Study "Economics / Finance / Banking" Essays 1-55

123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Economics of Banking General Economic Questions Write Term Paper

… Economics of Banking

General Economic Questions

Write a one sentence description for each of the following financial instruments. Then fill in the following table in terms of type of claim (debt/equity), maturity (money market/capital market), risk (low/high/highest), and liquidity (low/medium/high). Identify a type of financial institution or other participant in the financial market (individuals, government, and business) that are most likely to borrow using these instruments, and a type of institution or other participant that are most likely to lend using these instruments.

A a) Commercial Paper: An instrument issued by commercial companies (banks, insurance and corporations) which offers fixed, generally low short-term rates for loans to the issuer for periods of one night ('overnights') to several months. It is generally used to fund working capital.

A b) Consumer Loans (Credit Card): Non-secured loans to consumers, generally with an indeterminate end date and minimum payments which are mostly interest.

Residential Mortgages: Secured loans to consumers using their primary or secondary residences as the main collateral. Generally backed by FHA if below certain threshold amounts, which change regularly.

A d) Municipal Bonds: Debt obligations issued by cities and counties, generally tax-free at the state level.

A e) Repurchase Agreements: Financial instruments issued in the money markets in which the seller provides securities to the buyer; the seller agrees to repurchase those securities for a greater sum at a later date.

A f) Junk Bonds: Bonds issued by debtors whose credit rating is below "investment grade," generally less than B. rating. These generally carry higher risk, but higher interest rates, than investment-grade bonds.

Type of claim




Commercial paper


Consumer loans



Residential mortgages


5-30 years

Municipal bonds


1-30 years

Repurchase agreements

Debt/Equity kicker

Usually <1 year

Junk bonds


1-30 years

Likely to borrow

Likely to lend

Commercial Paper


Banks, Money Market funds

Residential Mortgages


Banks, Mutual funds

Municipal Bonds

Cities, Counties

Banks, consumers

Junk Bonds


Consumers, Mutual funds

Type Maturity Risk Liquidity Borrower Lender Commercial Paper Credit Cards Banker's Acceptances Residential Mortgages Municipal Bonds Repurchase Agreement Junk Bonds

2) Each of the following will make a poor medium of exchange except one. Why is each a poor medium of… [read more]

Economic Stimulus Research Proposal

… ¶ … Economic Stimulus, Banking Firms, and Their Performances:

The Current U.S. Financial Environment and What Comes Next

The banking industry in the U.S. has been strongly and negatively impacted by the current financial situation of the country, particularly with… [read more]

Japan's Economic Crisis Term Paper

… " After each attempt to lower the value of the Japanese yen inflation failed to pick up and the country stumbled closer to crisis.

Retirement is a huge demographic challenge facing Japan. By 2010, twenty-one percent its population will be… [read more]

Principles of Banking Thesis

… ¶ … Banking

Modern banking has its antecedents in ancient Greece, where entrepreneurs undertook many of the basic functions still conducted by modern banks -- taking deposits, lending money and handling currency. Throughout the middle ages, various groups performed banking… [read more]

Finance it Is With Great Pleasure Admission Essay

… ¶ … Finance

It is with great pleasure and enthusiasm I apply for acceptance into the PhD program at your university. My enthusiasm for finance though not immediately recognized as a youth has steadily grown and developed during my career as a student. In a world that is ever evolving and changing, I feel it is essential that financial students and professionals of the future take into consideration the impacts technology and the global business environment will have on the field of finance. My interests in pursuing my professional degree align with this thought process.

My research experience thus far has created a strong desire to learn more about global finance. Thus far my research foundation has included examining the strength and creditability of various enterprises and industries as well as summarizing market trends and general financial information. My goal in pursuing higher education in finance includes exploring what strengths and best practices small to medium financial enterprises must adopt to succeed and remain competitive in an increasingly global or international business environment. More and more organizations are relying on international relationships to conduct business in. Technology has changed the way financial enterprises conduct business and communicate with one another. I am eager to pursue analysis of the financial industry in light of these changes to determine what impact technology has had on the industry and what impact it will continue to have on the industry and nature of services global financial firms have on consumers.

My skills base currently includes exceptional knowledge in finance and economics, exceptional presentational and team player ability complemented by a collaborative demeanor and the detail oriented, ambitious personality required of a professional student. Thus far my work experienced includes assisting the finance professor at Fisher College of Business, a position that provided great experience in the areas of analysis, market competition and financial review. I feel this foundation will provide me the knowledge base I need to excel in my professional pursuit of finance.

My love of finance was not always as clear to me as it is today. During my youth my family encouraged me to pursue finance and follow in their footsteps. My parents both worked in finance, my father as Vice President of a branch of the Chinese Central Bank for eight years; my mother as President of a branch of the Bank of China. Many of my relatives also work in finance; hence growing up I had much exposure to this exciting and stimulating field.

