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Teaching Manding Through Functional Communication Literature Review Chapter

… Though research has not yet indicate the use of manding in the community, it may be ideal for teaching in community settings where inappropriate or self-injurious behaviors are common Harding et al., 2009()

Manding has also been used severally in… [read more]

Education Advocacy Issues Massive Institutional Research Paper

… • Developing a strong democracy through a truly innovative and progressive curriculum that will empower the students and assist more of them in moving on to higher education. This curriculum will emphasize civics and active participation of citizens in political… [read more]

Technology to Enhance Learning Distance and Online Applications Term Paper

… Technology to Enhance Learning: Distance & Online Applications

Learning at a distance is much different than learning in a classroom, but distance learning (specifically, online learning) can really have advantages that one just cannot get with learning that occurs at a set, fixed time and place. However, there are also some problems that are unique to online learning and that cannot be found when one learns in a classroom. The type of class that is being taught, along with the kinds of people who are learning and how they learn, are both important when it comes to which kind of education is the best choice (Addison, 2000; Moody, 2004). Effective learning for distance learners can only come about if the learners are dedicated, disciplined, and prepared to do what it takes to learn on their own. With a classroom setting less discipline is needed, but with online learning, a person has to force himself or herself to complete the assignments.

If an online learner is dedicated to getting his or her degree, it is certainly possible to do so. If the person who takes classes online assumes that those classes will be easier and he or she can just "skate through," then the person may be upset. It will not take long for an online learner to discover that is it actually work to learn online, and it is not something that can be taken lightly if one expects to succeed. For an online learner, attitude really is everything. Feedback is also very different when it comes to online learning vs. learning in a traditional classroom. Getting feedback in a traditional classroom is very easy, but online is far different. Online learners get their feedback through email, usually. It is sometimes difficult to be sure on things like tone of voice and intent of words or phrases when a person reads something through email. With that being the case, things can easily be misconstrued by online learners and they should make sure that they ask for clarification if they are unsure about something they have been told by their instructor.

As on online faculty member, there are best practice strategies that could be used to…… [read more]

Education for Social Justice Article Review

… This spirit of independence and activism is pervasive in their writing. The tone of the writing is not forceful -- they are not pressuring the reader to adhere to their agenda, yet it is clear this is an issue, which they and their colleagues are quite passionate -- so passionate to move toward action.

Hytten and Bettez are also very much aware of the history of the issue. They continually refer to movements in culture from decades past and how the victories and challenges of those times inform the state of social justice in education in the modern moment. In fact, the issue of culture is primary to their thoughts concerning social justice in education. Cultural studies and cultural histories are key, for them, in the defining of terms, in the orientation of pedagogy, and the implementation of social justice practices. This focus upon cultural differences and cultural studies is key because culture is a social phenomenon and the issue is that of social justice. Understanding cultures is important in order to perceive what cultures consider "justice." There is also a need to understand the mainstream culture and what about it produces so much injustice to those who do not occupy a position within it. For Hytten and Bettez, social justice is a reflection of true democracy.

As a Teacher

To adhere to what Hytten and Bettez propose as social justice, this demands substantial research, awareness, and preparation on behalf of the teacher. The teacher must be as fully aware as possible of his/her own potential and/or real biases and cultures. The teacher must clearly also demonstrate this awareness toward the students taught. The teacher should know what his/her goals are regarding social changes and have a clear plan of what to do to enact change and provide an atmosphere of social justice in the classroom. I would do my best to have at least a working knowledge of the various theories and histories of social justice in education in America. I would focus more upon the theories that appeal to me and would prove most productive in my classroom. I may even communicate directly or subversively to my students why social justice in education is important. It is possible that fostering their awareness can additionally minimize social injustice as well. If I taught in a school or other facility that was primarily concerned with social justice in education, I would bring my ideas to the attention of my supervisor and/or my colleagues as perhaps together we can help spread social justice throughout the entire school. Change begins on the level of the individual, yet has the potential to expand to global influence. Persistence is necessary; passion is necessary; and a sincere love of children as well as a sincere desire for equality is necessary to carry out changes in education that reflect a socially just institution.


Hytten, K. & Bettez, S.C. (2011) "Understanding education for social justice." Educational Foundations, Caddo Gap Press, Web. Available from [read more]

Technology to Enhance Learning Online Collaboration Term Paper

… Online Nursing Education

As in almost any subject area today, online education has transformed the climate for nursing education as more and more of the curricula is delivered remotely in completely online or in hybrid fashion combining some students visits to a physical site. In this essay, the author will write about the effects of online learning collaboration upon nursing education. We will identify an important online collaboration or community building technology that has already been integrated into online nursing education practice. We will also examine online collaboration tools by examining social media such as Facebook and Twitter and the effects of this upon nursing education.

In online learning, E-learning has emerged as a new standard in modern higher education. E-learning market had grown by 2008 by 35.6%. However, there have been a number of problems.. Not much is known regarding the reason that many users stop online learning after their immersion.

Previous research has suggested factors that might affect user satisfaction with e-Learning. This study developed an integrated model with six dimensions: learners, instructors, courses, technology, design, and environment. A survey published in Computers and Education investigated the critical factors affecting learners' satisfaction in e-Learning. The survey demonstrated that instructor attitudes toward e-Learning, student computer anxiety, e-Learning course quality, e-Learning course flexibility, perceptions of usefulness, ease of use, and assessment diversity in assessments greatly affected students' perceived satisfactions (Sun, Tsai, Finger, Deschenes & Yeh, 2008, 1183-1184).

Most of the above factors that are software, webware, or website related can be mediated by good technology and expertise. However, human anxiety is trickier to deal with. Much of the student anxiety deals with the lack of tangible contact with the instructors or other students participating in the course, especially with the lack of spontaneity in asymmetric courses. Some individuals however are also nervous about the instant messaging that happens in online classrooms, so the problem is more complicated…… [read more]

Articles Regarding Pedagogy to Bridge Research Paper

… Also, more coding rules were defined by the researchers. This was in order to establish consistency in segmentation of the messages for coding. The researchers defined a coding unit was as a sentence. When the coding greetings and farewells were not complete sentences, then a farewell or greeting was defined as a coding unit (ibid., 343).

Significance of the Study

Changes were found in the children's use of language for social purposes as well as the appropriate language use in when they were in different social and cultural settings. The recommendations that were made included the redesign of the online discussion activities. In the study, the study students had a higher participatory rate in their collaborative activities and tasks than in their individual tasks and activities. The respondents' use of the medium of written language for personal expression increased significantly. Their style usage of the language increased with the increase in their online usage. While these qualitative observations appear encouraging, they were not necessarily quantitatively significant. While valid, they may take longer to manifest themselves. There remained but little evidence that the students used any other learning strategies to broaden their communicative competence, although a more structured approach may have improved the results more significantly (ibid., 363-364).

The results of the study offer researchers several guidelines to ESOL teachers for the effective use of electronic discussion boards in order to improve and facilitate K-12 ESOL students' written communication competence in the English target language. Firstly, online resources such as electronic chat rooms and discussion boards can be

utilized as effective learning environments to encourage ESOL students to observe their student peers' written English language. Such activities that involve peer review or peer observation can potentially help students to correct their use of the English language. Secondly, it is evident that online group activities can be further used to promote students' use of the English language

(ibid., 363).

It is the opinion of the author that the above approach is correct given the demonstrated effectiveness of immersion as a learning technique. Facility comes before grammar, even in ESOL. However, as indicated and is normal in any study, the study population could have been larger and the procedures and methodology could be tightened to better structure such studies in the future. The results do seem promising enough to warrant this. In this author's field of ESOL, there are broad implications auguring for immersion study to speed and improve the quality of learning in a hands on classroom environment.


To sum up, this author has critiqued a research study regarding the effectiveness of online chat rooms on the development of ESOL and the additional pedagogy needed to bridge the gap between practice and theory in education. We saw how new teachers applied their freshly absorbed knowledge in order to benefit the learning in their fresh classroom environments.

