"Education / Teaching / Learning" Essays

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Chinese Assessment Task Item to Test Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (986 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Chinese assessment task item to test a student's ability to communicate in the Mandarin Chinese target language. In doing so, they will identify the suitability for the intended year level and required teaching and learning. In the assessment task item, portions may be adjusted as follows:

Poorly articulated/described;

Not carefully matched to criteria; and/or

Fails to meet particular syllabus requirements

The assessment's suitability for the Year 9 Chinese level

The assessment's relevance to course objectives (required teaching and learning) .

The assessment's ability to provide students with opportunity to demonstrate performance of particular criteria

Selection and description of criteria and standards

The Assessment

Learning a language requires the acquisition of cultural knowledge as well. Without the cultural information and context, expression in the language is not really possible. What is considered polite conversation in one language may be highly offensive in the other language. The assessment launches right into instructions about how to write a letter of self-introduction in Chinese to a pen-pal. First, there should be a tutorial in basic Chinese etiquette and culture before there is any attempt to communicate with the student in Chinese. This would involve learning about the routines and lifestyles of the young people living in China. This should be done prior to performing an exercise in letter writing in the target language (Queensland Studies Authority, 2010)..

Given the format, this author finds it is poorly articulated and described and is not carefully matched to criteria. While this does meet the syllabus requirements, these requirements are defective since more specific assessment criteria are not spelled out in the syllabus. The assessment and syllabus say nothing about the level of knowledge that the student is expected to have going in regarding Chinese culture and etiquette. If such knowledge was a prerequisite and this was just a test, there is nothing in the syllabus or other materials to indicate the level of knowledge, if any that was necessary to be able to take and be successful in the course.

Certainly, it strikes this author as strange that a curriculum might be based upon a situation that would involve embarrassment to a student. This certainly does not seem to be a good way for student to begin a course. It would most certainly be better to give the student a brief tutorial prior to this to give them a taste of what the course would be like. This would more accurately and fairly test their abilities to express themselves in the target language and culture. This would then provide the student with a good first experience with multicultural interactions. This then would bring the assessment more in line with the Queensland essential learnings information sheet. Though it is designated as lower level or intermediate, it would still be good to provide the student with a positive starting point. Also, this is unclear to the teacher as well (Queensland Government DET Education, 2008).

Following the instructions from the assessment…… [read more]

School Health Education Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Academic skills must be incorporated into it. These include reading, mathematics, social studies, ethics, language arts, art, economics, science, and government. Howard Gardner focuses on multiple intelligence development in the intrapersonal, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial and linguistic fields. Every projected outcome creates new knowledge and induces comprehension and affective activities and develops higher-order thinking, personal and social skills. Examples… [read more]

Social and Global Issues and Trends in Adult Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,914 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Adult education today is being challenged by the forces of globalization.

There are new realities in this globalized world where social changes and cultural diversity make creating good adult educational opportunities more complicated and difficult. In addition, in the world of capitalized societies -- juxtaposed with those developing societies -- the importance and value of adult education with reference to… [read more]

Learning Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (885 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


A well-balanced measure of environmental and internal stimulus would serve the cognitive learner best, as they would analyze the sum total of experiences and stimulus directed toward learning.

Some learning theorists have referred to this learning style as behavioral modification style learning, as it takes into consideration the manner in which learners can change prior thinking connections to adopt new ways of thinking while gathering new information through learning and accumulation of information from the facilitator and through interactions with the environment and learning activities (Hartley, 1998).

Examples of Teaching Methods for Each Related to Adult Learning

Behavioral approaches would require the environment for the adult learner. The best type of environment for learning would be an environment where activity engaged the learner; where doing was essential to learning; and where objectives for learning was clear. Positive reinforcement by the teacher would assist in reinforcing positive learning achievements, as this is the primary motivator in the behavioral model of learning.

Constructivist approaches emphasize the need to have an instructor facilitate in the classroom; adults should share real life experiences. The facilitator should emphasize "the design of learning environments" and not focus as much on lesson plans or the sequence of instruction; adult learners will relate to their real life and work experiences (Huang, 2002, p. 33).

Cognitive approaches suggest that the teaching environment should be organized so that the learner can remember the material and very well-structured so that strategies can be developed and inferences can be made by the learner. Using cognitive approaches the adult learner will form connections between ideas and concepts, and attend to various aspects of the environment the learner finds important.

There is no one method that is ideal for the adult learner. A combination of approaches is sometimes best in the adult classroom. Some students find one approach works best for them, whereas others may do better working with certain subjects using one form of learning theory or another. There is some evidence suggesting the constructivist approach is helpful for many adult learners, because they are able to use real life and work experiences, and relate them to educational objectives (Huang, 2002). Cognitive approaches may be combined with constructivist approaches in learning environments to facilitate maximum learning outcomes for adult learners.


Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Bruner, J.S. (1996). The culture of education. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Hartley, J. (1998). Learning and studying. A research perspective. London: Routledge.

Huang, Hisu-Mei. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, No. 1,…… [read more]

Teaching Disadvantaged Adults Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,047 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Allowing teachers to give these adults tutoring sessions could also be very successful. One on one teaching sometimes works better in a setting where the students really need help, and can fully benefit form the closer attention, which would be the case with disadvantaged adults. It is not just enough to teach the material, it will b necessary to assure that the adult is understanding everything (Kerkw, 2002). This can come in forms of bilingual classes until they fully adapt. Some disadvantaged adults have a language barrier that limits them in their understanding of materials, and by having someone who can properly translate concepts until the adult is comfortable enough with the mainstream English language, that could limit the amount of frustration felt by both the adult learner and the educator. Along with this same concept, the idea of providing them with mentors whom they can relate to, culturally, socially, and who have literally been in their place not so long ago, could give the adult learner more confidence, and as a result allow them to show better results (Kerka, 2002).

Although technology was previously mentioned as a hindrance in educational methods because of the disadvantage that it could pose, technology could actually place them at an equal level with other adults of more advantaged backgrounds (Kozma & Wagner, 2006). The key in introducing technology in the classroom, also a concept called ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) is that the adults need to be properly taught how to use technology in a way that will benefit them instead of confuse them more. But technology aims at every angle possible to make a leaner understand; it can be tailored to be specifically appealing to whatever makes it easier for that individual to learn. For example, if an adult student is better at verbally learning something, instead of visually experiencing it or vice versa, technology is something that could level the playing field and make all that possible (Kozma & Wagner, 2006). Technology and the use of computers makes it possible for disadvantaged adults who might have everything going against them, to be on the same level as the adult learner who comes from a resourceful background. But of course, this is only after the adult is taught how to properly use technology in a way that will benefit them, because if that is not first taken into consideration, then technology could be something that could turn out to be detrimental in the learning process.

Disadvantaged adult learners are a very difficult group of individuals to teach. It poses a challenge in finding ways that will actually help them instead of making their situation worse by adding on more stress to their already stressful lives. If taught properly and if all avenues are first taken into consideration, teaching a disadvantaged adult could become a very rewarding experience.


