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Big Lebowski Drugs Essay

… The Dude is also shown drinking beer on one other distinct occasion as he is both drinking and driving and smoking up and driving while attempting to allude a mysterious blue Volkswagen Beetle that has been following him. However, The Dude's drink of choice is a white Russian. He is shown drinking the cocktail soon after he wakes up, at Maude's studio when he first meets her and later when she asks him to come over, on his limo ride home from Maude's studio, at the bowling alley, and after having sex with Maude. The Dude is also shown drinking a white Russian at Jackie Treehorn's house, which has been laced with an unknown hallucinogenic drug that almost immediately knocks him out. While marijuana is not shown to have any hallucinogenic effect on The Dude, the unknown substance in the white Russian leads him to have a surreal dream in which he is a character in a Jackie Treehorn produced film called Gutterballs that combines his love of bowling with his infatuation of Maude.

The Dude is also shown smoking marijuana on at least five different occasions. The first time The Dude is shown smoking a joint is when he is called to a meeting by Mr. Lebowski who wants The Dude to help him deliver a ransom for his allegedly kidnapped wife, Bunny. The Dude is also shown smoking marijuana while taking a soak in the tub before he is attacked by the German nihilists, after he has sex with Maude, and right before he is picked up/kidnapped by Jackie Treehorn's goons. There are two scenes in which drugs or drug paraphernalia are shown but The Dude is not smoking. The first is when The Dude is making a police report after his car is stolen; in this scene there is drug paraphernalia on the coffee table between him and the police officers and possibly on a side table. The second scene in which drugs are shown but not used is when he accidentally slams down a joint he keeps in his pocket on the diner counter when he is slamming down coins to pay for his coffee before he storms out.

While drugs do not necessarily influence the narrative, they do help to make The Dude a more sympathetic character. He is attacked, harassed, and taken advantage of for no other reason other than the fact he shares his name with a broke millionaire who will do anything for money. It is interesting see how social stigma regarding drug use is not echoed in films like The Big Lebowski. While society continuously argues the negative effects of marijuana consumption, drug films rarely, if ever, depict the negative effects of the drug. Contrarily, marijuana forces characters out of their comfort zone and makes them participate in new adventures while simultaneously demonstrating how they develop as individuals.… [read more]


Drug Use and Abuse Research Paper

… The participants averaged 32 years of age and 59% were male; males were more likely to use alcohol, heroin, cocaine, crack cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana and hallucinogens than females; moreover, males reported using alcohol, marijuana and hallucinogens at "…a significantly younger… [read more]


Michael Lauren Who Is Struggling Case Study

… Heart, liver and brains are the most effective body organs by drinking alcohol. Alcohol even deprives and robs away the essential vitamins and minerals from the body that are imperative for proper cell functioning.

The people addicted to alcohol also demonstrate the symptoms that include distressing way of walking, shivering hands, blind headaches, and hallucinations. Blurred visions, drowsiness, irritated emotional state and nausea are also few of the widespread effects of drinking alcohol. Other long-term effects observed amongst people drinking alcohol in heavy quantity are lesser desire for food, stomach illness and diseases, memory loss and damage to nervous system.

People, who are in the transition phase of Marijuana withdrawal, they are likely to exhibit symptoms such as depression, craving, change in appetite, weight loss, anger, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, sleep disruptions, dreaming, insomnia and aches. These symptoms are noticed amongst the people in few days only after quitting the intake of marijuana.

However, overdose of Marijuana has adverse impacts that can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of self-identification, hallucinations, paranoia, severe breathing problem, high blood pressure, and reduced motor and reasoning skills. Nevertheless, the harsh and far-reaching impact of marijuana overdose may cause in brain hemorrhage, heart attack, strokes, even failure of the respiratory system of the people and elevates the probability of lung cancer.

Alcohol intake to a disproportionate level typically causes fatal damage to the entire body in terms of permanent brain damage due to loss of brain tissues, intellectual impairment, irregular breathing patterns, damaged immune system, heart diseases, coma, hypertension, liver damage and cancer.

The withdrawal symptoms amongst the people vary from the severity of the drinking habits of the people. However, the widespread and frequent symptoms noticed amongst the withdrawals of alcohol take account of agitation, anxiety, irritability, emotional instability, depression, sweating, nausea, panic attacks, dreaming, confusion, weakness, insomnia and various others.

Primary prevention technique is one of the effective methods that can be practiced where the young people should be the key focal groups who are not involved in such addictions. Appropriate education and coaching regarding the impact of these drugs on their lives, body, nervous system, emotions and social relationships would be a driving force to keep these youngsters away from such addictions.

Secondary prevention program is another way to cater and aim at those people that have already experienced the intake of drugs but they are not under its adverse consequences. Through targeting these people, the program intends to prevent these people from making them involved in more perilous substances.

Selective Prevention is another technique that can aim at the group of population that are on the high-risk and has been much involved in the intake of illicit drugs. These young people can be classified from a number of aspects such as poor performance in school, unusual behaviors at home and various others.

A variety of treatment modality for marijuana is present that can be used; however, the treatment modality recommended for Michele would be rehabilitation centre, because of its revitalizing environment that… [read more]


Health Science Term Paper

… Those running DARE program must have taken the war on drugs/zero tolerance frame into consideration and that is why they charged the law enforcement agencies with the primary responsibility of addressing illicit drug use. This made the DARE program to… [read more]


Alcoholism Research Paper

… Alcoholism

Alcohol has long been known as an enormous social problem and health problem, and according to statistical data, there are more than 12 million alcoholics in the United States. Alcohol is the number one drug problem in the U.S.… [read more]


Drug Abuse the Findings Article Review

… Financial Despair

Addiction has a huge impact on the finance of a person. Based on the addict drug of choice, the financial ramification may turn to be radical and overwhelming, especial when one is addicted to some types of drugs like cocaine. Stocks plus the saving tend to vanish as time goes and it continues to any other liquid assets or disposable income as these items are sold in a bid to finance the heavy purchase of drugs. The outcome is that bills will not be paid, daily expenses will be stressful. Losing their jobs is inevitable as this sign and symptoms will be seen openly, (eHow Contributor, 2012).

Health Decline

When this addiction goes on for along time, it will be accompanied by health issues. Since sleep cycle of the addict will be disrupted, it leads to weaker immune system, paving way for respiration viruses, (Rahul Pandita 2012). Failures of oral hygiene results to gum disease, tooth decay and even periodontal disease. Finally, it may cause shutting down of vital organs and possibly death.

Isolation

Being addicted makes an individual to be always in life of lies and cover-ups. They will at all times try to convince their loved ones that drug addiction does not exist, and establishes self-centered world. When the family as well as friends do not accept the drug addiction, their world remains to be on them as individual and the only friend becomes his drugs.

Resources available

Nar-Anon

This is opened to every person who happened to suffer through drug addiction. Usually it is a support group meant for family members as well as friends of the addict, applying a12-step program for assisting members with this desperation plus assisting the addicts into recovery. They offer free meetings and they have their online information.

Families Anonymous

It is meant for providing support for the family members and friends who are hurt by the actions from the addicted persons. They have established meetings in most of the places around the world. They as well provide online meetings for the people who cannot get access to their places of meetings. When in the meeting they share stories about their experiences with the addicts learning ways of helping and handling their addicted family members or friends. These members work together in helping their members at difficult times as they use a 12-step method, (Adam Johnson, 2012).

Co-dependents Anonymous

This helps members to develop a healthy relationship with one another. The group tries to assist in identifying patterns of co-dependency and come up with a solution to establishing a better support structures in relationships. Not only to the addicts, unhealthy co-dependent relationships is capable of encouraging individuals to begin or maintain other addiction as a means of coping with their relationships.

Conclusion

More initiatives should be put in place to help families and the drug abusers so that the families can know more about ways of handling the drug abusers and even the drug abusers can receive help, since they… [read more]


Drug Profile Drug Addiction Research Paper

… Hallucinogens alter mood and perception, and include such drugs as LSD, ecstasy, ketamine, and PCP. The most commonly used form of cannabis is marijuana, and can induce a sense of well-being and relaxation (Joseph, 2005). Advances in drug development have increased the availability of prescription medications. The prevalence of prescription drugs with addictive potential has consequently increased the probability for users to misuse these substances. Each drug class represents a variety of drugs that can cause psychological dependence, if not physical dependence, which ultimately instigates drug addiction.

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.

Joseph, D.U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. (2005). Drugs of abuse. Retrieved from website: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/abuse/doa-p.pdf

U.S. Department of health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2006). Prescription medications: Misuse, abuse, dependence, and addiction. Substance Abuse Treatment Advisory, 5(2), 1-4. Retrieved from: http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/advisory/pdfs/prescription-meds.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2007). Drugs, brains, and behavior, the science of addiction (NIH Pub No. 07-5605).… [read more]


War on Drugs Term Paper

… Hence, it was here that many researchers studied the link between terrorism and drugs management not only within the Columbian and Latin American region but also in the United States (The Economist, 2001).

According to study conducted by Falcoff in 2000, in 1998 the Columbian government had huge profit margins from drug trafficking with figures reaching up to U.S.$236 million resulting from kidnapping, U.S.$311 million resulting from extortion and nearly U.S.$551 million resulting from drug links (Falcoff, 2000). The FARC organization alone earned huge percentages that year: 6% resulting from cattle rustling, % resulting from kidnapping, 36% resulting from extortion and 48% resulting from drug sources (Suarez, 2000). This percentage breakdown shows why more and more people are easily recruited by the drug agencies; they can easily pay their employees 2 to 10% more than any government organization within the region. This was again proven by the Falcoff study where he presented stats that showed an increase of employees from 7,000 in 1995 to nearly 20,000 by the end of the year 2000 (Falcoff, 2000). Similarly, other organizations like the AUC saw an increase in the number of employees from 4,500 in 1995 to nearly 8,000 by the end of 2001 (The Economist, 2001). This shows that the overall potential of drug traffickinking making profits through the manipulation of the vulnerable Americans can lead to disastrous financial breakthroughs which could cripple the entire economy and results in an economic hand-over to the third party terrorist groups, industrialists and drug traffickers in the region.

