the flashing of lights behind closed lids, olfactory hallucinations - smelling repulsive odors of feces, garbage, and urine, and digestive hallucinations - failure to detect strong food and drink - are often reported in users of short duration (i.e., three to six months) and become more pronounced as the abuse lengthens.

An addict will often display a personal fascination with their own thought processes and become quite philosophical about the meaning or core of things. Repetitious, almost compulsive behavior can be seen in the moderate to heavy user of cocaine.

Chronic use and defined addiction often leads to a "reverse tolerance," convulsive behavior, dysphoria, paranoid psychosis, insomnia, apathy, anxiety, and melancholy.

Morbidity and Mortality

Violence is usually present in the addicted cocaine user. Crack users have an even higher rate of hallucinations, paranoia, suicide attempts, violent behavior toward others, and assaults. A study was conducted in Los Angeles to determine the correlation between homicide and cocaine use/abuse. One of every five homicides was positive for cocaine at the time of autopsy. The majority died violent deaths, e.g., shootings and stabbings. Violence has a clear connection in those using cocaine with alcohol becoming a predictable cross-addictive chemical preferred by cocaine users.

Many researchers and forensic scientists have studied the relationship between cocaine, violence, and death. The emerging model seems to support that violent behavior is in direct proportion to the ingestion of cocaine. Another factor is the necessary violence in participating and distribution of an illegal drug. The behavior necessary to support an expensive cocaine habit (e.g., theft, armed-robbery, rape, murder) also contributed to the pattern of violence.

Interestingly, only the psychopharmacology has empirical data to support the validity of violence in association with cocaine use. Oral cocaine or placebo was given to 30 "average" volunteers. These volunteers were then placed into a controlled situation in which they could choose to give their opponent electrical shocks of different severity. The more aggressive the volunteer became (cocaine-induced aggression) the higher the shock that was delivered. The clinician's concluded that "cocaine intoxicated individuals do not need to be psychotic (paranoid) to be more aggressive."


Cocaine is the product of a naturally occurring botanical mixed with non-botanicals to produce an unnatural state of euphoria in the human brain. With the unpredictability of addiction - one never knows if they will fall victim to its lure - it is unwise to take the first "snort," smoke, or injection.

With the emerging data on the side effects, social stigma, naturally attendant aggressive and violent tendencies, illegality and criminal consequences, family decimation, economic drain, and psychological problems, which stem from its use, cocaine is a dangerous drug.

Flirting with this drug can result in a lifetime of problems - including poverty, loss of job, paranoid-affective inability to function, loss of family and support systems, diminished self-esteem, repeated… [read more]

Employee Drug Testing Term Paper

… 6 million drug tests performed, only 7.5% were positive for drug use. This was a drop of 0.9% from the previous year. (Positive Drug Tests...1995)

So are the new policies on pre-employment and random drug testing actually dissuading U.S. workers from using drugs? According to a recent article the new boom of drug tests has not decreased overall drug usage among workers but it has "spawned a whole (new) industry of tricks to (help employees) avoid being tested as positive."(New Trade Boom, 2000)

So what is the real business argument for drug testing in the work place? Why is it necessary and more over -- is it ethical? What are the legal implications of workplace drug testing? Should employers be responsible for what their employees do in their free time? "No employer has the civil liberty to ignore the consequences of substance abuse in the work-place and the impact that it has on the public...anyone who wants to argue on the contrary should (look at the facts)." (Langdon-Down, 1997)

Other people feel that as a general rule, this is definitely an issue of privacy and that employers should not take on the role of policing their workforce unless they exhibit behaviors often associated with drug abuse. (Langdon-Down)

However, this method often is subjective and may lead to claims of racial profiling and discrimination, which is why most employers opt to test randomly and do very little for-cause drug testing unless absolutely warranted.

I think the strongest argument in favor of drug testing lies in the fact that "employers face a number of potential liabilities, including personal injury and constructive discharge dismissal claims from employees harmed by someone who was under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and personal injury claims from members of the public (who are) harmed by an employee under the general vicarious liability procedure." (Langdon-Down) In other words if an employer knows (or should have known) that an employee was driving a company car or operating a forklift under the influence of drugs or alcohol, than the employer is vicariously liable should someone be injured or even killed as a result of their actions. With this in mind, I feel that drug testing makes good sense, and is an ethical practice. But what about the white collar worker? How can a banker, for instance, harm someone at work if he or she is on drugs? Well, I'm sure that many of us would think twice about entrusting our money to a bank whose employees were drug addicted. We might not be in physical danger from these employees, but our money might not be as safe as we would like.

In the end, every person has the right to refuse to submit to a drug test -- and conversely, employers have the right to conduct these programs and not extend offers of employment (or continued employment) for those that do not comply.


Castro, Janice, et al. (1986, March). Battling the Enemy Within:

Clarke, Allison (1998, November 19).… [read more]

Adolescent Substance Use and Addiction Research Paper

… Adolescent Substance Use and Addiction

Substance Use and Addiction

Adolescent substance abuse is a major national public health problem. The current levels of the problem remain high despite the existence of recent leveling-off of the substance use by adolescents. Adolescents… [read more]

Defense Mechanisms and Psychodynamically-Oriented Psychologists Research Proposal

… The therapy clients along with participant substance abuse counselors will complete the necessary release forms and will also complete informed consent forms.

