"Drugs / Alcohol / Tobacco" Essays

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Pro's Con's of Random Drug Testing of Employee Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,109 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Pro's/Con's of Random Drug Testing of Employee's

Drug Testing

Pro's/Con's of Random Drug Testing of Employee's

In this paper, we shall argue against random drug testing within employment practices. Drug Testing plans are the latest endeavors to tackle the menace of extensive substance abuse and its outcomes. During the initial part of 1960s, urinalysis was employed to test for the… [read more]

Tobacco Smoke Contains About 4,000 Chemicals Out Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (488 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Tobacco smoke contains about 4,000 chemicals; out of these, approximately 60 are known or suspected carcinogens, i.e., cancer-causing agents ("Cigarette Smoking and Cancer") Some of these substances such as carbon monoxide, tar, arsenic, benzene, nicotine and lead are also highly poisonous and prove toxic for the human body. Out of these, nicotine is the main addiction-causing drug which is naturally present in the tobacco plant (Ibid.).

Tobacco is not only harmful for the person who directly smokes it but for other people who breath in the smoke indirectly through passive smoking. This is because the human blood has been shown to be very sensitive to even low doses of tobacco smoke. Children whose parents are smokers and unborn children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy are primarily at risk. One study found that in households where both parents smoke, young children have a 72% increased risk of respiratory illnesses and are more likely to be admitted to hospital for bronchitis and pneumonia in the first year of life ("Q & a: Passive Smoking). Similarly, babies born to women who smoke during pregnancy have about 30% higher odds of being born prematurely; are likely to be born underweight -- increasing their risk for illness; and are 1.4 to 3 times more likely to die of Sudden Death Syndrome ("Tobacco Use and Pregnancy")

Tobacco smoking is one of the major risk factors in the occurrence of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Nicotine, for example, is known to constrict…… [read more]

Drug Use and Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,135 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Drug Use and Addiction

Extensive work and research has been done in an effort to understand the impetus for drug use and addiction amongst adults, children and adolescents. Thus far, the extensive body of research has proven that, at best, drug addiction is an individual affliction at the heart of which a multitude of social, familial, and physical reasons as… [read more]

Alcohol the Search for Pleasure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



The search for pleasure is one main motivator to drink: many people experience positive, even euphoric effects after drinking. Motivation might also be related to the positive social interactions one might have, or because alcohol is served in social settings. However, some people may be motivated to drink by genetic factors or for stress relief. In the latter case, alcoholism is a potential problem because individuals who use alcohol to self-medicate are likely to become dependent on it. When used for pleasure alcohol can be harmless and even beneficial in moderate quantities. I believe drinking in moderation is fine and possibly even healthy, but that when a person drinks too much the behavior leads to psychological and physiological problems.

Alcohol absorption takes place mainly in the small intestine and the stomach. Alcohol absorption from the GI tract is affected by several factors including a person's body weight/mass; metabolism; whether the person eats or not; whether the person does other drugs or not; exercising; and type of alcohol that is consumed. Gastric emptying determines the rate at which alcohol is absorbed by the body: "the faster the gastric emptying the faster the rate of alcohol absorption," (Boggan). Eating food, doing other drugs, and exercise all affect the absorption of alcohol because they each affect the rate of gastric emptying. Absorption can also be affected by an individual's basal metabolism. Fatigue may also play a role in how fast alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach, and the type of alcohol that is consumed may also be a factor ("Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination").

3. Alcohol affects the brain and central nervous system; the digestive system; the circulatory/cardiovascular system; the liver and related filtration systems; the kidney and its fluid regulation system; and the endocrine system.

The most obvious bodily system that alcohol effects is the brain and…… [read more]

Tobacco Deal of 1997 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Social Ethics -- Tobacco Regulation


Who were the key stakeholders involved, or affected by the negotiations for a tobacco deal and what were their interests. To what degree were the interests of the various stakeholders met by 1997 settlement? By the 1998 settlement?

The actual parties to the lawsuits that eventually resulted in the deal accepted in 1997 and ultimately settled in 1998 were the major American tobacco manufacturers, such as the American Tobacco Company, Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds, Brown & Williamson, Liggett & Meyers, the Tobacco Institute, among others, and the states attorneys general of several states, including Arkansas, Maryland, and Virginia.

Since the individual state law suits were settled at the federal level, it now applies to the interests of all 50 states and to all their citizens. The settlement called for initial payments totaling $200 billion to the states with subsequent payments totaling another

168 billion paid out more gradually over 25 years. Critics point out that the settlement fell short of what is necessary to address the magnitude of harm caused by tobacco smoking in society. According to them, its provisions are still too permissive with respect to its limits on the authority of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate nicotine as a drug and also with respect to allowing certain advertising mechanisms for the tobacco industry that would have been prohibited under earlier versions of an agreement that was not passed by Congress earlier (NYT 1997).

2. Should the FDA regulate tobacco? What are the key arguments for and against involvement of the FDA in restricting or banning the sale or promotion of tobacco products?

Testimony and other evidence discovered in connection with the tobacco suits that precipitated the 1997 settlement established that nicotine content of cigarettes is precisely controlled and adjusted for the purpose of inducing addiction rather than for taste" as previously maintained by tobacco industry executives in congressional hearings (Lehrer 1998). Tobacco companies regulate nicotine by growing specific strains of high- nicotine tobacco in foreign countries secured by patents granted in those countries, for large-scale importation for sale in the United States; they also artificially manipulate nicotine content in other ways, such as by reintroducing nicotine into tobacco plant by- products processed into cheaper tobacco (FPO 2007). They also secured patents for the process of combining ammonia and tobacco, because ammonia alters the chemical composition of tobacco smoke to make it more addictive in a manner similar to the role of ammonia in producing freebase cocaine smoke (STIC 1998).

The only argument against FDA regulation is that nicotine is not intended to treat health condition or disease, but by virtue of the way nicotine is used to alter human behavior with respect to nicotine consumption, tobacco products should be regulated by the FDA. This is especially true in light of the massive and uncontroverted evidence of the magnitude of medical harm and financial cost to society of treating the known health consequences… [read more]

Should Drug Addiction Be Considered a Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,066 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7



The objective of this work is to state an argument as to whether drug-addiction should be considered a disease. For the purpose of this work, it will be argued that drug addiction should be considered a disease.

The work of Alan I. Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse - National Institute of Health states that it is all too common that the individual who first experiments with addictive drugs such as cocaine with the intention of trying it only once "enjoys the drug's euphoric effect so much that in ensuing weeks and months he uses it again - and again. But in due time, he decides he really should quit. He knows that despite the incomparable short-term high he gets from using cocaine, the long-term consequences of its use are perilous. So he vows to stop using it. His brain, however, has a different agenda. It now demands cocaine." (Leshner, 2007) No matter how the individual tries at this point, many are unable to resist using the drug again and they use the drug beyond their own control in a compulsive and addictive manner.


According to the National Institute for Drug Addiction (NIDA), many factors are involved in drug addiction. Drug addiction "shares many features with other chronic illnesses, including a tendency to run in families (heritability), and an onset and course that is influenced by environmental conditions and behavior, and the ability to respond to appropriate treatment, which may include long-term lifestyle modification." (NIDA, 2007) the following chart illustrates the factors associated with drug addiction.

Factors Associated with Drug Addiction

Source: NIDA (2007)


Alan I Leshner writes in a 2001 article entitled; "Drug Addition: A Brain Disease" that: "For many years, curbing illegal drug use has become one of the most contentious and complicated public-policy issues in this country. Everyone has an opinion. One side insists that we must control supply, the other that we must reduce demand. People see addiction as either a crime, a disease, or a failure of will. None of this bumper-sticker analysis moves us forward." (Leshner, 2001) Leshner relates that the 'brain-based view of addiction' has been the source of much controversy "in part because some people wrongly think that it somehow absolves addicts of responsibility for their own behavior." (2001) the reason for this controversy is because it is a generally held belief that "biological and behavioral explanations are alternative or competing ways to understand this phenomena, when in fact they are integrated and inseparable parts of the picture." (Leshner, 2001) for those who have this brain disease, it cannot be said that they are "simply victims of their own genetics and brain chemistry" because while some people are predisposed to be more susceptible to addiction "genes do not doom one to become an addict." (Leshner, 2001) This is because drug addiction begins "with the voluntary behavior of drug use." (Leshner, 2001) Furthermore,… [read more]

Drug Testing in the Workplace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Drug Free Workplace

In Favor of a Drug-Free Workplace

Implementing and enforcing drug testing programs in the workplace is overdue and has the potential to save literally billions of dollars in lost productivity, healthcare costs, and pilferage, all contributing to workplace violence and loss. The bottom line is that if a company had choose which products it produces or which… [read more]

Juvenile Drug Abusers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Juvenile Drug Abusers

Juvenile drug abuse is a continued problem in the United States despite pervasive education programs geared towards prevention. As Mutale (2003) notes, "the widespread use of illicit drugs and its association with physical and psychological morbidity, mortality and social disabilities has made substance misuse among young people a significant public health problem" (p. 3). For this reason,… [read more]

Drug Use Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (735 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Drug Use

Legalize This!: The Case for Decriminalizing Drugs

Legalize This!: The Case for Decriminalizing Drugs is not a book that advocates drug use. However it does advocate a serious national policy debate upon the worth of criminalizing drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and even heroin. Although drug use is not a positive personal choice, regulating drug use has never been an effective deterrent, as exemplified in the failure of Prohibition. Prohibition did nothing but strengthen organized crime, and the same thing is being accomplished by making recreational drug use illegal. Husak's provocative text answers the many unspoken questions that lurk in the minds of adolescents forced to suffer through anti-drug lectures in health class.

Does this mean that author Douglas Husak wishes to see drugs sold in stores, right next to liquor bottles? No -- Husak advocates the decriminalization of drugs, in other words, he does not think that substantial government resources should be diverted to seeking out recreational users, and punishing them through incarceration. The prison population of the United States is being increasingly dominated by such users. Because "Punishment is the most powerful weapon available to the state... we must always be vigilant to ensure that it is not inflicted without adequate justification. The entire thrust of this book is that this weapon is invoked without good reason against recreational drug users," given that many experimenters go on to lead productive lives, contrary to the stereotype that one puff of a marijuana cigarette results in a spiral later of drug use (122).

80 to 90 million Americans have used illegal drugs at some point in their lives, and roughly 15 million do so every month. It is impossible to catch everyone, and the ways in which the state attempts to apprehend offenders is to enact laws which apply to everyone, yet enforce those laws more vigorously in minority communities, which creates disrespect for the law because of the inevitable racial profiling which occurs (92). Most drug users do not commit crimes -- no more than most people who drink alcohol commit crimes. In the case of alcohol, becoming impaired or even abusing alcohol is not illegal. Only when people act recklessly and get behind…… [read more]

Drug Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,001 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Drug Abuse and Prostitution

Researchers have known for a long time that drug abuse and prostitution frequently go hand in hand (Medrano, Hatch, Zule & Desmond, 2003; Yacoubian, Urbach, Larsen, Johnson & Peters, 2000; Young, Boyd, & Hubbell, 2000; Potterat, Rothenberg, Darrow, & Phillips-Plummer, 1998; Kerr, 1988, and Goldstein, 1988). For its failure to address the problem effectively, the cost… [read more]

Effects of Alcohol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cause and Effect of Alcohol Abuse on Mind and Body

Alcohol is everywhere in today's society. People stop by for a
drink, drink to get drunk, college students binge drink, and for many
people it is a disease and an addiction. But alcohol has lasting
consequences on one's mind and the body, and these consequences are
overwhelmingly bad. Alcohol damages the brain, the body, and one's mind to
the point that someone can be addicted. The causes of alcohol damage are
often medical certainties, and the extended abuse of alcohol can lead to
further psychological problems.
Alcohol has an effect on the central nervous system with a ride range
of side effects, many of which are deleterious to health. Different
factors influence the extent and level of alcohol intake and effect, but
regardless, alcohol abuse can and will result in health issues of many
The causes of alcohol abuse are often the result simply of drinking
too much. The recommended dosages for drinks a day are very small, any
anymore will result in negative consequences for health. Furthermore,
there is the risk that "people who drink frequently or in large quantities
can become addicted to alcohol," which means that drinking more than the
very small recommended daily amount likely will lead to addiction and
ultimately abuse (BUPA 2006). The early symptoms of alcohol abuse are
those that include a difficulty controlling ones drinking, a growing
tolerance to alcohol, and when alcohol begins to impact other areas of life
(BUPA 2006). Furthermore, alcoholism can also be genetic. In general, the
many symptoms of alcohol abuse can cause harm to the body and mind. One
may turn to alcohol for relief or help from a certain problem or bad
situation in his or her life, but the short and long term consequences and
effects of alcohol on the body are very harmful.
The initial consequences of alcohol abuse may even seem good to the
drinker. A loss of inhibitions and ignoring social constraints may seem
cool. But this lack of disrespect of social norms, and legal implications
will ultimately lead to negative consequences. Unconsciousness, death,
coma, and excessive vomiting are one result of binge alcohol abuse. Thus
the original euphoria and good feeling will result in a loss of
coordination and blurred vision and then consequences far worse. This
means the original benefits of alcohol are lost after excessive consumption
and the resulting is alcohol abuse which has only harmful effects on the
body and mind.
Alcohol abuse, then means, first and foremost consequences towards
the body, and these consequences are only beneficial in moderation.
Alcohol abuse does not imply moderation, so thus alcohol abuse causes a
wide range of short and long term health problems for the individual. The
short term effects of alcohol abuse include dehydration and a loss of short
term memory and poor coordination. Often people who drink too much become
hung-over and that includes many flue like symptoms that are painful and
which only time can… [read more]

Effects of Alcohol Use on the Fetus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,915 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Fetal Alcohol Syndrome was first discussed by Jones and Smith in 1973 as a pattern of abnormalities often seen in children born to mother's who consumed alcohol during pregnancy (Jones and Smith, 1973, p. 1000). The authors noted that while most mothers are careful about their actions during pregnancy, particularly in the first few months, those who chose to… [read more]

Drug Related Crime Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,590 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Drug-Related Crime

Many people who have never been involved with or exposed to illicit drug use or distribution, probably glamorize the term drug-related crime to mean the movie like violence that occurs under the auspices of organized crime, such as that seen in popular organized crime television and movies. ("Organized Crime") Yet, it is clear that this is not really… [read more]

Drug Testing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,704 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Drug testing without the consent of pregnant women [...] this question in the moral terms of utilitarian considerations, including who will be helped and who hurt over the long-term, and the matters of rights for all involved. In March 2001, the nation's Supreme Court ruled that drug tests of non-consenting pregnant women could not be taken against their… [read more]

Legalization of Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,093 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Legalization of Drugs

Ever since the 1960s when college students began to smoke marijuana, the issue of illegal drugs has been debated. Some people claim, for example, that marijuana -- which has no potential for addiction -- would never have been made illegal, if organized crime had not needed something illegal to "push" after prohibition was repealed. It would certainly seem that the controversy has gone on long enough and that most everything about it has already been said. If not legalized, illegal drugs should at least be de-criminalized.

