"Education / Teaching / Learning" Essays 1-69

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Education and Learning Term Paper

… Additionally they are forced to nod in a certain way to express the fact that they are paying attention to what is being said. Students have to immediately look at their peers when they are speaking. When this is viewed… [read more]

Sustainable Further Education FE Teacher Education Training in the UK Term Paper

… ¶ … Education

Teaching the Teachers

Teaching primary and secondary school children is one of the most challenging careers that there is. One of the most significant challenges of the profession is that for the classroom teacher who spends her… [read more]

Special Education Teacher Burnout Research Paper

… Special Education Teacher Burnout

High levels of stress are dangerous for all professions. In the field of special education it is responsible for much of the symptoms associated with variant levels of burnout. When teachers begin to experience burnout it… [read more]

Lack of Administrative Support for the Special Education Teacher Term Paper

… Special Education and Inclusion

Even at best, the teaching position is a challenge, particularly in public schools. Teachers are often required to work with unruly students and difficult parents. They are required to offer the majority of their time and dedication to the profession. Many come to the profession with high ideals and hopes of making a change for the better in people's lives, and many do so with continued enthusiasm and joy. However, challenges such as school policy, colleagues, and an unknown culture among the school staff, along with the above-mentioned elements relating to students and their parents, make it difficult to keep up the enthusiasm required to reach the initial goals. As such, teaching is often mentioned in the same category as nursing for the almost superhuman self-sacrifice often required by the job. It is therefore little wonder that many come to the profession with bright eyes and happy hearts only to leave five years or less later. This is particularly true of Special Education teachers.

Special Education teachers face all the above-mentioned challenges related to teaching, with the added difficulty that they are required to help students, each with a unique set of both personal, psychological, and learning challenges. The Special Education teacher is required to assess these and provide teaching to help these students achieve their highest potential. As the work of Special Education teachers are not related to a specific grade level, isolation often results.

This isolation occurs on a number of different levels. Most importantly, because the Special Education teacher tends to function apart from the other grade level teachers, social isolation occurs in the workplace. This also leads to emotional and psychological isolation, particularly for new teachers. Special Education teachers find difficulty relating to their peers within the school the difficulties that they face in their task, as their task is relatively unique as compared with the rest of the teaching work in the school. Indeed, Susan D. Whitaker (2001), cites this sense of isolation as one of the reasons why special education teachers tend to leave either the specific field…… [read more]

Special Education Teacher's Impressions of High Stakes Term Paper

… Special Education Teacher's Impressions Of High Stakes Testing And How That May Impact Preparing Their Students To Take Those Tests



Special Education Teacher Shortage Term Paper

… Special Education Teacher Shortage: An Overview

In the article "The Supply of and Demand for Special Education Teachers" Flippin, Mcleskey & Tyler (2004) discuss the critical shortage of special education teachers that currently exist in the United States. The authors point out that the shortage is a chronic problem evidenced in all geographic areas of the nation.

The authors attempt to analyze what factors have influenced the supply and demand for special education teachers in recent years, and address the magnitude of the shortage of teachers available in the U.S.

Information is pulled from a variety of data sources for the investigation, including the U.S. Department of Education Special Education Unit and the National Center for Education Statistics survey.

Their investigations reveal that 98% of school districts have reported special education teacher shortages in the last several years, with a 1999 survey showing special education as the area with the fewest number of available teachers in most major metropolitan U.S. cities.

Their study also shows that special education teachers were particularly in shortage for treating children with emotional and behavioral disorders, followed by individuals with "multicategorical, severe or profound disabilities" then those with learning disabilities.

Other statistics pointed out by the researchers show that although more than 38% of special education students are culturally and linguistically diverse, less than 14% of the teachers available in the field are from culturally diverse ethnic groups. This may impact a teachers' ability to relate to student with multicultural backgrounds.

Finally, the researchers conclude that drastic measures be taken to alleviate the shortage of special education teachers that currently exist within the U.S. There is some research available which supports the notion that special education teachers are more likely to be recruited via alternative certification programs. The authors conclude that further research is needed however in order to determine whether approaches such as this are likely to be successful for recruiting diverse personnel to work in the field of special education.

In addition, the researchers conclude that three factors determine the perceived demand for special education teachers. These include: student enrollment, teacher caseload and teacher attrition. The research suggest that further research is also necessary within these three areas. The data that is available support the notion that the number of special education teaching positions available in schools will likely remain unfilled but the demand for special education teachers will remain unchanged. In addition there is evidence pointing out that teacher caseloads can vary drastically due to non-conforming state regulations with regard to teacher caseloads.

Fewer teachers are also pursuing special education. The researchers suggest that barriers related to…… [read more]

Education - Teaching Methods Educational Term Paper

… Education - Teaching Methods

Educational Methods in Teaching

ESL Reading and Writing

The purpose of this work is to interview a teacher who specializes in teaching English as a second language and to ask the teacher about the effect of students' cultural and prior educational backgrounds on their school performance. The questions will be asked of "What accommodations does the teacher make to help students adjust"? What kinds of materials or activities has the teacher used with success with English learners and what kind of programs does the teacher consider best for English learners and why?"

Interviewee: Kregg C. Strehorn, ESL Educator

What are the effects of students' cultural and prior educational backgrounds on their school performance?

Answer: Culturally speaking the student from a family that is supportive and interested in their educational attainment is the student that is much more likely to be successful in school and the student who is more likely to "like" school and thrive educationally. If the student is from a family who does not value educational achievement then it is likely the lack of encouragement or disinterest from the aspect of the students' cultural environment will stifle the student in learning as well as educational achievement.

Question Two:

What accommodations does the ESL teacher make to assist the student adjustment?

Answer: It is very important is the clear expression of what is expected from the student in terms of classwork. The major elements needed in teaching the ESL student effectively are Provide adequate feedback;

2) Clarify goals;

3) Have consistency in Teaching Style;

4) Lessons need routine or framework; and 5) Have Cultural awareness. Stated is that: "By explicitly stressing this kind of seemingly trivial information, the teacher can save a lot of valuable class time and create a much more productive atmosphere."

Question Three:

What type of program does the teacher consider best for English learners and why?

Answer: Universal Instructional Design (Silver, Bourke, & Strehorn) is stated by teacher to be a process that started when, according to Kregg C. Strehorn:

began to open the classroom and attempt to make it more accessible to all students."

Strehorn believes this…… [read more]

Physical Education Teacher Burnout and PE Teacher Concerns Literature Review Chapter

… ¶ … Aaker (1991, p13) it is the general aim of all researchers not only to discover new information but as much as possible to build on what other people have already done in the field. This is particularly important… [read more]

Physical Education Teacher Term Paper

… This describes a continuum, where at one extreme is the direct, teacher-led approach and at the other lies a much more open-ended and student-centered style where the teacher acts only in a facilitative role.

The teaching styles are:

1. Style A Command - teacher makes all decisions

2. Style B. Practice - Students carry out teacher-prescribed tasks

3. Style C. Reciprocal - Students work in pairs: one performs, the other provides feedback

4. Style D. Self-check - Students assess their own performance against criteria

5. Style E. Inclusion - Teacher planned. Student monitors own work.

6. Style F. Guided Discovery - Students solve teacher set movement problems with assistance

7. Style G. Divergent - Students solve problems without assistance from the 8. Style H. Individual - Teacher determines content. Student plans the program.

9. Style I Learner Initiated - Student plans own program. Teacher is advisor.

10. Style J. Self Teaching - Student takes full responsibility for the learning process. (AAHPERD 2001)

The Spectrum offers a range of options to teachers that can accommodate students' diverse learning styles and meet the learning intentions of a teaching session more accurately.

The Spectrum also provides a sound basis for analysis of one's teaching and the effectiveness of selected styles to meet particular learning intentions (Tinana 2003). It emphasizes relationships between the different styles, rather than their differences. It follows that effective instruction in Physical Education takes account of this variety in teaching styles and an ability to use the style that is most suited to the teacher (Coates 1997).

By the same token it would be misplaced to assume that a given style is associated with a particular physical activity area or sport. The Spectrum is never intended as a straitjacket: quite the reverse. It permits a huge degree of freedom and celebrates the creativity of the individual teacher. In this way teaching is both art and science.


In teaching physical education the effective teacher is involved in adjusting and reviewing tasks set according to the needs and responses from the students. Being able to use various teaching styles identified in Mosston's framework creates an optimum working environment, maintains good discipline, sets high standards, facilitates pupils' thinking and achieves the multiple learning objectives integral to Physical Education. This positive instructional framework is surely worthy of serious consideration in our teaching of Physical Education.


Bennett, N. "Recent research on teaching: A dream, a belief, and a model." British Journal of Educational Psychology 48. 1978: 127-47.

British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education. Teaching and Learning

Strategies in Physical Education. Leeds: White Line Press, 1989.

Coates, B. "Refining your Style." Sportsteacher. Spring 1997.

Doherty, J. Teaching Styles in Physical Education and Mosston's Spectrum. Leeds Metropolitan University Press, Leeds, UK: 2003

Galton, M., B. Simon & P. Croll. Inside the Primary Classroom. London: Routledge & Kegan

Paul, 1980.

Kane, J. Physical Education in Secondary Schools. Schools Council Research Studies, London:

Macmillan, 1974.

Mosston, M. & s. Ashworth. Teaching Physical Education. Columbus,… [read more]

Disappointments of Educational Reform Term Paper

… However, fortunately for pupils, their families and teachers as well, schools had learned something from the mistakes of both the earlier, highly stigmatized segregated classes and the problems of mainstreaming as well.

Which brings us, more or less to the present. There are currently two major sets of challenges facing teachers of self-contained special education classes. The first of these is to create a curriculum that is appropriate for the members of the classroom. This can be a challenging task indeed given the widely varying developmental levels that usually exist together in a class as well as the range of ages.

Adding to these challenges, which have long attended the special-ed teacher, is the additional challenge faced in many special-ed classes today of children whose first language is not English. The complexities of working with immigrant children are substantial in and of themselves; when these immigrant children also have developmental problems, the complexities of reaching them and providing an appropriate educational can indeed seem overwhelming at first.

The second set of challenges facing the special-ed teacher lies in the issue of the stigma that is attached to special education. This is not a trivial issue or in any way subsidiary to the academic one. Education is the process of preparing young people for the world. Part of this preparation includes providing them with certain skills, such as literacy. But part of this preparation includes providing them with emotional and social skills as well. Indeed, this latter part is probably even more important than the former for self-contained special education classrooms.