Another important aspect of the war on drugs is it link to taxes that are levied and that motivate the penetration of drug traffickers. Laqueur, in his research, explains that the main reason for the terrorists being funded by the drug traffickers is because they don't want to pay the heavy government taxes and fees that are offered for the safe trade of crops and other accessories. Furthermore, the constant monitoring and examinations by the government does not allow the free flow of illegal drugs. Hence, the terrorists borrowed the idea of taxes for protection in order to suitably and regularly fund their terrorist activities (Laqueur, 1999).

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is thus important that the war on drugs continue on a much more aggressive scale and that they following questions be tackled when focusing on the patterns of war on drugs in the future: what patterns lead to strong drug-terrorism links? What leadership patterns can be determined from the drug-terrorism links formed over the years? How can this be countered? What changes in policies are required to restrict the drug trafficking within the region? What motivational factors other than finance can be provided to the masses to divert them from finding employment within the drug trafficking industry? What structures need to be put in place to create long-term stability and peace within regions after drug-terrorism links have been reduced? What form of taxes and fees need to revised and/or new ones to be levied on the… [read more]


Tobacco Term Paper

… In fact, British American Tobacco Australia has approximated that more than 57,500 full-time jobs were created by the demand for tobacco products in Australia (PricewaterhouseCoopers). This increase in employment is certainly substantial, especially in times of high worldwide unemployment rates. An industry capable of such considerable augmentation to unemployment rates is one that will be seldom overlooked by governments.

Moreover, governments will also have a hard time overlooking the proliferation of revenues generated by tobacco companies. Retail sales of cigarettes and tobacco products comprise a hefty percentage of total sales in many countries (including Australia). For instance, in 2006-07 tobacco sales reached more than $10.1 billion, which represents about 5% of total retail sales in Australia (Australia Bureau of Statistics). Therefore, as one can deduce, the revenues garnered by the Australian government as a result of tobacco are quite sizeable. This trend also exists in several other developed nations. Despite the real monetary gains attributable to tobacco, some who doubt the future of this industry claim that resultant healthcare expenditures negate any and all fiscal benefits accrued from tobacco production and sales. However, according to a study done by Macquarie University Professor Dr. David Collins and Queensland University Professor Dr. Helen Lapsley, the actual numbers favor the continuation of the tobacco industry:

(Collins and Lapsley 71)

The above table elucidates the financial impact of tobacco on the federal budget of Australia during the years of 2004-05. As is illustrated, the revenues generated from the tobacco industry greatly outweigh those relevant expenditures on healthcare. Consequently, despite the relatively high healthcare expenses spawned by this industry, tobacco remains a strong macroeconomic revenue generator.

Ultimately there is a great deal of controversy surrounding the tobacco industry. While the pros of sustaining this industry may be a bit more complex to elucidate than lung cancer, the cumulative economic benefits produced by big tobacco are unmistakable. With global issues like unemployment, lackluster government credit ratings, corruption, war and countless others facing the modern world, it certainly seems like the strengthening of governments and the bolstering of employment opportunities will continue to be attractive. All of the aforementioned remunerations along with the rich history of this industry and its entanglement in the function of several economies and microeconomies must all be diligently considered before any government of global organization attempts to ban these lucrative products.

Bibliography

Action on Smoking and Health. "ASH Research Report." 1 August 2007. Tobacco: Global Trends. 21 October 2011 .

Australia Bureau of Statistics. "Australian National Accounts, National Income, Expenditure and Product." 6 September 2006. Household Final Consumption HFCE Australia. 21 October 2011 .

Collins, David J. And Helen M. Lapsley. "The Costs of Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit Drug Abuse to Australian Society in 2004/05." 1 January 2008. National Drug Strategy. 21 October 2011 .

PricewaterhouseCoopers. "Sales of Cigarettes and Tobacco Products by Type of Retail Business." 7 January 2005. An Analysis of the Significance of Sales of Cigarettes and Tobacco Products to Tobacco Retailers in Australia. 21 October 2011 .

Yach,… [read more]


Biological Psychology Is Marijuana a Dangerous Drug Essay

… Biological Psychology

Activity #1

Biological psychology: Is marijuana a dangerous drug?

In the year 1970, there was a huge problem for the U.S. government -- marijuana use was on the rise. In response to the increased popularity, Congress authorized $1 million for a national commission to study marijuana (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). The National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, often simply called the Shafer Commission, was led by the former Governor of Pennsylvania -- Raymond Shafer (1997). There were 12 other members that consisted of four doctors, two lawyers, and four members of Congress (1997).

The Shafer Commission looked at the claims about marijuana's dangers dating all the way back to the 1920s, many of these same claims from the 1920s were believed in the 1970s (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). The commission, which had hired outside consultants to come in and review all the evidence, found some gaps in evidence and so Congress provided money so that new studies could be performed (1997). The commission held hearings all around the U.S. where lawyers, doctors, researchers, teachers, students, and law enforcement authorities could go and offer their own insights and opinions about marijuana -- including its effects and the laws that were against it (1997).

The Shafer Commission found no convincing evidence whatsoever that marijuana led to "crime, insanity, sexual promiscuity, an 'amotivationl' syndrome, or that marijuana was a stepping stone to other drugs" (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). There were animal studies that showed that there was no amount of marijuana that could be taken that would ever be fatal to humans (1997). It was also found that even the largest dosage of marijuana did not damage any of the body's tissues or organs (1997). There was also the evidence from one study, one of the commission's own, that showed that even after men in a lab who had unlimited access to marijuana for 21 days showed absolutely no sings of psychological or intellectual impairment after a high-dosage (1997). There were also studies funded by the U.S. government and carried out in Jamaica and Greece that found that no physical or mental problems occurred in men who had used marijuana heavily for several years (1997).

While there is the general consensus that drug use, overall, of any substance, is not good for humans, there was also the notion that smoking marijuana was akin to the harmful effects of tobacco. There was also the notion that driving after using marijuana was akin to driving drunk and that it could cause car accidents. There was also the idea that people who smoked marijuana heavily for years would become maladjusted in society (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). Yet, they reported after the studies that "marijuana related problems, which occur only in heavy, long-term users," had "been over-generalized and over-dramatized" (1997). The Shafer Commission concluded that "from what it now known about the effects of marijuana, its use…does not constitute a major threat to public health" (1997).

In the 1970s there was a race to… [read more]


Drug Legalization of Drugs Term Paper

… Drug Legalization

Legalization of drugs

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

The legalization of drugs of abuse has been an ongoing controversy in the United States for quite some time following the development of a widespread belief in the failure of… [read more]


Gore Vidal -- Drugs in a Piece Essay

… Gore Vidal -- Drugs

In a piece in the New York Times in 1970 Gore Vidal, famous political provocateur, declared in no uncertain terms that, to stop drug addition in the United States, the government should "simply make all drugs available and sell them at cost." Vidal makes no distinction between drugs here -- marijuana, cocaine and heroin are all up for grabs in his free market drug economy. After all, he has tried "almost every drug and liked none," without becoming an addict; why shouldn't the rest of us have the same opportunity? Making all drugs legal, he argues, will "stop most drug addiction…within a very short time." Vidal also makes searing accusations against the government; not only that the war on drugs is a dismal failure on the scale of prohibition in the 1920s, but that the government itself is responsible for some addicts' deaths. I cannot be sure how Vidal's argument read in 1970, before the twin scourges of crack cocaine and meth entered the drug scene, but in the current context of drug addition, his argument rings hollow and comes off as the whining of a petulant teenager rebelling against his parents' house rules. As policy, Vidal's ideas would wreak havoc on the criminal justice system, increase bureaucracy and have a negligible effect on the number of addicts or the nature of their addictions.

Vidal seems to lack a basic understanding of how drug addiction truly works. His assertion, first, that he has tried most drugs and has never become an addict is a great anecdote, but it cannot possibly speak for everyone who tries drugs. After all, everyone who is a currently an addict had to try a drug for the first time. No one plans on becoming an addict, Mr. Vidal. Vidal also argues that the way to keep people from becoming addicts is to simply educate them about the dangers of the drugs, which would require "heroic honesty" on the part of the government, which would presumably manage the entire system. I wonder how Mr. Vidal would explain cigarette addiction. Warning labels first appeared on tobacco products in 1965, five years before Vidal's article appeared. In the years since, the warning have become more severe, basically saying, "Cigarettes kill. Don't smoke them." And yet, smoking rates over the past decade have not declined and smokers make up about 20% of the adult population (Number). Vidal argues that "it seems most unlikely that any reasonable sane person will become a drug addict if he knows in advance what addiction is going to be like." This argument makes absolutely no sense. Who among us does now know what the consequences of smoking are? We've all seen the X-rays of healthy lungs and smoker's lungs side-by-side. Many of us personally know people who have succumbed to the terrible, slow, ugly death of lung disease. And yet people start smoking, many of them in their teens, illegally. As I said before, no one plans on becoming an… [read more]


Alcohol and Drugs Among Elderly Research Proposal

… Black Studies: Social Issues

Alcohol And Drugs Among Elderly

The focus of this work in writing is to examine alcohol and drug use among elderly individuals and specifically in regards to historical information, demographics, culture, strengths weaknesses, current issues and… [read more]


Employees Suffering From Drug and Alcohol Abuse Policy Thesis

… Human Resources

Employees Suffering from Drug and Alcohol Abuse Policy

Drug and alcohol abuse is not a new problem in our society. During various times throughout history there have been movements to address substance abuse and its effects. The issue of drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace has traditionally been met by a dismissive attitude. It has often been reacted to by trying to sweep the problem under the carpet, based more on moral precepts than a concern for the health issues involved. Yet, drug and alcohol abuse is coming to be much more widely understood as being harmful to both companies and workers (Drug and alcohol abuse - an important workplace issue, 2009).