We found that what was especially effective across the board were environments where will-trained teachers ran classes with high enthusiasm. Some basics of teaching obviously… [read more]

Practice a Good Teacher First Essay

… Small group discussion: Allows people who are uncomfortable in large groups to participate in an active manner but can deteriorate into purposeless chatter

7. Case studies: Develop problem solving-skills but can make it difficult for students to generalize to other situations.

8. Role playing: Encourages empathy with different situations but self-conscious individuals may have trouble speaking in front of groups

9. Worksheets: Allow individual brainstorming so students are not influenced by groupthink but can only be used for a short period of time, given the length of the worksheet

10. Values clarification exercise: Allows for a more structured group exercise that still elicits opinions on subjects students are likely to have opinions on although some might be wary of sharing such personal opinions in a group setting.

Common Visual Aids

1. Posters: Easy to make and alter but can be too static, hard-to-see and uninteresting for large groups

2. Slides: Professional in appearance but don't facilitate discussion and must be shown in the dark (snooze factor)

3. Videos: Professional and good for large groups but require special equipment and have the potential of equipment failure

4. Overhead transparencies: Easy to create and update, but require equipment that may not be available

5. PowerPoint: Professional in appearance and animated but requires a certain amount of technical and graphic design skills

6. Mock-ups: Three-dimensional and tactile but can be difficult to store, share with the audience and transport

Good teaching: Top 10 requirements

Good teaching is an emotional as well as a logically-driven exercise. Teachers must stay on top of their fields while still understanding how students 'tick' and motivate them to learn. Teachers may need to push students, but also have to respond to them. Every class is different, and teachers must be flexible. They also must entertain and engage students, inspire their students to have fun and nurture them as well as be a 'benevolent dictator.' Teachers must…… [read more]

Promoting Diversity in Education Essay

… Promoting Diversity in Education

Diversity in Education HR

Promoting Diversity in Education: A Human Resources Perspective

Today's learning community is changing rapidly, and one of the most significant shifts is the widely expanding diversity among school populations. As global and… [read more]

Causes as Well as the Available Approaches Term Paper

… ¶ … Causes as Well as the Available Approaches Affecting Learning Abilities

The Legislative perspective

The need for early intervention

The theory behind learning disabilities

Approaches of teaching children with Learning disabilities

Constructivist theory and its application

Behaviorist theory and… [read more]

Speaking in the Target Language Essay

… Warm-up activities

The warm-up activities within the EFL classrooms is Iraq can include:

1. Identifying the importance of learning the language

2. Recognizing the primary keywords that need to be understood for the main activities

3. Relating the key words in the main activities with relevant pictures and events

4. Engaging students to respond to the links made between the picture, events and the key words

5. Engaging the students to speak up on how they relate to the keywords and what events or pictures they would relate to it

6. Giving basic instructions for the main activities

Main activities

1. Recognizing relevant authors on the topic e.g. The role of William Shakespeare in poetry

2. Grammar activities that include

a. Listening first to the teacher as she reads the relevant reading material

b. Division of classes into different groups

c. Basic grammar recognition i.e. key structures like past tense, present, continuous etc.

d. Identifying the words that make the structure i.e. words like were, going, acting, should, would, could

e. Explanation of the basic words recognized and their use in different settings

f. Using the basic words recognized in different settings

3. Group discussion of new words and concepts learned

4. Using the films and documentaries to exhibit to students how the grammar and words are used creatively as opposed to technically only

5. I don't have additional activities but you contact me on celeste.gabrial (at) in the future

Follow-up activities

1. Revising all that was learned the previous day through a verbal revision session

2. Using the composition and comprehension writing structures to allow students to note down their own interpretation of what they learnt both creatively and technically

3. Recording the progress of each student and each EFL concept so as to understand where the…… [read more]

Studying the Impacts of Globalization on Tools and Facilities in Iranian Education System Article

… Iran Edu

Added Text in Introduction:

Nowadays, the role of Information and Communication Systems in simplifying the flow of information and preparing the path for decision making is clear to almost everyone. Development of the availability of communicating in the shortest time has conquered the time and has led to some new circumstances or so-called "Globalization (Shahi et al., 2008).

According to Ginkel, these changes were rooted underground about half a century ago (Ginkel, 2002). One the other hand, Madison regards globalization as an advanced human dynamic (Madison, 2001). Alberto believes that modernity has come to an end and a new era has begun in which the world has completely changed and is approaching to become a whole unit (Alberto, 2001). Based on Charlton and Andreas's beliefs, globalization is an aspect of a bigger phenomenon, i.e. modernism, which defines the society with increasingly growing properties of communication complexities (Charlton and Andreas, 2006). All these stand for a reality known as globalization. Globalization, which requires freedom of action, results in variations in factors including monitoring, hierarchical relations, and management-oriented in education management. This matter implies that although globalization does not belong to any doctrines, it is somehow aligned with post-modernity basics and principles. In the contemporary world, post modernism principles are becoming widespread and have led to new debates in political and cultural as well as literal aspects including learning and education (Farmihani, 2010). It seems that Jacques Derrida's deconstructive attitudes have stimulated evolutions in education (Derrida, 1974). As evidence suggests, education system have also benefited from globalization consequences. Referring to the fact that the year 2002 was named as "Human Globalization" by UNESCO, Ginkel believes that the whole education system plays an important role in this matter (Ginkel, 2002). The globalization process is significantly affecting the economic and commercial life of nations. With increasing global competition and the rapidly advancing technologies, the business organizations and business models as well as management systems and practices are undergoing continuous change. To cope up with these changes, the management education is also being restructured and refocused (Mushtaq, 2004).

. The availability of accessing Internet networks for students has made classrooms' walls more transparent and penetrable which brings along the possibility of infinite and multipurpose relationships to learners and has resulted in the notion of Global Village.

The concept of the Global Village can only be made manifest with the infrastructure and policies that promote information technology in the classroom. Information technologies, especially access to the Internet, promote the Global Village in real and tangible ways. Students accessing the global wealth of knowledge will be able to think more…… [read more]

Diffentiation in Learning Research Paper

… Subban's literature review produces three principles to bring the above into being Three intersecting principles gleaned from the literature review serve as the basis for this research and development. Firstly, Vygotsky's grounded learning theory maintains that reciprocal social interaction combined with a collaborative relationship between teacher and student will accommodates learning developmentally and historically. Secondly, the learning context is a social one that promotes development of communication skills and cognitive functionality

. Interaction between the student and a knowledgeable adult enhances the possibility of this intellectual activity. Thirdly, research into the workings of the brain and recent findings with regard to multiple intelligences and learning styles provides acknowledgement that there is potential for enlarged earning if the learners are engaged in the process and associate new learning with the existing information. This is combined with the conditionality that they are allowed to consolidate this information in a manner suited to their individual learning style.

In other words, we are conditionally telling the learner to have it their way and educators will expect that it will help that student (ibid, 937). This all seems to touch upon the social process of learning. The cognitive side of it will be explored further on.

More specifically, biological brain information is necessary to clinch the theory. Perhaps this should be illustrated in the most difficult biological situation of all, that of brain injury that affects areas such as the frontal lobe or the limbic systems, areas that are widely know to be associated with neural functionality and learning. In Brower and Price's research, they conclude that clinically significant focal frontal lobe dysfunctionality is associated with an aggressive lack of control of that organ. Increased The evidence is generally the strongest for an association between focal prefrontal damage combined with an impulsive subtype of aggressive behavior. In other words, the "executive center " of the brain ("Neuropsychiatry of frontal," 2001, 724).

Logically therefore, the normal social paradigm that has previously been learned is destroyed and damaged with the frontal lobe, causing the anti-social behavior to be learned instead. In other words, there is a very set way that people learn and the social process is helped along by the cognitive one. It is then the job of the instructor to optimally synchronize the two to do the job of learning effectively. Not surprisingly, if we optimize the social process with socially beneficial interactions between the stakeholders (namely, the instructor and the learner), then we can increase the ability of different students to do this individually by assessing and adjusting the learning curriculum to their cognitive set of tools.

In closing, catering to diverse students increases the amount of learning done in the classroom. This is backed up by both cognitive and social learning evidence and can be accepted with certitude as a constant in the educational process.