This is, of course, not because special education children are not teachable in terms of academic skills but rather that, inhabiting a much smaller social world than their counterparts, they have fewer chances to learn essential citizenship lessons.

This paper suggests ways in which the special-education teacher can meet both of these challenges at once, providing children them with both the academic and social skills that are essential for each individual to have a successful - because rewarding - life.…… [read more]

Education - Teaching Methods Evaluation of Webquest Term Paper

… Education - Teaching Methods

Evaluation of Webquest

Chiang, Judy. "The American Revolution: Was it worth it?" 19 Oct 2007. http://questgarden.com/47/76/3/070311160651/

The introductory page of the Webquest "The American Revolution: Was it worth it?" is strong and provocative. It encourages students to engage in critical thinking from the very beginning of their research. This section asks the Webquest's users if they would have joined the colonists who revolted against the British monarchy. It uses age-appropriate language for students in Grade 5 but still takes the students seriously as critical thinkers about historical and political issues. To make the question relevant to the student's lives the introduction asks: "What are you willing to lose in order to fight for something that you want to gain?" This question could apply to a variety of historical, political, and even personal questions the students will face in school and life. The Webquest teaches how to think as well creates a task that will teach 5th grade students about an important period in American history.


The task is multifaceted. It involves group and individual research, which ensures that individuals collaborate and discuss the issues, but are not reliant upon others to do all the work. This is one of the dangers of only requiring group activities to teach about any particular subject. The task is dynamic and interactive. Students are not just researching answers to a list of factual questions. They are always creating something unique throughout their 'quest,' in the form of posters and then a persuasive essay. The essay question of "was the American Revolution worth it" is subjective in nature and encourages students to engage with history rather than merely accept their teacher's and common wisdom's received opinion.

The main task is to research the American Revolution and to write a persuasive essay using the student's new knowledge of the times. They must write in a way that would be persuasive to the American colonists. Then, students, using the historical information available to people of the era will decide if fighting the Revolutionary War was worth the consequences. This encourages students to look at things from an ethical perspective, weighing the pros and cons of going to war. However, in an age-appropriate fashion it asks the students if they would have fought the war themselves, personalizing the activity in a way to make history interesting to young students.


The guided process of individual research is clear and directed, yet allows for student input. Students can seek out individual sources beyond the ones suggested by the website or make creative use of language and persuasive techniques when crafting their essay. By encouraging students to independently research the good and bad effects of the American…… [read more]

Democratic Education Question Essay

… Why do you think neoliberalism has become the dominant discourse of education, despite the fact that Finland seems to go against most of the tenets of neoliberalist education and yet scores so well on the PISA tests? Is it the… [read more]

Cooperative Learning for Secondary Education Research Proposal

… Education

Cooperative Learning - for Secondary Education

When teaching in a secondary classroom I see students who are all at various reading and writing levels. There appears to be a wide range of varying abilities with my students in regards to their writing skills. Writing skills help a student attain self-determination, clarity, fluency and creativity in writing. If students master these skills, they will be able to write so that not only they can read what they have written, but other people can read and understand it too. Some students have outstanding writing skills while others struggle to get anything down on paper. As a result of the things that I have seen I am interested in seeing the effects of peer review activities on the writing skills of those students who are struggling particularly in the area of fluency. Fluency skills for writing include:

be familiar with the linear sequence of sounds mastering writing movements and letter shapes distinguishing the chunking of words identify the need for space between words

writing rapidly

It is important to build self-confidence through the use of peer review groups. In these groups students share their papers with one another, reading them aloud, and then asking for responses. For the first paper, only positive responses are allowed. Soon students get over their fear that the response group will be five people attacking their writing where only one had done it 'before. Each 'participant is vulnerable since each reads a paper to the group. Consequently each becomes sensitive to the needs of the student who's asking for help. Criticism is supportive, designed to help the student improve their writing.


How will small group, peer review activities contribute to students' writing skills and how will this affect their overall fluency?


What activities would be the most helpful for students to increase their fluency?

Overall…… [read more]

Learning Journals in Higher and Continuing Education Research Proposal

… ¶ … Learning Journals in Higher and Continuing Education (2002), Arthur M. Langer of Teacher's College at Columbia University, examines in-depth and with great authority the issue of utilizing learning journals "as vehicles for encouraging critical reflection among non-traditional students" and for comparing "variances with studies among traditional students" (2002, p. 337). In this case, non-traditional students are those who have not attended an institution of higher learning in many years or have never attended such institutions, mostly comprised of adults over the age of 50 (Petersen, 2005, p. 224). Overall, Langer's main focus is to clearly understand how adult students in a "technical computer class responded to the requirement for learning journals" in a classroom setting, while the qualitative research provided in this article focuses on whether "learning journals have been proven to be an effective teaching tool" in science-based classes (2002, p. 337). Therefore, the basic research question asked by Langer concerns "how the use of journals has impacted the learning process of adult students" and how this impact "compares to those of traditional students" (2002, p. 337).

As to the article's literature review, Langer provides a rather long and detailed analysis of former and existing literature on the subject of using learning journals in higher education. Most of these share common themes concerning "their use as learning tools" and focus on three major areas of research-first, the overall value that such journals contribute to the student learning process in the fields of science, engineering and higher mathematics; second, how learning journals offer a transition between theory and practice; and third, how the various kinds of learning journals have been used in the past "to facilitate critical reflection in student learning" objectives (2002, p. 339).

Langer also provides some examples related to a computer technology curriculum, such as J.A. Moon's suggestion that there are clear indications "of the manner in which learning journals have been used to facilitate learning" in the above-mentioned disciplines and the fact that learning journals have been shown to initiate the replication of facts and ideas in students enrolled in science classes (2002, p. 339). In addition, it has been demonstrated that science students who maintain learning journals, being "much like a diary in which a student writes down what has been learned and any new ideas that deserve some exploration" (Wilson, 2004, p. 245), have improved upon their personal learning and communications skills at all levels, particularly in the disciplines of science and mathematics (Langer, 2002, p. 339).

In regards to data collection/research methods, Langer employs two approaches, an evaluative review of the learning journals kept and submitted by students and an interview process of selected students that completed a specific course. With the first approach, Langer utilized researchers to read and evaluate all of the submitted learning journals for style, content and subject matter and then examine these journals with a critical eye, looking for common themes and learning concerns (2002, p. 342). With the second approach, Langer solicited student volunteers to… [read more]

Assessments Measure Learning in Colleges and Universities Research Paper

… In my own future position as a faculty member, I fully intend to study the most pertinent, most applicable assessment techniques and implement them -- with emphasis on learner-centered themes.


The time has come for reform throughout higher education, including business schools as well as liberal arts and science-based institutions. The trend should be away from emphasis on what instructors should teach and toward a more learning-centered approach, which utilizes some of the assessment strategies presented in this paper. And if the true value of the learning experience does not lead to a student being inspired as well as knowledgeable, then the experience of higher education could be seen as an exercise in futility. On the other hand, when believable, proven learner-centered assessment approaches are the agenda, the college and university experience can be fruitful for the student and for the American society.

Works Cited

Nilson, L.B. (2010). Teaching at its Best. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Stivers, B., and Phillips. J. (2009). Assessment of Student Learning: A Fast-Track Experience.

Journal of Education for Business. 84(5), 258-262

Webber, K.L.…… [read more]

Education: Teaching Math to Students With Disabilities Term Paper

… Student Websites

There also are a number of websites that are specifically geared towards assisting students with or without disabilities at all grades deal with math topics that they do not understand. Five of these have been outlined below.

i) The Alberta Government Website: http://www.learnalberta.ca/Home.aspx

This site provides registered users with easily understandable resources/reading materials and assessment questions on lesson topics of their choice. A new user has to register for an account, in which they provide information on, among other things, their grade. Once the account has been created, the user logs in and selects a lesson topic from study skills, current events, geography, math, or reading. The site then avails relevant books and simplified reading materials on the requested topic, and a set of accompanying assessment questions.

ii) The NCTM site: http://illuminations.nctm.org/

This online resource provides a number of interactive applets that make it possible for students to learn through practice. The applets range from operations and numbers, to profitability & data analysis as well as measurement, geometry, and algebra. The site avails simplified resources and gauges the students' understanding by getting them to take part in interactive math games and quizzes.

iii) Math.com: http://www.math.com/

This online resource avails games, practice, and online tutorials on math concepts at all grades (Oldham County Schools 2 of 3). Subjects offered include calculus, statistics, trigonometry, geometry, algebra, pre-algebra, everyday math, as well as basic math. By way of an online tutorial, students receive assistance on their homework, and are administered with study and test preparation tips, references, as well as formulas and tables.

iv) BrainPop.com: http://www.brainpop.com/

This resourceful website offers online tutorials on any lesson topic in the areas of Art & Music, Health, Technology and Engineering, Math, English, as well as Social Sciences. Lessons in math include Algebra, Geometry & Measurement, Probability, Data Analysis, Numbers & Operations, and Ration, Proportion & Percentage. The site provides a printable assessment at the end of the tutorial, through which students can gauge their understanding (Oldham County Schools 2 of 3).

v) The National Library of Virtual Manipulatives (NLVM) website: http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html

This site provides a wide array of virtual interactive manipulatives in the realm of Probability & Data Analysis, Measurement & Geometry, Algebra, and Numbers and Operations. It targets students from all grades. The manipulatives present, among other things, formulas, real-life illustrations, and simplified techniques of tackling complex mathematical problems.

Works Cited

Oldham County Schools. "Instructional Resources for Math." Oldham County Schools, n.d. Web. 17 August 2014 http://www.oldham.k12.ky.us/files/intervention_resources/Math/Instructional_Resources_for_Math.pdf

Starr, Linda. "Teaching Special Kids: Online Resources for Teachers." Education World, 2010. Web. 17 August 2014 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr139.shtml… [read more]

Exceptional Student Education Term Paper

… ¶ … Student Education

What were the two main findings in the PARC Case (1971)?