A company's policy should be to employ a workforce that is free from the use of illegal drugs and abuse of alcohol. Any employee that is determined to be in violation of this policy would be subject to disciplinary action, which may include termination. In order to maintain the standard of a drug free workplace companies are employing several different polices. An employee that reports to work visibly impaired and unable to perform their job functions are not allowed to work. If after meeting with the employee the supervisor determines that their indeed is substance abuse, the employee is sent home (Klingner and O'Neil, 1991).

Companies are implementing and maintaining Employee Assistance Programs which provide help to employees and their families who suffer from alcohol or drug abuse. Through this program the companies are providing appropriate assessment, referral to treatment, and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse. Employees are often granted leave with a conditional return to work depending on the success of their treatment program. A condition of their return is often that they must be willing to submit to random drug tests (Klingner and O'Neil, 1991).

Random drug screens for current employees are put into place to identify employees who use illegal drugs or alcohol, either one or off the job. Companies are making it a condition of employment to submit…… [read more]


Drug Use "House Passes Drug Safety Legislation Essay

… Drug Use

"House Passes Drug Safety Legislation" (http://www.texpirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/house-passes-drug-safety-legislation)

According to a press release posted on TexPRIG, a web site that focuses on the problems of powerful interests, the federal house passed an important bill in 2007, which greatly affected the… [read more]


Drug Abuse and Multidimensional Family Therapy Research Proposal

… Drug Abuse and Multidimensional Family Therapy: Literature Review Only

Review of the Relevant Literature

By any measure, substance abuse represents a serious problem in the United States today among adolescents and adults alike, but younger people in particular can experience… [read more]


Drug Abuse Has Reached an Alarming Level Essay

… Drug abuse has reached an alarming level in the present, with substances on nearly every street corner available to buy for virtually anyone. For several decades, the U.S. authorities have launched a war to fight drugs and so far it has stopped large amounts of substances from reaching the open market. However, in spite of the efforts being done to bring drug traffic to an end, the business is still working strong all over the country.

During the first half of the 20th century, substance abuse had not been disturbing when considering the amounts of drugs being trafficked and consumed in the world. People from the time had also been unaware of the effects of most drugs because of the fact that substances were being sold and consumed in small quantities.

The second half of the 20th century came with a boom in the productions of illegal substances. The numbers of people abusing them had also experienced a remarkable growth. The drug trafficking business had also advanced, and now millions of people had got involved. The traffickers now had acquired the money to bribe police officers and get away with mostly anything.

To this day, the drug war has not proved to be effective because the quantity of drugs being brought illegally into the U.S. has experienced a constant growth. Apparently, the billions of dollars involved in combating the production, sale and consumption of drugs have been spent inefficiently.

The bottom line is that it requires an abnormal effort to fight drugs efficiently. As long as drug traffickers will be named "lords, barons," and such impressive names, some people will be charmed and attracted by the advantages that drugs bring. In order for the drug wars to be effective, the funds intended for them should be spent on special programs destined to prove the destructive effects the substances have. Presently, authorities use most of the money intended to fight drugs for means that involve violence.

The Criminal Justice System has changed with the emergence of drug wars. From the early 80s and until now, the number of inmates has experienced a steady increase as drug-related criminals were coming in larger packs.

The first notable funds intended for drug wars have been given during the Nixon administration, as $65 million had been spent in 1969. Nixon's successors continued to give large sums of public money for the fight against drugs. The Reagan administration provided the war with $1.6 billion, while the Clinton administration gave away $17.1 billion for the combat against drugs. (Gonsalves, Sean 2000)

The total of 581,000 arrests in 1980 nearly tripled to a record high of 1,584,000 by 1997 and continues close to that level with 1,532,300 in 1999. In 1999, four of five (80.5%) drug arrests were for possession and one of five (19.5%) for sales. Overall, 40.5% of drug arrests were for marijuana offenses. (the Sentencing Project)

Drug wars have proved to be successful when concerning the number of people arrested. However, the number of people… [read more]


Drugs and Crime Term Paper

… Criminal Justice - Drugs & Crime

DRUGS and CRIME

The illicit use of narcotics generates a tremendous amount of crime in the United States, ranging from petty street crimes to serious trafficking and violence, including murder associated with the illegal black market. In this respect, there is a link between drug use and crime; however, in other respects, this association is deceiving because it results more from the effect of restrictive anti-drug legislation rather than to anything directly attributable to drug use in and of itself.

The Relationship Between Drugs and Serious Crime and the Lesson of Prohibition:

From 1920 until 1933, alcohol sales and consumption were prohibited throughout the United States by federal law. To meet the continuing desire of the public for alcohol, numerous criminal enterprises emerged to provide alcohol in illegal speakeasies in conjunction with rampant political corruption in the form of payoffs from criminals to politicians willing to overlook their profiting from this vice. By 1933, public resistance to adhere to legal prohibitions restricting alcohol and so exceeded the reasonable capacity of law enforcement to enforce that the federal restriction was repealed relegating the issue to state legislation instead.

The illegal trade in alcohol proved so profitable that it financed the largest criminal syndicate in the history of the country, which eventually grew to wield profound influence throughout many major metropolitan areas including New York and Chicago in particular. By the 1970's a significant percentage of all construction expenses incurred in connection with major infrastructure construction and other industries like commercial waste transport and interstate trucking were largely controlled by the…… [read more]


Drugs and Society Term Paper

… Drugs and Society

Our society consistently holds a delicate and complicated relationship between it's members and the drugs which they use. Many are quick to allocate drug problems with those who use illicit drugs; however, our society is completely immersed in legal drug use. Therefore, a hypocritical double standard represents the nature of drug use and abuse in the United States. Since the first of the major four pharmaceutical revolutions appeared in the pages of history, our society has held a very complex love hate relationship with the drugs which both help and destroy us.

Most people were very reluctant to put their trust in pharmacology until the introduction of vaccines by revolutionaries such as Louis Pasteur. These new drugs won over popular opinion when major diseases were all but eradicated off the face of the earth. Diseases such as small pox and polio were diminished, and so came the first major wave of reliance on drugs by the public. The next revolution only solidified the need for drugs within the average citizen. Antibiotics offered people safety from various viruses and infections. Psychotropic drugs provided magical release from psychological issues, leaving Americans even more reliant on various drugs for their general well-being. Then oral contraceptives gave people ultimate control over what they chose their body to do or not to do. All of these drugs are favored highly, but yet any illicit drugs are seen as a plague, leaving some to question the true differences between the two.

1b. The popularity of psychotropic drugs and oral contraceptives within the 1950s and 1960s opened up a wide range of drugs to the average public who had never had been exposed to such mind altering substances. Because these drugs were prescribed by their doctors and psychiatrists, they were considered completely acceptable and necessary. Many individuals became dependent on drugs for the first time on a daily basis. People took drugs everyday for years, rather than strictly when they were sick or diseased. This allowed for the wide spread acceptance of licit drugs as a part of normal every day life.

However, this budding dependence set the stage for later drug usage as seen the social revolutions of the 1960s. The cultural misfits within the movement in the 1960s put a much different face on the use of illicit drugs. The sons and daughters of the middle class were following in their parent's footsteps with their much more common and daily drug use. However, these were not psychotropic drugs which helped calm anxiety or ease depression, these were drugs used strictly for recreational purposes. Recreational drugs use was previously set aside for lower classes and minorities in the eyes of the majority of upper class Americans. These years shocked many Americans with the use of such drug by middle class Americans for fun rather than for medical or psychological issues. This forever changed the face of the drug user and the addict. Although the stigma still haunts many poorer classes, it is no… [read more]


Illegal Drugs Term Paper

… Drama - Drugs in Society

THE EFFECTS of ILLEGAL DRUG USE and TRAFFICKING on SOCIETY

Drug use and trafficking are both extremely harmful to society, but most of those harms are either direct or indirect consequences of their illegal status. If illicit narcotics were simply controlled, regulated and taxed by the government in the same manner as tobacco products and alcohol, the problem of illegal drug trafficking would be approximately as extensive as the problem of interstate cigarette smuggling and unlicensed liquor distillation and sales, which is to say inconsequential (Brecher 1991).

Primarily as a result of their illegal status, penal institutions are unnecessarily crowded with individuals whose only moral "vice" is preferring marijuana to alcohol, organized crime maintains a lucrative drug trafficking business, and law enforcement resources are needlessly wasted battling something that, more often than not, is exclusively a private matter.

The Logical Basis of Penal Law: The most important fundamental purpose of establishing societal rules that are enforced through the State's police power to define certain types of conduct as punishable criminal matters is to provide protection to its citizens from being harmed by other citizens. Without law enforcement, the weak and intellectually unsophisticated would be at the mercy of the strong and intellectually gifted. That is a very necessary function of modern government (Coleman, Butcher & Carson 1994).

Penal law and the threat of arrest and incarceration is often the only way of ensuring that businesses do not take advantage of customers, that landlords do not terrorize tenants for higher rent at will, and probably the only reason that there are not many more drunk drivers on the road every day. Critics of criminalizing recreational drug use are not opposed to penalizing any conduct associated with drug use that presents danger to others, or any illegal circumvention of legislative requirements to comply with licensing and distribution of recreational drugs any more than they object to the same types of government regulation of liquors and food sales. They object to the illogical application of penal concepts to private drug use because it is absolutely no different from governmental regulation of private liquor consumption, smoking cigarettes at home, or eating more doughnuts than nutritionists recommend.

