"Education / Teaching / Learning" Essays

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To What Extent Should Bilingual Education Be Offered in Public Schools Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,596 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Bilingual Education in Public Schools

The subject of Bilingual education within the context of public school education has been a topic of debate for several years. Many educators believe that Bilingual education is necessary to ensure that English Language Learners (ELL), are able to learn at the same pace as English speaking students. On the other hand, some educators posit… [read more]

Institutionalization of No Child Left Behind Policy Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,917 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Education - NCLB Policy


One of the more controversial contemporary educational concepts is the implementation, in 2002, of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB)Act under the Bush administration. The principal elements of NCLB require nationwide compliance with federally-monitored progress evaluations of reading, writing, and elementary mathematics proficiency. The objective of NCLB is to ensure… [read more]

Why I Chose Education as Degree Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Why I Chose to Pursue a Graduate Degree in Education

Being a positive catalyst for change in peoples' lives is one of the most fulfilling activities one can experience. Providing them the necessary insights, knowledge and set of practical and theoretical skills to attain their personal and professional objectives is invaluable. Taking on this responsibility of being the person in their lives that equips them to excel, attain their objectives and compete globally is invigorating and a challenge that is alluring to me. To be a catalyst for positive change in peoples' lives is how I want to invest my life. Serving others and assisting them to be strong and capable critical thinkers is imperative for them to navigate an increasingly complex world as well. Ultimately the success of anyone is a direct result of their finding out what their natural abilities are on the one hand, and what their passions are for learning on the other. I strongly believe that at the intersection of natural ability and passion is where a person can excel. I want to be the educator who assists my students to find this intersection in their lives, so they can excel and attain their personal and professional goals.

Further, I want to equip my students with the necessary analytical and practical skills to define their own direction and future as well. Assisting them in knowing the intersection of their innate strengths and passions are relating to learning is the first step. Giving them both critical feedback and encouragement to assist them in becoming discerning, critical thinkers is also important. The confidence to be independent in their intellectual pursuits coupled with the skills to attain their objectives is critical for their ability to compete in the future. By pursuing a graduate degree in education, equipping myself with the necessary insights, knowledge, techniques and frameworks to assist my students to attain these difficult yet critical goals for their development, I hope to excel in my service to my students. Nothing is as satisfying as to see a student grow from a lack of confidence to first identifying their unique strengths,…… [read more]

How Education Influences the Myth or Reality of Individual Opportunity in America Today Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Education, Job Satisfaction, And Personal Happiness: An Annotated Bibliography

My Research Question

For this paper, I intend to examine the effect of education on personal happiness and job satisfaction in the United State of America. Although some may argue that personal happiness and job satisfaction have nothing to do with how education influences the myth or reality of individual opportunity… [read more]

Culturally Sensitive Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,626 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Culturally Sensitive Education

Education as Change Agent for Cultural Awareness and Collective Need

Any review of literature regarding change affect and culturally sensitive education would be remiss if it did not begin with a discussion of the work of Pablo Freire, as to some degree he is the first scholar and thinker that observed the validity of education as a… [read more]

Personal and Professional Goals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal and Professional Goals: Higher Education and Adult Learning Program

One of my most exciting and enriching educational experiences of recent date has been my work as a volunteer instructor of adults studying to prepare to take the GED. Many of these students had become soured to education at an early age, hence their reason for not completing high school. But I found that most of these adult learners had returned to the classroom with a new sense of inspiring focus and commitment. In my own recent experiences, online learning as an adult student has enabled me to further my own education within my relatively compressed time frame as the mother of four children.

The hunger of adult learners for the types of educational opportunities that they were not able to take advantage of when they were young, and the notion that learning is something continual, rather than confined to the early part of one's life, are the primary motivators for my wish to obtain a Doctorate in Education through the Higher Education and Adult Learning Program. My goal is to become an instructor upon the university level and to excite the same feelings in my future students that I felt upon returning to the classroom, the same joy I saw in the eyes of my GED adult learners. As a mother as well as a professional, I am also quite cognizant of the competing demands of family and work for the pursuits of the classroom, and I think I would bring sensitivity as well as strong and valuable advice about time management to those adult students experiencing similar demands. It is possible to balance educational enrichment with an enriching family life, provided one learns the necessary multitasking skills and has adequate institutional and personal support.

My educational philosophy is founded upon respecting my student's individualism, an ideal often lost with the current emphasis on standardized testing. I believe…… [read more]

Frederick Douglas Theories Differ on How People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,038 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Frederick Douglas

Theories differ on how people learn to read and write. The connection between reading and writing is one of the most debated topics in literary circles. However, the debate over this topic pales to the debate over the relationship between culture and literacy. Major theorists are divided into two groups of thought on this topic. The first argues… [read more]

Teacher Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,701 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Teacher stress and burnout have both been acknowledged as being a problem for many years and researchers have examined this problem from various perspectives in the attempt to determine the causative factors of this stress and burnout among teachers. However, there is little research relating to the health and wellness factors among teachers which are associated with burnout and stress… [read more]

Early Childhood Education: A Defense and Manifesto Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (746 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Early Childhood Education: A Defense and Manifesto

It is well established that children from disadvantaged backgrounds have difficulty in high school and even elementary school, due to poor academic preparation for the rigors of education. However, in seeking it address these deficits it is not enough that children at risk merely receive support once they embark upon conventional schooling. Rather, students must be prepared to learn from the early grades. They must come to their first day of formal schooling ready to learn. Learning takes place through the conceptual device known as scaffolding, which basically means that concepts and knowledge build upon one another -- a child cannot learn how to do fractions without knowing how to add and subtract, for example. The increased stress upon standardized assessments in learning has sharpened pragmatic interest in providing meaningful basic skills education to children at younger and younger ages.