Assessments. Participant counselors will be administered the TAT cards in the standard TAT administration fashion with instructions as… [read more]

Poverty Macroeconomics Term Paper

… Poverty

Over the years, the issue of poverty and its lasting consequences has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of the impact that it is having on society and the ability of individuals to live empowering lives.… [read more]

Pre-Sentence Investigation Onondaga County Probation Research Paper

… S.

Legal Address: 4 Main Street

Aliases: "Zippy the Pinhead"


Charge(s) and Conviction(s)

1. John Zips was named in a one-count indictment filed in the Onondaga County Court on November 12, 2011, charging: on November 11, 2011, with intent to harass, annoy or alarm a 12-year-old female who lived in defendant's neighborhood, this 30-year-old Defendant lured the female into his home, locked the doors to his home, and held her against her will, which was likely to cause the female to reasonably fear physical injury or serious physical injury.

2. On November 13, 2012, Defendant appeared before an Onondaga County Court Judge and pleaded not guilty to the charge. Defendant was released after posting bond and was ordered to report to the Pretrial Services Agency. On December 11, 2011, in accordance with the terms of a written plea agreement, Defendant pleaded guilty to Stalking, 4th Degree. The Parties entered into a plea agreement calling for dismissal of the original indictment and filing of the charge of Stalking, 4th, a Class B Misdemeanor. Jones is scheduled to be sentenced on January 12, 2012.

3. According to his supervising pretrial services officer, Zips made a satisfactory adjustment while under pretrial supervision and reported as directed. Also, Zips maintained employment and there were no substance-related issues.

The Offense Conduct

4. The victim is a 12-year-old female neighbor who has been acquainted with the Defendant for 5 years.

5. The Defendant is a 30-year-old employee of Denny's restaurant who lives with his mother in the victim's neighborhood.

6. On November 11, 2011 at approximately 8:00PM, Defendant's mother was absent from their home and Defendant encountered the Victim as she walked to the corner store for her mother. Defendant asked the Victim what she was going to buy at the store. Victim replied that she was buying a can of coffee for her mother. Defendant replied that he and his mother had 10 cans of coffee given to them by a relative and that neither of them drinks coffee, so the Victim could have a can to take back to her mother without buying the coffee. Defendant invited the Victim into his home, supposedly for the can of coffee.

7. On that same date and upon Victim's entrance of Defendant's home, Defendant locked the doors to his home and told the Victim that he knew she was interested in him as a "boyfriend." Victim stated that she never thought of Defendant in that way and asked him to unlock the door and let her out of the house. Defendant refused, though Victim began to cry and shake, and begged the Defendant to open the front door and let her out of the house.

8. Defendant lured the Victim into his home under false pretenses, then held her against her will with intent to harass, annoy or alarm her, which was likely to and did, in fact, cause the Victim to reasonably fear physical injury or serious physical injury.

9. After approximately… [read more]

Health Risk Behaviors Literature Review

… Health Risk Behaviors

Substance abuse particularly with excessive use of alcoholic beverages is considered as a form of maladaptive behavior that is exhibited by a person for a long period of time. It concerns health care officials because of numerous… [read more]

Variable Measure Reliability and Validity in Social Work Term Paper

… ¶ … Reliability and Validity in Social Work

Poverty and substance abuse addiction, risks for homelessness and panhandling

Number of individuals living at or below the poverty line as compared with 1990 and 2000 (interval): The overall trend in poverty in the United States is important to measure, given that there has been growing evidence that while the 'haves' have been getting richer, the poor have been getting poorer. The growth in the poverty epidemic and its relationship to substance abuse amongst the poor is one of the features of interest in this study.

Number of females and males living at or below the poverty line (nominal): Poverty is often characterized as a 'female' problem, particularly of young women with children. However, often the stereotypical image of homelessness and 'panhandling' is male. Understanding poverty's gender-based nature and its relationship to homelessness, substance abuse, and ways of making a living is a critical aspect of the study.

3. Number of individuals seeking federal and other types of assistance for housing (nominal): Is homelessness a problem of personal psychology or poverty? Identifying the number of individuals seeking assistance for housing helps clarify, to some degree, the voluntary nature of homelessness

4. Number of individuals self-identified as having used illicit drugs within the past month, year, and over the course of their lifetime (ordinal): The National Institute of Drug Abuse measures drug, alcohol, and cigarette use based upon individuals reporting using drugs in the past month, year, and over a lifetime to examine the different rates of experimental, casual, and chronic use and abuse. Is one population more or less apt to suffer from homelessness?

5. Number of individuals arrested for substance abuse-related crimes (nominal): This demonstrates the degree to which substance abuse has resulted in antisocial behavior, although of course not all individuals who abuse drugs are arrested for committing crimes.

