"Drugs / Alcohol / Tobacco" Essays

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Jacob's Ladder the Insider the Lost Weekend Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Drug Culture in Lost Weekend, Jacob's Ladder, And The Insider

Drug culture in film can be represented in a multitude of ways. Among the films that have been watched during the course of the semester, the Lost Weekend (1945), Jacob's Ladder (1990), and the Insider (1999) provide different aspects of how drug culture is depicted in film. The Lost Weekend focuses on the debilitating effects of addiction, Jacob's Ladder focuses on drug testing and development, and the Insider focuses on the drug industry.

The Lost Weekend is a film that highlights the dangers of alcohol as well as drug addiction. Directed by Billy Wilder, the film stars Ray Milland as Don Birnam, an aspiring writer who is heavily addicted to alcohol, so much so that his "need" for the drink interferes with his life and destroys his relationships with others. The Lost Weekend aims to bring attention to the dangers of addiction. Believing that Don is a recovering alcoholic, Wick -- Don's brother -- and Don's girlfriend -- Helen St. James -- are helping Don to pack for a weekend getaway. Unbeknownst to them, Don has not given up drinking, and in fact, his predilection for alcohol causes him to not only miss the train he is supposed to take, but also contributes to his delinquent behavior, which includes attempting to steal money from a woman's purse, and other acts of desperation such as attempting to pawn his typewriter and trading Helen's expensive fur coat for a gun. The film brings attention to the power that drugs, in this alcohol, can have over an individual and the difficulty they may encounter when trying to rehabilitate themselves. Furthermore, Don's thoughts about committing suicide are also representative of the hopelessness and loneliness that drug addicts may feel. In a way, the Lost Weekend serves as a public service announcement because it not only depicts the devastating effects of drug addiction, but it also shows how an individual's drug addiction also affects those around them.

Jacob's Ladder, directed by Adrian Lyne, drug culture…… [read more]

Drug Culture Interviews Interview

Interview  |  3 pages (1,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Layla is a 17-year-old senior in high school. She is very active in sports being a member of the track team and the basketball team. She is so competent basketball that she has been offered a minor scholarship to college to play basketball. Her grades in school are well above average as she has been on the honor roll throughout high school.

Me: Layla, what does the term "drug culture" signify for you?

Layla: Well, that term reminds me of some of the things my parents talk about. When they were younger there were lots of people doing different types of drugs like marijuana, LSD, and other drugs. The first thing I think of is some of the things my parents talk about like people being stoned and having hallucinations and all of that old -- time hippie stuff.

Me: Do you relate the term drug culture or the use of drugs to anyone you know?

Layla: I know some people in school but do drugs like marijuana and alcohol if you consider that a drug. I've been a few parties where people were taking Oxy (OxyContin) but I stay away from drugs.

Me: So the term "drug culture" is something that is an old term to you?

Layla: For the most part yes. I think it describes an attitude of the past when people took a lot of drugs as a means of experimentation. I really don't associate with people who do a lot of drugs and I don't see it as a drug culture. There are a lot of professional athletes that do drugs but I don't relate that term to performance-enhancing drugs.

Me: Is that of concern to you, athletes using drugs?

Layla: No, not really. I don't think it is as prevalent in my sports. I certainly don't think it should be allowed and any athlete caught using performance-enhancing drugs should be banned from competition.

Me: Do you use any drugs at all?

Layla: Outside of taking some aspirin for headache and occasional painkillers I don't do any drugs.

Me: Do you drink alcohol parties? Coffee? Is that a drug?

Layla: Well sometimes I drink a little if it's there. I don't really consider alcohol and drug I know that technically is, but I don't consider it to be one. Coffee is not a drug-lol!

Me: When you think of drug movies what you think of?

Layla: The first movies I think of are the Harold and Kumar movies -- those are pretty funny. I just saw the movie Side Effects; I guess that's a drug movie.

Melvin is a recent college graduate with a computer science degree. He currently works as a computer programmer for a hospital system.

Me: So Mel what does the term "drug culture" signify for you?

Melvin: That term describes the American culture to me to a tee. This culture is totally fueled by drugs. They are marketed to us on television and people use drugs to feel good, get going,… [read more]

Physiological and Behavior Effects on Drug Abuse Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Chemical Dependency

Physiological Effects of Abused Drugs

The descriptions of the physiological effects of the most common drugs of abuse in the textbook seemed to go in order of severity, with alcohol leading the way. The main exception to this observation is marijuana, which seems to be a relatively safe drug when limited to recreational use. This cannot be said about alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, sedatives, narcotics, or inhalants, which all carry the potential for severe consequences when an individual overdoses. Somewhere in between, in terms of recreational use, are the hallucinogens, in part because LSD can cause potentially dangerous flashbacks even after only one encounter with the drug.

By comparison, long-term regular use of all these drugs can have a devastating impact on the user's health. Alcohol not only damages the brain, but many other systems within the body, especially the liver. If one system could be universally declared to be affected by all of these drugs it is the nervous system. Paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, and tolerance, which can lead to the more devastating condition of dementia, is a frequent outcome for anyone who becomes chronically dependent on alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, narcotics, inhalants, and sedatives. Psychosis, whether acute or long-term, is another common outcome for abusers of these drugs.

Gastrointestinal health and adequate nutrition are other common concerns for alcoholics and chronic users of cocaine, narcotics, amphetamines, and hallucinogens. Alcohol acts as an irritant of the gastrointestinal tract and alcoholics can develop serious problems, including ulcers and intestinal bleeding. Opiates (narcotics) interact directly with receptors in the digestive system and one of the most common side effects is constipation. Other potential problems include ulcers and intestinal obstruction. Amphetamine/methamphetamine users can experience such an extreme energy boost that their body's energy reserves can become depleted and when engaging in a…… [read more]

Drug Culture at Temple U Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


With legislation being pushed towards decriminalizing marijuana in Philadelphia, it is very likely that marijuana advocates will begin to infiltrate the campus looking for either supporters of the cause, or signatures for petitions. It is also likely that flyers bringing attention to this cause will also begin to be seen more frequently on campus and off.

Part B

Cashing in on the demand for drugs can appear to be a lucrative opportunity, however, people always run the risk of getting caught for selling and distributing drugs. In an article from Philly.com by William Bender from August 23, 2012, one can see how prevalent drug use is at Temple University and at other schools. The article explains how 25 individuals were arrested in a sting that targeted an illegal pill ring. Among the pills that were sold to students at Temple are Oxycontin and Xanax. Furthermore, the sting also demonstrates that there is a demand for cocaine and marijuana at these schools as they were among the drugs that were sold and distributed by these drug dealers. It is also interesting to see that the ages of the individuals arrested in the sting ranged from 20 to 46, which indicates that drugs were not only distributed to students by students, but that outside individuals were also cashing in on the demand for drugs.

This article is especially interesting because it demonstrates the complexity of independent drug businesses. It is baffling to see the lengths to which people will go to in order to make money. The article states that one dealer was bringing home $2,000 to $3,000 a week! Considering that comes out to $104,000 to $156,000 a year, it is easy to understand the draw that such a dangerous endeavor has and why people would be willing to risk everything to be successful in this line of work. It will interesting to see how the trial of these individuals plays out because of the range of charges everyone is charged with and the extent of each…… [read more]

Mandatory Drug Testing Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Trucking Industry

A study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Mailman School of Public Health showed that of the estimated 4,000 fatal crashes that involved buses and heavy trucks, "…about 3% of the motor carrier drivers (i.e., bus drivers) and 27% of the non-motor-carrier drivers" were under the influence of alcohol (DiMaggio, et al., 2009). Because transportation employees "with safety-sensitive functions" are under mandatory orders to be tested for alcohol, DiMaggio explains, there is "compelling evidence that implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs has significantly reduced alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes" (p. 1).

There is a problem in terms of testing for alcohol when motor carriers cross borders into Canada or Mexico, DiMaggio continues. Mexico and Canada do not implement mandatory tests for alcohol, but the author asserts that because mandatory testing for alcohol in the U.S. has "substantially reduced alcohol-impaired driving," Canada and Mexico could also improve their safety records "…by adopting this policy" (DiMaggio, p. 2).

The federal Department of Transportation (DOT) has published a fact sheet that explains to pilots, school bus drivers, truck drivers, train engineers, subway operators, aircraft maintenance personnel, transit fire-armed security personnel, ship captains, and pipeline emergency response personnel, that even though a doctor may prescribe medical marijuana, the drug is still illegal and the prescription is "not" an excuse for a positive drug test (Swart, DOT). Currently 16 states have laws that allow doctors to prescribe medical marijuana for certain illnesses, but the DOT explains, "It remains unacceptable for any safety-sensitive employee subject to drug testing" to use marijuana under any circumstances (Swart, DOT).

This makes perfect sense because even if a person has a problem, say, with migraine headaches, and his doctor has prescribed medical marijuana for the pain, the cannot possibly be an excuse for making a mistake while driving a school bus or a tour bus. Imagine a school bus driver losing control of the vehicle and injuring a dozen elementary school children while high on medical marijuana. It wouldn't matter a bit to the parents of those injured children that the driver's doctor gave him cannabis tablets to reduce the pain. Indeed, every parent who puts his or her child on a school bus fully expects the driver to be competent and sober, so the idea of mandatory drug testing for school bus drivers is absolutely appropriate and proper.

The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Trucking Industry

Clearly, based on the danger associated with the use of heavy equipment like earth movers, graders, bulldozers, cranes, loaders and others, an operator must be drug-free to ensure his or her own safety. When students enroll in a training program for heavy equipment operations, like the Central Lakes College in Minnesota, they understand out front that they "…are required to participate in mandatory drug testing" (CLC). The CLC explains that "random drug and alcohol screening of students in the program will be done… [read more]

Women Who Drink Alcohol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The exact amount of alcohol that can harm the embryo/fetus is unknown. In spite of this, it has been shown that as the dose of alcohol increases the embryo/fetus can suffer from unobservable effects to death. The relationship between the mother and the fetus in what concerns-dose response effects remains incompletely unstated. Although it is clear that severe exposure to alcohol leads to FAS, it remains uncertain if "there is a continuum of dose-response effects ranging from anatomic and behavioral changes at low to moderate maternal doses to full-blown FAS at high maternal doses, or if there are two or more thresholds resulting in degrees of impairment in function and structural malformation. As yet undefined is whether there is a LOEL distinct from the LOAEL for alcohol exposure in the fetus." (Idem, page 42)

Numerous animal studies have been made to reveal the dose-response effects of exposure to alcohol during the gestation. In animal literature the meaning of "high," "moderate," or "low" doses of alcohol differ. To determine the level of alcohol, it is better to find out the level of alcohol in the blood, than to calculate the doses of alcohol that had been administrated. In humans a concentration of 100mg/dl of alcohol in blood can be considered high; a concentration between 50 an 100 mg/dl of alcohol in blood is moderate, and a low dose is when the concentrations of alcohol in blood is below 50 mg/dl. In animal research the blood's alcohol concentration seemed to be more relevant that the dose of alcohol that had been consumed.

As previously mentioned, when a mother drinks alcohol, her fetus drinks too. "That's why abstaining from drinking throughout pregnancy and during breastfeeding is the best gift a mother can give her child -- it's a gift that lasts a lifetime." (Effects of alcohol on a fetus)


1. Effects of alcohol on a fetus, Retrived December 4, 2012, from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website: http://fasdcenter.samhsa.gov/documents/WYNK_Effects_Fetus.pdf

2. Kathleen R. Stratton, Cynthia J. Howe, Frederick C. Battaglia, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.), Fetal…… [read more]

Counseling for the Client Various Issues Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Counseling for the Client Various Issues in the Case Study Were Listed in the Order of Their Significance;

The patient experiences feelings of depression and anxiety with no reports of suicidal thoughts or panic attacks

Family history indicates no mood, anxiety or substance associated problems for the patient's parents, although the mother had recuperated from tobacco addiction. However; the patient's paternal grandparents suffered from anxiety plus depression. In addition, the patient's uncle had an alcoholism problem

The patient does not exhibit any eating or sleeping problems, no signs of agoraphobia, cognitive shortfalls or leaning impairments

The patients abuses alcohol, marijuana and smokes on a regular basis

The frequency of drug and alcohol use is increasing with the extension to weekdays when alone in school

The patient experimented other drugs such as cocaine and LSD

Sometimes the patient skips classes after abusing alcohol and marijuana

VIII. The patient admits that her use of alcohol and cannabis has affected association with parents, however, she is willing to keep on using cannabis if, there is a way she can do it without being arrested. She is not sure of the influences of marijuana on her life.

Diagnostic Impressions

According to DSMIV-TR substance use plus substance induced disorders are evident from the case study. The client has an alcohol dependence disorder. This is because the client experiences at least three of the signs indicated in the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. For example, the client has indicated no efforts of reducing consumption of alcohol. It is evident that the client skipped significant social and occupational events as a result of alcohol consumption (Dziegielewski, 2010). The client has continued to consume alcohol although she knows that her actions have negatively affected the relationship with her parents. In addition, the client has shown increases in alcohol consumption for the purpose of attaining intoxication.

Canabis dependence

The client symptoms conform to those in DSMIV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. The client's use of marijuana has resulted to legal problems. The use of marijuana by the client has affected performance in school, and family relationship. The client experiences physical and psychological issues related to consumption of marijuana (Dziegielewski, 2010).