Kerka, S. (2002). Teaching adults: Is it different? Educational Resources Information Center. 21(3): 32-33.

Kozma R. & Wagner. D. (2006). Reaching the most disadvatanged… [read more]

Special Education and Gifted Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This will help us to understand how to more effectively address the issues of special needs along with gifted and talented students. This provides us with more specific insights about how to deal with the underlying challenges that we are facing in the future. A good example of this can be seen with the study from Berlin (2009).

In this article, Berlin discusses the how the unique needs of students can vary from one person to the next. What is happening in these situations is that gifted and talented individuals will have their own unique set of challenges that they are facing. Part of the reason for this, is because they have special needs that must be taken into account that will help to encourage and push them to go to the next level. As, there are both positive and negative attributes that will have an effect on their underlying levels of academic performance. This is similar to some of the challenges that many special needs students will face, with these individuals requiring increased amount of attention and curriculum that is customized towards them. The difference is that the overall scope of the material, will be more intense and the circumstances of the student must be taken into account. Moreover, any kind of negative stereotypes that they will face can be overcome by: having an integrated program that is geared towards these students. This is important, because it showing how educators must be concentrating on addressing those issues that can cause gifted and talented students to be affected by a number of different variables. (Berlin, 2009, pp. 217 -- 223)

The different ideas from this source can be used to help establish a foundation for the various issues that are affecting gifted and talented students. To corroborate or refute some of these findings Elhoweris (2008) has a number of different conclusions that they have reached in dealing with these individuals.

At heart of her study, is showing how the cultural background of a person could have an effect on the way they are able to reach out to someone. In this research project, she surveyed a wide variety students that were from different social and economic backgrounds. The results were that was no statistical significance on how this could influence these individuals. Instead, she determined that when teachers are placing preferences on students from different backgrounds. That, it will have an impact on: who they are and their levels of academic performance. At which point, this could affect their underlying areas of academic achievement.

When you compare the three different studies with one another, it is clear that some kind of unique approach must be taken to address the issues of special needs as well as gifted and talented students. The reason why, is because they are both facing their own unique challenges that must be taken into account.

At the same time, if the educator is focusing on the person's social or economic status this will have an effect… [read more]

Computer-Based Training CBT Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  9 pages (2,946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Computer-Based Training in Higher Learning, Post-Secondary Education and Military Training

Computer-Based Training is a growing trend that is becoming a phenomenon in a number of fields, such as higher education or military training. A plethora of businesses are taking part in this opportunity to let others know how effective or ineffective this method is for the students and teachers who… [read more]

Teaching Philosophy in a College Application Essay

Application Essay  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


They may end up as aircraft mechanics, flight control operators, airline pilots, ground and air crews and other related aviation professions but ultimately, their education is not enough to see them through as well as the people they are charged to take care of. It is thence important that they learnt how to be conscientious not only in the exercise of their professions but be fully responsible in executing their duties to the best of their abilities. As a teacher, it may not be easy because each and every person has different beliefs, perceptions and personalities. To ensure though that I can at least provide positive work ethics and attitudes, I shall serve as a role model in order for my students to understand that the aviation industry is not only a provider of various professions but one that requires the diligent exercise or responsibilities and acceptance of accountabilities.

The above may be easier said than done but in accepting the teaching "vocation," I am accepting the responsibilities and accountabilities not only in terms of impart theoretical and practical information and knowledge on aviation but in the social responsibility and governance side thereof. I will be a teacher, an educator, a guide, and a mentor who will not be content at "talking the talk" but also "walking the walk." When I teach my students about work ethics and accountabilities, I will not be doing so because the "book says so" but because I myself have strong work ethics and do not cringe away from responsibilities and accountabilities. Whenever I speak in front of the class, I will be speaking from years of experience -- both good and bad ones, whereby I have learnt my own lessons both the hard and easy ways. Indeed, I simply will not be content being my students' teacher, educator, guide, and mentor but I would like to be their role model because I have several positive things to provide them that they could take with them as they embark in the aviation professions.

.The challenges of teaching may be daunting especially when it comes to doing the work with adult learners. But like how I have always been in life, I have always welcomed challenges with gusto and fortitude because I know that once I hurdle each of them, I will be a better person. Thus, this same principle and philosophy will always be my guide whenever I teach in class and I know that if I can share the same attitude with my students, then I would have accomplished one of the biggest rewards in the teaching vocation -- being the role model of my students. Again, this will not be an easy undertaking but I am always up for a…… [read more]

Special Education Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In this way, Eric can then be provided with a way to connect the letters on paper with the sounds that he hears. The teacher should be careful to adjust the pace of learning according to Eric's needs. The help of the parents will be vital in this regard. Eric's frustrations levels should be monitored at all times, as these have the inherent danger of defeating the purpose of the technology.

A slightly more advanced piece of technology such as speech synthesizers or screen readers can also be implemented at a slightly later time, when Eric begins to make good progress with the initial audio book program. Speech synthesizers are systems that can display and read computer text aloud. Such text includes information that has been typed in by the user. This is a valuable tool for connecting Eric's reading and writing skills. Because these two skills are highly integrated, it would be very useful to utilize Eric's slightly higher level writing skills as a platform for further developing his reading skills. In this way, the AT system can help Eric to develop not only at a pace that is comfortable for him personally, but also to do so in an integrated and much more effective way.

The third component of the program for Eric is Stanberry and Raskind's (2011) suggestion of the paper-based computer pen. This will further integrate Eric's learning experience by recording and linking audio sounds to what the person writes. The computer pen and paper are linked to the computer, which responds to what is being written. Ultimately, this technology can also help with skills like note taking in a class while a teacher is speaking.

In general Eric is a very cooperative child who is eager to do his best in every task that is given to him. His frustration levels have been high as a result of his reading challenges. This frustration, if it is allowed to escalate, creates a risk for Eric in terms of his social and emotional development. It is therefore recommended that an AT program be implemented in phases, to help Eric become familiar with the areas where he's struggling. The technology should be integrated in such a way as to ensure his gradual progress throughout his first year at school and ultimately throughout his school career.

In conclusion, one of the best features of the school system today is the acknowledgement of difference and the understanding of challenge. Because of these attitudes, as well as an understanding of Eric's specific needs and requirements, the school system will be able to accommodate Eric and others like him. With the integrated help of parents, teachers, and other team members, Eric can be helped to handle the rigors of the school system and master the skills he will require to ultimately be successful in life.


Dyal, A., Carpenter, L.B. And Wright, J.V. (n.d.). Assistive Technology: What Every School Leader Should Know. Education, Vol. 129, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.ariellegoldstein.com/ISTE-_NETS/TF_VI_files/Assistive%20technology.pdf

Stanberry, K.… [read more]

Legal Issues in Special Education Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Legal Issues in Education

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) contains 5 major principles concerning the education of children with disabilities: zero reject; free appropriate public education (FAPE); least restricted environment (LRE); protection in evaluation; and procedural due process. Explain these principles.