One of the key findings in the PARC v. PA (1971) case was that failure to provide students having mental retardation with access to public… [read more]

Personal Philosophy of Education Essay

… Personal Philosophy of Education

Teaching today has become a challenging profession. Not only are teachers required to maintain a good relationship with their students and the learning material they are to master, they are also required to function within a… [read more]

Distance Learning in Adult Education Term Paper

… Higher Education

Distance Learning in Adult Education

History of Distance Learning

Throughout the nineteenth century, in the United States, several activities in adult education paved the way for the organization of university extension beyond campuses. In 1873, Anna Ticknor formed… [read more]

Video-Based Instruction in Distance Learning Thesis

… Education - Distance Learning

DISTANCE LEARNING: ARTICLE SUMMARY According to the article, distance learning is an effective alternate means of educational instruction that considerably broadens the spectrum of useful methods of academic instruction as well as task-oriented vocational training. While distance learning does not necessarily require the use of a video component, the advantages of video-based instructional programs include the receptivity and enthusiasm of students for instruction through a visual medium. In that regard, the author suggests that even completely informal "instruction" such as in the form of passive learning from watching commercial television is also associated with information retention, or learning as well.

Optimal learning results combine auditory components with information presented through the visual medium, but in that regard, the specific format of the auditory component is comparatively less important. Comparable learning is achieved whether the auditory component is presented simultaneously or after the fact. Likewise, whereas early incarnations of video-based instructional programs tended to feature a human instructor on the screen, contemporary research has demonstrated that the inclusion of an instructor is not directly related to the effectiveness of distance learning programs.

In principle, this is thought a function of the dual mechanisms of cognitive learning through visual and auditory information in general. More particularly, the author also suggests that, if anything, the auditory component of successful distance learning experiments may be underappreciated by virtue of assumptions that successful video-based learning experiences are incorrectly attributed to the value of video specifically. The author suggests that empirical information is comparatively lacking in the area of…… [read more]

Special Education Goetze and Walker ) Found Term Paper

… Special Education

Goetze and Walker (2004) found that students who are most at risk of academic failure are those who lack reading skills. They found that use of technology enhanced literary capabilities of students who have special needs (Goetze and… [read more]

Mathematics My Role as a Special Education Term Paper

… Mathematics

My role as a Special Education Teacher

Despite the fact that education is not referenced in the U.S. Constitution, nations that declared that they have "undertaken to provide" it ought to provide extended educational prospects fairly. Appropriate development securities… [read more]

Teaching My Personal Objectives Essay

… Gardner posited the viewpoint that intelligence is not simply something measured in terms of intelligence quotient, but that there are actually multiple distinct types of intelligences that are related to music, kinesthetic learning, linguistics, logic and others (Helding, 2009, 193). This theory implies that a teacher must simply identify the type of intelligence that is a student's strong point and leverage that to his or her advantage. Additionally, Callista Roy's theory of adaptation propounds the notion that people incorporate a variety of different mechanisms -- specifically those pertaining to society, psychology and biological processes -- to adapt to a constantly changing world (Moreno-Fergusson and Alvarado-Garcia, 2009, p. 63). This theory also implies that people can adapt to their surroundings and circumstances and learn (as well as teach) accordingly).


My philosophy supports the program curriculum in a multitude of ways. On an extrneely basic level, my philosophy regarding leanring is applicable to the nursing curriculum. Even though most of the students who I will be working with will have some level of collegiate experience as a student, and perhaps even advaced degrees in nursing, they can still benefit for a pedagogue who can utilize differentiated instruction as needed to suit their individual needs. Moreover, my philosophy applies to nursing in that it is invaluable to provide the support of inspiration that the next generation of nurses will need to become suitable practitioners and, perhaps, suitable instructors themselves one day. Although this group of learners may already be extremely motivated, it is still necessary for me to provide the sort of inspiration that can foster lifelong learning for them -- not just for nursing, but for learning in general. Thus, my philosophy of learning supports the program curriculum in all of these ways.


I believe that if implemented properly and if I am able to obtain my goals as an instructor, the value of my teaching role to the program, the institution and the nursing profession as a whole is immeasurable. I am attempting to curate the next generation of nursing professionals at a high level of education to effectively take this occupation further. My job is to teach them how to learn about nursing as a whole. Doing so will require a lifelong process of erudition and practice, in which they in turn can attempt to shape future generations of nurses.


De Jesus, Olga. (2012). Differentiated instruction: can differentiated instruction provide success for all learners? National Teacher Education Journal. 5(3) 5-11.

Helding, L. (2009). Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Journal of Singing. 66(2), 193-199.

Mattila, L-R, Rekola, L., Koponen, L., Eriksson, E. (2013). Journal club interventions in promoting evidence-based nursing: Perceptions of nursing students. Nurse Education in Practice. 13, 423-428.

Moreno-Fergusson, M.E., Alvarado-Garcia, A.M. (2009). Application of Callista Roy's adaptation model in Latin America: A review of the…… [read more]

Counselor Education Teaching Philosophy Research Paper

… ¶ … Counselor Educator

In many ways, counselors are educators. They take tools for communication and growth and attempt to teach those goals to a diverse group of people in settings that are designed to increase dialogue and communication in… [read more]

Self-Directed Learning Mentoring Research Paper

… Adult Education

Adult Learning and Mentoring

The problem is that adults are not intrinsically motivated. This has caused them a lack of success at the collegiate level.

The purpose of this study is to determine whether a specific solution improves… [read more]

Higher Ed Journal the Use of Learning Literature Review Chapter

… Higher Ed Journal

The Use of Learning Journals in Higher Education

The study conducted by Langer (2002) provides consideration of a progressive approach to observing learning outcomes. Identifying 'learning journal' usage as a way of monitoring weekly learning outcomes for students, the study by Langer makes as its primary area of consideration a method of student evaluation that might bring more nuance to the grading system. The interest is of particular value, the discussion conducted hereafter will show, with respect to non-traditional students, who may be less inherently responsive to the parameters or implications of a grading system.

This points us to the primary research question driving Langer's study. Langer asks what the variance is in the experience of non-traditional vs. traditional students when using learning journals as a part of the regular learning process. In order to initiate an investigation on the subject, Langer composes a literature review detailing the theoretical and practical history of the learning journal as a tool for educational improvement. He reports to the value of learning journals historically in such reflective fields as science, mathematics and engineering. Here, Langer refers to Harmelink (1998) as a researcher who yielded positive research outcomes where science students kept journals constructed to improve learning and communication. These findings are further endorsed by Selfe et al. (1986), which underscores the idea of learning journals as a way of improving conceptual learning approaches separate from grade-based performance. The research showed that while grades did not necessarily improve in students, the learning journal did help to improve the development of abstract reasoning and problem-solving capabilities.

A subsequent section in the literature review consider the transition of learning journals in theoretical discourse to practical usage. The literature review credits Dart et al. (1998) and Johns (1994) for preliminary examination of this usage. A final section of the literature review identifies various types of learning journals. Here, Langer identifies structures, unstructured and dialogue journals as different approaches which may be taken in practical application of the specific strategy. In proceeding from the literature review, Langer makes the argument that "the existing literature on the use of learning journals in higher education indicates that it can be an effective learning instrument." (341) the research also finds that there is typically an adjustment period as the student works to gain comfort with this novel learning approach.

These literature findings underscore the qualitative, comparative population approach taken to the data collection and analysis methodologies. Langer contends that a "review of the literature on learning journals for students in higher education, as summarized above, provides theoretical and contextual grounding for the current study and informs its two principle modes of inquiry: an evaluative review of the learning journals submitted by students; and an interview of selected students who completed the course." (p. 341)

Langer would channel this into findings suggesting that non-traditional and traditional students respond differently to the learning journal but that both demonstrated some benefits and some significant limitations. First, it bears noting that non-traditional… [read more]

Shortage of Special Education Teachers Essay

… Chronic Shortage of Special Education Teachers

"If teachers are well-prepared in both content and pedagogy, 'it makes an enormous difference not only to their effectiveness in the classroom but also whether they're likely to enter and stay in teaching'… [and]… [read more]

Cooperative Learning in Elementary Classrooms Research Paper

… Education -- Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning is a teaching methodology that has been widely studied and evaluated in connection with student motivation, learning, cooperation, social, and emotional benefits. That is particularly true at the elementary and middle school levels; it… [read more]

Learning Centered College Statement Thesis

… Education - Statement

LEARNING-CENTERED EDUCATION PERSPECTIVE as a faculty member, I would try to incorporate learning-centered college concepts into my classroom as much as possible and in particularly in any manner that facilitated student motivation directly. Toward that end, I would encourage students, including first semester freshmen, to consider every elective course as an opportunity to prepare them for their future. In that regard, I would counsel students to consider the relevance of every course with respect to anticipated career goals; in the case of students with little idea of the ultimate direction of their goals, I would suggest that they view every academic course as an opportunity to consider potential areas of related interest. In principle, I would caution against selecting courses without at least some very general idea of what relevance or potential relevance it may have with respect to future professional or advanced educational goals.

Ideally, I hope to have the opportunity to incorporate elements of Gardner's Multiple Intelligence approach by introducing my students to the concept of acquiring relevant knowledge through a broader means of information transmission than the traditional passive learning in the lecture-based model. While primary and secondary school are the optimal settings for the fullest incorporation of Gardner's principles, college students can be encouraged to explore different types of media to help identify their greatest strengths. All too often, students never have any opportunity to consider the possibility that alternate modes of instruction might increase their retention. For example, I would encourage students to propose alternate sources of comparable subject matter as a means of identifying untapped learning strengths. In some cases, students would have the first opportunity to explore the potential…… [read more]

Becoming a Reflective Practitioner Term Paper

… ¶ … Education

Individual learning

When a student is asked to personally read to a teacher, there is both a feeling of 'specialness' combined with an increased desire to perform well. Of course, if a child is selected for individual instruction as a punitive measure, this feeling of being singled out might have a negative dimension. However, if the teacher makes use of individualized instruction to ask questions about the story that stimulate the child's curiosity about the tale, if the teacher uses the moment to engage the child about matters personally of interest to the child that are revealed in the reading, and the child is engaged as an active and equal partner in his or her learning the experience of reading to a teacher can have a unique, added dimension of pedagogical value.

Furthermore, for shy children, being able to read and explore a story without the pressure of speaking aloud to a class of his or her peers can act as a confidence-builder that eventually translates into a wider social situation. Even for children without reading difficulties, the social relationship fostered by reading to a teacher can create a positive feeling about school that translates into better performance. I recall from my own experience that when I was in a class with few friends, although reading was one of my stronger subjects, the ability to read aloud to a teacher and have other individual learning experiences with my teacher enabled me to 'get through the year' and remain focused in a positive fashion on my schooling.