Unjustifiable Modern Criminal Laws:

Because recreational drugs are illegal and socially unacceptable, the majority of drug users most people come into contact with are those from the segment of the population likely to be relatively disconnected from society; respectable individuals who choose to use drugs in private usually do it secretly (Coleman, et al. 1994) so as not to damage their reputations and credibility. For just one of many examples, renowned astronomer and…… [read more]


Legalized Drugs Term Paper

… Legalized Drugs

As the DEA points out, drugs are illegal for a reason: they are harmful. When considering the debate about legalizing drugs, it is important to reconsider the role of the federal government. Most people would agree that government must control and ensure public safety and welfare; the government must protect individuals from harm without unduly infringing on their rights.

The government does not, for example, ban fast food even though it has been proven beyond a shadow of a doubt that such substances are harmful. Citizens are allowed to engage in highly risky activities like rock climbing without government interference. Prohibition of alcohol likewise was proven ineffective on this and other grounds, as Boaz points out. Alcohol causes direct deaths from poisoning and from drunk driving but the government chooses to allow its citizens to choose whether or not they want to flirt with danger in such a way. Alcohol is, however, a controlled substance. Minors are prohibited form ingesting it and no citizen is allowed to drive drunk because of the danger such an action would pose to others.

Drugs should be treated in the same fashion. After all, alcohol is a drug. Another reason why prohibition did not work was…… [read more]


Relationship Between Different Personality Types and Addiction to Drugs and Alcohol Term Paper

… Personality Type as a Predictor of Addictions

Evidence linking substance abuse, either alcohol or other substances, to an increased incidence of personality disorders. This study expands on previous studies and explores the link between happiness and depression stemming from a… [read more]


Legalization of Drugs of Abuse: Pros and Cons Term Paper

… ¶ … Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

The topic of drug legalization is one of heatedly contested debate. Both sides of the debate have reasoning that has them firmly entrenched in their beliefs. This paper will review both the pros… [read more]


Drug Usage Term Paper

… Drug Usage

The use drugs to affect conscious states dates back almost to the origins of humanity. In fact, the pollen of eight medicinal plants was found in a 60,000-year-old tomb in Iraq, and in the Assurbanipal library, researchers found… [read more]


Elderly Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

… Elderly Substance Abuse

Stereotypes of elderly people include the crotchety grandfather, the kindly grandmother or a gentle older person who tells stories of years gone by. The elderly are associated with concepts such as infirmity, illness and wisdom. Furthermore, as… [read more]


War on Drugs in 2003 Term Paper

… ¶ … War on Drugs

In 2003, the United States Federal Government spent over $19 billion dollars on the War on Drugs, a rate of approximately $600 per second, and the budget since has been increased by over a billion dollars (Drug pp). And state and local governments spent at least another $30 billion (Drug pp).

For the year 2005 arrests for law violations are expected to exceed the 1,678,192 arrests of 2003, in fact, someone is arrested every twenty minutes (Drug pp).

In the year 2002, 45.3% of the 1,538,813 total arrest for drug abuse violations were for marijuana, resulting in a total of 697,082 and of these, 613,986 were for marijuana possession alone (Drug pp). Since December 31, 1995, the United States prison population has grown an average of 43,266 inmates per year, and roughly 25% are sentence for drug law violations (Drug pp).

The Financial Action Task Force, FATF, hired Peter Reuter, a well-known economist who has done extensive work on illegal drug markets, to find the size of the world illegal drug market (Economics pp). The United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, UNDCP, opened its data bank for the research, which resulted in an estimated range between $45 and $280 billion (Economics pp). According to the United Nations, "profits in illegal drugs are so inflated that three-quarters of all drug shipments would have to be intercepted to seriously reduce the profitability of the business" (Economics pp). Currently, only 13% of heroin shipments and 28% of cocaine shipments are intercepted (Economics pp). The United Nations reports that in 2001, a kilogram of heroin in Pakistan sold for an average of $610, while in the United States it averaged $25,000 per kilogram (Economics pp). The United States Office of National Drug Control Policy claims that the cost of heroin at the retail level declined from an estimated $1, 974.49 per gram in 1981 to $361.95 per gram in 2003 (Economics pp). Moreover, the average purity of heroin in the U.S. market increased during that time as well, going from a retail level of 11% in 1981 to an average of 46% in 2003 (Economics pp).

According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the $18.822 billion spent by the federal government on the drug war in 2002 breaks down as follows:

Treatment (with Research): $3.587 Billion (19.1% of total)

Prevention (with Research): $2.548 Billion (13.5% of total)

Domestic Law Enforcement: $9.513 Billion (50.5% of total)

Interdiction: $2.074 Billion (11.0% of total)

International: $1.098 Billion (5.8% of total)

Economics pp).

In other words, 67% was directed to supply reduction, while 32.6% was directed toward demand reduction (Economics pp).

Since 1982, the total justice expenditures has more than quadrupled, from $36 billion to over $167 billion, resulting in a 366% increase, while the average annual increase for all levels of government between 1982 and 2001 was 8% (Economics pp). Local police spending represented 30% of the Nation's total justice expenditure, and State corrections accounted for the… [read more]


Suicide Drug Abuse Term Paper

… Suicide and Drug Abuse

There is a current trend to support the right to suicide or to die with dignity. This trend does not reflect popular view and I do not support the view that one has the right to… [read more]


Drugs Past and Current Substance Term Paper

… In addition to abuse of illicit substances, teens have consistently demonstrated tendencies toward the use and abuse of tobacco and alcohol products.

The use of mind-altering substances increased considerably during the 1960s, when recreational drug use became "fashionable among young, white, middle class Americans," ("Thirty Years of America's Drug War," 2000). Prior to the 1960s, American mainstream culture did not encourage or support the use of drugs; since then, drugs have been glamorized and even promoted as a tool to enhance self-image. Drugs have also been touted as a means by which to rebel against established authorities. American culture continues to support, even encourage drug use by the ways it is portrayed in the media. The government's so-called "war on drugs" has not helped prevent drug abuse. In fact, "many blame the war on drugs for a host of societal ills, including racial profiling, violation of privacy and civil liberties and a burgeoning prison population," ("The War on Drugs" 2000).

Substance abuse creates significant health problems in the United States, problems that have political, economic, and social consequences. Drug abuse can account for many deaths, from car crashes to overdoses to suicides. Drug abuse can also lead to acute or chronic health problems: smoking tobacco causes a host of diseases, and alcohol abuse leads to a wide range of health problems. Drugs that require the use of a needle can cause infectious diseases like HIV / AIDS and Hepatitis C to spread. Therefore, substance abuse in the United States is a serious public health issue, one that needs to be seriously addressed by the popular culture.

Works Cited

'High School and Youth Trends." (2004). National Institute on Drug Abuse. .

'Nationwide Trends." (2004). National Institute on Drug Abuse. .

"The War on Drugs." (2000). Salon.com. .… [read more]


Drug Legalization of Recreational Term Paper

… Upon considering the merits of the respective positions concerning the decriminalization of illicit narcotics, it appears that the views espoused by proponents of decriminalization are more consistent with the overall good of society on multiple levels.

First, it is simply irreconcilable, from a logical perspective, that cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold completely legally, while private use and the mere possession of marijuana and any other agent containing THC such as hashish are severely penalized in many states. Opponents of decriminalization believe that government owes a duty of paternalistic protection of its citizens, but critics point out that even the most well motivated paternalistic laws must reflect a consistency in their application and effect (Taylor, 1982). Meanwhile, cigarettes account for more deaths in this country than all drugs, alcoholism, violent crime and vehicular accidents, combined (Brecher, 1972).

Second, alcohol abuse so closely parallels the effects of drug abuse that it is equally unjustifiable to permit alcohol sale and consumption to account for tremendous corporate revenue while criminalizing private use of narcotics altogether. Naturally, even under a liberal analysis, personal rights and freedoms end wherever they conflict with the well being and safety of others. Accordingly, proponents of repealing drug laws suggest that laws addressing the criminal operation of motor vehicles and dangerous equipment while under the influence of alcohol should be the extent of penal control of narcotics.

Third, rather than resulting in increased criminality, legalization of private narcotics possession and use would actually decrease criminality associated with drug use, because current legislation creates criminals, by punishing otherwise lawful citizens whose only contact with the criminal justice system arises from their private, victimless crime. Furthermore, redirecting public monies currently funding the "War on Drugs" to appropriate legislation and taxation modeled after tobacco legislation would benefit society, both by generating taxes and more importantly, by dramatically lowering prices, which are currently grossly inflated by the very black market economics that it creates.

Finally, the improved quality of government-regulated narcotics would probably eliminate medical emergencies currently caused by adulterated, impure product, as well as eliminate the widespread transmission of HIV via shared needles. In this regard, modern narcotics prohibitions precisely parallel the horrible cost in lives lost to unscrupulous use of poisonous alcohols (and formaldehydes) instead of ethanol during Prohibition. Rather than learn from past mistakes, opponents of decriminalization are poised to repeat them.

References

Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, A. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age

New York: Little Brown & Co.

Goldman, B., Klatz, R. (1992) Death in the Locker Room II:Drugs & Sports

Tucson: The Body Press

Gottlieb, A. (1976) The Pleasures of Cocaine.