6. Number of individuals spending time in homeless shelters (nominal): "Roughly 170,000 families spent at least one night in a shelter in 2009" according to the Department of Housing and Urban Development. While reliable statistics on homelessness can be difficult to obtain, the number of individuals who seek refuge in shelters is one indication of the extent of the problem (Morales 2010)

7. Number of individuals identified as homeless in nightly 'head counts' of homeless over a period of ten years (ordinal): Cities such as New York routinely do 'head counts' of numbers of the homeless overnight. While this is only a specific portrait of the city's homeless population, an indication that major cities are… [read more]

Volunteers in Community Safety Case Study

… Volunteers in Community Safety

The percentage of youth offenders in the UK has skyrocketed in the recent years. One of the main reasons for this saddening statistic is the increase in the number of drug/alcohol abusers among the youth. As… [read more]

Relationship of Bipolar Disorders and Addiction Term Paper

… Bipolar Disorder and Substance Addiction

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a psychiatric condition that affects more than 5.7 million people in the U.S. roughly equal to 2.6% of the national population above 18 years of… [read more]

Impact of Substance Abuse on Disability Essay

… ¶ … Substance Abuse on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

What is the incidence of substance abuse in individuals with this disability?

According to a recent study by Janikowski, Donnelly and Lawrence (2007), "As a group, people with disabilities have a higher… [read more]

Marketing Analysis for the Olde Distillerie Term Paper

… Marketing Analysis for the Olde Distillerie

The spirits industry the world over has been faced with some tough challenges in recent years as more and more consumers make the switch to wine and beer. The Olde Distillerie has not been… [read more]

Substance Abuse There Is a Significant Correlation Term Paper

… Substance Abuse

There is a significant correlation between drug addiction and the tendency to commit crime. The United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) in 1989 developed a comprehensive substance abuse treatment program in an attempt to alter both the criminal… [read more]

Drugs and Alcohol Issues Essay

… There are probably recovered substance abusers who can eventually learn to limit their consumption to appropriate levels and to appropriate circumstances while eliminating excessive consumption or consumption patterns that are problematic. Meanwhile, there are also probably other individuals who have had substance abuse problems whose addictive personalities and tendencies make it unrealistic for them to adopt any sort of flexible approach instead of the absolute abstention from those substances in the future.

Chances are there are both biological factors such as addictive tendencies as well as environmental and personal psychological factors that determine behavior and the relative ability of every individual to moderate alcohol consumption, for example. In general, people who developed substance abuse problems as ways of coping with unrelated problems may eventually be able to resume drinking (for example) once those other problems are resolved and assuming they receive the necessary counseling and support to help them recognize warning signs and avoid falling into the same pattern again if similar problems develop that could trigger excessive consumption. Other individuals might be able to control their tendency toward over-consumption through rules that impose limits, such as to the number of times they drink in a week, how much they are allowed to consume on any given occasion, or what circumstances and environments (or people) to avoid because it is those associations and… [read more]

Drugs and Alcohol Issues Essay

… Meanwhile, other people become obese or obsessed with computer gaming or alcoholics. There appear to be genetic components to addictive behavior because it is often evident in different generations within families.

However, addiction is probably more of a dysfunctional behavior pattern and the product of various coping attempts of individuals through the wrong means. A person who discovers that drinking dulls the pain of some emotional issue may begin drinking more and more because of that reward. Another person may find emotional solace in eating sugary deserts or doughnuts. They may also exchange one addiction for another. But, in those cases, their addiction occurred as a specific result of the underlying issues and not because the person was necessarily afflicted with a disease of addiction. In many cases, addiction can even express itself over healthy behaviors, such as exercise. It may also fulfill some of the same subconscious needs as less healthy addictions. All of those types of addictions may have complex psychological and physiological components, but that does not necessarily mean that they are evidence of disease in the classic sense.

4) Which drug (drug classification) do you think has the most detrimental effect on the body's nervous system?

From my understanding, methamphetamines can be devastating to the neurological system. They alter the way that neurons communicate and the way that neurotransmitters are released and reabsorbed. Apparently, regular use of various kinds of amphetamines and other drugs such as MDMA or "ecstasy" can destroy the neurons that produce important mood-regulating neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. They can also interfere with the ability of neuron receptors to respond to those neurotransmitters the way they are supposed to. In the long-term, those kinds of physiological changes can be the cause of clinical depression because the brain and mood of the drug user is no longer capable of being regulated through the normal process of mood regulation.

5) FOUR LOKO is a drink comprised of 23 and a half ounces, with 12-percent alcohol and the caffeine equivalent of at least two cups of coffee. Energy drink consumption has been on the rise over the last 3-5 years. A number of deaths have been associated with energy drink consumption in otherwise healthy young adults. Combined with alcohol many young people are using these types of drinks to stay awake yet intoxicated. SB 39 aims to block the selling of caffeinated beer beverages in CA and is waiting to be signed by Governor Brown. What is your opinion on the safety of energy drink consumption?

What is your opinion on caffeinated alcohol drinks? Would you support the passage of SB 39?

I understand why caffeinated alcohol drinks might be more of a problem than other types of alcoholic beverages. I also understand why it might make sense to restrict their sale in bars or in various other retail situations where they could contribute to problematic behaviors associated with energetic intoxicated people in groups. However, I think a complete ban on the product is too… [read more]

Alcohol and Drug Policies at Drexel Essay

… Alcohol and Drug Policy in Drexel

Drug and alcohol policy

I like where the paper ends up . . . As I see it you're arguing that the current system at Drexel treats drugs and alcohol as fundamentally different problems, and that this crude distinction leads to misperceptions: 1) that alcohol isn't really as serious a concern as it should be, but also 2) that some drugs are realistically worse than others. An approach that labeled all of them as "drugs" but treats them on a sliding scale from least to most offensive would help to remedy both issues.