As I came into my own however I came to believe that I would excel as a historian rather than a financial professional. I have always been fascinated with… [read more]

English Right of Set-Off Term Paper

… And, according to the Court of Appeals, claims that are merely contingent at the relevant date, but are not "due" are not employed in a set-off.

The right of combination differs from the right of set-off because, unlike set-off which… [read more]

Disrupting America's Economic System Term Paper

… The U.S. Treasury, led by Andrew Shaw, subsidized these gold flows by offering to temporarily place public deposits in banks if they imported gold from abroad.

The policy lowered the gold import point by offsetting the interest lost while gold… [read more]

Economic Recession on Customer Loyalty Research Proposal

… ¶ … Economic Recession on Customer Loyalty to Banks in the United Kingdom

The global economic recession has had a number of various effects on economics in the United Kingdom, including how people in the UK conduct their banking. While… [read more]

Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq Literature Review

… Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq

Private investment in developing countries

An overview on early Empirical studies

In 1980s, the developing countries encountered some increment in their development behaviours with debt crisis, which affected the formation of… [read more]

Merger Outcomes in Malaysian Banking Literature Review

… 1% in productivity is solely caused by an increase in technological progress of 17.1%, since the efficiency mean has fallen off by 6%. This means that the productivity expansion was driven absolutely by the transformation of technology, more readily than through the utilization of inputs and improved scale.

These newly amalgamated banks then had gone through a process of capital validation including reposting and reorganizing staff, changing branch locations and also delivery channel consolidation, to reap the benefits of merging. Out of the five years examined, the technological change has only decreased and experiences retrogress once in 2005, with a depreciation of 9%. However, since then, it can be seen that the evolution of technology in Malaysia is improved as the indices keep getting higher and increasing.


Abd-Kadir, H., Habibullah, M.S., Radam, A. & Azali, A., 2005. An Analysis of Technical Progress and Efficiency in Malaysian Finance Companies. The ICFAI Journal of Industrial Economics, pp. 6-19.

Abd-Kadir, H., Selamat, Z. & Idros, M., 2010. Productivity of Malaysian Banks after

Mergers and Acquisition. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, pp. 112-120.

Bank Negara Malaysia, 2001. Bank Negara Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: Bank Negara


Kumar, M., Fong, K.T. & Charles, V., 2010. Comparative evaluation of critical factors in delivering service quality of banks: An application of dominance analysis in modified SERVQUAL model.… [read more]

Investment Projects Research Paper

… ¶ … Investment Projects

The success of a business depends on risk-taking. Decisions must be made to move a company forward and ideally lead to greater success. However, risks are not taken in the dark, rather, every metric and angle of a decision is analyzed with great scrutiny by those with knowledge in economics. The findings are drafted into reports and decisions are made based on this information. This practice, known as prudent decision making is an essential fallback should a risk prove to be less advantageous than originally believed. So, in firms, finance plays a significant role in decision making through proper capital budgeting, sensitivity analysis, project ranking, and ability to quantify inflation.

Capital budgeting is the first factor that businesses utilize in their decision making process. According to Arthur Sullivan, capital budgeting is a "planning process used to determine whether an organization's long-term investments such as new machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth pursuing. It is budget for major capital, or investment, expenditures." (Sullivan, 375). In other words, capital budgeting is a means of ensuring that each proposed investment meets the company's overall goals and criteria for funding approval. There are multiple methods within capital budgeting that firms use when making a decision. Some examples of commonly adopted methods include calculations of net present value, equivalent annuity method, internal rate of return and profitability index. As a general rule, if an investment meets a certain numerical hurdle through these calculations, it will be presented to a board for approval. If it fails to meet the criteria, then other factors may be considered or the investment proposal may be dropped entirely depending on how risky it would actually be regarding the overall growth of the company. So, for many firms, capital budgeting reports provide an initial hurdle to determine whether a proposed project is prudent.

Sensitivity analysis is another method used by businesses to consider whether an investment is worth the risk. Sensitivity analysis is "the study of how the uncertainty in the output of a model (numerical or otherwise) can be apportioned to different sources of uncertainty in the model input." (Pannell, 1997). Sensitivity analysis is almost always preformed as a computer model that outlines the possible robustness of a certain factor, simplify models, explore the cost of input factors, and recognize instability (Saltelli, 2005). For instance, a lumber company when considering investing in a new forest may run a sensitivity analysis to determine the overall loss should this new site be hit with a local disease. Sensitivity analysis only works for factors that are subject to change and provides a way to understand the worst case scenario should an investment fail at certain levels or completely. It is sensitivity analysis that can typically… [read more]

Brazil and China Term Paper

… ¶ … Global Economic Giants

Brazil is geographically the largest South American country and the fifth largest in the world (Economy Watch, 2010). With more than 190 million people, it is the fifth most thickly populated in the world. Its… [read more]

Existence of an Individual Term Paper

… ¶ … existence of an individual which determine the destiny and future course of life. The choices one makes come to define the road ahead. They can be a mirror image of the personal background or the result of external pressures. My choice to pursue doctoral studies at UC Santa Cruz is part of the former category. Indeed, in most cases, the passion for a certain area of study remains so often a mere hobby or aspirations. However, there are also few lucky persons, among which I dare to include myself, which have had the possibility to follow up on their passion and dream of transforming the subject of their strongest preoccupation into the field of a lifetime job. From this point-of-view, I see the study of monetary economics as the expression of my lifelong interest in the area of economics and at the same time as an obvious result of my entire academic and personal background.