Substance induced disorders

The client experiences some instances of depression and anxiety. This condition emanates from the effects of alcohol and marijuana. The client has both alcohol and cannabis dependence which is characteristic of substance induced disorders (Sadock, et al., 2008). In addition, the client's social life has deteriorated because drugs are vital to her than school and parents.

Nicotine dependence

It is evident…… [read more]

Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The DEA document asserts that the DEA is "not alone" in viewing smoked marijuana as having "no documented medical value." The DEA quotes the American Medical Association which does not endorse medical marijuana programs or the legalization of marijuana albeit the AMA does urge continuing "clinical research" to see if marijuana could be medicinally potent. Other groups supporting more studies (but opposing legalization) include: the American Cancer Society; The American Glaucoma Society; and the American Academy of Pediatrics (DEA, p. 4).

Moreover, the DEA sites its own research -- including 111 researchers "registered with DEA to perform studies with marijuana, marijuana extracts," and other derivates that are found in the cannabis plant -- which indicates that "…smoked marijuana is harmful" (5).

The DEA continues its narrative on marijuana on page 6 of the 2011 paper by asserting that the proposition that "smoked marijuana is 'medicine' is, in sum, false-trickery used by those promoting wholesale legalization." And while there are 18 states that authorize the distribution of medical marijuana, some states are very firm in their law in terms of what medical issues qualify as medical marijuana. In New Jersey, which was the 14th state to make medical marijuana legal, there are only 12 illnesses that doctors are allowed to prescribe marijuana for, and that list does not include "chronic pain."

The DEA provided the names of wealthy Americans that have provided funds for various medical marijuana campaigns; the DEA says that "a few billionaires" but not "grassroots support" provide the money behind these pro-medical marijuana campaigns. Those billionaires are "George Soros, Peter Lewis, George Zimmer, and John Sperling," a group that reportedly provided $1,510,000 to the California medical marijuana initiative in 1996.

Problems Created by Marijuana Use

Psychology professor Douglas A. Bernstein writes that whether or not marijuana can be proved to be addictive, or whether it leads to other kinds of drugs, "…it can create a number of problems" (Bernstein, 2007, p. 361). Marijuana "disrupts memory formation, making it difficult to carry pout complex tasks," Bernstein explains (361). Many people believe they are more creative while using marijuana, but Bernstein says it "…actually reduces creativity" (361). Moreover, the drug affects muscle coordination so driving while using marijuana is "quite hazardous"; and in addition, motor impairment continues "long after the obvious effects of the drug have worn off" (Bernstein, 361).

For long-time regular users, Bernstein writes that "…impairments in memory and attention can persist for years after their drug use has stopped," and as to those who begin smoking marijuana in their teenage years, and get involved in heavy use of the drug, this pattern "…has been associated with the later appearance of anxiety, depression, and other natural disorders as severe as schizophrenia" (361).

The bottom line, when it comes to shoes who do not want marijuana legalized, can be summarized in four ways: a) it is addictive; b) it leads to the use of other drugs; c) the intoxicating effects of marijuana "endangers the user and other individuals";… [read more]

War on Drugs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


As the power of the Colombian economy grew as a result of trading cocaine, the influence was not only experienced in the country's political system, but was also institutionalized virtually into the very system. Many poor people were enriching themselves by indulging in the cocaine business. A good example is Escobar, who was a dealer for cars which had been… [read more]

Chemistry and Recreational Drugs Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,129 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


" Klein speaks of "synthetic mimics of marijuana, dissociative drugs, and stimulants -- such as the bath salts" that the Florida man shot before his "horrific face-eating assault." (2012) These drugs are growing in their popularity but are very difficult to control. This is because manufacturers of these drugs are able to "turn these things around so quickly. One week you'll have a product with compound X, the next week it's compound Y." (Klein, 2012)

The active ingredients in these drugs are "compounds originally synthesized by institutional researchers whose esoteric scientific publications were mined by as-yet-unidentified chemists and neuroscientists working in Asia, where most of the new drugs appear to come from." (Klein, 2012) It is reported that the cannabinoid mimics are a very popular class of recreation drugs and one that Clemson University organic chemist John Huffman developed in his search to isolate the chemical properties of marijuana in research on cancer. Klein reports "Other "legal high" ingredients have similar pedigrees, with designers including researchers at Israel's Hebrew University and the pharmaceutical giant Pfizer." (2012) Recreational drug synthesis has been accomplished by individuals who never had a high school chemistry class and in the form of methamphetamine. Manufacture of methamphetamine involves the use of several household products including lye, lithium batteries, and ammonium nitrate along with the popular cold medicines containing pseudoephedrine. These ingredients are added together in a bottle and shook and in 20 to 30 minutes, the chemist is ready to gas the mixture rendering a powdered substance in the form of methamphetamine. (Shelby Police Department, nd)

Summary and Conclusion

Recreational drugs are in demand by the public and as such are difficult and nearly impossible to control. Recreational drugs are derived from research conducted by scientists and others seeking cures and alternative drugs for use in those suffering disease. Outlawing of drugs such as marijuana has resulted in legal substitutes being marketed and just when lawmakers think that they have stopped the production and distribution of legal recreational drugs, the manufacturers of these drugs changes a compound and markets the recreational drug under a new formula and new name. The war on drugs has not been effective because the truth is that people enjoy the use of recreational drugs and those who develop, market and sell recreational drugs enjoy the profits from sales of these substances.

Recreational drug production makes use of chemistry synthesis of various legally obtained products to produce the recreational drug. The ingredients for recreational drug production are generally easy to obtain although recent years has witnessed legislation requiring that individuals purchasing pseudoephedrine products produce their identification and sign for the cold medications containing pseudoephedrine. It is yet to be seen whether this law or other laws like it have any impact on the demand and ultimately the manufacture and supply of recreational drugs to a public that enjoys and demands such drugs.


Hill, SL and Thomas SH (2011) Clinical toxicology of newer recreational drugs. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Oct;49(8):705-19. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Drugs Marijuana in Depth Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Among the specific interventions recommended by the National Institute for Drug Abuse (2010) include a rewards-incentive system in which a counselor provides a reward for stopping smoking. However, community organizations can offer the person activities that help take their mind off using the drug. There are many ways a person can replace the habit of smoking marijuana with creative and fun pursuits ranging from art and music to sports and dancing. My personal observation has shown that people who are physically active tend to use fewer recreational drugs than people who are more sedentary in their lifestyle. Therefore, a treatment program that includes some kind of physical activity will help. Additionally, yoga and meditation might help take the place of the calming effect that some marijuana users seek.


Gardner, A. (2012). Pot smoking may leave mark on teen brains. CNN. 27 Aug, 2012. Retrieved online: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/08/27/health/health-teen-pot/index.html

"Marijuana's Lasting Effects on the Brain," (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/directors-page/messages-director/2012/09/marijuanas-lasting-effects-brain

MedLinePlus (2012). Marijuana. Retrieved online: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/marijuana.html

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010). Drug facts: marijuana. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana

SAMHSA (2008). Marijuana. Retrieved online: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/nhsda/ar18t042.htm

Taylor, H.G. (1996). Analysis of the medical use of marijuana and its societal implications.

Walton, A.G. (2012). The Neuroscience of Pot: Researchers Explain Why Marijuana May Bring Serenity Or Psychosis. " Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2012/01/11/the-neuroscience-of-pot-researchers-explain-why-marijuana-may-bring-serenity-or-psychosis/… [read more]

Equal Protection Clause of 14th Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


City of Charleston, the "first case in which the Supreme Court explicitly recognized [constitutional] rights in the context of pregnant women who are addicted to drugs" (Weyrauch, 2002, p. 82).


It may be wrong and perhaps just plain stupid, but women who take illegal drugs during their pregnancies are doing no more harm than other women who engage in behaviors that are suboptimal for fetal development, but which are also legal. Because the determination of what types of behaviors and their precise effect on fetal development may be a highly subjective analysis, it is not surprising that an inordinately high percentage of women who have been charged with criminal conduct for taking illegal drugs while they were pregnant have been poor women of color. The research suggests that the vast majority of these women were already addicted to powerful drugs before they became pregnant, and the paucity of community-based resources specifically designed to help pregnant women has contributed to the incidence of pregnant women taking illegal drugs being charged as criminals as well. In the final analysis, the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution represents a viable defense against these types of criminal charges for pregnant women who take illegal drugs.


Blank, R.H. (2002). Mother and fetus: Changing notions of maternal responsibility. New York:

Greenwood Press.

Flavin, J. (2009). Our bodies, our crimes: The policing of women's reproduction in America.

New York: New York University Press.

Paltrow, L.M. (1999). Pregnant drug users, fetal persons and the threat to Roe v. Wade. Albany Law Review, 62, 999-1004.

Roberts, D. (1991). Punishing addicts who have babies: Women of color equality and the right of privacy, Harvard Law Review, 104,…… [read more]

Special Population &amp Substance Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Most of the paroles fail and rearrests occur within the first six months of release of inmates having substance abuse disorder. All new admissions in the U.S. prisons had staggering proportion of parole failures, from being 17% in 1991 to 35% in 2000 (Petersilia, 2000).

V- Drawbacks of not providing rehab treatments and facilities

There are a number of drawbacks… [read more]

Club Drugs &amp Ecstasy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


The seven are: a) "local community-based club drug surveys collected in 2003 at raves"; b) treatment facilities and "gay-oriented bars and sex clubs"; c) surveys from schools collected in 2002; d) mortality data ("deaths between 2000 and 2002"); e) information from clinics dealing with sexually transmitted diseases (Oct. 2002 to Oct. 2003); f) focus groups (2003); g) men who have… [read more]

Clandestine Drug Labs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,356 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


When these various agencies arrive at the scene, "The goal should be for all personnel to operate within a unified command system" with no conflict in terms of who is in charge and what should be done. Every one of the groups, including firefighters, has a particular "mission" in such an instance, Lindsey continues; moreover, each member of each group… [read more]

Rdrn Tobacco and Its Subsequent Side Effects Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Tobacco and its subsequent side effects of addiction have been a contentious issue plaguing society for years. Tobacco, with its addictive qualities makes it an ideal target for young adolescent children. Even more alarming is that marketing aimed primarily to establish a long-term addiction for young adults. Teens, being young are especially prone to establish long-term habits with severe… [read more]

Medical Marijuana Use Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In patients with MS, marijuana is primarily used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms, including urge incontinence.16 Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis reportedly use marijuana for analgesia, muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, saliva reduction, appetite stimulation, and sleep induction. Marijuana is also used in the treatment of various movement disorders including dystonia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and tics associated with Tourette's syndrome. Marijuana is also used to prevent seizures in patients with epilepsy and is believed to have neuroprotective properties. (Seamon et al., Medical marijuana, 2007)

In people who use marijuana for medical reasons, there are many affects. The marijuana seems to change the effect on the patient depending on the need of the patient. Two patients may be prescribed the same strain marijuana for different reasons/ailments, and perceive different (positive) effects as well. There are additionally a number of medical conditions for which marijuana use would be detrimental to the patient; thus it must be prescribed and treated like any other pharmaceutical. (Seamon et al., 2007)

Just as with most substances, there is a potential for harm and abuse. Marijuana is a substance that has the potential for medical assistance as well as the potential to wreak havoc on people's lives.

Heavy marijuana use can result in psychological dysfunction, affecting a person's ability to form memories, recall events, and focus. Acute toxic psychosis induced by marijuana may be characterized by hallucinations, delusions, depersonalization (a loss of the sense of personal identity or self-recognition), fear of dying, paranoia, anxiety, changes in mood (e.g., depression), and altered mental astuteness. Marijuana has been reported to cause dose-related impairments in cognitive and behavioral functions and may impair the ability to drive a motor vehicle or operate heavy machinery…In 1999, more than 200,000 Americans entered substance-abuse treatment due to marijuana use. It has been estimated that 10% of marijuana users are at risk of dependence.(Seamon et al., Medical marijuana, 2007)

This is the case with many drugs, whether they are narcotics, pharmaceuticals, or naturally occurring substances. Use of any drug should come after research and education, no matter the purposes. It does not seem likely to cause harm if people make informed decision whether regarding their health or their recreation with respect to drugs, including marijuana. Attitudes toward marijuana and marijuana continue to fluctuate in the United States. As time goes on, it becomes less possible to argue that there are no worthwhile benefits to marijuana use.


Okie, MD, S. (2005) Medical Marijuana and the Supreme Court. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353(7), 648 -- 651.

Seamon, M.J., Fass, J.A., Maniscalco-Feichtl, M., Abu-Shrarie, N.A. (2007) Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist.…… [read more]

Plain Packaging on the Cigarette Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,226 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


(2010) Carlton and Perloff note in their work that: "in a market that is protected from entry, price remains above marginal cost because not firm can enter the market and drive down price..Thus restrictions on entry are the reason that many markets are not perfectly competitive, that that prices are above marginal cost." (Padilla, 2010) It is additionally stated by Carlton and Perloff that if: "large sunk costs are associated with entry and if entry is unsuccessful, the entrant's losses are large" and "in such a setting, threats of strategic behavior may prevent new entry." (Padilla, 2010) The competition level within a market and the price levels are dependent on the "existence and impact of any barriers to new entry." (Padilla, 2010) Padilla writes that plain packaging will affect the supply of both contraband and counterfeit cigarettes and states as follows:

(1) It will make counterfeit cigarettes easier to produce.

