"Drugs / Alcohol / Tobacco" Essays

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Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Human Memory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Alcohol and Marijuana on Human Memory

A review of literature regarding the effect of marijuana and alcohol on the human memory

This paper presents an examination of the effects that alcohol and marijuana have on human memory. It has long since been taught to young adults that these two substances have the ability to negatively impact the memory.… [read more]

International Drug Trafficking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


International Drug Trafficking number of drugs including cocaine, opiates, cannabis, and synthetic drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamines are considered illegal in most parts of the world. Declaring a substance illegal, however, does not mean that its use or demand can be eliminated as was so famously experienced in the United States after the alcohol prohibition in the 1920s.… [read more]

Drug Legalization Is a Highly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Research shows that overtly oppressive drug laws have led to an undesirable explosion in the prison population as drug dealers are out behind bars on minor charges. This is resulting in over-crowding of prisons and causing psychological and physical damages to inmates. A comprehensive study proves that, "alcohol and tobacco are highly addictive and kill massive numbers of people, while neither of these effects have been demonstrated in marijuana use" (Nordberg, 2000). Another study takes into account the problems associated with stricter drug laws as they maintain that prison inmates are also used as low-wage workers who are forced to work under sub-human conditions and suffer at the hands of oppressive corporate giants. For this reason, they feel that prison should be turned into an exclusive place for hard-core criminals on charges of homicide and other serious offences. Drug dealers and drug addicts on the other hand should be placed in rehabilitation centers instead of prison. And only legalization can make this possible.

Legalization is therefore a serious issue, which must be carefully addressed. It is not possible to allow free unhindered cocaine use while at the same time, putting every cocaine user behind bars is also creating problems for the country. This calls for a serious concerted effort to resolve the issue.

Works Cited


Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea., USA Today, 10-11-1999, pp 17A


HEMENWAY, D. Alexandria Arguments against states legalizing drugs, Arguments against states legalizing drugs., The Washington Times, 11-08-2002.


Nordberg, D., COLUMN: Why continue…… [read more]

Domestic Violence &amp Alcohol Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Stuart, et al. performed the study for the purpose of assessing the effectiveness of treatment in those cases involving domestic violence and used the following process in their method of studying domestic violence and alcoholism.

"Alcohol use, marital violence, psychological abuse, and marital satisfaction among 24 heterosexual male patients and their partners was assessed. Patients received 5 to 6 days of substance abuse treatment in a partial hospital. Patient and partner assessments were conducted at baseline and 6- and 12-month follow-up'


The findings in this study were that the treatment results in "decreased alcohol use in patients and significant declines in husband-to-wife marital violence and psychological abuse." While men "reported no significant changes in their marital satisfaction" the opposite was true for the female partners.


There are 25 women beaten for every one hour in the day according to statistics. Other statistics state that a woman is beaten every nine seconds which is 400 beaten women for each one hour segment of each day by her life "partner." The reported study concluded with the statement that: Overall, the study suggests that:

"Marital violence perpetrated by male patients and their partners declined following the males' substance abuse treatment. "

It is always advisable to seek counseling, and if no progress can be compelled from the abuser to take a stance of safety first. The children are victims and the non-abuser must allow cognition to rule the processes of thinking. Alcoholism and domestic violence are a deadly combination within a marriage.


Jennison, Karen & Johnson, Kenneth (2001)"Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication" The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, May, 2001

Stuart et al. Reductions in Marital Violence Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence J. Interpers Violence .2003; 18: 1113-1131[Online] located at: http://www .findarticles.com/p / articles/mi_m0978/is_2_27/ai_112083062/pg_1

Journal of Interpersonal Violence (2003) 2003 SAGE Publications, Vol.18, No 10, 1113-1131 DOI: 10.1177/0886260503255550 [Online] at: http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/ab stract/18 / 10/1113

Evidence that Treatment is Often Effective

Jennison &…… [read more]

Drug-Related Terms Such as Tolerance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When this is done to avoid physical discomfort or to avoid withdrawal symptoms, it is known as physical dependence. For example, when someone is 'addicted' to a drug to an extent that he or she comes to rely on its use for their body to function normally, the person can be said to be physically dependant on the drug. Physical dependence also means that withdrawal symptoms occur if the person stops taking the drug he or she has become addicted to. Physical dependence is more pronounced in case of 'depressant' drugs such as drugs of the opiate family (heroin, morphine, and codeine), barbiturates, alcohol and tranquilizers. ("Dependence")

5. Psychological Dependence

Psychological dependence is the second type of dependence on drugs. It is an overwhelming desire to continue taking the drug but not to avoid the physical withdrawal symptoms. In other words, if someone wants to take a drug to experience the pleasurable effects of the drug experience, in order to make life bearable, to escape or block out reality or in order to be able to face the world, he or she is said to be psychologically dependant. Quite often people use drugs as a psychological crutch. Whether a person becomes psychologically or physically dependent on a drug depends to some extent on his/her personality. However, some drugs such as marijuana, hashish, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and amphetamine are more likely to cause psychological dependence rater than physical dependence. (Ibid.)

Works Cited

"Dependence." Drugscope. 2002. November 22, 2004.

"Drug Dependence." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

Perkinson, Dr. Robert R. "Drugs of Abuse." 2003. November 22, 2004.

Withdrawal symptom of heroin is also known as "cold turkey"… [read more]

Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising

Alcohol and tobacco are among the most heavily advertised products within the media industry, including magazine, newspaper, broadcast, and outdoor advertising (Pfleger Pp). According to a 2001 report, the six major tobacco companies spend approximately $6 billion annually on advertising and promotion in the United States alone (Pfleger Pp). Measured media is roughly $800 million a… [read more]

College Students and Designer Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


College Students and Designer Drugs

This report examines the results of an independent survey that questioned just how prevalent designer drug use was on campus. Club drugs also known as designer drugs have hit the party scenes for many college students. These drugs became famous in the late 1990's because they were often taken at night clubs and parties called… [read more]

Drug Use During Pregnancy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,172 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Baer and colleagues have reported that 14-year-old adolescents who had been exposed to alcohol during their mother's pregnancy consumed greater quantities of alcohol than did adolescents without such a history...a regression analysis combining prenatal alcohol use and family history of alcoholism revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure retained a greater effect after adjustment for family history than did family history after adjusting for alcohol exposure. (Hill, Lowers, Locke-Wellman & Shen, 2000, p. 661)

It is clear that there is at least some link between adolescent behaviors and prenatal behaviors of the mother. Though generally when looking at the effects of prenatal drug consumption, medical professionals have assessed the visible medical effects upon the child as an infant. The long-term implications of drug consumption is still very much a mystery, in most cases. Additionally, there is a significant body of research that details similar connections between prenatal smoking behavior of the mother and detrimental behavior as teenagers.

Several studies have reported finding an association between maternal prenatal smoking and such externalizing behaviors as truancy, conduct disorder, attentional problems and impulsivity (Brennan et al., 1999; Fergusson et al., 1998; Wakschlag et al., 1997). (Hill, Lowers, Locke-Wellman & Shen, 2000, p. 661)

In a world seeking redemption from the evils of modernity and corruption, there is much to be said about the possible link between the deeds of the early deeds of the mother and the immoral and delinquent acts of the child.

It is the responsibility of moral leaders to intervene for the sake of the good of the whole. One fact must be clearly presented the glamorization of drug use as well as the availability of illicit substances for the consumption by women and children alike is alarming and must have some sort of workable solution. Furthermore the reduced importance placed upon family and the protective state of marriage for children has contributed greatly to this problem. Children are having sex at much younger ages and at much determent to their lives and the lives of their potential offspring and all of this is happening within a culture that finds sex, outside of marriage and even at very young ages acceptable and inevitable.

The above work has demonstrated a greater need for understanding about the serious risks of assailing one's body with chemicals of any kind during pregnancy or even if pregnancy is suspected. Those who are losing the most in this phenomenon of available moral degradation are the innocents being created, some would say, outside the intended atmosphere for creation. Morally speaking it is abhorrent to consider using even the most innocuous substance during pregnancy, for any reason, yet it is clearly on the rise. The trend is especially disturbing in the light of the importance of the recognition of our bodies as a reflection of the lord and more importantly our bodies as a temple of the lord.


1952). The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: Revised Standard

Version (Rev. ed.). Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000891125… [read more]

Drug Overdoes Ecstasy vs. Heroin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (739 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


com, 2004)

Heroin is a very unpredictable drug in its work on the central nervous system. "Depending on purity and the user, a lethal dose of heroin may range from 200 to 500mg, but hardened addicts have survived doses of 1800mg and over." However, as with any drug there is no such a thing as a safe dosage, as the drug varies in tolerance, amount and purity taken on a constant basis, and overdoses can occur even at very small levels when the user simply takes more than he or she is accustomed to take. ("Heroin," Overdose.com, 2004)

Ecstasy in contrast to the depressant opiate heroin stimulates rather than depresses the central nervous system. Also unlike heroin, it is a created or synthetic compound. "Ecstasy is frequently used in combination with other drugs, which increases the users risk of an overdose. However, it is rarely consumed with alcohol, as alcohol is believed to diminish its effects. Ecstasy is most often distributed at late-night parties." This creates one of the most dangerous aspects of the drug, which is dehydration due to the drug's stimulate properties, combined with the hot and enclosed environment of the rave and club scene where water is difficult to come by. ("Ecstasy," Overdose.com, 2004)

Ecstasy overdoses, in contrast to heroin overdoses are notable for the victim's rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and a sense of panic in the victim. Hyperthermia or elevated body temperature must be immediately treated. Muscle cramping due to dehydration is also common, in contrast to the muscular loss of control of the depressant heroin. Severe dehydration can lead to kidney and cardiovascular system failure, followed by a loss of consciousness or seizures, and even, with a severe overdose, muscle breakdown or a stroke. Prolonged use is thought to cause permanent damage to sections of brain critical to thought and memory. ("Ecstasy," Overdose.com, 2004)

Works Cited

Ecstasy Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com. Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at http://www.drug-overdose.com/heroin.htm

Heroin Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at http://www.drug-overdose.com/ecstasy.htm

Kuhn, Cynthia, et al. (2003) Buzzed: The Straight Facts about the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy. Second Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.… [read more]

Drug Abuse of Both Legal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There have been a number of initiatives to counteract the negative effect of drugs on society. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), was created in 1973 in order to enforce laws and policies concerning drug abuse. The DEA is also responsible for coordinating information sharing between federal, local, and state agencies (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2001).

There have also been a number… [read more]

Addiction to Alcohol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,073 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But most cogent for the current investigation is their finding that "Specifically, there was evidence that women were more impacted by family background variables (both FHA and FHV) in terms of adult problems with alcohol, drugs and violence (for men, family background variables were associated only with adult problems with drugs and violence) (Chermack et al. 2000 845).

Treatment effectiveness… [read more]

Tobacco Products Just Put Out Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,868 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+




Tobacco smoking is a grave health threat to the world population and without immediate action the situation will escalate to alarming proportions. With cancer and cardiac diseases on the surge the negative impact of tobacco is plainly obvious. Going by the statistical data it is pretty clear that immediate positive intervention is required to contain the harmful effects of tobacco addiction. Creating awareness among the people as to the dangers of smoking is the first and foremost step in our efforts at controlling this global health menace.


1) FRANK D. GILLILAND, YU-FEN LI, and JOHN M. PETERS, "Effects of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Asthma and Wheezing in Children," AJRCCM, Volume 163, Number 2, February 2001, 429-436

2) Josephine Thomas, "Toddler Behavior and Early Smoking Experimentation," NIDA Notes, Volume 16, Number 1, March 2001, Accessed on May 13th 2004, http://www.drugabuse.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol16N1/Maternal.html

3)EPA, "Fact Sheet: Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking," Accessed on May 14th 2004, http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/etsfs.html

4) HSC, "Smoking: Effects on Mothers and Babies in West Virginia," Accessed on May 14th 2004, http://www.wvdhhr.org/bph/oehp/hsc/briefs/four/

5) J. He et al., "Passive Smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease - a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.," The New England Journal of Medicine 1999 340: 920-926

6) New York State Department of Health, "Clean Indoor Air Act," Accessed on May 14th 2004, http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/clean_indoor_air_act/pdf/general.pdf

7) American Lung Association, "State of Tobacco Control: 2003," Accessed on May 14th 2004, http://lungaction.org/reports/overview03.html

8) National Cancer Institute, "Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer: Questions and Answers," Accessed on 14th May 2004, http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/3_63.htm

10) NCI, "Smokeless Tobacco Health and Other Effects," Accessed on May 14th 2004, http://dccps.nci.nih.gov/tcrb/less_effects.html

11) Guthrie, "Cardiac: Preventing Heart Diseases," Accessed on May 13th 2004, at http://www.guthrie.org/Services/cardiac/Prevention.asp

12) 4 Corners Pharmacy, "Stop Smoking," Accessed on May 13th 2004, at http://www.4cnrs-stop-smoking.com/smoking-heart.html

13) "Tobacco," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2004

Retrieved on May 13th 2004, at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761562287/Tobacco.html#s14

14) ASH, "Cigarette and smoke Composition," Accessed on May 13th 2004, http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/chemistry.html

15) MDS, "The Importance of Oral Cancer Screenings Accessed on May 13th 2004, http://www.massdental.org/public/wordofmouth.cfm?doc_id=113… [read more]

Drug Courts the Department Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (9,065 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The treatment providers are now left free to maintain the treatments and therapy necessary for the success of the program. It is their duty too to maintain communication with the Drug Courts about the progress of treatment and the resulting rewards and sanctions that would be awarded to the persons in the program. The stupendous success of the programs implemented… [read more]

Drugs in the Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


While illegal drug usage may be rising in the military, the military has always been aware that their members tend to overindulge in legal drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes. Several analyses showed, "In the present analyses, those in military service showed greater than average increases in cigarette smoking and in instances of heavy drinking. [...] So we conclude that aspects of the military service itself contributed to the increases in smoking and drinking" (Bachman 170). Thus, illegal drug usage is tested for and banned by the military, but legal drugs are used quite prevalently, and they continue to be a problem with those in military service.