Although I was interested in economy from the early stages of my academic life, there were certain personalities which guided my thoughts, ideas, and most importantly my questions towards the complex world of monetary economy. Professor Giovanni Ferri exercised an important influence upon me during my undergraduate years at the University of Bari, Italy. He was the one who supported me in completing my dissertation entitled "The Sacrifice Ratio and the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy." The paper discussed various factors that influence economic parameters in developing countries, and, although my task was difficult from the point-of-view of the accessibility of the data I had to use, my passion for the subject, the relentless efforts made to put together a high quality presentation, as well as the unlimited support from my professor enabled me to have a strong argument-based paper which won Special Merit from Evaluation Committee. However, none of this would have been possible if I hadn't benefited from the input of Professor Ferri who answered many of my uncertainties and guided my thoughts towards new, inquisitive questions.

As a result of this experience, and most importantly, as part of my constant desire to improve and find answers to problems facing economies in this globalised world, I am now completing my Master of Science in Economics degree at the University of Warwick where I focus on monetary economics, as part of my strive to… [read more]

Europe Modern History Essay

… Europe

Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic Sea., de jure controlled by Norway but subject to unique international agreement.. It is located from 74 to 81N, above the Arctic Circle, and as such is the most northerly populated locality… [read more]

Home Depot Term Paper

… The interest rate that could be generated for a risk-averse investor, thus, interest rate paid by the banks on savings accounts or certificates of deposit, varied from 4% up to 6%

which is much lower than the one that could… [read more]

Growth Rate Slow Model ) Term Paper

… "According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, labor productivity rose by 69% in the service-providing and mining industries in 2010, up from 42% in 2009. It is widely believed that research and development (R&D), patents, and management innovations have contributed… [read more]

Public Policy in the State Research Paper

… Maryland's forest lands future is greatly depending on private landowners.

Forest land in Maryland is owned by the following entities:

Individuals 51%

Public Sector 20%

Farmers 18%

Forest Industry 1% (State of Maryland -- Forest Taskforce, 2010)

It is reported that the Forest Conservation Act 9 FCA) has been successful in its implementation of the Forest Conservation Act (FCA) has "slowed the loss of forest land and has focused forested areas along stream valley corridors where water quality benefits can be most effectively realized." (State of Maryland -- Forest Taskforce, 2010)

VIII. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism

Ecotourism and sustainable tourism are presently hot items in the tourism market and this includes the destination of natural areas such as forest lands, lakes, mountains and streams in addition to other various tourist attractions. The work entitled "Conserving Land for People" states that communities are realizing benefits from tourism and recreation on federal forest lands. In fact, "recreation is the second largest producer of direct revenue from U.S. Forest Service lands -- bringing in more than grazing, power generation and mining combined -- and may account for as much as 74% of the economic benefit from these lands when indirect contributions are taken into account." ( )

Findings of the Study

This study has determined that the state of Maryland has invested wisely in its natural resources however, due to budgetary constraints some of the necessary programs that were previously funded have been reduced and employees of the Department of Natural Resources. It is time that the state of Maryland redesign its policies in regards to the forest lands of Maryland so that ecotourism and sustainable tourism can assist in growing the economy and revenues for the state of Maryland while simultaneously preserving, conserving, and protecting the… [read more]

Stock Price Trading Value Article Critique

… The Eastern European economies are also dependent on following the recommendations of the IMF that imposes restrictions on government support programs for these countries. Turkey is an example of an economy that has emerged successfully into economic success through the… [read more]

Foreign Exchange Markets Research Paper

… Foreign exchange markets are one avenue that international businesses take to avoid losses during purchases and shipments. While some may argue that knowing the market and selecting the right technique saves the company money, there are also arguments that the techniques and specialty calculations required for such transactions can actually cost the companies as much as simply letting the market run its course (Giddy, 2003). This theory, known as the Purchasing Power Parity, has unequivocally shown that between the purchase and exchange of goods, the market prices between the two countries even out, resulting in little to no difference in exchange. Thus, the overall notion of manipulating the markets can actually be seen as wasteful on the part of businesses and often does not result in positive shareholder outlook. On such example of the futility of market manipulation is that of Japan.

In the 1970's Japan changed its currency exchange rate from the Bretton Woods Exchange Rate System (Taylor, 2001). The result was Japan taking an active role in intervening into the foreign exchange market. In just nine years, between 1991 and 2000, the Bank of Japan purchased and sold $304 billion U.S. dollars. While these figures may sound large, the reality is that this amount is actually very small compared to the total amount. Additionally, even with their interventions, there were periods of substantial loss of value for the Bank of Japan due to market fluctuations. Thus, the intentional purchase of currency in an attempt to impact the market resulted in losses that otherwise would not have happened. Such actions could nearly be argued as the equivalent of gambling or investing in risky stocks.

