Study "Education / Teaching / Learning" Essays 991-1000

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Education for a New Humanity Article

… The goal of working toward that "transformed heart" is the challenge presented to all levels of society today.

At the level of higher education, a blatant challenge was presented recently by the publication of Hacker and Dreifus' Higher Education? How Colleges Are Wasting our Money and Failing our Kids and What We Can Do about it. The challenge was picked up almost immediately by the publication of Palmer and Zajonc's The Heart of Higher Education, A Call to Renewal -- Transforming the Academy through Collegial Conversations. The latter book urges the re-introduction of contemplation to the academy. The authors remind us that we evolve slowly into a new paradigm.

They suggest that "By lovingly holding the questions themselves, contemplating them well, we gradually, without noticing it, develop faculties of insight that allow us to see and to live the answers" (p. 105). A sense of connectivity will be vital to the new paradigm -- connecting with the diversity that is our world today and connecting with the great thinkers of all time and applying their musings to high-tech living. The benefaction of givers like Bill and Melinda Gates, whose latest venture (The New York Times, December 5, 2010) proposes the videotaping of teachers in their interaction with students as a means to better determine their suitability to this becoming process, will empower its realization.

One is reminded of the "French Quarter" in the early years of education -- teachers and students living together, mentoring one another, and discovering the world anew. The prospect excites this writer -- the unrelenting flux of recent years may have ushered in a resilient residue of renewed purpose.… [read more]

Teacher Efficacy Term Paper

… Teacher Efficacy

Connecting Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement in Higher Education Business Classes

Academic achievement is an important step in obtaining one's life goals. Education is a two-way street. It involves communication between the teacher and student. This research is… [read more]

Teens and Technology Marketing Plan

… Teens and Technology

Technology is rapidly changing infiltrating many aspects of students' lives and this trend will likely continue to increase. Technology opens many possibilities to students, offering a medium for personal expression in which they can create, collaborate, and research an infinite number of subjects.

Teens and Technology will teach students to use technology as a tool to empower them, build confidence, self-esteem and hope.

Upon the completion of the course, students who utilize Teens and Technology will share their voices and visions through the development digital exhibitions, books, websites, and videos. Exhibitions will be organized through the collaboration with local organizations, teachers will work to strengthen students' education and individual well-being of each student.


To develop and implement program called Teens and Technology at community schools in order to train teenagers in local schools to use skills and technology as future business trade, skill, and/or talent.

Through the implementation and use of Teens and Technology, students will use digital devices as learning tool, rather than an educational distraction and disruption in the classroom.


Teens and Technology will approach development from individual, educational, and technological perspectives.

On a personal level, Teens and Technology will,

Raise individual self-confidence, self-esteem and encourage independence

Provide knowledge of changing career landscape

Instill confidence

Help build collaboration and team-working skills

On an educational level,…… [read more]

Smartboard Affects Social Studies Core Content Understanding Literature Review

… Smartboard Affects Social Studies Core Content Understanding

One textbook cannot meet the needs of students in my fifth grade social studies class, who read at a wide range of levels. My goal is to reach all students and enable them… [read more]

How to Minimize Problems in Learning With Computers Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Computer Learning Problems

Briihl, D.S.(2001) Tips and suggested activities for a web based introduction to psychology class. 1-11 (ED453707) Unpublished Document. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Thought this work is unpublished it offers a great introduction to the needs, challenges and possible pitfalls of web based instruction from a real teacher in the virtual classroom. The work describes several potential difficulties and how to mitigate them, including the possibility of students feeling isolated mitigated by live chat sessions and interactive live communications between students. Also the concern regarding cheating as a possible difficulty which the instructor offers several solutions to, including increasing the type of items graded, as apposed simply to tests and quizzes, limiting the time and watermarking test pages to discourage printing of test materials. Lastly and probably most importantly the instructor makes clear that the most important part to avoiding difficulties in online teaching is providing a highly organized structure and making sure that the technology is working and accessible to everyone and alternatives exists when it is not.

Bulu, S., & Pedersen, S. (2010). Scaffolding middle school students' content knowledge and ill-structured problem solving in a problem-based hypermedia learning environment. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(5), 507-529. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Bulu & Pedersen look at how students are supported (scaffolded) by computer technology to solve ill-structured problems, or problems that are vague, open ended and non-linear. The work looked at the domain specific or non-domain specific scaffolding options and found that domain specific scaffolding was most effective. In other words general scaffolding or that which was not specific to the problem content was less effective than domain or content related scaffolding.