Works Cited

Brower, M.C., & Price, B.H. (2001). Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behaviour: a critical review. Journal of Neurological and Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 71,… [read more]

Managing the Learning Organization Book Report

… ¶ … Learning Organization

The Skokie library (Illinois) is special in that it has won several awards including the 2008 National Medal for Museum and Library Service. The library functions on the premise that it is there to assist its… [read more]

Vocational Education Purpose Essay

… Not much can be done unless the promotion of equality for women is addressed. One solution may include the incorporation according to Irving of an "entrepreneurial spirit" that may promote more decision-making and practices that will benefit the community, and… [read more]

Education -- Self-Directed Learning Issue Term Paper

… Initially, he will be completely dependent on his instructor. Later in his training, he will still be dependent on his instructor for safety and for guidance, but he will become capable of contributing to the learning process, such as by requesting to practice certain specific skills or maneuvers and by contributing to the decision to progress to new skills that are dependent on skills acquired earlier. Eventually, the student pilot becomes capable of flying alone but may still rely on an instructor to perfect certain advanced skills and to accompany him on flights in which those skills are required, such as in connection with flying by instruments instead of by visual recognition.

(4) How can adult learners be supported as participants to self-directed learning?

by family members, employers, friends, instructors?

Ideally, the adult learner should receive encouragement from those close to him, such as family members. More specifically, self-learners should receive the same types of consideration for the amount of time they require as they might receive in connection with traditional formal learning situations. For example, it would be a negative situation if a self-directed learner were continually interrupted by family members or friends because they did not respect the fact that learning requires concentration and focus irrespective of what type of learning process is involved. Similarly, employers frequently fully support and encourage traditional formats of continuing education. However, they might be inclined to be somewhat less supportive of self-directed learning simply because the lack of formal parameters might suggest to them that it is less serious or that the learner is less fully involved in or committed to the process. In both cases, support in the form of acknowledgment and the same considerations (such as time off from other responsibilities) that might be offered in connection with traditional learning situations would be very helpful to self-directed learners. Finally, instructors could support self-directed learners by acknowledging that their preference or inclination to learn through that process is acceptable and that the instructor will be available to the extent necessary to provide assistance to support the learner's self-directed efforts.

Section II-Andragogy:

(5) Malcolm Knowles describes 4 assumptions of Andragogy. Discuss those 4 assumptions, and the implications for the design, implementation, and evaluation of learning activities with adults.

According to Knowles, the first assumption of andragogy is that adults (as opposed to children) have a mature self-concept that, in the most general sense, reflects the process of developing independence from others. The second assumption is that adults acquire the benefit of their collective experiences; those experiences help them better understand their interests, needs, and capabilities, as well as what they come to know about themselves as learners. The third assumption is the development of readiness to learn; that is largely a function of the recognition of adult social responsibilities in society. The fourth assumption is that mature adults develop an orientation toward learning for specific reasons, such as in connection with qualifying for a desired type of employment or promotion.

The implications… [read more]

Distance Learning the Future Points Research Paper

… The ADDIE process is for the educator to first analyze the learners, design and develop the instruction based on learning goals and performance-based objectives, and formative and summative assessments (Hodell, 2006). Next, the instructor will implement (delivery modality and instructional strategies) the instruction and the final step will be to evaluate the process that includes the learners, the instructional process, and the learning design (Hodell, 2006).

Promoting Positive Learning Experiences with Web-based Instruction

During the next 10 years the academic will begin to see a shift in the educational designing process. With the advent of modern technology, Web-based instruction will continue to develop and attract new students for learning and developing job skills. Web-based instruction offers flexibility (time and convenience), a diverse student population being able to work together, and a superior record keeping system (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007). The Web-based instructional learning environment promotes asynchronous communication and student-centered with a facilitator serving as a helping hand on the side and a true constructivist approach.

Web-based instruction provides an opportunity for more flexibility to take place in the learning process. The flexibility Web-based instruction offers can promote a positive learning experience the in two ways. First, Web-based instruction puts libraries within the fingertips of the learner, offering online documents, resources, and search engines linked to research portals and libraries (Lengel & Lengel, 2006). Next, Web-based instruction offers the learner and educator flexibility in the location of the class. With Web-based instruction being empowered by tools such as the computer and Internet, universities are not limited to campuses and can take place anywhere giving postsecondary and college institutions an opportunity to collect a variety of learners from all over the world (Lengel & Lengel, 2006). Web-based instruction may offer the learner flexibility that is attractive to many learners with busy lives including work and family commitments. The flexibility offered because of Web-based instruction has created more opportunities for learners to obtain an education and for educators in employment opportunities.


Hodell, C. (2006). ISD from the ground up: a non-nonsense approach to instructional design. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.

Lengel, J.G., & Lengel, K.M. (2006). Integrating technology: a practical guide. Sadle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2…… [read more]

Teacher Beliefs in Contemporary Science Case Study

… Perhaps this was not an unusual finding, or perhaps it has been explained before. This could have provided an explanation for the current findings in conjunction with a follow-up of the participants. There was one other pair that was close… [read more]

Middle Schools Student With Learning Disabilities Struggles Research Paper

… ¶ … middle schools student with learning disabilities struggles specifically with the automatic use of multiple strategies to read and comprehend text

How do I decode the reading problem that my student (or a student with similar reading difficulty) has?

There are three types of reading disability and the correct type must be decoded for the problem to be adequately addressed.

The problem's significance

Reading equals decoding and comprehension. It follows, therefore, that there are three types of reading disability: an inability to decode, an inability to comprehend, or a type that integrates both. The first correpsonds to dyslexia, the second reprents hyperlexia, and the third is the common vaarity that is reading disability.

The if/then statement

If one adequately decoded the problem one can best address and deal with the situation.

Independent variable

Reading ability. Teacher helping student

Dependent variable

The specific reading problem

(Source: Gough, P. & Tunmer, W.E. (1996). Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability

Remedial and Special Education, 7,6-10)

2. The problem question

How does one help students maintain and improve their reading ability and understanding when they are no longer in an instructional setting?

The problem statement

Finding an appropriate method that can help students with reading difficulties master their reading both in and out of the instructional setting.

The problem's significance

Once out of the instructional setting, students with reading disabilities have to independently struggle to master…… [read more]

Teacher Standard the 2009-2010 Accountability Essay

… The AYP is authoritative source that originates from the government and puts these. requirements that educators need to respect in order to successfully deal with society in general. The CSTP is a California state directed initiative that helps provide teachers and understanding and what's the expected them in terms of state requirements. This document does not give specific standards but rather gives suggestions on how to connect with students in various ways. This is a document that focuses on the teachers and what they need to do and how they need to act within the classroom. The CST is 20 pages and is not a difficult or confusing document to understand.

The content guide dealing with English and language arts, is a specific document that deals with a particular subject, English and language arts, and how it applies to each student depending on what grade they are and what level they understand the subject. This document offers strategies and guidelines for teachers to identify where their students are in comparison to the rest of the state. The standardization helps teachers benchmark certain levels of understanding and can provide equal protection and justified grading.

These three documents are similar in the same way in that they deal with public education and they all contain ideas rules and regulations dealing with specific teacher requirements within the classroom. They are different in other ways as well and that they deal with different aspects of what teachers to expect. While undocumented AYP requires teachers to understand the laws of federally and state issued and the others are more classroom specifically deal with the day-to-day operations of the classroom.