Interestingly, while drug usage seems to be on the upswing in the military in the last two years or so, the military has also lightened their pre-enlistment testing policies. In 2000, Defense Secretary William Cohen reduced the waiting time for marijuana retesting from 180 days to 45 days (Scarborough 6). Therefore, if a hopeful recruit tested positive for marijuana before their enlistment, they only had to wait 45 days to retest and hopefully enlist. This seems to send the wrong message to new recruits, that marijuana is not that big a deal, which is why the waiting period has been reduced. Many others see this as a mixed message to new recruits, too. "Robert Maginnis, a retired Army lieutenant colonel and analyst at the Family Research Council, criticized the relaxation as 'sending the wrong signal'" (Scarborough 6). This mixed message may account for at least part of the rise in drug use reported in 2002. Before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the military was facing problems recruiting enough new members, and so they reduced the drug testing waiting time to try to find new members. They may have found members who were not willing to give up their illegal drug use even for the military.

The U.S. military continues to pursue illegal drug use among its members by testing before and after enlistment, and making it clear they have a "zero-tolerance" stand on drug abuse. However, many soldiers do not need zero-tolerance, they need help and understanding to break their addiction. The military seems to be sending the wrong message by reducing waiting times for drug tests, and may be adding to the problem with these new policies. Clearly, drug addiction must be addressed in the military, and some military personnel must be disciplined or discharged. However, others may simply need counseling and treatment to kick their drug habit and become productive members of the military again. The U.S. military needs to look at why people are using illegal drugs while they are in the military, and find ways to help those who need help the most.


Author not Available. "Drug Use in Military Increasing." NewsMax.com. 2 Aug. 2002. 25 March 2004. http://www.newsmax.com/showinside.shtml?a=2002/8/2/205708

Bachman, Jerald G. Smoking, Drinking, and Drug Use in Young Adulthood: The Impacts of New Freedoms and New Responsibilities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.

Bray, Robert M.,… [read more]

Alcohol and Business Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


To be honest, faithful, fair minded etc. is to describe a person or organization whose life embodies positive moral intentions and dispositions. Business transactions and a business's position in the community are based on the relationships and the level of trust which a community will entrust to an organization. Thus the measure of an organization's effectiveness will include the level… [read more]

Legal Age for Alcohol Consumption Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Excessive alcohol consumption is especially related to violent criminal behavior, and the relationship between binge drinking and criminality is more robust among young males than young females. By deferring the legal age to twenty-one, binge drinking among youth may be prevented and thus occurrences of violent criminal behavior may be reduced. Allowing adolescents that are eighteen years of age to consume alcohol directly increases their risk for violent criminal behavior.

Consumption of alcohol among adolescents also greatly increases their chances of using illicit drugs. Adolescents who consume alcohol are 22 times more likely to use marijuana, and 50 times more likely to use cocaine ("Hot topic: Underage teen drinking"). Although this relationship is not necessarily causal, it does point to a correlation that cannot be ignored. The risk of adolescents using illicit drugs also ties in with the reasoning and maturity issues discussed earlier. The lack of foresight and understanding of consequences leads youth to partake in dangerous activities, such as drunk driving, unsafe sex, and illicit drug use. Furthermore, the chances of these poor decisions being made could be effectively prevented by ensuring that the legal age for alcohol consumption remains at twenty-one, and that it not be lowered to eighteen.

The immense number of alcohol related deaths among adolescents is a huge cause for concern, and yet another indicator for the need of a high legal age for alcohol consumption. Binge drinking appears to be increasing among youths, which means that deaths due to alcohol consumption must also be increasing. In 1999, one in four deaths of males in Europe between the ages of 15 to 29 was related to alcohol consumption, and this rate increased to one in three deaths in some countries in Eastern Europe ("Survey says: Teen alcohol use on the rise"). The World Health Organization found that 55,000 young people in the European region died due to alcohol-related causes in 1999 ("Survey says: Teen alcohol us on the rise"). In addition, in 2000 there were 2,339 alcohol-related deaths for youth between the ages of 15-20 in the United States (SADD Online). Ensuring that the legal age for alcohol consumption not be lowered to eighteen would help in preventing possibly thousands of alcohol-related deaths among youth each year. It is estimated that over 20,000 lives have been saved since 1975 due to the enforcement of legal minimum ages for the consumption of alcohol (SADD Online).

Overall, evidence indicates that the legal age for alcohol consumption should not be lowered to eighteen. Youths of this age do not have the necessary or appropriate reasoning and decision-making skills to safely assess their limits regarding alcohol. This lack of maturity and reasoning in combination with excessive alcohol consumption often results in dangerous choices and behavior, such as illicit drug use, violent criminal behavior, unsafe sexual practices, as well as impaired driving. The enforcement of a higher legal age for alcohol consumption would reduce binge drinking among youth, and would furthermore reduce alcohol-related deaths among young people. Moreover, young… [read more]

Drug Abuse and Pregnant Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


"A Feminist Response to Substance Abuse." Women and Substance Use. (Book Chapter, Single Author).

Hiatt, Jill, and Dinsmore, Janet. "A Criminal Justice Approach is Justified." Born Hooked: Poisoned in the Womb. Ed. By Gary McCuen. (Article in Book, Multiple Authors).

Murphy, Sheigla and Rosenbaum, Marsha. Cahpter 6: "Not Good Enough to Be Pregnant." Pregnant Women on Drugs. (Book Chapter, Multiple Authors).

Kandall, Stephen R. Chapter 11: "Today and Tomorrow." Substance and Shadow. (Book Chapter, Single Author).

Leopold, Beate, and Steffan, Elfriede. Special Needs of Children of Drug Misusers. Report from the Council of Europe (Consultant's Report, Multiple Authors).

Mick, Eric, et. al. "Case Control Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Drug Use During Pregnancy." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. April 2002. Journal Article, Multiple Authors).

Pajulo, Marjaterttu, et. al. "Maternal Substance Abuse: Infant Psychiatric Interest: A Review and a Hypothetical Model of Interaction." From American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Oct. 1999. (Journal Article, Multiple Authors).

Priest, Judy, and Attawell, Kathy. Chapter 14: "Street Drugs and Pregnancy." Drugs in Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth. (Book Chapter; Multiple Authors).


I. Fetuses and infants who are exposed to drugs while in the womb can experience a wide range of detrimental, even fatal effects.

A. Medical effects of drug abuse on children are extensive, including the following:

1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

2. Infant addiction to substances like heroin.

3. Side effects associated from the withdrawal from those substances.

4. Low birth weight.

B. Psychiatric effects are as severe as the physiological effects, including:


2. Learning disabilities

3. Emotional maladjustment.

C. The harmful effects of drug abuse on the infant can last a lifetime.

D. Death can result from the pregnant mother using drugs.

II. The effects of drug abuse on the infant are similar to the effects of child abuse.

A. Child abuse by the parent encompasses a wide range of harmful practices.

1. Sexual abuse.

2. Physical assault.

3. Gross or deliberate neglect.

4. Mental or emotional abuse.

B. Because drug abuse induces incredible harm on the fetus and the infant, potentially scarring him or her physically, emotionally, and mentally for life, drug abuse by pregnant mothers is akin to child abuse.

1. Drug abuse causes a wide range of physical and mental problems in the infant that can last a lifetime, as listed earlier.

2. Drug abuse by a pregnant mother not only harms her but her baby as well.

3. Because the mother deliberately ingests these substances and they affect her unborn child, she is essentially abusing her baby.

III. Because drug abuse by pregnant women is akin to child abuse, it should be viewed as such by the medical establishment, the psychiatric community, and the criminal justice system.

A. Treating addictions is difficult, but when the addiction also affects an innocent life like a baby's, intervention is absolutely necessary.

1. Intervention can come in the form of voluntary treatment centers.

2. However, because of how… [read more]

Drug Addiction Treatment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is necessary for a person to decide that they want a positive change in their behavior. Effective intervention can only begin when the user voluntarily acknowledges that the user's life is out of control. This is the "first step" in the 12 steps of recovery where the participant admits that they are powerless over alcohol or drugs and their life has become unmanageable.

By the court providing an alternative program to drug and alcohol offenders instead of sentencing them to jail, has many benefits. Those who have the opportunity to participate in the alternative programs usually complete the program and do not become repeat offenders. This success brings them back their self-esteem and helps them become more productive citizens, thus giving back to their families and community. This method of sentencing also is more cost-effective than placing a first-time offender in the jail system.

With increased motivation, engagement, and success of those who participate within these programs, more law enforcement personnel are researching and planning to implement the use of alternative treatment programs for first-time offenders throughout the United States. Those who have experienced success are advocates of the use of such programs and while the programs are not perfect, those people in charge continue to look for ways to improve. People who are fortunate enough to go through such an alternative program have an opportunity to regain their lives and remain with their families.


Bell, D.. Montoya, I., Richard, A., & Dayton. C. (1998). "The motivation for drug abuse treatment: Testing cognitive and 12-step theories." American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Retrieved April 26, 2003, from www.findarticles.com

Greene, M. (2000, January 30). "Jail alternative: Drug treatment." Los Angeles Times, pB-12.

Nazareno, A. (2002, March 24). "Drug court to offer jail alternative; Defendants would receive treatment." The Houston Chronicle), p47.

Peters, S. (Dec 15, 2000). "Drug treatment over jail." Family Practice News.

Yang,…… [read more]

Alcohol How Effective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,114 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He suggested that laws controlling drinking are self-defeating if their objective is to instill responsible drinking. For one thing, he said that underage drinking has, in fact, gone up since these laws were introduced and enforced (Watulak). Making it more difficult for those below 21 to acquire alcoholic drinks instead encourages binge drinking. In Europe, drinks are mere part of… [read more]

Psychopharmacology, the Goal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It can have powerful effects on the brain, causing the person to have a greatly exaggerated sense of his or her abilities. PCP can cause a temporary psychotic break. It is sometimes dusted on marijuana to make the marijuana seem more potent.

Marijuana is another naturally occurring drug, related to the hemp plant. Its active ingredient is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolm or THC,… [read more]

War on Drugs: Interview America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


These spores will produce the "shrooms" that Andrew often took in Amsterdam. He was somewhat successful in growing the spores, and recalls lying on his kitchen floor, completely stoned, after eating some of the infant mushrooms.

Eventually, Andrew began to make friends in Maine, and his drug use moved to much more social settings. He began an early-morning ritual of smoking marijuana with friends, and then going surfing before work. He also smoked marijuana at parties, but continued to consume marijuana at home. During this time, Andrew would have two joints and about eight beers per day, on average.

When asked if he had a drug problem, Andrew initially looked surprised by the question. "Well, I guess I probably do a little too much." I then asked him if he could stop if he wanted too. He furrowed his brow and replied, "I guess, but why the hell would I want to?" He noted that he likely spends a couple of hundred dollars on drugs and alcohol each month.

When asked specifically about the long-term effects of drugs and alcohol on the body, Andrew proceeded into a long (two hour!) discussion of the relative dangers of alcohol and marijuana. He cited several primary scientific studies as evidence that marijuana was a significantly less addictive and dangerous than marijuana, and seemed exceptionally well versed in the subject.

Clearly, Andrew is not a stereotypical drug user. He is highly educated, and intelligent, and has maintained a high level of both work and social performance while using drugs. Further, he appears highly aware of any potential dangers of drug or alcohol use. Andrew's story does a great deal to dispel the notion that all users of drugs are abusers of drugs. Clearly, Andrew consumes a great deal of drugs, but appears to consider drug use as a recreational activity, like surfing, or playing his guitar.

Works Cited

Levinthal, Charles F. Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society. Allyn & Bacon, 2002.… [read more]

Gangs Violence Stemming From Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … gang violence, focusing on drug-related violence committed by gangs. It attempts to analyze the major causes behind such violence and whether the trend of gang violence is on the increase. The communities and demographic population in which such violence is most likely to occur is also discussed besides looking at certain possible ways of preventing or lessening gang violence.

The disturbing phenomenon of gang violence in the inner American cities has been a major concern of parents, communities, and the law-enforcing agencies for many years. Of late, several studies indicate that the nature of gang violence has changed, with lethal violence being more likely related to the drug trade than to gang rivalries. One such study shows that drug related violence represents between a third and half of all gang violence. (Hagedorn, 1997). The reasons behind such a trend are multifarious and linked to the nature of youth gang culture. It is essential to take a brief look at these reasons before we can analyze and discuss some of the ways by which drug-related gang violence can be controlled.