In "Four Points about Drug Decriminalization," Douglas Husak points out that many people, while they are against drugs, do not want to see drug users punished or imprisoned. He is in favor of decriminalization, which he defines as something like prohibition was during the 1920s when "production and sale [of alcohol] were banned, but not the use or mere possession of alcohol" (Husak 22). I certainly agree that users should not be punished, and his idea of decriminalization would be a step in the right direction, but I would go a stop further. Illegal drug production should be controlled rather than prohibited. Our current drug laws are unenforceable; indeed, the drug war is enormously expensive and an ineffective way to deal with drug abuse.

Husak argues that no good reasons exist for making drug use a crime. He makes three points in this regard. First, he concedes that treating drug use as a crime probably does not violate any basic human right (although civil libertarians might disagree). Second, he is trying to prove a negative, that is, that there are no good reasons for making it a crime. If someone gave reasons for criminalization, he could make a better case refuting them, but his task, to prove no good reasons exist, is much more difficult. Finally, he states that his assumptions about justice are minimal: no one should be punished except for a good reason. In this, he defines what he means by justice. But the first two points seem to function rhetorically more like an apology, or a warning that his arguments may not seem dramatic or particularly persuasive. And, in fact, although I agree with his premise, I do not find his essay very interesting. He tends to belabor.

For example, Husak points out that there are no books that make a plausible case for punishing drug users and begins his argument with a legal discussion. Laws that prohibit drug use are nearly always tested in Court for legitimacy by applying the rational basis test; that is, does the state have a conceivable, legitimate purpose for restricting a non-fundamental liberty? The state's legitimate purpose does not have to be compelling, only rational. Thus, a person who breaks a drug law "can be punished simply because the state has a rational basis to do so." The author points out, "It is one thing to enact non-criminal laws that pass the rational basis test. But it is quite another when criminal… [read more]

Alcohol Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Alcoholism as a Disease

Throughout many parts of the world, alcoholic consumption is often a part of social gathering like picnics, graduations, sporting events, and many more. Alcohol consumption is a risky behavior because of health and social situations caused by intoxicating, toxic, and dependence-producing entity (World Health Organization, 2011). People who drink a large amount of alcohol are susceptible… [read more]

Drug Addiction and Crime Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Drug Addiction and Crime

Over the last several decades, the U.S. has been aggressively involved in a war on drugs. Part of the reason for this, is because of the adverse effects that it is having on the lives of various individuals and their families. At the same time, it has been causing the crime rate to increase exponentially. A… [read more]

Legalization of Drugs in the United States Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … legalization of drugs in the United States as a means of curbing the problem the country currently faces. Bennett's position is that legalization would only escalate the problem, whereas projected benefits such as "taking the profit out of the business" would be non-existent in the light of increasing usage. Bennett then calls for a national drug policy that creates stricter legislation and enforcement in terms of the drug policy.

Bennett uses a number of arguments to support his position. The most convincing and compelling of these is probably the practical example of individuals, families, and communities who have been victimized by the drug trade. Bennett argues that these communities have been victimized not only by "root causes" such as peer pressure and poverty, but by the availability of drugs themselves. He furthermore argues that these communities are fighting valiantly against the prevalence of drugs in their community by means of rehabilitation programs and community and family unity. However, he also argues that these efforts are most effective and indeed only effective in the long-term with the help of law enforcement.

Another important, and somewhat chilling argument, is the fact that drug use has escalated when substances became widely available and relatively inexpensive. Legalizing drugs would make it even more accessible, not only to adults, but also to school children with pocket money budgets that would suddenly be able to cover these self-destructive habits.

For me, Bennett's most compelling argument is the effect of drugs on the human body and mind. Regardless of the basic human right to be self-destructive, Bennett's strongest argument is that, providing general public access to drugs would have devastating effects upon the country's most valuable asset: the human mind.

Regardless of all other arguments, there is no denial of the fact that drugs destroy individual lives, families, communities, and the human mind. The future that Bennett projects for a country…… [read more]

Drugs and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Drugs and Society

Why do people use drugs: A historical and philosophical overview

The word 'drug' can have either a positive or a negative connotation. On one hand, legally-prescribed drugs have saved the lives of many people: antibiotics can cure infections; drugs can alleviate pain and the symptoms of many common illnesses spanning from allergies to the common cold; drugs can curtail the advancement of serious illnesses, and make living with chronic diseases such as diabetes feasible. But there is a clear dark side to drug use: drug addiction. Several models have been suggested to explain why people use illegal drugs and abuse legal drugs, none of which are entirely persuasive.

The oldest model, which still has a great deal of traction today, is that of the moral model: It is assumed that people who use drugs are morally 'weak' and use drugs to escape reality. Another model, occasionally used by artists, is the idea that drugs can free the human consciousness from the boundaries of conventional reality. Opium smoking was not uncommon during the 19th century amongst the Romantic poets, just like LSD was popular amongst a wide subculture of musicians and other artists. And there is a longstanding tradition amongst writers and other artists to use alcohol as a method of release (Berridge 1988: 51). One of the most famous accounts of drug abuse was The doors of perception and heaven and hell by Aldous Huxley, which chronicles the author's experiences taking mescaline. Similar to that of earlier recreational drug users, Huxley conducted his self-experiments when the drug was not illegal, and the negative side effects of long-term use were not known.

From an artist's perspective, one could argue that any supposed benefits that might be derived from drug use are miniscule for 'the art' and instead their use is really is a product of the culture that surrounds artists. In other words, rather than the benefits actually derived from experimenting with drugs, the main reasons that artists often dabble in drug use are because it is so accepted within the culture that surrounds the production of art. It is true that a culture of acceptance is yet another reason that people use drugs -- whether the subculture of teens or impoverished persons who abuse street drugs and alcohol; of bodybuilders and other athletes who illegally use steroids, or even cultures where drugs are used as part of religious rituals, such as the use of peyote in Native American rituals. In these instances, it is fairly easy to understand the 'why' of drug use -- it is normalized, and not using drugs is considered unusual.

Another reason that people abuse drugs that is little-publicized by the pharmaceutical industry is the ways in which the use of legal, prescribed drugs can morph into abuse. Someone may be given a prescription for an opiate-based painkiller and begin to use the numbing effects of these painkillers, not for pain but for psychological reasons -- to shut out reality. Stimulants like Ritalin… [read more]

Drugs and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … trafficking of drugs has been something that has been a problem in the United States of America for many decades. From the Drug Cartel in Mexico to the Pharmaceutical companies getting federal funding, Americans have a fascination with drug production and usage. Regardless of the many attempts that the government has made to completely cease the drug problems,… [read more]

Drug Testing in the Army National Guard Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … illegal drug use among military members. This is on the decline, a result of strong prevention programs instituted by the DoD and military branches. The root causes and scope of the problem are also discussed in this paper. Lastly, the paper will discuss the different preventative and corrective actions that the DoD should institute in order to continue its success in dealing with illegal drug use among servicemen and women.

In general, drug use among our servicemen and women is relatively low. Outside of the Air Force, the statistics show that between 1-2% of servicemen and women are found to have illegal drugs in their system during routine drug tests. The Air Force figures are lower, in the 0.4-0.6% range (Gilmore, 2011). The in-service figures contrast with the military entrance processing station applicants, who recorded 3.28% positive tests. This paper will discuss the rates at which servicemen and woman test positive for illegal drugs, and will discuss some of the root causes of this drug abuse and the potential corrective actions that can be taken to curb this abuse. The latter are especially important to consider because there are other forms of drug abuse that also affect servicemen and woman, including alcohol and prescription drug addiction, both of which have increased in the years since 2001 (NIDA, 2011).

The Scope of the Problem

A 2008 survey conducted by the Department of Defense showed that servicemen and women have reduced their consumption of illegal drugs over the past few years (NIDA, 2011), but rates are still higher than the military would prefer. The survey identified a number of potential causes of the abuse that occurs. These potential causes include mental illness, stress, access to drugs and a lack of services to help prevent or correct drug use. It has been found that heavy alcohol use among servicemen and women increases post-deployment, so the intensive missions in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past several years may also contribute to drug use among the military community (Jacobson et al., 2008).

Potential Root Causes

The military life is a high-stress occupation, but it is also a highly-disciplined one. Rates of illegal drug use in the military, according to the 2001 survey, are below those of the general public. However, there are still underlying root causes that result in illegal drug use by members of the military community. Drug use is related to a number of factors including post-traumatic stress disorder, general stress, and the availability of drugs. It is believed that while this only impacts a small percentage of our servicemen and women, illegal drug use can be curtailed.

Curtailing Illegal Drug Use

In the past ten years, military branches have undertaken a number of steps to curtail illegal drug use, including stronger prevention programs. According to the 2008 Department of Defense survey, these efforts have enjoyed some success. However, there have also been some criticisms as well. The Army has often failed to process a discharge for soldiers who have recorded… [read more]

Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Treating Alcohol Dependence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Alcohol Dependence

The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in treating alcohol dependence

Alcohol belongs to a family of compounds called stimulants. Many people consume it for different reasons; several people take alcoholic beverages when they want to enjoy themselves with family members, friends and colleagues while some groups are addicted to it claiming it helps… [read more]

Iran Contra and Drug Trafficking Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Casey had been called by Congress to testify as to the covert operations regarding a global system of illegal arms and drug running (Weiner, p. 478), but he himself never made it to the stand -- falling ill just hours before he was scheduled to appear before Congress. Considering the CIA's history of shady operations, this is no surprise --… [read more]

Letter Addressing Modifiable Risk Factors Dear First Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Letter Addressing Modifiable Risk Factors


First of all, I just wanted to say that I love you. It is out of this love I have for you that I must address some major concerns I have with your horrible habit of smoking. There are so many consequences for this bad habit, I don't even really understand how you could continue…but I wanted to write this letter to you just to remind you the dangers you face if you continue unabated.

Yes, there are some more superficial issues related to smoking. I know first hand the smell that covers everything, because I have had to live with you for so long. Smoking can stain your teeth and cover everything you have with that awful stench. Even worse, smoking can lead to the narrowing of the blood vessels, which has been shown by the research to cause a number of different types of vascular diseases, which are "obstructions of the large arteries in the arms and legs that can cause a range of problems from pain to tissue loss or gangrene," (CDC 2012). Not to mention your smoking can harm me through second hand smoke!

Yes, yellowing teeth and a bad stench can be a nuisance, but smoking also causes much more serious problems. It has been related to over 443,000 deaths annually in the United States alone (CDC 2012). Smoking tobacco is the number one killer in the United States. In fact, "more deaths are caused each year by tobacco use than by al deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined" (CDC 2012). The bad habit leads to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Americans each year, and much more than that on a global scale. According to the research, "It is also the single most preventable cause of death in the U.S." (Jacobs 1997). This is clearly unacceptable behavior, and so I really want to drive home what could happen to you if you continued to smoke.

There are so many cancers associated with smoking. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has shown that men with your bad habit are 23 times more likely to develop lung cancer compared to nonsmokers (CDC 2012). Even though the chances are a little less for woman, it doesn't matter because you have a 23 times greater chance of developing lung cancer than me! Each year, over 143,000 smokers will perish from a variety of different types of cancers (Jacobs 1997). These cancers are often not a quick and painless death. Rather, they can kill you slowly, and with a lot of pain and misery. Fighting against such cancers often requires invasive techniques, like surgery and chemotherapy -- neither of which are fun to deal with! The main issue I have here is not the small nuisances or the fact that I am against smoking, but the very fact that it is so sure to cause death prematurely!

There… [read more]

Gangs Violence Stemming From Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … gang violence, focusing on drug-related violence committed by gangs. It attempts to analyze the major causes behind such violence and whether the trend of gang violence is on the increase. The communities and demographic population in which such violence is most likely to occur is also discussed besides looking at certain possible ways of preventing or lessening gang violence.

The disturbing phenomenon of gang violence in the inner American cities has been a major concern of parents, communities, and the law-enforcing agencies for many years. Of late, several studies indicate that the nature of gang violence has changed, with lethal violence being more likely related to the drug trade than to gang rivalries. One such study shows that drug related violence represents between a third and half of all gang violence. (Hagedorn, 1997). The reasons behind such a trend are multifarious and linked to the nature of youth gang culture. It is essential to take a brief look at these reasons before we can analyze and discuss some of the ways by which drug-related gang violence can be controlled.