Teachers can use these documents to enhance student learning by understanding what is expected of them by the different authoritative figures that rests within the educational system. Understanding and prioritizing different requirements seem to be the best approach in combining all of the many different tasks that a teacher has to understand and relate to their students on a daily basis. Having knowledge of the documents is extremely viable, as they can contribute to the greater knowledge and learning potential of all those within the state of California while at the same time…… [read more]

Educational Psychology A) Student Learning: Constructivism Arose Term Paper

… Educational Psychology

a) Student Learning: Constructivism

Constructivism arose from learning theories originally created by Piaget and Vygotsky. At the basis of the theory is the use of prior knowledge or existing cognitive frameworks to use as a basis for acquiring… [read more]

Educational Psychology Multicultural Education: Enhancing Essay

… Educational Psychology

Multicultural education:

Enhancing the educational experience of all students

Multicultural education "is a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities for students from diverse racial, ethnic, social, class, and cultural groups. One of its important goals is to help all students to acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society and to interact, negotiate, and communicate with peoples from diverse groups in order to create a civic and moral community that works for the common good" (Multicultural education, 2011, NCREL). This quotation stresses the fact that multicultural education does not mean educating all children in the same fashion. It requires that teachers acknowledge every student's unique gifts, differences and challenges for the teacher to be fully effective in the classroom.

For example, presenting a lesson plan to a group of students requires acknowledging the students' pasts and what experiences they bring to the classroom. When presenting a topic relevant to socioeconomic concerns of the labor movement, a teacher might relate the experiences of 19th century workers demanding their rights to the concerns of a classroom mainly made up of working-class students, while a group of relatively affluent students might need more extensive background to understand the commonalities between their experience and working-class individuals. But this is not only true of a higher-level educational environment. For example, even teaching a class of third graders, children who have personally experienced prejudice may have different experiences to bring to the classroom when discussing the topic of Martin Luther King Jr. versus children who have not. The teacher must 'make space' for the children's personal input, given the emotional relevance of their feelings.

Socioeconomic sensitivity also requires an awareness on the part of the teacher to the challenges of students' everyday lives. Students from less affluent backgrounds may not have access to a computer at home and require 'computer time' or 'research time' during the school day when a long-term research paper is assigned. Teachers must be aware of the difficulties that students from households that lack certain basic necessities, such as a secure source of nutrition and a stable home environment, may suffer. They must attempt to ensure that children receive the support they require to flourish. Although it may not be in a teacher's job description to ensure that a child's parents are aware of free school lunches or afterschool programs that can provide children with additional tutoring and assistance, doing so can substantially enhance a child's ability to learn in the classroom.

Ethnicity is another concern when conveying a truly multicultural education to children. Perhaps the most obvious differentiator is that of language. Even if students who are classified as ESL receive outside…… [read more]

Lesson Plan for an Education Program That Is Intended for a Particular Target Audience Research Paper

… Nurse Lesson Plan

Nursing Lesson Plan for Information Technology Adoption

Designing a lesson plan for a student body engaged in an education toward effective healthcare provision in a context of evolving technological and legal requirements must incorporate both the various… [read more]

Educational Psychology Constructivist Theory of Learning Constructivist Teaching Essay

… Constructivist Theory

In today's educational context, teachers are faced with many challenges. Not least of these is the fact that children come from so many different cultural and intellectual backgrounds that it can no longer be assumed that even two… [read more]

Learning Environment Requires Article Review

… Their sample and techniques are appropriate, prose is understandable, literature review more than adequate, and conclusions easily impelmentable and certainly desirous in the modern classroom.


Brown, L.M. And B.Z. Posner. (2001). "Exploring the Relationship Between Learning

And Leadership," Leadership and Organizational Development. May, 2001: 274-80.

To some, learning is a cognitive function -- a physical and biological function of dealing successfully with environmental stimuli. Piaget, for one, believed that it was organization and adaption that separated the human individual from other animals because humans could remember and learn - and hypothesize the future. Organization as Piaget saw it said that humans are designed to organize their observations and experiences into coherent sets of meanings. Adaptation is the tendency to adjust to the environment - a process by which we create matches between our original observations and new ones that might not seem logical at first, but provide new solutions to unique problems.

But there are other ways of looking at the broad picture of education outside the cognitive norm. Once we have a basic understanding of how learning occurs, we must then turn to the subject of why learning occurs. Richard Rodriguez, in The Achievement of Desire, takes the view that more formalized education (e.g. outside Vygotsky's environmental zone into a more artificial sense of cognition). For Rodriguez, "A primary reason for my success in the classroom was that I couldn't forget that schooling was changing me and separating me from the life I enjoyed before becoming a student" Therein lies the conundrum for Rodriguez; on one hand, it is absolutely necessary for an individual to move forward with their life and education, and particularly so, he says, for minority… [read more]

Teaching Methods How Should Educators Demonstrate Effectiveness Essay

… Teaching Methods

How should educators demonstrate effectiveness of instruction relative to student achievement in an age of accountability?

The basic demonstration to effectiveness of instruction relative to student achievement is if the students are able to do what they have been taught in the class. We can use multiple measures to ensure that we have a reliable demonstration of teacher effectiveness, because all measures provide a limited representation of teacher performance and are prone to error.

In a scheme to analyze the effectiveness of instruction, three types of confirmation can be analyzed and regarded in combination. This is a step by NCLB to ensure "highly qualified teachers" i.e. HQT for all students. The three types of confirmation are:

Performance based assessments of teaching: through well planned performance-based assessments of teaching features of teaching that are considerably linked to teacher effectiveness can be distinguished, as measured by student accomplishment gain.

2. Evaluation of successful teaching practice: to demonstrate effectiveness teaching practices can be assessed, that are linked with preferred student result and the accomplishment of school objective through organized compilation of proof regarding teacher planning and instruction, talks with parents and students or assistance to the school. These practices as well as the proof as to how these changes have influenced student participation and knowledge are documented.

3. Teacher contributions to student learning: through classroom assessments, documentations and valid tests many an analysis of student accomplishment can be made, which is used to demonstrate teacher effectiveness. This measure is affected by students' previous teachers and added factors.

(Anderson, 2004, pg.27)

Should educators teach to the standards from national groups such as national technology or content standards?

Content standards aim to promote the highest accomplishment of every student, defining knowledge, concepts and skills to be obtained at each level, assures a much better quality of instruction. Standards set up by the state or national groups are in available in many different formats and usually represent a specific content area, setting a broad guideline of what needs to be taught. Using national standards as tests specification limits innovation and educators tend to execute test defined curriculum rather than conceiving instructional activities according to their own students' learning. Customization should be incorporated with standardization, providing content for instruction and at the same time allowing flexibility.

(Anderson, 1996)

In your state, do the state NCLB tests demonstrate student achievement towards content standards?

The no child left behind NCLB movement was taken up by California and some other states, observing the poor NAEP scores (National Assessment of Educational Progress). In California, as well as other states where NCLB has been implemented there can be seen a gradual but positive increase in students' achievement. Statistics indicate that after its implementation there have been improved tests scores, improvement over local standards which failed to provide oversight to special education and increased accountability through yearly standardized tests to decide if schools are living up to the standard. Also these tests offer attention to minority population eliminating racist and ethnic… [read more]

Education and the Law Essay

… Teaching Methods

Education and the Law

Should schooling be a right or privilege? What impact has student, family, and societal rights had on the influence of education?

Globalization and migration are two occurrences that are having essential effects on both the developed and lesser developed societies of the world, and also on people from all walks of life. This occurs at all levels, be they political, economical, social, or cultural. The depiction of a condensed society structured around a rational system of values and common social behavioral model has fallen apart, even in those populations which are far detached from the big cities. Today's hyper corresponded society has pulled down the obstacles and has opened up spaces of communication where before there was only separation and monologue. Nothing will be the same in the future: traditions and mores, language and faith, and principles and behaviors. It is thought that culture will be distinguished with other ways of life and other cultures which will assert their own places and regions of materialization (Ruiz and Sanchez, 2011).

Standardization and homogeneity have given way to difficulty, assortment, and mixed race. Obviously, these alterations and disagreements which are happening within society will have penalties in education. The task of education to live not with dissimilarities but with dissimilar people cannot be put off, and recognized patterns provide archaic by real events must be left behind. This ways that pedagogy must seek a new discourse, a new language which is nearer to today's reality; a new learning praxis in which technical preparation or career training are not the major concerns (Ruiz and Sanchez, 2011).