Most experts and psychologists equate gangs with surrogate family units. Many young people find a sense of belonging, acceptance, and attention by becoming members of a gang -- needs which are not met in their families. Witnessing of domestic violence, sexual abuse or neglect at home also perpetuates violent behavior. Other causes are peer pressure, low self-esteem, intimidation by gang members and even boredom. Add to this the attraction of profits from drug-trafficking, theft and robbery, and the spiraling gang violence becomes a logical outcome of the existing social conditions in our cities. What is more, contrary to popular belief, gangs are not just restricted to youths from disadvantaged, low-income areas. Nor do they consist of African-Americans only -- they represent all racial and ethic groups. ("Gang Awareness," n.d.). Hence, the potential negative effects of gang violence are far more serious and widespread than was previously assessed.

Having established that gangs and violence are inter-related, we will briefly try to see how drugs are related to violent acts by gangs. It does not take a whole lot of research to conclude that it is the illegal nature of the drug trade which promotes violence. Because of the absence of legal controls of drug markets, gang members use illicit means, including violence, to control customers, to defend market share, and to keep employees in line. Illegal business has always been the direct cause of violence. Remember the hay days of gang wars, mafia and Al Capone during the years following the prohibition?

Some studies indicate that drug-use is widespread among members of most youth gangs although not all gang members use drugs and the degree of drug use varies greatly. Certain drugs such as Amphetamines and Cocaine are known to promote violent behavior; hence drug use among gang members can also be cited as one of the reasons for gang violence. It has been…… [read more]

Military Drug Border Patrol Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Drug Policy and Military

The following piece will address the United States policy on drugs as well as the involvement of the United States military with regard to protecting the borders and ports of the United States. Further the paper will address the changes in the drug policy since the late 1960s.

Former President of the United States (USA), Richard… [read more]

Terrorism and Drug Trafficking Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  70 pages (18,088 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


In particular, heroin from Mexico poses a formidable threat throughout Pennsylvania and Delaware, as evidenced by the increasing availability of high purity, low priced heroin and the resulting escalation in abuse, drug treatment admissions, and overdose deaths. This threat is exacerbated by the widely-reported trend of prescription drugs abusers migrating to heroin, seeking a cheaper and more available high. The… [read more]

Teenagers Addiction to Prescription Drugs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The study was carried out using web-based surveys in 2005. The surveys were self-administered, and 1086 secondary school students participated. The participants were in grades seven to twelve. There were 54% female, 52% White, 5% African-American, and 3% were other racial groups. The results of the study demonstrated that 3.3% of the participants had used prescription drugs without a prescription,… [read more]

Counseling Scenario Janet Just Completed Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


She will first have to create a stable environment and build a network of people that can help her stay the course. This is important to not only Janet, but also her children. Furthermore, her self-steam would undoubtedly benefit from providing good care to her family as well.

4. Theoretical Approach

I believe that genograms would be useful to help sort of the types of relationships that Janet has. Since she has 3 children with different fathers and four previous husbands, her personal life has a sum of complex relationships. I would schedule two sessions monthly as well as recommend the client to a substance abuse expert.

5. Therapeutic Progress and Success

I would focus first on mitigating the substance abuse issues. The efficacy of cognitive -- behavioral treatment for substance abuse is contingent on changing clients' attitudes, beliefs, and expectancies (Davis, Ottawa, & Moser, 2014). One study defines success in terms of harm reduction to adhere to notions of 'any positive change,' client centeredness, and low-threshold services; the participants reported changes in demarginalization, engagement in the program, quality of life, social functioning, changes in substance use, and changes in future goals and plans which all seem like good criteria to rate success (Lee & Zerai, 2010).

6. Conclusion

I think the initial counselling should use a relationship assessment to understand the patient's relationships as well as focus on the substance abuse and meeting basic needs first. This should hopefully provide some stability for the patient and her family. Success for these interventions can be defined by literally any benefit of harm reduction and positive benefits in any areas of treatment.

Works Cited

Davis, C., Ottawa, D.S., & Moser, A. (2014). Social desirability and change following substance abuse treatment in male offenders. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 872-879.

Lee, H., & Zerai, A. (2010). 'Everyone Deserves Services No Matter What': Defining Success in Harm-Reduction-Based Substance User Treatment. Substance Use and Misuse, 2411-2427.

Oleson, M. (2004). Exploring the relationship between money attitudes…… [read more]

NP's Not Able to Prescribe Opiate Addition Cessation Drugs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,781 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, given the apparent general preference of doctors to not prescribe the drug even if they can, that is not of much benefit in the long run (O'Connor, 2010).

The National Institute of Drug Abuse weighed in on the subject of prescribing buprenorphine and noted that drug addiction is a chronic condition on par with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While… [read more]

Prison Drug Abuse Treatment Programs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Finally it is required that the inmate sign an agreement that acknowledges their program agreement and specifically the 'Agreement to Participate in the Bureau of Prisons Non-Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Services'. (Franz, 2009, p.83) The Non-Residential program allows the inmate to withdraw from the program without sanctions whereas the Residential program does not allow the inmate to withdraw from the program without sanctions. (Franz, 2009; and Harrison, nd) There are reported to be several self-help programs including Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA) and Rational Recovery (RR) that are offered are part of the substance abuse treatment programs. It is reported that there are no incentives offered for either the Drug Abuse Education Program or the Non-Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Service Program. However, the 500-Hour Residential Drug Abuse Program (RDAP) is reprinted to "offer both a maximum period of time in Community Corrections Center Placement and consideration for early release up to 12 months. (Franz, 2009, paraphrased) Determinations for inmates to take part in the drug abuse treatment program include: (1) evidence in the Pre-Sentencing Investigation (PSI) that alcohol or other drug contributed to the commission on the offense; (2) alcohol or drug use was a reason for the crime or violation of the supervised release; and (3) the sentencing judge recommended the inmates for a drug education program while incarcerated. (Frantz, 2009, p. 82) There are various treatment programs and combinations of treatment programs for substance abuse offered in today's prisons all of which have specific requirements both for the inmate to quality and to participate in the substance abuse treatment programs. Decisions about treatment programs are made by the sentencing judge and the prison psychological treatment staff.


Frantz, M. (2009) What You Need to Know…Before You Go To Federal Prison. Dog Ear Publishing. 2009.

Harrison, LD (nd) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Implementation Lessons Learned. Google Books. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=bbE6-erVr98C&dq=SUBSTANCE+ABUSE+PROGRAMS+IN+PRISON&source=gbs_navlinks_s… [read more]

Drug Epidemic at Manalapan High School in NJ Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


With regard to gender, male students make up a total of 53% of the student body, and female students 47%.

The Sub-Group

Although the entire population could be classified as being at risk, the sub-group of interest for purposes of this discussion will be students in their final year of instruction at the institution, i.e. 12th Grade Students. The mean age of the sub-group is 17 years. As has been pointed out elsewhere in this text, the student population of this particular grade stands at 549 students. This will be taken to be the population of the sub-group.

Community Boundaries

There are two factors that could, in this case, be used to highlight the boundaries of the identified sub-group. These include perceptions of seniority and group cohesion. It is important to note that being in the senior-most grade in the institution; members feel they deserve more respect. Unlike other grades, the class is also particularly cohesive. The said cohesiveness is caused by, amongst other things, group pride and the similarity of members.

Strengths and Weaknesses

One of the key weaknesses of the sub-group, as would be the case with any other category in the lower grades is peer pressure. The other two weaknesses are; higher reported stress levels, and intense demands from other facets of life. The strengths of the group include; enhanced cohesion, maturity, and greater focus with regard to individual goals and objectives.


Kuczynski-Brown, A. (2012). School Drug Use: Survey Finds 17% of High School Students Drink, Smoke, Use Drugs During the School Day. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/23/annual-survey-finds-17-pe_n_1824966.html

National Institute…… [read more]

Alcohol Abuse Related to Gender and Marital Status Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The research has also found that the transition from single life to married life reduces overall alcohol use and binge drinking in those with potential alcohol abuse; however, this relationship appears to be stronger for men than women (Bachman et al., 2002). Moreover, it appears that a similar relationship exists with individuals that are recently widowed or divorced as these individuals overall report higher usage of alcohol and alcohol abuse symptoms than married individuals, but again the relationship may be different for different genders (Curran et all., 1998). Thus, while there appears to be a general association between being married and reduced usage of alcohol, the actual mediating variables and specific relationships for both men and woman as they relate to alcohol use have been unclear.

Recent research by Reczek and associates has helped to uncover some of these vague relationships (Reczek et al., In Press). This research used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study and in-depth interview studies to determine how marital status interacts with gender and alcohol use. The overall findings indicated that men consumed a greater average number of drinks than women and that a higher proportion of men reported having at least one drinking related problem than women did regardless of marital status. Men that were divorced reported consuming significantly more alcoholic drinks than men in long-term marriages. Many women who were divorced also reported at least one drinking related problem; however, women in long-term marriages reported higher rates of alcohol usage than women who were single. This last finding indicates that married women may actually consume more alcoholic beverages (but not have higher rates of alcohol abuse) that women… [read more]

Visit to an Alcoholics Anonymous Meeting Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,290 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


FOUR: This was an "open speaker meeting," and I was the only one in attendance who wasn't an alcoholic. At the last minute, a man came in who was the featured speaker. He was beefy with a bald head and thick glasses, the thirteenth person. He was introduced and said, "I am an alcoholic, but I haven't had a drink in four years, three months, and two days." A loud roar of approval went up in the room, clapping and whistling. After he was finished, another round of applause, then one-by-one the others stood up and told their stories. Each person gave a minute's description of their lives during the past week. Some struggled, others had fun weeks, and everyone showed respect. I was totally comfortable and when it came my turn to speak, I explained I was a college student and thanked them for making me feel welcome. They clapped after I was finished, but actually they clapped after each person spoke, so it was nothing special in my behalf. My clothing was informal; I had a cardigan sweater, clean jeans and boots, and I fit in pretty well with what others were wearing.

FIVE: The leadership role was handled by Greg, but there were other "long-timers" in the group who had obvious leadership qualities. The two middle class men with semi-formal office attire both spoke with a tone of authority, and talked a little more, and that was because they both have been in the program for three years. I got the impression they had joined together and that they were likely a gay couple. Two of the three women were robust in their declarations, but the woman with the nervous tick was very shy and hard to hear because of a soft voice. In each little speech given by the women the men were very attentive and respectful. The guy with the Raiders gear asked the attractive thirty-something woman if her daughter was still in high school, and she said "Yes, and she is on the honor roll," which received applause. No one discussed medications or doctor's visits. As to religion, there was a prayer at the beginning of the meeting, asking for God's strength in staying strong and sober; it was led by the overweight woman, who read the prayer (it was in poem form). Otherwise it was a low level of religiosity. A couple of times during the meeting that woman said, "Praise the Lord!" But otherwise there were no religious statements except one that came during the discussion of relapses. As to relapses, the Latino gent mentioned that one of the members (who was not present) had "fallen off the wagon last week" and "needs our prayers." I learned that these people were very serious about their desire to stay away from alcohol, and I was impressed with their obvious respect for each other albeit they were from varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Clearly they were there for one purpose, to solidify their sobriety,… [read more]

Outline for Speech Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (791 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Transition: The organization of groups like Alcoholics Anonymous has served to reverse the negative stigma attached to addiction, as the general public can see that most addicts struggle everyday in their efforts to attain sobriety.

A. Whether known as faulty moral fiber, chemical dependence, substance abuse, or any of the other colloquialisms used by a society largely intolerant of those who cannot control their impulses, drug addiction has always confounded scientific researchers and social observers alike. One of the most widely acclaimed and well-known addiction recovery programs to emerge in the last century is the Twelve Step method, which is the cornerstone of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), a sister fellowship devoted to aiding and assisting individuals with their struggle against drug addiction.

1. According to An Introductory Guide to Narcotics Anonymous, which is included among the canon of Twelve Steps literature, "in order for most of us to abstain from using mood-altering, mind-changing chemicals, we have had to undergo drastic changes physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually" and "the Twelve Steps of NA offer us a way to change" (NA Fellowship, 1991). Both AA and NA recognize that addiction can be derived from genetics, through traits inherited from genealogical predecessors, in addition to resulting from environmental factors such as peer pressure or socioeconomic status.

2. In his book Dodes states that "addiction is a burning problem that resides in people, not in the drug or in the drug's capacity to produce physical effects," before observing that in the case of "returning soldiers, even when they had used drugs as physically addictive as heroin & #8230; once they were out of their abnormally stressful setting, addictive behavior could not be created in them" (Dodes, 2002). While this viewpoint may have merit, the decades of dedicated peer-to-peer counseling and sponsorship programs which are the heart of Twelve Step programs have consistently demonstrated that addiction acts much like an incurable disease, one which must be managed accordingly to assure that those suffering are capable of living unencumbered by their affliction.


Dodes, L. (2002). The heart of addiction: A new approach to understanding and managing alcoholism and other addictive behaviors. New York, NY: Harper-Collins

Narcotics Anonymous Fellowship. (1991). An introductory guide to narcotics anonymous, revised. Narcotics Anonymous World Services, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.na.org/admin/include/spaw2/uploads/pdf/litfiles/us_english/Booklet/Intro Guide to NA.pdf… [read more]

Medical Marijuana and Civil Liberties Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The concept of preserving civil liberties is entirely dependent on the collective recognition that such liberties do indeed exist, and yet government policy on marijuana use in many instances simply omits this crucial recognition of individual rights, enforcing baseless bans on growth, use and distribution simply out of habit. One of the long pondered debates among political philosophers concerns the… [read more]

Genetics Addiction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Furthermore, genetic markers for addiction do not necessitate that an individual will develop a substance abuse problem. Coping skills account for the remainder of the factors, other than genes, that create impetus to use drugs. Research on the genetic components of addiction can also lead to the development of pharmaceuticals that address the underlying genetic factors that predispose someone to addiction. For instance, research in mice has revealed that serotonin receptor gene Htr1b is lacking in subjects that are more attracted to cocaine and alcohol ("Genes and Addiction," n.d.). Research has revealed other DNA sequences that point to specific tendencies toward, or aversion to, specific drugs.