Teaching away from the classroom

Field trips, interactive assignments like staging a school play, or simply going out into nature for a science or an art lesson can make schooling seem less…… [read more]

Online Education Term Paper

… Online Education

Online Learning vs. Traditional (in-Class) Learning

Whether students prefer online learning or in-class learning largely depends on many factors, including how much socialization a student is looking for and whether he or she is happy with the commute… [read more]

Improving the Resource Room Term Paper

… Special Education

Improving the Resource Room in Special Education

The resource room special education teacher must work with a variety of students of varying needs, all at the same time. The teacher must meet the needs of students with a number of disabilities, which may include autism, emotional problems and learning difficulties. This philosophy does not allow the teacher to provide education for the individual student in the least restrictive environment. The educational requirements of these various students require interventions that are specific to their particular circumstance. This research will explore the proposal that policies within the special needs department must be made that provides more specialized teachers for each group of students with a particular type of disability.

This proposed strategy would require special education teachers to specialize further in their field. For instance, the LD teacher would be matched to LD students. EI teachers would be matched to students that require these specialized services. This would allow the teachers to specifically meet the needs of the student and be able follow their IEP more closely. This system has several advantages over the current methods used in the special education resource room.

Teacher Qualification

Using the proposed strategy that matches teacher qualifications to the specific needs of the children will result in teachers that are better equipped to deal with the specific needs of the student. Every disability, or group of disabilities requires different intervention strategies (ISER, 2007). Yet, special education teachers are required to meet the needs of this varied group using a format that uses a "one size fits all" approach to special needs.

The teacher is more likely to be more or less experienced with certain disabilities than others. Those students that have disabilities with which the teacher has less experience may suffer. The teacher is likely to become stressed over the inability to meet the needs to students that are not in his or her realm of teaching experience or education. Providing a higher level of specialization within the classroom will provide students with a teacher that understands fully the intricacies of their particular needs.

Within the special needs population, certain marginalized populations exist, such as those with poor health or from a different ethnic group than the dominant population. Education for these groups is often not even addressed using the current system (UNEXCO, 2007). The proposed system would allow schools to hire someone to target this special population within a special population.

Time Management

Currently, teachers must create individual plans for various disabilities within their classroom. The proposed plan will result in better time management as teachers will only have to create lesson plans for one particular disability. They will be able to concentrate on only one particular type of disability. They can devote all of their time to one particular type of disability, rather than having to split the time between the preparation and delivery of several different lesson plans. This more efficient use of time management will…… [read more]

Education Divergent Learning Style Summary Research Paper

… d.).

It is possible that male and female learning guides and partialities differ. The discrepancy almost certainly has biological, cultural, and environmental origins. There is in addition of course, great diversity among both male and female populations in regard to learning. Nevertheless, it is probably counterproductive to take for granted that gender is an immaterial issue in what people learn and how they learn. Culture has a significant manner on how people learn. While it is obviously not the case that all people of a given society learn in comparable manners, it is the instance that learning environments and measures that are at ease for several people of one cultural group may not be so to a lot of people of other cultural groups. Children in classrooms that are cultural oddities frequently do badly in school. In classrooms where diverse cultural groups are characterized, a single advance to teaching and learning is improbable to serve all children well (Differentiated Instruction, n.d.).

3. How do I see my divergent learning style affecting my educational design?

It is very important that each child be taught in a way that they can best learn. Designing an educational curriculum that is tailored to a particular learner is the best way to make sure that that child is successful. This would be a way in which I can see that the divergent learning style will aid me in my educational design. Determining the best way that a student learns and tailoring the material to their learning style will help that particular child to be the best learner that they can be. This will give the best chance of being successful both in school and out.


Differentiated Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://webhost.bridgew.edu/kdobush/Strategies%20for%20Teaching%20Reading/Handbo


Savoie, Olivia. (2011). Convergent Learning Style vs. Divergent Learning Style. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/way_5635221_convergent-vs_-divergent-learning-style.html… [read more]

Teaching as a Career Research Paper

… Education -- Teaching Observations and Interview

Classroom Observation

This project included an observational component in which the researcher observed a 7th Grade classroom in Earth Sciences. To minimize any potential influence on student behavior associated with students' awareness of an adult observer, the observation was conducted using a small one-way mirror installed for any circumstances where such observations were helpful.

This particular learning module involved the measurement and study of environmental erosion. The first part of the class consisted of a narrative explanation by the proper setup and implementation of the experimental materials. That narrative included suggestions for methodologically valid formulation of empirically testable hypotheses. Following the narrative explanations, the students assembled into pre-assigned groups after consulting the chart on the wall that the teacher referenced in part of her instructional lecture.

The researcher noted the attentiveness to task demonstrated by almost every student and made a notation to inquire into how the teacher achieved that objective. Likewise, the researcher also noticed that the groups worked to solve apparent problems with the proper setup of experimental procedures. The researcher was particularly impressed by the apparent accuracy of the various simulated natural erosion processes that were evident from her vantage point directly behind two groups of students.

The learning module concluded with a post-experiment review in which spokespeople from all the groups presented their groups' findings to the class and responded to questions from the teacher.

Teacher Interview

The second component of this project consisted of an interview of the teacher whose classroom module was observed in the first phase of the project. That interview began with an inquiry into the attentiveness…… [read more]

Steps to Improve Inclusion Especially for Profoundly Retarded Students Term Paper

… ¶ … school inclusion with the goal of showing how an inclusion program, when implemented and understood correctly, can work to benefit all students involved, both special and regular education. This paper is aimed at a New York City middle… [read more]

Amount of Time Special Education Teachers Use Term Paper

… Special Education Teachers & Their Investment of Time

The demands on a teacher of special education students have grown exponentially over the last few years. The increase in duties and responsibilities that special education teachers have been burdened with -- taking more and more of their time prior to and after class time -- may be among the pivotal reasons there is a crisis in this component of education. For example, an article in the journal Education (Plash, et al., 2006) reports that "special education teachers are more vulnerable to stress or professional burnout" than professionals in human service positions. Moreover, the study alluded to in this article -- conducted in Baldwin County, Alabama -- reflects that the biggest reasons for burnout and for switching to general education position among special education teachers are: "increased caseload"; "demands of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) compliance"; bigger class sizes; job conditions; and "occupational stress." By the year 2010, the article asserts, there will be a need for 611,550 special ed teachers in the U.S.; but the fact is that each year around 13.2% of special ed teachers leave their positions. Six percent of those leave the special ed field completely, while 7.2% switch to general ed.

The survey conducted for this research concluded that "role conflict, role ambiguity, perceived workload, and perceived principal support" lead to emotional and physical exhaustion.

An article in the journal the Clearing House (Thornton, et al. 2007), points to additional research on the pressures special education teachers experience. Why are so many special education teachers leaving the field? Employment issues (the fact that there is better pay elsewhere in the teaching field) are pertinent to this question, but working conditions are listed as the second-most crucial issue. To wit, special education teachers are burdened with: increasingly complicated job assignments; bigger class loads, job stress, paperwork, lack of empowerment and a school "climate" that is not necessarily conducive to rapport with kids who have special needs. On top of those problems, special education teachers face a "lack of collegial, principal, and district support," the article explains.

All special education students must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP), which takes a lot of time for the teacher. According to the San Diego Unified School District's Web site (http://www.sandi.net/depts/specialed/iep.htm), the IEP (which is mandated by the IDEA at…… [read more]

Personal Challenges Early on in My Educational Term Paper

… ¶ … Personal Challenges

Early on in my educational career, I have diligently taken measures that would ensure that I am constantly exposed to complicated yet challenging activities and endeavors. One of the hardest and bravest decisions I ever made was to transfer from Los Angeles to San Francisco during 11th and 12th grade, in order to get a better education. Upon my transfer, I sought to challenge myself and test my limits in studying by enrolling in AP and honor classes. For my AP class, I engaged in Calculus, Chemistry, Environmental Science, while in Honors class, I was involved Pre-Calculus. I am proud to say that my enrollment in these classes equipped me with the proper knowledge and skills to pursue a better and more advanced education centered on the sciences.

In addition to taking AP and Honors classes, I was given the opportunity to get involved with and experience college life during a summer session program at University of California Berkeley. This experience enabled me to know more about and be prepared for college life. Apart from improving myself academically, I also joined clubs and engaged in activities that enhanced my leadership skills in various fields of study, such as the arts (film, jazz, and yearbook clubs) and sciences (environmental science).

One of the most important qualities and experience I had the privilege to have is my ability to generate understanding and properly handling cultural diversity. Being an international student allowed me to know other people from different cultures and societies, thereby widening my experience in interacting with other people, especially those who are just starting to immerse themselves in American society. Thus, as an educational institution known for its focus and receptivity to cultural diversity, University of California Berkeley is, for me, the right place where I can contribute to the improvement of understanding cultural diversity as well as developing a "global state of mind."

On a more personal level, my skills in communicating and relating effectively with other people and being passionate and responsible in the tasks and activities I am assigned to do are talents that will enable me to accomplish my objective of being actively involved in socio-civic endeavors while at the same time, pursuing an education centered on the sciences. Communicating effectively with other people is an essential requirement when relating to other people, necessary in making people interested and educated in my advocacy, which is social justice (i.e., particularly dealing with social justice issues). Similarly, one must have the passion and sense of responsibility to become actively involved in every activity and undertaking needed to promote awareness about social…… [read more]

Individual Growth in This Particular Portfolio Term Paper

… ¶ … individual growth in this particular portfolio, we should first of all briefly refer to a general outline of a teaching portfolio, as this may provide important backup information and may come to show some trends and pointers for… [read more]

Lesson Planning Term Paper

… Education - Teaching Methods/Lesson Plans

Education - Teaching Methods

Lesson Planning

The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an understanding of good practice in teaching and planning based on the following six points within the UK's educational system: (1) an awareness of the principles of good lesson planning (2) Identifying and addressing misconceptions that pupils may have in understanding math (3) Planning for differentiation (4) Progression from Key Stage 3 (5) Assessment (6) the contribution of ICT (Information, Communication, Technology)

In the most recent publication of the Key Stage 3 National strategy 2004-05 (DfES 9122-3005 G) expands on these goals and then "shows how the strategy links with the principles of school improvement and the actions that school leaders should undertake to promote improvement."

