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Universal Design for Learning and Collaborative Teaching Term Paper

… Universal Design for Learning and Collaborative Teaching

Introduction Universal design

Universal design for learning is the overall rubric which includes within its ambit the questions, concerns, problematic and potentials of collaborative and inclusive teaching methods and practices. Universal design refers… [read more]

Paradox That Teaching Term Paper

… "[Menchu, 1983]

Hence, the motivation to learn must be therefore before an education system could be erected. Similarly, Menchu's autobiographer David Stoll believed Menchu's account did not collaborate with historic evidence. For this purpose, he ventured on a quest, interviewing hundreds of people and tracing the history of the place. Lessons from Menchu thus act the catalyst, motivating Stoll to further his knowledge. Similarly any kind knowledge cannot be acquired unless one learns of it and one cannot teach unless one learns about it first. For this reason, Freire's statement that "There is no teaching without learning" proves true.

In countries like Japan and Korea, the process of learning starts from a very fundamental level, inherent in their culture. A child learns of his/her ancestor from home, then at school. Any additional learning that needs to be done has to come from the school. However, additional learning or rather learning of other cultures will have to stem from existent education system. That means that the education system will have to accept that its students need more knowledge to become equipped with the standards of the world. It must allow its teachers to expand, to learn from other cultures before it could be brought home.

Ricardo Lagos, expressed its timeliness when he said, "...The differences between inheritors and the disinherited of the next century will be access to education. That is why education is so important."

Japanese company cannot dispatch its executives to America unless they learn about the culture first. Education, is not only an advancement of knowledge only but it is an acquisition process. A person cannot teach unless that person has learned it, experienced it him/herself. Menchu could not have narrated her life story unless she experienced it. A child cannot learn effectively from the teacher unless he/she experience it. At all levels of education, successful absorption of knowledge stems from ongoing learning process.

Confucius, concludes, "From whom indeed did our Master not learn? But at the same time, what need had he of any fixed and regular teacher..."

From the above discussion, it could be said that education and the process of acquiring it is not a simple teach-learn process. It is in fact an ongoing learning process whether one is the student or the teacher. Since knowledge and its acquisition, the desire to acquire it all depend on how one uses it, it changes all the time. A teacher cannot depend on one piece of information for all period of time but rather must change it according to the need of the student. Fundamental education like teachings through religion, culture and the environment all contribute to this change. An effective teacher would be one who knows what the future needs are and mould students accordingly. But before that he/she needs to learn himself.

President George W. Bush expressed it right "...reforms express my deep belief in our public schools and their mission to build the mind and character of every child, from every background, in every… [read more]

Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education: Challenges and Opportunities Literature Review

… Teachers should also be aware that some cultures punish members who challenge authority, but to punish these students for not challenging assumptions or points-of-view would be unfair. These suggestions reveal treating everyone with respect and fairness is insufficient, if the… [read more]

Interview With Teacher and Report Term Paper

… Herbert Spencer held that curriculum should be designed with a focus on human activities and was utilitarian positivist in his philosophy and defended natural rights. (Education Foundations, 2014, p. 1) From the view of Jane Adams, education is the foundational base for democracy.

The applications of the principles of assessment informing instruction and curriculum development is a process stated as follows:

"Progress monitoring to see if the students are progressing in a particular subject according to the curriculum, usually the standards of benchmark of the grade level" is used in an ongoing assessment because the use of interventions that are not effective and ineffective instruction creates difficulties for students however, the implementation of a "supplemental assessment procedure to help in deciding if an intervention is ineffective within a shorter time period could greatly benefit the student." (Jones, 2008, p.15) Teachers have come to collectively realize and acknowledge that the one-off standardized testing each year is a very ineffective method for informing instruction and thereby informing the curriculum. Instead, the curriculum must be a treated as something living and always in the process of transformation depending upon the information derived from assessments which are ongoing in nature and always providing feedback to the instructional and assessment processes. The best example, according to Kari provided on teaching to diverse learners is provided by Jesus as he models "how the teaching and learning cycle should be implemented." (Jones, 2008, p.1)