Due to the obvious risk and associated losses with market… [read more]

Grameen Project (Bank) Essay

… Contrary to the positions espoused by most world economic and banking institutions, the Grameen project views population growth much differently. Yunus and the Grameen project do not necessarily view population growth as a negative factor in a nation or society's attempt to escape poverty and that, in fact, is some ways population growth can be a positive. Yunus points out that one of the side benefits of the Grameen project is that it serves to limit population growth as more and more women enter the workforce, become better educated, and recognize that they have a purpose other than reproduction, child care, and maintaining a home.

The Grameen project has been criticized for placing thousands of individuals in debt that they otherwise would not have had but such criticism ignores the fact that these same individuals were afforded an opportunity that they otherwise would not have had but for the Grameen project. Other bank and economic development institutions such as the World Bank and IMF have failed to connect with the poor at the grass roots level that the Grameen project has. Such organizations are bureaucratic top heavy and lack the capacity to connect with those who need the money. An important consideration is that the small loan amounts that the Grameen project handles not only minimize the risk to the lending institution but also are small enough so as to not discourage the borrower. The individuals involved in the operation of the Grameen project are encouraged by the employees of the project to believe that they are capable of repaying the loan and are carefully monitored to assist them in their efforts to succeed. Such support and encouragement has not historically been provided by other world economic relief and development organizations.

The success of the Grameen project has been remarkable provided its sphere of operation. It has provided encouragement in some of the world's poorest regions and has done so in a way that is truly unique.

Two Approaches to… [read more]

Open System Theory Capstone Project


The first simulation was run using the default values. During this simulation, after the first year the X5 had market saturation of 31%. This means that the X5 is in the growth phase of the market. This… [read more]

South Africa Is the Economic Leader Term Paper

… South Africa is the economic leader in the continent in terms of industrial output and mineral production (Brand South Africa 2012). It produces a large part of the electricity in Africa. Its natural resources are robust. Its financial, legal, communication,… [read more]

Behavioral Economics Many Academics Advocate Essay

… This is under the backdrop of increased profits and record earnings. Wells Fargo has now had 5 consecutive quarters of record earnings growth. However, due in part to regulation, the company is initiating cost cutting measures to insure the viability of the franchise. This again is a result of the economic forces prevailing in the market. As the psychology of the market changes, so too will the behavior of large and small businesses alike (Rabin, 1998). The same concepts apply to marketing and marketing related expense. Marketing particular for denigrated industries such as financial services will market themselves primarily to alter consumer sentiments. These sentiments through marketing can change the views of consumers as they establish a brand in their thoughts.


In conclusion, behavioral economics impacts decision making through emotions, prevailing sentiments, and the social aspect of business. These concepts all provide a means for business to obtain superior returns relative to their peers if they think rationally while ignoring emotions. However, many fortunes are lost due to the mass euphoria prevailing in the economy. Over priced mergers and acquisitions is just one method in which over optimism can cripple decision making. By realizing the prevailing sentiments in the markets management can make better informed financial decisions regarding their personal lives and business dealings.


1) Shleifer, Andrei (1999). Inefficient Markets: An Introduction to Behavioral Finance. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN… [read more]

Asian Economic Crisis Term Paper

… "Suharto inaugurated an...[exemption] from sales tax and tariffs...the only firm to qualify was an obscure company owned by Suharto's youngest son." Such political interference insured that projects that wouldn't have been considered economically viable received more favorable consideration when a… [read more]

School Finance: Its Economics Term Paper

… They also need to explore the avenues for implementing the state-controlled full funded system. They need to increase the bases for revenue to increase the sales tax base for state and local governments. This is to include non-taxed goods and… [read more]

International Finance the Three Companies Term Paper

… Foreign exchange rate risk with Sony is therefore low.

There is some measure of economic risk, however. Though Japan is a wealthy and stable country, it is in an interesting macroeconomic position, which gives rise to some financial risk. The… [read more]

Economic Systems of South Korea Term Paper

… The government also fostered development by allowing South Korea to be a destination of several global manufacturers. The government also provided impulses for foreign and local investors through expansion of its network of free trade agreements. This brought change to… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina and Economic Implications Essay

… The reconstruction of homes took up much of the state's resources and although this was a slow process, it was the state's utmost priority. Since there were no businesses left in the states, there was no prospect for employment either… [read more]

Economic Advisor to a Less Developed Nation in Africa Essay

… Economic Advisor to a Less-Developed Naton in Africa

Economic Advisor to a Less-Developed Nation in Africa

For many years, experts in fiscal decentralization and local public finances have held the firm opinion that tax is close to an ideal tax for local government finance. The experts have presented compelling reasons why they hold this conviction. This study provides some recommendations to property taxes in Least Developing Country (LDC) on how they can achieve their objectives.