I like that idea, but it seems like very little in the paper leads us there. When you're arguing for a policy change like this it makes sense to name what that proposal is up front, so that everything we read in the essay lends support to it. After the first paragraph we get a description of the drug and alcohol policy at Drexel (but with little discussion as to why it's a problem), and then this is followed by the summary of a lot of information about alcohol and drugs from the AA website which just talks about why drugs are a problem in the workplace. Some of this is indirectly useful, but you need to make the effort of explaining how it relates to students, and it would be better to simply start with a source that talks about student drug and alcohol use in its own right. The bottom line though is that several pages come off as being just about why drugs and alcohol are a problem, not why one policy may be better than another for addressing it. I feel like you there are good arguments you can make in defense of your policy statement, but you have to actually make them: how might you demonstrate that students have misconceptions about how harmful alcohol is in relation to drugs? What have you read that confirms that this kind of misconception is harmful -- and often stems from poorly designed drug and alcohol policies? In what ways have Drexel students been harmed by the one-size-fits-all-zero-tolerance policy for drugs? Can you think of specific instances or students whose stories you could tell? This might also help us see where you're coming from and give you the opportunity for stronger appeals to pathos.

Grade: C

Justin Cohen

Here at Drexel students have to follow certain rules and guidelines set up by the school. These guidelines address not only the welfare of its students, but ensure the safety and security of its students. Some might… [read more]

Economics of Alchohol Abuse Alcohol Term Paper

… g. A cartel in which the maintenance of the monopoly is done through force) (Schenk, 2010).

The purpose of a monopoly is to define and regulate market competition. In economics, imperfect competition is a situation in a given market where the conditions for perfect competition (equal market power) do not exist. .). Rarely, if ever, markets reach a state of market power called perfect competition, in which there are infinite buyers and sellers, no entry and exit barriers, and completely free and open information structures. To be a viable market, most economists believe there should be appropriate competition. There are several conditions that must occur, however, to reach this market goal: 1) Quantity of businesses -- there should a number of firms in the market, ideally at a similar sales level; 2) Entry and exit into and out of the market should be relatively easy; 3) Products should be homogenous; 4) Information should be forthcoming to all stakeholders (price, quality, production, ethics, etc.); 5) Price elasticity should be fairly even between competitors (Friedman, 1990).


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Friedman, D. (1990). Price Theory. Retrieved from:

Mankiw, N.G. (2011). Principles of Macroeconomics. Mason, OH: Cenage-Brain.

Schenk, R. (2010). Cybernomics. Saint Joseph's College. Retrieved from:

Williams, R., Christ, K. (July 2009). Taxing Sin. Mercatus Center. George Mason University. Retrieved from: [read more]

Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

… Two of the passengers in Jacqui's car were killed and two others escaped safely, but Jacqui was trapped inside when the car caught fire. She was burned over 60% of her body. Her hair, ears and one eyelid were burned off. Since then Jacqui has had to suffer more than 50 operations and is permanently and severely disfigured. Reggie Stephey, the driver of the other vehicle, was sentenced to seven years in prison and had to pay a fine of $20,000. His life was destroyed as well.

Finally, drug and alcohol abuse can take a heavy toll on a young person's relationships. Teens that are using drugs or alcohol often experience a change in personality. Their moods change rapidly and can fluctuate between highs and lows. They can become emotionally unstable. The drug or alcohol abuser may also lose interest in caring for their appearance and may begin looking unkempt and messy. A substance abuser may steal money or other valuables from loved ones in order to purchase drugs or alcohol. They can become deceitful, hostile, uncommunicative and even abusive towards loved ones. All of these personality changes can affect relationships between friends and family.

In summary, the use of drugs and alcohol among teenagers and young adults can change their lives in dramatic ways. Teens that abuse drugs are alcohol may cause themselves permanent bodily damage or death by the drugs themselves. In addition, they are far more likely to do harm to themselves or to another person while under the influence. Their actions may have a far reaching impact on themselves and on others that do not necessarily lead to death, but can lead to devastating consequences. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse lead to personality changes, and this can have a serious impact on relationships with friends and family.


Hafetz, David. Jacqueline and Amadeo: Chasing Hope. Austin American Statesman. 2002 May. February 13, 2010. <>

National Drug Statistics Summary. Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base. 2007. February 13,… [read more]

Drinking Alcohol Together With Tobacco Use Thesis

… ¶ … Drinking Alcohol

Together with tobacco use, drinking alcohol is one of the ways that people in the United States can legally kill themselves. Although binge drinking has decreased somewhat in recent years, alcoholism remains a national healthcare problem… [read more]

Tobacco Alcohol and Gambling the Evolution of Vice Advertising Term Paper

… Tobacco, Alcohol and Gambling: The Evolution of 'Vice Advertising'

Tobacco, alcohol, gambling, all are vices and all get advertised. The amazing thing about vices, both big and small, is that there has always been a demand for them and there… [read more]