Originally enacted by Congress in 1975, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is an act that… [read more]

Rural Higher Education the Social Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  10 pages (3,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Rural Higher Education

Higher Education

The Social and Economic Impacts of Institutes of Higher Learning on Rural Communities

According to the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO, 1992), rural communities face unique challenges due to their remoteness, low population density, and dependence on a particular industry. The remoteness of rural areas leads to several challenges. The GAO (1992) explains that businesses… [read more]

Supervision Function Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (616 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Supervising Paraprofessionals

Paraeducators play an important role in educational settings, providing support and instruction to students in ways that have been shown to be very effective. Classroom teachers sometimes struggle to effectively supervise these individuals, who are playing an increasingly important role in many schools. One issue is insufficient teacher preparation; teacher education programs emphasize strategies for classroom organization and behavior management in addition to instruction, but there is seldom coursework or guidance that prepares teachers for a supervisory role.

A key component of effective supervision is rooted in a shared philosophy. When teachers and paraeducators are "on the same page," they can articulate and agree on consistent and predictable ways of working in the classroom. Some examples of philosophical principles include the development of independence for all children, the creation of a supportive environment conducive to learning, the use of visual and physical learning supports, and high expectations. These principles are supported by adult behaviors that include arriving prepared and on time, refraining from adult conversations in front of students, and similar guidelines. Teachers and paraprofessionals are held to the same standards. The teacher is still in charge, but removing the distinction with respect to these behaviors builds the cohesiveness of the team and reminds teachers and paraeducators that they are working collaboratively for the good of their students.

The writer recognizes that there is little discussion in teacher education programs on the role of paraeducators in the classroom. It is important to establish a good working relationship. If possible, it would be extremely helpful to meet with paraeducators before the beginning of a new school year or term to establish common language, common goals, and foster a sense of purpose as a team dedicated to doing the best for the students.


Carnahan, C.R., Williamson, P., Clarke, L., and Sorensen, R. (2009). A systematic…… [read more]

Education Considering Your Analysis Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,862 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Most students who drop out will not be as successful as Gates, though. When the pressure to succeed in academia becomes too great, students need new ways of coping. As Bruinsma points out, students who drop out due to stress, financial reasons, or general dissatisfaction reflect the failure of higher education. Students who fail or drop out of college "induce both financial and psychological costs for themselves, for the educational institutions and for society," (1). Therefore, it is crucial for educators and students to become more aware of the limitations of higher education. Students who have workloads that are too high for their personal capabilities should be easily able to negotiate deadlines with professors. Yet too often we have professors who are rigid and inflexible. I would warn rigid and inflexible professors that their job is to serve students, and to have a more expansive view of the role of education in students' lives. When students are stressed out and know they need to pass or else their tuition money goes down the drain, they might buy their term paper online and thereby waste the opportunity to learn. In the same way that standardized testing is dehumanizing high school learning, an overemphasis on grades in college is doing the same.

Students will always live off of ramen noodles, drink too much at parties, and stay up all night cramming for exams. These are the hallmarks of college life, and are not themselves reasons to criticize higher education. Higher education is failing for deeper reasons. I have argued that higher education creates too much of an insular culture to be of any use to students or society. The ivory tower is stronger, taller, and more visible than ever before. Academic databases must become more accessible to the general public, searchable on Google. Higher education needs also practice what it preaches in terms of equality of access.

Works Cited

Bruinsma, Marjon. Effectiveness of higher education: Factors that determine outcomes of university education. Universal 2003.

Roen, DH & Willey, R.J. The effects of audience awareness on drafting and revising. Research in the Teaching…… [read more]

Staff Development Exercises Continue Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


193 (12), 30-32

Article # 2 Action Research

Calhoun (2002) is convinced that action research has the "potential to transform professional development "(p. 18). The results of action research include deepening learning and generating data to study how various programs and methods affect students and staff. The article uses the example of a particular teacher, Katie, who improved the reading level of her kindergarten class through an action research study.

However, Katie's action research project was part of a larger project of the state department of education. Calhoun is pointing out that action research can be undertaken as an organizational project by the whole school, district or even the state. She points out that initially teachers may be fearful of being part of an organizational action research project as they will have to juxtapose their own practice and their students' performance with students of higher levels of performance. The benefits of the whole district working together however outweigh this concern. Action research can be used therefore to improve the whole school or even the district. In order for this to work Calhoun suggests obtaining support from the local college or university faculty, and she emphasizes the importance of the commitment of the chief administrator of the school or district. The article then presents an example of a school wide action research matrix which can be applied in schools with a common student learning goal.

The usefulness of this article for this author stems from the introduction to the idea that action research does not only have to be a classroom project by an individual teacher. This author also agrees with the challenges to the organizational use of action research, particularly that of finding time for the staff to work together. Though the article points out that it may be difficult for a leader to emerge for the project, this author believes that most teachers in the present time are willing and motivated to take on any project that will have benefits for the students. Therefore it is easy to agree with Calhoun that action research always has positive outcomes.


Calhoun,…… [read more]

Personal Statement for Me, Pursuing Graduate Education Application Essay

Application Essay  |  2 pages (560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Statement

For me, pursuing graduate education is the first step on a path that will lead to a great teaching career, although it represents a divergence from the path that I have been following thus far. I always want to be the best at whatever I try. A lifetime pursuit of a professional sports career has cultivated my competitive nature. As such, I have a strong drive to succeed. For a long time, however, my sports career has simply been a distraction from my real goals. I believe the time has come for me to channel my goals into action and the best way to start is with a graduate degree from your fine institution.

Teaching is my passion. It is a career that runs in my family; both my mother and sister are working teachers and great examples of the kind of educator that I hope to someday become. I have great enthusiasm for working with and nurturing children. The educational system has provided me with so much that I want to return to my students in the form of dynamic, inspiring, and compassionate academic leadership. Beyond just a desire to bring my spirit of fun and ambition to the classroom, I know that teaching will provide me with my personal joy. There can be no greater achievement than helping a child reach his full potential.

As I mentioned, I have spent the better part of my young adulthood working on a sports career. Early on, I showed an aptitude for baseball and it seemed natural that I would try to maximize my potential and play full time. I was fortunate enough to get a place in the…… [read more]

Bilingual Education in Elementary Schools Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Bilingual Education

Como Se Dice en

In the 21st century the world will come closer and closer together as trade among country increases and we are drawn together as a race against environmental perils. To meet the challenges posed by our times, workers and citizens will have to have a range of skills available to them, from the scientific to the psychological to the linguistic. This paper looks at one of the skills that will be most useful in the coming decades: Bilingual language skills. The United States lags behind many other nations in ensuring that its citizens can speak more than one language, and this is an educational and political (and economic) policy that must be changed.

There are two fundamentally different types of bilingual education. In the first type -- which is by far the more common form in the United States -- children who speak little or no English are taught the country's major language. This is an extremely important strategy and serves many children well. However, another form of bilingual education is even more important because it has the potential to affect every elementary school student in the country in a positive way. This essay argues that all American children should be taught at least one second language when they are young and when their ability to learn language is greatest. As an overview of bilingual education notes: "At the beginning of the twenty-first century, proficiency in only one language is not enough for economic, societal, and educational success. Global interdependence and mass communication often require the ability to function in more than one language" (Bilingual education).