(2) It will make contraband cigarettes relatively more attractive to consumers.

The increase in illicit trade is reported to be likely to result in a reduction in the price of cigarettes that are legally traded. This indirect effect on price is reported as having been observed in pharmaceutical markets and it is stated that legal parallel imports have resulted in an impact on the price of patented drugs. " (Padilla, 2010) The European Commission in an investigation on AstraZeneca stated finding that "cheaper parallel imports combined with market forces also exert further downward pressure on the prices of original medicines, especially in high price countries." (Padilla, 2010) Cigarette consumption is reported to be found to be "negatively related to price." (FAO Economic and Social Development Department, nd) Padilla in his work estimates the impact of plain packaging on prices and market size respectively for four different plain packaging scenarios. Padilla states that each scenario "depicts a combination of market elasticity of demand (-0.5 and -1) and an increase of the cross-price elasticity between brands within the same price category." (2010) Padilla states that plain packaging would result in an increase in price competition as well as in lower prices and higher consumption of cigarettes. (2010, paraphrased) Padilla concludes that tobacco control activities have served to undermine cigarette brand equity and that more research is needed because it is likely that smokers "…may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organization elements may assist."

Summary and Conclusion

The research conducted in this study finds that as the price for cigarettes is lowered that the demand for cigarettes increases and as the price for cigarettes rises the demands for cigarettes lowers. In light of these findings, the plain packaging initiative for cigarettes in Australia is erroneous and will prove ineffective in reducing the levels of smoking among Australian individuals.


8 Review of Literature (nd) Economic and Social Development Department. FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4997e/y4997e0l.htm

Carter, S (2003) From Legitimate Consumers to Public Relations Pawns: the Tobacco Industry and Young Australians.… [read more]

Gangs Drugs and Violence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,253 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Gangs, Drugs and Violence

Compartmentalized Legalization of Drugs: An Answer to Drug Related Gang Violence

Although there are a number of turbulent issues that plague the streets of inner cities throughout the United States of America, one of the most recurring and prevalent of those problems stems from the intrinsic link between gangs, drugs, and the violence that inevitably erupts… [read more]

Drugs and Addiction Prolonged Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


These are people with abundant knowledge regarding health benefits, which they would receive from eating healthy to stimulate their cognitive functioning. Nevertheless, the fact that there exists an easy way of going about the cognitive performance without getting sweaty or on diets makes the needs appeal appended on stimulants. This drug provides a quick fix, which makes it the best option for those looking for optimal performance without much of a struggle with diets and physical exercises. This is producing a society where competition is becoming null because of the unfair use of enhancers against the efforts of others. The ethical unfairness for people under the influence of drugs is the manner in which they promote a lower look on those who are not under the influence of enhancers. They are producing a society, which is forcing people to find means of fitting in instead of making the society conducive for people's existence.

Other than focusing on ethical implications, it is perhaps necessary for people to start focusing on the benefits of using enhancers. Some researchers have proposed that the use of enhancers in promoting cosmetic functioning can be equated to cosmetic surgery. Those who chose the use of enhancers have a right of choice for the best things to do for their lives. Banning the use of enhancers would just present an infringement on their rights. The availability of Adderril is limited because it is a prescription drug; however, the promotion of its availability would help students with lower IQ, in finding solutions for poor performance in class. If food is continuously available for people because of the need for its beneficial factors, it is possible saying that Adderall use is also in need for ready availability of the drug.

However, looking at the aspirations brought about by the continued use of drugs like Adderall and piracetam and modafinil, the opportunities they enhance or block remain deserving of further research and debate. The use of these drugs to sharpen the brain against eating healthily makes the brain functioning fast. However, it is obvious that they do not expand the brain. That takes any chances for advocating for ease of accessibility of the drugs, into a hard corner. The drugs block freedom of efficiency by blocking natural creativity.


The craving for performance and improved efficiency is the driving force to the use of some very addictive drugs like Adderall. Students are most affected because they are always looking for ways of being better performers in their study lives, later simulating it to their career lives. However, the use of stimulants like Adderall cannot be encouraged just as the need for healthy eating. As much as healthy eating is as essential as using Adderall in enhancement of the functioning of the brain, the implications of using Adderall to both self and others is negative. These are aspects, which cannot be related to the health benefits promoted by healthy eating. It is, therefore, very unethical using stimulants to compete against suspecting… [read more]

Addiction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


It was quickly adopted for recreational purposes and it became to be widely abused. Within time due to some highly publicized acute reactions and fatal overdoses, stiff restrictions were placed on its use and it was ultimately removed from the market.

Two other drugs, Ecstasy and Crack Cocaine, appeared on the horizon following the demise of Quaaludes. The danger of… [read more]

Letter Addressing Modifiable Risk Factors Dear First Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Letter Addressing Modifiable Risk Factors


First of all, I just wanted to say that I love you. It is out of this love I have for you that I must address some major concerns I have with your horrible habit of smoking. There are so many consequences for this bad habit, I don't even really understand how you could continue…but I wanted to write this letter to you just to remind you the dangers you face if you continue unabated.

Yes, there are some more superficial issues related to smoking. I know first hand the smell that covers everything, because I have had to live with you for so long. Smoking can stain your teeth and cover everything you have with that awful stench. Even worse, smoking can lead to the narrowing of the blood vessels, which has been shown by the research to cause a number of different types of vascular diseases, which are "obstructions of the large arteries in the arms and legs that can cause a range of problems from pain to tissue loss or gangrene," (CDC 2012). Not to mention your smoking can harm me through second hand smoke!

Yes, yellowing teeth and a bad stench can be a nuisance, but smoking also causes much more serious problems. It has been related to over 443,000 deaths annually in the United States alone (CDC 2012). Smoking tobacco is the number one killer in the United States. In fact, "more deaths are caused each year by tobacco use than by al deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined" (CDC 2012). The bad habit leads to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Americans each year, and much more than that on a global scale. According to the research, "It is also the single most preventable cause of death in the U.S." (Jacobs 1997). This is clearly unacceptable behavior, and so I really want to drive home what could happen to you if you continued to smoke.

There are so many cancers associated with smoking. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has shown that men with your bad habit are 23 times more likely to develop lung cancer compared to nonsmokers (CDC 2012). Even though the chances are a little less for woman, it doesn't matter because you have a 23 times greater chance of developing lung cancer than me! Each year, over 143,000 smokers will perish from a variety of different types of cancers (Jacobs 1997). These cancers are often not a quick and painless death. Rather, they can kill you slowly, and with a lot of pain and misery. Fighting against such cancers often requires invasive techniques, like surgery and chemotherapy -- neither of which are fun to deal with! The main issue I have here is not the small nuisances or the fact that I am against smoking, but the very fact that it is so sure to cause death prematurely!

There… [read more]

Iran Contra and Drug Trafficking Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Casey had been called by Congress to testify as to the covert operations regarding a global system of illegal arms and drug running (Weiner, p. 478), but he himself never made it to the stand -- falling ill just hours before he was scheduled to appear before Congress. Considering the CIA's history of shady operations, this is no surprise --… [read more]

Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Treating Alcohol Dependence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Alcohol Dependence

The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in treating alcohol dependence

Alcohol belongs to a family of compounds called stimulants. Many people consume it for different reasons; several people take alcoholic beverages when they want to enjoy themselves with family members, friends and colleagues while some groups are addicted to it claiming it helps… [read more]

Sports and Drugs Illicit Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,627 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


However, the tradition of informing just the doctor after two positive tests should be rethought and the team owner should also be brought into the loop. This can help in dealing with a player more effectively as is proved in the case of Travis Tuck, when he was found unconscious due to a drug overdose in a hotel room. The club president, Jeff Kennett, claimed that if he had known about the first two tests he would have been able to help Tuck and keep a closer eye on him. Tuck was found to suffering from depression which was something a club president should know (ABC 2010).

Also there is no provision in the rules about players who are taking medicines which might contain banned substances. This matter should also be researched and included in the policy.


ABC News 2010, AFL stands by drug confidentiality policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-09-01/afl-stands-by-drug-confidentiality-policy/966194

AFL 2008, Illicit drugs policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.aflpa.com.au/images/uploads/Illicit_Drug_Policy_August_2008_CURRENT_2.pdf

AFL 2010, AFL and AFLPA enhance illicit drug policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, www.afl.com.au/tabid/13144/Default.aspx?newsId=66504

AFL 2012, AFL players and AFL have a simple message: say no to drugs. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.afl.com.au/aflhq/aflplayerssaynotodrugs/tabid/12211/default.aspx

CBC Sports 2003, 10 drug scandals. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.cbc.ca/sports/indepth/drugs/stories/top10.html#3

Colman, M. 2010, The Courier Mail: AFL drug policy is exposed. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.couriermail.com.au/sport/afl/afl-drug-policy-is-exposed/story-e6frepkx-1225913461728

Denham, G 2010, The Australian: Positve drug test isn't a negative for AFL policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/sport/opinion/positive-drug-test-isnt-a-negative-for-afl-policy/story-e6frg7t6-1225913012657

Hendry, N & Boys, F 2009, Drugs in sports: getting up to speed on the issue. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.iccwa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/drugs-in-sport.pdf

Lane, S 2011, Real footy: AFL joy as drug stats tell story. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.smh.com.au/afl/afl-news/afl-joy-as-drug-stats-tell-story-201106221gfgh.html

Shawdon, Anik 2011, Australian Doctor: Drugs in sports. Viewed 13 June, 2012.… [read more]

Drug Testing in the Army National Guard Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … illegal drug use among military members. This is on the decline, a result of strong prevention programs instituted by the DoD and military branches. The root causes and scope of the problem are also discussed in this paper. Lastly, the paper will discuss the different preventative and corrective actions that the DoD should institute in order to continue its success in dealing with illegal drug use among servicemen and women.

In general, drug use among our servicemen and women is relatively low. Outside of the Air Force, the statistics show that between 1-2% of servicemen and women are found to have illegal drugs in their system during routine drug tests. The Air Force figures are lower, in the 0.4-0.6% range (Gilmore, 2011). The in-service figures contrast with the military entrance processing station applicants, who recorded 3.28% positive tests. This paper will discuss the rates at which servicemen and woman test positive for illegal drugs, and will discuss some of the root causes of this drug abuse and the potential corrective actions that can be taken to curb this abuse. The latter are especially important to consider because there are other forms of drug abuse that also affect servicemen and woman, including alcohol and prescription drug addiction, both of which have increased in the years since 2001 (NIDA, 2011).

The Scope of the Problem

A 2008 survey conducted by the Department of Defense showed that servicemen and women have reduced their consumption of illegal drugs over the past few years (NIDA, 2011), but rates are still higher than the military would prefer. The survey identified a number of potential causes of the abuse that occurs. These potential causes include mental illness, stress, access to drugs and a lack of services to help prevent or correct drug use. It has been found that heavy alcohol use among servicemen and women increases post-deployment, so the intensive missions in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past several years may also contribute to drug use among the military community (Jacobson et al., 2008).

Potential Root Causes

The military life is a high-stress occupation, but it is also a highly-disciplined one. Rates of illegal drug use in the military, according to the 2001 survey, are below those of the general public. However, there are still underlying root causes that result in illegal drug use by members of the military community. Drug use is related to a number of factors including post-traumatic stress disorder, general stress, and the availability of drugs. It is believed that while this only impacts a small percentage of our servicemen and women, illegal drug use can be curtailed.

Curtailing Illegal Drug Use

In the past ten years, military branches have undertaken a number of steps to curtail illegal drug use, including stronger prevention programs. According to the 2008 Department of Defense survey, these efforts have enjoyed some success. However, there have also been some criticisms as well. The Army has often failed to process a discharge for soldiers who have recorded… [read more]

Drug Abuse and Families Results Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The families whose loved ones were known drug abusers were prepared for the worst. Although they were greatly saddened by the deaths, they all expressed feeling resigned that it would happen. There was a tremendous amount of anger and guilt; survivors felt as though they should have been able to do something to save their loved one. They also felt guilty for feeling a sense of relief that there was some kind of closure, even a tragic one. Family members said it was painful to worry and wait for something bad to happen. One family reported it was helpful to meet with other families through Narcotics Anonymous and share experiences. Another family felt that therapy was useful. One family reported that the survivors had a better relationship with one another after the overdose because the household was calmer and the stress and tensions removed. Every family attempts to cope in its own way.

Denning (2010, p. 165) states "Being the loved one of a person with an alcohol or other drug problem can be excruciating." Available support groups (e.g., Nar-Anon, Al-Anon) often provide guidelines for practicing "tough love," which Denning states does not work. People with substance abuse problems are complicated, as the drug use itself is complicated. A month in rehab seldom solves the problem. Denning suggests instead that harm reduction principles are put into practice, beginning with an understanding that addiction is not a disease "but rather a maladaptive pattern that has biological, psychological, and sociocultural origins" (p. 166).

The harm reduction family treatment Denning discusses focuses on the family coming to grips with their own reality and the reality of the loved one who abuses drugs. In other words, what can family members do to alleviate some of the worry and pain associated with having a drug abuser in the family. For example, a father decided his daughter could not come in the house because she routinely stole from him. To hold on to a relationship with her, however, he took her to dinner once a week. Another man divorced his wife, while another man decided to stay in his marriage, making arrangement with relatives for care of the children when his wife became high. These people all found solutions that worked for them.