Throughout the Gospels -- Matthew, Mark, Luke and John -- many of the writings were about Jesus teaching his disciples with the ultimately purpose of answering the guiding question 'What is Truth?'(Jones, 2008, p. 14) Jesus is reported to have utilized "ongoing progress monitoring (questioning and observation) of his disciples to assess if the disciples understood. If the disciples did not, Jesus retaught the concept with different strategies of methods such as using parables, performing a miracle or teaching one-on-one." (Jones, 2008, p. 14) Jesus mapped his questions out according to what he wanted those listening to learn. (Jones, 2008, paraphrased)

Interview Conclusion

This study has reported an interview of an elementary teacher, Kari, and her views and philosophical outlook on the teaching practice and specifically teaching and standardized assessment of students. Various philosophical views have been examined including those held by Herbert Spencer, Jane Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Herbert Mann. Various beliefs about instruction, curriculum and assessment have been reported however, it is clear that when there is a disconnect between instruction, content of curriculum and student assessment that the process is skewed, students are not learning what they need to achieve high grades on assessment and ultimately the educational levels of today's learners is lower than the previous generation's achievement. One factor that is absent is family involvement in the education of today's learners and furthermore lack of civic involvement and engagement on the part of parents, children and entire families.

Civic involvement has always enabled cooperation and collaboration among the various sectors in society and civic involvement has created a… [read more]

Desecration of Public Education Research Paper

… Without quality public education, the youth will only learn skills needed for low profile jobs and will fail to play an active role in civil life. This is corporate oligarchy, not democracy (Davidson, 2010).

Lack of education can also lead… [read more]

Andragogy Malcolm Knowles' Theory Term Paper

… Because of the experiential format of clinical coursework, where students primarily learn from their mistakes, the student will only get as much out of the course as she puts in. That is, a student who is poorly prepared for clinical coursework will commit mistakes at the basic level, out of which she will derive only basic lessons in the practice of nursing. Such a student will receive what amounts to remedial education from the clinical component of the course. A student who is prepared to the minimum level expected by the coursework, however, will commit mistakes at the relatively advanced level, and will derive more advanced lessons from her participation in the clinical component.

The Necessary Climate for Clinical Teaching or Learning

Clinical coursework is best delivered in a setting with ample training resources. Some element of professional training is necessary for clinical coursework because a student cannot be expected to know how to perform certain professional duties and procedures, which constitute the learning activities themselves, from their classroom-based coursework alone. An experienced clinical professional must be available to instruct the student on how to perform the duties and procedures that she will be evaluated on.

The other fundamental component of clinical coursework is ample feedback and evaluation from an experienced clinical professional with sufficient knowledge of the student and her work in the clinical setting. Formal evaluations completed by the student's official clinical supervisor should be considered the absolute minimum for this component. Effective clinical coursework would require ample amounts of immediate feedback from the professional supervising the student's work on a particular task.

The training and feedback components of clinical coursework are best delivered through the same individual or group of individuals. The individuals who provide the training are best qualified to evaluate the student on her application of that training during the respective task. The training and feedback components are best delivered through a single supervisor/mentor, an experienced clinical professional. It is optimal if the mentor has experience supervising students in a clinical setting, but not essential.

Number of Students in a Clinical Setting

Clinical coursework is best delivered in a learning environment with no more than 4 students assigned to each supervising professional/mentor. This ratio allows the supervisor to develop a substantial professional relationship with each student in order to deliver substantive and focused feedback tailored to the student's particular needs. It also ensures that the supervisor has enough time to meet any additional training interactions that any particular student might request or require.


Knowles, M.S. (1970). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy vs. pedagogy. New York: Association Press.

Kaakinen, J., & Arwood, E. (May 07, 2009). Systematic Review of Nursing Simulation Literature for Use of Learning Theory. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 6, 1.)

"Instructional Design: Theories - Andragogy (M. Knowles)." Encyclopedia of Psychology.

"Instructional Design: Theories - Andragogy (M. Knowles)." Encyclopedia of Psychology.