Adolescents Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

… Adolescent Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

Adolescence represents a sensitive stage of development posing a high risk for contacting dangerous addictive behaviors. Drugs and alcohol abuse present a single most serious problem within this population making them vulnerable for serious delinquent behavior. Statistics show that around 50% of American adolescents have used alcohol atleast once while 20% admitted to have been drunk. [NIAAA] Research studies indicate that substance abuse and alcohol indulgence among adolescents create severe impairment of cognitive functions resulting in poor academic performance. Asides the general decline in academic performance, adolescent drinking and drug usage results in increased risk for committing serious crimes such as rape and theft. Alcohol inhibits the central nervous system, which severely impairs the judgment capacity of the person. Consequently, intoxication with drugs or alcohol makes it difficult for the person to successfully overcome sexual advances or sexual violence. A recent survey of high school girls revealed that around 10% of them have been raped under the influence of alcohol. [NIAAA]. By altering the perceptions of the individual alcohol incites aggressive and criminal tendencies in the person.

Sexual assaults

Several studies have confirmed the fact that alcohol indirectly aids in sexual aggression by altering the perception of sexual arousal in their partners. Under intoxication sexual advances are considered as appropriate behaviors. Norris (2001) confirmed these changing perceptions among drinkers. Several studies have indicated that the point of separation between consensual sex and a rape is very thin. While under the influence of alcohol, it becomes even more difficult for the person to understand the cues and to stop what starts as a consensual kissing from becoming a forced or unwanted rape.. [Abbey, 2003] the increase in the number of HIV cases among adolescents also indicates the amount of risk they take under the sway of alcohol. Even more alarming is the increasing incidence of sexual assaults and rapes between associates. Today, every college campus is flooded with ecstasy or other 'date rape drugs' like gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Rohypnol. These drugs totally halt the rational thinking process, impair memory and leave the victim unconscious and without any chance of resisting unwanted sexual activity. [Holly Harner, 2003]

Drunken Driving

Drunken driving is another problem of serious proportions among adolescents and is reported to cause twice the number of fatal accidents than among adults. As per the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), alcohol was directly responsible in around 22% of the fatal accidents involving adolescents and young adults (15 to 20). In 2003 alone there were more than 1750 fatal accidents involving drunken adolescents. A study conducted by the University of Michigan revealed that substance abuse among adolescents had a direct effect on their driving outcomes. Thus high risk driving behavior is directly correlated to substance… [read more]

Drugs Legal Drug Prohibition Causes Essay

… Although record numbers of contraband confiscations and seizes are made and the supply reduced, it is estimated that the volume of drugs trafficked successfully in United States has not changed. More alarming is the fact that after all these efforts the demand for drugs has also not changed. The Government's only response is that it is morally correct to fight a losing and impossible battle against drugs.

Advocates of drug enforcement stress the adverse effects of drugs on the human body. But, are these moralistic and medical concerns enough to justify an increase in corruption, phenomenally escalating criminal activity and cost of the war on drugs? Every new President proposes more funds to support the war on drugs and they would not admit failure of the policy and consequent long-term failures in the future.

If drugs are made legal then the excess government resources can be used to finance criminal investigations. The drug policy would be similar to that for alcohol. Usage by minors will be restricted and any person under influence who endangers others would be jailed. When the government had prohibited alcohols, the liquor laws became unenforceable, wide spread gang wars and corruption took place. These are effects very similar to the current situation.

In a liberal society the only authentic way of reducing drug abuse is through education, moral and social pressures on adult users. Future generations may wonder why the United States adopted a self defeating drug prohibition policy.


Lynch, Timothy. War no more: The folly and futility of drug prohibition. National Review, Feb 5, 2001. 4/3/04 [read more]

Alcohol Consumption and Symptoms Literature Review

… ¶ … Alcohol Consumption and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

Depression and anxiety are related to cognitive as well as psychological impairments. Both these disorders not only affect the life of the ones suffering from it, but also that of… [read more]

Alcohol Pricing and Consumption Rates Essay

… Normally, the core purpose of the guidelines when applied to products by and large is to contain anticompetitive pricing, consequently shielding minute traders as well as manufacturers from the market power of huge traders like the supermarket chains, as well… [read more]

Drug Treatment and Prevention Program Essay

… We are a society of peers. We strive to make known our program of recovery, not individuals who participate in the program." (A.A., p. 1)

This position is also underscored by a core set of values in relation to the funding of the program. The counselor with whom I spoke noted that A.A. does not allow any outside funding because it wishes not to compromise its core values for any political or commercial imperatives. Therefore, the program is strictly supported by its own membership. Within the scope of this arrangement, the organization also takes precautions to ensure that its members aren't subjected to exploitation. The A.A. site supports the information provided by my interview subject. Additionally, it notes that the organization limits the amount of any individual member's contributions to a total of $3,000. (A.A.)

Also, specific to our community, the counselor notes that he offers his number to members, who he invites to contact him when they are feeling tempted, day or night. He notes that this is not part of protocol for the nationwide chain but that he considers it his responsibility and part of his pledge to ensure total abstinence from alcohol and complete sobriety for the members of his chapter.

The effectiveness in treatment or prevention of drug use and abuse.