Care must be taken when assuming that addiction predicts behavior in future generations. Exposure to drugs, societal pressure, stressors, and mental illness are all factors that can be as powerful as genetics. Genetics is likely to be accountable for why some people react to stress, and mental illness, by self-medicating with drugs. Some people use other coping behaviors to address stress or pain. Some coping behaviors are simply less self-destructive than drug abuse. Others, however, may be even more destructive to family and community including violent behavior. Thus, presuming that drugs are the worst-case scenario as a coping mechanism is itself a dangerous assumption. Research on the genetic components of addiction is promising in general. If addiction begins as reward-seeking behavior, then the children and grandchildren of substance abusers may consider researching their options for prevention and early intervention.


"Genes and Addiction." Retrieved online: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/genes/

"Genetics," (n.d.). Chapter 4. Retrieved online: http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1993/9311/931106.PDF

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2008). Genetics: The blueprint of health and disease. Retrieved online: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/genetics-addiction

Price, M. (2008). Genes matter in addiction. American Psychological Association. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2008/06/genes-addict.aspx… [read more]

Designer Drinks Young People, Alcohol Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Designer Drinks

Young People, Alcohol, and Designer Drinks

In the 1990's a new type of alcoholic beverage became popular in Britain, the so-called "designer drink," and the article titled "Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study" researched the appeal of these new drinks to the young. Alcohol consumption is termed a "normative" behavior by the authors who state that "most people have their first taste of alcohol around the age of 10..." (Hughes, 1997, p.414) It is then concluded that young people, aged 12 to 17, regularly engage in alcohol consumption as a means of integration into adulthood. But with the introduction of stronger, better tasting designer drinks, the researchers wanted to study the effect that these drinks had on the drinking behavior of young people. Through both qualitative research, comprised of interviews and group discussions, as well as quantitative measures, consisting of a two-part questionnaire, the authors obtained information regarding the attitudes and behavior toward alcohol consumption of 824 subjects. The results of this research demonstrated the age-related attitudes toward drinking and the potentially exacerbating effect of designer drinks.

In order to conduct this study, 824 subjects, young people aged 12 to 17, were recruited from an area in the west of Scotland. One of the conclusions that could be drawn was that alcohol consumption seemed to be a process by which children transform into adults. Beginning around the age of 10, children are often slowly introduced to alcohol by their parents, usually at celebrations. But as the authors stated, beginning around age 12 or 13, children "used alcohol to experience the adult world and to satisfy their curiosity." (Hughes, 1997, p.415) While 12 and 13 years olds would consume any drink available, 14 and 15 wanted more variety of stronger, cheaper, and better tasting ones. By the time a child reached 16 or 17, they seemed to settled down with the types of drinks that are more traditionally associated with adults; beer, wine, etc..

Since designer drinks are stronger, cheaper, and better tasting, it is no…… [read more]

Eleven Literature Reviews Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  5 pages (2,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


More and more attention is being placed on evidence-based programs instead of attention-based programs. Although drug intervention programs receive the most support and attention, it lacks significant research to prove its efficacy. Instead, officials are beginning to support other programs such as obesity-related programs that prove efficacy in alleviating issues presented by students. Shrinking budgets and ineffective results provide a changing environment in support of evidence-based programs. Petrosino argues that programs should meet these requirements, but fail to because of source of funding which at times is based on popularity.

In the article written by Galea (2013), the author discussed implementation of randomized drug testing in some states as "part of a drug prevention policy" (Galea, 2013). Galea wrote on the lack of data present distinguishing whether randomized drug testing provided a benefit or hindrance to drug prevention programs. Of the points made, one that provided significance was how policy makers made decisions to implement their policies. They made their decisions based on information derived from debates rather than research that led people who added randomized drug testing to waste money on ineffective programs.

Public engagement only exacerbated the problem with added emphasis on need to act rather than understand. Without proper studies conducted to demonstrate the benefits or negative consequences of randomized drug testing, the issue is still up in the air. Galea also stated how compelling ideas, not evidence, remains at the forefront of policy implementation. Policy makers need "compelling" stories in order to gain support from a broad constituency to enforce and sustain large-scale interventions. Feeling-based policies lacking empirical data to support said policies ultimately fail or result in little change. These failures keep good policies from being made due to lack of resources.


Blackwell, B.S., & Grasmick, H.G. (1997). Random Drug Testing and Religion. Sociological Inquiry. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.1997.tb00436.x

Cambron-McCabe, N. (2009). Balancing Students' Constitutional Rights. The Phi Delta Kappan,, 90(10), 709-713. doi:10.1177/0895904804271609

Dudley-Marling, C., Jackson, J., & Stevens, L.P. (2006). Disrespecting Childhood. The Phi Delta Kappan,, 87(10), 748-755.



Petrosino, A. (2003). Standards for Evidence and Evidence for Standards: The Case of School-Based Drug Prevention. Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science. doi:10.1177/0002716203251218

Petrosino, A. (2003). Standards for Evidence and Evidence for Standards: The Case of School-Based Drug Prevention. Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 587, 180-207. doi:10.1177/0002716203251218

Ringwalt, C., Vincus, A.A., Ennett, S.T., Hanley, S., Bowling, J.M., Yacoubian, G.S., & Rohrbach, L.A. (2008). Random Drug Testing in U.S. Public School Districts. American Journal of Public Health, 98(5). doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.123430

Ringwalt, C., Vincus, A.A., Ennett, S.T., Hanley, S., Bowling, J.M., Yacoubian, G.S., & Rohrbach, L.A. (2009). Responses to Positive Results From Suspicionless Random Drug Tests in U.S. Public School Districts. Journal…… [read more]

Alcohol Drinking Age Be Decreased? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


" Those who want to reduce the incidence of underage drinking and drinking to success would be better off targeting the media that appeals to this sort of sensibility in all consumers -- and to young people. People would be better served by petitioning legislature to change the forms and methods of advertisements, possibly by including disclaimers for alcohol in much the same way that disclaimers are included for tobacco smoking, to make the action of drinking and experiencing intoxication seem less desirable. The reality is that intoxication can be seductive, and it perhaps can augment a particular experience. But overindulgence, in the reckless sort of way that increasingly younger and younger numbers of young people experience inebriation, has few benefits and many stark negatives. Ideally, by changing the perception of the effects of alcohol people can decrease the number of underage drinkers to the point of excess.

Thus, it is quite clear that there are no true benefits to lowering the drinking age. Also, it is fairly apparent that doing so would only encourage drinking from young people, and add to the myriad problems associated with drinking from this demographic. Those problems include poor school habits, teenage sex and pregnancy, as well as traffic accidents and fatalities associated with inebriation. The best thing to do to decrease underage drinking is to change the media perception of drinking that makes young people want to drink. Doing so, however, might not go over so well with the corporate powers routinely capitalizing off such marketing schemes.

Works Cited

Bonnie, Richard., O'Connell, Mary Ellen. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Washington, D.C: The National Academies Press. 2004. Print.

CADCA. "Research Finds Decreasing the Drinking Age Would Not Reduce Collegiate Binge Drinking." www.cadca.org. 2011. http://www.cadca.org/resources/detail/research-finds-decreasing-drinking-age-would-not-reduce-collegiate-binge-drinking

California Department of Motor Vehicles. "Young Drivers." www.dmv.ca.gov. Web. 2006. http://www.dmv.ca.gov/teenweb/dl_btn2/q_and_a.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Fact Sheets -- Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age." www.cdc.gov. Web. 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/mlda.htm

Engs, Ruth. "Why the drinking age should be lowered: An opinion based upon research." www.indiana.edu. 1998. Web. http://www.indiana.edu/~engs/articles/cqoped.html… [read more]

Impact of Illicit Commodity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,304 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Cocaine in California

Cocaine production and abuse for years has posed as the greatest drug threats in the Central Valley HIDTA region of California. Cocaine is available and abused at so many various high levels all over the region and is linked with most of the drug-connected property crime and violent crime. Most of the cocaine available in… [read more]

Illicit Consumption Journal

Journal  |  9 pages (2,838 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Opium Consumption and Trade

The consumption of opium before the First World War was legal. It was legal to trade and consumer opium in public and there was no restriction whatsoever. This however got changed and soon after the WWI and during the war as well, the soldiers going on war were consuming the opium. There was also transformation in… [read more]

Chi-Square Test Study Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The total number of 50 participants will be selected and the participants will consist of health professional health statistician between the age of 25 and 65. The study will send email survey to prospective 500 participants to achieve the required 50 participants for the study.

There would be 30 male and 20 female participants, and the participants will be selected for the study through email survey. The procedure will consist of randomly selecting 500 participants and the email of the prospective participants will be retrieved from the professional database that matches the study criteria. The questionnaires will be sent to the participants inviting them to participate the in the survey.

Identification of the Variables

Alcohol and Marijuana (independent variables) are linked to number of deaths (dependent variable) in the United States.

Alcohol (Independent Variable),

Marijuana (Independent Variable),

Death (Dependent Variable).

The study will use an ordinal scale to rank the number of death to alcohol and marijuana use, and the variable scales characteristics will be a discrete vs. continuous. Variable Alcohol is defined as the amount of alcohol to be consumed per day that could cause death to the user. On the other hand, variable marijuana is defined as the amount of roll of marijuana smoked per day that can lead to death. The dangerous level of both alcohol and marijuana is measured based on the number of death they cause. The entire variable will be measured numerically because numerical measurement has a quantitative meaning.


The study will use a Chi-Square test to compare the linkages of alcohol / marijuana to the number of death in the United States. The Chi-square is appropriate to carry out the test because it will assist the research to investigate whether the numerical data of the variables differ from one another. The researcher believes that the alcohol will be linked to higher death in the United States than the marijuana use. To draw the conclusion regarding the hypothesis, the study will use chi-square analysis. The chi-Square test will assist in the description of frequencies and significances, which assists in the interpretation of the results. The study will also use a descriptive statistics to summarize all the data collected, and the descriptive statistics will assist the study to record the mean and standard deviation, which are very important to determine the statistical difference between the linkages of alcohol and marijuana use to the number of death in the United States.


Bias is systematical errors that could distort the validity of the research. The bias may occur if large number of participants smoke marijuana or drink alcohol. The results of the research may be faulty if larger number of participants smoke marijuana or drink alcohol.

Nevertheless, the study will achieve valid results because the research will systematically select the participants based on their demographic questions collected. The findings of the study will provide a greater understanding on whether marijuana…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Scare Tactics and Drug Abuse Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,376 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Criminal Justice

Scare tactics and drug abuse

Over the last few decades, there has been use of scare tactics on the drug users in order for organizations to try and keep the younger generations from engaging in the drug use habit. There was use of all kinds of media to communicate this and even movies like Reefer Madness that was… [read more]

Gambino Drug Family. Their Entire Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The need of the hour is a brand new regulation in order to assist police in restricting the activities of organized crime mafias and form much better processes for the police force.


Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html

Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf

Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.

Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html

Head, T. (2012). History of the War on Drugs. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from: http://civilliberty.about.com/od/drugpolicy/tp/War-on-Drugs-History-Timeline.htm

Finkle, K.M. (2010). Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congres. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40525.pdf

LeFrancois, A.G. (2011). Organized Crime Control Act of 1970. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.enotes.com/major-acts-congress/organized-crime-control-act

Lyman, M.D., & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized crime (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Shaffer Library of Drug Policy (2012). History of Drug Laws. New Drug Law Hits Accidental Users. Reported in the New York Times, June 21, 1914. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from: http://druglibrary.net/schaffer/History/newdrug.htm

Szigethy, J.R. & Eppolito, L. (2005). Partners in Crime: The Mafia Cops. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://americanmafia.com/Feature_Articles_313.html

US Legal, Inc. (2011). Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://extortion.uslegal.com/racketeer-influenced-and-corrupt-organizations-rico-act/… [read more]

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

In this paper, I have discussed about the renowned drug control agency in the United States of America i.e. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). I have given a brief history of DEA in the first part and then I have given a detailed account of its responsibilities and mission. Later, I have given a brief account about how it stemmed out from FBN.

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was established in 1973 so that it could work with other agencies in order to control the cultivation, production and the smuggling of the illicit drugs. The maximum efforts are directed towards international narcotics smuggling organizations. On the other hand, a part of it works for the elimination of drugs from interstate ("Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)," 2013). It was in July 1973 that the Drug Enforcement Administration was created via an Executive order by the United States President serving in the office at that time i.e. Richard Nixon. The reason of establishment of Drug Enforcement Administration was, if truth be told, the establishment of a unified command to combat against the illegitimate and prohibited drugs. At the earlier stages, the budget was limited which was less than $75 million with a workforce of 1470 agents. However, at the present times, this workforce has been increased to a number of 5000 special agents with a budget of $2.02 billion ("DEA History"). In the present day, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is the most important law enforcement agency in the United States whose main objective is to fight against the sale and distribution of narcotics and other illicit drugs. The Drug Enforcement Administration operates under the United States of America Justice Department and is also responsible for the enforcement of the anti-drug laws. It also holds the responsibility of carrying out investigations within the state and at international level as well. The main emphasis of DEA is to track the major drug dealers and the gangs and to work in order to curb them from the lowest possible level. The effectiveness of the Drug Enforcement Administration in limiting the use of illicit drugs has been questioned several times. It is also important to mention here that the Drug Enforcement Administration has also faced a number of national-level controversies over the use of marijuana for medical purposes (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).