Most experts and psychologists equate gangs with surrogate family units. Many young people find a sense of belonging, acceptance, and attention by becoming members of a gang -- needs which are not met in their families. Witnessing of domestic violence, sexual abuse or neglect at home also perpetuates violent behavior. Other causes are peer pressure, low self-esteem, intimidation by gang members and even boredom. Add to this the attraction of profits from drug-trafficking, theft and robbery, and the spiraling gang violence becomes a logical outcome of the existing social conditions in our cities. What is more, contrary to popular belief, gangs are not just restricted to youths from disadvantaged, low-income areas. Nor do they consist of African-Americans only -- they represent all racial and ethic groups. ("Gang Awareness," n.d.). Hence, the potential negative effects of gang violence are far more serious and widespread than was previously assessed.

Having established that gangs and violence are inter-related, we will briefly try to see how drugs are related to violent acts by gangs. It does not take a whole lot of research to conclude that it is the illegal nature of the drug trade which promotes violence. Because of the absence of legal controls of drug markets, gang members use illicit means, including violence, to control customers, to defend market share, and to keep employees in line. Illegal business has always been the direct cause of violence. Remember the hay days of gang wars, mafia and Al Capone during the years following the prohibition?

Some studies indicate that drug-use is widespread among members of most youth gangs although not all gang members use drugs and the degree of drug use varies greatly. Certain drugs such as Amphetamines and Cocaine are known to promote violent behavior; hence drug use among gang members can also be cited as one of the reasons for gang violence. It has been…… [read more]

Addiction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


It was quickly adopted for recreational purposes and it became to be widely abused. Within time due to some highly publicized acute reactions and fatal overdoses, stiff restrictions were placed on its use and it was ultimately removed from the market.

Two other drugs, Ecstasy and Crack Cocaine, appeared on the horizon following the demise of Quaaludes. The danger of… [read more]

College Students and Designer Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


College Students and Designer Drugs

This report examines the results of an independent survey that questioned just how prevalent designer drug use was on campus. Club drugs also known as designer drugs have hit the party scenes for many college students. These drugs became famous in the late 1990's because they were often taken at night clubs and parties called… [read more]

Drugs and Addiction Prolonged Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


These are people with abundant knowledge regarding health benefits, which they would receive from eating healthy to stimulate their cognitive functioning. Nevertheless, the fact that there exists an easy way of going about the cognitive performance without getting sweaty or on diets makes the needs appeal appended on stimulants. This drug provides a quick fix, which makes it the best option for those looking for optimal performance without much of a struggle with diets and physical exercises. This is producing a society where competition is becoming null because of the unfair use of enhancers against the efforts of others. The ethical unfairness for people under the influence of drugs is the manner in which they promote a lower look on those who are not under the influence of enhancers. They are producing a society, which is forcing people to find means of fitting in instead of making the society conducive for people's existence.

Other than focusing on ethical implications, it is perhaps necessary for people to start focusing on the benefits of using enhancers. Some researchers have proposed that the use of enhancers in promoting cosmetic functioning can be equated to cosmetic surgery. Those who chose the use of enhancers have a right of choice for the best things to do for their lives. Banning the use of enhancers would just present an infringement on their rights. The availability of Adderril is limited because it is a prescription drug; however, the promotion of its availability would help students with lower IQ, in finding solutions for poor performance in class. If food is continuously available for people because of the need for its beneficial factors, it is possible saying that Adderall use is also in need for ready availability of the drug.

However, looking at the aspirations brought about by the continued use of drugs like Adderall and piracetam and modafinil, the opportunities they enhance or block remain deserving of further research and debate. The use of these drugs to sharpen the brain against eating healthily makes the brain functioning fast. However, it is obvious that they do not expand the brain. That takes any chances for advocating for ease of accessibility of the drugs, into a hard corner. The drugs block freedom of efficiency by blocking natural creativity.


The craving for performance and improved efficiency is the driving force to the use of some very addictive drugs like Adderall. Students are most affected because they are always looking for ways of being better performers in their study lives, later simulating it to their career lives. However, the use of stimulants like Adderall cannot be encouraged just as the need for healthy eating. As much as healthy eating is as essential as using Adderall in enhancement of the functioning of the brain, the implications of using Adderall to both self and others is negative. These are aspects, which cannot be related to the health benefits promoted by healthy eating. It is, therefore, very unethical using stimulants to compete against suspecting… [read more]

Gangs Drugs and Violence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,253 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Gangs, Drugs and Violence

Compartmentalized Legalization of Drugs: An Answer to Drug Related Gang Violence

Although there are a number of turbulent issues that plague the streets of inner cities throughout the United States of America, one of the most recurring and prevalent of those problems stems from the intrinsic link between gangs, drugs, and the violence that inevitably erupts… [read more]

Drug-Related Terms Such as Tolerance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When this is done to avoid physical discomfort or to avoid withdrawal symptoms, it is known as physical dependence. For example, when someone is 'addicted' to a drug to an extent that he or she comes to rely on its use for their body to function normally, the person can be said to be physically dependant on the drug. Physical dependence also means that withdrawal symptoms occur if the person stops taking the drug he or she has become addicted to. Physical dependence is more pronounced in case of 'depressant' drugs such as drugs of the opiate family (heroin, morphine, and codeine), barbiturates, alcohol and tranquilizers. ("Dependence")

5. Psychological Dependence

Psychological dependence is the second type of dependence on drugs. It is an overwhelming desire to continue taking the drug but not to avoid the physical withdrawal symptoms. In other words, if someone wants to take a drug to experience the pleasurable effects of the drug experience, in order to make life bearable, to escape or block out reality or in order to be able to face the world, he or she is said to be psychologically dependant. Quite often people use drugs as a psychological crutch. Whether a person becomes psychologically or physically dependent on a drug depends to some extent on his/her personality. However, some drugs such as marijuana, hashish, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and amphetamine are more likely to cause psychological dependence rater than physical dependence. (Ibid.)

Works Cited

"Dependence." Drugscope. 2002. November 22, 2004.

"Drug Dependence." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

Perkinson, Dr. Robert R. "Drugs of Abuse." 2003. November 22, 2004.

Withdrawal symptom of heroin is also known as "cold turkey"… [read more]

Sports and Drugs Illicit Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,627 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


However, the tradition of informing just the doctor after two positive tests should be rethought and the team owner should also be brought into the loop. This can help in dealing with a player more effectively as is proved in the case of Travis Tuck, when he was found unconscious due to a drug overdose in a hotel room. The club president, Jeff Kennett, claimed that if he had known about the first two tests he would have been able to help Tuck and keep a closer eye on him. Tuck was found to suffering from depression which was something a club president should know (ABC 2010).

Also there is no provision in the rules about players who are taking medicines which might contain banned substances. This matter should also be researched and included in the policy.


ABC News 2010, AFL stands by drug confidentiality policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-09-01/afl-stands-by-drug-confidentiality-policy/966194

AFL 2008, Illicit drugs policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.aflpa.com.au/images/uploads/Illicit_Drug_Policy_August_2008_CURRENT_2.pdf

AFL 2010, AFL and AFLPA enhance illicit drug policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, www.afl.com.au/tabid/13144/Default.aspx?newsId=66504

AFL 2012, AFL players and AFL have a simple message: say no to drugs. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.afl.com.au/aflhq/aflplayerssaynotodrugs/tabid/12211/default.aspx

CBC Sports 2003, 10 drug scandals. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.cbc.ca/sports/indepth/drugs/stories/top10.html#3

Colman, M. 2010, The Courier Mail: AFL drug policy is exposed. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.couriermail.com.au/sport/afl/afl-drug-policy-is-exposed/story-e6frepkx-1225913461728

Denham, G 2010, The Australian: Positve drug test isn't a negative for AFL policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/sport/opinion/positive-drug-test-isnt-a-negative-for-afl-policy/story-e6frg7t6-1225913012657

Hendry, N & Boys, F 2009, Drugs in sports: getting up to speed on the issue. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.iccwa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/drugs-in-sport.pdf

Lane, S 2011, Real footy: AFL joy as drug stats tell story. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.smh.com.au/afl/afl-news/afl-joy-as-drug-stats-tell-story-201106221gfgh.html

Shawdon, Anik 2011, Australian Doctor: Drugs in sports. Viewed 13 June, 2012.… [read more]

Domestic Violence &amp Alcohol Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Stuart, et al. performed the study for the purpose of assessing the effectiveness of treatment in those cases involving domestic violence and used the following process in their method of studying domestic violence and alcoholism.

"Alcohol use, marital violence, psychological abuse, and marital satisfaction among 24 heterosexual male patients and their partners was assessed. Patients received 5 to 6 days of substance abuse treatment in a partial hospital. Patient and partner assessments were conducted at baseline and 6- and 12-month follow-up'


The findings in this study were that the treatment results in "decreased alcohol use in patients and significant declines in husband-to-wife marital violence and psychological abuse." While men "reported no significant changes in their marital satisfaction" the opposite was true for the female partners.


There are 25 women beaten for every one hour in the day according to statistics. Other statistics state that a woman is beaten every nine seconds which is 400 beaten women for each one hour segment of each day by her life "partner." The reported study concluded with the statement that: Overall, the study suggests that:

"Marital violence perpetrated by male patients and their partners declined following the males' substance abuse treatment. "

It is always advisable to seek counseling, and if no progress can be compelled from the abuser to take a stance of safety first. The children are victims and the non-abuser must allow cognition to rule the processes of thinking. Alcoholism and domestic violence are a deadly combination within a marriage.


Jennison, Karen & Johnson, Kenneth (2001)"Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication" The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, May, 2001

Stuart et al. Reductions in Marital Violence Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence J. Interpers Violence .2003; 18: 1113-1131[Online] located at: http://www .findarticles.com/p / articles/mi_m0978/is_2_27/ai_112083062/pg_1

Journal of Interpersonal Violence (2003) 2003 SAGE Publications, Vol.18, No 10, 1113-1131 DOI: 10.1177/0886260503255550 [Online] at: http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/ab stract/18 / 10/1113

Evidence that Treatment is Often Effective

Jennison &…… [read more]

Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising

Alcohol and tobacco are among the most heavily advertised products within the media industry, including magazine, newspaper, broadcast, and outdoor advertising (Pfleger Pp). According to a 2001 report, the six major tobacco companies spend approximately $6 billion annually on advertising and promotion in the United States alone (Pfleger Pp). Measured media is roughly $800 million a… [read more]

Drug Legalization Is a Highly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Research shows that overtly oppressive drug laws have led to an undesirable explosion in the prison population as drug dealers are out behind bars on minor charges. This is resulting in over-crowding of prisons and causing psychological and physical damages to inmates. A comprehensive study proves that, "alcohol and tobacco are highly addictive and kill massive numbers of people, while neither of these effects have been demonstrated in marijuana use" (Nordberg, 2000). Another study takes into account the problems associated with stricter drug laws as they maintain that prison inmates are also used as low-wage workers who are forced to work under sub-human conditions and suffer at the hands of oppressive corporate giants. For this reason, they feel that prison should be turned into an exclusive place for hard-core criminals on charges of homicide and other serious offences. Drug dealers and drug addicts on the other hand should be placed in rehabilitation centers instead of prison. And only legalization can make this possible.

Legalization is therefore a serious issue, which must be carefully addressed. It is not possible to allow free unhindered cocaine use while at the same time, putting every cocaine user behind bars is also creating problems for the country. This calls for a serious concerted effort to resolve the issue.

Works Cited


Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea., USA Today, 10-11-1999, pp 17A


HEMENWAY, D. Alexandria Arguments against states legalizing drugs, Arguments against states legalizing drugs., The Washington Times, 11-08-2002.


Nordberg, D., COLUMN: Why continue…… [read more]

International Drug Trafficking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


International Drug Trafficking number of drugs including cocaine, opiates, cannabis, and synthetic drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamines are considered illegal in most parts of the world. Declaring a substance illegal, however, does not mean that its use or demand can be eliminated as was so famously experienced in the United States after the alcohol prohibition in the 1920s.… [read more]

Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Human Memory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Alcohol and Marijuana on Human Memory

A review of literature regarding the effect of marijuana and alcohol on the human memory

This paper presents an examination of the effects that alcohol and marijuana have on human memory. It has long since been taught to young adults that these two substances have the ability to negatively impact the memory.… [read more]

Alcohol Mankind Has Endured Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,170 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Reckless people, inclusive of those suffering from ADHD, do not appear to be capable of performing this very well compared to others. (Cognitive neuroscience takes on alcohol)

The linkages between antisocial behavior during adolescence and alcoholism might be explicated by defects in the frontal limbic system that seems to result in dull emotional reactivity. Scientific findings indicate that some behavioral patterns displayed by kids and adolescents having conduct problems-like persistent impulsive aggressive behavior, absence of obedience to rule of the society, and so on -- might be a pointer for fundamental difficulties in emotional reactivity and associated damage in frontal limbic procedures. This basic dysfunction in the main processes catering to the emotional reactivity, noted as poor self-control, weakened decision making, and poor behavioral coordination, might partly explicate the reason behind children having conduct problems are particularly recumbent to substance-abuse problems. (Alcohol's Damaging Effects on Adolescent Brain Function)

Laboratory- based research seems to have corroborated that alcohol intoxication results in heightened insistent and aggressive behavior. For instance, a number of researchers have used the Taylor Aggression Paradigm wherein the subjects compete on a response time task opposite an imaginary rival. Outcomes of countless studies applying this paradigm have exhibited that people who take alcohol as a part of the test were found to be increasingly aggressive compared to those who refrained from consumption of alcoholic beverages. Identical outcomes have been revealed in experimental studies employing other measures of aggression. Several meta-analytic appraisals of these laboratory studies have come to the decision that alcohol contributes a causal role in the expression of violent behavior. Detractors of these studies have doubted their ecological justification. Particularly it has been debated that the archetype paradigms employed to know about the aggression, like the example stated above, do not give a sufficient depiction of violence since they address with the circumstances of vengeance. Moreover, violent revenge in these circumstances has been approved by a legal authority -- the experimenter. Ultimately, it has been observed that these experiments do not give any different answer other than violence. (Alcohol Use and Violent Behavior among Youth: Results from a Longitudinal Study)

To conclude, the impact of alcohol on behavior and its influences on the brain are considerably more varied and intricate, and outcomes of experiments have established uncertain and erratic. There are inconclusive results for many studies conducted and many more studies are further required involving the impact of alcohol on brain and human behavior. Hence there is a need to study the effects of alcohol on brain and behavioral outcomes in greater detail.