The need to maximize the young child's natural capability of learning provides the philosophical basis of childhood development programs. From birth, children are eager learners, communicating with the world through touch, taste, sight, hearing, and sound. Early childhood development ensures that these first learning interactions with the world are of a high quality, and are directed and guided so that children can acquire the basic concepts they will be expected to know in school, such as colors, numbers, and letters. Early learning programs may also help the children explore new interests that defy even developmental models by giving children opportunities to explore their personal passions, such as dinosaurs, as well as alert educators to potential troubles the child may develop in school.

The benefits of early development programs are social as well. Development programs help children to acquire the basic social skills of engaging with peers and teachers in the classroom. "Over the past four decades, many studies have been conducted of the immediate and short-term (one or two years) effects of programs on the learning and development of children from low-income families. Both quantitative research syntheses (that pool estimates across studies and apply statistical tests) and traditional best-evidence reviews have found that such programs produced meaningful gains in cognitive, social, and emotional development during the preschool years ("Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers," 2000, Commission…… [read more]

Designing Online Learning Management System Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (870 words)
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Designing Online Learning Management System

In defining an online learning management system framework, considerations of how to enable a very high level of collaboration between students themselves and between individual students and instructors is essential for long-term learning to take place. Diametrically opposed to the concept of "drill and kill" as a teaching strategy is the development and continual refinement of learning frameworks. As this literature review illustrates, the combining of pragmatic and proven theoretical concepts that lead to long-term retention of knowledge are possible through the use of learning management systems frameworks. Learning frameworks have grown from relatively simplistic causal models to more complex approaches to defining entire online learning ecosystems, as exemplified by Dr. Badrul Khan's models ((Kahn, 2003). Dr. Kahn's models capitalize on the growth of empirical and pragmatic research related to the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Model (Bannon, 1989) (Kanfer, 2001). One of the most promising areas of development on the CSCL framework is the creation of student-tailored scaffolding (Yang, Yu, Chen, Tsai, 2005) where learning strategies are selectively defined on a per-student basis to create a customized learning strategy enabling higher overall levels of student learning to occur.

One of the basic requirements for education in the future is to prepare learners for participation in a networked, information society in which knowledge will be the most critical resource for social and economic development. Educational institutions are being forced to find better pedagogical methods to cope with these new challenges, beginning with the vision of creating a generation of critical thinkers who can assess, analyze, interpret and respond to changing global dynamics that affect them and their careers. In this development it is expected that computers could play an important role in restructuring teaching and learning processes to be better prepared for future challenges. Computer-supported collaborative learning is one of the promising tools to improve teaching and learning with the help of modern information and communication technology according to Lehtinen et al., (2004). Research on cognitive peer interaction gives indication that socio-cognitive conflicts emerging in interaction situations facilitate cognitive performances superior to those of the individual (Li, 2002). Furthermore evidence exists to support the claim that certain environments are more likely to facilitate adaptation through development of new cognitive competencies and higher-level expertise according to Bereiter & Scardamalia (1993). First order environments are static and changing while the second order environment is characterized by conditions to which an agent has to adapt change dynamically as a function of other people's progress in the environment according to Bereiter & Scardamalia (1993).CSCL appears to engage students to participate in-depth inquiry over substantial periods…… [read more]

Frederick Douglass Literacy Studies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,456 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Sociology and Academia in Frederick Douglass's "Learning to Read and Write"

An American hero, epitome of the evils of slavery, and true embodiment of the American dream, former slave Frederick Douglass rose from the bowels of society to become one of the United States' most learned scholars. The sheer beauty and elegance of his essay "Learning to Read and Write,"… [read more]

Multiple Intelligence Brain-Based Learning Constructivism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,390 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Education - Philosophy/Methodology


Modern Educational Approaches:

American education evolved considerably in the last half of the 20th century and, in general, reflects an attempt to promote learning through specific methodologies based on various different philosophical approaches. Rather than relying on traditional learning models emphasizing factual recall and rote memorization, the more modern education theories incorporate elements relating to concept of academic learning. We have come to recognize a fuller spectrum of different forms of natural aptitudes that comprise a much broader description of intelligence as well as the cognitive mechanisms responsible for human learning.

This new perspective about learning has led to the growth of several educational approaches designed to maximize their potential contribution. Within that overall framework, each of the new educational approaches emphasizes different essential components that distinguishes from one another. While all of the modern philosophies contributes to the betterment of education, ultimately, it is the educator's responsibility to incorporate particular elements of each to formulate a method for their effective implementation into the classroom. Constructivism:

The constructivist approach to education is founded on the principle that the process of active involvement and reasoning is more conducive to academic learning than passive absorption of subject matter content (Adams & Hamm 1994). Instead of relying on traditional lecture-based lessons provided by instructors for passive consumption and later regurgitation after memorization by students, the constructivist method emphasizes the fuller involvement of students in the form of active analysis and participation. Specifically, the constructivist method presents subject matter content in lesson modules designed to allow students to participate in the active reasoning process of answering questions that highlight the lesson content rather than merely presenting the information through traditional lectures (Schroeder & Spannagel 2006). The constructivist approach may also incorporate active learning materials, particularly (but hardly exclusively) in the sciences, such as the Full Option Science System (FOSS) program that provides traditional texts that correspond to practical materials intended to facilitate learning through hands-on application of subject matter presented in the learning module (Huber 2001).