When the term "bilingual education" comes up, it is generally within the context of students whose first language is something other than English -- usually Spanish. Rather than arguing that there should be such a near-exclusive focus on teaching students how to speak English, I would argue that teaching English-speaking students languages such as Chinese and Spanish should be taught from the earliest grades on. Such a shift in American educational policy would be advantageous to our country, improving world communication and so be a force in forging peaceful resolutions to the conflicts that will continue to occur across the globe. Americans who have bilingual skills will also be able to work more productively in our globalized economy.

It is well established that learning a second (or third) language before puberty is much easier than learning a language later in life, which is why bilingual education should begin in elementary school rather than waiting until high school as is now generally the case. Despite the fact that it is well-known that younger children are better able to learn another language, various pressures have pushed the teaching of foreign languages until later and later grades in part because standardized testing minimizes the importance of foreign languages. However, this is a short-term strategy on many levels, as this long-term advocate for teaching foreign languages to young children argues:

Not only is… [read more]

Student Learning Evaluation Assessment Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,154 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Student Learning

Evaluation Assessment for Student Learning

Assessment Tools that Provide Data on Student Learning

During a training session with young teachers, I shared practices in effective student assessment that had worked for me throughout a successful career as a teacher of English at both the high school and college levels. The assessment tools, Concept Map, or Mind Mapping, as well as Peer Assessment, a little understood tool of value among professionals, provided me, as teacher, with insights to student progress which would not have been gained through more traditional methods of assessment.

In presenting the Concept Map, I utilized the technique of sharing a personal experience, which I have found produces a non-confrontational situation with students -- the teacher is opening up, sharing a personal experience which may, in the long run, be very beneficial to them as well. The profession of teaching has shared space in my private goal priorities with that of writing. Yet I have spent double, if not triple, the number of hours on teaching and on teaching preparation than I have spent in preparing manuscripts for submission to publication houses. The concept I wanted to explore: why is this? What is stopping me from writing more? A listing of impediments (at least in my mind) produced the following map:

Evaluating Assessment on Student Learning 2

As we reviewed the linked impediments to my central goal of writer, the students were quick to see that each one was basically an excuse. Were I to apply some discipline to each area, the impediments would disappear.

What if they were to apply the same mapping process to impediments to each student's gaining that coveted "A" on each quiz or test? What might be stopping them in their tracks? Some crude, but very interesting concept maps resulted. Another strategic link was supplied by a bright young woman who noted that they had already included self-evaluation letters in their portfolios; this was just a shorter way of assessing individual intellectual progress in any given area of study. An "Aha" moment occurred as everyone dug out those "Letters to Self" and began to simplify through concept mapping.

In their application of Concept Mapping for instruction and assessment, Dempsey and O'Sullivan consider the maps as prime discerners in assessing what students are actually learning. They also work as a consolidation of concepts and of the relations among them (serc, Carleton.edu),

The maps can be subject specific, for example, O'Sullivan devised the following process:

Students are given a brief intro to hierarchical concept maps

Students construct maps individually (10 -- 20 minutes)

Maps cover pre and post-course in Planetary Climate Change

Evaluating Assessment on Student Learning 3

Prompted by 5 leading questions, students construct a hierarchical concept map around the central concept of "climate change" (funnel.sfsu.edu).

Valerie J. Janesick (in her book on the Assessment Debate) considers an assessment tool to be authentic when it is realistic; when it requires judgment and innovation; when it asks the student to "do"… [read more]

ESL Writing Teaching Writing Skills to English Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,435 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


ESL Writing

Teaching Writing Skills to English as a Second Language

English as a second language (ESL) is a necessary subject in the United States because it is difficult for people entering the United States to succeed unless they have a basic understanding for the primary language. Therefore, ESL is taught in adult classes, certain businesses will help employees learn… [read more]

Teacher Profile Allison Parker Teaches Second Grade Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Teacher Profile

Allison Parker teaches second grade at Lincoln Street Elementary School (LSES), Peterborough, New Hampshire. She has taught for five years, all of them at LSES. Ms. Parker earned both her bachelor's and master's degrees in elementary education at the University of New Hampshire. Over the past two years, she has attended regular staff development activities at… [read more]

Do Teaching Style Effect Achievement? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Teaching Styles/Achievement

Teaching Styles and Achievement

No Child Left Behind was passed to improve the overall performance of students across America, with a focus on achievement on standardized testing (Payne-Tsoupros, 2010). Some scholars such as Payne-Tsoupros (2010) and Carbo (2009) criticize the methods under NCLB as a restrictive means of education. Specifically, the focus on a passing threshold for standardized… [read more]

Students With EBD Need Approaches Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Students with EBD need approaches that provide both the teacher and the student with more options for development than are presently available. Cognitive behavior modification (CBM) is an option that should be utilized more frequently to assist students suffering with EBD. Within the discipline of special education, many of the theoretical pillars of CBM will find resonance with practitioners, and will provide a new tool to produce better results for students with EDB challenges. CBM is a viable option for implementation in the field of special education.

Mayer, Lochman, & Van Acker (2005) make a riveting and robust case for the inclusion of CBM techniques based on four important realities. Firstly, students with EBD do not have very encouraging long-term learning results, as many drop out of school before they are finished with their programs. Secondly, many of the reasons for this failure are linked to emotive challenges, which can be successfully managed with CBM. The third reason is that many therapeutic programs presently use components of CBM; the wider expansion should therefore not be a major hurdle. Finally, teachers need to have information about CBM so that they can design personal programs that integrate CBM principles into the classroom experience.

The literature relating to CBM traces the development of CBM techniques to B.F. Skinner and provides a critical assessment of his contribution to the development of the discipline. The authors take the reader through an elaborate historical development engaging the reader in developments in cognitive psychology. The attention is then turned to the exploration of the mechanisms of self-control and self-regulation from the perspective of CBM again a brief historical review is followed with descriptions of the salient elements of each concept. Several critical components of CBM are explored, along with a presentation of some of the issues surrounding the implementation of CBM techniques. The article additionally does an excellent job at suggesting useful approaches to the integration of CBM within the teaching arena.

This particular article presented many useful…… [read more]

Adult Learning Experience in Contemporary Western Culture Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Adult Learning Experience

In contemporary Western culture, may adults incorrectly assume that school and learning is a process reserved for children. May adults believe themselves incapable of relearning, hence the popular cliche, "You can't teach an old dog new tricks." This self-defeating belief, while less common than a few decades previous is still an attempt for many adults, particularly those who are disadvantaged, to separate themselves from the educational system at large. In truth, the human brain is constantly interpreting its surroundings, and as long as it is exposed to new situations and stimuli, new neurological pathways are created. Certainly, it is true that it may be easier to assimilate certain types of knowledge as a child, but it is a combination of desire and exposure that allows adults to experience learning throughout their life. In fact, an individual who considers themselves to be a perpetual student is likely to feel happier, more content, and more engaged and excited about the world than someone who thinks they are either "too old," or "have too many barriers" to continue the learning process. While education can (and does) occur outside of an established classroom or school system, one of the most effective ways to encourage adults to embrace learning and education is through adult education programs and classes.