It is because of these changes that education should be a right and not just a privilege. The future of societies depends on the education that goes on within a society. If there is not education then how is society going to continue to exist let alone improve. Education is influenced significantly by a variety of societal factors comprising standards, civilization, growth, customs and values. Education is not only the…… [read more]

Reasons for Teacher Disjuncture in CLIL Essay


Teacher Disjuncture in CLIL

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a promising and highly regarded approach to teaching a foreign language, principally to primary and secondary students. Occasionally, some teachers have experienced difficulties in implementing fully this approach to language study. A major reason for this difficulty is because of the twin focus of this methodology: on content and on language. This brief essay will examine the causes that underline this reason.

In an extensive study of the literature on this topic, Peter Mehisto (2008) has found, "Many teachers find it difficult to apply a multiple focus on content and language, as well as on cross-curricular integration, cognition, and reflection" (p.113). Mehisto does not see the difficulty as being limited to teachers. He writes, "Education officials and administrators, as well as teacher trainers are facing some of the same difficulties" (Mehisto, 2008, p. 113). One of the causes of the problem is "a climate of high-stakes exams that can contribute to a reduction in autonomous decision-making by teachers" (Mehisto, 2008, p. 113). Another concerns "a lack of knowledge about CLIL-specific and other widely accepted teaching strategies and their impact on learning, as well as on examination results" (Mehisto, 2008, p. 113). A third may be "teacher mindsets" (Mehisto, 2008, p. 113), a point-of-view that some teachers may think the approach in which they have been trained and/or which they use is adequate and, therefore, these teachers resist adopting a new method that may be even more effective. These teachers believe that it would be unnecessary to learn or implement another teaching method. A final cause concerns "a need for better and more coordinated planning by teachers and government authorities" (Mehisto, 2008, p. 113). Mehisto (2008) finds that "any of these factors can knock a programme off balance" (p. 113).

Mehisto (2008) defines "disjuncture" as "tension between one's current way of…… [read more]

Professional Development Plan Term Paper

… Professional Development Plan

A teacher's professional development plan creates a framework for setting and achieving short- and long-range goals. The purpose of this paper is to set some goals and develop some strategies to meet them. The goals encompass professional… [read more]

Bullying International Phonics Alphabet and the Article an Indian Father's Plea Robert Lake Term Paper

… ¶ … teach effectively, it is critical to develop a comprehensive teaching methodology. This course has not only revealed the importance of a teaching methodology but also how to develop a methodology and implement it in the classroom. With a… [read more]

Learning Disabilities in Children Term Paper

… Learning Disabilities in Children

Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities (LD) are commonly seen as organically-based disorders affecting a small percentage of children and that interferes with their ability to learn to read and write normally (Sleeter 2010). While there is a… [read more]

Teaching Strengths for the Content Interview

… Every lesson applies in some way to life outside of the classroom, so I would want to show the students, who are probably skeptical about any possible application, how they can use what they are learning that day (Fontana, Scruggs & Matropieri, 2007). Either it would be about an occupation that they could follow, or it could be about a real world application of the problem that everybody could use.

Following an attention grabbing opening and then application of the problem, I would need to show the students how they can do the problem in question. Text books provide good examples, but I might want to tailor what the students are learning to the application that I have given (Fontana, Scruggs & Mastropieri, 2007). Making sure that the students see the lesson in action is essential to understanding. I would perform the problems on the board (I would not subject students to the possible trauma of having to do problems on the board in front of the entire class) and then ask the students if they had any questions. When doing the problems I would also make sure and write them down in steps that are as simple as possible (Stiggins, 1999). Since the lesson plan has to take up a certain amount of time but no more, I would make sure that I had time to do more work with the students if I thought they did not understand or they indicated that to me.

The final part of the lesson plan is the time map. Everything has to fit into a certain time period, and I have to make sure that I have covered all I am supposed to cover by the time the class is up either at the semester or end of the school year. That means that every lesson plan should be worked out prior to starting the class. Time maps are no good if they lead to only a few processes being taught during the year. Each subject has a certain amount of time that is allotted to it, and each student should have had enough time to master the subject. I want to make sure that if a certain student does not understand a subject, it is not because I did not give my maximum effort (Scott, Park, Swain-Bradway & Landers, 2007). Every student deserves to have the chance to ask questions, and grasp the material. Also, since math is a subject that builds on itself, I want to make sure that I have the time to coach every student. So, they can reach the pinnacle of their abilities.

The lessons should be well-planned, complete, instructive, fun and timely. With all of those elements in place I think that I should have good classes.

Also, I want to make sure that I am realistic in my expectations for myself and the students. I do not want to have students who feel inadequate, but there comes a time when I will have to move… [read more]

Traditional Learning Theories Essay

… Traditional Learning Theories

Behaviorism, constructivism, and cognitive theories of learning

Behavioral theories of learning tend to view the learning process as a skill-based enterprise. The fundamentals of behaviorist theories of learning emphasize "breaking down the skills and information to be learned into small units, checking student's work regularly and providing feedback as well as encouragement (reinforcement)" (Chen, 2010, Behavioral theories). Behaviorism emphasizes rewarding desirable behaviors and not rewarding or actively punishing negative behaviors, much like the originator of behaviorism, BF Skinner rewarded rats learning to run a maze correctly. Although no teacher today would use such a blatant method of rewards and punishment as Skinner, the influence of behaviorism can be seen in many teacher-centered methods of learning and assessment. "Lectures, tutorials, drills, demonstrations, and other forms of teacher controlled teaching tend to dominate behavioral classrooms," so that correct behaviors can be rewarded, and negative ones corrected (Chen, 2010, Behavioral theories). In behaviorism, skills are isolated from their real-world context. For example, a child might use a computer program that drills him or her in the irregular or subjunctive tenses of a foreign language.


In stark contrast to behaviorism, constructivism conceptualizes a much more active role for the student in the learning process. The constructivist teacher acts as a guide, as students "tackle problems, adventures, and challenges" (Chen, 2010, Social constructivist). The teacher creates an environment that is pro-learning, so students can become excited about the learning process as they explore their interests. Examples of constructivist strategies include encouraging children to work in groups, debate open-ended questions, and engage in hands-on activities. Another contrast between behaviorism and constructivism is that constructivism emphasizes teaching strategies that mimic how skills will be applied in real life, rather than views skills as something generalized and abstract. Teaching children how to add and subtract by making change on an excursion to a toy store would…… [read more]

Opportunities of a Problem-Based Learning Approach Essay

… ¶ … Opportunities of a Problem-Based Learning Approach in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility

Although there are countless opportunities for problem-based learning approaches in tertiary healthcare facilities, so too are there numerous challenges associated with the techniques that are used for… [read more]

Groups and Classroom Education Essay

… ¶ … Groups and Classroom Education

By the very nature of culture and humanity, humans tend to be group animals -- they thrive in groups, coalesce into groups, indeed, the very process of moving from hunter-gatherer to cities was part of a group behavior. Within this essay we will first look at group normative behavior, intergroup communication and leadership, and finally the way in which group behaviors influence individuation and specific responses to that group's culture. Group norms are defined as a set of internal rulings that are followed by the group members in order to increase the overall efficiency of the group's activity. These norms usually refer to the members' behavior towards themselves, their hierarchical superior and group outsiders, as well as to their approach and attitude towards the work they are expected to perform. Norms determine the way in which groups solve problems, make decisions and do their work. They influence interactions between members and between the group and the facilitator. Norms reflect the group's culture of shared values (Berry, 2007; Characteristics of A Group - Group Composition, 2007).

A group's cohesive nature is given by its features' and members' ability of coexisting and completing each other in order to form a balanced and harmonious whole. To achieve these, group leaders needs to take into consideration three major elements: interpersonal relationships, structural relationships and organizational relationships. After having taken into consideration the three relationships, group leaders need to consider two additional forces that influence the unity of the group: the size of the team and the technology used within the group (McClure, 2005). The size of the group has a direct influence upon the cohesion of the group in the meaning that it critically impacts communication between members. The greater the number of members within a group, the harder it is for them to properly send out their messages and insure they are clearly understood. In their path from the transmitter to the receiver, information may be distorted or even lost; thus impairing the function of the group (Witte and Davis, 1996).