Manhattan Beach, CA: Twentieth Century Alchemist

Let Judges Be Judges: Mandatory Sentencing Laws Deny Judicial Branch's

Discretion; Syracuse Post-Standard. Jul 10/03

Taylor,…… [read more]


Alcohol Prohibition From 1920 Term Paper

… Drug maintenance and substitution programs can also play an important role in harm reduction efforts. Methadone maintenance programs-most of which provide counseling and other medical and social services in addition to Methadone-have proven effective in reducing heroin and other illicit… [read more]


Teens Abuse Drugs Peer Pressure Term Paper

… Believe it or not, peer pressure begins in the tender years of toddlerhood. Children look up to others to see what they should be doing or shouldn't be doing. In a way, youngsters are trained in the early years to more or less do what the adult says or does." (Today's Teen Problem) During the toddler years, it is not as apparent as it is during the teen years. "For a toddler or young child under the age of five, peer pressure can present itself in the way of a toy that a friend has that your child just has to have, too. Your child may not just want this toy because it is fun, but because she desires to be part of a group. (Witmer)

The most susceptible teens for illicit drug use are those that do not connect with their parents, school, or non-deviant peer groups. Teens pick their friends on the principle that these allies will reinforce their beliefs. Therefore, more often than not, teens share the social, economic, political and religious views of their immediate peers and those common bonds make it easier to except things -- good and bad. The need to be accepted by one's peers creates an internal pressure that all teens face. Many psychologists and medical professionals used to suggest that some personality disorder or personality type was a type to take drugs. But that is not the case, "... addiction and drug use resulted more from chance, curiosity, peer pressure, and associations than any fundamental personality disorders. There is no evidence to indicate that any personality type whatever in any part of the social hierarchy is immune to addiction, he noted." (Morgan)

In conclusion, peer pressure is not just some phase teens go through. Peer pressure is a very real entity that can be either positive or negative. This report attempted to demonstrate the reality of the thesis: Teens abuse drugs because of peer pressure. Peer pressure for this report was defined as an influence from peers or friends. Our youths today have new things to deal with that previous generations couldn't imagine and drugs are a major part of that. As shown, teens today get involved with illegal drugs in many ways but the main underlying cause is peer pressure.

Works Cited

Helping Your Teen Deal With Peer Pressure. Ed. PageWise. PageWise. 6 May 2004 http://ca.essortment.com/teenspeerspres_rkde.htm.

Horn, Wade F. "Drug Conversation an Eye-Opener for Dad." The Washington Times [Washington] December 15, 1998.

Morgan, H. Wayne. Drugs in America: A Social History, 1800-1980. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1981.

Preparing Youth for Peer Pressure. Ed. PRIMEDIA Company. PRIMEDIA Company. 6 May 2004 http://parentingteens.about.com/cs/peerpressure/?terms=positive+youth.

Today's Teen Problem. Ed. Troubled Teen Options. 2003. Troubled Teen Options. 6 May 2004 http://www.informaticaparatodos.com/girl_boarding_school.htm.

Witmer, Denise. "Negative and Positive Peer Pressure." Parenting of Adolescents 2004.

Teens and drugs… [read more]


Drug Policies Term Paper

… ..was a disease, not a crime, that harsh criminal penalties were destructive" (Major pp). Yet, the United States has the harshest drug policies in the world and as a result has the largest prison population (Facts). In 1993, over sixty… [read more]


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Term Paper

… Further, NOFAS and the NCBDDD argue emphatically that pregnant women should never drink, and women who do not use birth control should not drink. Perhaps this is understandable given NOFAS and the NCBDDD's mandates to reduce FAS in the general population.

In conclusion, FAS is a devastating, but preventable, disorder. While the Streissguth, Jacobson & Jacobson, the NCBDDD, and NOFAS provide valuable technical information on FAS, Berk's textbook gives a human side to the disease. This distinction is important, as understanding the human impact of FAS is likely to motivate women to avoid alcohol during pregnancy much more than a simple recounting of facts about FAS.

References

Berk, Laura E. 2001. Infants and Children Prenatal Through Middle Childhood, 4th ed. Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Jacobson, Joseph L. Ph.D., and Jacobson, Sandra W., Ph.D. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Child Development. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, prepared June 2003. 06 March 2004. http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh26-4/282-286.htm

National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (NOFAS). What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? 06 March 2004. http://www.nofas.org/main/what_is_FAS.htm

Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz. 1997. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities. Paul H. Brookes Pub Co.

The National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD). Fetal Alcohol Information. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Last updated Thursday, March 04, 2004. 06 March 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fas/fasask.htm… [read more]


Drugs and Children Article Review

… ¶ … 1971, American president Richard Nixon decaled war on drugs. It was assumed that via federal policing, drug trafficking could be significantly stopped in the United States within a short period of time. That war on drugs, started in… [read more]


Drugs and Kids Article Review

… Drugs and Kids

Kids and Drugs

Monitoring of the Future -- Key Findings

The primary reasons for the decrease in the thirty day prevalence and the lifetime prevalence both decreased. The reasons given are that fewer young people are trying cigarettes and there are also increasing levels of risk and disapproval among the demographics. There have been major attitudinal changes in the last decade and more youth disapprove of smoking and even state that they would not date someone who smoked.

One surprising fact presented in the overview relates to smokeless tobacco which one might reasonable expect to follow the same trajectory in usage as smoked tobacco. However, the usage rates of smokeless tobacco did not decrease the same way as smoking did. This is interesting and the changes in the environments you are allowed to smoke may have had some impact on young people's choice of tobacco products.

Marijuana

a. The usage rates of marijuana in 12th graders has seen peaks and valleys; then peaks again. The rate was over half of the 12th grade population in 1979, declined to 22% in 1992, and rose again to nearly forty percent in 2013.

b. The risk and disapproval among 12th graders have both been falling fairly steadily since the early 1990s.

3. Individuals may have certain characteristics that place them at higher risks of drug use. Psychological factors are one example of this and among these are sensation seeking behavior, low harm avoidance, and poor impulse control. Researchers are investigating if there are genetic predispositions for these types of behaviors.

4. Stern & Morr

a. The movie portrayals of substance use do not generally depict any of the negative effects that are…… [read more]


Alcohol Use in the U.S Essay

… In this regard, Seitz and Becker (2007) report that, "Epidemiologic studies have unequivocally identified chronic alcohol consumption as an important risk factor for the development of cancers of the organs and tissues of the respiratory tract and the upper digestive tract, liver, colon or rectum, and breast" (p. 38). Moreover, while the revenues generated by the alcohol industry in the United States run into the billions, there are other problems associated with alcohol use and misuse as well that offset these economic benefits. In fact, more than 100,000 Americans die each year from deaths related to alcohol consumption (Howard & Flora, 2004). The health care costs and associated lost productivity from alcohol-related deaths, injuries, and illness in the United States each year have been estimated at nearly $150 billion (Howard & Flora, 2004).

Conclusion

The research showed that the sale of beer, wine and spirits in the United States generates billions of dollars in revenues but the impact on human health exacts a high toll as well. Consumed in small quantities on a regular basis, alcohol consumption can help prevent heart disease but consumed in larger quantities, alcohol can lead to alcohol dependence and alcoholism. It is reasonable to conclude that alcohol remains the most popular drug of choice for tens of millions of Americans today and the vast majority of consumers enjoy alcoholic beverages are they are intended to be enjoyed. For some, though, alcohol is a powerful drug that can destroy lives.

References

Economic contributions of the distilled spirits industry. (2014). Distilled Spirits Council of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.discus.org/economics/.

Economic ripple effect. (2014). Beer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.beerinstitute.

org/br/economic-impact/economic-ripple-effect.

Howard, K.A. & Flora, J.A. (2004, Fall). Alcohol point-of-purchase advertising and promotions: Prevalence, content, and targeting. Contemporary Drug Problems, 31(3),

561-570.

Seitz, H.K. & Becker, P. (2007, January 1). Alcohol metabolism and cancer risk. Alcohol Research, 30(1), 38-42.

2012 wine sales in U.S. reach new record. (2013). Wine Institute. Retrieved from http://www.

wineinstitute.org/resources/pressroom/04082013.

U.S. drinks the lowest amount of alcohol in the developed world. (2011, February 17). The…… [read more]


Inhalants and Deviant Behaviors Research Paper

… Because of the wide ranging and heavy consequences of inhalant use and related stigmas, researchers from the interactionist tradition formulated a range of policy alternatives that would result to the reduction of social death that accompanies the formal penalization and labeling of substance users. Reintegrating shaming programs and restoration of justice. These programs seek to reduce the long lasting implications caused by stigma. Labeling theorists believe the harshness of the formal reaction to deviance would lead to the reduction of the lasting impacts of stigma on deviant offenders. Consistent implementation of this idea would lead to the elimination of compulsory minimums for felony disenfranchisement, drug offenses, and three-strike felony laws (Dick & Bierut, 2006).

In conclusion, we see that inhalants are the ordinary household products that are sniffed or inhaled by individuals so as to get high. They include gasoline, hair spray, fabric protector, air conditioner fluid, nail polish remover, and correction fluid, propellants in aerosol, cleaning fluids and cooking spray. These products are mainly bagged, sniffed, snorted so as one to get high. They cause a number of long-term and short-term effects such as muscle weakness, weight loss, inattentiveness, irritability, depression, disorientation, and lack of coordination. Sometimes they can cause death it is thus advisable that one avoid taking inhalants without the prescriptions from doctors.

References

Dick, DM & Bierut, LJ (2006). "The Genetics of Alcohol Dependency." Current Psychiatric Reports 8 (2): 151 -- 7

Ksir, Oakley Ray; Charles (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th Ed.). Boston

[u.a.]: McGraw-Hil

Morse, RM & Flavin, DK (August 26, 1992). "The definition of alcoholism, The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism." The Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (8): 1012 -- 4

Peele, S. (1989, 1995), Diseasing of America: How we allowed recovery zealots and the treatment industry to convince us we are out of control. Lexington, MA/San Francisco: Lexington Books/Jossey-Bass

Hanson, G.R,…… [read more]


Criminalisation, Legalization and the Mixed Essay

… Symbolic politics as mentioned by Himmelstein, may help in dissecting society's perception of marijuana and perhaps offer a way to alter said perception. "As with the other two concepts, "symbolic politics" may prove useful in understanding drug ideology as well as drug controls" (Himmelstein, 1983, p. 18).