Kaakinen, J., & Arwood, E. (May 07, 2009). Systematic Review of Nursing Simulation Literature…… [read more]

Flat World and Education Linda Book Report

… However, in Finland, a decision was made "to invest in a uniformly well-prepared teaching force by recruiting top candidates and paying them to go to school" (Darlin-Hammond, 2010). As a result, the author observes that in the latter case, teacher… [read more]

Teach in a High-Need School Application Essay

… ¶ … teach in a high-need school because I feel that my education and experience has taught me the skills necessary to teach students enrolled in New York City's high-needs education program. I am creative enough to maintain a good learning environment, and adaptable enough to be able to handle any student's needs. I can maintain a steady pace of teaching while controlling a more sensitive classroom environment. New York City has the kind of school system that I would like to teach in. Public schools in the city have many requirements for high-needs teachers, and I can fulfill them. Living in New York City and becoming a teacher is a dream that I have been harboring for years. I will be an effective high-needs teacher because of my Master's Degree in Secondary Education from Wagner College on Staten Island. After receiving my Bachelor's of Arts Degree in Political Science in 2010, I felt that a career in politics was not exactly the path I was meant for.

I have a passion for political science still, but I decided I would like to apply myself towards a more direct role in my career, working with children and not in an office. So I decided on becoming a teacher. Both my Mother and Sister, who are both Special Education teachers, influenced me in my decision. I have been with them to their classrooms many times and I am comfortable while in this environment. Ever since I was small, I was learning from my Mother when she would come home from class, and having a teacher as a Mother has made me better prepared to be a teacher myself. Before I applied to enter a teaching program, I looked around many colleges in the City, and I liked my undergraduate college best.

I decided on Wagner because of its excellent reputation for its teaching program, its proximity within New York City, and its resources tied into the New York Public School system. I have learned everything I could about teaching while at Wagner, and I feel that I gained a lot of valuable knowledge as a result. Many current New York City Public Education teachers are graduates of Wagner, and therefore I felt I had chosen the best college for this goal. After this, I entered Wagner College's Secondary Education program and have been excelling in the classes that I have had. I am qualified to teach High-Needs education, and am looking forward to doing so in the near future. I formally graduate from Wagner College's Masters in Secondary Education program in May 2013.

The greatest challenge I expect to face in teaching a high-needs school is the…… [read more]

Special Education During My Time Case Study

… Special Education Case Study

During my time as a special education teacher there were many students who posed challenges when it came to school, but there was one boy who was by far the worst and most challenging case I had ever experienced. The boy was diagnosed with ADHD at a young age. By the time I encountered him in high school, he had used his diagnosis as an excuse to avoid any substantial work. The problem was that at his high school his English teacher saw through his laziness and with the approval of his guardian decided to press the child for better work. I was left with the task of working with him and keeping him on task.

The central problem with this student was memory and cognition. Ever since his diagnosis, teachers did not assign the student any literature that was substantially long and so what was once a minor problem became very serious by the time he was in high school. When I tested his reading level, it was at a 4th grade level, which suggested to me that his previous teachers had simply decided to avoid challenging the student or pressing him to improve. What made this problem even more difficult for the student is that in his mind he had already given up and written himself off as being unable to read literature. This was not an acceptable way of thinking for his English teacher.

The purpose of this case was to exercise the student's mind and teach him how to focus enough to comprehend literature. This is a daunting enough task with a regular teenage student, but a student with ADHD and such a low reading level made it even more difficult. The course was 11th grade English, so I would have to find a way of making the books seem more doable to the student in an attempt to increase his confidence and empower him on to the next book.