"Alcohol Abuse" Retrieved from http://cms.psychologytoday.com/conditions/alcohol.html Accessed on 18 May, 2005

"Alcohol's Damaging Effects on Adolescent Brain Function" (22 February, 2005) Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/02/050218130524.htm Accessed on 18 May, 2005

"Alcohol's Damaging effects on the Brain" (October, 2003) Alcohol Alert. No: 63. Retrieved from http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm Accessed on 18 May, 2005

"Alcohol - Effects on the Body." Retrieved from http://www.gurney.co.uk/drinksense/factsheets/effects.htm Accessed on 18 May, 2005

"Cognitive neuroscience takes on alcohol." (15… [read more]

Drug Addiction and Homeostasis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When the effects of the drug wear off, the body gradually returns to a state of homeostasis. However, with overuse of cocaine, a state of homeostasis is not reached. According to David Allen Deans, "people who are predisposed to drug addiction, or who have an addictive personality, are in a content state of homeostatic imbalance before being exposed to drugs." The drugs serve a medicinal purpose in the case of the addict because they create the homeostasis that should exist without the drug. The reason why withdrawal from cocaine can be traumatic is that without the drug, the individual experiences mood swings and imbalances. It may take days, weeks, or months for the body to return to homeostasis without the aid of the substance.

Works Cited

'The Biological Mechanisms of Addiction." Addiction. Spark Notes Health Study Guides. Online at < http://www.sparknotes.com/health/addiction/section4.rhtml>.

Deans, David Allen. "Drug Addiction." California State University, Northridge. 1997. Online at < http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/drugs.htm>.… [read more]

Drug Control Prevention Is Better Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


All it needs is awareness of the parents about the prevalence of drug use among children and the dangers it poses to their health and future life.

A more exact estimate of the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse is given in a 2004 report released by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) The report titled "Alcohol and Drug Services Study Cost Study," found that the average cost for treatment of alcohol or drug abuse in outpatient facilities was an estimated $1,433 per course of treatment in 2002. The report also states that non-hospital residential treatment for alcohol or drug abuse cost $3,840 per admission and outpatient methadone treatment cost $7,415 per admission in 2002. ("Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Cost Study, 2004") Based on the number of patients treated for substance abuse in 1997, the Study estimates the total treatment costs of residential, outpatient (Methadone) and outpatient (non-Methadone) as $2.736 billion, $967 million and $3.083 billion respectively.

If we take into account the notoriously high recidivism rate among drug abusers, the real cost of drug treatment becomes even higher.

The cost of drug and alcohol abuse to the society is no doubt, staggering. Prevention and treatment of drug use are both aimed at a common objective: controlling drug abuse. Of the two, drug treatment is far more expensive due to the reasons discussed above.


"Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Cost Study." (2004). The DASIS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k4/costs/costs.htm

'NIDA InfoFacts: Costs to Society." (2005) National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/costs.html

Keen, Judy. "Bush Plans Hit on Drug Abuse" (2002). USA Today. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://www.usatoday.com/educate/ondcp/lessons/Activity5.pdf

The 1992 cost estimate had increased 50% over the cost estimate from 1985; hence the current economic cost due to drug abuse must be much higher.

The "prevention costs" does not include the much more expensive "interdiction cost," i.e., the cost of programs designed to stop drugs from entering the United States: such budgeted cost for 2003 was $2.3…… [read more]

America's War at Home Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


S. government needs to either increase the accuracy of their estimates, or increase their honesty regarding such accuracy.

In my opinion, the above-mentioned article serves to highlight the hypocrisy of the American government in relation to its "war" on any general concept such as drugs or indeed terrorism. This hypocrisy, as seen above, has increased since the 1920's to such… [read more]

Danger Signals of Drug Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Studies shave shown that "Addiction and high-risk sexual behavior have been linked across a wide range of settings." (Hsu J.H.) An example of this is women who use crack cocaine are more likely to engage in unprotected sex in exchange for money or drugs.

Furthermore, the use of drugs will most often have a detrimental effect on the health and the ability of the body's autoimmune system to fight diseases and infections. This therefore will make the drug user more prone to diseases like AIDS.

3. If the so-called "war on drugs" is an inappropriate countermeasure to current drug problems, what other approaches do you think would be more significant in reducing the problem of alcohol and other drugs?

While legal and law enforcement measures are important in combating the influx and abuse of illegal drugs, yet this is only part of the solution. Statistical studies show clearly that'Even though two-thirds of the federal drug control budget goes for law enforcement and interdiction, the flow of illicit drugs into the United States remains high. "(Combating Drug abuse)

Therefore the war on drugs should also be waged in conjunction with an educative process in order to awaken people to the health and other risks associated with substance abuse. Possibly more funds should be diverted to public advertising campaigns to increase awareness of the dangers of drug abuse.

4. Explain three different ways of classifying psychoactive drugs.

Two of the most common ways of classifying drugs are according to the legal status of the drug and secondly according to the effect that the drug has on the human nervous system. A third classificatory procedure is according to the chemical composition and behavior of the particular drug.

In the first system of classification the drugs are classified and categorized in relation to the legal assessments. This means that drugs may be classified in terms of their legal availability; for example, according to whether a certain drug requires a doctor's prescription. Secondly, drugs are most often classified according to their effects on the user. For example, certain drugs may have a hallucinatory effect, while others may cause depression to even stimulate aggressive reactions.

A third classificatory process is according to chemical composition and usage. This is an alternative system that has been suggested as it avoids pejorative statements and does not make any legal or social judgments about he drug's usage. This type of classification is more useful to medical and pathology studies. .


Combating Drug abuse. September 15, 2005. http://www.gdcada.org/statistics/combating.htm

Hsu J.H. The Hopkins HIV Report. September 15, 2005. http://www.hopkins-aids.edu/publications/report/july02_5.html… [read more]

Cons of Drug Testing in Schools Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … negative aspects of drug testing in schools. The Supreme Court has upheld drug testing in schools as legal and permissible, especially among school athletes. However, there are many negative aspects of drug testing in schools, some of which are the actual accuracy of the tests, the competence of the individuals administering the tests, and the actual integrity of the samples. In addition, drug testing in the schools sends the wrong message to American youth. It teaches them to be duplicitous and deceptive, rather than forthright and honest, and it teaches them their rights can be violated, or at least manipulated, even under the Forth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which dictates against unlawful search and seizure except in times of war or distress. Drug testing in schools falls under neither of these categories, and that may be the most negative aspect of the process for American youth.

Two relatively recent Supreme Court decisions relate to the constitutionality of drug testing in public schools. They are the Vernonia School District v. Acton ruled on in 1995, and the Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls ruled on in 2002. These are references as Vernonia and Earls hereafter (Yacoubian, 2003). One ruling determined schools may drug test participants in school athletic programs (Vernonia), and the other determined schools may test participants in any school extracurricular activities, too (Earls). Thus, schools may test students who give up their free time for school activities, such as band members, cheerleaders, club members, and honor society members. The legal aspects are still being challenged, and their constitutionality, while upheld by the courts, is still questionable to many people.

One of the arguments against testing was the way urine samples were obtained from students, and if this was overly intrusive. In both cases, the court ruled it was not, and, "that the method of the collection caused, at worst, a negligible intrusion. Moreover, a positive test had no criminal justice implications" (Yacoubian, 2003). Therein lays one of the main negative aspects of drug testing in the schools. If the drug testing does not lead to criminal proceedings for illegal drugs, then what is the main point of the testing? If students test positive more than once, most school districts will deny them access to their extracurricular activities, and this is the only result of the testing. Many schools deem the testing a "safety" issue, and note they are responsible for the safety of the participants, even in after school activities. The implication is that a student using illicit drugs might cause harm to other students, and the school district would be libel. It seems that situations like this could occur, but the likelihood of their occurrence is extremely low, and does not warrant the infringement of rights that occurs when drug testing takes place. Another testing expert, Bob Shoop, a professor of educational administration at Kansas State University, says, "Courts have ruled that drug tests are a search.… [read more]

Drug Intervention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Drug Intervention

Annoted Bibliography

Anglin, M.D., Farabee, D., Huang, D., Yih-ing, H. (2004). "Recidivism among an early cohort of California's propostion 36 offenders." Criminology & Public Policy, 3(3), 563-584. California societal voters approved the Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act (SACPA) in November 2000. SACPA or "Proposition 36" (as it is often referred to), gives adults drug abusers who have been convicted of non-violent drug possession the opportunity to choose treatment over incarceration. This study was a follow-up to the program and concluded that crime had been reduced marginally since the SACPA was put into effect. However, SACPA clients remained more likely to be rearrested for a drug crime even after controlling for the interaction between drug use severity and treatment modality.

Cartwright, W.S. (2000). "Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment services: review of the literature." The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 3(1) 11-26. The question this study sought to find out about was the value of the economical expense involved in the treatment of drug abusers. The report demonstrates scientific merit with its study of expense vs. benefits. Studies researched included articles obtained from scientific literature as well as eight government reports. Four categories of expense vs. benefits were researched. The benefits were found to exceed costs in eighteen studies. This was also true in studies that had not included all the benefits. The studies accentuated the economical savings in discussions of the effectiveness of addiction treatment, the benefits from the treatment and the expense of the treatment. It was found overall that treating drug abusers contributed positively to economic returns.

Cuellar, a.E., McReynolds, L.S., Wasserman, G.A. (2006). "Analysis and Management."

Journal of Policy 25(1), 197-214. The increase of mental disordered youth offenders has become a serious social problem. The researchers in this study discuss a new policy that has been instated which allows youth offenders to seek treatment instead of being prosecuted, fined and/or incarcerated. Public opinion at this time reflects a belief that there is a correlation between mental disorders and crime. The increase of treatment diversion programs may be aligned with this belief. The implementation and effect of a diversion program in Texas was evaluated. The findings of this important study was that treating youths was very effective in impeding or preventing offenders from committing crimes completely.

Day, a., Howells, K., Heseltine, K., Casey, S. (2003). "Alcohol use and negative affect in the offense cycle." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 13(1) 45-58. Alcohol use has been thought to be strongly associated with criminal behavior, though this correlation and the foundation of it, has not been thoroughly researched to gain a better understanding. This study attempts to review the current studies concerning alcohol and criminal behavior. It draws some conclusions concerning the role of the addiction in offender rehabilitation. The report proposes that there are negative states of inebriation that are important to understand in order to properly conceive the offense cycle and treat abusers.

Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., & Swain-Campbell, N. (2002). "Cannabis use and… [read more]

Pharmaceutical Drug Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Prescription Drug Abuse on-Campus and Off Introduction

Drug abuse has long been a major concern of policymakers, educators, and healthcare officials in the United States. The subject of innumerable media stories and government and medical reports, as well as many anecdotal accounts, drug abuse has typically meant the misuse, or recreational use, of illegal drugs. These illegal drugs include… [read more]

Alcohol Consumption Actually Depresses the Central Nervous Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,140 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alcohol consumption actually depresses the central nervous system, and although it is not a stimulant, individuals who drink alcohol appear stimulated, as speech become free and animated and social inhibitions become lax (Dunlap). However, the occurrence of these effects are due to the fact that alcohol affects the parts of the brain that control judgment, thus the "stimulation" that occurs with alcohol consumption is basically due to a depression of self-control (Dunlap). Depending on what type of alcohol, how much and how quickly an individual consumes the drink, alcohol slows down brain activity, resulting in slurred speech, slowed reaction time, impaired vision and hearing, impaired thinking and memory, and muscle weakness (Dunlap).

Although alcohol is classified as a food, it is not digested but rather enters directly into the blood stream. Because alcohol dilutes itself in the water volume of the body, vital organs, such as the brain, that contain large amounts of water and need a substantial blood supply, are left especially vulnerable (Dunlap). Within minutes of entering the bloodstream, literally every organ and tissue system, including the brain, liver, heart, lungs, pancreas and kidneys, are infiltrated by alcohol (Dunlap).

There are numerous processes of body chemistry and metabolism that are associated with the liver's functions. For example, the liver produces bile which aides in the digestion of fatty foods, and stores and releases sugar. It also manufactures heparin, an anticoagulant, and produces antibodies that deter diseases (Dunlap). The liver is also responsible for ridding the body of poisons, including alcohol, and although it is very effective in cleansing the body of alcohol in small amounts, when the alcohol content is high, imbalances occur that can lead to hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, fatty liver, and hyperlipermia (Dunlap). Hypoglycemia causes low blood sugar, hyperuricemia leads to arthritis and gout, a fatty liver can cause hepatitis and cirrhosis, and hyperlipermia leads to the build-up of fats in the bloodstream which can ultimately lead to certain heart conditions (Dunlap).