Cunningham, U. Fagersten, K.B. Holmsten, E. (Mar 2010)."Can You Hear Me, Hanoi?" compensatory mechanisms employed in synchronous net-based English language learning . International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11 (1), 161-177. (EJ881584) Retrieved from ERIC database.

Cunningham, Fagersten & Holmsten argue in their work for the introduction of live (virtual) seminar experiences in language learning as without such events the auditory aspect of language learning is lost and virtual students will be at a severe disadvantage regarding the ability to translate language learning outside of text and into conversation and voice usage. The researchers stress that the excitement over the possibility of just in time learning (when the individual can log on from anywhere at any time) does not fully support the auditory aspect of language learning and this aspect is absolutely essential and may be necessary in other virtual learning opportunities as well.

Gunel, K. Asliyan, R. (Jul 2009) Determining difficulty of questions in intelligent tutoring systems . Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology -- TOJET, 8 (3), 14-21 (EJ859488) Retrieved from ERIC database.

This work describes the possible difficulty of mathematics and other learning in static software or computer aided learning models. The point of the work it to describe the positive effects of a computer aided learning environment that is intelligent, i.e. that it…… [read more]

Alternative Assessment Spec ED Article Review

… ¶ … Giftedness is an intellectual ability that is significantly higher than average, not a skill, but an innate talent and aptitude that may be general or specific. Just as there are special needs for children who appear on the left side of the bell curve, so should there be for children on the far right. However, these students are often neglected in terms of special programing due to beliefs that they can just do "extra work" within a mainstreamed environment. From the 1920s to the 1970s, the trend in Western countries was to set up special schools to educate those who fell outside the norms of the bell curve, but by the 1980s most educators favored merging special and regular education in a comprehensive program that included students from all backgrounds -- in other words, mainstreaming them into a regular classroom environment. This idea, though, must also fit within the cultural precedents of the time; educators must respond to the needs of the nation and public education remains responsible for meeting the needs of all students in society. -- Stories abound regarding very bright people who were told by their teachers that they were "stupid," or "unteachable." Einstein, Isaac Newton, Thomas Edison, Louis Pasteur, and more. Because gifted children are able to compensate so well, often they have learning issues that remain hidden and/or undiagnosed. Typically, though, general behavior characteristics for the gifted include: learning to read and comprehend earlier; a desire to read widely and manifest robust vocabularies; learn basic skills with less practice; are more sensitive to non-verbal clues; and want to go beyond the what, into the how and why (Winner, 1996).

Because giftedness is not always easy to verify since it is not simply scores on standardized tests, but a combination of learning styles, cognitive development, and acumen, one of the interesting research questions is how a child's ethnic background may have an effect on a teacher referral into a…… [read more]

Special Ed Effective Special Education Hinges Essay

… Special Ed

Effective special education hinges on the individualized education program (IEP). Without the careful attention to individual differences among students and their unique needs, teachers will flounder in the classroom. I have witnessed many well-meaning teachers fail to provide the educational tools and a least restrictive environment (LRE) because of a lack of planning. The United States Department of Education (2007) clearly mandates, "Each IEP must be designed for one student and must be a truly individualized document." There are no stock answers in special education. Therefore, teachers need to be extremely sensitive to student needs, parent concerns, and the input provided by team members.

The process of planning and then providing special education begins with pre-referral. "The purpose of the pre-referral process is to ensure your child tries reasonable accommodations and modifications before she's referred for special education assessment," (Stump n.d.). Generally a team is assembled to address pre-referral issues. State education boards dub pre-referral teams with terms like Student Study Team (SST), Student Intervention Team, Child Study Team, Teacher Support Team, and Student Success Team (Stump n.d.). Each of these terms emphasizes the importance of team building in the special education process. Special education specialists and counselors are usually key components of the pre-referral team. Parents are also included as part of the team. The team must include both regular and special education teachers as well as specialists to ensure thoroughness.

A pre-referral sees to it that the child is not misdiagnosed or assumed to have special needs when in fact the student only requires minor changes to the educational environment. Moreover, a pre-referral sees to it that students ultimately diagnosed with a disability receive as early an intervention as possible.

If the team of specialists does determine that the student should be eligible for special education the next step in the process is the actual referral process. This process varies from place to place but generally the written referral is a formal procedure requesting the school board to provide the testing and other resources for an accurate diagnosis.

Assessment and evaluation methods vary, and the type of assessment used depends on the issues observed by parents, educators, or counselors during the pre-referral process. For example, a child having speech difficulties would be given speech-related assessments at this stage of the special education process. Parents have the right to request the referral and assessment, but often it will be teachers who notice that the child may have special needs.