Peter Vaill notes that learning as part of our make-up, our very core, is a key survival skill in the contemporary world. Working in a law enforcement career in a police department, this is evident daily. Combining experience with knowledge, research, and rather than looking for only the right answer, looking for the right questions and approaches, a police officer finds themselves far more able to perform their duties and work in public safety.

In addition, adult education is important and significant for people of all ages, and from all backgrounds. It is a way to continue to improve individually, to uncover new talents and opportunities, and to find a way to enjoy a potential new career or avenue of self-actualization. In this sense, learning is experiential -- and the lifelong qualities engender going beyond subject matter so that we can combine life experience, vocation, avocation, and…… [read more]

Teaching Methods -- Implications of Technology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


teaching Methods -- Implications of Technology

It is already clear that technology has changed modern education and that the continual evolution of digital technology, in particular, will correspond to simultaneous changes in education in the future. Overwhelmingly, the impact of technology in education has been positive; however, in some respects, it also presents challenges to optimal delivery of educational materials as well as to the supervision necessary to ensure that the changes to education associated with technology continue to be positive. To a large extent, teachers play the most important role in determining the quality and character of the influence of technology on the education of their students.

Practical Issues in Incorporating Technology in the Classroom

In my experience, one of the unanticipated challenges of incorporating digital technology into my classroom has been the additional amount of time necessary to establish the policies, procedures, and protocols necessary to control its use and ensure that it is a productive tool rather than a distraction. On one hand, students are typically excited and enthusiastic about the opportunity to use digital media and other technologies in their studies (Luppicini, 2008; Mcmillan-Culp, Honey, & Mandinach, 2005). On the other hand, I can attest, first-hand, that the same enthusiasm that is a benefit in some respects can also be a barrier to effective learning and (especially) to the most economical use of classroom time unless it is addressed properly. In my experience, it is absolutely essential to minimize its potential as a distraction.

Another potential problem that I have encountered relates to the unreliability of information that is typically available on the Internet. Without direction and targeted assistance from teachers, students often exhibit little if any ability to distinguish legitimate and intellectually credible sources and those that are utterly devoid of any legitimacy or credibility. However, I have managed to turn that potential barrier to learning into a beneficial lesson in and of itself. Specifically, I have created assignments whose…… [read more]

Teaching Methods -- Evaluating State Standards Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Teaching Methods -- Evaluating State Standards

The Minnesota Academic Standards -- Science K-12 implemented by the Minnesota Department of Education (2010) were designed to introduce fundamental changes to the way that science is taught throughout the Minnesota education system and at every level and grade. In principle, the new standards are specifically intended to make the study of science both inquiry-based and also active instead of memorization bases and passive, respectively. It should be anticipated that this change will be tremendously effective and beneficial to students because it is supported by empirical research on the value of these types of approaches to education, particularly in relation to the physical sciences.

Active Learning

Volumes of empirical literature on educational methods going back two decades firmly establishes the value of this approach and its significant improvement over the traditional passive methods of academic instructions (Adams & Hamm, 1994; MDE, 2010). The traditional method of educational instruction relied upon for most of the last two centuries of American public education emphasized, virtually exclusively, the passive learning method. Specifically, traditional education methods involve students listening passively to lectures delivered by instructors in conjunction with independent reading assignments from traditional textbooks and other written materials. Testing generally consists of exercises that measure little besides the ability of students to memorize the information presented through the lectures and reading assignments.

By contrast, active learning involves a two-way exchange between students and their instructors during lectures in a manner intended to stimulate independent thought and deductive reasoning. In comparison, active learning is much more effective and conducive to long-term subject matter retention than passive learning. In active learning classrooms, teachers encourage students to ask questions and to challenge assumptions and they promote a two-way dialogue (Adams & Hamm, 1994; MDE, 2010).

Inquiry-Based Learning

In principle, inquiry-based learning consists of presenting students with conceptual ideas instead of facts and encouraging them to…… [read more]

Students and Learning the Learner Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (925 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In other words, in implementing this learner based outcome standard, I wouldn't compare Nancy to Nora, or Michael to Michelle, but instead a well developed, standards-based rubric that allows for each student to monitor their own progress. In measuring student achievements in such absolute terms allows educators to assess performance indexes according to the ever important state standards.

So, the plan I would implement simply involves bringing students out for the PE class, and informing each student of the need to "participate three to four days each week in moderate to vigorous physical activities that increase breathing and heart rate." This is an easily conveyed concept to a diverse classroom, as students are able to pursue a wide range of activities that are appropriate to students with varying abilities and interests. Whipp (2004) observes that teachers who use continuously measurable diagnostic assessments that allow for alternative opportunities to demonstrate learning and knowledge acquisition are better able to provide for a differentiated educational program.

As a class, I would directly instruct on warm up activities, such as breathing exercises and stretching activities. Students would be assessed on their engagement in the warm up activities, taking into account the abilities of each individual. Instructional variations would occur given the abilities and interests of each student; should Bobby choose to play soccer, instruction might involve teaching body positioning and sprinting exercises; while Susy, in choosing to run track, would receive instruction on proper breathing exercises to maximize performance.

Clearly, then, each student would have some measure of control over their own physical activities, catering to special interests and individual abilities, thereby allowing for diverse populations of students to achieve success in the identified learner-based outcome. With a wide range of activities available to students, I believe that it is essential to provide students with appropriate environments that can serve to maximize student participation, and, consequently, increases student interests in the physical education class.


Golder, G. (2003). Inclusive education: Making the most of what's available. The British Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 34(2), 2327.

McCaughtry, N., & Rovegno, I. (2003). Development of pedagogical content knowledge: Moving from blaming students to predicting skilfulness, recognizing motor development, and understanding emotion. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(4), 355-368.

Rink, J.E. (2001). Investigating the assumptions of pedagogy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 20(2), 112-128.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). The Role of Schools in Preventing Childhood Obesity. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/physicalactivity/pdf/roleofschools_obesity.pdf


Learning Styles Malcolm Knowles Andragogy Article Review

Article Review  |  5 pages (1,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


They espouse ways to cope with situations in learning and studying, stating the everyone has certain aspects of all the listed learning styles and can incorporate the styles based on the situation.

For instance, the differences between active and reflective thinkers are that the active learner may jump right into a project, while the reflective thinker would sit back and contemplate how to best go about accomplishing the project. They state that reflective workers work best on their own, while active learners would rather work with groups. They also believe that active learners would rather try out a method, while a reflective learner would think through a method before attempting it.