Property Tax

Role that I would assign to property taxes in this nation to achieve its objectives

LDC's should assign revenue sources, particularly taxes to each level of government. This will enable the country to align expenditure assignments with sufficient revenue thus raising capacity at every level of the government to finance the assigned responsibilities. LDC can raise adequate revenues through a wide range of revenue assignments even without any tax autonomy. This can be achieved through intergovernmental transfers. However, this approach raises concerns because if governments are allowed to carry out the transfers, the country will end up overspending on local services because they will fail to internalize the full cost of providing the benefits (Bahl, 2008).

Political accountability can be enhanced through the provision of sub-national governments with revenue autonomy. In this context, sub-national governments in LDC will be able to raise their own funds and face hard budget problems on their operating budgets.

In the perspective of LDCs, I would recommend that these governments raise their own revenue to finance expenditures at different margins. This will create a nexus link between the cost of providing the services and the benefits of locally provided services. This will encourage the nation to internalize the marginal costs of providing services thus avoiding overspending on them. Alternatively, once LDC accepts that the sub-national governments need at least some form of limited tax autonomy, they will be able to limit some ways of levying certain taxes such as introducing taxes on inter-jurisdictional trade (Bahl, 2008).

With the above general restrictions in place, any LDC in Africa can choose between a closed list of allowable taxes and an open list of taxes. Whichever approach the country adopts, they will enjoy significant benefits. In overall terms, if the country embraces a closed list of sub-national taxes, it may be able to avoid the introduction of highly distortionary taxes and nuisance taxes, which can easily impede on their economic development and growth. Alternatively adopting a closed lit of taxes may encourage for the cohabitation of tax bases by intergovernmental transfers and different levels of government designed to correct for vertical externalities (Bahl, 2008).

Property Tax 3

Two features of an economic system that I would recommend this country implement.

Unlimited Government Intervention: under such an economy, the government intervenes more in the country's businesses. This feature suggest that the nation will not laissez-faire meaning that the government will provide maximum support in economic matters of the country. The main function of… [read more]

Crisis Economics by Nouriel Roubini Book Report

… ¶ … Crisis Economics" by Nouriel Roubini

In a word, Nouriel Roubini's book, Crisis Economics: A Crash Course in the Future of Finance, which was co-authored with Steven Mihm, is radical. The book is largely about the current fiscal crisis… [read more]

International Project Finance Essay

… Project Financing

International Project Finance: Commercial risk

Completion risk

Completion risk entails the concept of whether the project can be completed on the recommended period and within the set amount of budget

Completion risk is also known as Cost Overrun… [read more]

Shadow Banking System, Its Role Research Paper

… The shadow banking system, which is believed to be at least equal in size to the traditional banking system, also affects the money supply. If the shadow banking system slows down its lending, the money supply is likewise affected. With… [read more]

Finance and Financial System Research Paper

… Finance and Financial System

Overview of Financial System

Finance is a commercial study concerning management of money and other assets through crediting, banking and investing. It is an outgrowth of economics and accounting (Houston & Brigham, 2009, pg 4). The inter-relationship between finance and these two subjects has brought about financial economics and financial accounting. Another related field is corporate finance that deals with financial management, capital markets and investments.

The degree of importance in financial economics is significant especially in the business venture. Business firms and other institutions have made tremendous contributions in upgrading the economies of their respective countries. Finance is also vital in shaping efficient markets hypothesis (EMH) and behavioral finance among its practitioners (Houston & Brigham, 2009, pg 49). Moreover, the field creates a lot of slots for employment. It is, therefore, important to comprehend the knowledge of financial economics and how it affects vital decisions around individuals. Most importantly, financial role of decision making impacts more in behavioral finance.

Finance and Decision-making

The phenomenon of finance in decision-making is intuitive. Finance is a great contributor to business decision-making and the development of strategic marketing decisions. The planning and implementation of vital decisions is dependent on the availability of a budget. The budget poses as a financial tool under which the decision can be analyzed. The analysis, therefore, becomes a basis for decision making. Finance in decision making acts as insurance of the assessment being asserted. Any impending set back that might be experienced is refrained from causing termination of the decision.

Finance plays a considerable by providing a foundation on which rational policies are made by individuals, practitioners, managers and the business markets (Deaves & Ackert, 2009, pg 3). Finance achieves this by designing goals to be accomplished by the latter. Certainty and uncertainty are confronted at all angles in fully bombarding the decision being made. Models of finance such as demand and supply chains also contribute in decision-making. Individuals and corporate firms optimize their ability by presuming fundamental assumptions. Assumptions are based on the outcomes of the decision, maximization of the decision's utility and profit and deriving relevant information that the decision provides (Deaves & Ackert, 2009, pg 4).