Denning notes that the harm reduction methods do not yield easy or immediate results. Yet, people struggling to cope often find the principles of harm reduction useful. Denning charges helping professionals with nourishing family connections wherever possible.

The families of drug abusers experience a range of emotions as they struggle to deal with the problems addiction brings to the family dynamic. Traditional twelve-step programs work for some, but other families may find that a harm reduction model gives them more control over their emotions, allowing them to set firm limits and yet still behave in a way toward their loved ones with which they are comfortable. The message one can take from the three articles is that help is available in various forms.… [read more]

Drug Testing in the Workplace Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,173 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


S. Department of Labor, 2010).

Drug testing is often mandatory when safety issues are involved. For example, the U.S. Department of Transportation has regulations that require drug testing of more than eight million different employees, such as truck drivers (Thompson Reuters, 2011). It is not just safety in the workplace that is the concern, but a matter of public safety The state of Alaska has no mandatory drug-testing laws, but employers can choose to test and must follow strict guidelines if they do so Employers must test fairly, unobtrusively, and with the consent of the employee. If an employer is going to test employees, then all employees must be tested. The decision to test cannot be made based on an employee's appearance or demeanor. Tests must be done unobtrusively, in a way that protects the employee's privacy. If a urine test is to be administered, for example, the employee should be allowed privacy and the test administered by a laboratory, unless there is strong reason to believe that an employee might tamper with the sample to hide positive results. Since urine testing gives accurate results for up to five days preceding the test, many employers opt for testing hair samples, which can show drug use for up to three months prior. However, employees must voluntarily provide the hair sample. An employer cannot pick up stray hairs left in a chair during an interview, for example, and send them for testing (Thompson Reuters, 2011).

The Department of Labor states that education is an important part of a drug-free workplace. It provides on its website a program employers can use to conduct the training within their organizations. The program covers topics such as workplace impact, understanding addiction, signs and symptoms, family and coworker impact, assistance, and specific drugs of abuse. Employees receive a copy of the organization's drug-free policy and often sign a receipt that they have received it. It affords the employer protection in the event drug use is found. Employers have specific grounds for dismissal, if they choose, when policy is clearly articulated beforehand and employees agree.

If employers choose to implement an education program, then it must be for all employees. Employers cannot target specific groups based on education, background or appearance, although they can group employers based on job title when job performance and safety are issues, such as bus drivers or machine operators. This makes sense, as it provides protection for the individual as well as anyone around them who is affected by what they do..

Drug testing and education in the workplace are complicated issues. Employers' actions depend on the laws of the state in which they do business as well as the size and type of organization. Laws exist to protect the privacy of individuals, so employers must be careful in their administration of testing and education programs, being certain that everyone is treated equitably.


Drug-free workplace policy builder. Section 7: Drug testing. (2010). U.S. Department of Labor.

Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen92.asp

Drummer, O.H. (2006).… [read more]

Legalization of Drugs in the United States Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … legalization of drugs in the United States as a means of curbing the problem the country currently faces. Bennett's position is that legalization would only escalate the problem, whereas projected benefits such as "taking the profit out of the business" would be non-existent in the light of increasing usage. Bennett then calls for a national drug policy that creates stricter legislation and enforcement in terms of the drug policy.

Bennett uses a number of arguments to support his position. The most convincing and compelling of these is probably the practical example of individuals, families, and communities who have been victimized by the drug trade. Bennett argues that these communities have been victimized not only by "root causes" such as peer pressure and poverty, but by the availability of drugs themselves. He furthermore argues that these communities are fighting valiantly against the prevalence of drugs in their community by means of rehabilitation programs and community and family unity. However, he also argues that these efforts are most effective and indeed only effective in the long-term with the help of law enforcement.

Another important, and somewhat chilling argument, is the fact that drug use has escalated when substances became widely available and relatively inexpensive. Legalizing drugs would make it even more accessible, not only to adults, but also to school children with pocket money budgets that would suddenly be able to cover these self-destructive habits.

For me, Bennett's most compelling argument is the effect of drugs on the human body and mind. Regardless of the basic human right to be self-destructive, Bennett's strongest argument is that, providing general public access to drugs would have devastating effects upon the country's most valuable asset: the human mind.

Regardless of all other arguments, there is no denial of the fact that drugs destroy individual lives, families, communities, and the human mind. The future that Bennett projects for a country…… [read more]

Drug Addiction and Crime Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Drug Addiction and Crime

Over the last several decades, the U.S. has been aggressively involved in a war on drugs. Part of the reason for this, is because of the adverse effects that it is having on the lives of various individuals and their families. At the same time, it has been causing the crime rate to increase exponentially. A… [read more]

Charges of Unfair Labor Practices Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (1,805 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


, 2011).

With respect to alcohol abuse testing, alcohol is a drug and subject to the same kinds of abuse and dependency concerns as any other drug. According to the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, alcohol is one of the most widely used drug substances in the world. They point out the following public health problems associated with alcohol use:

Alcohol is used by more young people than tobacco or illicit drugs.

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with approximately 75,000 deaths per year.

Alcohol is a factor in approximately 41% of all deaths from motor vehicle crashes.

Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial personality disorder (National Center, 2010)

Given these and other statistics about alcohol abuse, there should be no practical distinction between alcohol and drug abuse. Rather, companies should be concerned with implementing substance abuse policies and programs (National Center, 2010).


American Bar Association (ABA). (2011). Unfair labor practice law and procedure. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/labor/basics/nlra/papers/unfair_labor.authcheckdam.pdf

eNotes. (2011) Drug testing. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.enotes.com/everyday-law-encyclopedia/drug-testing-2

Lectric Law Library. (2011). Drug testing in the workplace. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.lectlaw.com/files/emp02.htm

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). Alcohol and drug use. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/alcoholdrug/index.htm

NOLO Law for All. (2011). Employer liability for an employee's bad acts. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/employer-liability-employees-bad-acts-29638.html

Sherman, A.J. et al. (2011). Drug testing in the workplace. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.entrepreneurship.org/en/resource-center/drug-testing-in-the-workplace.aspx

Swann, J.P. Jr. (n.d.). NLRB election process. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.nlrbelections.com/nlrb_election_process.htm… [read more]

Drug Trafficking Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,465 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Two years ago, the newspaper article, "DEA, ICE mend fences; agree to share information on drug trafficking" (2009) reports that for years in the past, Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) officers complained that the dearth of cooperation with other federal law enforcement agencies contributed to a myriad of missed opportunities s as well as complex challenges when trying to obtain information… [read more]

Alcohol Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Alcoholism as a Disease

Throughout many parts of the world, alcoholic consumption is often a part of social gathering like picnics, graduations, sporting events, and many more. Alcohol consumption is a risky behavior because of health and social situations caused by intoxicating, toxic, and dependence-producing entity (World Health Organization, 2011). People who drink a large amount of alcohol are susceptible… [read more]

Drugs and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … trafficking of drugs has been something that has been a problem in the United States of America for many decades. From the Drug Cartel in Mexico to the Pharmaceutical companies getting federal funding, Americans have a fascination with drug production and usage. Regardless of the many attempts that the government has made to completely cease the drug problems,… [read more]

Drugs and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Drugs and Society

Why do people use drugs: A historical and philosophical overview

The word 'drug' can have either a positive or a negative connotation. On one hand, legally-prescribed drugs have saved the lives of many people: antibiotics can cure infections; drugs can alleviate pain and the symptoms of many common illnesses spanning from allergies to the common cold; drugs can curtail the advancement of serious illnesses, and make living with chronic diseases such as diabetes feasible. But there is a clear dark side to drug use: drug addiction. Several models have been suggested to explain why people use illegal drugs and abuse legal drugs, none of which are entirely persuasive.

The oldest model, which still has a great deal of traction today, is that of the moral model: It is assumed that people who use drugs are morally 'weak' and use drugs to escape reality. Another model, occasionally used by artists, is the idea that drugs can free the human consciousness from the boundaries of conventional reality. Opium smoking was not uncommon during the 19th century amongst the Romantic poets, just like LSD was popular amongst a wide subculture of musicians and other artists. And there is a longstanding tradition amongst writers and other artists to use alcohol as a method of release (Berridge 1988: 51). One of the most famous accounts of drug abuse was The doors of perception and heaven and hell by Aldous Huxley, which chronicles the author's experiences taking mescaline. Similar to that of earlier recreational drug users, Huxley conducted his self-experiments when the drug was not illegal, and the negative side effects of long-term use were not known.

From an artist's perspective, one could argue that any supposed benefits that might be derived from drug use are miniscule for 'the art' and instead their use is really is a product of the culture that surrounds artists. In other words, rather than the benefits actually derived from experimenting with drugs, the main reasons that artists often dabble in drug use are because it is so accepted within the culture that surrounds the production of art. It is true that a culture of acceptance is yet another reason that people use drugs -- whether the subculture of teens or impoverished persons who abuse street drugs and alcohol; of bodybuilders and other athletes who illegally use steroids, or even cultures where drugs are used as part of religious rituals, such as the use of peyote in Native American rituals. In these instances, it is fairly easy to understand the 'why' of drug use -- it is normalized, and not using drugs is considered unusual.

Another reason that people abuse drugs that is little-publicized by the pharmaceutical industry is the ways in which the use of legal, prescribed drugs can morph into abuse. Someone may be given a prescription for an opiate-based painkiller and begin to use the numbing effects of these painkillers, not for pain but for psychological reasons -- to shut out reality. Stimulants like Ritalin… [read more]

Tobacco Industry History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


(Borio, 2011)

Nineteenth Century

During the early years of the 19th century, more scientists began to understand the nature of the chemical makeup of the tobacco leaf. They also realized that smoking tobacco produced dangerous health effects. In 1826, the pure form of nicotine was isolated in the chemistry labs. Quickly thereafter, the medical science became clear: nicotine was a… [read more]

Legalizing Drugs the Government Creates Laws Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Legalizing Drugs

The government creates laws and regulations in which officials see are suitable for citizens to abide by. The formation of such official customs serves to protect the interests of the people, state, and government. However, in a society ruled by democracy, differences are bound to rise and voices are to be heard regarding various issues, in particular, the… [read more]

Drug Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Addiction -- Why?

Addiction can be categorized in three ways as follows: social addiction, physical (physiological) addiction, or psychological (chemical) addiction (Knapp, 1996). Addiction to a substance typically stems from abuse of that substance and substance abuse is occurring in the midst of addiction; though, (short-or-long-term) substance abuse does not necessarily have to occur before the criteria for addiction is met (Stiles, 2011). All addicts are substance abusers but not all abusers are addicts. It is important to make the distinction between the two even though abuse of a substance is happening in the midst of addiction, other predispositions contribute towards addiction and in many cases an addict is predisposed towards addiction long before his/her first use or becomes an addict not from abusing a substance but simply from using one that may not be illegal (alcohol, cigarettes, legally prescribed medications).

Further, it is also important to make a distinction between addiction to substances with addiction towards feelings or activities. The majority of discourse about addiction revolves around substances, particularly illegal drugs, illegally obtained prescription drugs, or alcohol. However, many psychologists and medical professionals, particularly those who specialize in addiction, continually emphasize the power of addiction in all its forms (social, physical, and psychological) on such feelings and activities as gambling, eating (food), sex, spirituality, self-harm tactics, power, money, shopping, pornography, politics, violence, fear, theft, and any other obsession/compulsion that becomes an integral part of one's life in which the trigger is required to "feel" normal and involves some degree of negative consequences (Stiles, 2011).

The "why" of addiction is somewhat controversial and varies among stories. It is clearly a mixture of socio-cultural factors with certain biological factors and life experiences. The only commonalities of addiction are as follows: everyone is (1) first a "user;" (2) coping/compensating with/for something; (3) affected by addiction in all aspects of life (eventually).

Bio-psycho-socio-cultural factors

As previously stated, the cause of addiction seems most accurately described as a mixture of socio-cultural factors with certain biological factors and life experience factors. Some experts argue that people are born addicts while others argue that people become addicts. Some addicts are…… [read more]

Psychoactive Drugs the Drug Chosen Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Most likely because cocaine gives the user such an instant feeling of euphoria and well-being that only lasts for short while, once the drug has worn off feelings of depression and lethargy replace any feelings of happiness (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010).

Given that cocaine increases the sympathetic nervous system, an action that is normally activated in people who are in flight or fight mode, the body itself is in a constant state of disruption and deprivation (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010). Most likely, a cocaine abuser would not be eating and not be sleeping while using the drug, and while the user is high on cocaine, the sympathetic nervous system is working overtime during the entire episode of use. "Studies indicate that sleep restriction [deprivation] can impair individuals' attention, reaction time, motor coordination, and decisions making." (Weiten, 2005) Over a long period of time, as the user cycles through no sleep, not eating and being constantly nervous and agitated, to coming down from the drug in a depressed state, the user will be increasing the amounts of cocaine to maintain the high and continue each cycle. After awhile the user will either fall into a severe depression that even the drug cannot lift for significant periods, and may become suicidal, or have issues with homeostasis and may become ill, develop heart problems or could die from overdose (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010).