The results of the assessment are generally what determines the student's eligibility for special education resources. If a specific disability (physical, learning, developmental, or otherwise) has been diagnosed, then the next…… [read more]

Resiliency Education Article Review

… Resiliency in Education

Education is a basic right of every child in the world and it is the responsibility of the government and academic policy makers to ensure that every child is entitled to quality education. Children coming from adverse… [read more]

Special Education the Key Points Journal

… ¶ … Special Education

The key points in the text, time and again, seem to me to center around the tendency of attributing 'special' labels to those who seem different to the norm, and the, at times, unjust and even brutal behavior accorded those individuals merely on the premise that they are outliers to the norm.

In the 1800s, individuals with disabilities were often confined in jails and almshouses without decent food, clothing, personal hygiene, and exercise. Even in the nineteenth century when it was believed that urban conditions, such as poverty and crime, induced these disabilities and that large institutions in the countryside would, therefore, be ameliorative, residents of these facilities were still referred to in the social sciences as 'feeble minded', idiotic', 'insane' or 'mad'. Unfortunately, some of these perceptions and labels have still colloquially persisted today. Even some of its modern replacements, such as the term 'mental retardation', are controversial. In the nineteenth century, the dominant cure for this 'madness' was moral treatment in psychiatric facilities, where, although humane and effective in some instances, later - due largely to the belief that mental illness was innate (and, possibly -- some believed - a Divine punishment or a biological distortion of nature) - became largely inhumane and abusive.

The peak came with eugenics where, for the alleged betterment of a socially advanced society that would produce only handsome, intelligent, and genetically superior individuals, people who were considered mentally ill were segregated, sterilized and placed in warehouse like institutions that manifested abuse and neglect of these vulnerable individuals. .

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, under the influence of pioneers such as G. Stanley Hall and Ann Sullivan with her famous pupil Helen Keller, state governments established juvenile courts and social welfare programs, including foster homes for children and adolescents, but even with these improvements, the residents were diagnosed (and often times misdiagnosed) under the new and popular pseudo-science of psychoanalysis and its offshoot, psychodynamics. Special classes within regular public schools had been launched in major cities, initially established…… [read more]

Supportive Vocabulary Learning Environment Essay

… According to Kathleen Kennedy Manzo of Education Week, recent studies support certain educational television programs for vocabulary improvement. Manzo says, "WordWorld,' a program funded under the Ready to Learn initiative, helps preschool children learn oral vocabulary and featured words. 'Between the Lions,' hosted by a puppet family of lions who live in the New York City Library, has been studied even more extensively. Studies on the 10-year-old program have linked it to significant gains in students' understanding of how letters combine to make words, as well as of the purpose of the printed word." Not surprisingly, the best programs are based on techniques developed by researchers, and tested on children before airing. (Manzo, 2009) Once again, when a child is engaged, they naturally and painlessly learn new words; they must learn new words in order to comprehend and keep up with their favorite characters and storylines. Of course, to further encourage learning from television watching, I would periodically pause the program for a short question and answer session focusing on these new words and their meanings.

Offering incentives for improving vocabulary is another fun and effective tool I would use to encourage the digestion and comprehension of new words on a daily basis. Regardless of age, everyone responds to rewards; children might compete for extra play time or a small prize, while older students can be motivated by extra credit or the hope of exemption from an exam.

Overall, I believe taking some time each day to teach students new words through online games, television programs, or personalized reading and writing assignments would translate into a highly supportive vocabulary learning environment. By employing a wide range of engaging activities -- combined with quizzes, assessment tools, and incentives -- a generalized focus on the importance of vocabulary can be established. And by keeping the environment interesting, fun, positive, and rewarding, success can almost be guaranteed with students of all ages and skill levels.


Harris, R. (2010, 10-14). Some Ideas for Motivating Students. Retrieved 11-20, 2010, from

Jaffe-Gill, E., Kemp, G., & Robinson, L. (2010, 11). How to Improve Your Memory. Retrieved 11-20, 2010, from

Kail, R.V., & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2008). Human Development: A Life-Span View. Cengage Learning.

Manzo, K.K. (2009). Studies Support Benefits of Educational TV for Reading. Retrieved 11-20, 2010, from

Sun, Y., Zhang, J., & Scardamalia, M. (2007). Knowledge building and vocabulary growth over two years, Grades 3 and 4. Springer Science and Business Media, 149-154.… [read more]

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