Multiple Intelligences Approach:

Howard Gardner of Harvard University's School of Education pioneered the multiple intelligences constructivist approach to modern education in conjunction with which he founded the Gardner School in Vancouver, Washington. The fundamental theory proposed by Gardner is that human learning relies on a much broader range of behavior than those emphasized in traditional educational programs. Specifically, traditional education emphasizes only linguistic abilities and quantitative logical reasoning while, for the most part, ignoring the potential for learning represented by five other types of cognitive learning; namely: bodily-kinesthetics, spatial orientation, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and musical abilities (Gardner 1999).

According to Gardner, traditional education overemphasizes linguistic and quantitative abilities while neglecting the needs of students whose greatest potential for learning relates to the other five natural abilities. His education program provides instruction along the full range of all seven of the natural abilities identified by Gardner.

The most untraditional aspect of Gardner's program is the degree to which it integrates non-traditional activities (such… [read more]

Literacy Instruction?' Additionally This Work Seeks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … literacy instruction?' Additionally this work seeks to understand how to scaffold the literacy development of children. This work will compare and explain the comprehensive literacy instruction and attempt to gain insights for improvement of teaching instruction in the classroom. The document entitled: "Balanced Literacy Background Knowledge" states that after years "of conflict between whole language and phonics advocates, a consensus about what works is emerging from the research: (1) children need explicit, systematic instruction in phonics and exposure to rich literature, both fiction and nonfiction; and (2) Children need instruction in phonics in early reading development, within a context of meaning, comprehension strategies, language development, and writing. (Early Literature Website, 2008) This work further relates that it has been demonstrated in reach that "skills taught, practiced, and tested in isolation are not used as consistently or effectively as skills taught when children are actually reading and writing." (Early Literature Website, 2008) Furthermore, it has been found that the development of the child's "interest and pleasure in reading must be as much a focus as developing their reading skills." (Early Literature Website, 2008) This work states that needed is a "balanced approach to reading instruction - an approach that combines the language and literature-rich activities associated with whole language activities" which are focused toward meaning enhancement and meaning making and one that conveys the "love of language with explicit teaching skills as needed to develop fluency associated with proficient readers." (Early Literature Website, 2008; citing Honig, 1996) Balanced literacy, according to the Instructional Strategies Online website is the incorporation of all "reading approaches realizing students need to use multiple strategies to become proficient readers." (Saskatoon Public Schools, 2008) the purpose of balanced literacy is to "cultivate the skills of reading, writing, thinking, speaking and listening for all students..." [and includes]: (1) Modeling Reading (reading aloud) and modeled writing; (2) Shared reading and shared writing; (3) Guided reading and guided writing; and (4) Independent reading and independent writing. (Saskatoon Public Schools, 2008) the work entitled: "Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction" states that scaffolded instruction…… [read more]

Teaching Methodology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (330 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Teaching methods that a teacher chooses will have an affect on the ability of the class to grasp the material being presented. In the classrooms I observed, I witnessed several different techniques and saw that they each can be effective if used properly.

When asking questions, I saw that it is important to vary the types of questions you ask of the class. Asking only close-ended questions does not accurately test the students' knowledge. By mixing in some open-ended questions, you require the students to apply what they know. Varying the types of questions asked makes the classroom discussion more interesting and less predictable. If the teacher walks around the room instead of standing in one place while asking question, it also helps to maintain the students' interest. The use of humor can help to relax a nervous child, but it should be used only when appropriate. Some of the classes that I observed could quickly see this as a sign that learning time was…… [read more]

Education - Career Choice Primary and Secondary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,210 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Education - Career Choice


In general, my undergraduate education has confirmed my original choice of future career as an educator. More particularly, the completion of my undergraduate studies requires a decision on my part with respect to pursue a career track in elementary or secondary education. Each has its distinct attractions, making the decision only that much more difficult. Ultimately, the choice boils down to (1) identifying the avenue that provides the greatest opportunity to influence young students positively, and (2) identifying my greatest relative strengths.

The Elementary Education Career Track: The elementary education career track offers a tremendous opportunity to contribute positively to the development of young minds in the educational realm. At this stage of education, the instructor has a window of opportunity in which to help shape the student's general attitude toward the entire concept of education (Russell 1992).

While substantive learning at the elementary school level is also crucial as the foundation for basic reading and writing skills that are essential to later education, many educators believe that shaping the student's attitude toward education in general is equally important (Russell 1992).

When students first enter primary school, many do so with trepidation; thereafter, as many others fear embarrassment in front of their peers. Their susceptibility to establishing positive early general experiences or distinctly negative general experiences is very high at this point. Instructors have a clear opportunity to respond to students individually, challenging naturally high performers and gently encouraging slower learners and poorer performers. For this reason, a career in elementary school education emphasizes the ability to read overt behaviors and more subtle signals of grade school- age children.

Some of the latest research in educational theory (Smith 2002) suggests that many students fail to reach their educational potential in traditional educational programs because standard approaches to education focus narrowly on a relatively small set of specific academic aptitudes. Gardner (2000), especially, has demonstrated the degree to which educators can motivate positive attitudes toward education in general, and more particularly, help students whose greatest aptitudes lies outside those narrow skill sets.

By directing non-traditional areas of academic interest and aptitude into appropriate academic outlets, the primary school teacher has the unique opportunity to help gifted students who might otherwise fall through the gaps in standard primary education programs because their relative strengths lie in the five nontraditional areas of the seven areas first identified and detailed by Gardner (1991).