Groups and the Classroom- Within the classroom situation, groups are unavoidable, and yet sometimes the very thing an instructor wants. Individuals within classrooms form hierarchies -- these may be based on social groups, age, commonality, or, in many cases, antipathy toward the instructor. Varying degrees of age and maturity also define group structure in the classroom; more defined groups in secondary school, less or more fluid in elementary school, and by college, little or no group activity unless a group of similar majors are taking classes together. These educational groups are often drawn together by common requirements, needs, or even abilities. This allows the instructor a rare opportunity to provide a more positive learning environment and to treat the group as a learning experience and the group dynamics as a part of curriculum development (Resnick, 1951).

Group dynamics can also affect the cognitive learning environment within a classroom; processes can hinder, or help the dynamics between… [read more]

Catholic Education Australian Primary Schools Essay

… Catholic Australian

Catholic Education in Australian Schools

Many if not most education reform programs are primarily concerned not with the overall mechanism of education, though administrative and governmental changes are becoming more and more prominent in many countries and regions when it comes to education, but rather with the content that is taught and the pace and/or timing in which this content is presented to students. Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century and even earlier, however, educational theorists have become more and more concerned with exactly how the schooling and education system works on a larger cultural and societal scale. This means educational theories have become less and less concerned with the day-to-day minutiae of educational systems, and more and more concerned with the larger and often life-long implications of educational systems and schooling processes and methods.

Schools do not simply teach facts and methods of analysis but also, whether intentionally or not, serve as tools of cultural indoctrination, making clear to students certain expectations, values, and modes of behavior that will ostensibly serve them in larger society outside of school and educational systems. This fact has been recognized for several decades, and is placed in higher or lesser degrees of prominence by various scholars, but in the realm of religious education the issue becomes especially important. The implications and ramifications of cultural indoctrination alongside the needs and demands of a religious, and specifically a Catholic, education creates a somewhat unique set of circumstances for students, teachers, and administrators that warrant special attention.

Citing abundant evidence from other research and form his own personal research and observations, Eisner (1985) demonstrates that in addition to teaching children the basics of reading, writing, arithmetic, and history, students in classroom settings are also taught the need to delay gratification in order to focus on the task at hand, learn the benefits (and the detriments) of compliant behavior, and are generally indoctrinated in the cultural values of the society that produces each particular classroom. There is also necessarily a heavy emphasis on time management, as schools must coordinate schedules for often thousands of students, and students must ensure (along with teachers and administrators) that they learn everything necessary (Eisner 1985, pp. 94-5). None of these issues are qualified by the author; he refrains from judging this elements of schooling as good or bad, it simply…… [read more]

Education -- Philosophical Approaches and Teaching Methods Essay

… Education -- Philosophical Approaches and Teaching Methods

(1) How do you pose questions that reflect academic concepts in real-world terminology?

One way of posing questions that reflect academic concepts in real-world terminology would be to frame them in relation to the long-term purposes and goals of education instead of the short-term strategies used to achieve those long-term objectives. For example, in educational terms, one might very well argue that the key to effective modern education is to promote inquiry-based learning instead of an exclusive focus on transferring substantive information and to transition away from passive learning and toward active learning methodologies. In real-world terminology, the same concerns could be expressed much more simply by starting with the intended end product. For example, real-world questions on the same issues might ask (1) "Do you think that formal education should teach only information or do you think that formal education should also teach students how to think?" And (2) "Do you believe that the lecture and textbook method is the most effective way to teach or do you think that many students might benefit more from less passive teaching methods that involve a two-way communication between learners and educators?"

(2) How do you then translate those real-world discussions back into the academic environment?

To translate those real-world discussions back into the academic environment, one might introduce information that connects the interviewee's responses directly to the realm of educational methodology. For example, the interviewer might ask whether the interviewee is familiar with methodologies such as hands-on, active learning and inquiry-based teaching methodologies. If the interviewee is not familiar with them, the interviewer has an opportunity to educate the interviewee…… [read more]

Teaching Methods Essay

… Ideology is a patterning of ideas or beliefs that characterize someone's thoughts.(p. 29) The role of the teacher/educator is to teach the student how to find the meaning in what they are learning, to go beyond the written word and apply what they have learned to real world situations. However, educators can only hope that students can make the real world connects, this is not something that is guaranteed through coursework, discussions, or exams.

Theory is defined as the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another; abstract thought or speculation; the general or abstract principles of a body of fact, a science, or an art; a belief, policy, or procedure proposed of followed as the basis of action. (Merriam-Webster Online, n.d., entry 1) Theory related to the teaching profession in several ways. First when an educator is in school to learn the skills needed to teach there are theories that he or she must learn to apply to the classroom that they will be teaching. Once an educator has learned the skills necessary to make those applications they in turn must teach their students those same techniques to allow the learner to apply the various theories to current and previous situations and applications.

The terms discussed have a multifaceted connection to the teaching profession. Not only are these terms necessary in the learning process of the educator themselves, they are also important in the education of the student. There are few ways to say that they contrast the teaching profession except to state that there are times when people are more concrete learners or thinkers. Such abstract terms may be harder to grasp and comprehend. Otherwise ideology, philosophy and theory work in a cohesive manner along with the subject matter at hand.


Heyting, F., Lenzen, D., & White, J. (Eds.). (2001). Methods in Philosophy of Education. London: Routledge.

Merriam-Webster Online. (n.d.).

Reagan, T. (2002). Language, Education, and Ideology: Mapping the Landscape of U.S. Schools. Westport, CT: Praeger.… [read more]

Communication That Nurtures Student Learning Background- Thomas Essay

… Communication That Nurtures Student Learning

Background- Thomas Jefferson believed that universal education would have to precede universal suffrage. The ignorant, he argued, were incapable of self-government. But he had profound faith in the reasonableness and ability of the masses and in their collective wisdom when educated. As one of the founding fathers, Jefferson in fact set the precedent for American education: reading, writing, mathematics, the Classics, and European and American History. In the United States, education is offered at all levels from pre-kindergarten to graduate school, typically K-12 funded by public monies. Elementary and secondary education involve twelve years of mandatory schooling, or GED, resulting in a High School Diploma. A distinct feature of the American educational system is its focus on decentralized organization (Mondale, 2002). Elementary and secondary education is financially supported by three levels of government - local, state, and federal. Furthermore, it is again divided into public and private institutions. The main disadvantage of the decentralization is the quality of education received by the students, clearly dependent upon the social and geographical area of habitation (Odden, 2003).

In the history of American education there have been several seminal legal issues that have defined both the contemporary educational systems as well as dramatically changed the rubric of U.S. Education Law and Policy. One of these, the so-called "No Child Left Behind" mandate, remains both controversial and impactful in contemporary education. The "No Child Left Behind Act" (Public Law 107-110, 115), is a Congressional Act signed into law by George W. Bush in January 2002. The Bill was a bi-partisan initiative, supported by Senator Edward Kennedy, and authorized a number of federal programs designed to improve standards for educational accountability across all States, districts, and increase the focus on…… [read more]

Educational Philosophy Term Paper

… Education

Knowledge, Diversity and the Role of the Teacher

The focus of the discussion hereafter is on the need for teachers to address the individual learning needs of students. Both in line with the findings promoted by the study of… [read more]

Learning Environment of Schools at Present Are Heavily Biased Toward Uniformity Over Diversity Thesis

… Learning Environment of Schools at Present Are Heavily Biased Toward Uniformity Over Diversity

Over the last 50 years, the overall style of teaching has remained the same. Where, the approach has been to teach in the same universal standards for… [read more]

Why I Want to Be a Teacher Admission Essay

… ¶ … Teacher

It is a basic human right for everyone to decide for their career and pursue their happiness. A career that is chosen for personal satisfaction is obviously better than opting for some career that is being pursued only for making a living. How do people decide for their career?

Some people prefer to follow that career in which they feel there are maximum possibilities to use their skills and capacities, some others prefers to choose their family business while some others let their families, friends and situations to decide for what way their life will proceed, on the other hand, some people always remain very clear about what they want to do with specific reasons about why they want to do it.