Soloman and Felder also wrote about the differences between visual and verbal learners. They wrote that verbal learners can learn best when encountering written and spoken words, while visual learners would rather see pictures, graphs or charts. Verbal learners would likely do better in a lecture style classroom, while a visual might do better than the verbal by having instructors who use flowcharts, maps, pictures or graphics.Felder and Soloman also explained the difference between sensing and intuitive learners by say that sensors will normally follow well established methods, while intuitives will resent being tested on material that had not been covered in the classroom.

The most interesting aspect of the Felder and Soloman strategies is that certain parts of the learning styles can be found in almost every individual. Determining which style works best for the individual would be beneficial in almost any educational scenario.

Pedagogical and andragogical learning oftentimes will go hand in hand with each other, using one to complement the other. Some of the differences between the two learning theories are often helpful in employing techniques in the classroom that will assist the students in acquiring greater and more comprehensive knowledge.

The pedagogical student will depend on teacher knowledge and instruction while the andragogical student will be much more dependent on his or her own learning. The andragogical directs him or herself while the pedagogical will be directed by the instructor. One of the key differences between the two methods of learning is that the teacher will be pedagogically responsible for evaluating the student's learning while the andragogcically oriented student will be responsible for evaluating his or her own learning. Some of the characteristics of a pedagogical student is one that is motivated by external pressures, while andragogical students are pressured by internal motivators.

The learning style that best seems to fit this author is the one that is espoused by Malcolm Knowles. Throughout life, experiences will always shape the individual. Those experiences will provide internal and external pressures, thoughts, ideas and perceptions. This is called life. By experiencing life, individuals will grow in knowledge, will change beliefs, will view the world in different ways, and will adapt and change depending on the circumstances one finds oneself. By living life, experiencing the best and worst that our personal scenario presents, we will either become stronger and… [read more]

New Education the Current Crisis in Global Article

Article  |  10 pages (2,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


New Education

The current crisis in global education focuses on the potential demise of Humanities in higher education. According to Pokrovskii 2007, "Looking at the general situation, it is reasonable to say that university education is shunting humanities discourse aside. Simply put, our college students come to the universities to acquire useful knowledge that will give them access to sources… [read more]

Education the Most Important Recent Changes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Education

The most important recent changes that I have encountered in education have to do with the incorporation of digital technology into teaching and learning. In some respects, those changes are beneficial; in other respects, they present new challenges for educators. In my case, I have experienced both sides in my studies and in my limited experience teaching. As a learner, I appreciate computer technology and Internet-based digital communication tremendously; as an educator, I have encountered new challenges trying to help military recruits who are not computer literate learn how to use the new educational medium.

My Experiences as a Learner

The incorporation of computer technology into modern education has greatly improved my ability to conduct research by putting an incredible range of educational resources at my fingertips. Even if all of the same resources were available in hard-copy format in the library, there is simply no comparison in terms of convenience and accessibility between those two methods of conducting academic research. Taking advantage of online resources means that I am not limited by the hours of operation of any traditional brick-and-mortar libraries, nor do I ever have to worry about transportation to and from any library to do my research. The Internet puts me in touch with more information that I could ever need from the convenience of my residence; in fact, lately, I can even access the Internet from my cell phone virtually anywhere.

The digital communications media have also changed the way that I submit many types of assignments as well as the way that I interact with my fellow classmates. Certainly, it is more convenient to be able to submit assignments via email or…… [read more]

Career in Education With Maed Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Career in Education With Maed

A career in Education can be both highly rewarding and just as challenging. This is because while teaching others gives a person satisfaction of imparting and sharing knowledge, it can cause frustration when students do not respond as the teacher had expected or parents fail to provide the much needed support a teacher requires in meeting a student's needs. There can also be other personal challenges which must be overcome in order to reap the most rewards from a career that can very fulfilling.

It must be understood that while recession affected almost all careers and industries, the one area that remained almost untouched was education. Teachers were and are still in high demand and a career in education can usually be recession proof thus giving an aspiring educator a much needed sense of job security. When it comes to salary, teachers do not usually earn as much as people with equal education in some other career but that is only in the beginning. Pay is also dependent on an educator's level of teaching and experience. An elementary school teacher may not earn as much as a college or university professor but then again, the latter may face greater challenges and fewer job opportunities compared to former.

The most critical factor that makes education a very rewarding career is the difference it can make in a student's life. It is also heartening to know that an educator can play a very influential role in the life of a person-regardless of student's age. People who wish to enter this field have certain characteristics. They join the field of education for one or more of the following reasons: "(1) a caring for and desire to work with young people. (2) a desire to make a contribution to society and (3) an interest in a certain field and excitement in sharing it with other. ." (Webb, Mehta & Jordan, p 6)

Those who wish to reap real rewards must also understand the scope and depth of influence a teacher can…… [read more]

Teacher's Roles in Teaching English to High School Students in Relation to Language Proficiency Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Teaching Methods

Teacher's Roles in Teaching English to High School Students in Relation to Language Proficiency

Students with English as a second language (ESL) make up a substantial amount of the people of this nation's schools. This presents an exclusive task for teachers as they struggle to aid these students succeed in learning the English language and the educational material… [read more]

Education for a New Humanity Article

Article  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


newhum.org). The goal of working toward that "transformed heart" is the challenge presented to all levels of society today.

At the level of higher education, a blatant challenge was presented recently by the publication of Hacker and Dreifus' Higher Education? How Colleges Are Wasting our Money and Failing our Kids and What We Can Do about it. The challenge was picked up almost immediately by the publication of Palmer and Zajonc's The Heart of Higher Education, A Call to Renewal -- Transforming the Academy through Collegial Conversations. The latter book urges the re-introduction of contemplation to the academy. The authors remind us that we evolve slowly into a new paradigm.

They suggest that "By lovingly holding the questions themselves, contemplating them well, we gradually, without noticing it, develop faculties of insight that allow us to see and to live the answers" (p. 105). A sense of connectivity will be vital to the new paradigm -- connecting with the diversity that is our world today and connecting with the great thinkers of all time and applying their musings to high-tech living. The benefaction of givers like Bill and Melinda Gates, whose latest venture (The New York Times, December 5, 2010) proposes the videotaping of teachers in their interaction with students as a means to better determine their suitability to this becoming process, will empower its realization.

One is reminded of the "French Quarter" in the early years of education -- teachers and students living together, mentoring one another, and discovering the world anew. The prospect excites this writer -- the unrelenting flux of recent years may have ushered in a resilient residue of renewed purpose.… [read more]

Teacher Efficacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (10,102 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25


Teacher Efficacy

Connecting Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement in Higher Education Business Classes

Academic achievement is an important step in obtaining one's life goals. Education is a two-way street. It involves communication between the teacher and student. This research is based on the premise that academic achievement is not entirely the result of student effort. It proposes that teacher efficacy… [read more]

Teens and Technology Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  2 pages (444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Teens and Technology

Technology is rapidly changing infiltrating many aspects of students' lives and this trend will likely continue to increase. Technology opens many possibilities to students, offering a medium for personal expression in which they can create, collaborate, and research an infinite number of subjects.