I started by information gathering with his teacher. I got a list of the books that he had to read for…… [read more]

Learning: Cognitive Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … Learning: Cognitive

Cognitive Theory of Learning

The cognitive theory of learning states that memory and prior knowledge play active roles in learning, which requires that researcher look beyond different types of behavior to learning that is based in… [read more]

Tube as a Key ICT in Education Article

… ¶ … Tube as a Key ICT in Education

"Many educators believe that the act of creating content…is a valuable learning exercise… [YouTube] allows students to replace passive learning with active participation, where everyone has a voice, anyone can contribute,… [read more]

Lesson Plan - Nurses Term Paper

… 14, Issue 4, pp. 503 -- 508

Sharma, S.; Sastri, O.; Ahluwalia, P.K.; (2010) Design of instructional objectives of undergraduate solid state physics course: A first step to physics education research, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1263, Issue 1, pp. 171 -- 174

Tschannen, D. & Kalisch, B.J.; (2009) The impact of nurse/physician collaboration on patient length of stay, Journal of Nursing Management, Vol. 17, Issue 7, pp. 796 -- 803

Wittmann-Price, R.A. & Fasolka, B.J.; (2010) Objectives and outcomes: The fundamental difference, Nursing Education Perspectives, Vol. 31, Issue 4, pp. 233 -- 236

The collaboration teaching strategy makes a lot of sense to me. I have always believed that each individual can add some bit of knowledge to the group-based either on experience, education or intelligence. Collaborating in the classroom or clinical setting allows for interactions that will surely be beneficial to most (if not all) the participants. Collaboration also provides a setting for enhanced personal relationships with those people we work with on a regular basis. One of the drawbacks to collaboration is that its success oftentimes is based on the relationship(s) between the various participants. If there are some that do not wish to participate, or perhaps they think they know too much (or too little) then the process could become bogged down or frustrating…… [read more]

Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences Term Paper

… Adult Learner in a Diabetic Education Center

At my previous place of employment I worked in a clinic that provided education to individuals who had just been diagnosed with Type II diabetes. While this condition is increasingly common among children… [read more]

Boys and Girls Learn Differently Book Review

… The boys meanwhile: a) rely "heavily on nonverbal communication" simply because they are not as well developed in verbalizing as girls are; and b) have better "spatial abilities" (in areas such as measuring, mechanical design, geography and map reading). It… [read more]

Adult Education Lesson Bruner and Adult Learning Essay

… Adult Education


Bruner and Adult Learning

The theories of Jerome Bruner best fit my position as an adult learner. Bruner believes that learning falls into three categories: the acquisition of new information, making the new information transfer from one area to another, such as from the classroom to the assessment or from the assessment to the workplace, and the evaluation of whether or not the information the person has acquired is adequate for the purpose for which it is intended (Knowles, 2005). Bruner has been criticized because his theory does not concern itself with emotional development. If I were a child, this might be a valid criticism, but as a settled adult, I am far less concerned with my emotional development than with my acquisition of knowledge. I am in school because I want to acquire new information, and as I take tests I must evaluate my knowledge in order to fulfill the course requirements. The most important goal, however, is for me to be able to take the knowledge that I have acquired into the workplace, and only then will I know for sure whether the knowledge that I have obtained throughout my education is adequate for me to fulfill my workplace tasks. This cycle is not a one-time process, but it repeats as new tasks and new obstacles present themselves. The cycle is not strictly dedicated to the school environment. The acquisition, synthesis and application of information is a skill that is needed in the…… [read more]

Principles of Adult Learning Essay

… Adult Education


Undereducated and Disadvantaged Adult Learners

I am interested in the topic of undereducated and disadvantaged adult learners. I selected this topic because adult illiteracy is a pressing social issue. According to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, 30 million people or 14% of the entire population has reading and writing skills that fall below the basic level. People with poor literacy skills are often unemployable and live in hopeless poverty. Since the adults themselves are barely literate or are functionally illiterate, they do not keep books in the home or read to their children. Their children arrive in the classroom with no book-handling skills or print awareness. They develop literacy skills much more slowly than their middle and upper class counterparts. As a result, children from poverty have high reading failure rates. As these children grow, they must deal with the primary effects of poverty such as poor housing and malnutrition, as well as the secondary effects such as unsafe schools, unqualified teachers and at-risk behaviors. Unfortunately, many of these children drop out of school, perpetuating the vicious cycles of illiteracy and poverty. The best way to break this cycle is to educate adult learners so that they can obtain satisfactory employment, develop self-esteem and confidence, and pass their new reading skills to their children.