In my case, I feel that all these factors are working simultaneously to push me towards opting for teaching as my professional career. Although I always had a desire in my heart to be a teacher, a mentor for young pupil to help them in learning basic skills, understanding life and develop in better possible ways, my personal situations also changed so dramatically to encourage me to try to achieve my goal to be a good teacher.

I want to be a teacher because I know I can be a brilliant teacher. I consider a teacher's job as one of the most responsible and respectful career option. Everyone needs a teacher to progress with proper ethics and right perception towards life. A teacher is someone who leads the youngsters towards a better future; teacher helps them in understanding their own selves, their skills, abilities and desires. Teacher prepares the pupil to face the working world with its competitive environment. During the age of high-school students, the pupil often remain full of enthusiasm and energy which, if misdirected may take the shape of unnecessary destructive aggression, hence the job of a high school teacher includes much more responsibility. A high school teacher must be able to communicate with the students in a friendly way so that the students may discuss various problems of their student's life in detail without shying away. A teacher not only needs to enhance the brilliance of the bright students of the batch, but also has to encourage the average students to reach to the heights of brilliance along with trying to improve the capacities and caliber of the weaker students of the group. This all needs proper understanding of student's mind and a good teacher always knows how to tackle different students with different capacities and situations.

Along with my educational background, my personal situations have taught me a lot. Twenty years ago, while I…… [read more]

Teaching Education, Historically, Is Meant to Work Research Paper

… Teaching

Education, historically, is meant to work in favor of a variety of aspects of political and economic needs, which determine the function of education. The function of education has been under debate, however, in more recent years. Sociologists have come up with three main theories that are representative of their perspectives when it comes to education. These perspectives are: the functionalist theory, conflict theory, and interactionist theory. These three disparate theories will be examine in this paper in relation to education and teaching.

The functionalist theory stresses the importance of how education can best work in favor of the needs of society. The functionalist theory is simple to understand in that its main goal is to educate the next generation of individuals. Emile Durkheim was the "father" of the functionalist theory as he viewed education as a way to socialize people into society -- "everyday participation in the social life of the school forms students' habits, values, and skills" (Smelser 450).

Theorist Max Weber was drawn to the topic of education by his analysis of social stratification (Smelser 451), which is essentially what conflict theory is all about. Conflict theory looks at education as a way to keep social classes in their right place -- that is, those with power and higher class keep their positions on top of the social strata and those who are of the lower class will be kept beneath in their roles as subservient workers. Conflict theorists really do not see education's purpose as being all that different from that of the functionalists, but conflict theorists see the educational system as a whole as a way of maintaining the status quo -- that is, everyone stays in their positions of class whether that is a high class or low class; there is no social climbing or movement. Weber postulated that as the 19th century progressed, "university education had become an increasingly useful…… [read more]

Education the Central Focus of the Senge Questionnaire

… Education

The central focus of the Senge text is the concept of a "learning organization." Define the term "learning organization" as it applies to the Senge text in your own words.

A learning organization is an organization where people are -- essentially -- always learning and not only learning as individuals but learning as a team. Learning organizations are always looking to better themselves and find innovative ways of growing and expanding in order to create the best organization possible. Today, as technology grows and globalization is a fact of our world, people and organizations have to learn to be better learners and learners that are flexible to change, but they shouldn't just be flexible, they should also embrace change as it is an imminent part of society, organizations -- and life, as a whole. It is also important that every individual that is a part of an organization be committed to being a learner for life because, today, it doesn't work for just the boss to be the learner. Everyone has to be an active learner in an organization in order to create a true learning organization.

2. Defend or refute the following statement: Senge's concept of "systems thinking" has a relevance to the design of educational curricula. Provide a rationale for the argument.

Senge's (2006) concept of "systems thinking" does have relevance to the design of education curricula because an educational curriculum is a system for learning and therefore the systems thinking concept works perfectly. Creating a curriculum is an endeavor that requires specific thinking that relates to systems because the goal is to create a goal, really, a way of making a coherent and successful system that will aid in the process of learning. Senge uses the term "intercorrelated actions" (2006) when referring to systems, which makes sense when it comes to creating a curriculum for education because the whole system has got to make sense on a broad scale and all of the small actions have got to intercorrelate and thus make up a whole that is conducive to learning.

3. Choose one or more of the article in question four that synthesized your understanding of curriculum development. Provide a rationale for the selection.

Yi's (2005) article entitled "Effective ways to foster learning" can help understand curriculum development by understanding the "nature of learners and learning" (2005). Yi (2005) points out that there is a lack of equality between adult and children learners; while adults have the ability to self-direct themselves and be more goal-oriented, children may need more instruction and guidance and motivation when it comes to meeting goals. Yi postulates that objectivists tend to believe that learners take an active role in a learning process while constructivists see learning as a process of knowledge construction that comes via the learner and the environment (2005). Yi (2005) leans to the side of constructivism, which makes the most…… [read more]

Transformation of Self of School and Schooling and Society Essay

… Multicultural education today has become the norm in American schools, and indeed in schools across the world. With the changing economic and social climate, along with information and educational advancements, education professionals find themselves in an ever-changing climate, facing profound… [read more]

Current Social and Cultural Contexts of Development and Learning Essay

… ¶ … Global Pedagogies: Equity, Access and Democracy in Education, chapter on, written by Joseph Zajda (2008) deals with globalization, comparative education and policy research. Zajda begins with the statement that globalization has essentially changed the world economy in a… [read more]

Education Effective Ways to Foster Learning Article Review

… Education

Effective Ways to Foster Learning

According to studies cited by Yi learning may be defined as "the process of acquiring knowledge" (Schwen, 1998) but is also "a pertinent change in human performance or potential" (Driscoll, 1994). He supports the… [read more]

Learning Theories in 2009-2010 Term Paper

… Learning Theories

Jones, Wendell

By the end of the 19th and turn of the 20th century, researchers became fascinated by the differences in learning styles and concepts. This was perhaps a logical reaction to Darwinism, to scientific discovery, and to… [read more]

NCLB Becoming a Teacher in Today's Educational Research Paper


Becoming a teacher in today's educational environment means so much more than just learning how to teach a favorite subject, more than finishing all of the required education, more than completion of student teaching, then finally finding a school… [read more]

Skills in Higher Education Many Students Essay

… Skills in Higher Education

Many students come to college and find they lack the basic study and time management skills necessary to succeed. Others seem to find the challenges of higher education a better match for their own skill set.… [read more]

Education -- Classroom Observation Essay

… Education -- Classroom Observation

This classroom observation project took place in the 8th Grade Science class consisting of 25 students at the ____ School in ____. The teacher was the only adult present besides the observer; the observer watched passively and did not interact with the students in order not to influence or change the interactions observed. The observer sat in the back of the class and the teacher simply announced her presence by explaining to the class that someone would be watching to see how well the teacher was performing.

Classroom Management and Teaching Style

The teacher had previously introduced the class to a commercially produced learning system called the Full Option Science System (FOSS) and the beginning of the class was devoted to helping students set up the FOSS lesson module about geological erosion. The students assembled themselves into five working groups each consisting of five students. The instructor indicated privately to the observer that she had previously assigned the specific makeup of the working groups (and their relative location in the room) to separate students who were more prone to distraction in one another's presence. She also considered other factors such as helpfulness, cooperation, and personal rapport in assigning the working groups and she advised that the composition of the groups remained consistent for each separate lesson throughout the term.

The teacher's teaching style was designed to incorporate the active-inquiry concept promoted by the FOSS system and materials. Specifically, each learning module consisted of a brief lecture during which the teacher did not provide substantive information about the topic. Instead,…… [read more]

Educational Psychology Essay

… ¶ … Learning

The social cognitive theory suggests that learning takes place through self-regulatory systems. Students can be taught to self-monitor their own performance and behavior and determine for themselves whether they have done well or if improvement is needed. This can be reinforced in the classroom through the use of positive feedback (Bandura, 1991). The strength of this approach is that students can be taught strategies that help them to self-regulate their behavior and set learning goals. The weakness is that this approach does not incorporate actual teaching or learning strategies.