Teens and Technology will teach students to use technology as a tool to empower them, build confidence, self-esteem and hope.

Upon the completion of the course, students who utilize Teens and Technology will share their voices and visions through the development digital exhibitions, books, websites, and videos. Exhibitions will be organized through the collaboration with local organizations, teachers will work to strengthen students' education and individual well-being of each student.


To develop and implement program called Teens and Technology at community schools in order to train teenagers in local schools to use skills and technology as future business trade, skill, and/or talent.

Through the implementation and use of Teens and Technology, students will use digital devices as learning tool, rather than an educational distraction and disruption in the classroom.


Teens and Technology will approach development from individual, educational, and technological perspectives.

On a personal level, Teens and Technology will,

Raise individual self-confidence, self-esteem and encourage independence

Provide knowledge of changing career landscape

Instill confidence

Help build collaboration and team-working skills

On an educational level,…… [read more]

Smartboard Affects Social Studies Core Content Understanding Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  4 pages (1,283 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Smartboard Affects Social Studies Core Content Understanding

One textbook cannot meet the needs of students in my fifth grade social studies class, who read at a wide range of levels. My goal is to reach all students and enable them to engage meaningfully with the content. The textbook alone is inadequate as a tool with which to do this. My plan is to use interactive whiteboard technology (a "Smart Board") to enhance the understanding of social studies material. My hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between Smart Board use and greater engagement and understanding of social studies core content. Students who actively participate in lessons with which Smart Board technology is used will demonstrate greater knowledge of social studies content and achieve higher test scores on end-of-chapter tests compared to students in other fifth grade classes at my school who do not participate in Smart Board-driven social studies lessons. The research question is this: How will the use of Smart Board technology affect fifth grade students' understanding of core social studies content, as measured by end-of-chapter exams?

Assessing Student Engagement and Performance

Chapman (2003) discussed various ways in which teachers can assess student engagement rates.

Given the emphasis placed on levels of academic achievement in schools, the way in which students acquire knowledge through the learning process has become a primary concern. Several studies have subsequently highlighted the significant role that such factors can play in the learning process (e.g., Matthewson, 1994), laying particular emphasis on those associated with student engagement levels.

Chapman (2003) described methods by which student engagement could be measured, including teacher observation and self-reporting by students. The author also reported "some educators have used work samples to assess levels of learning task engagement, focusing again on students' use of higher cognitive or metacognitive strategies in confronting learning task." The end-of-chapter tests will serve as the work samples by which the performance of fifth grade social studies students will be measured. Correct answers to objective questions will be easy to tabulate. Subjective questions (e.g., short answers, essays) will perhaps demonstrate the level of student understanding to a greater extent, since there is no chance of the "lucky guess" that can skew the results of a true-false or multiple choice test. In discussing open-ended responses, Chapman warned "the efficacy of these methods hinges on the use of suitably structured tasks and scoring rubrics." It will be important to standardize grading in the classroom when making the case for using Smart Board technology to engage students and increase achievement.

Technology in Today's World

There is no question that technology has made an enormous impact on children, both in and out of school. Olson (2010) cites Pew Research findings about technology and its use by school-age children.

Seventy-four percent of children ages 12 to 17 in 2008 owned an MP3 player; 60% owned or had access to a desktop or laptop computer; 77% owned a gaming console such as an XBox or PlayStation; and 55% owned a portable… [read more]

How to Minimize Problems in Learning With Computers Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Computer Learning Problems

Briihl, D.S.(2001) Tips and suggested activities for a web based introduction to psychology class. 1-11 (ED453707) Unpublished Document. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Thought this work is unpublished it offers a great introduction to the needs, challenges and possible pitfalls of web based instruction from a real teacher in the virtual classroom. The work describes several potential difficulties and how to mitigate them, including the possibility of students feeling isolated mitigated by live chat sessions and interactive live communications between students. Also the concern regarding cheating as a possible difficulty which the instructor offers several solutions to, including increasing the type of items graded, as apposed simply to tests and quizzes, limiting the time and watermarking test pages to discourage printing of test materials. Lastly and probably most importantly the instructor makes clear that the most important part to avoiding difficulties in online teaching is providing a highly organized structure and making sure that the technology is working and accessible to everyone and alternatives exists when it is not.

Bulu, S., & Pedersen, S. (2010). Scaffolding middle school students' content knowledge and ill-structured problem solving in a problem-based hypermedia learning environment. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(5), 507-529. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Bulu & Pedersen look at how students are supported (scaffolded) by computer technology to solve ill-structured problems, or problems that are vague, open ended and non-linear. The work looked at the domain specific or non-domain specific scaffolding options and found that domain specific scaffolding was most effective. In other words general scaffolding or that which was not specific to the problem content was less effective than domain or content related scaffolding.

Cunningham, U. Fagersten, K.B. Holmsten, E. (Mar 2010)."Can You Hear Me, Hanoi?" compensatory mechanisms employed in synchronous net-based English language learning . International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11 (1), 161-177. (EJ881584) Retrieved from ERIC database.

Cunningham, Fagersten & Holmsten argue in their work for the introduction of live (virtual) seminar experiences in language learning as without such events the auditory aspect of language learning is lost and virtual students will be at a severe disadvantage regarding the ability to translate language learning outside of text and into conversation and voice usage. The researchers stress that the excitement over the possibility of just in time learning (when the individual can log on from anywhere at any time) does not fully support the auditory aspect of language learning and this aspect is absolutely essential and may be necessary in other virtual learning opportunities as well.

Gunel, K. Asliyan, R. (Jul 2009) Determining difficulty of questions in intelligent tutoring systems . Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology -- TOJET, 8 (3), 14-21 (EJ859488) Retrieved from ERIC database.

This work describes the possible difficulty of mathematics and other learning in static software or computer aided learning models. The point of the work it to describe the positive effects of a computer aided learning environment that is intelligent, i.e. that it…… [read more]

Alternative Assessment Spec ED Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Giftedness is an intellectual ability that is significantly higher than average, not a skill, but an innate talent and aptitude that may be general or specific. Just as there are special needs for children who appear on the left side of the bell curve, so should there be for children on the far right. However, these students are often neglected in terms of special programing due to beliefs that they can just do "extra work" within a mainstreamed environment. From the 1920s to the 1970s, the trend in Western countries was to set up special schools to educate those who fell outside the norms of the bell curve, but by the 1980s most educators favored merging special and regular education in a comprehensive program that included students from all backgrounds -- in other words, mainstreaming them into a regular classroom environment. This idea, though, must also fit within the cultural precedents of the time; educators must respond to the needs of the nation and public education remains responsible for meeting the needs of all students in society. -- Stories abound regarding very bright people who were told by their teachers that they were "stupid," or "unteachable." Einstein, Isaac Newton, Thomas Edison, Louis Pasteur, and more. Because gifted children are able to compensate so well, often they have learning issues that remain hidden and/or undiagnosed. Typically, though, general behavior characteristics for the gifted include: learning to read and comprehend earlier; a desire to read widely and manifest robust vocabularies; learn basic skills with less practice; are more sensitive to non-verbal clues; and want to go beyond the what, into the how and why (Winner, 1996).