The sale and distribution of all the illegal drugs is controlled by the Drug Enforcement Administration all over the United States of America. It is the leading agency of the Justice Department which deals in the enforcement of laws. The anti-drug laws are enforced on the manufacture, distribution and dispensing of the legally produced controlled substances as well. The Drug Enforcement Administration's presence at international level is well versed and there are several cases which have been successfully resolved by the renowned organization in addition to the control of the distribution of the illegal drugs internationally. The major law violators are the gangs and the criminals all over the world. In order… [read more]

Drug Cartels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Drug Cartels

What is the relationship between Colombian and Mexican drug organizations?

Looking first at the background as to how cocaine came to be a profitable product, it is well-known that cocaine was a legal drug in Europe and in North and South America in the late 19th century up through the middle of the 20th century. Legal exports of cocaine in the early twentieth century amounted to "…ten metric tons" but legal exports of cocaine "…fell to under have a ton by 1950, when cocaine first became criminalized in South America" (Gootenberg, 2012). And by the 1950s, when the U.S. put pressure on sources bringing cocaine into the country "…drove the startling rise of Colombian cartels of the 1980s, Gootenberg explains on page 160 in the peer-reviewed Latin American Politics and Society. In Colombia, cartel leaders (Escobar, the Ochoas, and Carlos Lehder) began providing cocaine users in the U.S. with "…some one hundred tons (a year), driving down the drug's price, winning millions of avid customers…" (Gootenberg, 166).

The "war on drugs" led by Richard Nixon and later by Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, succeeded in diversifying the drug trafficking routes used by the Colombian cartels. Gootenberg asserts that American military incursions into Colombia created "…sleeker, far more anonymous, efficient and fluid smuggling networks"; instead of three or four big cartels, after U.S. military support there emerged "some six-hundred well-camouflaged drug export networks" (168). The transit route eventually detoured from the Caribbean into Mexico; instead of taking cash for helping Colombian cocaine pass through their country, Mexican drug lords "…began their own lucrative wholesale and retail drug outlets across the U.S. border and shores" (169). By 2000 Mexican cartels were buying cocaine from peasants in Peru, avoiding dealings with Colombian drug kingpins. Today, Colombian cartels are "in decline" and have "…entered a phase of organizational fragmentation and weakening"; there is bad blood between Colombian cartels and Mexican cartels (Beckhusen, 2013). In fact Mexican cartels are battling with Colombian cartels for control of the cocaine trade in Ecuador; and there is a "…disintegration of the relationship between Mexican and Colombian groups in Ecuador" which could cause a "destabilizing confrontation" (in Sight Crime, 2011).

TWO: How do these organizations differ from one another? Colombia is presently home to "…some 600 or more well-camouflaged drug export networks" (called "boutique" cartelitos, they are smaller and far more diversified than the big cartels known as Cali and Medellin), while Mexican cartels are powerful and very large (Gootenberg, 2010). The powerful cartels in Mexico include: the Gulf Cartel and the Sinaloa. Unlike Colombian cartels, which were attacked and broken up by U.S. military incursions -- and by billions of dollars the U.S. government sent to Colombia -- the Gulf Cartel and Sinola Cartel are big, brutal,…… [read more]

Drugs and Treatment Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,193 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



The Long-Term and Short-Term Usage

Treatment for Abusers and Addicts

Cocaine -- effects, symptoms, treatment

"After consuming a few doses of cocaine, [Freud] was hopelessly enamored of its ability to cure indigestion, soothe aches and pains, and, perhaps more important, relieve depression and anxieties. Freud even purchased some to distribute to his friends, colleagues, and sisters" (Mercer, et al., 1999, 81)

Cocaine is what the U.S. government calls a "…powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain" (www.drugabuse.gov). Due to the recent popularity of cocaine, it was referred to as "…the drug of the 1980s and 1990s" -- but cocaine is not a new drug at all. The U.S. government explains that cocaine is among the oldest known "psychoactive substances"; it is produced through coca leaves, which have been chewed and eaten by humans for "thousands of years." The powder form, which is extracted from the coca bush, has been used for various medical and recreational purposes for over one hundred years, the government source of information reveals. The purified chemical that was used for the "tonics and elixirs" that people ingested in the early 20th century was called cocaine hydrochloride; users today buy cocaine that has been "cut" with cornstarch, procaine, or with amphetamine, and in most instances the street cocaine is snorted through the nose (www.drugabuse.gov).

Short-term and Long-term effects of Cocaine

What is the short-term feeling a user gets from taking cocaine into his or her system? There is a short period (between 15 to 30 minutes) during which the user feels"…euphoric, energetic," and is suddenly talkative, and seemingly mentally alert (www.drugabuse.gov). Physiologically the user is experiencing constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, along with a rapid heart rate; if the user has ingested larger amounts of the drug that can lead to "…bizarre, erratic, and violent behavior (www.drugabuse.gov). Some abusers experience "tremors, vertigo, and muscle twitches" along with disturbances in the rhythm of the heartbeat and possible gastrointestinal problems; some of the medical complications include neurological problems and seizures, the government explains.

Long-term cocaine use leads to addiction that is difficult to shake, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. In fact for a person that has used cocaine for a lengthy period of time but has quit, the temptation to start again is powerful. "The risk for relapse is high even following long periods of abstinence" because the memory of that euphoric experience is vivid in the user's mind (nida). Any "cue" that the former user comes into contact with -- the person abstaining who is currently not using cocaine -- can "…trigger tremendous craving and relapse to drug use" (nida). Once the regular user has been ingesting cocaine for a long time, he or she may develop "tolerance' which means higher and higher doses of the drug are needed to "…register the same level of pleasure experienced during initial use" (nida). Some of the negatives for the frequent user include: nosebleeds; hoarseness; runny nose; panic attacks; paranoia; restlessness and even "…a full-blown psychosis"… [read more]

Drug Treatment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Drug Treatment:

According to the current trends in world markets, there is a stable overall level of drug abuse and use of illicit drugs. In addition to accounting for huge amounts of money annually, drug abuse contributes to drug addiction. As a result, treatment of drug addiction is regarded as one of the major ways to lessen costs associated with drug abuse. This has led to the development of several forms of treatment programs that are not only geared towards lessening drug use but also lessening the risk of infection with hepatitis and HIV (Gyarmathy & Latkin, 2008, p.1866). There are both formal and non-formal drug treatment programs that promote abstinence and help to deal with addiction.

The significance of drug treatment programs in dealing with illicit drug use is evident in the fact that the programs are used by drug treatment counselors. In most cases, drug treatment counselors recommend a treatment program for an addicted individual through consideration of several important factors. One of the major factors considered by drug treatment counselors when providing the recommendation is biological factors. As evident in literature review, there is a common notion that some individuals are born with an inherent pre-disposition for becoming addicted through exposure to psychoactive drugs. In order to determine biological contributions to addictive behaviors, drug treatment counselors examine drug hunger, withdrawal, and intoxication since these are evidences of drug-induced biologic homeostasis disparities (Hoffman et. al., n.d.).

Secondly, drug treatment counselors consider the intensity of drug use or substance abuse when suggesting a treatment program. This is a crucial factor in drug treatment because the more and longer concentration of drug use; the longer and more concentrated drug treatment that is required by the addicted individual (Smith & Segal, 2013). Actually, long-term treatment and follow-up is usually required to help in recovery from the drug addiction. As a result, a quality drug treatment program not only deals with the substance abuse but also deals with emotional pain and additional life problems associated with the addiction. In this case, the drug treatment counselors also consider the type of aftercare services provided by the program in…… [read more]

Mexico: Terrorism and Organized Crime Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,243 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


This is the means through which terrorist groups such as the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), Al Qaeda and Lebanese used money from drug trade to expand their political agendas, the previous Taliban regime directly taxed and attained financial gains from Afghanistan's extensive opium trade. According a reported filed in 2000; approximately 80% of the Taliban's financial resources were… [read more]

Legalizing "Soft Drugs": Marijuana's Effect Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Study findings reported a significant link between marijuana smoking and emotional problems. (Science Daily, 2008, paraphrased)

The study reported by Solowij et al. (2002) examined cognitive impairments among those who smoked marijuana. The study reported is a multisite retrospective cross-sectional neuro-psychological study in the U.S. between 1997 and 2000 among 102 daily users of marijuana. The study found that those who used marijuana "performed significantly less well than short-term users and controls on memory and attention." (Solowij, et al., 2002, p.1123) It is reported that on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, long-term users "recalled significantly fewer words than either short-term users or controls" although there was no difference between short-term users and controls noted. Long-term users are reported to have shown "impaired learning, retention and retrieval" when compared with controls. (Solowij, et al., 2002, p.1123) Both user groups are reported to have performed "poorly on time estimation task." (Solowij, et al., 2002, p.1123) The results are reported to provide confirmation that "long-term heavy cannabis users show impairments in memory and attention that endure beyond the period of intoxication and worsen with increasing years of regular cannabis use." (Solowij, et al., 2002, p.1123)

In summary, prolonged use of marijuana does appear to negatively affect the user's cognitive functioning and the longer the individual uses marijuana, the more negative effects that the use has on the cognitive functioning of the individual.


Hart, CL, et al. (2001) Effects of Acute Smoked Marijuana on Complex Cognitive Performance. Nueropsychopharmacology. 25, 757-765. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v25/n5/full/1395716a.html#ack

Smoking Marijuana Impairs Cognitive Function in MS Patients, Study Shows (2008) Science Daily. 14 Feb 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080213160851.htm

Solowij, N. (2002) Cognitive Functioning of Long-Term Heavy Cannabis Users Seeking Treatment. JAMA. Vol. 287. No. 9. 6 Mar. 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.cmcr.ucsd.edu/images/pdfs/cannabis2.pdf… [read more]

Post Morterm Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Post Mortem Reflection

First of all, your professor is correct in suggesting that you have drifted away from the thesis of your piece. In fact your thesis is a bit weak, and could be beefed up a bit. The project description says you should "articulate the problem and its importance." You begin by saying some view the policies at Drexel as to harsh and others say the policies are not harsh enough, so you are setting out to discuss the policies.

But perhaps the real problem is underage drinking and drug use -- among college students. And the Drexel policies may be wrong-headed too, but the heart of the problem is not Drexel, as I see it from the materials you provided, but college students drinking issues. In fact, why is there a need for strict policies regarding drinking if there isn't an existing problem in the student body?

So, if you accept my suggestion, here's perhaps how your paper could be made stronger. Of course you have every right to pass judgment on Drexel's policies, but I would use a thesis that points out statistics on underage drinking, or binge drinking, or auto accidents caused by drunk drivers who are college-age, as justification for tough policies to be enacted.

Suggested Thesis: Because national statistics reflect that abuse of alcohol by college students leads to an estimated 1,825 student deaths, nearly 600,000 injures and 97,000 instances of sexual assault annually (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services), Drexel University has established some tough policy guidelines to deter the abuse of alcohol (and drugs) for Drexel students. But are those policies fair and just? Do the punishments fit the offense? This paper takes the position that Drexel's policies could use some serious revisions.

Okay, now you have the thesis. If you can find some localized statistics on Drexel students' abuse of alcohol (fraternities that were sanctioned for parties with underage students; a student death from alcohol intoxication; police arrests of intoxicated students at parties; rapes at parties where the girl passed out, etc.), that will help build the case that Drexel had a perfect right to come up with new policies. but, right after you present those data, then build a transition into why the policies are not fair, or somehow don't fit the misdeed. I get it, a three strike-based policy. Look into what other universities are doing when it comes to sanctions…… [read more]

To the Public Safety Department of Drexel University Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Public Safety Department of Drexel University:

Drug and alcohol addiction at school and in the workplace can have a devastating effect upon the persons suffering from these addictions, their loved ones, and also their colleagues. Despite efforts to raise awareness about their dangers, binge drinking and drug use remain tacitly accepted on many college campuses, including Drexel's. Although this may be tolerated with a shrug of 'kids will be kids,' the behaviors students engage in while young can set the tone for their behaviors later in life. There needs to be a change in the culture of college campuses, regarding the normalization of alcohol and drug abuse. This culture change must be generated from both above (the administration) and also below (the students, including fraternity houses). Given that the mission of the Public Safety Department of Drexel University is "to enrich the quality of life of our community by providing a safe and secure environment based upon effective relationships and excellence in service," the Department has a clear role in promoting wellness and discouraging the abuse of alcohol and drugs (Mission, 2013, the Public Safety Department of Drexel University).