The number of terms in the school year

The number of teaching hours in the week

The number of days in a timetable cycle

Lesson length

The time allocated to each subject'

Pupil groupings - whether pupils should be grouped in particular ways for any subject, for example, by ability or by gender

Transition support - whether to offer a summer school and how best to organize a catch-up programme.

Curriculum Inclusion and the distribution of the curriculum across the key stage. Curriculum inclusion and differentiation; and continuity and progression. Schools have great freedom and autonomy in the timetabling of curriculum. Booster classes for Year 9 - if, when and how they will take place Key Stage 3 is said to build upon the achievements of students age 11 at Key stage 2 and the firm ofundation that are delivered through the design of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. Further the KS3 National Strategy is key to the achievement of objectives with broader scope and at secondary levels. The test given in Key Stage 3 in English, Mathematics and Science underwent some changes during the year of 2003.

Principles in Lesson Planning and Awareness

For the 2005-year the building on strategy training initiative and material were for the purpose of increasing the rates of progress among students as well as studying how the "core subject departments can enable more pupils to progress two levels across the key stage. In order for formative assessment to occur it is critical that students have a good notion of the intentions of learning for each lesson. The Learning Intention is that which students should know or understand upon completion of the learning of the child. The rationale for learning is stated to be critical for the students' understanding.

Identification of and addressing the Misconceptions that Pupils have in Understanding Maths

Stated in the study is that, "Analysis of the children's interview data indicates that most children (322) understood and could explain what the teacher was looking for. Quarters of children were unsure or did not clearly understand the success criteria of the lessons observed."

Planning for differentiation

Timing, teachers chose to introduce the learning intention and success criteria at different stages in this intro being. Teachers chose the… [read more]

Responsibilities in the Development of the IEP Term Paper

… IEP is becoming much more of a dynamic instrument. There is increasing demand for updated and sustainable IEP's that take into account the student's changing needs are standard. The one point in time analysis is becoming a thing of the past and these results need to updated on a regular basis (Barnett, Daly III, Jones & Lentz, Jr., 2004, 66).

How do you plan to teach to the state standards, especially with regard to students with disabilities?

The Americans with Disabilities Act and the One child left behind policy dictates that we teach to the needs of people with disabilities as well as to state standards. If you see this as a mission and a vocation and not just simply as a job, you can find the energy and innovation to do both. On top of this, I have a love of children that draws me to teaching. Also, I am passionate in my own love of learning makes that propels and inspires my teaching.

How do you make sure you meet the needs of a student with disabilities with an IEP? The IEP is an evaluation of their needs. It should be based upon a thorough investigation of the therapist's notes on the student. When I make a difference to a child in a classroom or successfully teach a challenging lesson, when connection with the child is made, the reward is immediate.

3. How do you communicate with parents, especially about a planned intervention? I bring in the parents into the planning of the intervention. It is necessary to have them on board with the intervention so they have ownership on what is going on with their child.

4. What are the best things about your school's special education program? In our school, there is a well planned special education program. Luckily, we are in a wealthy district so we do not lack for resources. The people in the district take special education very seriously and fund it adequately. The Assistant Principal of my school was a real inspiration to me, and she is one of the major reasons I pursued a teaching career with developmentally disabled students. Her ability to guide her students, her fairness and also her sense of justice provided me with the…… [read more]

Bitter Milk Research Proposal

… Bitter Milk

Grumet, Madeline. (1988). Bitter Milk. University of Massachusetts Press.

% of all the nation's teachers are female: so why have women's values had relatively little impact upon shaping the professional values and ethos of pedagogy? This is the central question asked by Madeline Grumet in her 1988 book Bitter Milk, which offers a feminist and feminine-centric view of the teaching process. Over the course of Grumet's work, which is half-memoir, one-quarter theory, and one-quarter history, Grumet advocates a non-patriarchal form of teaching. Unlike some teachers, who resist the characterization of teaching as 'women's work,' Grumet embraces it. Rather than separate women's nurturing and reproductive qualities from their roles as teachers, Grumet advocates linking a teacher's status as a mother or potential mother with her role as an educator. Grumet does not state outright that women must be mothers to be teachers, but she does suggest that the feminine experience has a unique perspective to offer children in the classroom. When children receive such a woman-centric perspective, in contrast to the male perspective they receive in the rest of their cultural lives, teaching can become a truly radical political act, rather than to merely serve the values of patriarchy.

The status of teaching as underpaid 'women's work' is a historical development, not a natural state of affairs: in the 19th century, young boys of the elite received the benefits of the teaching of a schoolmaster, and even taking into consideration rural schools and the teachers of the very young, in 1840 women only made up 60% of the teachers in the U.S. With the decline in professional status for teachers came an upsurge in female teachers: expanded access to public education and the need to educate the swelling ranks of immigrants caused many young women to be drafted into the profession. Public education and the education of the very young lacked the prestige of higher learning, and hence teaching became largely women's work.

Although women were not supposed to enter the ranks of the professional classes, teaching was usually presented as a kind of half-way step between girlhood and marriage. By 1910 more than 80% of American teachers were female, very often women fleeing the ranks of motherhood to seek some sort of independence (Grumet 1988, p. 43). But women, as mothers and teachers, have contributed their biological and metaphorical labor to institutions that have fostered female subordination. Essentially, female teachers have unwittingly become part of the mechanics of oppression. Women are called upon to use standardized methods of indoctrination that stifle children's creativity and love of learning and which has no parallel with the way women instinctively teach their own children. Throughout her book, Grumet parallels the experience of teaching with the experience of mothering, to stress how both facets of her life are interconnected, even though scientific methods of teaching might suggests that they 'should' be different.

Women often consciously or unconsciously reinforce male values in the classroom. Even simply favoring louder and more boisterous boys can… [read more]

Technology for School Administrators Expertise Essay

… Technology for School Administrators

"Expertise in technology

has become an essential administrative prerequisite"

(Donlevy, 2004, ¶ 3).

Technology for School Administrators Principles/Approaches

To monitor the success of students in the learning environment, as well as align the student curriculum, instruction, and assessment processes, school administrators need to be experts in contemporary technology. In regard to technology for school administrator's principles/approaches, as the introduction for this study segment alludes: "High Performing Leaders plan and implement the integration of technological and electronic tools in teaching, learning, management, research, and communication responsibilities" (Florida educational & #8230;, 2005, p. 2). The use of technology for the school administrator constitutes a routine part of the daily protocol, as the researcher learned from this particular study. With the use of technology, the school administrator can better encourage effective student performance clarify learning expectations, and implement feedback measures to ensure participants' in the educational process.

II. Technology for School Administrators Information

In consideration of information regarding technology for school administrators, the researcher learned that in this area of educational administration, a set of common standards for principals, as well as most all other formal leadership positions in education, remains conspicuously absent. In response to this primary void, even though differences in leadership that correspond to roles do exist, the central aspects of the role are basically the same for all school leadership positions (Interstate school… 1996). Along with numerous strategies currently being utilized to enhance the quality of leadership in the educational arena, extensive work on revising preparation programs for prospective and school administrators is currently in progress.

Future school leaders have to be better-prepared for modern administrative roles and possess technology skills. They must also command a wide understanding of the various ways technology may be effectively applied throughout the schools. Consequently, as the quote introducing this study asserts, it is now vital that the school administrator possess expertise in technology (Donlevy, 2004). As teachers tend to readily participate in areas they consider meaningful, the school administrator's leadership may provide essential ingredients to empower the teacher, along with him/her self to engender a meaningful, decision-making model relating to effective implementation of technological tools (Rafoth & Foriska, 2006).

III. Technology for School Administrators Generalization

Susan McLester of Technology & Learning relates one particularly potent generalization regarding the technology for school administrators. "As more than a few of us have observed," Mclester points out, "it is not unusual for students to possess the highest degree of knowledge, competence, and confidence when it comes to computers and the Internet, while the superintendent possesses the least (Mclester, as cited in Donlevy, 2004, ¶ 2). In an age of rapid change, technological tools traditionally affect the lives of those in education in numerous significant ways. Simultaneously, however, the technology consigns new obligations on school administrators.

IV. Technology for School Administrators Questions

Potential research questions relating to technology for school administrators could explore an underlying assumption relating to and technology tools common to information-age professionals. Queries could investigate whether school administrators are… [read more]

Century of Distance Education in the United States Thesis

… Education - Distance Learning


The Surprising Early History of Distance Education: Generally, when one thinks of the origins of education in the United States, the images that come to mind are those of the classic one-room schoolhouse depicted in popular media since the earliest decades of the 20th century. Another is that of parochial schools and private boarding schools associated with the privileged class. During much of the first half of the 20th century, higher education was hardly part of mainstream American popular culture with the exception of Division I college football. Only in the second half of the century did the idea of aspiring to a college degree become more mainstream than something associated primarily with wealth and privilege.

Probably, relatively few people realize that long before most American institutions of higher learning were even founded, one of the largest sources of higher education in the U.S. was the nascent distance learning system that included the enrollment of 20,000 students in the correspondence courses developed at Cornell between 1903 and 1908. In fact, according to the author, by 1926, the 2 million students enrolled annually in correspondence courses outnumbered all of their colleagues matriculated at all American colleges, universities, and professional schools, combined, by a factor of four.

Possible Avenues of Research:

If presented with the luxury of doing research on any aspect of adult education history, I would be interested in the views, in retrospect, of the adults who had the opportunity to continue their education in youth but chose not to do so at the time.

Specifically, I would be interested in characterizing the reasons for their original decision not to pursue higher education, whether with respect to enrolling in college after high school or with respect to dropping out of high school prior to graduation.

My experimental hypothesis might be that of those who were not forced to suspend their education by economic (or other) necessity, many who became disillusioned by education did so more as a function of the methods (i.e. rote memorization, exclusive reliance on the lecture-based, passive learning model, and rigid adherence to a very narrow academic curricula) rather than by virtue of lack of aptitude.

My research involving individuals who later continued their education as adults would include a survey of the specific methods of instruction they perceived to be most conducive to their achievements and whether those methods differed from traditional methods of academic instruction.