The results recorded by A.A. typically survey as being among the best in the area of alcoholism treatment and prevention. According to Arkowitz & Lillenfeld (2011), A.A.'s track record exceeds that of most treatment programs. Their report notes that '" The AA-based approach seemed to work and compared favorably with the other therapies. In all three groups, participants were abstinent on roughly 20% of days, on average, before treatment began, and the fraction of alcohol-free days rose to about 80% a year after treatment ended." (Arkowitz & Lillenfeld, p. 1)

Results as not as clear-cut as they seem though. According to the same article, roughly 40% of all participants actually drop out in the first year, meaning that the least likely candidates to succeed in the program are not accounted for in its records of success. (Arkowitz, & Lillenfeld, p. 1)

That said, according to my interview subject, those who did stick with the program recorded significant changes in lifestyle, habits and prospects for long-term sobriety.

Works Cited:

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). (2012). A.A. At a Glance.

Arkowitz, H. & Lillenfeld, S. (2011). Does Alcoholics Anonymous Work? Scientific American.

Kurtz, E. (2002). Alcoholics Anonymous and the Disease Concept of Alcoholism. [read more]

Effects of Alcohol on the Human Body Research Paper

… Alcohol consumption is the most widely acknowledged harmful factor of the human body, and a primary cause for illness, disability and mortality. Indeed, its negative impact on a global level was found by World Health Organization in 2009 to be… [read more]

People's Response to Drugs Term Paper

… Using an example from a research a driver who was dosed with moderate marijuana perceived to be driving at a higher speed than the actual speed. Another issue is that the perceptions of enhanced sex under marijuana are believed only… [read more]

Poor Predictors of Fetal Alcohol Term Paper

… Of the dependent variables, head size correlated the least with drinking severity. The authors also examined interactions between a number of other factors known to affect birthweight, including nicotine and marijuana use, but accounting for these factors did not change the results.


Two contemporary studies had produced conflicting evidence on this topic and Sampson and colleagues (1994) attributed this difference to the incorrect use of multiple linear regression analysis. While the authors of the current study also reported their analysis of the data using multiple regression, their report emphasized the results of simple correlations. Their argument was that multiple regression can produce different results even if all the data and covariates are similar, because all too often covariates do not have a strong enough effect to produce a clear result over and above interactions with the primary dependent variables.

The authors also critiqued the value of the outcome measures in predicting the effects of alcohol. For example, birthweight is more strongly correlated with sex and maternal body size than with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Due to the strong interactions between birthweight and so many other factors, the authors concluded that the use of birthweight as a primary indicator is not recommended because the effect is small and transient.

Critical Thinking

The important conclusion of the study by Sampson et al. (1994) is that researchers and clinicians should probably focus less on birthweight and size as an indicator of fetal alcohol syndrome and more on the neurobehavioral effects that become apparent as the child develops. In a recent report published by the National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the UK, reduced birth weight and size is still used as one of the main indicators of fetal alcohol syndrome (Blackburn, Carpenter, and Egerton, 2009). By comparison, neurobehavioral deficits are emphasized in the U.S. (NIAAA, 200). Accordingly, Sampson and colleagues (1994) identified three infants in their cohort that met the diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome, but their birthweight and size during the course of the study would not have predicted this diagnosis.


Blackburn, Carolyn, Carpenter, Barry, and Egerton, Jo. (2009). Facing the Challenge and Shaping the Future for Primary and Secondary Aged Students with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FAS-eD Project). National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, UK. Retrieved 5 Feb. 2013 from

NIAAA (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). (2000). Alcohol Alert. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 5 Feb. 2013 from

Sampson, Paul D., Bookstein, Fred L., Barr, Helen M., and Streissguth, Ann P. (1994). Prenatal alcohol exposure, birthweight, and measures of child size from birth to age… [read more]

Drugs on the Economy History Capstone Project

… S. Department of Justice, 2010). Opiates were the primary drug of choice followed by marijuana and stimulants. A half of the admissions were taken to ambulatory facilities as opposed to residential facilities. Drug users react adversely to drugs including non-fatal… [read more]

Drug Legalization Term Paper

… Drug Legalization

As the country was turning into the 20th century, drugs that were in the market were largely unregulated. There were medical remedies that often contained derivatives of cocaine and heroin. These were freely distributed over-the-counter without a prescription… [read more]

Drug Addiction Research Paper

… Social Problem of Drug Addiction

Drug Addiction

The Social Problem of Drug Addiction and the Role of the Community

The Social Problem of Drug Addiction and the Role of Community

Drug addiction is a multifaceted human issue that breeds biological,… [read more]

Alcohol Available in Corner Stores in Ontario Essay

… ¶ … alcohol and drug addictions. Specifically it will discuss whether alcohol should be available for sale in corner stores in Ontario, as it is right now in Quebec. Currently, the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) a government agency… [read more]

Tobacco vs. Other Drugs Term Paper

… Tobacco vs. Other Drugs

Nowadays people more and more intensively argue that our present life is significantly different from that of our predecessors, 100 years ago, for example; we hear all the times about the dangers we are continuously exposed… [read more]

Peer Pressure on Alcohol and Drug Use Term Paper

… ¶ … Peer Pressure on Alcohol and Drug Use (1485 words+refs)

As children move into early adolescence, involvement with peers and the attraction of peer identification increases. As pre-adolescents begin rapid physical, emotional and social changes, they begin to question… [read more]

Legalizing Activities Such as Recreational Term Paper

… The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.

Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a… [read more]

Hypnosis to Treat Drug Addiction Term Paper

… , 2003). Traditional treatment options can be very expensive, and even if a person has insurance he or she is not usually covered for drug or alcohol programs. That allows these people to fall through the cracks, or keeps them from focusing on getting some help in order to conquer their addiction and improve things for themselves and the people who care about them. Hypnosis for drug addiction could be one of the ways to start changing this, and to start making a difference in the lives of these people. While there are no guarantees of it working, the same can be said for methods that are already in use. Since the success rates for traditional treatments are not high, it is clear that something new should be attempted.

The worst that will happen is that hypnosis will not prove any more helpful than other treatment options, but it appears to have a great deal of promise. Since there is so much promise seen, it is definitely worth attempting. Because there is such a strong connection between the body and the mind, it would stand to reason that manipulating the mind would be among the best ways to adjust what is taking place within the body (Astin, et al., 2003; Elkins & Rajab, 2004). Hypnosis has been used to help people succeed in their desires to stop smoking, and the urge and desire to smoke are very powerful in many cases (Elkins & Rajab, 2004). If it is possible for a person to stop smoking through the use of hypnosis, it is certainly possible to extend the value of hypnosis to other types of substances that can also be eliminated from a person's life (Elkins & Rajab, 2004). As a less expensive alternative to many of the more traditional treatment avenues, hypnosis can be an excellent choice for anyone who is susceptible to it and interested in getting clean and sober.


Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D.M., & Forys, K.L. (2003). Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners, 16(2): 131 -- 147.

Elkins, G.R. & Rajab, M.H. (2004). Clinical hypnosis for smoking cessation: Preliminary results… [read more]

Risk Factors Associated With Alcohol Research Paper

… This study shows that there is proof of transmission of psychological and social problems from the parents to the children. This article gave a good insight about how parental actions and behavior goes on to affect the children. Parents and the society as a whole always keep an eye out for things like bullies, peer pressure, smoking, and drugs. All go these agents are known to make a bad influence on the child. However, this study clearly shows that parental habits and actions do tend to affect children as well. It should be noted that alcohol dependence, child depression and familial conflicts are all interlinked. For the man of the house, it could just be vicious cycle that he cannot get out of.

I did like the future implications that were listed in the article. This problem is very prevalent in the society today and it needs to be tamed down. It is also noted that children who have a rough child hood and see alcohol dependence in their family; they are more likely to become alcoholics themselves. As mentioned earlier, it is a viscous cycle and the family needs to work like a unit to break away from it. The family educators and therapists need to be aware of all the problems that are present in the family. This means that the therapists should know about the income problems, alcohol problems. The problem can only be combated if every aspect of conflict is looked into.

This study has therefore opened gates for many other correlations to be looked into. It is clear that parental behavior and habits make an impact on the child. Along with alcohol, parental drug abuse can also be looked into. Abuse of things like marijuana, cocaine or even excessive smoking can cause behavioral and depression related problems in the child. Therefore in my opinion, parental drug abuse and its effect on children needs to be studied in more detail.

In order to get a better grasp on the subject of alcohol dependence and familial problems, this study can be made more reliable and assorted. To further modify this study, the same methods can be used in families of different decent. This study was carried out in white catholic families. Using the same idea, studies can be conducted in varied households and in people of different races. Furthermore, the affect of cultural background and upbringing can also be looked into. If these studies are carried out on a large scale, parents can figure out how to reduce their addiction problems and improve relations with their children.


Tubman, J. (1993). Family risk factors, parental alcohol use, and problem behaviors among school-age children.… [read more]

Common Substances of Abuse Research Paper

… Substance Abuse and Dependency

Discuss the social effects of psychoactive substance use and abuse. What are some risk factors for first experimenting with alcohol and drugs? What are some intervention strategies?

The article by Grinsteinner (2006) highlights the permeation of alcohol in teen culture. For many teens, consuming alcohol is something of a rite of passage. This denotes that social dimensions play a great role in the decision to begin drinking. Indeed, while tobacco and marijuana use are observable among teens, the social effects of alcohol in particular are considerable. Grinsteinner relays that "according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, roughly 10.8 million underage persons ages 12 to 20 (28.7%) reported current alcohol use. Of these underage drinkers, 4.4 million were ages 12 to 17." (Grinsteinner, 1)

Grinsteinner goes on to point out that teens who drink alcohol before they are of age are four times more likely to form an addictive relationship with alcohol as they enter their post-adolescent and adult years. Moreover, more than 5000 teens are killed annually in alcohol-related traffic incidences. (Grinsteinner, p.1) These figures suggest that teen drug abuse, especially in this most common form, can have irreversible consequences.

The best intervention strategies are education and outreach programs. It may be a misnomer to suggest 'peer pressure' is responsible for high levels of cultural permeation where teen drug abuse is concerned. Instead, teens often insulate themselves in groups where substance abuse becomes an accepted normative behavior. In these context, little thought is given to the potential consequences. In a non-restrictive and dialogue-based context, parents and educators must take steps to make teens aware of the potentially irreversible consequences of substance abuse, particularly at so young and formative an age.