The central nervous system consists of the spinal cord, including the nerves within, and the brain. As Dr. Michaele Dunlap explains, sensory impulses are sent to the central nervous system and motor impulses pass from it, yet when alcohol reacts on the central nervous system, intoxication occurs, which affects emotional and sensory function, judgment, memory, learning ability, and dulls smell and taste sensors (Dunlap). Moreover, as the blood alcohol level rises, the ability to withstand pain increases. Because alcohol affects different parts of the brain at different rates, an individual may experience alternate periods of restlessness and stupor (Dunlap). Long-term effects include tolerance, dependency and irreversible damage to the central nervous system (Dunlap). The most affected organ is the brain, which is subject to alcohol injuries such as memory loss, confusion, and augmentation (hyper-alertness), all of which can result in rapid mood swings, and emotional and behavioral instability (Dunlap).

Alcohol causes red blood cells to clump together resulting in oxygen starvation to tissues and cell death in the brain, which leads to red eyes, capillaries… [read more]

Rdrn Tobacco and Its Subsequent Side Effects Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,733 words)
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Tobacco and its subsequent side effects of addiction have been a contentious issue plaguing society for years. Tobacco, with its addictive qualities makes it an ideal target for young adolescent children. Even more alarming is that marketing aimed primarily to establish a long-term addiction for young adults. Teens, being young are especially prone to establish long-term habits with severe… [read more]

Equal Protection Clause of 14th Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


City of Charleston, the "first case in which the Supreme Court explicitly recognized [constitutional] rights in the context of pregnant women who are addicted to drugs" (Weyrauch, 2002, p. 82).


It may be wrong and perhaps just plain stupid, but women who take illegal drugs during their pregnancies are doing no more harm than other women who engage in behaviors that are suboptimal for fetal development, but which are also legal. Because the determination of what types of behaviors and their precise effect on fetal development may be a highly subjective analysis, it is not surprising that an inordinately high percentage of women who have been charged with criminal conduct for taking illegal drugs while they were pregnant have been poor women of color. The research suggests that the vast majority of these women were already addicted to powerful drugs before they became pregnant, and the paucity of community-based resources specifically designed to help pregnant women has contributed to the incidence of pregnant women taking illegal drugs being charged as criminals as well. In the final analysis, the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution represents a viable defense against these types of criminal charges for pregnant women who take illegal drugs.


Blank, R.H. (2002). Mother and fetus: Changing notions of maternal responsibility. New York:

Greenwood Press.

Flavin, J. (2009). Our bodies, our crimes: The policing of women's reproduction in America.

New York: New York University Press.

Paltrow, L.M. (1999). Pregnant drug users, fetal persons and the threat to Roe v. Wade. Albany Law Review, 62, 999-1004.

Roberts, D. (1991). Punishing addicts who have babies: Women of color equality and the right of privacy, Harvard Law Review, 104,…… [read more]

War on Drugs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


As the power of the Colombian economy grew as a result of trading cocaine, the influence was not only experienced in the country's political system, but was also institutionalized virtually into the very system. Many poor people were enriching themselves by indulging in the cocaine business. A good example is Escobar, who was a dealer for cars which had been… [read more]

Counseling for the Client Various Issues Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (852 words)
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¶ … Counseling for the Client Various Issues in the Case Study Were Listed in the Order of Their Significance;

The patient experiences feelings of depression and anxiety with no reports of suicidal thoughts or panic attacks

Family history indicates no mood, anxiety or substance associated problems for the patient's parents, although the mother had recuperated from tobacco addiction. However; the patient's paternal grandparents suffered from anxiety plus depression. In addition, the patient's uncle had an alcoholism problem

The patient does not exhibit any eating or sleeping problems, no signs of agoraphobia, cognitive shortfalls or leaning impairments

The patients abuses alcohol, marijuana and smokes on a regular basis

The frequency of drug and alcohol use is increasing with the extension to weekdays when alone in school

The patient experimented other drugs such as cocaine and LSD

Sometimes the patient skips classes after abusing alcohol and marijuana

VIII. The patient admits that her use of alcohol and cannabis has affected association with parents, however, she is willing to keep on using cannabis if, there is a way she can do it without being arrested. She is not sure of the influences of marijuana on her life.

Diagnostic Impressions

According to DSMIV-TR substance use plus substance induced disorders are evident from the case study. The client has an alcohol dependence disorder. This is because the client experiences at least three of the signs indicated in the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. For example, the client has indicated no efforts of reducing consumption of alcohol. It is evident that the client skipped significant social and occupational events as a result of alcohol consumption (Dziegielewski, 2010). The client has continued to consume alcohol although she knows that her actions have negatively affected the relationship with her parents. In addition, the client has shown increases in alcohol consumption for the purpose of attaining intoxication.

Canabis dependence

The client symptoms conform to those in DSMIV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. The client's use of marijuana has resulted to legal problems. The use of marijuana by the client has affected performance in school, and family relationship. The client experiences physical and psychological issues related to consumption of marijuana (Dziegielewski, 2010).

Substance induced disorders

The client experiences some instances of depression and anxiety. This condition emanates from the effects of alcohol and marijuana. The client has both alcohol and cannabis dependence which is characteristic of substance induced disorders (Sadock, et al., 2008). In addition, the client's social life has deteriorated because drugs are vital to her than school and parents.

Nicotine dependence

It is evident…… [read more]

Women Who Drink Alcohol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The exact amount of alcohol that can harm the embryo/fetus is unknown. In spite of this, it has been shown that as the dose of alcohol increases the embryo/fetus can suffer from unobservable effects to death. The relationship between the mother and the fetus in what concerns-dose response effects remains incompletely unstated. Although it is clear that severe exposure to alcohol leads to FAS, it remains uncertain if "there is a continuum of dose-response effects ranging from anatomic and behavioral changes at low to moderate maternal doses to full-blown FAS at high maternal doses, or if there are two or more thresholds resulting in degrees of impairment in function and structural malformation. As yet undefined is whether there is a LOEL distinct from the LOAEL for alcohol exposure in the fetus." (Idem, page 42)

Numerous animal studies have been made to reveal the dose-response effects of exposure to alcohol during the gestation. In animal literature the meaning of "high," "moderate," or "low" doses of alcohol differ. To determine the level of alcohol, it is better to find out the level of alcohol in the blood, than to calculate the doses of alcohol that had been administrated. In humans a concentration of 100mg/dl of alcohol in blood can be considered high; a concentration between 50 an 100 mg/dl of alcohol in blood is moderate, and a low dose is when the concentrations of alcohol in blood is below 50 mg/dl. In animal research the blood's alcohol concentration seemed to be more relevant that the dose of alcohol that had been consumed.

As previously mentioned, when a mother drinks alcohol, her fetus drinks too. "That's why abstaining from drinking throughout pregnancy and during breastfeeding is the best gift a mother can give her child -- it's a gift that lasts a lifetime." (Effects of alcohol on a fetus)


1. Effects of alcohol on a fetus, Retrived December 4, 2012, from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website: http://fasdcenter.samhsa.gov/documents/WYNK_Effects_Fetus.pdf

2. Kathleen R. Stratton, Cynthia J. Howe, Frederick C. Battaglia, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.), Fetal…… [read more]

Legalization of Marijuana Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


By denying sick people the right to legally use beneficial medicine, more moral and ethical harm is being done. The legalization of marijuana will allow millions of individuals to live pain-free and stress-free lives.

Many other drugs on the market right now are plenty more harmful than marijuana. To begin with pot is considered a much safer drug than alcohol. There have been no documented deaths attributing cause solely to marijuana. About 37,000 people die annually as a direct result of alcohol poisoning -- not including those individuals that die because of driving drunk or as a result of another person driving drunk (YES on 64). There is no case of marijuana overdose ever recorded. Alcohol causes more damage to the body than marijuana ever has. Liver damage, brain tissue loss, and cancer have all been linked to chronic alcohol usage, while marijuana has been cited as being beneficial to all of the previously mentioned ailments (Ferner). Alcohol is remarkably more addictive for people than pot is (Ferner). Aside from the dangers associated with alcohol, another legal substance that causes a lot more damage is tobacco. Tobacco usage is associated with decreased lung capacity and function, while marijuana has shown no negative effects on this front (Robesonian.com). In the Netherlands, 75% of all marijuana users do not even touch other drugs, including cigarettes and alcohol because pot can be legally used; this has attributed to the overall healthier state of the Dutch, compared to the health risks that Americans constantly deal with (ABC 20/20).

In all, marijuana should be a legalized substance. There are plenty more benefits to enacting government regulations than there are in banning it all together. The economic benefits associated with legalizing pot can save the country from its current financial state. More resources can be given to areas that need it most, and less money can be spent on a war on drugs that has clearly already malfunctioned. The health benefits associated with marijuana use overrides any possible detriments cited. By reducing the number of people who are sick, health costs can also be reduced, further adding to the economic power of this substance. Lastly, substances such as alcohol and tobacco that have clear health risks are considered legal; marijuana has been proven to be safer and is even able to alleviate some of the damage caused by some of these legal substances. The legalization of marijuana will be the only next logical step.


ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Robesonian.com. "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30… [read more]

Prescription Drug Oxycontin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Prescription Drug Abuse: OxyContin

Drug abuse continues to be one of the most negative elements of our modern society. Some of the most commonly abused drugs include but they are not limited to cocaine, marijuana, and heroin. It is however important to note that people are increasingly making use of prescription medications for purposes other than their intended use. OxyContin,… [read more]

Special Population &amp Substance Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Most of the paroles fail and rearrests occur within the first six months of release of inmates having substance abuse disorder. All new admissions in the U.S. prisons had staggering proportion of parole failures, from being 17% in 1991 to 35% in 2000 (Petersilia, 2000).

V- Drawbacks of not providing rehab treatments and facilities

There are a number of drawbacks… [read more]

Alcohol Poisoning Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Negative Effects of Alcohol Poisoning:

Alcohol poisoning is considered as a fatal condition that is caused by drinking excessive amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. However, this condition is also associated with other negative effects including & #8230;

Ineffective Functioning of the Body:

As previously mentioned, a person's blood alcohol concentration increases as he/she consumes more alcohol, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. The higher the blood alcohol concentration level, the more the severity of its effects on body functioning. One of the major negative effects of alcohol poisoning is ineffective functioning of the body because alcohol affects nerves that control the body's automatic functions or actions like breathing. Since alcohol depresses these nerves, more consumption will ultimately stop involuntary actions and functions ("Facts About Alcohol Poisoning," p.1).

Notably, a person's blood alcohol concentration can continue to rise even when he/she has passed out. Moreover, alcohol in the intestine and stomach continues to get into the bloodstream and circulate in the entire body even after the individual stops drinking. Therefore, it is extremely dangerous to assume that such an individual will be fine through sleeping off the drunkenness.

While it is normal for a person who drank excessive alcohol to vomit because the drink is an irritant to the stomach, a victim of alcohol poisoning faces the danger of choking on vomit. This could contribute to death by asphyxiation for an unconscious patient because of the resultant intoxication.

Dependence of Alcohol:

Alcohol poisoning is likely to contribute to alcohol dependence because of addiction to the drink. Since alcohol poisoning affects involuntary actions of the body, the individual is likely to become dependent on alcohol to an extent that he/she experiences withdrawal symptoms when trying to stop the habit. The dependence on alcohol may make the person unable to function effectively without taking some amount of alcohol.

Negative Health Effects:

As a life-threatening consequence of binge drinking, alcohol poisoning can lead to severe health effects on the patient or victim. Some of these negative health effects include low blood pressure, drop in body temperature, double or blurred vision, reduced blood sugar concentration, impaired judgment, inadequate muscular coordination, and coma ("Why is Binge Drinking Bad for You?" par, 7).

When alcohol poisoning occurs frequently for an extended period of time, it is likely to contribute to some long-term negative effects such as diseases in the digestive system, heart problem, kidney damage, brain damage, liver disease, skeletal muscle damage, psychological problems, and sexual and hormonal dysfunction. The other effects of this condition include child developmental problems and high risk of accidents and injuries.

In conclusion, alcohol poisoning is a condition attributed to various factors including binge drinking and excessive drinking. This condition has severe health effects on a person, particularly on mental and physical functioning of the body. This implies that an individual with this condition should seek proper medical attention to avoid severe impacts.

Works Cited:

"Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms." MD-Health.com - Better Health Information from Doctors. MD-Health.com, n.d. Web.… [read more]

Drugs and Pregnancy the Habit Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Even though policy-makers advocate punitive as well as coercive measures having reasons of protecting the fetus, this approach has failed in obtaining such results. Having fear of being punished, women might fail to seek prenatal care. Also even if they are jailed, some may be still in a position to get the drugs on top of being denied medical care or prenatal care at the time of pregnancies, hence counterproductive if compared to the rehabilitative approach.

Narrow perspective on just use of drug during prenatal as the main fetus source of harm has also been noted to divert attention from the rest of the well-known and hypothesized causes of fetal harm, some of which go with illicit use of drug. Risk factors and influences, for example smoking, lack of prenatal care, socioeconomic status and environmental conditions, are always overlooked in any case involving use of illicit drug. This renders meaningful researches on how to protect the fetuses neglected and the protection of the fetus from drugs rendered unachievable.

There is therefore preference among experts and women for a program that puts together medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term after-care for preventing relapse, and help with the concrete needs like housing and day care.

As a nurse, there is then the need to shift my approach to the fetus protection bearing in mind the various lessons learnt from the session and the effects of drug on fetuses. My function as a nurse will have hence to vary as I will be a collaborator with the other nurses and medical practitioners as well as with the target population in tackling the drug abuse. To the team members, I will be a leader as I will engage in formulating the program and leading colleagues toward implementing the program. Since I will have patients that I will be responsible for, I will be their manager, directing them on what to do and the direction of their medication. I will also be an advocator within this community for the fight against drugs and use my medical background to do the same with the prime target being the pregnant women. For those who will be already in the drug abuse, I will be their clinician and give them the necessary medical attention to help them out as well as save the infants. All these cannot be possible if the community is not educated on the significance of keeping off drugs, seeking medical attention for pregnant women already using drugs and how to handle the pregnancy once on withdrawal from drug abuse, hence I will be their educator on these.


Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.

Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse… [read more]

Drug Use Crime Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Legalizing drug use would only cost societies long-term prosperity and therefore it should not be legalized.

According to the bureau of justice statistics, drugs are related to crime in multiple ways. Most directly, it is a crime to use, possess, manufacture, or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse. Cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines are examples of drugs classified that have a large amount of abuse (Seabrooks, 2012). Drugs are also related to crime through the effects they have on the user's behavior and by generating violence and other illegal activity in connection with drug trafficking. This is the primary reason drugs should not be legalized as the violence may be reduced but the behaviors corresponding to drug use will increase (Summary, 2012). Below is a chart depicting drug use and crime in visual form.

Some substances aren't meant for human consumption, yet their ability to alter consciousness has made them into attractive sources of intoxication for those looking for a high. Inhalants such as glue or aerosols have been abused to this end, with disastrous consequences. Most abused drugs have some affect on the cardiovascular system, according to the National Institutes on Drug Abuse (Seabrooks, 2012). Drugs can increase heart rate and cause heart attacks. Cocaine is known to cause heart arrhythmias and deaths from cardiac arrest. Tobacco is a legal drug that is known to cause the blood vessels to constrict, leading to high blood pressure and hardening of the arteries (Walter, 1979. Drugs that are injected intravenously can damage the blood vessels, causing veins to collapse. Dirty needles and contaminated drugs can introduce bacteria into the bloodstream that damage the heart valves. Certain drugs have demonstrated the ability to cause brain damage in users. Inhalants, for instance, have been shown to damage areas of the brain that control cognition, movement, vision and hearing. These substances, which include solvents and aerosol sprays, may provoke varying degrees of destruction to the brain tissue, resulting in cognitive abnormalities ranging from mild impairment to severe, permanent dementia (Glasscote, 1932). When it comes to brain damage, legal drugs are not safe either. Chronic alcohol abuse can cause a syndrome known as "wet brain," or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. A thiamine deficiency linked to alcoholism causes brain cell death and alters brain structure. If caught early enough, wet brain may be partially remedied through thiamine supplementation, according to the Choose Help website. The liver is faced with the task of removing the drugs from the body. As a result of chronic drug use, the liver can become damaged and diseased . Alcoholism is a known… [read more]

Health Care Policy Bill Formulation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Health Care Policy Bill Formulation

What the legislation will target

The talking points

Bill writing

Policy to monitor and regulate drug abuse and trafficking

Legislative action

Health Care Policy Bill Formulation: substance abuse

The issue of substance abuse is a societal menace that is gritting the world economies to the ground due to its enormous negative effects. The term substance… [read more]

Opium in China Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … opium in China with that of the United States after the Civil War? Provide an analysis as to how the early problems with opiates influenced the drug problems of the 1970s worldwide.

Narcotics and drug abuse is common all over the world. The use of drugs dates back to 5000 BC (all the way up to the New… [read more]

Substance Abuse Upon a Fetus Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,460 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


(Curet et al., 2002)

Drug abuse during pregnancy is completely avoidable. The damage that is done to the fetus during pregnancy as a result of drug abuse is again, completely avoidable. When women become pregnant unexpectedly, they still have power over their bodies and their babies. Education and healthy living are key to keeping the fetus safe during pregnancy. Women… [read more]

Jacob's Ladder the Insider the Lost Weekend Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Drug Culture in Lost Weekend, Jacob's Ladder, And The Insider

Drug culture in film can be represented in a multitude of ways. Among the films that have been watched during the course of the semester, the Lost Weekend (1945), Jacob's Ladder (1990), and the Insider (1999) provide different aspects of how drug culture is depicted in film. The Lost Weekend focuses on the debilitating effects of addiction, Jacob's Ladder focuses on drug testing and development, and the Insider focuses on the drug industry.

The Lost Weekend is a film that highlights the dangers of alcohol as well as drug addiction. Directed by Billy Wilder, the film stars Ray Milland as Don Birnam, an aspiring writer who is heavily addicted to alcohol, so much so that his "need" for the drink interferes with his life and destroys his relationships with others. The Lost Weekend aims to bring attention to the dangers of addiction. Believing that Don is a recovering alcoholic, Wick -- Don's brother -- and Don's girlfriend -- Helen St. James -- are helping Don to pack for a weekend getaway. Unbeknownst to them, Don has not given up drinking, and in fact, his predilection for alcohol causes him to not only miss the train he is supposed to take, but also contributes to his delinquent behavior, which includes attempting to steal money from a woman's purse, and other acts of desperation such as attempting to pawn his typewriter and trading Helen's expensive fur coat for a gun. The film brings attention to the power that drugs, in this alcohol, can have over an individual and the difficulty they may encounter when trying to rehabilitate themselves. Furthermore, Don's thoughts about committing suicide are also representative of the hopelessness and loneliness that drug addicts may feel. In a way, the Lost Weekend serves as a public service announcement because it not only depicts the devastating effects of drug addiction, but it also shows how an individual's drug addiction also affects those around them.

Jacob's Ladder, directed by Adrian Lyne, drug culture…… [read more]

Drug Culture Interviews Interview

Interview  |  3 pages (1,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Layla is a 17-year-old senior in high school. She is very active in sports being a member of the track team and the basketball team. She is so competent basketball that she has been offered a minor scholarship to college to play basketball. Her grades in school are well above average as she has been on the honor roll throughout high school.

Me: Layla, what does the term "drug culture" signify for you?

Layla: Well, that term reminds me of some of the things my parents talk about. When they were younger there were lots of people doing different types of drugs like marijuana, LSD, and other drugs. The first thing I think of is some of the things my parents talk about like people being stoned and having hallucinations and all of that old -- time hippie stuff.

Me: Do you relate the term drug culture or the use of drugs to anyone you know?

Layla: I know some people in school but do drugs like marijuana and alcohol if you consider that a drug. I've been a few parties where people were taking Oxy (OxyContin) but I stay away from drugs.

Me: So the term "drug culture" is something that is an old term to you?

Layla: For the most part yes. I think it describes an attitude of the past when people took a lot of drugs as a means of experimentation. I really don't associate with people who do a lot of drugs and I don't see it as a drug culture. There are a lot of professional athletes that do drugs but I don't relate that term to performance-enhancing drugs.

Me: Is that of concern to you, athletes using drugs?

Layla: No, not really. I don't think it is as prevalent in my sports. I certainly don't think it should be allowed and any athlete caught using performance-enhancing drugs should be banned from competition.

Me: Do you use any drugs at all?

Layla: Outside of taking some aspirin for headache and occasional painkillers I don't do any drugs.

Me: Do you drink alcohol parties? Coffee? Is that a drug?

Layla: Well sometimes I drink a little if it's there. I don't really consider alcohol and drug I know that technically is, but I don't consider it to be one. Coffee is not a drug-lol!

Me: When you think of drug movies what you think of?

Layla: The first movies I think of are the Harold and Kumar movies -- those are pretty funny. I just saw the movie Side Effects; I guess that's a drug movie.

Melvin is a recent college graduate with a computer science degree. He currently works as a computer programmer for a hospital system.

Me: So Mel what does the term "drug culture" signify for you?

Melvin: That term describes the American culture to me to a tee. This culture is totally fueled by drugs. They are marketed to us on television and people use drugs to feel good, get going,… [read more]

Physiological and Behavior Effects on Drug Abuse Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Chemical Dependency

Physiological Effects of Abused Drugs

The descriptions of the physiological effects of the most common drugs of abuse in the textbook seemed to go in order of severity, with alcohol leading the way. The main exception to this observation is marijuana, which seems to be a relatively safe drug when limited to recreational use. This cannot be said about alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, sedatives, narcotics, or inhalants, which all carry the potential for severe consequences when an individual overdoses. Somewhere in between, in terms of recreational use, are the hallucinogens, in part because LSD can cause potentially dangerous flashbacks even after only one encounter with the drug.

By comparison, long-term regular use of all these drugs can have a devastating impact on the user's health. Alcohol not only damages the brain, but many other systems within the body, especially the liver. If one system could be universally declared to be affected by all of these drugs it is the nervous system. Paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, and tolerance, which can lead to the more devastating condition of dementia, is a frequent outcome for anyone who becomes chronically dependent on alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, narcotics, inhalants, and sedatives. Psychosis, whether acute or long-term, is another common outcome for abusers of these drugs.

Gastrointestinal health and adequate nutrition are other common concerns for alcoholics and chronic users of cocaine, narcotics, amphetamines, and hallucinogens. Alcohol acts as an irritant of the gastrointestinal tract and alcoholics can develop serious problems, including ulcers and intestinal bleeding. Opiates (narcotics) interact directly with receptors in the digestive system and one of the most common side effects is constipation. Other potential problems include ulcers and intestinal obstruction. Amphetamine/methamphetamine users can experience such an extreme energy boost that their body's energy reserves can become depleted and when engaging in a…… [read more]

Drug Culture at Temple U Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


With legislation being pushed towards decriminalizing marijuana in Philadelphia, it is very likely that marijuana advocates will begin to infiltrate the campus looking for either supporters of the cause, or signatures for petitions. It is also likely that flyers bringing attention to this cause will also begin to be seen more frequently on campus and off.

Part B

Cashing in on the demand for drugs can appear to be a lucrative opportunity, however, people always run the risk of getting caught for selling and distributing drugs. In an article from Philly.com by William Bender from August 23, 2012, one can see how prevalent drug use is at Temple University and at other schools. The article explains how 25 individuals were arrested in a sting that targeted an illegal pill ring. Among the pills that were sold to students at Temple are Oxycontin and Xanax. Furthermore, the sting also demonstrates that there is a demand for cocaine and marijuana at these schools as they were among the drugs that were sold and distributed by these drug dealers. It is also interesting to see that the ages of the individuals arrested in the sting ranged from 20 to 46, which indicates that drugs were not only distributed to students by students, but that outside individuals were also cashing in on the demand for drugs.

This article is especially interesting because it demonstrates the complexity of independent drug businesses. It is baffling to see the lengths to which people will go to in order to make money. The article states that one dealer was bringing home $2,000 to $3,000 a week! Considering that comes out to $104,000 to $156,000 a year, it is easy to understand the draw that such a dangerous endeavor has and why people would be willing to risk everything to be successful in this line of work. It will interesting to see how the trial of these individuals plays out because of the range of charges everyone is charged with and the extent of each…… [read more]

Mandatory Drug Testing Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Trucking Industry

A study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Mailman School of Public Health showed that of the estimated 4,000 fatal crashes that involved buses and heavy trucks, "…about 3% of the motor carrier drivers (i.e., bus drivers) and 27% of the non-motor-carrier drivers" were under the influence of alcohol (DiMaggio, et al., 2009). Because transportation employees "with safety-sensitive functions" are under mandatory orders to be tested for alcohol, DiMaggio explains, there is "compelling evidence that implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs has significantly reduced alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes" (p. 1).

There is a problem in terms of testing for alcohol when motor carriers cross borders into Canada or Mexico, DiMaggio continues. Mexico and Canada do not implement mandatory tests for alcohol, but the author asserts that because mandatory testing for alcohol in the U.S. has "substantially reduced alcohol-impaired driving," Canada and Mexico could also improve their safety records "…by adopting this policy" (DiMaggio, p. 2).

The federal Department of Transportation (DOT) has published a fact sheet that explains to pilots, school bus drivers, truck drivers, train engineers, subway operators, aircraft maintenance personnel, transit fire-armed security personnel, ship captains, and pipeline emergency response personnel, that even though a doctor may prescribe medical marijuana, the drug is still illegal and the prescription is "not" an excuse for a positive drug test (Swart, DOT). Currently 16 states have laws that allow doctors to prescribe medical marijuana for certain illnesses, but the DOT explains, "It remains unacceptable for any safety-sensitive employee subject to drug testing" to use marijuana under any circumstances (Swart, DOT).

This makes perfect sense because even if a person has a problem, say, with migraine headaches, and his doctor has prescribed medical marijuana for the pain, the cannot possibly be an excuse for making a mistake while driving a school bus or a tour bus. Imagine a school bus driver losing control of the vehicle and injuring a dozen elementary school children while high on medical marijuana. It wouldn't matter a bit to the parents of those injured children that the driver's doctor gave him cannabis tablets to reduce the pain. Indeed, every parent who puts his or her child on a school bus fully expects the driver to be competent and sober, so the idea of mandatory drug testing for school bus drivers is absolutely appropriate and proper.

The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Trucking Industry

Clearly, based on the danger associated with the use of heavy equipment like earth movers, graders, bulldozers, cranes, loaders and others, an operator must be drug-free to ensure his or her own safety. When students enroll in a training program for heavy equipment operations, like the Central Lakes College in Minnesota, they understand out front that they "…are required to participate in mandatory drug testing" (CLC). The CLC explains that "random drug and alcohol screening of students in the program will be done… [read more]

Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The DEA document asserts that the DEA is "not alone" in viewing smoked marijuana as having "no documented medical value." The DEA quotes the American Medical Association which does not endorse medical marijuana programs or the legalization of marijuana albeit the AMA does urge continuing "clinical research" to see if marijuana could be medicinally potent. Other groups supporting more studies (but opposing legalization) include: the American Cancer Society; The American Glaucoma Society; and the American Academy of Pediatrics (DEA, p. 4).

Moreover, the DEA sites its own research -- including 111 researchers "registered with DEA to perform studies with marijuana, marijuana extracts," and other derivates that are found in the cannabis plant -- which indicates that "…smoked marijuana is harmful" (5).