Financial System

A financial system is crucial is ensuring a healthy economy in a nation by regulating rates of inflation, unemployment and growth. The study of finance is apprehensive in how the system organizes and channelizes flow of money through the lender-borrower relationship. This relationship is a link up due to the difference in positions of some people or firms amongst themselves (Burton & Brown, 2009, pg 7).… [read more]

GDP and Economic Growth in Ireland Term Paper

… Ireland's Economy

Ireland's banking system which for over a decade was a financial global powerhouse, suffered an ignominious fate when Irish central bank regulators proposed "to nationalize its banking sector after its government uncovered a €24 billion ($33.9 billion) capital… [read more]

Economic Crisis in Europe Article Review

… By reducing the amount of decisions made by human operators, the risk for errors in inputting or analyzing information is greatly reduced. Automating audit systems also helps organizations determine if its processes are effective by identifying transactions outside of the… [read more]

1980s Affecting Corporate Finance Article Review

… Gongloff (2010) tried to predict the future of investors' desire for corporate debt by mentioning that a double-dip recession would imply more defaults and scare investors away from corporate bonds. By contrast, economic recovery could lead to higher interest rates and an invigorated stock market, luring investors back into the purchase of stocks and weakening demand for bonds. The latter scenario seems more likely. Despite the huge exodus of money from stocks since the summer of 2010, it may be a good idea to own stocks. Corporate earnings are setting record levels, due to increases in productivity and businesses in foreign markets, and corporate profits increase stock prices. Yet for institutional investors, which have superseded individual investors in stock markets, the only choice is not bonds vs. stocks in American corporations. There is the option of investing in stocks of foreign companies. For example, American investors have been heavily involved in Korean stocks.

In sum, developments in the 1980s like deregulation and internationalization motivated corporations to bypass commercial banks and seek financing in capital markets. This was true mainly for large corporations with good credit ratings. But even smaller firms entered the financial markets in a significant way via the issuing of junk bonds. The predominance of financial markets has continued up to 2010 with no strong indications of abating. Today's low interest rates and the hampered stock market have strengthened the old trend toward financial markets as a source of external financing for corporations. Yet some analysts feel that the huge supply of bonds will eventually saturate the market. Moreover, high levels of profits by many American corporations and expected economic recovery in the U.S. are signs that the bond market will eventually subside as investment in stocks becomes a more desirable option, at least in the medium term.

Financial Markets and Corporate Finance


Gongloff, M.(2010, September 8). Blue-Chip Borrowers Issue Debt in Droves Wall Street

Journal (Online). Retrieved from [read more]

Economic Crisis 2007-2010 Research Paper

… Irrational Exuberance: The Economic Crisis of 2007-2009

According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, what will no doubt become known as first Great Recession of the 21st century began in 2007. "The NBER said that the deterioration in the… [read more]

International Politics Economics Essay

… International Political Economics

The international financial system has changed significantly over the past thirty years. Among the most significant changes, the Bretton Woods system collapsed, regulations regarding transborder capital flows have eased and the Euro was created. Each of these… [read more]

Venezuelan Banking Sector - Bbva Banco Provincial Research Paper

… ¶ … Venezuelan Banking Sector - BBVA Banco Provincial

General country background

Venezuela is the 31st largest economy of the globe in terms of measured GDP. For 2007, the country's gross domestic product has been estimated at a total value… [read more]

Japan's Banking Crisis Term Paper

… Japan's Banking Crisis

Rubber Rules


Same Story... Different Setting

Relating Reasons

More Nets More

Accepting Responsibility

Sewing Up the Wounds

Rubber Rules

Money changes all the iron rules into rubber bands."


Japan's current, positive financial movements are touted… [read more]

Commercial Banks Went Through Various Term Paper

… Affected companies, such as Enron and Kmart, have kept intense focus on cutting costs so much as neglecting other duties, such as new equipment purchases or building new facilities, because of this slump in commercial lending (Wet Feet). The largest number of bankruptcies occurred last year and seemed to have put an end to the mortgage lending boom, cutting lending to a half this year. Job seekers of bank posts must now be aware that opportunities are increasingly coming from the biggest commercial banks, like Citibank, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, Wachovia and JP Morgan Chase, which are determined to build national, as well as international, banking operations. These institutions, however, not only have extended their consumer banking operations but have also strengthened investment-banking and asset-management capabilities, among others (Wet Feet).

A few Wall Street firms have traditionally led in the fields of securities and investments, but the easing of recent federal regulations compelled the biggest commercial banks, such as BA, Citibank and JP Morgan Chase, to add investment banking and asset management into their portfolios. They now offer opportunities in corporate finance, securities underwriting and asset management (Wet Feet). Taking advantage of the development, non-bank entities have increasingly offered opportunities to people interested in financial services and these venture-takers included credit card companies, like American Express, MasterCard, and Visa, credit card issuers like Capital One and MBNA and credit reporting agencies, such as Experian (Wet Feet).

While there are fewer job opportunities for bank tellers and back-office clerks, positions for financial analysts, financial advisors and trust officers grow and enrich. Furthermore, these banks now sell a variety of financial products and services they could not before the repeal of the Glass Seagall Act. At present, they compete with traditional lending businesses, which means greater opportunity for financial services sale representatives but less opportunity for loan officers and the rest with limited knowledge of the full range of financial products these banks sell now (Wet Feet). Along with these, high tech positions are on the upward trend, as processes and operations become more and more automated and companies' networks correspondingly increase.