Furthermore, looking into politics and policy, one of the main reasons the United States had and continues to have such a difficult time with legalization of marijuana is because of the personal interests and agendas of politicians. Bulman-Pozen writes:

State officials often further their interests and effectively oppose federal policy when they participate in the same statutory scheme as federal actors instead of operating in a separate, autonomous sphere. At the same time, state officials frequently rely on the autonomous lawmaking and executive powers of state governments to advance a decidedly national agenda, acting in cooperation with federal officials rather than independently of them (Bulman-Pozen, 2013, p. 1).

Politicians to some extent want to further their careers and their political power going either with or against the desires of the public and the government in order to gain popularity or favor. In reality if enough politicians viewed marijuana legalization as a benefit to their career, more and more people within the government would push for policy reform. Everything connects in the sense that society's image, along with the personal pursuits of politicians, and the actions of the government, all work together to either promote or criminalize something.

In reality marijuana is about or less deadly than cigarettes and alcohol. Hall and Lynskey explain: "Research on adolescent drug use over the past quarter century in the U.S.A. has consistently found that alcohol and tobacco are used before cannabis, which in turn, is used before hallucinogens and 'pills', and heroin and cocaine" (HALL & LYNSKEY, 2005, p. 39). Therefore the logic that "marijuana use" leads to addictive behavior becomes null in the sense that tobacco and alcohol use could do the same, yet are still legal. In order for drug policy to change, it must be changed through society. Society must alter its perceptions of marijuana for all the other pieces to fall in place. Marihuana itself is not a necessarily harmful substance. It is something that grows in nature and has been used throughout the world to treat a number of ailments. Even with medicinal use of marijuana growing in the U.S., its image is still tainted. Brought on by the demonization of the 1960's an image makeover might be the only thing that could truly make marihuana a legal substance throughout the country.

References

Bulman-Pozen, J. (2013). Unbundling Federalism: Colorado's Legalization of Marijuana and Federalism's Many Forms. University of Colorado Law Review, 85(4), 1-14. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2366388

Fraser, S., & Moore, D. (2011). Cannabis in cultural and legal limbo: Criminalisation, legalisation and the mixed blessing of medicalization in the U.S.A. In The drug effect: Health, crime, and society (pp. 171-184). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

HALL, W.D., & LYNSKEY, M. (2005). Is cannabis a… [read more]


Prescription Drug Abuse Term Paper

… Measures that have been undertaken thus far are the aforementioned laws banning not having a drug in the bottle it was issued in, making giving out of drugs a felony and so forth. Other drugs, including many over-the-counter drugs are… [read more]


Alcohol Abuse Essay

… Alcohol Abuse

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2013), the numbers of deaths in the United States alone per year resulting from alcohol, including deaths classified as accidents and homicides, is 25,692. An additional 15,990 people die from alcohol-related liver diseases per year (CDC, 2013). The numbers do not include alcohol-related injuries, such as those that were incurred by one of the passengers that Nicole Baukas hit after consuming 17 shots and four beers over the course of five hours. After her binge at a Spring, Texas bar called On the Rox, Baukus remarkably drove her car and ended up driving on the wrong side of a highway and colliding with a vehicle containing three people. Two of those people are dead: Trauvis Saunders and Nicole Adams.

The crash occurred in June of 2012, and Baukus was sentenced to 38 years in prison in August of 2013. She pleaded guilty to two counts of intoxication manslaughter, and one count of intoxication assault. The sentencing was logically broken down into two successive fifteen-year sentences for the manslaughter charges and one eight-year sentence for the assault (Abrahams, 2013). Baukus has reportedly appealed the sentence on the grounds that it is "cruel and unusual," but some sources say that the maximum sentence was legally set at 50 years (Williams, 2013).

Media sources vary in their coverage of the case. Some emphasize the victims and their families; others focus on Baukus; and others yet present a balanced approach to the trial and the issues it raises. There seems to be a general consensus that Baukus should be punished severely for what she did, given that she killed two innocent people. However, many Americans feel that the law should extend responsibility beyond Baukus herself. Already On the Rox has had to pay one million dollars, all of which goes to the state rather than the victims (Abrams, 2013).

It appears the Nicole Baukus case has gotten completely out of hand recently, with the state attorney's office deciding to prosecute James Duran, a patron at the bar that Baukus was drinking at the night she killed two teenagers. Duran is being charged under a provision in the Texas Alcohol and Beverage Act, which is being invoked simply because Duran happened to have bought a few of Baukus's dozen-plus drinks (Abramson, 2013).

No bar patron can be held accountable for the actions of another patron. To press charges against Duran opens a legal can of worms, suggesting that innocent bystanders are responsible for the actions of others. It is sufficient to charge Baukus, and to extend culpability to irresponsible bartenders and managers. Charging Nicole Baukus with manslaughter is understandable and appropriate. Furthermore, the On the Rox bar managers do share some responsibility for not being more aware of the health of their clients. However, Duran had absolutely no responsibility for Baukus. Charging him would be like charging the liquor company for selling drinks. A more sensible approach to alcohol abuse in the United… [read more]


Anti-Drug Campaign for Teens Term Paper

… Scrutinizing the verbal strategies

In February of 2002, the director of ONDP Walters designed a task force to focus on the weaker links of the campaign and the causes which made it weak in outlook. The group identified some major changes in the campaign strategy. Now the target was the slightly older group of teens between age bracket of 14 to 16 who drastically went over to the dark side marijuana offered. Teens were not targeted this time. The ads were supposedly made more cut throat and competitive. Previously, not all ads were tested and proven before airing on national television. Now all these ads were to be given the green signal before airing on national television. The standards were now more cutthroat and competitive. Also, ONDP would be involved in the ad development process (Eddy, 2003).

Another sizeable change came with the Westat's evaluation in May 2002. Now it was focusing on eliminating the gate drug marijuana as it led to higher forms of drugs. In a hearing Walters said that "It is futile to make effort in reducing the drug abuse as long as the gate drug marijuana isn't stopped as it's the basic drug leading to higher forms of drugs. Marijuana was the drug of choice for youth and its widespread usage is worrisome" (U.S. Congress, 2002).

Then a series of controversial began screening at the Super Bowl of 2002 when drug users were portrayed as the supporters of terrorism. They were blamed to be providing blood money. The ads took severe national and public heat as they were cited as false and accusatory. The ads were termed as misleading and failed as an attempt to curb drug use. The critics think along the lines that drug laws instigate drug purchase and that alone can fund the acts of terrorism. The drug users are innocent on all counts. Huge illegal profits are amassed for terrorist acts. The ads were also subjected to controversy as the drug users comprised of teenage population who didn't fall under the mass drug use bracket and couldn't account for drug revenues for terrorist acts. The ONDP stopped airing these ads due to friction between PDFA and ONDP. PDFA deemed the ads as way off the mark and accusatory. The ads came to a close in May 2003 (Teinowitz, 2003).

The ONDP Chief of Staff Chris Marston revealed two more changes in March 2003 at a trail in House Committee on Government Reform. Sixty percent of the ads are targeted towards the adults who mentor children and adolescents. The remaining 40% were for the adolescents themselves. From July 2003, the ratio will be turned around. Moreover, Marston believed that next move would be to introduce treatment of drugs in the campaign advertisements. A focus will be made on early intervention. The idea here is to reach out to the youth who embarks on a permanent road to drug usage (Eddy, 2003).

Amassing together the cumulative effort according to Marston, the campaign has turned… [read more]


OTC and Prescription Drugs Curbing Essay

… But when taken to extreme, they can over-stimulate the nervous system. Sleep aids are another group of OTC drugs, which are often mis-used. When taken in extreme, they can lead to narcolepsy, a neurological disorder, characterized by strongly disrupted sleep. Users abruptly fall asleep at dangerous times, such as when driving, climbing the stairs or performing risky tasks (Saar).

Dependence or Addiction

Addiction is a condition of dependence on something for one's normal functioning

(Salmon 2008). It creates a mental state, which later creates physical dependence. In that state, the person relies on the substance for relief to the condition. It develops into an addiction when the drug tolerance reaches a high level. Addiction to prescribed drugs can happen without overdosing. One can become addicted or dependent on any drug according to his perception of addiction or dependence. It is addiction or dependence to rely or become inclined towards any substance or thing in order to function or survive. In such a case, the problem lies in the personality and not on the substance or thing (Salmon).

Drug addiction is the result of the nature of the drug, the personality make-up of the user and the circumstances attending to the abuse (Salmon 2013). It is primarily brought about by the personality weakness of the person. Most often, his emotional response to some personal setback or peer pressure opens him to dependence or addiction to mind-quieting drugs. It is not the drugs themselves that lead to it. Tranquilizers, heroin and alcohol are the major addictives when taken in heavy doses and frequently. Moreover, dependence and addiction are two different things. Dependence occurs when one stops using the substance. It is a tolerance problem. Addiction, on the other hand, means deliberately using the drug, a chronic problem symptom (Salmon).

FDA Regulation of OTC Drugs

The criteria for drug manufacturers to follow are safety, effectiveness, dosage and cost (Terzo 2013). The FDA approved around 270 active ingredients, which manufacturers can use to synthesize their drug products. They can still be purchased without a doctor's prescription. And they remain more affordable than prescription drugs. Buyers can now be confident that they can purchase OTC without need for a doctor's prescription but with the FDA's guarantee that these drugs are safe and effective (Terzo).