The DEA continues its narrative on marijuana on page 6 of the 2011 paper by asserting that the proposition that "smoked marijuana is 'medicine' is, in sum, false-trickery used by those promoting wholesale legalization." And while there are 18 states that authorize the distribution of medical marijuana, some states are very firm in their law in terms of what medical issues qualify as medical marijuana. In New Jersey, which was the 14th state to make medical marijuana legal, there are only 12 illnesses that doctors are allowed to prescribe marijuana for, and that list does not include "chronic pain."

The DEA provided the names of wealthy Americans that have provided funds for various medical marijuana campaigns; the DEA says that "a few billionaires" but not "grassroots support" provide the money behind these pro-medical marijuana campaigns. Those billionaires are "George Soros, Peter Lewis, George Zimmer, and John Sperling," a group that reportedly provided $1,510,000 to the California medical marijuana initiative in 1996.

Problems Created by Marijuana Use

Psychology professor Douglas A. Bernstein writes that whether or not marijuana can be proved to be addictive, or whether it leads to other kinds of drugs, "…it can create a number of problems" (Bernstein, 2007, p. 361). Marijuana "disrupts memory formation, making it difficult to carry pout complex tasks," Bernstein explains (361). Many people believe they are more creative while using marijuana, but Bernstein says it "…actually reduces creativity" (361). Moreover, the drug affects muscle coordination so driving while using marijuana is "quite hazardous"; and in addition, motor impairment continues "long after the obvious effects of the drug have worn off" (Bernstein, 361).

For long-time regular users, Bernstein writes that "…impairments in memory and attention can persist for years after their drug use has stopped," and as to those who begin smoking marijuana in their teenage years, and get involved in heavy use of the drug, this pattern "…has been associated with the later appearance of anxiety, depression, and other natural disorders as severe as schizophrenia" (361).

The bottom line, when it comes to shoes who do not want marijuana legalized, can be summarized in four ways: a) it is addictive; b) it leads to the use of other drugs; c) the intoxicating effects of marijuana "endangers the user and other individuals";… [read more]

Chemistry and Recreational Drugs Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,129 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


" Klein speaks of "synthetic mimics of marijuana, dissociative drugs, and stimulants -- such as the bath salts" that the Florida man shot before his "horrific face-eating assault." (2012) These drugs are growing in their popularity but are very difficult to control. This is because manufacturers of these drugs are able to "turn these things around so quickly. One week you'll have a product with compound X, the next week it's compound Y." (Klein, 2012)

The active ingredients in these drugs are "compounds originally synthesized by institutional researchers whose esoteric scientific publications were mined by as-yet-unidentified chemists and neuroscientists working in Asia, where most of the new drugs appear to come from." (Klein, 2012) It is reported that the cannabinoid mimics are a very popular class of recreation drugs and one that Clemson University organic chemist John Huffman developed in his search to isolate the chemical properties of marijuana in research on cancer. Klein reports "Other "legal high" ingredients have similar pedigrees, with designers including researchers at Israel's Hebrew University and the pharmaceutical giant Pfizer." (2012) Recreational drug synthesis has been accomplished by individuals who never had a high school chemistry class and in the form of methamphetamine. Manufacture of methamphetamine involves the use of several household products including lye, lithium batteries, and ammonium nitrate along with the popular cold medicines containing pseudoephedrine. These ingredients are added together in a bottle and shook and in 20 to 30 minutes, the chemist is ready to gas the mixture rendering a powdered substance in the form of methamphetamine. (Shelby Police Department, nd)

Summary and Conclusion

Recreational drugs are in demand by the public and as such are difficult and nearly impossible to control. Recreational drugs are derived from research conducted by scientists and others seeking cures and alternative drugs for use in those suffering disease. Outlawing of drugs such as marijuana has resulted in legal substitutes being marketed and just when lawmakers think that they have stopped the production and distribution of legal recreational drugs, the manufacturers of these drugs changes a compound and markets the recreational drug under a new formula and new name. The war on drugs has not been effective because the truth is that people enjoy the use of recreational drugs and those who develop, market and sell recreational drugs enjoy the profits from sales of these substances.

Recreational drug production makes use of chemistry synthesis of various legally obtained products to produce the recreational drug. The ingredients for recreational drug production are generally easy to obtain although recent years has witnessed legislation requiring that individuals purchasing pseudoephedrine products produce their identification and sign for the cold medications containing pseudoephedrine. It is yet to be seen whether this law or other laws like it have any impact on the demand and ultimately the manufacture and supply of recreational drugs to a public that enjoys and demands such drugs.


Hill, SL and Thomas SH (2011) Clinical toxicology of newer recreational drugs. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Oct;49(8):705-19. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Drugs Marijuana in Depth Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Among the specific interventions recommended by the National Institute for Drug Abuse (2010) include a rewards-incentive system in which a counselor provides a reward for stopping smoking. However, community organizations can offer the person activities that help take their mind off using the drug. There are many ways a person can replace the habit of smoking marijuana with creative and fun pursuits ranging from art and music to sports and dancing. My personal observation has shown that people who are physically active tend to use fewer recreational drugs than people who are more sedentary in their lifestyle. Therefore, a treatment program that includes some kind of physical activity will help. Additionally, yoga and meditation might help take the place of the calming effect that some marijuana users seek.


Gardner, A. (2012). Pot smoking may leave mark on teen brains. CNN. 27 Aug, 2012. Retrieved online: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/08/27/health/health-teen-pot/index.html

"Marijuana's Lasting Effects on the Brain," (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/directors-page/messages-director/2012/09/marijuanas-lasting-effects-brain

MedLinePlus (2012). Marijuana. Retrieved online: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/marijuana.html

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010). Drug facts: marijuana. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana

SAMHSA (2008). Marijuana. Retrieved online: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/nhsda/ar18t042.htm

Taylor, H.G. (1996). Analysis of the medical use of marijuana and its societal implications.

Walton, A.G. (2012). The Neuroscience of Pot: Researchers Explain Why Marijuana May Bring Serenity Or Psychosis. " Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2012/01/11/the-neuroscience-of-pot-researchers-explain-why-marijuana-may-bring-serenity-or-psychosis/… [read more]

Club Drugs &amp Ecstasy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


The seven are: a) "local community-based club drug surveys collected in 2003 at raves"; b) treatment facilities and "gay-oriented bars and sex clubs"; c) surveys from schools collected in 2002; d) mortality data ("deaths between 2000 and 2002"); e) information from clinics dealing with sexually transmitted diseases (Oct. 2002 to Oct. 2003); f) focus groups (2003); g) men who have… [read more]

Clandestine Drug Labs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,356 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


When these various agencies arrive at the scene, "The goal should be for all personnel to operate within a unified command system" with no conflict in terms of who is in charge and what should be done. Every one of the groups, including firefighters, has a particular "mission" in such an instance, Lindsey continues; moreover, each member of each group… [read more]

Medical Marijuana Use Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In patients with MS, marijuana is primarily used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms, including urge incontinence.16 Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis reportedly use marijuana for analgesia, muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, saliva reduction, appetite stimulation, and sleep induction. Marijuana is also used in the treatment of various movement disorders including dystonia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and tics associated with Tourette's syndrome. Marijuana is also used to prevent seizures in patients with epilepsy and is believed to have neuroprotective properties. (Seamon et al., Medical marijuana, 2007)

In people who use marijuana for medical reasons, there are many affects. The marijuana seems to change the effect on the patient depending on the need of the patient. Two patients may be prescribed the same strain marijuana for different reasons/ailments, and perceive different (positive) effects as well. There are additionally a number of medical conditions for which marijuana use would be detrimental to the patient; thus it must be prescribed and treated like any other pharmaceutical. (Seamon et al., 2007)

Just as with most substances, there is a potential for harm and abuse. Marijuana is a substance that has the potential for medical assistance as well as the potential to wreak havoc on people's lives.

Heavy marijuana use can result in psychological dysfunction, affecting a person's ability to form memories, recall events, and focus. Acute toxic psychosis induced by marijuana may be characterized by hallucinations, delusions, depersonalization (a loss of the sense of personal identity or self-recognition), fear of dying, paranoia, anxiety, changes in mood (e.g., depression), and altered mental astuteness. Marijuana has been reported to cause dose-related impairments in cognitive and behavioral functions and may impair the ability to drive a motor vehicle or operate heavy machinery…In 1999, more than 200,000 Americans entered substance-abuse treatment due to marijuana use. It has been estimated that 10% of marijuana users are at risk of dependence.(Seamon et al., Medical marijuana, 2007)

This is the case with many drugs, whether they are narcotics, pharmaceuticals, or naturally occurring substances. Use of any drug should come after research and education, no matter the purposes. It does not seem likely to cause harm if people make informed decision whether regarding their health or their recreation with respect to drugs, including marijuana. Attitudes toward marijuana and marijuana continue to fluctuate in the United States. As time goes on, it becomes less possible to argue that there are no worthwhile benefits to marijuana use.


Okie, MD, S. (2005) Medical Marijuana and the Supreme Court. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353(7), 648 -- 651.

Seamon, M.J., Fass, J.A., Maniscalco-Feichtl, M., Abu-Shrarie, N.A. (2007) Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist.…… [read more]

Plain Packaging on the Cigarette Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,226 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


(2010) Carlton and Perloff note in their work that: "in a market that is protected from entry, price remains above marginal cost because not firm can enter the market and drive down price..Thus restrictions on entry are the reason that many markets are not perfectly competitive, that that prices are above marginal cost." (Padilla, 2010) It is additionally stated by Carlton and Perloff that if: "large sunk costs are associated with entry and if entry is unsuccessful, the entrant's losses are large" and "in such a setting, threats of strategic behavior may prevent new entry." (Padilla, 2010) The competition level within a market and the price levels are dependent on the "existence and impact of any barriers to new entry." (Padilla, 2010) Padilla writes that plain packaging will affect the supply of both contraband and counterfeit cigarettes and states as follows:

(1) It will make counterfeit cigarettes easier to produce.

(2) It will make contraband cigarettes relatively more attractive to consumers.

The increase in illicit trade is reported to be likely to result in a reduction in the price of cigarettes that are legally traded. This indirect effect on price is reported as having been observed in pharmaceutical markets and it is stated that legal parallel imports have resulted in an impact on the price of patented drugs. " (Padilla, 2010) The European Commission in an investigation on AstraZeneca stated finding that "cheaper parallel imports combined with market forces also exert further downward pressure on the prices of original medicines, especially in high price countries." (Padilla, 2010) Cigarette consumption is reported to be found to be "negatively related to price." (FAO Economic and Social Development Department, nd) Padilla in his work estimates the impact of plain packaging on prices and market size respectively for four different plain packaging scenarios. Padilla states that each scenario "depicts a combination of market elasticity of demand (-0.5 and -1) and an increase of the cross-price elasticity between brands within the same price category." (2010) Padilla states that plain packaging would result in an increase in price competition as well as in lower prices and higher consumption of cigarettes. (2010, paraphrased) Padilla concludes that tobacco control activities have served to undermine cigarette brand equity and that more research is needed because it is likely that smokers "…may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organization elements may assist."

Summary and Conclusion

The research conducted in this study finds that as the price for cigarettes is lowered that the demand for cigarettes increases and as the price for cigarettes rises the demands for cigarettes lowers. In light of these findings, the plain packaging initiative for cigarettes in Australia is erroneous and will prove ineffective in reducing the levels of smoking among Australian individuals.


8 Review of Literature (nd) Economic and Social Development Department. FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4997e/y4997e0l.htm

Carter, S (2003) From Legitimate Consumers to Public Relations Pawns: the Tobacco Industry and Young Australians.… [read more]

Drug Abuse and Families Results Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The families whose loved ones were known drug abusers were prepared for the worst. Although they were greatly saddened by the deaths, they all expressed feeling resigned that it would happen. There was a tremendous amount of anger and guilt; survivors felt as though they should have been able to do something to save their loved one. They also felt guilty for feeling a sense of relief that there was some kind of closure, even a tragic one. Family members said it was painful to worry and wait for something bad to happen. One family reported it was helpful to meet with other families through Narcotics Anonymous and share experiences. Another family felt that therapy was useful. One family reported that the survivors had a better relationship with one another after the overdose because the household was calmer and the stress and tensions removed. Every family attempts to cope in its own way.

Denning (2010, p. 165) states "Being the loved one of a person with an alcohol or other drug problem can be excruciating." Available support groups (e.g., Nar-Anon, Al-Anon) often provide guidelines for practicing "tough love," which Denning states does not work. People with substance abuse problems are complicated, as the drug use itself is complicated. A month in rehab seldom solves the problem. Denning suggests instead that harm reduction principles are put into practice, beginning with an understanding that addiction is not a disease "but rather a maladaptive pattern that has biological, psychological, and sociocultural origins" (p. 166).

The harm reduction family treatment Denning discusses focuses on the family coming to grips with their own reality and the reality of the loved one who abuses drugs. In other words, what can family members do to alleviate some of the worry and pain associated with having a drug abuser in the family. For example, a father decided his daughter could not come in the house because she routinely stole from him. To hold on to a relationship with her, however, he took her to dinner once a week. Another man divorced his wife, while another man decided to stay in his marriage, making arrangement with relatives for care of the children when his wife became high. These people all found solutions that worked for them.

Denning notes that the harm reduction methods do not yield easy or immediate results. Yet, people struggling to cope often find the principles of harm reduction useful. Denning charges helping professionals with nourishing family connections wherever possible.