Need to Know Principle

As a high school student, I was involved in a teen peer counseling project, and I worked with underprivileged inner-city children. These children came from abusive homes. Many of them had experienced rape, incest and severe child abuse. As I came into contact with these young clients, I was placed on a need-to-know basis. I was informed about their situations, but was privy to very little information other than the essential facts, and was also informed that their chief responsibility was to protect the privacy rights of their clients. It was frustrating at times because I felt like I could help them more if I knew more about what they had suffered, but at the same time it was important to respect their privacy.

Self-Directed Learning

Self-directed learning, or SDL, is a concept geared towards adult learners where the learners manage their own learning process through self-management strategies and goal-setting. Several years ago my mother returned to school to obtain her bachelor's degree. She was a non-traditional student and an adult learner, and returning to school was somewhat scary and frustrating for her at first because she felt like she didn't fit in with the young party crowd. She was really worried because she'd been out of school for a long…… [read more]

Cooperative Learning Case Study

… ¶ … Cooperative Learning Science Model for Grade 2

Cooperative learning is effective because it brings together students with different abilities and allows them to work together to achieve their goals and improve their learning abilities. It encourages students to… [read more]

Teacher Qualifications and Student Performance: A Review Thesis

… Teacher Qualifications and Student Performance: A Review of NCLB-Related studies

Among the educational reforms undertaken by local, state, and federal governments in the last half century, there has perhaps been none as important, far-reaching, and ambitious as the "No Child… [read more]

Teacher Efficacy Research Proposal

… Teacher Efficacy

Discourses about education abound and involve various examinations of different aspects of education. Among these discourses is the concept of teacher efficacy and the manner in which it impacts students and learning environments. The following literature review will… [read more]

Education - Philosophy Statement of Educational Essay

… Education - Philosophy


The Purpose of Modern Education:

The main purpose of modern education is to provide students with the necessary skills and information to develop productive and fulfilling lives early in their adulthood.

That goal… [read more]

Teaching and Learning Theories Research Proposal

… Learning Theories

The educational field provides access to a variety of learning theories, many of them offshoots or modifications of previously popular stratagems of learning styles. Numerous studies have been conducted to verify, justify or analyze these theories and their… [read more]

John Dewey Experience and Education Research Proposal

… John Dewey: Experiential Learning and the Failure of Progressive Education

For better or for worse, John Dewey's philosophy of education has defined many the terms of the continuing debate as to the best way to educate the youth of America.… [read more]

Distance Learning vs. Distance Teaching Thesis

… Distance Learning

How distance teaching differs

Distance education differs in a number of major respects from teaching in the conventional classroom. One of the most problematic issues that confront the distance education teacher is ascertaining and understanding the way that… [read more]

Education for Diversity Thesis

… Education for Diversity

Were you surprised at the categories he chose to ground his discussion of diversity?

No, not really, the categories Spenser chose seem to be some of the most important and relevant categories of diversity in adult education, and some of them, as he notes, have been ignored for far too long. Women are an important element of adult education, often because they must continue their education while working and caring for a family, and so distance and adult education courses help them manage their time more effectively. It is interesting that women were some of the first targets for adult education, and that their options were so limited in the past, even though they were often the instructors, as well as the students. The mentally and physically challenged have long been ignored in society, and they too are some of the people that can get great benefit from adult education because they can work at their own pace and do not necessarily have to attend classes on campus, making it far easier for their to continue their education.

Seniors were not surprising either, because that is a segment of the population that is growing, and seniors have more leisure time, so they have more time to devote to adult education. What is more surprising is that Spenser had to point out these segments, because they seem quite logical, and it seems administrations and distance learning programs would have targeted many of these segments already, if they had not done so before now. In addition, Spenser mentions minorities, and that makes sense, as well, because they often cannot afford to complete their education all at once, and they do not find diverse classes in their own cultures, but distance and adult education can be much more flexible both with enrollment and time demands, but with more diverse classes, as well.