There is increasing awareness that certain people are genetically more vulnerable to drug and alcohol addiction, which can make an environment where abuse is condoned even more dangerous (Scientists find gene link to teenage binge drinking, 2012, Reuters). Of course, abuse of alcohol or drugs can be potentially dangerous even once, given the potential for driving or having unwanted or unprotected sex while under the influence. It has been estimated that every year 1,825 college students die from injuries related to alcohol abuse and 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are victimized in alcohol-related sexual assaults or date rapes (a snapshot of annual high-risk college drinking consequences, 2010, collegedrinkingprevention.gov). Even supposedly normal partying can have a devastating effect upon student's grades, particularly during freshman year when students are still easing into the rigors of college. According to recent U.S. government statistics: "about 25% of college students report academic consequences of their drinking including missing class, falling behind, doing poorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall" (a snapshot of annual high-risk college drinking consequences, 2010, collegedrinkingprevention.gov). And on team projects in schools and in the workplace, the lost productivity of addiction can have ramifications for others, in terms of the quality of…… [read more]

Drug Test Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Parks (2010) asks whether or not physicians should undergo random drug testing in his article. The author presents differing viewpoints on the fairness of this idea. He suggested that "totalitarian encroachment on what a man or a woman chooses to do in his/her free time is rather disturbing. As a professional class I think it is our own responsibility to identify and report those doctors who have a problem. An impaired physician cannot hide for very long. We just need to stop being such timid cowards and do a better job of self-policing ourselves." The idea of self-regulation within this profession places much of the burden to police the ranks on the doctors themselves. Ultimately, the author claims that drug testing may identify drugs in the body but does not implicate the doctor as to be practicing medicine while under the influence. This argument reveals the fallibility of drug testing in general.

There is support for drug testing health care professionals however. Many doctors may be tempted to indulge in the powerful drugs that they prescribe. Cox (2008) explained that "a 2005 survey by the Cleveland Clinic estimated that 80% of anesthesiology residency training programs reported problems with drug-impaired doctors, and an additional 19% reported a death from overdose." Accidental death caused by doctor errors kills more people in America than firearms. It is evident that doctors are dangerous if they are not sober. Drug testing helps curb the temptation for them to stray.

Works Cited

Parks, J. (2010). Should physicians undergo random drug testing? Med Page Today, 30 Aug, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2010/08/physicians-undergo- random-drug-testing.html

Thomas, M. & Silea, D. (2011). The impaired nurse: Would you know what to do if you suspected substance abuse? American Nurse Today, August 2011, v 6. Retrieved from http://www.americannursetoday.com/article.aspx?id=8114&fid=8078

Cox, L. (2008). Urine Drug Test for Doctors? ABC News, 12 Nov 2008. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/PainManagement/story?id=6232694&page=1… [read more]

Community Health Nursing Drug Addiction Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Community Health Nursing

Drug addiction

There are various theories fronted by Smith on the understanding of the other person particularly in the psychological aspect. In the topic of drug abuse and the nursing approach to it, the theory that fits in well is that which deals with "of the sense of propriety" particularly 'of the pleasure of mutual sympathy' (Adam Smith, 1790). Apparently this is theory deals with an aspect that is usually a virtue in nursing practice. The theory indicates that there is mutuality in the sadness or joy between the affected and the observer. The nurse will often look at the drug addict with sympathy and attract sorrow as the nurse is well aware of the right position and state of health that the individual should be in. This is what will drive the nurse to take an appropriate step toward rehabilitating the individual.

The main determinants in the issue of drug abuse in line with nursing practice are lifestyle and environment. These are the main focus in the bid to solve the problem of drug addiction particularly among the teenage population. According to the social learning theory, people learn by observing hence the shaping of their attitudes and behaviors (University of South Alabama, 2013). One can learn the habit of drug abuse from the society and can as well change the habit and be drug free with the help of a nursing practitioner. It is also fundamental to note that the type of environment a child grows up in can fundamentally affect the behavior and lead to drug abuse and even dependence on these. Even though a child may not be living with a person abusing drugs but in an environment that leads to dependence on drugs…… [read more]

Combat and Substance Abuse Posttraumatic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


There are significant limitations to this conclusion, including a selection bias introduced by studying only veterans seeking care through the VA. Many veterans may be ineligible for medical coverage through the VA, have private medical coverage, or distrust the VA. Other veterans may be reluctant to admit having a substance abuse problem. The methodological problems could be addressed by academic institutions with no formal ties to the VA.

In spite of these significant limitations, the above findings suggest that the dominant risk factors for substance abuse are similar for civilians and military personnel alike. Youth and mental illness appear to be the biggest risk factors, while combat exposure may contribute only a few percentage points. Mental health therefore determines the prevalence of substance abuse behavior for all persons, regardless of combat experience.


Adamou, Marios C. And Hale, Anthony S. (2003). PTSD and the law of psychiatric injury and England and Wales: Finally coming closer? Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry Law, 31, 327-332.

Bagalman, Erin. (2011). Suicide, PTSD, and substance use among OEF/OIF veterans using VA Health Care: Facts and figures. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41921.pdf.

National Center for PTSD. (2011). PTSD and substance abuse in veterans. PTSD.VA.gov. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/ptsd_substance_abuse_veterans.asp.

Nooner, Kate B., Linares, L. Oriana., Batinjane, Jessica, Kramer, Rachel A., Silva, Raul., and Cloitre, Marylene. (2012). Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 13(3), 153-166.

Petrakis, Ismene L., Rosenheck, Robert, and Desai, Rani. (2011). Substance use comorbidity among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric illness. American Journal on Addiction, 20, 185-189.

Sirratt, Deborah, Ozanian, Alfred, and Traenkner, Barbara. (2012). Epidemiology and prevention of substance use disorders in the military. Military Medicine, 177(8 Suppl.), 21-28.

Tsai, Jack, Pietrzak, Robert H., and Rosenheck, Robert A. (2012). Homeless veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Gender differences, combat exposure, and comparisons with previous cohorts of homeless veterans. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services…… [read more]

Alcohol Advertisements the Consumption Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Alcohol Advertisements

The consumption of alcohol has been associated with many human endeavors over the years. Champagne has been associated with weddings and other types of celebrations, for example. Brandy and Whiskey have been associated with business meetings, while beer and wine are generally associated with having a good time with some friends. In early times, alcohol was used for… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology Many Women Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This lingering anxiety may have an effect on the clinicians' behavior towards the patients and even other people in they are in contact with in their daily practice. This anxiety may also affect how effective these clinicians are in their work.

First the lingering anxiety affects how the clinicians relate and behave towards the patients and people around them. They… [read more]

Wod the War on Drugs Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


As Sharpe and Spencer point out, the Colombian government depends on American funding for the War on Drugs to fuel its own military and counterinsurgency efforts, rather than building their institutions in ways that would preclude the need for a War on Drugs. American funding for the War on Drugs has a domino effect in the region and actively stifles healthy economic growth. The black market economy is healthy and strong; American efforts to stymie that economy are pitiful and paltry in comparison. The War on Drugs perpetuates the black market by fueling the trade itself, fomenting its growth, and failing to address core objectives. It has degenerated into a situation in which there are no longer legitimate means, or ends, to the problem. Therefore, as a result of the review of literature, I learned that a racial revision of the War on Drugs is warranted.

The problem of the War on Drugs can best be solved with an approach that is sensitive of cultural and historical context. Colonialism and class conflict must be taken into considerations. The implication of this review of literature is that there is a deep dysfunction in the heart and soul of America. To end the war on drugs -- as well as the war on terror -- require introspection and a "tough love" approach to political reform. The War on Drugs has become a joke, whereby the United States is both the comedian and the punch line. Research shows that there are deeper and more nefarious motives for waging the war, and that dysfunction must be rooted out for good.

Works Cited

Lazare, Daniel. "A Battle Against Reason, Democracy and Drugs." NACLA Report on the Americas. Vol. 35, No. 1, July/Aug 2001.

Sharpe, Kenneth E. And Spencer, William. "Refueling a Doomed War on Drugs." NACLA Report on the Americas. Vol. 35, No. 3. Nov/Dec 2001.

Villar, Oliver and Cottle, Drew. Cocaine, Death Squads, and the War…… [read more]

Alcohol I Began My Research Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,012 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


For example, in many countries that have lower rates of binge drinking than the United States, children have sips of wine with dinner or learn how to drink in moderation by the time they are teenagers. This moderation approach prevents what some call the "forbidden fruit" mentality. A forbidden fruit mentality means that the person who is denied alcohol as a "forbidden fruit" will be more likely to binge on that substance because it has added allure. This is what seems to be happening in the United States, where the cultural norms and laws against alcohol are too strict and prevent people from learning healthy drinking behaviors. If drinking in moderation has been proven to be healthy, then shouldn't researchers and policy makers be focusing on changing the law so that Americans learn healthy drinking behaviors rather than banning alcohol altogether? From personal experience, I know that learning moderate drinking behaviors as a child can help a person develop healthy attitudes toward alcohol as an adult.

Therefore, I realized quickly that my subject was still very broad, and also that I had not yet developed my thesis statement. The thesis statement in this case will connect the problems I addressed in the beginning (which are the short- and long-term effects of alcohol use) with a proposed solution. The solution to the problem will be in the realm of public health and will be related to the encouragement of moderate drinking via a relaxed approach to alcohol laws. My working thesis became: In order to reduce the instances of binge drinking and unhealthy drinking behaviors, it is important to encourage drinking in moderation.

Because alcohol and binge drinking are public health concerns, it makes sense to focus on a public solution. Education is the key. The social norms surrounding drinking will not change overnight, but it might be possible to change behaviors by reducing the "forbidden fruit" phenomenon. Therefore, I suggest that we teach children in schools about healthy drinking customs in other cultures. Using European cultures as one example, we can show how wine and beer are integral to the society and are considered to be like food substances. We can focus on how families do not hide wine and beer like they do in the United States, and so children can grow up thinking that wine and beer are normal beverages. Like candy and chocolate, they can be consumed in moderation, but too much consumption does lead to problems. Moderation is the key to solving the public health problem of drinking, and I hope to discover evidence to support my thesis as I complete my research paper.


"Alcohol and Public Health." CDC. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/

"Alcohol Use: If you drink, keep it moderate." MayoClinic. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alcohol/SC00024

"Drinking (Alcoholic Beverages)." Current Issues: Macmillan Social Science Library. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 2 Oct. 2012.

Intoxication Nation. ABC 20/20

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved online: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/… [read more]

Acetaldehyde and Anabuse Acetaldehyde, Also Called Ethanol Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Acetaldehyde and Anabuse

Acetaldehyde, also called ethanol, is an organic chemical compound. Its chemical formula is CH3CHO, oftentimes chemically abbreviated as MeCHO (ME= methyl). It is one of the more important aldehydes, occurring robustly in nature and man-made on a large scale. In nature, it occurs in coffee, bread, and ripe fruit; and in most plants is part of their normal metabolic processes. In humans, it is produces by the oxidation of ethylene and is part of the reasons humans get hangovers with too heavy alcohol consumption (Perry).

Commercially, the production of acetaldehyde is done through the Wacker process, a homogeneous extraction process that produces acetaldehyde by oxidizing ethylene:

Chapter 2 = Chapter 2 + 02 2 CH3CHO

In the human liver, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes ethanol into acetaldehyde, which then, through additional oxidation, becomes ascetic acid by acetaldehyde. In the brain, alcohol dehydrogenase has a minor role in the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde Chemical Summary for Acetaldehyde). When acetaldehyde is injected in alcoholic protects, it binds to proteins to form DNA adducts that are often linked to organ (particularly the liver and pancreas) disease (Nakamura, et.al.).

Anabuse, or Disulfiram, blocks the reaction of alcohol to acetaldehyde to harmless acetic acid, increasing the amount of acetaldehyde in the blood 5 to 10 times. Since it is the acetaldehyde that tends to cause the overt symptoms of a hangover, having disulfiram in one's system produces a severe reaction to alcohol intake. It is also used in the treatment of Giardia, scabies, Trichomona vaginalis, and even some cancers. It has also been found to be effective in cocaine treatment since it prevents the breakdown of dopamine, the neurotransmitter that cocaine stimulates (Wright and Moore; Disulfiram). Disulfiram has a half-life of 60-120 hours, and has a chemical formula of C10H20N2S4. The compound was originally tested to provide a remedy for parasitic infections, but researchers testing the substance…… [read more]

People Who Use Medical Marijuana Favor Legalization Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … legalization of marijuana for medicinal use is a controversial topic in American society. Several states have enacted laws allowing the sale and consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, but so far, only one state is actually considering allowing recreational marijuana consumption as well. One of the reasons that the medicinal use of marijuana is controversial is that the processes and regulations for qualifying as a medical user are state-controlled and subject to widespread abuse, such as where physicians routinely dispense prescriptions without rigorous limitation by medical criteria. As a result, the legal medicinal use of marijuana is contributing to the reduction of social constraints to recreational use. In some states, recreational users can obtain a valid license designating them patients with medicinal marijuana prescriptions. Meanwhile, there are patients who are legitimately entitled to medicinal marijuana who refrain from availing themselves of it, precisely because they know that marijuana is generally considered an illicit drug and they associate with a very negative social stigma. The other reason that the topic is controversial is that marijuana use is still illegal in every state under federal law, irrespective of state laws. However, the decision to prosecute or ignore violations of federal law has not been high priority and the cultivation and dispensation of medicinal marijuana is regulated and taxed by various state authorities all while being susceptible to immediate closure and prosecution under federal law simultaneously.

Literature Review and Hypothesis Review of Existing Literature

Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy (2003) conducted a qualitative study of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients in connection with the use of medicinal marijuana to mitigate their MS symptoms. The study consisted of a survey mailed to MS patients inquiring into their relative awareness of the potential benefits of medicinal marijuana for their condition, whether or not they had ever tried marijuana to alleviate their MS symptoms, why they chose not to do so, whether they supported the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes, and to measure their subjective beliefs about the degree to which the medicinal marijuana was helpful. The hypothesis was that prior experience with marijuana would correlate with greater perceived relief.