The families of drug abusers experience a range of emotions as they struggle to deal with the problems addiction brings to the family dynamic. Traditional twelve-step programs work for some, but other families may find that a harm reduction model gives them more control over their emotions, allowing them to set firm limits and yet still behave in a way toward their loved ones with which they are comfortable. The message one can take from the three articles is that help is available in various forms.… [read more]

Drug Testing in the Workplace Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,173 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


S. Department of Labor, 2010).

Drug testing is often mandatory when safety issues are involved. For example, the U.S. Department of Transportation has regulations that require drug testing of more than eight million different employees, such as truck drivers (Thompson Reuters, 2011). It is not just safety in the workplace that is the concern, but a matter of public safety The state of Alaska has no mandatory drug-testing laws, but employers can choose to test and must follow strict guidelines if they do so Employers must test fairly, unobtrusively, and with the consent of the employee. If an employer is going to test employees, then all employees must be tested. The decision to test cannot be made based on an employee's appearance or demeanor. Tests must be done unobtrusively, in a way that protects the employee's privacy. If a urine test is to be administered, for example, the employee should be allowed privacy and the test administered by a laboratory, unless there is strong reason to believe that an employee might tamper with the sample to hide positive results. Since urine testing gives accurate results for up to five days preceding the test, many employers opt for testing hair samples, which can show drug use for up to three months prior. However, employees must voluntarily provide the hair sample. An employer cannot pick up stray hairs left in a chair during an interview, for example, and send them for testing (Thompson Reuters, 2011).

The Department of Labor states that education is an important part of a drug-free workplace. It provides on its website a program employers can use to conduct the training within their organizations. The program covers topics such as workplace impact, understanding addiction, signs and symptoms, family and coworker impact, assistance, and specific drugs of abuse. Employees receive a copy of the organization's drug-free policy and often sign a receipt that they have received it. It affords the employer protection in the event drug use is found. Employers have specific grounds for dismissal, if they choose, when policy is clearly articulated beforehand and employees agree.

If employers choose to implement an education program, then it must be for all employees. Employers cannot target specific groups based on education, background or appearance, although they can group employers based on job title when job performance and safety are issues, such as bus drivers or machine operators. This makes sense, as it provides protection for the individual as well as anyone around them who is affected by what they do..

Drug testing and education in the workplace are complicated issues. Employers' actions depend on the laws of the state in which they do business as well as the size and type of organization. Laws exist to protect the privacy of individuals, so employers must be careful in their administration of testing and education programs, being certain that everyone is treated equitably.


Drug-free workplace policy builder. Section 7: Drug testing. (2010). U.S. Department of Labor.

Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen92.asp

Drummer, O.H. (2006).… [read more]

Charges of Unfair Labor Practices Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (1,805 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


, 2011).

With respect to alcohol abuse testing, alcohol is a drug and subject to the same kinds of abuse and dependency concerns as any other drug. According to the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, alcohol is one of the most widely used drug substances in the world. They point out the following public health problems associated with alcohol use:

Alcohol is used by more young people than tobacco or illicit drugs.

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with approximately 75,000 deaths per year.

Alcohol is a factor in approximately 41% of all deaths from motor vehicle crashes.

Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial personality disorder (National Center, 2010)

Given these and other statistics about alcohol abuse, there should be no practical distinction between alcohol and drug abuse. Rather, companies should be concerned with implementing substance abuse policies and programs (National Center, 2010).


American Bar Association (ABA). (2011). Unfair labor practice law and procedure. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/labor/basics/nlra/papers/unfair_labor.authcheckdam.pdf

eNotes. (2011) Drug testing. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.enotes.com/everyday-law-encyclopedia/drug-testing-2

Lectric Law Library. (2011). Drug testing in the workplace. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.lectlaw.com/files/emp02.htm

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). Alcohol and drug use. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/alcoholdrug/index.htm

NOLO Law for All. (2011). Employer liability for an employee's bad acts. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/employer-liability-employees-bad-acts-29638.html

Sherman, A.J. et al. (2011). Drug testing in the workplace. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.entrepreneurship.org/en/resource-center/drug-testing-in-the-workplace.aspx

Swann, J.P. Jr. (n.d.). NLRB election process. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.nlrbelections.com/nlrb_election_process.htm… [read more]

Drug Trafficking Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,465 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Two years ago, the newspaper article, "DEA, ICE mend fences; agree to share information on drug trafficking" (2009) reports that for years in the past, Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) officers complained that the dearth of cooperation with other federal law enforcement agencies contributed to a myriad of missed opportunities s as well as complex challenges when trying to obtain information… [read more]

Tobacco Industry History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


(Borio, 2011)

Nineteenth Century

During the early years of the 19th century, more scientists began to understand the nature of the chemical makeup of the tobacco leaf. They also realized that smoking tobacco produced dangerous health effects. In 1826, the pure form of nicotine was isolated in the chemistry labs. Quickly thereafter, the medical science became clear: nicotine was a… [read more]

Psychoactive Drugs the Drug Chosen Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Most likely because cocaine gives the user such an instant feeling of euphoria and well-being that only lasts for short while, once the drug has worn off feelings of depression and lethargy replace any feelings of happiness (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010).

Given that cocaine increases the sympathetic nervous system, an action that is normally activated in people who are in flight or fight mode, the body itself is in a constant state of disruption and deprivation (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010). Most likely, a cocaine abuser would not be eating and not be sleeping while using the drug, and while the user is high on cocaine, the sympathetic nervous system is working overtime during the entire episode of use. "Studies indicate that sleep restriction [deprivation] can impair individuals' attention, reaction time, motor coordination, and decisions making." (Weiten, 2005) Over a long period of time, as the user cycles through no sleep, not eating and being constantly nervous and agitated, to coming down from the drug in a depressed state, the user will be increasing the amounts of cocaine to maintain the high and continue each cycle. After awhile the user will either fall into a severe depression that even the drug cannot lift for significant periods, and may become suicidal, or have issues with homeostasis and may become ill, develop heart problems or could die from overdose (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010).

Works Cited

Emery, R.E., & Oltmanns, T.F. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology in action (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (n.d.). Drug Abuse Among Hispanics: A brief evidence-based guide for providers (1.4 ed.) [Brochure]. Amaro, H., Cortes, D.E., Castro, F.G., Lopez, B., & Molina, P.E., et al. Retrieved March 17, 2011, from http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07- 4288/SMA07-4288.pdf

Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes & variations: briefer edition (6th ed.).…… [read more]

Prescription Drug Use Research Pradel Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (1,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Using grounded theory strategies, the researchers conducted interviews, then coded answers to find six main themes emerge from participant responses: "pill mills," on-site pharmacies, liberal prescribing habits, "sponsoring" drug diversion, pain doctor/pharmacy shopping, and falsifying symptoms/documentation. Results should provide insights for law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and industry as they attempt to develop appropriate policy initiatives and recommendations for best practices.

Article 7:

Hamilton, G.J. (2009). PRESCRIPTION DRUG ABUSE, Psychology in the Schools, 46(9), DOI: 10.1002/pits.20429

This article presented current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. Research suggested that two categories of prescription drugs that are commonly used among high school and college students are pain killers and those prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The researcher provided both demographic and behavioral characteristics of students who are most likely to engage in intentional abuse of stimulants and pain medications as well as stated motivations for use.

Article 8:

Becker, W.C., Fiellin, D.A., Gallagher, R.M., Barth, K.S., Ross, J.T. And Oslin, D.W. (2009). The Association Between Chronic Pain and Prescription Drug Abuse in Veterans. PAIN MEDICINE, 10(3).

Researchers sought to investigate the association between chronic pain and self-reported prescription drug abuse in a large cohort of patients referred from primary care for a behavioral health assessment. Researchers performed a cross-sectional analysis of responses to a telephone assessment administered to patients referred for a behavioral health evaluation between April 25, 2005 and October 31, 2007. Utilizing both descriptive statistics and multivariable associations such as age, gender, race, financial status, employment, current smoking, drinking problem, past-year illicit drug use, depression, and chronic pain, the researchers found specific variables associated with self-reported prescription drug abuse in primary care patients. Chronic pain is associated both with an indication for prescribing opioids and with abuse of prescription medications.

Article 9:

McCauley, J.L, Danielson, C.K., Amstadter, A.B., Ruggiero, J.K., Resnick, H.S., Hanson, R.F., Smith, D.W., Saunders, B.E., and Kilpatrick, D.G. (2010). The role of traumatic event history in non-medical use of prescription drugs among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 51(1), pp 84 -- 93 doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02134.x

Researchers examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as potential correlates of past-year non-medical use of prescription drugs. Using a nationally representative sample of 3,614 non-institutionalized, civilian, English-speaking adolescents (aged 12 -- 17 years) residing in households with a telephone was selected. Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) was endorsed by 6.7% of the sample (n = 242). The final multivariable model showed that lifetime history of delinquent behavior, other forms of substance use/abuse, history of witnessed violence, and lifetime history of PTSD were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD.

Article 10:

Higgins, G.E., Mahoney, M., Ricketts, M.L. (2009). Non-Social Reinforcement of the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs: A partial test of social learning and self-control theories. Journal of Drug Issues. 949-964.

Researchers examined the explanation of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs to test the… [read more]

OTC and Prescription Drugs Curbing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


But when taken to extreme, they can over-stimulate the nervous system. Sleep aids are another group of OTC drugs, which are often mis-used. When taken in extreme, they can lead to narcolepsy, a neurological disorder, characterized by strongly disrupted sleep. Users abruptly fall asleep at dangerous times, such as when driving, climbing the stairs or performing risky tasks (Saar).

Dependence or Addiction

Addiction is a condition of dependence on something for one's normal functioning

(Salmon 2008). It creates a mental state, which later creates physical dependence. In that state, the person relies on the substance for relief to the condition. It develops into an addiction when the drug tolerance reaches a high level. Addiction to prescribed drugs can happen without overdosing. One can become addicted or dependent on any drug according to his perception of addiction or dependence. It is addiction or dependence to rely or become inclined towards any substance or thing in order to function or survive. In such a case, the problem lies in the personality and not on the substance or thing (Salmon).

Drug addiction is the result of the nature of the drug, the personality make-up of the user and the circumstances attending to the abuse (Salmon 2013). It is primarily brought about by the personality weakness of the person. Most often, his emotional response to some personal setback or peer pressure opens him to dependence or addiction to mind-quieting drugs. It is not the drugs themselves that lead to it. Tranquilizers, heroin and alcohol are the major addictives when taken in heavy doses and frequently. Moreover, dependence and addiction are two different things. Dependence occurs when one stops using the substance. It is a tolerance problem. Addiction, on the other hand, means deliberately using the drug, a chronic problem symptom (Salmon).

FDA Regulation of OTC Drugs

The criteria for drug manufacturers to follow are safety, effectiveness, dosage and cost (Terzo 2013). The FDA approved around 270 active ingredients, which manufacturers can use to synthesize their drug products. They can still be purchased without a doctor's prescription. And they remain more affordable than prescription drugs. Buyers can now be confident that they can purchase OTC without need for a doctor's prescription but with the FDA's guarantee that these drugs are safe and effective (Terzo).


Anti-drug abuse campaigns have created the awareness on the fatal consequences of addiction and dependence on dangerous drugs. Narcotics are on top of the list of major addictives and this is why they are strictly regulated by special prescription by a qualified medical doctor. But not only prescription drugs but also non-prescription drugs can produce addiction or dependence. Not only do some OTC drugs contain addictive ingredients. Users with weak personality make-ups are also especially prone to the influence of either prescription or non-prescription drugs. All drugs are at least potentially habit-forming or addictive. Aware of this situation, the Food and Drug Administration set up certain criteria for drug manufacturers.


Alta Mira. An Overview of Highly Addictive Drugs. Alta… [read more]

Anti-Drug Campaign for Teens Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,266 words)
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Scrutinizing the verbal strategies

In February of 2002, the director of ONDP Walters designed a task force to focus on the weaker links of the campaign and the causes which made it weak in outlook. The group identified some major changes in the campaign strategy. Now the target was the slightly older group of teens between age bracket of 14 to 16 who drastically went over to the dark side marijuana offered. Teens were not targeted this time. The ads were supposedly made more cut throat and competitive. Previously, not all ads were tested and proven before airing on national television. Now all these ads were to be given the green signal before airing on national television. The standards were now more cutthroat and competitive. Also, ONDP would be involved in the ad development process (Eddy, 2003).

Another sizeable change came with the Westat's evaluation in May 2002. Now it was focusing on eliminating the gate drug marijuana as it led to higher forms of drugs. In a hearing Walters said that "It is futile to make effort in reducing the drug abuse as long as the gate drug marijuana isn't stopped as it's the basic drug leading to higher forms of drugs. Marijuana was the drug of choice for youth and its widespread usage is worrisome" (U.S. Congress, 2002).

Then a series of controversial began screening at the Super Bowl of 2002 when drug users were portrayed as the supporters of terrorism. They were blamed to be providing blood money. The ads took severe national and public heat as they were cited as false and accusatory. The ads were termed as misleading and failed as an attempt to curb drug use. The critics think along the lines that drug laws instigate drug purchase and that alone can fund the acts of terrorism. The drug users are innocent on all counts. Huge illegal profits are amassed for terrorist acts. The ads were also subjected to controversy as the drug users comprised of teenage population who didn't fall under the mass drug use bracket and couldn't account for drug revenues for terrorist acts. The ONDP stopped airing these ads due to friction between PDFA and ONDP. PDFA deemed the ads as way off the mark and accusatory. The ads came to a close in May 2003 (Teinowitz, 2003).

The ONDP Chief of Staff Chris Marston revealed two more changes in March 2003 at a trail in House Committee on Government Reform. Sixty percent of the ads are targeted towards the adults who mentor children and adolescents. The remaining 40% were for the adolescents themselves. From July 2003, the ratio will be turned around. Moreover, Marston believed that next move would be to introduce treatment of drugs in the campaign advertisements. A focus will be made on early intervention. The idea here is to reach out to the youth who embarks on a permanent road to drug usage (Eddy, 2003).

Amassing together the cumulative effort according to Marston, the campaign has turned… [read more]

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