Because giftedness is not always easy to verify since it is not simply scores on standardized tests, but a combination of learning styles, cognitive development, and acumen, one of the interesting research questions is how a child's ethnic background may have an effect on a teacher referral into a…… [read more]

Special Ed Effective Special Education Hinges Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Special Ed

Effective special education hinges on the individualized education program (IEP). Without the careful attention to individual differences among students and their unique needs, teachers will flounder in the classroom. I have witnessed many well-meaning teachers fail to provide the educational tools and a least restrictive environment (LRE) because of a lack of planning. The United States Department of Education (2007) clearly mandates, "Each IEP must be designed for one student and must be a truly individualized document." There are no stock answers in special education. Therefore, teachers need to be extremely sensitive to student needs, parent concerns, and the input provided by team members.

The process of planning and then providing special education begins with pre-referral. "The purpose of the pre-referral process is to ensure your child tries reasonable accommodations and modifications before she's referred for special education assessment," (Stump n.d.). Generally a team is assembled to address pre-referral issues. State education boards dub pre-referral teams with terms like Student Study Team (SST), Student Intervention Team, Child Study Team, Teacher Support Team, and Student Success Team (Stump n.d.). Each of these terms emphasizes the importance of team building in the special education process. Special education specialists and counselors are usually key components of the pre-referral team. Parents are also included as part of the team. The team must include both regular and special education teachers as well as specialists to ensure thoroughness.

A pre-referral sees to it that the child is not misdiagnosed or assumed to have special needs when in fact the student only requires minor changes to the educational environment. Moreover, a pre-referral sees to it that students ultimately diagnosed with a disability receive as early an intervention as possible.

If the team of specialists does determine that the student should be eligible for special education the next step in the process is the actual referral process. This process varies from place to place but generally the written referral is a formal procedure requesting the school board to provide the testing and other resources for an accurate diagnosis.

Assessment and evaluation methods vary, and the type of assessment used depends on the issues observed by parents, educators, or counselors during the pre-referral process. For example, a child having speech difficulties would be given speech-related assessments at this stage of the special education process. Parents have the right to request the referral and assessment, but often it will be teachers who notice that the child may have special needs.

The results of the assessment are generally what determines the student's eligibility for special education resources. If a specific disability (physical, learning, developmental, or otherwise) has been diagnosed, then the next…… [read more]

Resiliency Education Article Review

Article Review  |  8 pages (2,366 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Resiliency in Education

Education is a basic right of every child in the world and it is the responsibility of the government and academic policy makers to ensure that every child is entitled to quality education. Children coming from adverse and violent family backgrounds invariably suffer in their academic performance that has severe repercussions for their future. However, as the… [read more]

Special Education the Key Points Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Special Education

The key points in the text, time and again, seem to me to center around the tendency of attributing 'special' labels to those who seem different to the norm, and the, at times, unjust and even brutal behavior accorded those individuals merely on the premise that they are outliers to the norm.

In the 1800s, individuals with disabilities were often confined in jails and almshouses without decent food, clothing, personal hygiene, and exercise. Even in the nineteenth century when it was believed that urban conditions, such as poverty and crime, induced these disabilities and that large institutions in the countryside would, therefore, be ameliorative, residents of these facilities were still referred to in the social sciences as 'feeble minded', idiotic', 'insane' or 'mad'. Unfortunately, some of these perceptions and labels have still colloquially persisted today. Even some of its modern replacements, such as the term 'mental retardation', are controversial. In the nineteenth century, the dominant cure for this 'madness' was moral treatment in psychiatric facilities, where, although humane and effective in some instances, later - due largely to the belief that mental illness was innate (and, possibly -- some believed - a Divine punishment or a biological distortion of nature) - became largely inhumane and abusive.

The peak came with eugenics where, for the alleged betterment of a socially advanced society that would produce only handsome, intelligent, and genetically superior individuals, people who were considered mentally ill were segregated, sterilized and placed in warehouse like institutions that manifested abuse and neglect of these vulnerable individuals. .

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, under the influence of pioneers such as G. Stanley Hall and Ann Sullivan with her famous pupil Helen Keller, state governments established juvenile courts and social welfare programs, including foster homes for children and adolescents, but even with these improvements, the residents were diagnosed (and often times misdiagnosed) under the new and popular pseudo-science of psychoanalysis and its offshoot, psychodynamics. Special classes within regular public schools had been launched in major cities, initially established…… [read more]

Supportive Vocabulary Learning Environment Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


According to Kathleen Kennedy Manzo of Education Week, recent studies support certain educational television programs for vocabulary improvement. Manzo says, "WordWorld,' a program funded under the Ready to Learn initiative, helps preschool children learn oral vocabulary and featured words. 'Between the Lions,' hosted by a puppet family of lions who live in the New York City Library, has been studied even more extensively. Studies on the 10-year-old program have linked it to significant gains in students' understanding of how letters combine to make words, as well as of the purpose of the printed word." Not surprisingly, the best programs are based on techniques developed by researchers, and tested on children before airing. (Manzo, 2009) Once again, when a child is engaged, they naturally and painlessly learn new words; they must learn new words in order to comprehend and keep up with their favorite characters and storylines. Of course, to further encourage learning from television watching, I would periodically pause the program for a short question and answer session focusing on these new words and their meanings.

Offering incentives for improving vocabulary is another fun and effective tool I would use to encourage the digestion and comprehension of new words on a daily basis. Regardless of age, everyone responds to rewards; children might compete for extra play time or a small prize, while older students can be motivated by extra credit or the hope of exemption from an exam.

Overall, I believe taking some time each day to teach students new words through online games, television programs, or personalized reading and writing assignments would translate into a highly supportive vocabulary learning environment. By employing a wide range of engaging activities -- combined with quizzes, assessment tools, and incentives -- a generalized focus on the importance of vocabulary can be established. And by keeping the environment interesting, fun, positive, and rewarding, success can almost be guaranteed with students of all ages and skill levels.


Harris, R. (2010, 10-14). Some Ideas for Motivating Students. Retrieved 11-20, 2010, from VirtualSalt.com: http://www.virtualsalt.com/motivate.htm

Jaffe-Gill, E., Kemp, G., & Robinson, L. (2010, 11). How to Improve Your Memory. Retrieved 11-20, 2010, from Helpguide.org: http://helpguide.org/life/improving_memory.htm

Kail, R.V., & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2008). Human Development: A Life-Span View. Cengage Learning.

Manzo, K.K. (2009). Studies Support Benefits of Educational TV for Reading. Retrieved 11-20, 2010, from www.education.com: http://www.education.com/reference/article/studies-support-benefits-educational-tv/

Sun, Y., Zhang, J., & Scardamalia, M. (2007). Knowledge building and vocabulary growth over two years, Grades 3 and 4. Springer Science and Business Media, 149-154.… [read more]