The Secondary Education Career Track: The secondary education career track offers equally rich opportunities to contribute positively to the intellectual development, future academic goals, and vocational potential of students. At this stage of education, the instructor also has a window of opportunity to motivate students, but in certain essential respects, the ability to do so requires different specific skills and aptitudes on the part of the instructor.

At the secondary school level, substantive learning is much more of a necessary focus. Therefore, it emphasizes the need for educators to be capable… [read more]

Elementary School Observation of a Classroom Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,462 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Teacher Observing

Observation: Elementary School -- 5th Grade with one teacher. The class had 25 students. Six of these students required special education either in the classroom or at another location. There was another teacher in the room who worked with these students either alone, as a group, or while these students were doing the regular classroom lessons. The arrangement… [read more]

Effective Teaching Methods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … teaching a beginning reader, especially as late as secondary level, relevant material that reflects the individual's learning methodology and learning skill level needs to be seriously considered. First, students with autism have varying degrees of difficulty with communication, from severe or little to no interaction, to mild or the ability to receive information and provide a response or… [read more]

Reading Theories to Adults, Who Already Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,638 words)
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Reading Theories

To adults, who already have gone through the struggle of reading when they were young, the efforts of other children to do the same does not appear that difficult. Yet, when one actually considers all that is being accomplished with the "reading" of the written words, it is amazing indeed! Reading is a multifaceted and active process of… [read more]

Learning Theory Several Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,884 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Learning Theory

Several theories are suggested for the best way to help students learn in a classroom setting, such as constructivism, brain-based learning, attribution theory, emotional intelligence and multiple intelligences. There is also the concept of "learned helplessness" that places a barrier on learning. It is important for teachers to consider each one of these methods and how if fits… [read more]

Curriculum the Role of the State Board Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,713 words)
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The role of the State Board of education is to support and assist the administration of schools through the development of strategic plans, curriculum standards and budget issues. The State Board of Education also acts as a community involved board where some of its members are not educators but are members of the community, fulfilling other roles. In short… [read more]

Education and Identity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,737 words)
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Education and Identity

In his theory of identity formation, Chickering maintains that the key steps in forming one's identity take place during the four years one typically spends in college. Of course, these delineations should be taken as guidelines rather than universal truths. This is because students tend to move through the seven vectors at different rates according to their… [read more]

Adult Education Which Functions of the Mind Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (404 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Adult Education

Which functions of the mind's thinking, feeling, and wanting most influence the two perspectives the learner presented? Why? Both writings express that life events have a direct effect on ones ability to function successfully in a learning environment. However, Perry (2006), does go into more detail regarding the link between life events and the cognitive ability to function and focus properly on the part of the adult learner. Merriam (2005), believes that in fact these life events should be considered in the learning environment in order to accommodate the adult learner and help him or her move forward. However, this can become a difficult situation and shows how the perception of feelings, and thinking influence both writers' perceptions in their ideals.

What evidence of egocentric thinking do you find in either perspective? Support your findings with specific examples. The readings do not give the idea of egocentric thought in my perspective. This is evidenced by the fact that both reading state that life events, depending of the view of the individual effects the learner in different ways. Divorce, marriage, death etc. are all aspects that are considered in both writing as life events. There is however, an idea that one…… [read more]

Quality Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
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Quality Education

Continuing education is education or training provided to students or professional personal via multiple mediums, which may include lecture, reading, audio delivery of information, and other formats as deemed appropriate. It is critical that educators monitor the quality of continuing education, to ensure that students participating in continuing education programs receive the best possible service and most up-to-date information. This is especially important in fields where policies or procedures or techniques may change with time. If for example, and employee were to receive computer training on an application, they should receive training on the most recent application developed, not an older program. If they do not receive quality continuing education, the education they do receive will not serve them or the employer well.

There are many criteria educators and administrators, as well as students, can use to evaluate continuing education program. Gates, Augustine, Benjamin et al., (2001) note that documented evidence of needs within the college district or atmosphere are needed, that provide detailed information about continuing education and certification programs. The five criteria most important to the field of continuing education according to Gates, Augustine, Benjamin et al., (2001) include (1) the program needs to be accredited by a recognized body; (2) the program must provide examinations that are verifiable and can testify that the student has learned the information relative to the program he or she enrolled in; (3) the program must include a minimum number of semester hours into which the degree or certificate program can be completed; (4) the program must have had a minimum of 15 graduates within a 3-year period, and (5) the entity offering the program must have a mission statement and objectives that relate why quality is important in continuing education (p.94). Many argue that other criteria should be included in continuing education courses. These criteria may include ensuring that the college or educating entity provide a diverse work and learning atmosphere that promotes equality for men and women regardless of their culture, ethnicity, race and other relevant factors as outlined by the EEOC (equal employment opportunity commission) (Huddleston & Unwin, 2002: 10).

The continuing education field is a promising and up and coming field that offers students, professionals and laypeople the opportunity to learn new things, whether related to their job, computers, healthcare, legislation, employment law or other fields where continuing education is a need and requirement. It is important to consider these criteria because they help create a framework or paradigm on which educational programs of high quality may be built and distributed (Smith, Cohen-Callow & Dia, 2006). Smith, Cohen-Callow & Dia (2006) note that on reviewing hundreds of continuing education programs, they note that "changes in practice behavior" only occur in some rather than all of the programs under certain "conditions" (p. 465). The authors note the following factors may influence the "likelihood of change as a result of continuing education programs": a person's age, a person's level of motivation, and the amount of experience a person… [read more]

Teacher's Lack of Understanding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
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¶ … Teacher of Early Childhood

The objective of this work is to examine the importance of understanding the stages of human development in the early childhood classroom. This work will analyze some of the problems that might result from a teacher's lack of such understanding.