Conclusion

Anti-drug abuse campaigns have created the awareness on the fatal consequences of addiction and dependence on dangerous drugs. Narcotics are on top of the list of major addictives and this is why they are strictly regulated by special prescription by a qualified medical doctor. But not only prescription drugs but also non-prescription drugs can produce addiction or dependence. Not only do some OTC drugs contain addictive ingredients. Users with weak personality make-ups are also especially prone to the influence of either prescription or non-prescription drugs. All drugs are at least potentially habit-forming or addictive. Aware of this situation, the Food and Drug Administration set up certain criteria for drug manufacturers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alta Mira. An Overview of Highly Addictive Drugs. Alta… [read more]


Health Care Policy Bill Formulation Term Paper

… Health Care Policy Bill Formulation

What the legislation will target

The talking points

Bill writing

Policy to monitor and regulate drug abuse and trafficking

Legislative action

Health Care Policy Bill Formulation: substance abuse

The issue of substance abuse is a… [read more]


Drug Use Crime Essay

… Legalizing drug use would only cost societies long-term prosperity and therefore it should not be legalized.

According to the bureau of justice statistics, drugs are related to crime in multiple ways. Most directly, it is a crime to use, possess, manufacture, or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse. Cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines are examples of drugs classified that have a large amount of abuse (Seabrooks, 2012). Drugs are also related to crime through the effects they have on the user's behavior and by generating violence and other illegal activity in connection with drug trafficking. This is the primary reason drugs should not be legalized as the violence may be reduced but the behaviors corresponding to drug use will increase (Summary, 2012). Below is a chart depicting drug use and crime in visual form.

Some substances aren't meant for human consumption, yet their ability to alter consciousness has made them into attractive sources of intoxication for those looking for a high. Inhalants such as glue or aerosols have been abused to this end, with disastrous consequences. Most abused drugs have some affect on the cardiovascular system, according to the National Institutes on Drug Abuse (Seabrooks, 2012). Drugs can increase heart rate and cause heart attacks. Cocaine is known to cause heart arrhythmias and deaths from cardiac arrest. Tobacco is a legal drug that is known to cause the blood vessels to constrict, leading to high blood pressure and hardening of the arteries (Walter, 1979. Drugs that are injected intravenously can damage the blood vessels, causing veins to collapse. Dirty needles and contaminated drugs can introduce bacteria into the bloodstream that damage the heart valves. Certain drugs have demonstrated the ability to cause brain damage in users. Inhalants, for instance, have been shown to damage areas of the brain that control cognition, movement, vision and hearing. These substances, which include solvents and aerosol sprays, may provoke varying degrees of destruction to the brain tissue, resulting in cognitive abnormalities ranging from mild impairment to severe, permanent dementia (Glasscote, 1932). When it comes to brain damage, legal drugs are not safe either. Chronic alcohol abuse can cause a syndrome known as "wet brain," or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. A thiamine deficiency linked to alcoholism causes brain cell death and alters brain structure. If caught early enough, wet brain may be partially remedied through thiamine supplementation, according to the Choose Help website. The liver is faced with the task of removing the drugs from the body. As a result of chronic drug use, the liver can become damaged and diseased . Alcoholism is a known… [read more]


Drugs and Pregnancy the Habit Research Paper

… Even though policy-makers advocate punitive as well as coercive measures having reasons of protecting the fetus, this approach has failed in obtaining such results. Having fear of being punished, women might fail to seek prenatal care. Also even if they are jailed, some may be still in a position to get the drugs on top of being denied medical care or prenatal care at the time of pregnancies, hence counterproductive if compared to the rehabilitative approach.

Narrow perspective on just use of drug during prenatal as the main fetus source of harm has also been noted to divert attention from the rest of the well-known and hypothesized causes of fetal harm, some of which go with illicit use of drug. Risk factors and influences, for example smoking, lack of prenatal care, socioeconomic status and environmental conditions, are always overlooked in any case involving use of illicit drug. This renders meaningful researches on how to protect the fetuses neglected and the protection of the fetus from drugs rendered unachievable.

There is therefore preference among experts and women for a program that puts together medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term after-care for preventing relapse, and help with the concrete needs like housing and day care.

As a nurse, there is then the need to shift my approach to the fetus protection bearing in mind the various lessons learnt from the session and the effects of drug on fetuses. My function as a nurse will have hence to vary as I will be a collaborator with the other nurses and medical practitioners as well as with the target population in tackling the drug abuse. To the team members, I will be a leader as I will engage in formulating the program and leading colleagues toward implementing the program. Since I will have patients that I will be responsible for, I will be their manager, directing them on what to do and the direction of their medication. I will also be an advocator within this community for the fight against drugs and use my medical background to do the same with the prime target being the pregnant women. For those who will be already in the drug abuse, I will be their clinician and give them the necessary medical attention to help them out as well as save the infants. All these cannot be possible if the community is not educated on the significance of keeping off drugs, seeking medical attention for pregnant women already using drugs and how to handle the pregnancy once on withdrawal from drug abuse, hence I will be their educator on these.

References

Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.

Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse… [read more]


Opium in China Essay

… ¶ … opium in China with that of the United States after the Civil War? Provide an analysis as to how the early problems with opiates influenced the drug problems of the 1970s worldwide.

Narcotics and drug abuse is common… [read more]


Alcohol Poisoning Essay

… Negative Effects of Alcohol Poisoning:

Alcohol poisoning is considered as a fatal condition that is caused by drinking excessive amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. However, this condition is also associated with other negative effects including & #8230;

Ineffective Functioning of the Body:

As previously mentioned, a person's blood alcohol concentration increases as he/she consumes more alcohol, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. The higher the blood alcohol concentration level, the more the severity of its effects on body functioning. One of the major negative effects of alcohol poisoning is ineffective functioning of the body because alcohol affects nerves that control the body's automatic functions or actions like breathing. Since alcohol depresses these nerves, more consumption will ultimately stop involuntary actions and functions ("Facts About Alcohol Poisoning," p.1).

Notably, a person's blood alcohol concentration can continue to rise even when he/she has passed out. Moreover, alcohol in the intestine and stomach continues to get into the bloodstream and circulate in the entire body even after the individual stops drinking. Therefore, it is extremely dangerous to assume that such an individual will be fine through sleeping off the drunkenness.

While it is normal for a person who drank excessive alcohol to vomit because the drink is an irritant to the stomach, a victim of alcohol poisoning faces the danger of choking on vomit. This could contribute to death by asphyxiation for an unconscious patient because of the resultant intoxication.

Dependence of Alcohol:

Alcohol poisoning is likely to contribute to alcohol dependence because of addiction to the drink. Since alcohol poisoning affects involuntary actions of the body, the individual is likely to become dependent on alcohol to an extent that he/she experiences withdrawal symptoms when trying to stop the habit. The dependence on alcohol may make the person unable to function effectively without taking some amount of alcohol.

Negative Health Effects:

As a life-threatening consequence of binge drinking, alcohol poisoning can lead to severe health effects on the patient or victim. Some of these negative health effects include low blood pressure, drop in body temperature, double or blurred vision, reduced blood sugar concentration, impaired judgment, inadequate muscular coordination, and coma ("Why is Binge Drinking Bad for You?" par, 7).

When alcohol poisoning occurs frequently for an extended period of time, it is likely to contribute to some long-term negative effects such as diseases in the digestive system, heart problem, kidney damage, brain damage, liver disease, skeletal muscle damage, psychological problems, and sexual and hormonal dysfunction. The other effects of this condition include child developmental problems and high risk of accidents and injuries.

In conclusion, alcohol poisoning is a condition attributed to various factors including binge drinking and excessive drinking. This condition has severe health effects on a person, particularly on mental and physical functioning of the body. This implies that an individual with this condition should seek proper medical attention to avoid severe impacts.

Works Cited:

"Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms." MD-Health.com - Better Health Information from Doctors. MD-Health.com, n.d. Web.… [read more]


Prescription Drug Oxycontin Term Paper

… Prescription Drug Abuse: OxyContin

Drug abuse continues to be one of the most negative elements of our modern society. Some of the most commonly abused drugs include but they are not limited to cocaine, marijuana, and heroin. It is however… [read more]


Substance Abuse Upon a Fetus Research Paper

… (Curet et al., 2002)

Drug abuse during pregnancy is completely avoidable. The damage that is done to the fetus during pregnancy as a result of drug abuse is again, completely avoidable. When women become pregnant unexpectedly, they still have power… [read more]


Legalization of Marijuana Essay

… By denying sick people the right to legally use beneficial medicine, more moral and ethical harm is being done. The legalization of marijuana will allow millions of individuals to live pain-free and stress-free lives.

Many other drugs on the market right now are plenty more harmful than marijuana. To begin with pot is considered a much safer drug than alcohol. There have been no documented deaths attributing cause solely to marijuana. About 37,000 people die annually as a direct result of alcohol poisoning -- not including those individuals that die because of driving drunk or as a result of another person driving drunk (YES on 64). There is no case of marijuana overdose ever recorded. Alcohol causes more damage to the body than marijuana ever has. Liver damage, brain tissue loss, and cancer have all been linked to chronic alcohol usage, while marijuana has been cited as being beneficial to all of the previously mentioned ailments (Ferner). Alcohol is remarkably more addictive for people than pot is (Ferner). Aside from the dangers associated with alcohol, another legal substance that causes a lot more damage is tobacco. Tobacco usage is associated with decreased lung capacity and function, while marijuana has shown no negative effects on this front (Robesonian.com). In the Netherlands, 75% of all marijuana users do not even touch other drugs, including cigarettes and alcohol because pot can be legally used; this has attributed to the overall healthier state of the Dutch, compared to the health risks that Americans constantly deal with (ABC 20/20).

In all, marijuana should be a legalized substance. There are plenty more benefits to enacting government regulations than there are in banning it all together. The economic benefits associated with legalizing pot can save the country from its current financial state. More resources can be given to areas that need it most, and less money can be spent on a war on drugs that has clearly already malfunctioned. The health benefits associated with marijuana use overrides any possible detriments cited. By reducing the number of people who are sick, health costs can also be reduced, further adding to the economic power of this substance. Lastly, substances such as alcohol and tobacco that have clear health risks are considered legal; marijuana has been proven to be safer and is even able to alleviate some of the damage caused by some of these legal substances. The legalization of marijuana will be the only next logical step.