Works Cited

Emery, R.E., & Oltmanns, T.F. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology in action (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (n.d.). Drug Abuse Among Hispanics: A brief evidence-based guide for providers (1.4 ed.) [Brochure]. Amaro, H., Cortes, D.E., Castro, F.G., Lopez, B., & Molina, P.E., et al. Retrieved March 17, 2011, from http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07- 4288/SMA07-4288.pdf

Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes & variations: briefer edition (6th ed.).…… [read more]

Prescription Drug Use Research Pradel Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (1,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Using grounded theory strategies, the researchers conducted interviews, then coded answers to find six main themes emerge from participant responses: "pill mills," on-site pharmacies, liberal prescribing habits, "sponsoring" drug diversion, pain doctor/pharmacy shopping, and falsifying symptoms/documentation. Results should provide insights for law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and industry as they attempt to develop appropriate policy initiatives and recommendations for best practices.

Article 7:

Hamilton, G.J. (2009). PRESCRIPTION DRUG ABUSE, Psychology in the Schools, 46(9), DOI: 10.1002/pits.20429

This article presented current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. Research suggested that two categories of prescription drugs that are commonly used among high school and college students are pain killers and those prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The researcher provided both demographic and behavioral characteristics of students who are most likely to engage in intentional abuse of stimulants and pain medications as well as stated motivations for use.

Article 8:

Becker, W.C., Fiellin, D.A., Gallagher, R.M., Barth, K.S., Ross, J.T. And Oslin, D.W. (2009). The Association Between Chronic Pain and Prescription Drug Abuse in Veterans. PAIN MEDICINE, 10(3).

Researchers sought to investigate the association between chronic pain and self-reported prescription drug abuse in a large cohort of patients referred from primary care for a behavioral health assessment. Researchers performed a cross-sectional analysis of responses to a telephone assessment administered to patients referred for a behavioral health evaluation between April 25, 2005 and October 31, 2007. Utilizing both descriptive statistics and multivariable associations such as age, gender, race, financial status, employment, current smoking, drinking problem, past-year illicit drug use, depression, and chronic pain, the researchers found specific variables associated with self-reported prescription drug abuse in primary care patients. Chronic pain is associated both with an indication for prescribing opioids and with abuse of prescription medications.

Article 9:

McCauley, J.L, Danielson, C.K., Amstadter, A.B., Ruggiero, J.K., Resnick, H.S., Hanson, R.F., Smith, D.W., Saunders, B.E., and Kilpatrick, D.G. (2010). The role of traumatic event history in non-medical use of prescription drugs among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 51(1), pp 84 -- 93 doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02134.x

Researchers examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as potential correlates of past-year non-medical use of prescription drugs. Using a nationally representative sample of 3,614 non-institutionalized, civilian, English-speaking adolescents (aged 12 -- 17 years) residing in households with a telephone was selected. Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) was endorsed by 6.7% of the sample (n = 242). The final multivariable model showed that lifetime history of delinquent behavior, other forms of substance use/abuse, history of witnessed violence, and lifetime history of PTSD were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD.

Article 10:

Higgins, G.E., Mahoney, M., Ricketts, M.L. (2009). Non-Social Reinforcement of the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs: A partial test of social learning and self-control theories. Journal of Drug Issues. 949-964.

Researchers examined the explanation of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs to test the… [read more]

Social Support Factors and Alcohol Use and Abuse Among College Students Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Social Support Factors and Alcohol Use and Abuse Amongst College Students

O'Malley and Johnston (2002) analyze five different sources of data related to drinking amongst college students and note that alcohol use persists in being very high amongst college students. Variables include the fact that males indulge more heavily than females, whites have a higher rate of drinking than do blacks and Hispanics, and alcohol is more frequent amongst college students than amongst non-college students. In fact, college students who have drunk little or negligible alcohol before college go on to exceed their non-college colleagues in the amount and consistency of their drinking.

The article influenced me since it showed a clear correlation between peer pressure towards drinking in college and the tendency to retain that habit post-graduation. It seems, therefore, that were this habit to be impeded in college, fewer college graduates would retain their inclination to drink.

Hingson et al. (2005) discuss the significant rate of morbidity, disease, and injury that is found amongst college students and related to their alcohol consumption. The authors call for prevention and treatment programs for college students in order to discourage their drinking habit.

The article influenced me in that it showed how significant the problem of alcohol use is amongst college students and in the urgent need for introduction of alcohol-related prevention and treatment programs for college students.

3. VonDras, Schmitt, & Marx (1007) investigated association between spiritual well being and between alcohol consumption in a sample of 151 female American college students. A survey found spiritual well being to be positively associated with reduction in drinking. Authors concluded that spiritual beliefs and spiritual support were moderators of behavior that served to provide cognitive schemas as defense against alcohol. Authors briefly…… [read more]

Tobacco Cessation Evaluation and Pre-Assessment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Tobacco Cessation

Evaluation and Pre-Assessment

As an oral healthcare professional, I have unique insight into telltale signs of tobacco use ranging from stains and odors to receding gums and oral lesions. Therefore, the first and most important step in the evaluation process is pure observation. Gum recession and lesions can be immediately observable and measured, whereas underlying issues like bone… [read more]

Legalizing Marijuana Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Legalizing Marijuana

There is presently much controversy regarding legalization of marijuana, as the number of supporters for the cause appears to grow concomitantly with the number of people opposing it. The former however have appeared to gain an advantage in the recent years, as society becomes more and more tolerant toward the concept. Not only does the general public has… [read more]

Alcohol and Its Effects on the Body Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,844 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alcohol and Its Effects on the Body

Alcohol is a legal substance, but the fact that it is legal does not mean that it cannot have harmful effects on the body. Some alcoholic beverages have proven to be beneficial in small quantities. However, overconsumption of alcohol can have some serious and harmful effects on the body. We know that drinking… [read more]

Sociology Whether or Not to Legalize Drugs Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Whether or not to legalize drugs, and if so how, is a major political issue. Unfortunately, healthy and rational debate on drug legalization is difficult in the political sphere. As Johnson (2000) points out, political careers can be ruined simply by taking an honest pro-legalization stance. Drug law is in dire need of reform, however. Beaver (2010) focuses on the dismal Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, which mandated stricter penalties for crack vs. powdered cocaine on the ratio of one hundred-to-one. The sentencing guidelines were based on data showing that in crack form, cocaine was more dangerous. What politicians failed to pay attention to was that crack is cheaper than cocaine and therefore more crack users than cocaine users are likely to be poor -- and non-white. Racial disparity is one of the main reasons why drug policy in America should be reformed. Healthcare is another reason. Drugs are a major healthcare issue, but because some drugs remain illegal their usage is shifted over into the criminal justice system. Drug use should return to the domain in which it belongs: healthcare. If drugs were legalized, as Johnson (2000), Sullivan (2001), and Lowry (2001) argue, access to quality services related to addiction and other issues would improve. Remove the stigma of criminality, and drug use becomes no different from alcohol or tobacco use. In fact, one of the most commonly-used arguments in defense of legalization is the fact that some of the most harmful drugs in circulation are those that are legal. Legalization would enable regulation and education, notes Johnson (2000). This would reduce, not increase, the harm drugs present to any society.

Most arguments against the legalization of drugs are irrational or biased. For example, Wisher's (2001) argument, and Linker & Feder's (2001) case are based more on emotion than reason. Likewise, Nagel (2001) fails to offer a convincing case as to why marijuana should not be legalized for medical use. The claim that no proof exists as to the efficacy of the drug on alleviating key healthcare issues is groundless, given the plethora of medical data cited by Rosenthal & Kubby (1996). Grant's (2002) conviction that legalizing heroin would harm the poor is spurious, too. The legalization of heroin would not necessarily mean that prices and access to safe needles would remain in the province of the wealthy classes. Laws and regulations would need to be established to prevent class-related problems. Those class-related problems already exist in our society and in fact, are more pronounced while drugs are illegal. Beaver's (2010)…… [read more]

Reasons Why the Prohibition on Marijuana Should Be Lifted Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Lifting the Prohibition on Marijuana

After forty plus years of what Tim Dickenson refers to as "Mindless Prohibition," it seems that some justice for users of medically prescribed marijuana may be in sight. The United States drug czar under the Obama administration, Gil Kirlikowske has been noted as saying that he has ended the war on drugs and Governor David Patterson was recently quoted as saying "We put a stop to 35 years of bad policy" in reference to the removal of the Rockerfeller Drug Wars which punish and imprison addicts, rather than offering the treatment needed to conquer their addictions. These old and outdated drug policies haven't been looked out or discussed politically, on a national level, since the Nixon administration in the 1970s. When evaluating the merits of these laws, it is essential that the real motives behind them, and the success they have had as a whole throughout the past forty years be researched and documented.

"Over half a century of marijuana prohibition in the United States has failed to control the use of the drug, and the governments accelerating pursuit of prohibition now exacts a price for exceeding the harm of this mild intoxicant," (Slaughter, 1987) Years of high criminal penalties and an anti-drug campaign did nothing to curb the marijuana usage in the United States.

Decriminalization and legalization of marijuana has been a topic of discussions among Americans for over three decades and still it has been hard to let the voices be heard. "Seventy -- two percent of Americans say that for simple marijuana possession, people should not be incarcerated but fined: the generally accepted definition of decriminalization." (Nadelman, 2004) Broader legalization of the substance Forty percent agree that "the government should treat marijuana more or less the same way it treats alcohol: it should regulate it, control it, tax it and only make it illegal for children." (Nadelman, 2004)

California is spearheading the movement with the decriminalizing of marijuana by passing ordinances that allow for its medical usage. An initiative to control and tax marijuana qualified for the November 2, 2010 California state ballot. "Passage of the measure, by no means certain, would make California the first U.S. state to legalize marijuana. Backers believe the state could be at the vanguard of a national movement toward decriminalizing the drug. (Reuters, 2010)

In addition to the medicinal benefits of marijuana, there are financial advantages to lifting the prohibition on marijuana. Marijuana is California's biggest cash crop with $35 billion dollars annually. President Obama's administration has gone on record saying they will no longer sort out or prosecute clinics where medicinal plant is being distributed. However, the government continues to pump money into outdated laws. "The legalization and taxation of cannabis would provide more than $1 billion dollars to balance California's busted budget." (Dickenson, 2009) a state "Marijuana production has increased tenfold in the past quarter century despite an exhaustive anti-drug effort by law enforcement." ( Baily, 2006) According to a report by department of… [read more]

Prescription Drug Abuse Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Prescription Drug Abuse

please describe some of the most pressing physical, cognitive, and socioemotional concerns in the elderly that could give rise to substance abuse problems

Memo on prescription drug abuse amongst the elderly:

Advice for the director of assisted living facility xyz

To the director of assisted living facility xyz:

Drug abuse is often the result of greater access to addictive substances and the normalization of abusive behaviors. This can be seen in adolescents: underage teens with greater access to drugs and alcohol because of the practice of frequent binge drinking at their college fraternity or the presence of cigarette vending machines are more apt to use these substances. The rise in prescription medications, from painkillers such as OxyContin to stimulants such as Adderall has also increased the rates of prescription drug abuse. But while teens are often the focus of anti-drinking, anti-drug campaigns, this focus neglects to take into consideration the population that receives more prescriptions for medications than any other group: the elderly.

While many Americans age 65 or older may take drugs for legitimate ailments, for others abusing prescription drugs becomes a way of coping with the stresses and loneliness of aging. Also, because it is more socially acceptable for older people to be taking many medications, the line between abuse and use can be much blurrier. According to a National Institute of Drug Abuse research study, although Americans over 65 comprise only 13% of the population, they account for approximately one-third of all medications prescribed in the United States. They are also more likely to be prescribed long-term and multiple prescriptions. This can lead to unintentional -- and intentional -- abuse.

Using five or more different prescription drugs amongst the elderly has been linked to a greater number of primary care visits to deal with the complications of drug treatment (Jorgensen, 2001, p.1004). But even frequent doctor visits are no panacea: "an individual may be seeing a family practice physician for general health needs and specialists for specific diseases or illnesses. If these physicians are not communicating, the patient can be over-medicated and end up in serious difficulty"…… [read more]

Classical Argument Drug Prohibition Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,767 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Classical Argument

Drug prohibition has been about as successful as alcohol prohibition, which is to say, disastrous. The 18th Amendment to the Constitution was a radical step, motivated by temperance leagues that feared alcohol was tearing apart American society and creating crime. Although prohibition lasted thirteen years, ultimately the policy failed. Not only did it fail; prohibition bolstered organized crime… [read more]

Drug Testing in Businesses and for Employment Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (687 words)
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Drug Testing for Businesses and Employment

Since the passing of the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (Hagan, 2001) employers have had the right by law to screen applicants for positions in addition to periodically screening their employees at random intervals. This has resulted in many companies seeing statistically significant reductions in work-related injuries as a result of their adherence to more thorough drug and alcohol screening (Spell, Blum, 2005). In industries that require intensive coordination and awareness to avert accidents and get work completed, the results in reduction of injuries and fatalities has also been significant (Gerber, Yacoubian, Jr., 2002).