The information processing approach is a theory that explains how learning is processed by the brain. Information in the brain is organized by using procedural memory, imagery, or declarative memory. In the classroom, learning occurs through activating prior learning, making connections, coding information, and repetition (Huitt, 2003). This is different from the social cognitive theory because it deals with how information is processed rather than with how students are motivated. The strength of this approach is that it helps children to commit information to long-term memory. The weakness is that it focuses upon memorization rather than upon how to use or transfer the information.

Unlike social cognitive theory or information processing, social constructivists such as Vygotsky theorize that students learn through their interactions with people and with educational tools such as books or software. Reciprocal teaching and cooperative learning groups may be seen in a social constructivist classroom (Steiner & Mann, 1996). The strong point of this approach is that children can teach and learn from one another. The weak point is that children who benefit more from direct instruction or who learn better in a highly structured setting may have difficulty in this type of environment.

Question 2: Managing the Classroom

There are several different types of classroom management. In an authoritarian classroom, the teachers think that students only learn through lectures and direct instruction. Pupils must participate in the classroom activities whether or not they are willing. In an authoritarian classroom, the teacher is the ultimate decision maker. This is somewhat different from an authoritative classroom, where the expectations are clearly established, but the views and desires of the students are taken into consideration. The third type of classroom management is permissive. In this classroom, there is very little consistent discipline. Children are often treated as friends rather than as students. This type of classroom can easily get out of control (Yilmaz, 2009).

In my judgment, the authoritative classroom is too dictatorial and the students have little buy-in, which can cause classroom management issues in itself because if the children feel oppressed, they are more likely to act out. On the other hand, the permissive environment is too inconsistent and the outlines are not clearly established. This setting can lead to management issues because the children do not know their boundaries.

Out of the three choices, the authoritative classroom is the most…… [read more]

Visual and Verbal Learning Styles Article Review

… ¶ … Visual and Verbal Learning Styles on Learning" by Prasanthi Pallapu examines the impact of different learning styles on academic performance at the university level. Research has revealed various learning styles that may influence student performance. Pallapu surveyed a total of 22 students (21 females and 1 male) at a four-year southeastern United States university, using a modified version of the Index of Learning Styles. Only the visual/verbal domain of learning was taken into account for the current research. Results revealed 7 verbal learners and 15 verbal learners. There was a statistically significant difference between the verbal and visual learners. Visual learners prefer pictures, films, diagrams, and charts to help them grasp course material, whereas verbal learners prefer writing synopses and discussing course material with classmates. Although Pallapu's research has limitations, the implications of this research are that educators should account for learning styles when constructing course material.

One key point in the Pallapu research includes the importance of learning styles and their impact on measurable performance (grades). Although grades are not the only measure of student learning, they are the most obvious one. Students also need good grades to succeed academically. Therefore, paying attention to learning styles can help students improve their grades. A related point that Pallapu makes is that educators should take into account different learning styles when preparing lessons and delivering course material.

Another key point in the Pallapu research is what learning styles mean. For example, what does it mean to be a visual learners vs. A verbal learner? The author clarifies the differences between visual and verbal learners well. Visual learners need some sort of visual anchor such as a picture, a film, a diagram or a chart. These visual aids are crucial to helping visual learners grasp material and ultimately perform well in school. Educators who have a large number of visual learners in their classroom can incorporate these visual aids to help their students. Verbal learenrs rely strongly on language. This may mean that verbal learners need to take their own meticulous notes and write their own summaries, or this may also mean that verbal learners need socializing when studying. These key points have strong implications for the field of education.

Finally, Pallapu's research shows that the visual learners outperformed the verbal learners. This does not necessarily mean that visual learners are smarter than verbal learners. Rather, this means that classrooms may be structured more for visual than for verbal learners.


Pallapu's research shows how learning styles is an integral part of diversity in the classroom. The research helps educators understand their students' "prior experience, learning styles, strengths, and needs," in accordance with the Mid-Preparation Benchmark 1.2.3. The key to the Mid-Preparation Benchmark is to recognize "that students differ in their approaches to learning," which is also what Pallapu proves in the research. Learning style is a primary aspect of classroom diversity. Primary language, intelligence (MI), strengths and needs are also mentioned in the Mid-Preparation Benchmark 1.2.3. If visual learners… [read more]

Urban Education Reform All Students Are Deserving of a Quality and Equitable Research Proposal

… Urban Educational Reform

Education and society are inextricably linked. The progress, productivity and politic of a nation all are built on this singular cornerstone. The foundation for the ability of nations, states and communities to evolve, and often the incapacity for the very same, is in substantial part determined by the nature, accessibility and purpose of their respective systems of education. This is not, however, to make the assertion that there is a single or correct approach to achieving a successful relationship between education and society. The world is comprised of innumerable cultures, ideologies and nationalist identities, all of which predispose the peoples therein to a vast array of optimal teaching methods and educational systems. It can therefore be an invaluable endeavor in better understanding the ways in which society and education mutually affect one another within in a number of contexts. This is at the crux of my educational philosophy as I seek to enhance that which I have learned as a suburban educator by entering into Brown's Master's program in Urban Education Policy.

The intended subject of my study program at Brown would be this issue of society and education, with the understanding that certain demographic conditions will tend to predispose some individuals to lesser opportunity in both contexts. From my experience as an educator, this is rarely a coincidence. Those who struggle against dysfunctional home lives, who suffer the implications of economic disadvantage or who are of ethnicities or races typically isolated or undermined in America are also quite often disregarded by the educational system. This promotes a vicious cycle of poor fortune and obstructed opportunity, with our societies core inequalities manifested and intensified by the degrees to which education remains unequal or inaccessible. I hope to dedicate my career to addressing these deficiencies in our public and urban school systems by channeling the education, credentials and knowledge gained at Brown into a career in urban educational reform. This ambition proceeds from my own experience in the suburban educational context. Here, it was not uncommon that 'problem students,' often dispatched from urban living and learning contexts, would be foisted upon our school as part of an indiscriminate effort at placing essentially unwanted pupils. The outcome was that instead of languishing in bad schools, these students would languish in good schools, being pushed to the bottom rung of course tracks and given little of the special attention demanded by years of unequal education.

Observing this firsthand, I would come to understand the inherent socioeconomic prejudices which shape our educational opportunities. It became clear that shifting such students to different contexts neither benefited the students nor addressed the problem at its roots. Said roots are in the social and civil conditions in public urban contexts, where far too many students serve as a reflection of the reciprocal relationship between social turmoil and a dearth of educational benefits. It is thus that I would ultimately resolve from my own work in the field that the only way to begin to… [read more]

Attributes of the Ideal Leader in Higher Education Thesis

… Higher Education

The sphere of higher education demands leaders that are strong and efficient at carrying out the stated goals of the institutions they serve. In recent years there have been many changes at institutions of higher learning. These changes… [read more]

Teaching Students With Mental Retardation the Identification Essay

… Teaching Students With Mental Retardation

The identification of mental retardation, or intellectual disability (which, rather than a blanket term, is becoming the preferred term for mental retardation), often occurs early in a child's life. For this reason, its identification must be made with great care, so as not to refrain from challenging the student throughout their development in an appropriate way. Essentially, mental retardation or intellectual disability is diagnosed through an observation of a lack of ability to meet developmental and educational goals, and often a simple lack of curiosity in learning in any manner that is natural to almost all children. Not many cases of mental retardation have known specific causes, which has made the term's applicability a matter of contention. Other mental and developmental disorders have known causes and mechanisms, and so are more easily classified, but a significantly lower intelligence quotient without other factors leads to an MR classification.

This classification still comes with a legal entitlement for children with mental retardation or intellectual disability to a free and appropriate education, of course, just as it does with children of all physical and mental developmental issues. The primary issue with the classification of the mental retardation label is that it is not really a specific developmental problem, but can serve as a catch-all for developmental issues of unknown origin. While there are specific methods for engaging with students with better-understood disorders such as autism, no such detailed examinations have been made of children with mental retardation. Continual efforts to engage and stimulate their learning must be made in order to ensure that they are progressing to the utmost of their…… [read more]

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