Because patients (and members of society more generally) exhibit such widely differing views about medicinal marijuana, Reinarman, Nunberg, Lanthier, and Heddleston (2011) conducted a qualitative study of patients seeking medicinal marijuana licenses at a network of distribution clinics. Their hypothesis was that certain demographic and other similarities (such as prior recreational drug use) would be more common than could be expected by chance among those individuals who chose to pursue the route to obtaining a license for medicinal marijuana. That hypothesis was confirmed.

Because of the degree to which legalization of medicinal marijuana has been linked to recreational use, Khatapoush and Hallfors (2004) hypothesized that public attitudes about marijuana use and actual marijuana use patterns have changed in the 8 years since the legalization of medicinal marijuana in California in 1996 that has permitted medicinal marijuana use ever since. That hypothesis was not… [read more]

Sinaloa Drug Cartel: Drug Cartels Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In Mexico, the kilo of Colombian cocaine could generate over $10,000. However, across the border into the United States, the kilo of cocaine could be sold at a wholesale price of $30,000. Notably, when the kilo is broken down into grams to distribute in retail, it fetches up to $100,000, which is way beyond its weight in gold. Therefore, profits are the main factors that drive the illegal drug business and provide the link between drug traffickers and other trans-national threats like organized crime and terrorism

According to the findings of a close analysis of the Mexican Sinaloa Cartel, the organization has global operations. The cartel remains active in more than a dozen countries while it's also very nimble and staggeringly complex. Following its ability to thrive in the recent years, Mexican Sinaloa Cartel controls more territory along the border to promote the effectiveness of its drug exports. Since 2006, the Mexican war on drugs has resulted in the death of more than 50,000 people though the increased effectiveness of the drug business remains uncertain and relatively unknown.

As evident in the analysis, the major target of the cartel's drug business is the United States whose demand for cocaine and other illegal drugs has increased in the recent years. As a result, there is need for the American government to organize its resources in a coordinated manner to target the illegal revenue streams of every kind, especially illegal drugs from Mexican Sinaloa Cartel. These initiatives should also involve partnership with the international community against anti-cartel profit and drug business initiatives. There is need for coordinated efforts between the United States and Mexican governments in the war against drugs and the Sinaloa Cartel. Currently, the United States and Mexico cooperate in issues of judicial assistance based on the bilateral Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty

These efforts should not only be coordinated between the United States and Mexico but they should also involve other countries. While the United States remains the primary destination for illegal drugs trafficked from and through Mexico, the presence of Mexican smugglers has significantly expanded in Central and South America in the recent years. Actually, the Mexican Sinaloa Cartel and other drug trafficking organizations are extending their operations into the Caribbean, Latin America, and Europe. The increased government prohibition and the efforts by drug traffickers to supply drugs into growing markets have been cited as the major reasons for increased development of trafficking routes. Drug trafficking problem is worsened and further complicated by a mixture of sophisticated financial sector and huge cash-based informal sector


Mexican Sinaloa Cartel is the most powerful drug trafficking and organized crime across the globe. The organization has continued to thrive in its illegal drug trafficking business with the United States being the primary destination and target of these drugs. An analysis of the organization shows that it's a vertically integrated and more sophisticated cartel with global operations despite seeming to be very nimble. Therefore, fighting the cartel requires coordinated measures from the Mexican… [read more]

Marijuana Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


On top of that, marijuana also contains cancer containing components within it and also causes bronchitis and other lung issues even more quickly than normal tobacco cigarettes. Even for AIDS, although marijuana does effectively cause immunity to a certain extent, it still decreases the immune system's positive workings on other terms. Cannabis is not the only plant that has pain relieving elements. Moreover, legalizing marijuana for one use only makes way for further legalization in other aspects as well as over the counter techniques to access the drugs without medical backing. (Bock)

People in favor of legalizing marijuana have their own claims to make, however, it is better to keep marijuana illegal because of the long-term adverse effects it can have on the population. Intoxicants of any form should not be allowed in the country because they promote a shallow lifestyle and are a main reason America is facing a gradual fall. Families have broken apart because of the effect of marijuana on people, parental responsibilities are ignored, educational obligations are overlooked and in general, with another drug in the market, the workforce of the country will become more unproductive. Keep marijuana illegal only reduces another vice to society, and the ban should continue the way it is.


Bock, Alan. Waiting to Inhale: The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Seven Locks Press, 2000. Print.

Earleywine, Mitch. Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

Gerber, Rudoplh. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Praeger, 2004. Print.

Grinspoon, Lester. Marihuana Reconsidered. Harvard University Press, 1971. Print.…… [read more]

Caffeine and Nicotine Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,364 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The problem is achieving levels will require using more of these substances (which will make the codependency even worse). (Tarter, 1998, pp. 102 -- 105)

Moreover, Gold (1998) found that the impact of the addiction is so strong that substance abuse centers will often treat this condition. However, most individuals are reluctant to seek out different forms of treatment. This… [read more]

Collecting Illegal Drugs as Crime Evidence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Collecting Illegal Drugs as Crime Evidence:

One of the most important factors for a successful criminal investigation and prosecution process is the kind of evidence at the crime scene. The collection of evidence includes identifying, gathering, and preserving illegal drugs to use during the investigation and prosecution process. There are various types of evidences collected at a crime scene such as physical evidence, trace evidence, drug evidence, and biological. Drug evidence primarily consists of legal and illegal substances, which may be relatively simple or complex. Simple drug evidence includes small amounts of vegetable matter or powder whereas complex evidence consists of large-scale clandestine laboratories that produce illegal substances. Drug evidence can be gathered in various ways like through possession of substances, manufacturing the products, cultivating drug plants, and possession of drug paraphernalia.

Identifying, Collecting, and Preserving Illegal Drugs as Crime Evidence:

There are general guidelines that items of evidence should adhere to during identification, collection, and preservation in measures that promote and maintain integrity. These guidelines are vital for the effective use of the evidence in criminal investigation and prosecution. In relation to the use of illegal drugs as criminal evidence, these guidelines are regarded as the major issues. Therefore the major issues regarding identifying, gathering, and preserving illegal drugs as crime evidence include & #8230;.

Type of Packaging:

Packaging of illegal drugs to use as crime evidence is primarily dependent on the type of evidence and the laboratory examination to be performed (Wampler, 2011). In addition to selecting the most appropriate means for packaging it, there is need to consult the section to submit the specific type of evidence. However, every packaging of illegal drugs needs to be clean and unused and includes several types of packaging such as paper bags, metal cans, plastic buckets, and glass vials. The other vital aspect of packaging illegal drugs for use as…… [read more]

Drug Laws the Shortcomings Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ideally, those states which can demonstrate a relative extremity in their position, whether toward decriminalization, such as California, or toward prohibition, such as Virginia, would be suitable participants. Upon selecting three states with definably decriminalizing policies and three states with definably prohibitive policies, contact would be established with public office holders, legal experts and drug policy scholars specific to each state. As selected volunteer participants, individuals in each sample state would be administered a survey of open-ended questions aimed at assessing such impacts of drug policy as rates of incarceration, rehabilitation, recidivism and economic burdensomeness. This survey instrument would be the primary method of data-collection.

Within the scope of this study, those in the states exercising decriminalization would be considered the experimental population, and those in the states exercising prohibition -- as being more reflective of the federal drug policy orientation -- would be considered the control group. Here, the independent variable in drug policy orientation (distinguished between decriminalization and prohibition) whereas the dependent variables are impact on population, drug addiction permeation and economic burden on the taxpayer.

This research would be conducted across 6 months and would compare drug crime rates in selected states where marijuana has been legalized medicinally to those in states where prohibition remains in full force. It is expected that the process will require a timeline that breaks down thusly:


Researching state by state drug laws:



Selecting states for participation:



Establish contact with drug law policy experts and legal groups in selected


1.5 months


Select sample participants

.5 months


Create survey instrument

.5 months


Gather data



Synthesize Report


Policy Implications:

It is expected that this will help to impugn the basic logic behind the War on Drugs. To this end, it is anticipated that the research project will have external validity to the extent that its hypothesis may be tested thusly as new states explore the idea of legalization. This means that the present research can be replicated to the end of continually illuminating our understanding of the impact of prohibition-based policies vs. those which instead adhere to the free market principles governing the economy on a whole.

Works Cited:

Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.

DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity…… [read more]

Adolescent Substance Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The evaluation was rated using an interrater agreement assessment, however, the chances of error still exist and these have been considered by this assessment which determined the minimum error for author 1 to be (=0.76) and (=0.78) for author 2. The calculation was designed to incorporate the chances of mistakes made by author. In the final step, both authors discussed their findings and reached to a logical conclusion (Tripodi et al., 2010).

Summing up the entire discussion, the issue of focus was to successfully complete the treatment procedure. To achieve this purpose, treatment made use of qualitative analysis by using factors such as rate of resistance and frequency and degree of drinking. The time period between one month and one year after conclusion of treatment was considered to be most appropriate for this purpose. As a result of this research it was revealed that treatments do contribute towards eradicating the problem of substance abuse (Hedges g=?0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?0.83 to ?0.40). Stratified analysis confirmed this point and pointed out that individual treatment (Hedges g=?0.75; 95% CI, ?1.05 to ?0.40) proved to be more effective as compared to family-based treatment. (Hedges g=?0.46; 95% CI, ?0.66 to ?0.26) Along with this, considering individual behavior of a person when designing treatment further improves its effectiveness (Tripodi et al., 2010).


Substance abuse is a disease which can be cured. Four forms of treatment have been identified after the extensive research work, inpatient therapy, outpatient therapy, family therapy and therapeutic programs. Irrespective of the method of treatment, there are some factors which should be considered if the treatment has to succeed. These factors include completion of treatment, involvement of experienced therapists, financially stable institution and the treatment incorporating individual's developmental, social and psychological needs. Along with this, follow up with patients after the end of treatment sessions is also necessary.

Cultural competence is a vital component for institutions offering treatment sessions. The sessions should be designed in such a way that it incorporates the fact that individual's belong to different cultural backgrounds and have certain values which should be considered. This will prevent the treatment session to end up as a failure.


Diller, J.V. (2007). Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services. 3rd ed. pp. 28.

Mark, T.L, Song, X., Vandivort, R., Duffy, S., Buttler, J., Coffey, R., Schabert, V. (2009). Characterizing substance abuse programs that treat adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_5/article12.pdf

SAMHSA. (2003). Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/2k3nsduh/2k3Results.htm

Tripodi, S.J.; Bender, K; Litschge, C; Vaughn, V.G. (2010). Interventions for Reducing Adolescent Alcohol Abuse: A Meta-analytic Review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164(1):85-91…… [read more]

Mexico U.S. Drug Trade Border Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


S. To support illegal activities and continue the infighting and violence among the various cartels. Many seem to think that this tactic will also be a significant step toward border security as well curbing cartel activities by starving them of resources. (National Geographic S01E05) Increased numbers of agents, greater military involvement, higher levels of technology as well as larger and… [read more]

War on Drugs and Its Negative Impact Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … war on drugs and its negative impact and the social impact the war on drugs has on society. We will look at how much money is being spent to fight the war on drugs, how the police force and criminal justice system are overburdened with drug offenders arresting, how this is taking away from the police fighting other crimes in society, how many individuals are in jail on drugs, and how a drug conviction can be a life sentence for an individual in the loss of financial aid, welfare and housing benefits from the federal government.

The number of all prisoners incarcerated on drug-related offenses rose some 15-fold between 1980 and

This also caused cocaine prices to increase 5 -- 15% higher as a consequence of increases in drug punishment since 1985. The impact of increased drug incarceration has only been a small (1 -- 3%)

reduction in violent and property crime, almost statistically nil. Estimates suggest that it is unlikely that the dramatic increase in drug imprisonment was cost-effective (Kuziemko & Levitt, 2004, 2043).

How many are actually incarcerated? About 480,000

people are incarcerated for drug-law violations, a massive increase since 1985 through the year 2006. This represents that full-time sellers might expect to serve 3 months incarcerated per year of selling. This suggests that there are four active drug sellers for every one person incarcerated. (Caulkins and Chandler, 2006, 619).

The vast majority of drug inmates are Black or other people of color as they compose 60% of the incarcerated population. Blacks have constituted some 62.6% of all drug offenders in state prisons. Nationwide in America, the rate of persons admitted to prison on drug charges for Black men was 13 times that for White men and in 10 states, the rates are 26 to 57 times those for White men. People of color are not more likely to do drugs and Black men do not have an abnormal predilection for intoxication and for illicit drugs. They are simply more likely to be arrested and prosecuted for their use. The war on drugs removes a person from their family and children lose contact with parents…… [read more]

Alcohol vs. Coffee: Literary Reaction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Coffee is a beverage that exemplifies all of the values of the Age of Reason.

The idea of 'balance' of body and mind caused by coffee that is celebrated in the poem clearly shows how symmetry and control are considered more important than pleasure and letting out one's natural emotions. Of coffee: "Its constant Use the sullenest Griefs will Rout, / Removes the Dropsie, gives ease to the Gout." Alcohol makes a person more savage, but coffee makes drinkers healthier and more functional -- more social and therefore more human. "A friendly Entercourse it doth maintain/Between the Heart, Liver and the Brain." It causes a friendly intercourse between the organs of the body, and also a more friendly intercourse between human beings, who do not feel motivated to fight, as when they drink alcohol. The earlier era of revolution and political disharmony is linked to alcohol, and the embrace of a beverage that stimulates anger rather than fellowship.