Perspectives on the Future of Distance Learning:

Contrary…… [read more]

Goal Statement for Graduate School Term Paper

… Goal Statement for Graduate School

Furthering my study by obtaining a graduate degree in early childhood education is a goal that I wish to pursue and attain in my quest of becoming a good, responsible, and effective early childhood education teacher. Although obtaining a graduate degree was not in my plan when I started my college study then, it soon however had been a passion for me to learn more, experience more, and perhaps specialize in early childhood education. This passion started when I came to gain different theoretical and practical understanding on how to nurture the learning process of children, as well as when I learned about the many methods that may be applied to provide excellent support to the development process of children. I am touched by the fact that the future of a child does not only depend from his parents as his first teacher, but similarly depends from how he is nurtured by his early childhood teacher. Hence, I aspire to provide the best learning experience to children.

I have several goals and objectives that I wish to achieve and attain within my experience in the graduate program in Early Childhood Education. First of all, I want to be prepared in performing my responsibilities as an early childhood teacher. I want to learn the necessary skills and strategy-development principles on how to facilitate the intellectual and moral development of children. I believe that a good learning experience of a child in his early education, both in terms of intellectual learning and moral development, can help him establish in the future a good perspective on the importance of education.

Secondly, it is my goals'…… [read more]

Personal Statement for Application Essay

… I am looking forward to classes that will offer the learning skills that I need to get my degree. However, I do realize there will be subjects that I might not enjoy. I have learned during the last year that all classes have something to offer. Many of my teachers and counselor believe I have the ability to achieve my goals if I apply myself to the talk. This I promise to do. I have learned my lesson about procrastinating and not applying myself during my last year of school.

One of my problems in high school has been that my father was born in Germany and my mother was born in Puerto Rico. I am not good at all with languages and it has shown on my transcripts. I will be the first one to be born in the United States in my immediate family. I want to be the role model for my family and to make them proud of me, which I have not done during high school.

I know that college will be a new level of academic difficulty, but I feel I am a better individual that will rise to the challenges that different classes may offer. I will work to accomplish the best grades that I am able to achieve.

The friendships and the camaraderie that only college can offer will be an experience that I am looking forward to. When the courses are hard I will work hard and seek help when I need the help. I believe I have what it takes to make an excellent student at your college. I have seen the consequences of my academic failure and will not allow this to happen again. I promise to make myself the best student that I can be if you will accept me as a…… [read more]

Capitalism and Market Forces Thesis

… ¶ … Training to Education:

Lifelong Learning in China"

How does capitalism -- or any economic system -- intersect with adult education?

The effect of capitalism on the economy has certainly changed the economy of Shanghai. The new economy has raised the demands of manpower, including structural economic changes. The need for general education is expected with tertiary industries. This shift has placed an increasing pressure on all individuals, especially older adults, to be educated and/more educated.

Other economic changes include universities charging fees but that is not all. How education is perceived is changing not only how education is viewed but also how it changes the economic landscape. Mai-King notes that under a socialist state, "adult education was confined to the preparation or upgrading of manpower as required by the national manpower plan" (Mai-King). While other opportunities were given, it was not the choice of the individuals. Since the change in adult education has occurred, the economy experienced an "explosion of the need for continuous education" (Mai-King).

This illustrates how education has changed the market and made it more flexible. Education is something that is a leisure and people realize that it can lead to a "meaningful life" (Mai-King). Here we see how the individual has a choice and, as a result, we see how personal choice actually improving society as well as the individual. When people are allowed to choose an educational path that appeals to them, there can be positive results in that such a path is fulfilling.

It should also be pointed out that these changes are not easy to accept. Mai-King points out," it is interesting to observe the role of culture in the process of change" (Mai-King). Mai-King notes that there can be no doubt about the significance of culture and its positive reinforcement regarding the value of education. In addition, the Chinese are not generally noted for their lack of motivation or desire to learn. These changes, in Mai-King's opinion do not "always reassure the traditional values of culture" (Mai-King). While adult education has made a positive stride over the past decades, the changes do not come easily. Individuals that seek more from an education also seek more from a society as well. This new attitude drives a wedge between old traditions and new philosophies. Mai-King states, "There is a clear deviation from the traditional aims of education for social mobility or collective objectives. Education is acquiring a new meaning" (Mai-King). In short, adult education has caused a shift in society that makes it "an essential vehicle for proactively adapting the workforce for…… [read more]

Using Technology to Support Teaching and Learning Term Paper

… Technology and Learning

Introduction- From the late 20th century on, technological growth has become so robust that in the last decade there have been vast changes to the educational and business environment based on it automation, cloud computing, new memory… [read more]

Learning and Assessment Basics Term Paper

… Some subjects do not lend themselves very well to the basic, common kind of testing that is done through yes/no questions or multiple choice options. These all have their place, but there is still more to be done (Pellegrino, Chudowsky,… [read more]

Adult Learning Adult Education Essay

… ¶ … Adult Learning

Adult education is by and large any type of learning grown-ups get involved in past conventional schooling age. In narrower sense, adult education concerns literacy, about grown-ups being trained how to read the most basic materials. However, some cover almost every aspect ranging from basic literacy to personal fulfillment as a lifelong learner, even eventual achievement of advanced degrees at the advanced ages. Adult education is intended to teach adults how to read texts, common documents like maps, directions and catalogs, and how to make basic calculations.

Adult learning on the other hand this is the ability to imbibe, absorb or remember and apply whatever is learnt in the classroom and as well use it creatively in the daily environment. This ability varies from learner to learner and has long been regarded to be influenced by various factors like environment, age, exposure etc. However, it has been found that creativity or ability to learn "is a confluence of personality traits, ways of thinking and knowing, and social and environmental influences. It is a universal ability that does not decline with age but changes qualitatively with cognitive development and the accumulation of life experience and expert knowledge." (Sandra 1999). In deed, formal schooling may hinder creativity of a learner rather than enhance it. Formal training may only influence the academic achievement but not aid in creativity.

The difference between the two therefore implies that adult education may not be a prerequisite to adult learning. The education may be fundamental in adult learners knowing how to read and write, basic arithmetic, but it may not of necessity heighten their creativity in the daily application of the learnt ideas. Two adult learners from the same class and of the same age may display absolutely divergent hands-on traits in their work accomplishments. Indeed one learner may be undergoing intensive music lessons yet fails to deliver in creative song writing than the other who is not enrolled in any education institution.

Utility of Andragogy

Andragogy as an adult learning theory operates on the presumption that the position at which an individual achieves a self-concept of vital self-direction is the point at which one becomes adult psychologically. This psychological maturity and urge to learn are motivated by several factors that can be applied in handling adult students.

Firstly, adults would like to be wholly involved in the progress of their education. Adults have a strong urge of self-concept; this then forms the basis of their motivation. The adult need to be ware of the need to learn a particular skill or new idea before, they put any…… [read more]

Teaching and Learning Research Proposal

… Teaching and Learning

Review of an Education Journal Article

In their article regarding teaching learning strategies, Weinstein and Mayer (1983) define what a learning strategy is, give some implications for teachers, and conclude with an examination of several different kinds of learning strategies. To begin, the authors call learning strategies, "behaviors and thoughts in which a learner engages and which are intended to influence the learner's encoding process" (pg. 3). Thus, tasks that motivate learners, allow them to organize, or otherwise aid them in their learning can all be considered learning strategies. According to the authors, it is important that students learn to develop such strategies as a way to handle both their own thinking and the information that they gather in school. According to the authors, "Learning is an active processes that occurs within the learner and that can be influenced by the learner" (pg. 3). Teachers must be prepared, then, to encourage students not only to learn what has been set out for them, but also to learn how to learn by adopting learning strategies. The authors conclude -- before a call for more research and a caveat that its findings will further alter these strategies -- with a list of some learning strategies. These include rehearsal strategies, elaboration strategies, organization strategies, comprehension monitoring strategies, and affective strategies.

Because Weinstein and Mayer (1983) reference new research in the article, it can be assumed that this article was penned in order to inform others about the new research on learning strategies and how to implement it in the classroom. Although the article is short, it is clear that Weinstein and Mayer (1983) had a research problem the elusive nature of learning strategies. The researchers wanted to define and give examples of strategies for learning for teachers, in addition to pointing out the teacher's role in the development of student's learning strategies.

Because of its…… [read more]

Toward a Theory of Independent Learning and Teaching by Michael Moore Thesis

… Independent Learning & Teaching

Toward a Theory of Independent Learning and Teaching by Michael Moore

Two of the fundamental assumptions of the university are "that each scholar can and should pursue knowledge in his idiosyncratic fashion" and "that students should be permitted to study extramurally." It is from these ancient assumptions that Independent Learning and Teaching sprang from.

Independent Learning and Teaching is an educational system in which the learner is autonomous and separated from the teacher at the time of learning as a function of individualization and dialogue, so communication is by nonhuman medium such as print, electronic, or mechanical devices. As a system, it has three subsystems: the method of communication, autonomous learners, and distance teachers.

Method of communication. In traditional education settings such as lectures in class or in group discussions, the teacher is proximal with the learner. Communication is through voice, and interactions are spontaneous. Also, these interactions are not limited between teacher-learner, but are also possible among learners. In comparison, in Independent Learning and Teaching, the learner at the time of learning is separated from the teacher at the time of teaching. It could be that the learner and teacher do not directly speak with each other, or do not even know each other personally.

Communication between teacher and learner is usually by instructional packages that employ a number of media, which are prepared by teams of teachers and media specialists. Instructional packages include books, correspondence programs, television, radio, programmed texts and teaching machines, computers, telephones, dial access systems, and tape recordings. The learner is in control of the pace at which to receive information and send out responses.

Autonomous learner. As compared to the learners of traditional education, autonomous learners are more responsible with the conduct of their own learning program. With autonomous learning comes greater responsibility as a function of the distance between the learners and the teachers. Although, an autonomous learner is no Robinson Crusoe since he or she may contact the teacher through various communication methods, if the need arises. Autonomous learners have similarities in character. The most salient is that they enjoy mental activities; as evidenced in the joy they find in reading, writing, remembering, testing, analyzing, and finding the basic structural ideas in any subject, among others. They regard time as the essential formula for a successful independent study; so they plan ahead, delegate and maximize time…… [read more]

Three Critical Aspects of Creating an Effective Learning Environment Essay

… Learning Environment

Critical aspects for a learning environment

PRESENTATIOn outline on effective learning environment

Intermediate division teachers are placed in a unique position because they have to address the learning needs of students going through a period of their lives… [read more]

Neuroscience Supports Differentiated Instruction Teaching Essay

… Differentiated instruction like normative instruction should furthermore challenge the students' skills and thinking, while engaging them on a broad level and a deep level. Differentiated instruction respects that students learn the most and the best when they connect course content… [read more]

Teaching and Learning Research Proposal

… ¶ … education is that of special education, for students with physical or cognitive disabilities. Because every student is affected in a unique way, providing enough teachers to adequately support these students is a considerable challenge. However, according to the article from the journal Preventing School Failure, a crucial resource is often overlooked in special education: the children's family. The article by K. Patterson, K. Webb, and K. Krudwig examines the influence of a new program called "Family as Faculty" in which parents are deployed in partnership with teachers in designing student's Individualized Educational Programs (IEP) s.