2. Identify the impact of crisis, disaster, and other trauma-causing events on persons with addiction.(a) level of addiction, (b) abuse or dependence, (c) social use, and (d) cultural specific intervention strategies.

Individuals suffering addition or dependence may find the symptoms of their condition intensified by the occurrence of crisis or disaster. Indeed, there is a considerable overlapping of substance abuse or chemical dependency and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Individuals returning for military combat, for instance, are highly vulnerable to PTSD and, therefore, are often especially vulnerable to alcoholism and habitual drug abuse.

There is also evidence that the cross-over between anxiety disorders and chemical dependency can made treatment of both conditions especially challenging. These may be interdependent disorders that are highly entwined dissonant response mechanisms. For… [read more]

Economics Taxation on Tobacco Discussion Essay

… Economics

Taxation on Tobacco Discussion

When the World Health Organization argued for increased taxation on tobacco, this was a normative statement. I certainly understand that the urge to raise taxes on tobacco is a part of a strategy to incite smoking cessation on a massive scale. There are startling statistics published by various reputable sources every year that describe the massive number of deaths directly and indirectly related to smoking cigarettes. There are staggering statistics about the amount of money and resources dedicated to smoking related health problems in the long and short-term. Furthermore, there is a lot of information about the revenue generated by the tobacco industry annually and overall. All of this information together is what makes me hesitate to agree. I would agree with this initiative if it were a part of a multi-pronged strategy for smoking cessation around the world. Just to suggest higher taxes on tobacco is ineffective and incomplete, though I appreciate the implied intentions to get people to stop smoking and improve their health.

2. Other ways that are available to societies to reduce cigarette consumption would be the legalization of marijuana, and to remove the harmful chemicals from cigarettes. Tobacco is a plant that has moderate addictive properties, but cigarettes do not contain only tobacco, often extremely dangerous or fatal ingredients that increase the addictive properties as well as increase the nefarious side effects upon health. People often smoke cigarettes to relax; societies could make greater efforts to reduce the stress in their cultures and provide widespread free ways to elevate stress so that people have more alternatives to stress reduction rather than smoking. Societies could additionally… [read more]

Reasons Why People Use Drugs Essay

… ¶ … Drug Usage

The war on drugs in the United States has been active for many decades. However, the number of individuals selling drugs, and most importantly, using them, has not gone down or reduced in any format (Allen et al., 2003). People, who choose to use drugs, do so for a variety of reasons. Their reasoning may vary from one another, but the negative effects felt by the person and those around him or her are practically the same. For the most part, people start using drugs at a very negative point in their lives, usually to escape their own reality (Miller, 2010). Another reason why people use drugs is to experiment with them. At times there may be moments where people feel pressured to fit in and try drugs in order to be part of a certain crowd. When young individuals start to use drugs, they may do it at a point in their lives where they may be rebelling (Allen et al., 2003).

The biggest reason why people choose to do drugs is to escape their current reality. There are times where personal events in an individual's life may prompt the usage of narcotics. This is done so that they may forget what they are emotionally going through. Another reason why individuals would want to use drugs as a distraction is when they are trying to escape their environment (Miller, 2010). When people either have absolutely no control or feel like they do not have any control, over the situation that they are living in, they may choose to find solace in drugs. This is seen in low-income communities that are usually plagued with crime, violence, and drugs to begin with. Not only does the hope of escaping their own environment prompt them to experiment with narcotics, these drugs are also more accessible in these types of ambiance (Miller, 2010).

Individuals may also choose to use drugs if they feel that doing so will allow them to be a part of a particular crowd. This is the case for many young people who experiment with a drug, but then end up getting addicted to these substances (Allen et al., 2003). Rebelling is a part of human nature, and at many times, the rebelling of adolescents, teenagers, and young adults, may have dire consequences. Choosing to use drugs as a way to fit in may have more negative results than positive ones, since the usage of narcotics and the participation in other illegal activities go hand in hand. Although this is not guaranteed, the correlation between the two is relatively high (Allen et al., 2003).

In order to tackle such a growing problem, strategies need to be implemented that will sufficiently serve the needs of those who need them most. Problems with drugs and alcohol can be treated in a variety of… [read more]

War on Drugs for Roughly a Century Research Paper

… War on Drugs

For roughly a century, the United States government has been using their resources to police the substances known as drugs. In the last few decades the regulation of certain substances has resulted in an all-out "war" on… [read more]

Drug Culture Midterm Term Paper

… For His Son was also memorable, especially in the scenes that highlight the son's cocaine addiction and depravity, because of its commentary on the drug and beverage business. Ironically, the drink that the father creates for his son in the film is similar to Coca-Cola, which until 1929 still contained cocaine. Altered States is full of memorable scenes, however, one of the scenes that stands out among the rest is when Dr. Jessup arrives to a party being hosted by Arthur Rosenberg. When Dr. Jessup arrives, he appears to be bathed in bright light, which makes it appear as though he is entering into a sensory deprivation capsule and stepping into the darkness that is the party. Also memorable in this film are the chaotic, hallucinogenic montages full of religious iconography that bombard Dr. Jessup's psyche. In The Big Lebowski, one of the most memorable sequences occurs when The Dude is drugged and has a dream about bowling and Maude Lebowski. This scene is not only artistic, but also allows the viewer to see the things that are most important… [read more]

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