References:

ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Robesonian.com. "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30… [read more]


Jacob's Ladder the Insider the Lost Weekend Reaction Paper

… Drug Culture in Lost Weekend, Jacob's Ladder, And The Insider

Drug culture in film can be represented in a multitude of ways. Among the films that have been watched during the course of the semester, the Lost Weekend (1945), Jacob's Ladder (1990), and the Insider (1999) provide different aspects of how drug culture is depicted in film. The Lost Weekend focuses on the debilitating effects of addiction, Jacob's Ladder focuses on drug testing and development, and the Insider focuses on the drug industry.

The Lost Weekend is a film that highlights the dangers of alcohol as well as drug addiction. Directed by Billy Wilder, the film stars Ray Milland as Don Birnam, an aspiring writer who is heavily addicted to alcohol, so much so that his "need" for the drink interferes with his life and destroys his relationships with others. The Lost Weekend aims to bring attention to the dangers of addiction. Believing that Don is a recovering alcoholic, Wick -- Don's brother -- and Don's girlfriend -- Helen St. James -- are helping Don to pack for a weekend getaway. Unbeknownst to them, Don has not given up drinking, and in fact, his predilection for alcohol causes him to not only miss the train he is supposed to take, but also contributes to his delinquent behavior, which includes attempting to steal money from a woman's purse, and other acts of desperation such as attempting to pawn his typewriter and trading Helen's expensive fur coat for a gun. The film brings attention to the power that drugs, in this alcohol, can have over an individual and the difficulty they may encounter when trying to rehabilitate themselves. Furthermore, Don's thoughts about committing suicide are also representative of the hopelessness and loneliness that drug addicts may feel. In a way, the Lost Weekend serves as a public service announcement because it not only depicts the devastating effects of drug addiction, but it also shows how an individual's drug addiction also affects those around them.

Jacob's Ladder, directed by Adrian Lyne, drug culture…… [read more]


Drug Culture Interviews Interview

… Layla is a 17-year-old senior in high school. She is very active in sports being a member of the track team and the basketball team. She is so competent basketball that she has been offered a minor scholarship to college to play basketball. Her grades in school are well above average as she has been on the honor roll throughout high school.

Me: Layla, what does the term "drug culture" signify for you?

Layla: Well, that term reminds me of some of the things my parents talk about. When they were younger there were lots of people doing different types of drugs like marijuana, LSD, and other drugs. The first thing I think of is some of the things my parents talk about like people being stoned and having hallucinations and all of that old -- time hippie stuff.

Me: Do you relate the term drug culture or the use of drugs to anyone you know?

Layla: I know some people in school but do drugs like marijuana and alcohol if you consider that a drug. I've been a few parties where people were taking Oxy (OxyContin) but I stay away from drugs.

Me: So the term "drug culture" is something that is an old term to you?

Layla: For the most part yes. I think it describes an attitude of the past when people took a lot of drugs as a means of experimentation. I really don't associate with people who do a lot of drugs and I don't see it as a drug culture. There are a lot of professional athletes that do drugs but I don't relate that term to performance-enhancing drugs.

Me: Is that of concern to you, athletes using drugs?

Layla: No, not really. I don't think it is as prevalent in my sports. I certainly don't think it should be allowed and any athlete caught using performance-enhancing drugs should be banned from competition.

Me: Do you use any drugs at all?

Layla: Outside of taking some aspirin for headache and occasional painkillers I don't do any drugs.

Me: Do you drink alcohol parties? Coffee? Is that a drug?

Layla: Well sometimes I drink a little if it's there. I don't really consider alcohol and drug I know that technically is, but I don't consider it to be one. Coffee is not a drug-lol!

Me: When you think of drug movies what you think of?

Layla: The first movies I think of are the Harold and Kumar movies -- those are pretty funny. I just saw the movie Side Effects; I guess that's a drug movie.

Melvin is a recent college graduate with a computer science degree. He currently works as a computer programmer for a hospital system.

Me: So Mel what does the term "drug culture" signify for you?

Melvin: That term describes the American culture to me to a tee. This culture is totally fueled by drugs. They are marketed to us on television and people use drugs to feel good, get going,… [read more]


Physiological and Behavior Effects on Drug Abuse Essay

… Chemical Dependency

Physiological Effects of Abused Drugs

The descriptions of the physiological effects of the most common drugs of abuse in the textbook seemed to go in order of severity, with alcohol leading the way. The main exception to this observation is marijuana, which seems to be a relatively safe drug when limited to recreational use. This cannot be said about alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, sedatives, narcotics, or inhalants, which all carry the potential for severe consequences when an individual overdoses. Somewhere in between, in terms of recreational use, are the hallucinogens, in part because LSD can cause potentially dangerous flashbacks even after only one encounter with the drug.

By comparison, long-term regular use of all these drugs can have a devastating impact on the user's health. Alcohol not only damages the brain, but many other systems within the body, especially the liver. If one system could be universally declared to be affected by all of these drugs it is the nervous system. Paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, and tolerance, which can lead to the more devastating condition of dementia, is a frequent outcome for anyone who becomes chronically dependent on alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, narcotics, inhalants, and sedatives. Psychosis, whether acute or long-term, is another common outcome for abusers of these drugs.

Gastrointestinal health and adequate nutrition are other common concerns for alcoholics and chronic users of cocaine, narcotics, amphetamines, and hallucinogens. Alcohol acts as an irritant of the gastrointestinal tract and alcoholics can develop serious problems, including ulcers and intestinal bleeding. Opiates (narcotics) interact directly with receptors in the digestive system and one of the most common side effects is constipation. Other potential problems include ulcers and intestinal obstruction. Amphetamine/methamphetamine users can experience such an extreme energy boost that their body's energy reserves can become depleted and when engaging in a…… [read more]


Drug Culture at Temple U Essay

… With legislation being pushed towards decriminalizing marijuana in Philadelphia, it is very likely that marijuana advocates will begin to infiltrate the campus looking for either supporters of the cause, or signatures for petitions. It is also likely that flyers bringing attention to this cause will also begin to be seen more frequently on campus and off.

Part B

Cashing in on the demand for drugs can appear to be a lucrative opportunity, however, people always run the risk of getting caught for selling and distributing drugs. In an article from Philly.com by William Bender from August 23, 2012, one can see how prevalent drug use is at Temple University and at other schools. The article explains how 25 individuals were arrested in a sting that targeted an illegal pill ring. Among the pills that were sold to students at Temple are Oxycontin and Xanax. Furthermore, the sting also demonstrates that there is a demand for cocaine and marijuana at these schools as they were among the drugs that were sold and distributed by these drug dealers. It is also interesting to see that the ages of the individuals arrested in the sting ranged from 20 to 46, which indicates that drugs were not only distributed to students by students, but that outside individuals were also cashing in on the demand for drugs.

This article is especially interesting because it demonstrates the complexity of independent drug businesses. It is baffling to see the lengths to which people will go to in order to make money. The article states that one dealer was bringing home $2,000 to $3,000 a week! Considering that comes out to $104,000 to $156,000 a year, it is easy to understand the draw that such a dangerous endeavor has and why people would be willing to risk everything to be successful in this line of work. It will interesting to see how the trial of these individuals plays out because of the range of charges everyone is charged with and the extent of each…… [read more]


Mandatory Drug Testing Creative Writing

… 1290).

The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Trucking Industry

A study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Mailman School of Public Health showed that of the estimated 4,000 fatal crashes that involved buses and heavy trucks, "…about 3% of the motor carrier drivers (i.e., bus drivers) and 27% of the non-motor-carrier drivers" were under the influence of alcohol (DiMaggio, et al., 2009). Because transportation employees "with safety-sensitive functions" are under mandatory orders to be tested for alcohol, DiMaggio explains, there is "compelling evidence that implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs has significantly reduced alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes" (p. 1).

There is a problem in terms of testing for alcohol when motor carriers cross borders into Canada or Mexico, DiMaggio continues. Mexico and Canada do not implement mandatory tests for alcohol, but the author asserts that because mandatory testing for alcohol in the U.S. has "substantially reduced alcohol-impaired driving," Canada and Mexico could also improve their safety records "…by adopting this policy" (DiMaggio, p. 2).

The federal Department of Transportation (DOT) has published a fact sheet that explains to pilots, school bus drivers, truck drivers, train engineers, subway operators, aircraft maintenance personnel, transit fire-armed security personnel, ship captains, and pipeline emergency response personnel, that even though a doctor may prescribe medical marijuana, the drug is still illegal and the prescription is "not" an excuse for a positive drug test (Swart, DOT). Currently 16 states have laws that allow doctors to prescribe medical marijuana for certain illnesses, but the DOT explains, "It remains unacceptable for any safety-sensitive employee subject to drug testing" to use marijuana under any circumstances (Swart, DOT).

This makes perfect sense because even if a person has a problem, say, with migraine headaches, and his doctor has prescribed medical marijuana for the pain, the cannot possibly be an excuse for making a mistake while driving a school bus or a tour bus. Imagine a school bus driver losing control of the vehicle and injuring a dozen elementary school children while high on medical marijuana. It wouldn't matter a bit to the parents of those injured children that the driver's doctor gave him cannabis tablets to reduce the pain. Indeed, every parent who puts his or her child on a school bus fully expects the driver to be competent and sober, so the idea of mandatory drug testing for school bus drivers is absolutely appropriate and proper.

The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Trucking Industry

Clearly, based on the danger associated with the use of heavy equipment like earth movers, graders, bulldozers, cranes, loaders and others, an operator must be drug-free to ensure his or her own safety. When students enroll in a training program for heavy equipment operations, like the Central Lakes College in Minnesota, they understand out front that they "…are required to participate in mandatory drug testing" (CLC). The CLC explains that "random drug and alcohol screening of students in the program will be done… [read more]

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