How Drug Testing Impacts a Company's Profitability and Viability

As the global recession continues to make profitability more elusive than ever due to reduced sales and inflation of materials prices, many companies are finding that focusing on drug screening to avert the risk of accidents is well worth it. In the construction industry is estimated that the average cost per injury is $4,851 (Gerber, Yacoubian, Jr., 2002) in addition to the lost work time of having a person out, forcing other employees to work longer hours as a result. Wen the costs of an injury to just one worker is taken across a company of just 100 construction workers, the total savings would be $485,100. Considering the fact that construction is an industry highly correlated to the overall economy, and it becomes clear that concentrating on drug-free workplaces in this industry can mean the difference between their staying in business or not.

Drug screening in the construction industry also includes post-accident testing as well, a technique found to significant reduce accidents over time (Morantz, Mas, 2008). When employees realize they are going to be screened for drug use after an accident, many have shown through the statistics generated over time to drastically reduce their abuse of drugs and alcohol.

As construction is often a highly unionized industry across the United States and globally, the unions is also supporting the need for periodic drug testing. Unions see the need for greater testing as a…… [read more]

Mexico Illicit Aviation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (4,615 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Mexico Drug Trafficking

Mexico, Political Corruption, and Drug Trafficking

In many levels of responsibility, Mexican government authorities are reported to be among the most corrupt in North America. When it comes to its ability to slow the trafficking of narcotics into and through its nation, the Mexican government has failed again and again. Ample evidence and drug-related violence backs up… [read more]

Workplace Drug Testing Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,001 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Workplace Drug Testing and Invasion of Privacy

Americans generally believe they live in a free country. The founding documents of the United States guarantee the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. These precepts are usually presumed to accord to all Americans the right to control their own personal affairs. One may satisfy one's own wants and desires… [read more]

Smoking Cessation Drugs the Majority Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,111 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 14


As this venue did not proffer enough data for the researcher, the researcher determined to conduct a basic survey on smoking cessation drugs in Mobile, Alabama.

For the study, the researcher conducted the surveys in two hospitals and a clinic in the Mobile area. The researcher chose one location, Providence Hospital, as it hosts a smoking cessation program. Springhill Hospital served as the researcher's second hospital choice as the researcher learned, it houses a cardiopulmonary rehabilitations center. The researcher choose Victory Clinic as the third site for implementing the survey as it serves the community in the non-profit realm; providing needed services for people without out medical insurance.

From distributing more than 100 questionnaires at these three locations, the researcher ultimately retrieved 40 completed surveys from current smokers and ex-smokers. During the survey period, 24 persons used smoking cessation drugs or quit smoking "cold turkey." Data the researcher amassed from the surveys indicated that sixteen participants who participated in this study did not use any smoking cessation drugs and continue to smoke.


Figure 1 depicts the methods noted by patients/participants as their choice for quitting smoking.

Figure 1: Participant's Methods for Quitting Smoking (Researcher 2009).

Figure 2: Participant Status at End of Study (Researcher 2009).

Figure 3: CHANTIX Side Effects Participants Experienced (Researcher 2009).

Figure 4: CHANTIX Claims ("Quitting can be…" 2009).


Figure 1: Participant's Methods for Quitting Smoking (Researcher 2009).

Figure 2: Participant Status at End of Study (Researcher 2009).

Figure 3: CHANTIX Side Effects Participants Experienced (Researcher 2009).

Figure 4: CHANTIX Claims ("Quitting can be…" 2009).


"A new reason to stop smoking: research shows that quitting can reduce your diabetes risk, in addition to providing known health benefits." Healthy Years. Belvoir Media Group, LLC.

(2008). HighBeam Research. 13 Apr. 2009


Clute, Mitchell. "Calling it quits." Natural Foods Merchandiser. Penton Media OH & IL.

(2008). HighBeam Research. 13 Apr. 2009 .

"The FDA approves new drug for smoking cessation.(Food and Drug Administration

approves Chantix)." FDA Consumer. (2006). HighBeam Research. 13 Apr. 2009


FDA Issues Public Health Advisory on Chantix Agency requests that manufacturer add new=

safety warnings for smoking cessation drug." M2 Presswire. M2 Communications Ltd.

(2008). HighBeam Research. 13 Apr. 2009

. Foster, Carly. "The benefits of butting out ." Employee Benefit News Canada. SourceMedia, Inc.

(2008). HighBeam Research. 13 Apr.


. "Free & Clear (R) Data Shows Effectiveness of Chantix (TM) When Used in Combination

with Phone-Based Behavioral Counseling." Business Wire. Business Wire. (2008).

HighBeam Research. 13 Apr. 2009 . Heylman, Susan. "Smokers trying to quit find drug brings suicide risk, other dangers.

(Pfizer's Chantix)." Trial. American Association for Justice. (2008). HighBeam

Research. 13 Apr. 2009 . "New Report: Smokers Should NEVER Use Nicotine Patches/Gums AND Never QUIT

Smoking." PR Newswire. PR Newswire Association LLC. (2008). HighBeam

Research. 13 Apr. 2009 . "Nicotine Gum Effective For Smoking Reduction." The HindustanTimes. HT Media Ltd.


HighBeam Research. 13 Apr. 2009

. "Quitting can be different this time." (2009) CHANTIX® (varenicline) Pfizer… [read more]

Drugs Many Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,938 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Many drugs have been used for medical purposes at one time or another. Pick two drugs that have been used in this capacity and explain the medical rationale behind their use. Conclude with a description of why each drug was later banned from medical usage.

Cocaine and heroin both made their way into the modern pharmaceutical lexicon as medically… [read more]

Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Effect (Fae) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,957 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … diagnosis of fetal alcohol effect (FAE) and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).

Fetal alcohol system is a preventable cause of birth defects and physical and mental disabilities, which results from a mother's heavy consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. But no level of alcohol consumption is safe during pregnancy, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Mothers who drink even… [read more]

How Drug Addiction Should Be Treated as a Disease and Not Criminally Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Drug Addiction Should Be Treated as an Illness and Not Through the Criminal Justice System

Addiction by definition is illogical and irrational. "You're ruining your life," friends and family members say to the addict. And sadly, the addict knows this all too well. But through the lies the addict tells him or herself, in the delusion of the disease, the addiction and the addictive lifestyle is sustained. Unlike a crime, which has premeditated, conscious decision-making (as in the case of murder) or poor but rational judgment (as in the case of manslaughter) at its root, alcoholism and drug addiction alters the abuser's ability to make rational decisions. Just as the criminal justice system does not imprison someone who kills a man because he or she is in a state of psychosis and believes the man to be a bear, it is ineffective to criminally penalize addicts when they are operating with an irrational mental framework and cannot distinguish right from wrong.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, alcoholism and other substance abuse results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, home, recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous, legal problems, and social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance. Trying to punish and deter the user, or even to rehabilitate the user through the tools of the legal system, which involve imprisonment as a form of retribution will do little to inspire reflection or remorse. Imprisonment will not treat the fundamental cause of the asocial behavior, namely the addiction. More than reflection and counseling, and guidance about the wrongness of the crime and training to help the individual reenter society are needed for addicts. Addicts must be treated by people who specifically understand the mental illness of addiction, just like schizophrenics must…… [read more]

Illegal Drugs as Wmds the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,983 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8



The world and most specifically the U.S. has been so worried about the spread of elusive WMDs that one wonders what would happen if they were finally discovered. We have no clue if they exist and as far as reports are concerned, no such weapons of mass destruction were found in Iraq. Interestingly U.S. fought a… [read more]

Pro's Con's of Random Drug Testing of Employee Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,109 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Pro's/Con's of Random Drug Testing of Employee's

Drug Testing

Pro's/Con's of Random Drug Testing of Employee's

In this paper, we shall argue against random drug testing within employment practices. Drug Testing plans are the latest endeavors to tackle the menace of extensive substance abuse and its outcomes. During the initial part of 1960s, urinalysis was employed to test for the… [read more]

Tobacco Smoke Contains About 4,000 Chemicals Out Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (488 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Tobacco smoke contains about 4,000 chemicals; out of these, approximately 60 are known or suspected carcinogens, i.e., cancer-causing agents ("Cigarette Smoking and Cancer") Some of these substances such as carbon monoxide, tar, arsenic, benzene, nicotine and lead are also highly poisonous and prove toxic for the human body. Out of these, nicotine is the main addiction-causing drug which is naturally present in the tobacco plant (Ibid.).

Tobacco is not only harmful for the person who directly smokes it but for other people who breath in the smoke indirectly through passive smoking. This is because the human blood has been shown to be very sensitive to even low doses of tobacco smoke. Children whose parents are smokers and unborn children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy are primarily at risk. One study found that in households where both parents smoke, young children have a 72% increased risk of respiratory illnesses and are more likely to be admitted to hospital for bronchitis and pneumonia in the first year of life ("Q & a: Passive Smoking). Similarly, babies born to women who smoke during pregnancy have about 30% higher odds of being born prematurely; are likely to be born underweight -- increasing their risk for illness; and are 1.4 to 3 times more likely to die of Sudden Death Syndrome ("Tobacco Use and Pregnancy")

Tobacco smoking is one of the major risk factors in the occurrence of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Nicotine, for example, is known to constrict…… [read more]

Drug Use and Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,135 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Drug Use and Addiction

Extensive work and research has been done in an effort to understand the impetus for drug use and addiction amongst adults, children and adolescents. Thus far, the extensive body of research has proven that, at best, drug addiction is an individual affliction at the heart of which a multitude of social, familial, and physical reasons as… [read more]

Alcohol the Search for Pleasure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



The search for pleasure is one main motivator to drink: many people experience positive, even euphoric effects after drinking. Motivation might also be related to the positive social interactions one might have, or because alcohol is served in social settings. However, some people may be motivated to drink by genetic factors or for stress relief. In the latter case, alcoholism is a potential problem because individuals who use alcohol to self-medicate are likely to become dependent on it. When used for pleasure alcohol can be harmless and even beneficial in moderate quantities. I believe drinking in moderation is fine and possibly even healthy, but that when a person drinks too much the behavior leads to psychological and physiological problems.

Alcohol absorption takes place mainly in the small intestine and the stomach. Alcohol absorption from the GI tract is affected by several factors including a person's body weight/mass; metabolism; whether the person eats or not; whether the person does other drugs or not; exercising; and type of alcohol that is consumed. Gastric emptying determines the rate at which alcohol is absorbed by the body: "the faster the gastric emptying the faster the rate of alcohol absorption," (Boggan). Eating food, doing other drugs, and exercise all affect the absorption of alcohol because they each affect the rate of gastric emptying. Absorption can also be affected by an individual's basal metabolism. Fatigue may also play a role in how fast alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach, and the type of alcohol that is consumed may also be a factor ("Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination").

3. Alcohol affects the brain and central nervous system; the digestive system; the circulatory/cardiovascular system; the liver and related filtration systems; the kidney and its fluid regulation system; and the endocrine system.

The most obvious bodily system that alcohol effects is the brain and…… [read more]

Tobacco Deal of 1997 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Social Ethics -- Tobacco Regulation


Who were the key stakeholders involved, or affected by the negotiations for a tobacco deal and what were their interests. To what degree were the interests of the various stakeholders met by 1997 settlement? By the 1998 settlement?

The actual parties to the lawsuits that eventually resulted in the deal accepted in 1997 and ultimately settled in 1998 were the major American tobacco manufacturers, such as the American Tobacco Company, Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds, Brown & Williamson, Liggett & Meyers, the Tobacco Institute, among others, and the states attorneys general of several states, including Arkansas, Maryland, and Virginia.

Since the individual state law suits were settled at the federal level, it now applies to the interests of all 50 states and to all their citizens. The settlement called for initial payments totaling $200 billion to the states with subsequent payments totaling another

168 billion paid out more gradually over 25 years. Critics point out that the settlement fell short of what is necessary to address the magnitude of harm caused by tobacco smoking in society. According to them, its provisions are still too permissive with respect to its limits on the authority of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate nicotine as a drug and also with respect to allowing certain advertising mechanisms for the tobacco industry that would have been prohibited under earlier versions of an agreement that was not passed by Congress earlier (NYT 1997).

2. Should the FDA regulate tobacco? What are the key arguments for and against involvement of the FDA in restricting or banning the sale or promotion of tobacco products?

Testimony and other evidence discovered in connection with the tobacco suits that precipitated the 1997 settlement established that nicotine content of cigarettes is precisely controlled and adjusted for the purpose of inducing addiction rather than for taste" as previously maintained by tobacco industry executives in congressional hearings (Lehrer 1998). Tobacco companies regulate nicotine by growing specific strains of high- nicotine tobacco in foreign countries secured by patents granted in those countries, for large-scale importation for sale in the United States; they also artificially manipulate nicotine content in other ways, such as by reintroducing nicotine into tobacco plant by- products processed into cheaper tobacco (FPO 2007). They also secured patents for the process of combining ammonia and tobacco, because ammonia alters the chemical composition of tobacco smoke to make it more addictive in a manner similar to the role of ammonia in producing freebase cocaine smoke (STIC 1998).

The only argument against FDA regulation is that nicotine is not intended to treat health condition or disease, but by virtue of the way nicotine is used to alter human behavior with respect to nicotine consumption, tobacco products should be regulated by the FDA. This is especially true in light of the massive and uncontroverted evidence of the magnitude of medical harm and financial cost to society of treating the known health consequences… [read more]

Should Drug Addiction Be Considered a Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,066 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7



The objective of this work is to state an argument as to whether drug-addiction should be considered a disease. For the purpose of this work, it will be argued that drug addiction should be considered a disease.