The article created a simulation, in which case-based instruction was deployed in a simulated individualized education program meeting between real parents and student special education instructors. It was then evaluated for its usefulness in the context of a special education teacher's preparation. According to the researchers, the experience "influenced 16 beliefs of 89 special education teacher candidates about the value of partnering with parents. The parents, who all had children with disabilities, participated in meetings "embedded in a teacher-preparation course to bring authenticity to the experience" of student teachers of special education students (Patterson et al. 2009). The article suggested that better integrating family into the learning process created a bridge between the knowledge conveyed in the classroom and learning at home. The need to get the parents 'on board' during IEP meetings was reinforced through case-based learning. Showing student teachers how parents could be useful through case-based learning was deemed a vital part of any special education program for effective future instructors.

The research involved in the article did not take place in an actual school. Rather, it was deployed amongst a population of student teachers before they had left their university environments. This case-based simulation learning was "defined as a written, problem-based account of an authentic teaching dilemma…The role of the instructor using case-based instruction has been in various ways described as that of facilitator, moderator, catalyst, resource, and director" (Patterson et al. 2009). The parents used in the…… [read more]

Universal Design for Learning and Collaborative Teaching Term Paper

… Universal Design for Learning and Collaborative Teaching

Introduction Universal design

Universal design for learning is the overall rubric which includes within its ambit the questions, concerns, problematic and potentials of collaborative and inclusive teaching methods and practices. Universal design refers… [read more]

Paradox That Teaching Term Paper

… "[Menchu, 1983]

Hence, the motivation to learn must be therefore before an education system could be erected. Similarly, Menchu's autobiographer David Stoll believed Menchu's account did not collaborate with historic evidence. For this purpose, he ventured on a quest, interviewing hundreds of people and tracing the history of the place. Lessons from Menchu thus act the catalyst, motivating Stoll to further his knowledge. Similarly any kind knowledge cannot be acquired unless one learns of it and one cannot teach unless one learns about it first. For this reason, Freire's statement that "There is no teaching without learning" proves true.

In countries like Japan and Korea, the process of learning starts from a very fundamental level, inherent in their culture. A child learns of his/her ancestor from home, then at school. Any additional learning that needs to be done has to come from the school. However, additional learning or rather learning of other cultures will have to stem from existent education system. That means that the education system will have to accept that its students need more knowledge to become equipped with the standards of the world. It must allow its teachers to expand, to learn from other cultures before it could be brought home.

Ricardo Lagos, expressed its timeliness when he said, "...The differences between inheritors and the disinherited of the next century will be access to education. That is why education is so important."

Japanese company cannot dispatch its executives to America unless they learn about the culture first. Education, is not only an advancement of knowledge only but it is an acquisition process. A person cannot teach unless that person has learned it, experienced it him/herself. Menchu could not have narrated her life story unless she experienced it. A child cannot learn effectively from the teacher unless he/she experience it. At all levels of education, successful absorption of knowledge stems from ongoing learning process.

Confucius, concludes, "From whom indeed did our Master not learn? But at the same time, what need had he of any fixed and regular teacher..."

From the above discussion, it could be said that education and the process of acquiring it is not a simple teach-learn process. It is in fact an ongoing learning process whether one is the student or the teacher. Since knowledge and its acquisition, the desire to acquire it all depend on how one uses it, it changes all the time. A teacher cannot depend on one piece of information for all period of time but rather must change it according to the need of the student. Fundamental education like teachings through religion, culture and the environment all contribute to this change. An effective teacher would be one who knows what the future needs are and mould students accordingly. But before that he/she needs to learn himself.

President George W. Bush expressed it right "...reforms express my deep belief in our public schools and their mission to build the mind and character of every child, from every background, in every… [read more]

Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education: Challenges and Opportunities Literature Review Chapter

… Teachers should also be aware that some cultures punish members who challenge authority, but to punish these students for not challenging assumptions or points-of-view would be unfair. These suggestions reveal treating everyone with respect and fairness is insufficient, if the… [read more]

Interview With Teacher and Report Term Paper

… Herbert Spencer held that curriculum should be designed with a focus on human activities and was utilitarian positivist in his philosophy and defended natural rights. (Education Foundations, 2014, p. 1) From the view of Jane Adams, education is the foundational base for democracy.

The applications of the principles of assessment informing instruction and curriculum development is a process stated as follows:

"Progress monitoring to see if the students are progressing in a particular subject according to the curriculum, usually the standards of benchmark of the grade level" is used in an ongoing assessment because the use of interventions that are not effective and ineffective instruction creates difficulties for students however, the implementation of a "supplemental assessment procedure to help in deciding if an intervention is ineffective within a shorter time period could greatly benefit the student." (Jones, 2008, p.15) Teachers have come to collectively realize and acknowledge that the one-off standardized testing each year is a very ineffective method for informing instruction and thereby informing the curriculum. Instead, the curriculum must be a treated as something living and always in the process of transformation depending upon the information derived from assessments which are ongoing in nature and always providing feedback to the instructional and assessment processes. The best example, according to Kari provided on teaching to diverse learners is provided by Jesus as he models "how the teaching and learning cycle should be implemented." (Jones, 2008, p.1)

Throughout the Gospels -- Matthew, Mark, Luke and John -- many of the writings were about Jesus teaching his disciples with the ultimately purpose of answering the guiding question 'What is Truth?'(Jones, 2008, p. 14) Jesus is reported to have utilized "ongoing progress monitoring (questioning and observation) of his disciples to assess if the disciples understood. If the disciples did not, Jesus retaught the concept with different strategies of methods such as using parables, performing a miracle or teaching one-on-one." (Jones, 2008, p. 14) Jesus mapped his questions out according to what he wanted those listening to learn. (Jones, 2008, paraphrased)

Interview Conclusion

This study has reported an interview of an elementary teacher, Kari, and her views and philosophical outlook on the teaching practice and specifically teaching and standardized assessment of students. Various philosophical views have been examined including those held by Herbert Spencer, Jane Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Herbert Mann. Various beliefs about instruction, curriculum and assessment have been reported however, it is clear that when there is a disconnect between instruction, content of curriculum and student assessment that the process is skewed, students are not learning what they need to achieve high grades on assessment and ultimately the educational levels of today's learners is lower than the previous generation's achievement. One factor that is absent is family involvement in the education of today's learners and furthermore lack of civic involvement and engagement on the part of parents, children and entire families.

Civic involvement has always enabled cooperation and collaboration among the various sectors in society and civic involvement has created a… [read more]

Desecration of Public Education Research Paper

… Without quality public education, the youth will only learn skills needed for low profile jobs and will fail to play an active role in civil life. This is corporate oligarchy, not democracy (Davidson, 2010).

Lack of education can also lead… [read more]

Andragogy Malcolm Knowles' Theory Term Paper

… Because of the experiential format of clinical coursework, where students primarily learn from their mistakes, the student will only get as much out of the course as she puts in. That is, a student who is poorly prepared for clinical coursework will commit mistakes at the basic level, out of which she will derive only basic lessons in the practice of nursing. Such a student will receive what amounts to remedial education from the clinical component of the course. A student who is prepared to the minimum level expected by the coursework, however, will commit mistakes at the relatively advanced level, and will derive more advanced lessons from her participation in the clinical component.

The Necessary Climate for Clinical Teaching or Learning

Clinical coursework is best delivered in a setting with ample training resources. Some element of professional training is necessary for clinical coursework because a student cannot be expected to know how to perform certain professional duties and procedures, which constitute the learning activities themselves, from their classroom-based coursework alone. An experienced clinical professional must be available to instruct the student on how to perform the duties and procedures that she will be evaluated on.

The other fundamental component of clinical coursework is ample feedback and evaluation from an experienced clinical professional with sufficient knowledge of the student and her work in the clinical setting. Formal evaluations completed by the student's official clinical supervisor should be considered the absolute minimum for this component. Effective clinical coursework would require ample amounts of immediate feedback from the professional supervising the student's work on a particular task.

The training and feedback components of clinical coursework are best delivered through the same individual or group of individuals. The individuals who provide the training are best qualified to evaluate the student on her application of that training during the respective task. The training and feedback components are best delivered through a single supervisor/mentor, an experienced clinical professional. It is optimal if the mentor has experience supervising students in a clinical setting, but not essential.

Number of Students in a Clinical Setting

Clinical coursework is best delivered in a learning environment with no more than 4 students assigned to each supervising professional/mentor. This ratio allows the supervisor to develop a substantial professional relationship with each student in order to deliver substantive and focused feedback tailored to the student's particular needs. It also ensures that the supervisor has enough time to meet any additional training interactions that any particular student might request or require.


Knowles, M.S. (1970). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy vs. pedagogy. New York: Association Press.

Kaakinen, J., & Arwood, E. (May 07, 2009). Systematic Review of Nursing Simulation Literature for Use of Learning Theory. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 6, 1.)

"Instructional Design: Theories - Andragogy (M. Knowles)." Encyclopedia of Psychology.

"Instructional Design: Theories - Andragogy (M. Knowles)." Encyclopedia of Psychology.

Kaakinen, J., & Arwood, E. (May 07, 2009). Systematic Review of Nursing Simulation Literature…… [read more]

Flat World and Education Linda Book Report

… However, in Finland, a decision was made "to invest in a uniformly well-prepared teaching force by recruiting top candidates and paying them to go to school" (Darlin-Hammond, 2010). As a result, the author observes that in the latter case, teacher training program slots tend to be highly valued thus making shortages rather unlikely. In such a country, deliberate steps are taken to ensure that schools are equitably funded. Indeed, in regard to Finland, the author of this text paints a picture of a largely equitable school system. This also happens to be the case in not only South Korea but also Singapore. In my opinion, were the U.S. To use the same approaches used by Finland especially when it comes to teacher preparation, a widespread skilful and motivated knowledge base would be created to the benefit of learners at all levels.