Hester, Donald. U.S. Banking in the Last Fifty Years - Growth and Adaptation, 2002.

Wet Feet. Commercial Banking, an Industry Overview., Inc., 2004. [read more]

Banking and Finance Law Term Paper

… Mishkin)

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) was organized in 1945 to make loans both to governments and to private investors. The discharge of debts between nations has been clarified and uncomplicated through the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which also provides members with technical assistance in international banking. The former European Monetary Agreement also made possible the rapid discharge of debts and balance of payments obligations between nations. The European Central Bank (see European Monetary System) was established in 1998 to help formulate the joint monetary policy of those European Union nations adopting a single currency. (Blinder)

Banking in its simplest form was practiced by the ancient temples of Egypt, Babylonia, and Greece, which loaned at high rates of interest the gold and silver deposited for safekeeping. Private banking existed by 600 B.C. And was considerably developed by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. (Binhammer) Medieval banking was dominated by the Jewish and Levantines because of the strictures of the Christian Church against interest and because many other occupations were largely closed to Jews. "The forerunners of modern banks were frequently chartered for a specific purpose, e.g., the Bank of Venice (1171) and the Bank of England (1694), in connection with loans to the government; the Bank of Amsterdam (1609), to receive deposits of gold and silver." (Granger) Banking developed rapidly throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, accompanying the expansion of industry and trade, with each nation evolving the distinctive forms peculiar to its economic and social life.

Since the establishment of the Federal Reserve system, federal banking legislation has been limited largely to detailed amendments to the National Bank and Federal Reserve acts. The Glass-Steagall Act of 1932 and the Banking Act of 1933 together formed an extensive reform measure designed to correct the abuses that had led to numerous bank crises in the years following the stock market crash of 1929. The Glass-Steagall Act prohibited commercial banks from involvement in the securities and insurance businesses. The Banking Act strengthened the powers of supervisory authorities, increased controls over the volume and use of credit, and provided for the insurance of bank deposits under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). The Banking Act of 1935 strengthened the powers of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in the field of credit management, tightened existing restrictions on banks engaging in certain activities, and enlarged the supervisory powers of the FDIC. (Mishkin)

Several deregulatory moves made by the federal government in the 1980s diminished the distinctions among various financial institutions in [read more]

Urban Economics Research Proposal

… Urban Economics

It would be hard to find a government official who did not stress the importance of economic development -- voters like to hear about economic growth because they like jobs and security -- but there is no magic… [read more]

Fiscal and Monetary Issues Term Paper

… This criticism contradicts some elements of institutionalism, which states that human interactions require rules of cognition and communication, which involve the use of language. According to this approach, language is an institution in itself. This approach can work to solve… [read more]

Finance in Public Term Paper

… Finance

In public finance, there are a number of ideas that are used to discuss specific concepts and strategies. This helps administrators to comprehend what is happening and the long-term effects of various events on their fiscal position. To fully understand how they are applied requires carefully examining the fundamentals of public finance, the euimarginal principle, pareto criterion, the justification for government action, public choice and how these topics relate to the budgetary process. Together, these elements will highlight the different strategies that are utilized for discussing various ideas and how they are impacting public entities. (Ekstedt, 2012) (Holzer, 2011)

The fundamental principles of public finance

The fundamental principles of public finance are to collect enough taxes and utilize them to effectively provide numerous services everyone is demanding. This is focused on three different areas to achieve these larger objectives. The most notable include: the efficient allocation of resources, the distribution of income and macroeconomic stability. These factors work in conjunction with each other to ensure that the government is meeting the needs of the people. (Ekstedt, 2012) (Holzer, 2011)

The efficient allocation of resources; is when administrators are making sure that the government is providing services in areas where they are needed the most and reducing any kind of waste. The distribution of income is where local officials will supply resources to ensure that the community can address the challenges impacting various segments (such as: the homeless and low income demographics). During this process, they are focused on meeting the objectives of the needy and reducing the negative impact of specific events on them. Macroeconomic stability is when the government is working to ensure that the economy functions properly by attracting jobs and local businesses to the area. These elements are designed to ensure that needs of the community is met and that the region can experience sustainable economic growth over the long-term. (Ekstedt, 2012) (Holzer, 2011)

The equimarginal principle, pareto criterion and the justification for government action

The equimarginal principle is a tool that is used by officials to examine the different alternatives and courses of action. This helps them to identify the best approaches for allocating various resources in the process and the lasting impact it will have on the community. The pareto criterion is used to evaluate the needs of voters and what issues are most important to them. This assists administrators in determining what areas should receive the most critical amounts of attention and resources. The justification for government action is when elected officials will demonstrate how their policies and… [read more]