It is related in the work entitled: "What Early Childhood Teachers Need to Know About Language" published in the Center for Applied Linguistics Digest that the "context of childhood teacher preparation varies greatly depending on state licensing standards for teachers." Because of these differences the provisions of education in early childhood classrooms is varied as well with some teachers being more or less effective that their colleagues.


Substantial evidence exists to support the belief that "high-quality early childhood education programs for children from birth to age five can have long-lasting, positive consequences for children's success in school and later in life, especially for children from low-income families." (Center for Applied Linguistics, 2000) the problem is that these programs are not available for all children who are in need of them and neither are all programs of the type quality necessary for achieving outcomes of a positive nature for children. The truth is that only a mere 15% of childcare centers are rated as "good or excellent." (Center for Applied Statistics, 2000) AU.S. Department of Education study states findings that: "a study of the skills and knowledge of a nationally representative cohort of children at entrance to kindergarten showed that social class and other group differences are already evident this early." (Center for Applied Statistics, 2000) This indicates that intervention during kindergarten is actually "too late" (Center for Applied Statistics, 2000) in order to narrow the gap in achievement. It is necessary to place a strong emphasis…… [read more]

Technology in a School District Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Education Technology

The following is a set of questions that was asked of Joe Bloke, the Superintendant of Anytown, NJ schools, and Sue Schirmer, a high school teacher. Joe's responses are in blue, and Sue's in red.

Interview with the superintendant of schools:

I am a superintendant for a school system in a mid-sized community with 7,000 students, primary and… [read more]

Special Education the Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Special Education

The Role of Special Education in Dealing with Students with Impairments and a Critical Insight over Preparing for Collaborative Team Teaching

Special education refers to the mode of education given to the students with impairments in order to meet their unique educational needs. The programs designed under the curriculum of special education are intended for capacitating the students… [read more]

Vail (AZ) School District's Online Curriculum Resources Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,659 words)
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¶ … Vail (AZ) School District's Online Curriculum Resources

Founded in 1903 as a one-room school house, the Vail School district now serves over 9,000 students. Last year 9 of 10 schools received the highest label "Excelling" offered by the Arizona Department of Education. (the last was labeled "Highly-Performing.) Why is this little district just south-east of Tucson, AZ performing… [read more]

Which Teaching Method Style Is the Most Effective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,995 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7



The Value of a Very Open Teaching Style

Many teachers and administrators have expressed concern that traditional teaching methods no longer meet the needs of the American classroom (Brown 57:.Cuban 71; Classes are more culturally diverse, and are full of students who often have more technological experience than their teachers (Brown 57). Children continue to pose the problem that,… [read more]

Higher Education Has the Ability to Motivate Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (471 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … higher education has the ability to motivate individuals to build a better society. I am of the belief that a well-educated individual not only benefits his/her personal position in life through the seeking of knowledge, but he/she also greatly benefits society as a whole by working to foster its betterment. People of most higher educational backgrounds are capable of contributing towards improving the state of society. Thus my reason for seeking knowledge through higher education lies in the heartfelt belief of this notion.

My personal academic experiences can help to explain how I came to embrace this firm belief in higher education's importance to society. I had initially received a Bachelor's degree in the Aviation Equipment field from a college within my native country of Ukraine. As time passed I came to realize that I had a stronger desire to work in a hospital and help people recover from illness than to travel and fly around the world. Thus before I even arrived to the United States I had already decided that instead of aviation, I would continue my education in the nursing field.

Once I arrived to this country, I decided to attend a four-year college or university that offered a good nursing program. I wanted to enroll into a program that I believed would prepare me the most in helping people who are in dire need of it. This goal is…… [read more]

Changing Face of British Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,909 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Changing Face of British Education

The objective of this work is to review education in modern Britain from the mid-1700s to the present. This work will focus on how education is currently changing and what those changes entail.

Historically, education in Britain was for the most privileged in society however, over time that changed and a view was held that… [read more]

Curriculum the Educational Theorist Larry Cuban Separated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,335 words)
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The educational theorist Larry Cuban separated the concept of curriculum into four distinct areas, which were official, taught, learned and tested curriculum. The taught curriculum is that which teachers choose to teach, with the choice being independent of the state recommendations, which is the official curriculum. The learned curriculum is that which goes beyond the education revealed in test scores. This includes the knowledge and experiences acquired by the child through the classroom environment. The learned curriculum is largely based upon the processes modeled by the teacher, as the child will learn how to process information in certain ways, and appropriate behaviors to the classroom. The learned curriculum is therefore more inclusive than the taught curriculum, which does not take these extra influences into account. The outcomes of the learned curriculum are often not intentional, where both taught and tested curriculums are planned. The tested curriculum is that which is subject to testing, and is a limited part of the overall curriculum which is taught by teachers and learned by pupils (Cuban, 1995).

The relationship between the curriculums and how subjects are taught will have an impact upon student achievement, particularly if one curriculum is permitted to dominate the others. For example, the taught curriculum is often based upon the teachers' own knowledge, beliefs about how a subject should be taught, and interests in certain subjects (Joseph, 2000: 4). If this were allowed to dominate the teaching then there is the possibility that this would lead to some areas of a subject not being taught, either due to lack of knowledge on behalf of the teacher or personal preference. Allowing tested curriculum to dominate could also adversely affect the students' achievement, as students' may have poor understanding of the taught and learned curriculum and still achieve good test results if the emphasis is placed on tested curriculum. It is considered that tested curriculum is often meaningless unless taught and learned curriculums are also taken into consideration (Joseph, 2000: 4). Therefore it is important that the curriculums be integrated to achieve optimal results (Glatthorn, 2000: 133).