There is also the issue of small school units. In the opinion of Darlin-Hammond, parents, students as well as teachers have in the past observed that the relevance of small size cannot be overstated when it comes to the success of a school. One of the key benefits associated with smaller size schools include but they are not limited to enhanced safety. In this case, it is argued that the relatively small number of students creates a closely knit community where individuals know each other relatively well. Proper learning thrives in a safe environment where incidence rates are relatively low. I am convinced that should our education system move towards small school units, learning will be greatly enhanced.

In chapter nine, the author caps it all with the question, "what would a well-functioning teaching and learning system look like under a federal form of government, such as the United States?" In seeking to address this question, Darlin-Hammond recommends that such a system should have a number of critical elements including meaningful student learning, equitable and adequate resources, strong professional practice, schools organized for student and teacher learning, and finally intelligent, reciprocal accountability. These elements in my view are not only valid but also well-thought-out.

Should Darlin-Hammond's recommendations be adopted, they will no doubt have a positive impact on not only school restructuring but also teacher preparation and by extension, quality of education. Using a number of states as her basis, the author successfully highlights what has worked in the past and that which has not as far as education reform is concerned. In my opinion, this provides policy makers and educators with a rare opportunity to try out approaches that have a high probability of success rather than resort to experimentation. I am convinced that this country still has a chance to revamp its education system. Indeed, as the author puts it, "…entire nations have developed strong and equitable education systems, often from very weak beginnings" (Darlin-Hammond, 2010). If others have done it, so can we.


Personally, I would recommend Darlin-Hammond's book to any individual concerned about the future of education in this country. This is a book… [read more]

Teach in a High-Need School Application Essay

… ¶ … teach in a high-need school because I feel that my education and experience has taught me the skills necessary to teach students enrolled in New York City's high-needs education program. I am creative enough to maintain a good learning environment, and adaptable enough to be able to handle any student's needs. I can maintain a steady pace of teaching while controlling a more sensitive classroom environment. New York City has the kind of school system that I would like to teach in. Public schools in the city have many requirements for high-needs teachers, and I can fulfill them. Living in New York City and becoming a teacher is a dream that I have been harboring for years. I will be an effective high-needs teacher because of my Master's Degree in Secondary Education from Wagner College on Staten Island. After receiving my Bachelor's of Arts Degree in Political Science in 2010, I felt that a career in politics was not exactly the path I was meant for.

I have a passion for political science still, but I decided I would like to apply myself towards a more direct role in my career, working with children and not in an office. So I decided on becoming a teacher. Both my Mother and Sister, who are both Special Education teachers, influenced me in my decision. I have been with them to their classrooms many times and I am comfortable while in this environment. Ever since I was small, I was learning from my Mother when she would come home from class, and having a teacher as a Mother has made me better prepared to be a teacher myself. Before I applied to enter a teaching program, I looked around many colleges in the City, and I liked my undergraduate college best.

I decided on Wagner because of its excellent reputation for its teaching program, its proximity within New York City, and its resources tied into the New York Public School system. I have learned everything I could about teaching while at Wagner, and I feel that I gained a lot of valuable knowledge as a result. Many current New York City Public Education teachers are graduates of Wagner, and therefore I felt I had chosen the best college for this goal. After this, I entered Wagner College's Secondary Education program and have been excelling in the classes that I have had. I am qualified to teach High-Needs education, and am looking forward to doing so in the near future. I formally graduate from Wagner College's Masters in Secondary Education program in May 2013.

The greatest challenge I expect to face in teaching a high-needs school is the…… [read more]

Special Education During My Time Case Study

… Special Education Case Study

During my time as a special education teacher there were many students who posed challenges when it came to school, but there was one boy who was by far the worst and most challenging case I had ever experienced. The boy was diagnosed with ADHD at a young age. By the time I encountered him in high school, he had used his diagnosis as an excuse to avoid any substantial work. The problem was that at his high school his English teacher saw through his laziness and with the approval of his guardian decided to press the child for better work. I was left with the task of working with him and keeping him on task.

The central problem with this student was memory and cognition. Ever since his diagnosis, teachers did not assign the student any literature that was substantially long and so what was once a minor problem became very serious by the time he was in high school. When I tested his reading level, it was at a 4th grade level, which suggested to me that his previous teachers had simply decided to avoid challenging the student or pressing him to improve. What made this problem even more difficult for the student is that in his mind he had already given up and written himself off as being unable to read literature. This was not an acceptable way of thinking for his English teacher.

The purpose of this case was to exercise the student's mind and teach him how to focus enough to comprehend literature. This is a daunting enough task with a regular teenage student, but a student with ADHD and such a low reading level made it even more difficult. The course was 11th grade English, so I would have to find a way of making the books seem more doable to the student in an attempt to increase his confidence and empower him on to the next book.

I started by information gathering with his teacher. I got a list of the books that he had to read for…… [read more]

Learning: Cognitive Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … Learning: Cognitive

Cognitive Theory of Learning

The cognitive theory of learning states that memory and prior knowledge play active roles in learning, which requires that researcher look beyond different types of behavior to learning that is based in… [read more]

Tube as a Key ICT in Education Article

… ¶ … Tube as a Key ICT in Education

"Many educators believe that the act of creating content…is a valuable learning exercise… [YouTube] allows students to replace passive learning with active participation, where everyone has a voice, anyone can contribute,… [read more]

Lesson Plan - Nurses Term Paper

… 14, Issue 4, pp. 503 -- 508

Sharma, S.; Sastri, O.; Ahluwalia, P.K.; (2010) Design of instructional objectives of undergraduate solid state physics course: A first step to physics education research, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1263, Issue 1, pp. 171 -- 174

Tschannen, D. & Kalisch, B.J.; (2009) The impact of nurse/physician collaboration on patient length of stay, Journal of Nursing Management, Vol. 17, Issue 7, pp. 796 -- 803

Wittmann-Price, R.A. & Fasolka, B.J.; (2010) Objectives and outcomes: The fundamental difference, Nursing Education Perspectives, Vol. 31, Issue 4, pp. 233 -- 236

The collaboration teaching strategy makes a lot of sense to me. I have always believed that each individual can add some bit of knowledge to the group-based either on experience, education or intelligence. Collaborating in the classroom or clinical setting allows for interactions that will surely be beneficial to most (if not all) the participants. Collaboration also provides a setting for enhanced personal relationships with those people we work with on a regular basis. One of the drawbacks to collaboration is that its success oftentimes is based on the relationship(s) between the various participants. If there are some that do not wish to participate, or perhaps they think they know too much (or too little) then the process could become bogged down or frustrating…… [read more]

Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences Term Paper

… Adult Learner in a Diabetic Education Center

At my previous place of employment I worked in a clinic that provided education to individuals who had just been diagnosed with Type II diabetes. While this condition is increasingly common among children… [read more]

Boys and Girls Learn Differently Book Review

… The boys meanwhile: a) rely "heavily on nonverbal communication" simply because they are not as well developed in verbalizing as girls are; and b) have better "spatial abilities" (in areas such as measuring, mechanical design, geography and map reading). It comes as no surprise to elementary and middle school teachers that girls bond quicker with other girls than boys do with other boys. In fact, girls "bond first and ask questions later" but boys, Gurian explains on page 28, "might be aggressive first and ask questions later." Boys strive to dominate in a group setting, while girls tend to utilize "egalitarian alliances" (28). The list of things that girls can do better than boys -- and the boys do more effectively than girls -- is far longer than space in this paper, but a few more of those differences are worthy of mention (Chapter 1).

Girls are less likely to be "overwhelmed" by stimulation but boys excel at dealing with "spatial relationships" like objects and theorems; when it comes to singing in tune, six times as many girls can sing in tune than boys; and girls respond immediately and "acutely" to pain, but in terms of "resistance to long-term discomfort is stronger than in males" (30). Girls process more emotional stimulants, "through more senses, and more completely" than boys do. Further, and again, this is a finding in Gurian's book that won't surprise teachers at any level of K-12, boys' "aggression-and-withdrawal response short-circuits intellectual and academic learning" because his process of emoting uses "less reasoning" and "takes longer" (32).

Chapters 4 and 5

In Chapter 4 Gurian criticizes classrooms that fail to emphasize "character development"; he agrees that encouraging values like self-esteem is important, but if the moral needs of the child are not addressed, the development of character loses ground. The nuts and bolts of character development -- vitally important in my special education class -- include: respect, empathy, accountability, responsibility, recognition of diversity, honesty, compassion, cooperation, self-confidence and resourcefulness (169). A school or classroom that engages in character development makes it absolutely firm that behaviors like teasing, harassment, humiliation, aggression and violence (in 2001 all of these actions are bundled into one word, "bullying") are not acceptable. In my classroom of special education students, I absolutely believe in -- and do my best to enforce -- character development. Children under my guidance are of course not fully mature with reference to their emotions and actions, and we emphasize respect to both girls and boys; we teach them to value each other's idiosyncrasies no matter that they may be quite different and even unusual.

In Chapter 5 the author covers the brain's "re-structuring" processing in middle school. Gurian also reviews and critiques sex education, separate-sex schools, uniforms and handling the emotional challenges boys and girls go through at this age. Of all the advice and examples Gurian offers, the four bonding steps stands out for me -- given my students with special needs (227). Asking questions (1) is something… [read more]

Adult Education Lesson Bruner and Adult Learning Essay

… Adult Education


Bruner and Adult Learning

The theories of Jerome Bruner best fit my position as an adult learner. Bruner believes that learning falls into three categories: the acquisition of new information, making the new information transfer from one area to another, such as from the classroom to the assessment or from the assessment to the workplace, and the evaluation of whether or not the information the person has acquired is adequate for the purpose for which it is intended (Knowles, 2005). Bruner has been criticized because his theory does not concern itself with emotional development. If I were a child, this might be a valid criticism, but as a settled adult, I am far less concerned with my emotional development than with my acquisition of knowledge. I am in school because I want to acquire new information, and as I take tests I must evaluate my knowledge in order to fulfill the course requirements. The most important goal, however, is for me to be able to take the knowledge that I have acquired into the workplace, and only then will I know for sure whether the knowledge that I have obtained throughout my education is adequate for me to fulfill my workplace tasks. This cycle is not a one-time process, but it repeats as new tasks and new obstacles present themselves. The cycle is not strictly dedicated to the school environment. The acquisition, synthesis and application of information is a skill that is needed in the…… [read more]

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