Globalization, if Explained in Economic Terms Term Paper

… Globalization, if explained in economic terms, is the ever-increasing inter-dependence of the national economies of countries all over the world on the cross-border movement of goods, services, technology, capital and labor (Warsh and Davis). The influx of foreign resources into… [read more]

US Financial System Term Paper

… USA Financial System

financial system is one of the most complex systems in the world. There are several environmental factors which have an impact on the U.S. financial system such as the economy and federal regulation. The paper will look… [read more]

Goals of a Monetary Policy Term Paper

… Which in return lead towards maximization of output. And this maximization of output lead towards high rates of employment. The high rates of employment in return elevate the living standards to a higher rate. (Cambazo-lu & Karaalp, 2012)

In the… [read more]

Economic Systems Term Paper

… Resource allocation issues in market or free enterprise economic system are addressed without any governmental intervention and determined by demand, supply, and competition ("Economic Systems" p.1). Furthermore these issues are handled by the unfettered interaction of individuals and firms in… [read more]

Economics in the Mexican American Culture Essay

… Mexican Economy

Economics in the Mexican-American culture

Economics in the Mexican -American culture

As traced since the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo for instance 1940s to mid 1970s, the economy of Mexico experienced a strong average growth of more than 6%,… [read more]

Shadow Banking on the International Term Paper

… These measures are instrumental in leading towards more prudent risk management of entity, reduction of any implicit "government safety net" linked with highly leveraged funds and mitigate pro-cyclicality of market movements occurring mostly in the cases of market distress. However, its potential disadvantages comprise of potential difficulties encountered in the calibration of limits for different investment strategies, which implies that some strategies are considered "efficient" only if they operate on highly leveraged basis. Moreover, impediments to a fund's portfolio investment flexibility tend to be another disadvantage associated with it. Thus, the type of entity under consideration and the particular features linked to it must be considered for tailoring this type of tool. Such type of tool is considered suitable for hedged funds (FSB, 2012f).


Pozsar, Z. et al. (2012). Shadow Banking. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Staff Reports. Taken from:

FSB. (2012a). Strengthening Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking: A Policy Framework for Addressing Shadow Banking Risks in Securities Lending and Repos. Taken from:

FSB. (2012b). FSB Publishes Initial Integrated Set of Recommendations to Strengthen Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking. Taken from:

FSB. (2012c). FSB Publishes Initial Integrated Set of Recommendations to Strengthen Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking. Taken from:

FSB. (2012d). FSB Publishes Initial Integrated Set of Recommendations to Strengthen Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking. Taken from:

FSB. (2012e). FSB Publishes Initial Integrated Set of Recommendations to Strengthen Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking. Taken from:

FSB. (2012f). Consultative Document Strengthening Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking A Policy Framework for Strengthening Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking Entities. Taken from: [read more]

Financial Management Both Economics and Accounting Essay

… Financial Management

Both economics and accounting are important to the field of finance. There is a degree of interrelation between the three, and the skills and knowledge of each can provide valuable insight into the other. Economics is the study of economic choices and their effects (Simpson, 2011). When performing financial tasks, an understanding of basic economic terms and concepts can improve the output of financial analysis. A simple example would be in performing capital budgeting, such as a net present value analysis. Making revenue projections is easier when one can translate assessments of future economic projections into demand conditions. Looking at data from the Congressional Budget Office, for example, can help financial managers to make demand estimates for a project, and those estimates will be improved if the economic forecasts are clearly understood.

Economics is also valuable because some of the basic concepts relate to financial decision making. In microeconomics, a lot of study in done on choices, and economic decision-making. Concepts like price elasticity of demand contribute directly to the work that financial managers do. In addition, financial managers benefit from understanding the ramifications of their own choices -- for example the tradeoffs inherent in things like capital structure decisions. The concepts that are used when learning and applying these financial management concepts derive directly from the field of economics, so a solid grounding in economic concepts and principles will help the financial manager to make better decisions based on a more sophisticated understanding of these principles.

Accounting is also important to the field of finance. Many financial decisions at the firm level relate directly to accounting concepts. For example, capital structure decisions are based directly on balance sheet information concerning the liabilities and equity of the company. This balance sheet information is used in things like the weighted average cost of capital as well. Another example would be with the net present value calculation, where cash flows are critical. This is based loosely… [read more]

George Magnus Is a Leading Term Paper

… Even though, the crisis in 2008 didn't led to a collapse of the capitalism. The way Marx analyzed the misunderstandings between the labor and capital and it causing political and economical unrest politically. Where Smith was sure that public institutions… [read more]

European Economic Crisis -- Greek Term Paper

… Recent OECD data show that Greece is among the least recipient of foreign direct investment capital in Europe. The cold attitude of Greece in its business dealings with countries all over the world reduces their chances of receiving foreign aid… [read more]

Shareholder Capitalism as a Model Research Paper

… The opportunity to easily remove equity made a wealth effect-driven increase in consumer consumption, raising housing as well as retail sectors whilst producing increasingly risky amounts of household bill (Greenspan and Kennedy 2008). As soon as house costs inescapably corrected… [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.