The presentation of learned, tested and taught curriculum may be illustrated through the curriculum at the school for sixth grade mathematics. The curriculum of the unit in which 'measurements' is taught will be examined, which spans six weeks of the semester. The presentation of the three curriculums is outlined in the following table:

Unit Component

Taught Curriculum

Learned Curriculum

Tested Curriculum

Standard measurement tools and units

Why specific units and tools are used to measure specific attributes

How the measurements may be used in real world situations - e.g. engineering

How to choose between different measurements which are available

Methods for measurement

Language relating to measurement

The units and tools which are used for measurement

Mathematical manipulation of measurements

Precision in measurement

The degree of precision in measurements depends on the tool used

Why there are differences between different tools

How to decide on whether precision is appropriate to the task

The degree of… [read more]

Special Education in Science Class Term Paper

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Special Education in the Science Classroom

The objective of this work is to review the initial negative results of science education since inclusion of special education students in the classroom and what lessons have been learned and can be applied to management of similar situations in the future.

There is general acknowledgement among educators that teaching science is more than simply teaching facts for students to learn and recall through memorization of those facts. Indeed, teaching science is really about teaching students to thinking critically, to ask questions, and to build upon knowledge through inquiry. 'Scientific Inquiry' is defined as: "The areas of scientific knowledge are taught in tandem with the skills of scientific enquiry." (Primary Science, 2003) Additionally stated is that: "Research suggests that scientific inquiry should build on children's existing knowledge, interests and ideas; link to everyday context; and encourage discussion." (Primary Science, 2003)


The work of Charles J. Eick (2000) states that the goal "of scientific literacy...includes more than just understanding the concepts of science. Scientific literacy also involves the knowledge of the processes that create the concepts and the organizing framework that is science." According to the work of Schwartz, Lederman and Crawford (2000):"True scientific inquiry in the strictest sense, provides the context for deepening student understanding of the process of how science is conducted." (p. 7)


The work of Benjamin Bloom at the University of Chicago which developed a classification of the various levels of intellectual behavior that are important in the learning process states findings that most of the test questions that students are required to answer did not require the students to think at higher levels than only that of simple information recall. (Bloom, 1956) the six levels of cognition that were named by Bloom and his colleagues in this classification system were: (1) knowledge; (2) understanding; (3) application; (4) analysis; (5) synthesis; and (6) evaluation. The following figure illustrates the hierarchical classification as posited by Bloom (1956)

Hierarchy of Levels of Learning

Bloom (1956)

The following are learning characteristics that are stated to fall within each respective level of knowledge in each of these levels of learning as proposed by Bloom (1956):

Knowledge: The recall of data or information.

Understanding (or Comprehension): To understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. To state a problem in one's own words.

Application: The student is able to use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction and applies what has been learned in the classroom into new situations.

Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences.

Synthesis: The study is able to build a structure or pattern from diverse elements and place parts together in the formation of a whole while emphasizing the creation of a new meaning of structure.

Evaluation: The student is able to make judgments about the value of… [read more]

Diversity in Education Diversity Aspects That Shape Term Paper

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Diversity in Education


Aspects that shape personal experience of college students.

The personal experiences of a college student may be shaped by their culture or ethnicity in that their parents have certain ways of disciplining and teaching. Standards differ in many cultures and each culture has certain expectations of their youth. While, on one hand, the Moslem youth is expected to be respectful and quiet during a worship time, the Spanish child may be allowed to sing and dance during their worship experience. This overflows into the school experience, with children being able to utilize internal discipline if it is there, or to learn how to be quiet in a time when others also are quiet. Reading to oneself is a quiet activity and this is an activity that may be cultivated in school, whereas it is not encouraged in some homes.

It is up to the teacher to discover how the student is used to behaving and work with the student to adapt to the classroom.

Class may be a big problem for a person who has been raised in a poverty situation. The cultural advantages may not have been available to this student, but that does not mean that the student is any less intelligent or able to learn. Class differences are only visible on the surface, but if the student is willing to adapt to the environment of the classroom and learn, it may not make any difference at all. The first article that was read (below) demonstrates that it is not economics that make the difference in learning abilities.

Race is often pointed out as a difference between students, but unless their cultures are also quite different, race may not play any part in the learning skills of a student. The color of ones skin does not determine how smart or able a student is, and teachers learn this early when they have a racially diverse classroom.

Gender is important when one has to deal with both boys and girls in the classroom. Girls may have their tendencies to be better behaved and to learn quicker in the early years, but boys also have their strengths and encouraging all the different abilities of each student is the safest way to teach both genders.

Language is a difficulty which teachers in culturally diverse classrooms have to deal, but students who are learning a second language may be just as able and motivated as those who use English as their first language. It is up to the teacher to make sure the students feel comfortable and are able to find learning experiences, no matter what language they have as their primary one.