The work of Alan I. Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse - National Institute of Health states that it is all too common that the individual who first experiments with addictive drugs such as cocaine with the intention of trying it only once "enjoys the drug's euphoric effect so much that in ensuing weeks and months he uses it again - and again. But in due time, he decides he really should quit. He knows that despite the incomparable short-term high he gets from using cocaine, the long-term consequences of its use are perilous. So he vows to stop using it. His brain, however, has a different agenda. It now demands cocaine." (Leshner, 2007) No matter how the individual tries at this point, many are unable to resist using the drug again and they use the drug beyond their own control in a compulsive and addictive manner.


According to the National Institute for Drug Addiction (NIDA), many factors are involved in drug addiction. Drug addiction "shares many features with other chronic illnesses, including a tendency to run in families (heritability), and an onset and course that is influenced by environmental conditions and behavior, and the ability to respond to appropriate treatment, which may include long-term lifestyle modification." (NIDA, 2007) the following chart illustrates the factors associated with drug addiction.

Factors Associated with Drug Addiction

Source: NIDA (2007)


Alan I Leshner writes in a 2001 article entitled; "Drug Addition: A Brain Disease" that: "For many years, curbing illegal drug use has become one of the most contentious and complicated public-policy issues in this country. Everyone has an opinion. One side insists that we must control supply, the other that we must reduce demand. People see addiction as either a crime, a disease, or a failure of will. None of this bumper-sticker analysis moves us forward." (Leshner, 2001) Leshner relates that the 'brain-based view of addiction' has been the source of much controversy "in part because some people wrongly think that it somehow absolves addicts of responsibility for their own behavior." (2001) the reason for this controversy is because it is a generally held belief that "biological and behavioral explanations are alternative or competing ways to understand this phenomena, when in fact they are integrated and inseparable parts of the picture." (Leshner, 2001) for those who have this brain disease, it cannot be said that they are "simply victims of their own genetics and brain chemistry" because while some people are predisposed to be more susceptible to addiction "genes do not doom one to become an addict." (Leshner, 2001) This is because drug addiction begins "with the voluntary behavior of drug use." (Leshner, 2001) Furthermore,… [read more]

Drug Testing in the Workplace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Drug Free Workplace

In Favor of a Drug-Free Workplace

Implementing and enforcing drug testing programs in the workplace is overdue and has the potential to save literally billions of dollars in lost productivity, healthcare costs, and pilferage, all contributing to workplace violence and loss. The bottom line is that if a company had choose which products it produces or which… [read more]

Juvenile Drug Abusers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Juvenile Drug Abusers

Juvenile drug abuse is a continued problem in the United States despite pervasive education programs geared towards prevention. As Mutale (2003) notes, "the widespread use of illicit drugs and its association with physical and psychological morbidity, mortality and social disabilities has made substance misuse among young people a significant public health problem" (p. 3). For this reason,… [read more]

Drug Use Term Paper

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Drug Use

Legalize This!: The Case for Decriminalizing Drugs

Legalize This!: The Case for Decriminalizing Drugs is not a book that advocates drug use. However it does advocate a serious national policy debate upon the worth of criminalizing drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and even heroin. Although drug use is not a positive personal choice, regulating drug use has never been an effective deterrent, as exemplified in the failure of Prohibition. Prohibition did nothing but strengthen organized crime, and the same thing is being accomplished by making recreational drug use illegal. Husak's provocative text answers the many unspoken questions that lurk in the minds of adolescents forced to suffer through anti-drug lectures in health class.

Does this mean that author Douglas Husak wishes to see drugs sold in stores, right next to liquor bottles? No -- Husak advocates the decriminalization of drugs, in other words, he does not think that substantial government resources should be diverted to seeking out recreational users, and punishing them through incarceration. The prison population of the United States is being increasingly dominated by such users. Because "Punishment is the most powerful weapon available to the state... we must always be vigilant to ensure that it is not inflicted without adequate justification. The entire thrust of this book is that this weapon is invoked without good reason against recreational drug users," given that many experimenters go on to lead productive lives, contrary to the stereotype that one puff of a marijuana cigarette results in a spiral later of drug use (122).

80 to 90 million Americans have used illegal drugs at some point in their lives, and roughly 15 million do so every month. It is impossible to catch everyone, and the ways in which the state attempts to apprehend offenders is to enact laws which apply to everyone, yet enforce those laws more vigorously in minority communities, which creates disrespect for the law because of the inevitable racial profiling which occurs (92). Most drug users do not commit crimes -- no more than most people who drink alcohol commit crimes. In the case of alcohol, becoming impaired or even abusing alcohol is not illegal. Only when people act recklessly and get behind…… [read more]

Drug Abuse Term Paper

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Drug Abuse and Prostitution

Researchers have known for a long time that drug abuse and prostitution frequently go hand in hand (Medrano, Hatch, Zule & Desmond, 2003; Yacoubian, Urbach, Larsen, Johnson & Peters, 2000; Young, Boyd, & Hubbell, 2000; Potterat, Rothenberg, Darrow, & Phillips-Plummer, 1998; Kerr, 1988, and Goldstein, 1988). For its failure to address the problem effectively, the cost… [read more]

Effects of Alcohol Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cause and Effect of Alcohol Abuse on Mind and Body

Alcohol is everywhere in today's society. People stop by for a
drink, drink to get drunk, college students binge drink, and for many
people it is a disease and an addiction. But alcohol has lasting
consequences on one's mind and the body, and these consequences are
overwhelmingly bad. Alcohol damages the brain, the body, and one's mind to
the point that someone can be addicted. The causes of alcohol damage are
often medical certainties, and the extended abuse of alcohol can lead to
further psychological problems.
Alcohol has an effect on the central nervous system with a ride range
of side effects, many of which are deleterious to health. Different
factors influence the extent and level of alcohol intake and effect, but
regardless, alcohol abuse can and will result in health issues of many
The causes of alcohol abuse are often the result simply of drinking
too much. The recommended dosages for drinks a day are very small, any
anymore will result in negative consequences for health. Furthermore,
there is the risk that "people who drink frequently or in large quantities
can become addicted to alcohol," which means that drinking more than the
very small recommended daily amount likely will lead to addiction and
ultimately abuse (BUPA 2006). The early symptoms of alcohol abuse are
those that include a difficulty controlling ones drinking, a growing
tolerance to alcohol, and when alcohol begins to impact other areas of life
(BUPA 2006). Furthermore, alcoholism can also be genetic. In general, the
many symptoms of alcohol abuse can cause harm to the body and mind. One
may turn to alcohol for relief or help from a certain problem or bad
situation in his or her life, but the short and long term consequences and
effects of alcohol on the body are very harmful.
The initial consequences of alcohol abuse may even seem good to the
drinker. A loss of inhibitions and ignoring social constraints may seem
cool. But this lack of disrespect of social norms, and legal implications
will ultimately lead to negative consequences. Unconsciousness, death,
coma, and excessive vomiting are one result of binge alcohol abuse. Thus
the original euphoria and good feeling will result in a loss of
coordination and blurred vision and then consequences far worse. This
means the original benefits of alcohol are lost after excessive consumption
and the resulting is alcohol abuse which has only harmful effects on the
body and mind.
Alcohol abuse, then means, first and foremost consequences towards
the body, and these consequences are only beneficial in moderation.
Alcohol abuse does not imply moderation, so thus alcohol abuse causes a
wide range of short and long term health problems for the individual. The
short term effects of alcohol abuse include dehydration and a loss of short
term memory and poor coordination. Often people who drink too much become
hung-over and that includes many flue like symptoms that are painful and
which only time can… [read more]

Effects of Alcohol Use on the Fetus Term Paper

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome was first discussed by Jones and Smith in 1973 as a pattern of abnormalities often seen in children born to mother's who consumed alcohol during pregnancy (Jones and Smith, 1973, p. 1000). The authors noted that while most mothers are careful about their actions during pregnancy, particularly in the first few months, those who chose to… [read more]

Drug Related Crime Term Paper

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Drug-Related Crime

Many people who have never been involved with or exposed to illicit drug use or distribution, probably glamorize the term drug-related crime to mean the movie like violence that occurs under the auspices of organized crime, such as that seen in popular organized crime television and movies. ("Organized Crime") Yet, it is clear that this is not really… [read more]

Drug Testing Term Paper

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Drug testing without the consent of pregnant women [...] this question in the moral terms of utilitarian considerations, including who will be helped and who hurt over the long-term, and the matters of rights for all involved. In March 2001, the nation's Supreme Court ruled that drug tests of non-consenting pregnant women could not be taken against their… [read more]

Legalization of Drugs Term Paper

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Legalization of Drugs

Ever since the 1960s when college students began to smoke marijuana, the issue of illegal drugs has been debated. Some people claim, for example, that marijuana -- which has no potential for addiction -- would never have been made illegal, if organized crime had not needed something illegal to "push" after prohibition was repealed. It would certainly seem that the controversy has gone on long enough and that most everything about it has already been said. If not legalized, illegal drugs should at least be de-criminalized.

In "Four Points about Drug Decriminalization," Douglas Husak points out that many people, while they are against drugs, do not want to see drug users punished or imprisoned. He is in favor of decriminalization, which he defines as something like prohibition was during the 1920s when "production and sale [of alcohol] were banned, but not the use or mere possession of alcohol" (Husak 22). I certainly agree that users should not be punished, and his idea of decriminalization would be a step in the right direction, but I would go a stop further. Illegal drug production should be controlled rather than prohibited. Our current drug laws are unenforceable; indeed, the drug war is enormously expensive and an ineffective way to deal with drug abuse.

Husak argues that no good reasons exist for making drug use a crime. He makes three points in this regard. First, he concedes that treating drug use as a crime probably does not violate any basic human right (although civil libertarians might disagree). Second, he is trying to prove a negative, that is, that there are no good reasons for making it a crime. If someone gave reasons for criminalization, he could make a better case refuting them, but his task, to prove no good reasons exist, is much more difficult. Finally, he states that his assumptions about justice are minimal: no one should be punished except for a good reason. In this, he defines what he means by justice. But the first two points seem to function rhetorically more like an apology, or a warning that his arguments may not seem dramatic or particularly persuasive. And, in fact, although I agree with his premise, I do not find his essay very interesting. He tends to belabor.

For example, Husak points out that there are no books that make a plausible case for punishing drug users and begins his argument with a legal discussion. Laws that prohibit drug use are nearly always tested in Court for legitimacy by applying the rational basis test; that is, does the state have a conceivable, legitimate purpose for restricting a non-fundamental liberty? The state's legitimate purpose does not have to be compelling, only rational. Thus, a person who breaks a drug law "can be punished simply because the state has a rational basis to do so." The author points out, "It is one thing to enact non-criminal laws that pass the rational basis test. But it is quite another when criminal… [read more]

Alcohol Consumption Actually Depresses the Central Nervous Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alcohol consumption actually depresses the central nervous system, and although it is not a stimulant, individuals who drink alcohol appear stimulated, as speech become free and animated and social inhibitions become lax (Dunlap). However, the occurrence of these effects are due to the fact that alcohol affects the parts of the brain that control judgment, thus the "stimulation" that occurs with alcohol consumption is basically due to a depression of self-control (Dunlap). Depending on what type of alcohol, how much and how quickly an individual consumes the drink, alcohol slows down brain activity, resulting in slurred speech, slowed reaction time, impaired vision and hearing, impaired thinking and memory, and muscle weakness (Dunlap).

Although alcohol is classified as a food, it is not digested but rather enters directly into the blood stream. Because alcohol dilutes itself in the water volume of the body, vital organs, such as the brain, that contain large amounts of water and need a substantial blood supply, are left especially vulnerable (Dunlap). Within minutes of entering the bloodstream, literally every organ and tissue system, including the brain, liver, heart, lungs, pancreas and kidneys, are infiltrated by alcohol (Dunlap).

There are numerous processes of body chemistry and metabolism that are associated with the liver's functions. For example, the liver produces bile which aides in the digestion of fatty foods, and stores and releases sugar. It also manufactures heparin, an anticoagulant, and produces antibodies that deter diseases (Dunlap). The liver is also responsible for ridding the body of poisons, including alcohol, and although it is very effective in cleansing the body of alcohol in small amounts, when the alcohol content is high, imbalances occur that can lead to hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, fatty liver, and hyperlipermia (Dunlap). Hypoglycemia causes low blood sugar, hyperuricemia leads to arthritis and gout, a fatty liver can cause hepatitis and cirrhosis, and hyperlipermia leads to the build-up of fats in the bloodstream which can ultimately lead to certain heart conditions (Dunlap).

The central nervous system consists of the spinal cord, including the nerves within, and the brain. As Dr. Michaele Dunlap explains, sensory impulses are sent to the central nervous system and motor impulses pass from it, yet when alcohol reacts on the central nervous system, intoxication occurs, which affects emotional and sensory function, judgment, memory, learning ability, and dulls smell and taste sensors (Dunlap). Moreover, as the blood alcohol level rises, the ability to withstand pain increases. Because alcohol affects different parts of the brain at different rates, an individual may experience alternate periods of restlessness and stupor (Dunlap). Long-term effects include tolerance, dependency and irreversible damage to the central nervous system (Dunlap). The most affected organ is the brain, which is subject to alcohol injuries such as memory loss, confusion, and augmentation (hyper-alertness), all of which can result in rapid mood swings, and emotional and behavioral instability (Dunlap).