Coffee also, the author adds slyly at the end, makes men more passionate, unlike alcohol that merely makes men fall asleep in the bedroom. Although the poem primarily celebrates reason, it also exhibits a sense of humor that was clearly also part of the ethos of poetry of the era. The final stanza is addressed to the ladies, who are urged to be pleased by the new ascent of coffee, as: "By it Men rather are more active made; / 'Tis stronger Drink, and base adulterate Wine; Enfeebles Vigor, and makes Nature Pine." Even love and passion, in the eyes of the poet, are better served by an invigorating and moderating beverage, versus the lusty pleasures of alcohol.… [read more]

Persuasion Opening Facts and Statistics Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,534 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, neither alcohol nor drugs should be criminalized. To criminalize mind-altering substances makes no sense, as has been proven by the failure of alcohol prohibition.

There are severe social and financial costs associated with prohibition. Those social costs include the high numbers of incarcerations related to drug possession. Drug possession should be viewed as a health problem, and not treated as a crime. Why treat drug possession as a crime? As Szalavitz states, "the U.S. insists on treating what is a medical and social issue as a criminal one." As Gierach states, "The world is fraught with too much violence, too much crime, too much addiction, too many overdose cases, too many prisons, too many bullet holes, too many AIDS cases, and too many bills related to prohibition." Changing the overall strategy could minimize the financial and social costs of drug prohibition, or the war on drugs.

Works Cited

Drug Sense. "Drug War Clock." Retrieved online: http://www.drugsense.org/cms/wodclock

Gierach, James. "U.N. Misses Opportunity to Address Failed Drug War." Huffington Post. 19 Mar, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-gierach/commission-on-narcotic-drugs_b_1365434.html

Szalavitz, Maia. "Top 10 Unhealthy Side Effects of the War on Drugs." Time. 17 June, 2011. Retrieved online: http://healthland.time.com/2011/06/17/top-10-unhealthy-side-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs/#richard-m-nixon

"Thirty Years of America's Drug War: A Chronology." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/cron/… [read more]

Healthy People 2020 and Tobacco Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The environment created by smokers will also increases risks, it is estimated that there are approximately 4,000 deaths every year in the U.S. directly attributed to passive smoking (Guilfoyle, 2011; Stayner et al., 2007). The problem with smoking is the difficulty faced when giving up the habit, as biologically it can be addictive.

The aims of the Healthy People 2020 include the reduction of " illness, disability, and death related to tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure" and reducing tobacco use so it is no longer a health issue (as seen above)(DHHS, 2012). This is to be achieved through a number of objectives, including "Implementing policies to reduce tobacco use and initiation among youth and adults" and "Adopting policies and strategies to increase access, affordability, and use of smoking cessation services and treatments"(DHHS, 2012).

There are a number of resources available to help reduce smoking by encouraging and supporting those who want to cease and break the habit. One useful resource is a web page is a government web page; www.smokefree.gov. This provides a wide range of resources, including information on quitting with a step-by-step guide, the ability to ask questions of experts and tools information on a range of tools that may be used as well as advice on support services that will help empower a smoker with the information needed to help reduce or give up tobacco use. This is one way the government may be seen as providing some accessible support for achieving the target.


Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC), (2005), Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs -- United States, 1995 -- 1999, MMWR, 51(14), 300-3

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC), (2012), United States Cancer Statistics (USCS), retrieved 17th March 2012 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/

Frieden, Joyce, (2004, June 15), Peer pressure likely to prompt tobacco use: behavior predictors studied, Family Practice News, p66

Guilfoyle, Jessica, (2011), Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, retrieved 17th March 2012 from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0072.pdf

Stayner Leslie; Bena James; Sasco Annie J; Smith Randall; Steenland Kyle; Kreuzer Michaela; Straif Kurt, (2007, March), Lung Cancer Risk and Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke, American Journal of Public Health, Vol 97, No. 3, p545-551

Tsevat J. (1992, July 15), Impact and cost-effectiveness of smoking interventions. American Journal of Medicine, 93, 1

US Department of Health and Human Services, (2012), Healthy People 2020, retrieved 17th March 2012 from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx

World Health Organization, (WHO), (2003, June), Global cancer rates could increase by 50% to 15 million by…… [read more]

Adolescent Substance Abuse Alcohol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Second, successful interventions address social norms around alcohol use. Third, successful interventions build personal and social skills that help students resist pressure to drink. Fourth, small-group activities and role plays are used to engage students and give them the opportunity to practice saying and doing the right things. Fifth, peer leaders help deliver the intervention programs, making them more relevant and engaging for students. Sixth, successful interventions integrate other segments of the community. These can include parents, community leaders, and others whom students respect. Seventh, successful interventions are not "one-off" programs, but continued over multiple sessions and multiple years to ensure students keep hearing the message. Eighth, successful programs provide training and support to facilitators. Finally, the interventions that are most successful are those which are culturally and developmentally appropriate for the students they serve.

Hecht et al. (2003) and Kulis et al. (2005), both cited by Stigler et al. (2011, p. 160) reported on the success of keepin' it REAL, a program developed for and tested with Mexican and Mexican-American middle-school students. The program was built from the ground-up using ethnic norms and values. In contrast, translating or adapting programs to serve different populations has so far yielded mixed results. In Chicago, for example, schools tried to implement a program that had been successful in Minnesota. In Minnesota, Project Northland had considerable parental involvement as well as school-based activities and after-school programs. The student population was not culturally or racially diverse. The same program was not successful in Chicago, most likely because it did not take culturally specific norms and values into consideration. Also, in an area where violence and drug use are grave concerns, alcohol use may not have seemed to present as great a danger.


Stigler, M.H., Neusel, E., and Perry, Cheryl L. (2011). School-based programs to prevent and reduce…… [read more]

Texas Laws Regarding Illegal Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This means they can take ones car, home, or any other belonging where they are charged of carrying or hiding drugs. The asset forfeiture law is a civil action, not criminal, and one does not have to be convicted for the state to try to take their property (Texas Penal Code, n.d.).

One area in which the laws are very… [read more]

Substance Abuse in Adolescents: Examining the Problem Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Substance Abuse in Adolescents: Examining the Problem and Proposing Solutions

The problem of substance abuse is one that has plagued the nation for decades. This issue stems far beyond the user themselves and far into the realm of national issues including: the economy, healthcare, legislation and public policy. For years, the nation has dealt with the issue of substance abuse, but only in its recent past has the issue become one that deals directly with adolescents. As the years pass by, substance abuse appears to affect a younger and younger demographic. Substance abuse in adolescents is an issue that not only affects the individuals abusing drugs and alcohol, but has the capacity to affect the nation as whole.

Background, Statistics and Underlying Factors to Abuse

Substance abuse is a major national public health problem that creates impaired health, harmful behaviors, and major economic and social burdens that continue far beyond an individual's adolescence and well into their adult life. Studies suggest that the younger an individual is at the onset of substance use, the greater likelihood that a substance disorder will develop and continue into adulthood (PLNDP, 2009, p.2). In fact, more than 90% of adults with current substance abuse disorders started using before the age of 18, with half of those beginning use before the age of 15 (Bachman, Johnston and O'Malley, 2002, p.4). Clearly, statistics like this are alarming, but there are solutions that can alleviate and hopefully fix the problem, if people are willing to look deep enough into the issue in an effort to weed it out at its roots.

Since the issue of substance abuse rose to prominence within society and the media within the United States, researchers and individuals affected have tried to pinpoint the factors that lead to this problem. As no truly beneficial rehabilitative help or solution to the problem can take place without an understanding of the factors that lead to substance abuse, researchers have noted that a clear understanding of the psychological profiles and underlying personality characteristics of addicted individuals must be pinpointed. Research has found that there are certain individuals who are more prone to initiate and sustain severe drug habits than others, and certain factors such as: psychological, familiar and environmental commonly lead juveniles and adolescents to become dependent on drugs (Ilgen, 2011, p. 1349).

On a psychological level, research has found that: environmental and personality stressors such as: low self-esteem, emotional instability, poor mental set, negative peer pressure, early traumatic experiences, inconsistent familial relations and social alienation lead to an increased risk of substance abuse among adolescents (Strang, 2012, p.71). Additionally, on a physiological level, factors such as: weak physical constitution and metabolism, frequent hospitalization, tolerance and previous experiences of withdrawal symptoms are likely to aggravate an individual's need for chemical substances (Norman, 2012, p.223). As seen, the reasons that adolescents turn to drugs and ultimately abuse…… [read more]

Smoking Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,786 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


This does not only not work, but it is also ultimately unfair and flies in the face of American values and must be stopped. It is ironic that for a country that was founded upon tax revolt, it is becoming one that supports sin taxes as a stealth way to raise money by punishing a captive audience that is addicted to a product that is otherwise totally legal to use. Unfortunately, what has been demonstrated is a very petty and paternalistic determination to change the peoples' behaviors and lifestyles of the country. This has not worked in the past. In the opinion of this author, it is doubtful that it will work now in the present day either.


Adda, J., & Cornaglia, F. (2005). Taxes, cigarette consumption and smoking intensity. Bonn, Germany:

Institute for the Study of Labor.

Auld, C. (2011). Smoking, health care costs, and imprisoning drug users because they cost us money to imprison. Retrieved from http://chrisauld.com/2011/10/27/smoking-health-care-costs-and-imprisoning-drug-users-because-they-cost-us-money-to-imprison/.

Cnossen, S. European Union, European Commission. (2006). Cesifo working paper no. 1718 tobacco taxation in the european union. Brussels, Belgium: European Union.

McLachlan, H.V. (1995). Smokers, virgins, equity and health care costs hugh v mclac. Journal of medical ethics, 21, 209-213.

Peterson, D.E., et. al. (1992). The effect of state cigarette tax increases on cigarette sales, 1955 to

1988. American Journal of Public Health, 92(1), 1-2.

Ringel,, J.R., & Evans,, W.N. (2001). Cigarette taxes and smoking during pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health, 91(11), 1851-1856.

Warner, K.E., Hodgson,…… [read more]

Narcotic Drugs Distribution Manufacturing Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Narcotics Distribution, Manufacturing, And Abuse

Calling drugs one of the most serious problems facing the modern criminal justice system is a gross oversimplification of a very complex problem. It is true that more criminals are involved in the criminal justice system because of drugs and drug-related offenses than for any other reason. However, it is highly contested whether many of… [read more]

Russian Tobacco Health Promotion Plan Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,621 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


For the health promotion targets and population being considered here, namely the achieving of a reduced tobacco use amongst members of the Russian culture in the United States, measures of efficacy and improved health will be relatively simple.

Assuming that the family involvement pan has been successful and that several family members are taking part in the health promotion plan, self-reported levels of smoking can be re-affirmed (or questioned) by familial reporting. Simply monitoring smoking levels will be one way in which the efficacy of the health promotion program can be measured. Other elements of a fairly standard physical exam, including listening to breathing and observing the fullness of breath, measuring heart rate, blood pressure, and basic measures of physical fitness and aerobic capacity will all provide evidence of success (or lack thereof) in the health promotion program. These measures can also be sued directly as part of the health promotion program, incentivizing the cessation of smoking/tobacco use by providing explicit and concrete goals for plan participants. This type of incentivizing is likely to be well-received and highly effective amongst members of the Russian culture, due to the pride and competitiveness that is part of the culture (Mead et al., 2001).


Cultural competency in nursing practice consists not only of developing an understanding of other cultures, but of learning how to tailor care in response to known cultural values and practices. Members of the Russian culture have some unique traits that might initially be a hindrance when it comes to stopping tobacco use, but true cultural competency enables a nurse to use these cultural elements to provide better care. This is the ultimate goal of nursing practice.


Duncan, L., Simmons, M. (1996). Health Practices Among Russian and Ukrainian Immigrants. Journal of Community Health Nursing 13(2)

Mead, M., Rickman, J. & Gorer, G. (2001). Russian Culture. New York: Begrhan Books.

Ries, N. (2012). Russia. Accessed…… [read more]

Prescription Drug Abuse: Narcotics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Untreated pain is a serious problem in the United States and given the difficulties in measuring a condition that is untreated, estimates of the number of people affected vary, but most experts agree that tens of millions of Americans suffer from undertreated or untreated pain (Libby, 520). One significant reason why pain is undertreated, and increasingly so, is the government's decision to prosecute pain doctors who, it says, overprescribe prescription narcotics (Libby, 523). Additionally, as medical professionals, physicians have begun to roll their eyes and exchange knowing looks with staff every time they hear an individual asking for narcotics, and grown every time a narcotics refill request crosses their desk, growing more and more cynical as the belief that every patient is trying to pull a fast one on them continues to spread like wildfire (Dibble, 64). The fact is, doctors and American society as a whole have grown cynical, and this is negatively affecting those individuals who need narcotics to function in their daily lives.

In viewing the research at hand, one can better understand how the tendency of doctors to overprescribe prescription narcotics had led to the over-use and abuse of these drugs, keeping true sufferers of chronic pain in anguish and turning the medical field in to one that continuously faces public scrutiny. In understanding the link between these two aforementioned facts, the truth that a real problem exists begins to rise to the forefront of the issue making it ever-more clear that doctors should be more selective in prescribing such drugs to their patients.

Works Cited

Dibble, Paul. "Solving the Narcotics Dilemma," in Medical Economics, 88(4): pp. 64-67.

February 2011. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database. [Accessed on 22 November 2011].

Libby, Ronald. "Treating Doctors as Drug Dealers: The Drug Enforcement

Administration's War on Prescription Painkillers," in The Independent Review, 10(4): pp. 511-545. Spring 2006. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest…… [read more]

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