Religion is a way that students may differ. In a country where various religions clash, it is important to teach students that everyone is valuable as an individual and that people of differing religions are just as valuable as the other students. Religion may not be mentioned in the classroom, but the students may be… [read more]

Information Systems Teacher Salaries the Potential Problems Term Paper

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Information Systems

Teacher Salaries

The potential problems with trying to use data in a national and/or a regional information system to make decisions at the state, province or district level

It has been observed that 'caution' is the word most frequently used when is talking about using information systems, or tables of data created by an organization, when these data tables are used as tools to make decisions and set school policy. The data must be placed in a larger context to determine whether apparent trends, like linking merit pay to improved performance in schools, are causally linked. For example, the Southern Regional Education Board houses a database of educational information, and supposedly objectively reports teacher salaries and other kinds of statistical data regarding schools throughout the nation. This is supposed to allow for comparisons on a dollar level between those salaries, as well as an opportunity to compare varying legislative policies regarding teacher pay between states. But the organization's non-contextualized analysis of average teacher salaries can be misleading.

First and foremost, when assessing any teacher salary median within a state, one must forget the old cliche that teachers only work for part of the year. Different teachers in different areas and districts work for varying durations of time. To take one obvious example, many school districts, particularly overburdened school districts, require teachers to teach summer school. Many teachers may put in extensive preparatory work during the summer, as well, to reeducate themselves in new district standards, or to simply fulfill administrative duties required by the district.

During the school year, the old cliche that teachers only work from 8:30-3:30 is also often grossly in error. In some schools, teachers may have to stay for long periods after school, to tutor students in basic skills, or to provide leadership in a variety of extracurricular activities. Teachers may work through their lunch hours grading papers, or serve as hall, lunch, or study hall monitors during break periods. Even after they come home, teachers often have to grade papers, field calls from parents, and prepare the next day's lesson. Some poor school districts may even require, not officially, but in practice, most of the teachers to make up for budgetary problems by stocking the classrooms with pencils, papers, and supplies out of their own pockets. The school may not adequately stock the supply cabinets and the students are unable to provide these supplies themselves.

All of these additional duties and financial burdens may be unpaid, and essentially devalue the apparent teacher income, in comparison to other teachers in other districts and states who do not have to perform these same duties. Also, district costs of living such as food and property taxes, commuting time, and other expenses will affect how far a teacher's salary dollar will stretch. For new teachers, even the cost of their education, and whether they have gone to private or state schools, will affect their financial needs and the way they view their salaries as generous or miserly.… [read more]

Education Goals Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 4


Education Goals

Mission Statements

First Statement

As a result of my teaching, my students will become life-long learners, and use the learning skills I teach them in higher education and in their professional lives.

Second Statement

As a result of my teaching, my students will approach every classroom they enter thereafter with joy, not with dread.

Third Statement

As a result of my teaching, my students will become more effective problem-solvers and not accept opinions as knowledge without questioning and testing what they are told.

Fourth Statement

As a result of my teaching, my students will become more creative in their ability to think outside of the box, and view issues from many different perspectives.

Fifth Statement (subject of following paper)

As a result of my teaching, my students will become more aware of their multiple intelligences and unique strengths and weaknesses, so they can become more engaged and creative learners.

Notes to a New Teacher (on the 5th Principle)

There are two competing philosophies of education today. Advocates that take a so-called measurement philosophy in regards to education are primarily interested in determining how pupils learn so as to meet annual testing goals and fulfill basic requirements. Learning must be assessed, the argument goes, and without assessment too many students will 'fall through the cracks' of the system (Ediger 2006: 1). However, a more fruitful way of looking at students and what students ought to know is to take an intrapersonal or humanistic view of the learning process, recognizing that pupils have diverse talents, innate strengths, and inclinations that should be fostered within the classroom environment. Yes, some student achievement must be assessed by standardized testing. However, students must also learn to cope with solving the kinds of problems and open-ended questions that are the antithesis of standardized testing, that are more like the problems they will grapple with in real life. Students, based upon their unique intelligences, will favor different problem-solving skills over others.

A teacher must view his or her class, every year, as different, and the classroom environment must foster a unique dialogue between educator and pupils. Student differences need to be recognized in the classroom by the teacher. The development of creative and critical thinking can be beneficial for both the individual student and society. The ability to engage in creative thinking is associated with certain personal characteristics, such as flexibility and open-mindedness that facilitates later learning, like the independent learning that is characteristic of higher education (Ching & Chau 2004:1). Rather than seeing creativity and diversity as antithetical to learning basic skills, a number of researchers emphasize that even learning critical thinking and basic skills involves not only logical, but also creative cognitive skills and a willingness to deal with uncertainty.

By deploying the diverse needs of different students into the holistic classroom environment, ultimately a more broad-based curriculum is created that enables all students to see the connections between the curriculum and their daily lives. When using an integrated…… [read more]

Multicultural Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,181 words)
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Multiculturalism in Education: Creating a Brighter Tomorrow

Multiculturalism in education is an essential element in shaping America's increasingly diverse society. Different ethnic, linguistic, racial, and religious groups bring to the contemporary world a wide range of experiences and viewpoints. Many are the victims of years of prejudicial policies and degrading stereotypes. Others face these conditions as they arrive on… [read more]

Social Skills in Alternative Education Term Paper

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The aims and objectives of this research proposal are focused toward understanding the requirement of social skills specifically for children who are placed in alternative education courses. Certainly, there must exist most specifically within the attentive education environment a requirement that children in these classrooms be… [read more]

Multi Cultural Education Term Paper

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¶ … Multiculturalism has become an important word across the United States as well as in schools, because of the changing population in the country as well as increasing globalization. As with any term, however, especially a new one, it can have many different meanings. Many people are also concerned that too much of an emphasis on multiculturalism may take away from American Western history. All the articles that are noted below, as well as other scholars who address this topic, stress that one culture or group of cultures should not be overshadowed by another. or, on the other hand, that multiculturalism should be given lip service because it is the trend or word of the week.