Alcohol causes red blood cells to clump together resulting in oxygen starvation to tissues and cell death in the brain, which leads to red eyes, capillaries… [read more]

Pharmaceutical Drug Abuse Term Paper

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Prescription Drug Abuse on-Campus and Off Introduction

Drug abuse has long been a major concern of policymakers, educators, and healthcare officials in the United States. The subject of innumerable media stories and government and medical reports, as well as many anecdotal accounts, drug abuse has typically meant the misuse, or recreational use, of illegal drugs. These illegal drugs include… [read more]

Drug Intervention Term Paper

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Drug Intervention

Annoted Bibliography

Anglin, M.D., Farabee, D., Huang, D., Yih-ing, H. (2004). "Recidivism among an early cohort of California's propostion 36 offenders." Criminology & Public Policy, 3(3), 563-584. California societal voters approved the Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act (SACPA) in November 2000. SACPA or "Proposition 36" (as it is often referred to), gives adults drug abusers who have been convicted of non-violent drug possession the opportunity to choose treatment over incarceration. This study was a follow-up to the program and concluded that crime had been reduced marginally since the SACPA was put into effect. However, SACPA clients remained more likely to be rearrested for a drug crime even after controlling for the interaction between drug use severity and treatment modality.

Cartwright, W.S. (2000). "Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment services: review of the literature." The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 3(1) 11-26. The question this study sought to find out about was the value of the economical expense involved in the treatment of drug abusers. The report demonstrates scientific merit with its study of expense vs. benefits. Studies researched included articles obtained from scientific literature as well as eight government reports. Four categories of expense vs. benefits were researched. The benefits were found to exceed costs in eighteen studies. This was also true in studies that had not included all the benefits. The studies accentuated the economical savings in discussions of the effectiveness of addiction treatment, the benefits from the treatment and the expense of the treatment. It was found overall that treating drug abusers contributed positively to economic returns.

Cuellar, a.E., McReynolds, L.S., Wasserman, G.A. (2006). "Analysis and Management."

Journal of Policy 25(1), 197-214. The increase of mental disordered youth offenders has become a serious social problem. The researchers in this study discuss a new policy that has been instated which allows youth offenders to seek treatment instead of being prosecuted, fined and/or incarcerated. Public opinion at this time reflects a belief that there is a correlation between mental disorders and crime. The increase of treatment diversion programs may be aligned with this belief. The implementation and effect of a diversion program in Texas was evaluated. The findings of this important study was that treating youths was very effective in impeding or preventing offenders from committing crimes completely.

Day, a., Howells, K., Heseltine, K., Casey, S. (2003). "Alcohol use and negative affect in the offense cycle." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 13(1) 45-58. Alcohol use has been thought to be strongly associated with criminal behavior, though this correlation and the foundation of it, has not been thoroughly researched to gain a better understanding. This study attempts to review the current studies concerning alcohol and criminal behavior. It draws some conclusions concerning the role of the addiction in offender rehabilitation. The report proposes that there are negative states of inebriation that are important to understand in order to properly conceive the offense cycle and treat abusers.

Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., & Swain-Campbell, N. (2002). "Cannabis use and… [read more]

Cons of Drug Testing in Schools Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … negative aspects of drug testing in schools. The Supreme Court has upheld drug testing in schools as legal and permissible, especially among school athletes. However, there are many negative aspects of drug testing in schools, some of which are the actual accuracy of the tests, the competence of the individuals administering the tests, and the actual integrity of the samples. In addition, drug testing in the schools sends the wrong message to American youth. It teaches them to be duplicitous and deceptive, rather than forthright and honest, and it teaches them their rights can be violated, or at least manipulated, even under the Forth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which dictates against unlawful search and seizure except in times of war or distress. Drug testing in schools falls under neither of these categories, and that may be the most negative aspect of the process for American youth.

Two relatively recent Supreme Court decisions relate to the constitutionality of drug testing in public schools. They are the Vernonia School District v. Acton ruled on in 1995, and the Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls ruled on in 2002. These are references as Vernonia and Earls hereafter (Yacoubian, 2003). One ruling determined schools may drug test participants in school athletic programs (Vernonia), and the other determined schools may test participants in any school extracurricular activities, too (Earls). Thus, schools may test students who give up their free time for school activities, such as band members, cheerleaders, club members, and honor society members. The legal aspects are still being challenged, and their constitutionality, while upheld by the courts, is still questionable to many people.

One of the arguments against testing was the way urine samples were obtained from students, and if this was overly intrusive. In both cases, the court ruled it was not, and, "that the method of the collection caused, at worst, a negligible intrusion. Moreover, a positive test had no criminal justice implications" (Yacoubian, 2003). Therein lays one of the main negative aspects of drug testing in the schools. If the drug testing does not lead to criminal proceedings for illegal drugs, then what is the main point of the testing? If students test positive more than once, most school districts will deny them access to their extracurricular activities, and this is the only result of the testing. Many schools deem the testing a "safety" issue, and note they are responsible for the safety of the participants, even in after school activities. The implication is that a student using illicit drugs might cause harm to other students, and the school district would be libel. It seems that situations like this could occur, but the likelihood of their occurrence is extremely low, and does not warrant the infringement of rights that occurs when drug testing takes place. Another testing expert, Bob Shoop, a professor of educational administration at Kansas State University, says, "Courts have ruled that drug tests are a search.… [read more]

Danger Signals of Drug Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Studies shave shown that "Addiction and high-risk sexual behavior have been linked across a wide range of settings." (Hsu J.H.) An example of this is women who use crack cocaine are more likely to engage in unprotected sex in exchange for money or drugs.

Furthermore, the use of drugs will most often have a detrimental effect on the health and the ability of the body's autoimmune system to fight diseases and infections. This therefore will make the drug user more prone to diseases like AIDS.

3. If the so-called "war on drugs" is an inappropriate countermeasure to current drug problems, what other approaches do you think would be more significant in reducing the problem of alcohol and other drugs?

While legal and law enforcement measures are important in combating the influx and abuse of illegal drugs, yet this is only part of the solution. Statistical studies show clearly that'Even though two-thirds of the federal drug control budget goes for law enforcement and interdiction, the flow of illicit drugs into the United States remains high. "(Combating Drug abuse)

Therefore the war on drugs should also be waged in conjunction with an educative process in order to awaken people to the health and other risks associated with substance abuse. Possibly more funds should be diverted to public advertising campaigns to increase awareness of the dangers of drug abuse.

4. Explain three different ways of classifying psychoactive drugs.

Two of the most common ways of classifying drugs are according to the legal status of the drug and secondly according to the effect that the drug has on the human nervous system. A third classificatory procedure is according to the chemical composition and behavior of the particular drug.

In the first system of classification the drugs are classified and categorized in relation to the legal assessments. This means that drugs may be classified in terms of their legal availability; for example, according to whether a certain drug requires a doctor's prescription. Secondly, drugs are most often classified according to their effects on the user. For example, certain drugs may have a hallucinatory effect, while others may cause depression to even stimulate aggressive reactions.

A third classificatory process is according to chemical composition and usage. This is an alternative system that has been suggested as it avoids pejorative statements and does not make any legal or social judgments about he drug's usage. This type of classification is more useful to medical and pathology studies. .


Combating Drug abuse. September 15, 2005. http://www.gdcada.org/statistics/combating.htm

Hsu J.H. The Hopkins HIV Report. September 15, 2005. http://www.hopkins-aids.edu/publications/report/july02_5.html… [read more]

Drug Control Prevention Is Better Term Paper

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All it needs is awareness of the parents about the prevalence of drug use among children and the dangers it poses to their health and future life.

A more exact estimate of the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse is given in a 2004 report released by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) The report titled "Alcohol and Drug Services Study Cost Study," found that the average cost for treatment of alcohol or drug abuse in outpatient facilities was an estimated $1,433 per course of treatment in 2002. The report also states that non-hospital residential treatment for alcohol or drug abuse cost $3,840 per admission and outpatient methadone treatment cost $7,415 per admission in 2002. ("Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Cost Study, 2004") Based on the number of patients treated for substance abuse in 1997, the Study estimates the total treatment costs of residential, outpatient (Methadone) and outpatient (non-Methadone) as $2.736 billion, $967 million and $3.083 billion respectively.

If we take into account the notoriously high recidivism rate among drug abusers, the real cost of drug treatment becomes even higher.

The cost of drug and alcohol abuse to the society is no doubt, staggering. Prevention and treatment of drug use are both aimed at a common objective: controlling drug abuse. Of the two, drug treatment is far more expensive due to the reasons discussed above.


"Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Cost Study." (2004). The DASIS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k4/costs/costs.htm

'NIDA InfoFacts: Costs to Society." (2005) National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/costs.html

Keen, Judy. "Bush Plans Hit on Drug Abuse" (2002). USA Today. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://www.usatoday.com/educate/ondcp/lessons/Activity5.pdf

The 1992 cost estimate had increased 50% over the cost estimate from 1985; hence the current economic cost due to drug abuse must be much higher.

The "prevention costs" does not include the much more expensive "interdiction cost," i.e., the cost of programs designed to stop drugs from entering the United States: such budgeted cost for 2003 was $2.3…… [read more]

America's War at Home Term Paper

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S. government needs to either increase the accuracy of their estimates, or increase their honesty regarding such accuracy.

In my opinion, the above-mentioned article serves to highlight the hypocrisy of the American government in relation to its "war" on any general concept such as drugs or indeed terrorism. This hypocrisy, as seen above, has increased since the 1920's to such… [read more]

Drug Addiction and Homeostasis Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


When the effects of the drug wear off, the body gradually returns to a state of homeostasis. However, with overuse of cocaine, a state of homeostasis is not reached. According to David Allen Deans, "people who are predisposed to drug addiction, or who have an addictive personality, are in a content state of homeostatic imbalance before being exposed to drugs." The drugs serve a medicinal purpose in the case of the addict because they create the homeostasis that should exist without the drug. The reason why withdrawal from cocaine can be traumatic is that without the drug, the individual experiences mood swings and imbalances. It may take days, weeks, or months for the body to return to homeostasis without the aid of the substance.

Works Cited

'The Biological Mechanisms of Addiction." Addiction. Spark Notes Health Study Guides. Online at < http://www.sparknotes.com/health/addiction/section4.rhtml>.

Deans, David Allen. "Drug Addiction." California State University, Northridge. 1997. Online at < http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/drugs.htm>.… [read more]

Alcohol Mankind Has Endured Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Reckless people, inclusive of those suffering from ADHD, do not appear to be capable of performing this very well compared to others. (Cognitive neuroscience takes on alcohol)

The linkages between antisocial behavior during adolescence and alcoholism might be explicated by defects in the frontal limbic system that seems to result in dull emotional reactivity. Scientific findings indicate that some behavioral patterns displayed by kids and adolescents having conduct problems-like persistent impulsive aggressive behavior, absence of obedience to rule of the society, and so on -- might be a pointer for fundamental difficulties in emotional reactivity and associated damage in frontal limbic procedures. This basic dysfunction in the main processes catering to the emotional reactivity, noted as poor self-control, weakened decision making, and poor behavioral coordination, might partly explicate the reason behind children having conduct problems are particularly recumbent to substance-abuse problems. (Alcohol's Damaging Effects on Adolescent Brain Function)

Laboratory- based research seems to have corroborated that alcohol intoxication results in heightened insistent and aggressive behavior. For instance, a number of researchers have used the Taylor Aggression Paradigm wherein the subjects compete on a response time task opposite an imaginary rival. Outcomes of countless studies applying this paradigm have exhibited that people who take alcohol as a part of the test were found to be increasingly aggressive compared to those who refrained from consumption of alcoholic beverages. Identical outcomes have been revealed in experimental studies employing other measures of aggression. Several meta-analytic appraisals of these laboratory studies have come to the decision that alcohol contributes a causal role in the expression of violent behavior. Detractors of these studies have doubted their ecological justification. Particularly it has been debated that the archetype paradigms employed to know about the aggression, like the example stated above, do not give a sufficient depiction of violence since they address with the circumstances of vengeance. Moreover, violent revenge in these circumstances has been approved by a legal authority -- the experimenter. Ultimately, it has been observed that these experiments do not give any different answer other than violence. (Alcohol Use and Violent Behavior among Youth: Results from a Longitudinal Study)

To conclude, the impact of alcohol on behavior and its influences on the brain are considerably more varied and intricate, and outcomes of experiments have established uncertain and erratic. There are inconclusive results for many studies conducted and many more studies are further required involving the impact of alcohol on brain and human behavior. Hence there is a need to study the effects of alcohol on brain and behavioral outcomes in greater detail.


"Alcohol Abuse" Retrieved from http://cms.psychologytoday.com/conditions/alcohol.html Accessed on 18 May, 2005

"Alcohol's Damaging Effects on Adolescent Brain Function" (22 February, 2005) Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/02/050218130524.htm Accessed on 18 May, 2005

"Alcohol's Damaging effects on the Brain" (October, 2003) Alcohol Alert. No: 63. Retrieved from http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm Accessed on 18 May, 2005

"Alcohol - Effects on the Body." Retrieved from http://www.gurney.co.uk/drinksense/factsheets/effects.htm Accessed on 18 May, 2005

"Cognitive neuroscience takes on alcohol." (15… [read more]

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