The important element is that all students and their cultures need to be respected and integrated into the educational system in a meaningful way.

Wlodkowski and Ginsberg (1995), for example, offer four ways to motivate and promote multiculturalism as an essential part of the educational curricula: 1) Establishing inclusion - creating a learning atmosphere in which students and teachers feel respected by and connected to one another; 2) Developing attitude - creating a favorable disposition toward the learning experience through personal relevance and choice; 3) Enhancing meaning - creating challenging, thoughtful learning experiences that include student perspectives and values; and 4) Engendering competence - creating an understanding that students are effective in learning something they value.

Similarly, Banks (1994) defines a similar approach as motivations by what he calls "dimensions." The first dimension of multi-cultural education, or content integration, deals with the extent to which teachers illuminate key points of instruction with content reflecting diversity. The second dimension is knowledge construction, or the extent to which teachers help students understand how perspectives of people within a discipline influence the conclusions reached. Third, the prejudice reduction dimension deals with efforts to help students develop positive attitudes about different groups, such as instructional materials with positive images of diverse groups and the use of such materials in consistent and sustained ways. Fourth, the equitable pedagogy dimension concerns ways to change teaching methods to facilitate academic achievement among students from diverse groups due to different learning styles. Research indicates, for example, that the academic achievement of African-American and Mexican-American students occurs in a different learning style than that of other students. Last, but not least, the empowering school culture and social structure dimension concerns the extent to which a school's culture and organization ensure educational equality and cultural empowerment for students from diverse groups. These cultures should be promoted in a similar way as the motivations mentioned by Wlodkowski and Ginsberg.

It is important then, that cultures are kept separate and recognized and respected for…… [read more]

Equity Problems Term Paper

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Equity Problems in Education

Learning standards have come under increasing scrutiny with many charging they negatively impact teacher autonomy and curriculum development which, in turn, negatively impacts the performance of certain groups such as minorities and girls. Some opponents of standards-based curriculum argue that schools should have the freedom to set their own academic agenda (Fiske, 1998) Some are even insisting that the answer is to create charter schools that provide even greater degrees of autonomy (Fiske, 1998). Other critics state the demands for standards-based teaching impede differentiated instruction which attempts recognize and address student variance (Tomlinson, 2000). Still others say that creativity is being exchanged for "test drills and a narrow curriculum that coincides with state-established standards" (Lane, 2003). Yet, as this paper will discuss, standards-driven curriculum that is implemented appropriately can avoid these pitfalls and have a meaningful impact on education.

Critics of standards-driven curriculum say that it hasn't worked. National Assessment of Educational Program (NAEP) data show that,

By the time [minority students] reach grade 12, if they do so at all, minority students are about four years behind other young people. Indeed, 17-year-old African-American and Latino students have skills in English, mathematics and science similar to those of 13-year-old white students." (Closing the achievement gap)

On the SAT college entrance exam, the gap between black and white scores was 123 points in math while the gap between Hispanic and white was 89 points (it takes more than testing (closing the achievement gap, 2001). but, these problems start early on with a sizable achievement gap for minority children before they even start school. Family income and a variety of community and home factors are blamed on the achievement gap (it takes more than testing (closing the achievement gap, 2001).

English (2000) makes mention that reformers must be aware of the hidden functions of schools if they are to make meaningul changes. A concrete example of the hidden curriculum manifests in girls that early on have lower scores on math and science tests than boys. Some believe that cultural differences between boys and girls have a negative impact on girls' acquisition of skills or values for achievement in math and sciences (Holladay, 2007). Girls are believed to become sensitive to the roles of men and women in the real-world at an early age and lose interest in math and science where men predominate. Others think that the psychology of stigma, how humans respond to negative stereotypes about their gender group, threaten female students in profound ways (Holladay, 2007). An example of a frequent stereotype threat is "girls can't do math." Hidden curriculum problems illustrate the need for greater consideration of the socialization of students in curriculum development.

Despite various objections, curriculum is rapidly becoming standards driven. The publication of a Nation at Risk in the early 1980s cautioned that the sad state of education threatened this country's social and economic well being and served as a wakeup call for implementing standards that define what is taught in schools… [read more]

Education Research "Plays an Extraordinarily Weak Role Term Paper

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Research "plays an extraordinarily weak role in educational decision-making," according to Grossen (nd). The university teacher training programs, educational consultants, researchers, and national curricular organizations comprise a professional support system that governs American public schools. Unfortunately, the educational practices the professional support system advocates is based on theory but not on practice; on ideology but not on empiricism. In fact, the professional support system sometimes disputes the validity of scientific research when crafting educational policy (Grossen, nd). The so-called research upon which much educational policy is based not on empirical research but on opinions that are rooted in popular theory.

The professional support system creates educational fads that are based on spurious evidence. Students, teachers, district officials, and school administrators are largely powerless over the professional support system. The state departments of education act as intermediaries between the large-scale professional support system and the local schools. Grossen (nd) claims that scientific research, not fad, should govern educational practice. Evidence, not opinion, should create the shared knowledge base from which schools construct their curriculum and practice.

The author outlines the Ellis & Fout three-part classification system to describe educational research. First, basic research consists of known correlations and theories derived from them. Most current educational policy is based on first-level research. Second, researchers test theories on a small scale and with small population samples. From this level researchers can determine whether larger-scale empirical designs are warranted. The third level of research is large-scale program evaluations: tested on whole schools and regions.

Policy makers frequently disparage empirical research only on the basis of its age, prematurely claiming that older studies are outmoded. Grossen (nd) notes that old does not necessarily mean…… [read more]