How useful is this framework for understanding diversity with adult education, as…… [read more]

Theory of Scholarship of Distance Education Thesis

… ¶ … Scholarship of Distance Education

Progressing from home study and correspondence courses to theories of both one-to-one and one-to-many-based models of distance instruction an analysis of the Theory of Scholarship of Distance Education illustrates how theories of distance education scholarship have significantly changed over the last eighty-two years. The first studies conducted by Noffsinger (1926) of distance education were based purely on correspondence courses that universities at the time piloted to see what long-term learning could be achieved. From an initial reliance on traditional mail delivery services progressing through the use of more interactive technologies including teleconferences and eventually the Internet, theories of scholarship relating to distance education have continually changed reflecting the immediacy of instructor and student communication.

Analysis of Key Points Made

The chronological approach the authors have taken in presenting empirical and theoretical research pertaining to scholarship and self-efficacy of students in distance education programs eventually leads to the current state-of-the-art programs of distance learning theory and scaffolding (Najjar, 2008). In addition, a critical analysis of transaction theory as it relates to the autonomy of students and that attributes' correlation to greater levels of success in distance education programs is assessed. Most interesting in the analysis presented in this article is the didactic conversation approach vs. using scaffolding and individualized instruction strategies that educators have empirically found to be effective in teaching students across broad distances (Najjar, 2008).

The catalyst of significant change in the accumulated research on the theory of scholarship of distance education also illustrates how cause-and-effect-based models originally published in the American Journal of Distance Education published by the American Center for the Study of Distance Education (Scalise, Bernbaum, Timms, Harrell, Burmester, Kennedy, Wilson, 2007) have given way to more transaction-based theories. Transactional distance is seen in these theories as a continuous, not discrete variable, thereby making the analysis of learning effectiveness more dependent on understanding the motivations and values of the students involved.

This article takes a journey from explaining the theories of scholarship of distance education from an external perspective with regard to student and teacher interaction to more of an internalized one specific to students. The progression of the research to concentrating on the triad of distance education, instructor approach and strategies, and the extent of student autonomy all factor into how effective distance learning is. This triad of factors only emerged within the last fifty years of research, which is one of the critical aspects of how much additional empirical research is required to continue defining how individualized instruction in the form of scaffolding (Najjar, 2008) contributes or detracts from distance learning achievement.

The article…… [read more]

Long-Distance Learning and Online Thesis

… Distance and Net-Based Learning

Describe and explain in how far distance learning and Net-based learning are likely to change learning at universities drastically.

Just about everyone agrees that Net-based learning represents a more advanced from of learning than previous distance learning efforts and that the Net will therefore have a much more significant impact on the ways courses are developed and taught and the way students learn. Some even wonder if traditional campuses will continue to serve a viable purpose in just a few years time. However, while Net-based learning is likely to revolutionize education, it is unlikely to usurp brick-and-mortar campuses.

The Net will change the learning styles of students as well as how and who they communicate with. Net-based learning using skills such as browsing, exploring, searching, and connecting will make students more autonomous learners who explore non-linear paths of study to meet their own interests and objectives. These skills are utilized while students exercise cognitive flexibility and select their learning path (Peters, 1999). Electronic communications such as email and conferencing will replace face-to-face conversations and will provide access to a global "knowledge building community (Peters, 1999).

Teachers will have to adapt to the new role of the student on the Net. For instance, the teacher role must shift from being a leader to being a coach as student autonomy in the learning process increases. The traditional methods of oral and written review of assigned textual material will no longer be the way to measure learning. Instead, students will measure and document their own learning progress. Within the knowledge building community, teachers will be one expert of many and must now function as a "team of experts" rather than as a sole source of expertise.

With regards to course development, technologies in Net-based learning such as…… [read more]

Historical Context of Distance Education Thesis

… ¶ … distance education offers a timeline of distance education that stresses a new and independent view of individuals. Most interestingly distance education began as a for profit industry associated with teaching those who could not travel to educational institutions, vocational subjects that would be of interest to them, even though they were often many miles from the instructor and received material only by mail. This shows in part the interest of opening education to a broader audience, including women and to those who were working to make a living. Women also benefited greatly from early distance education, and though the article does not mention it the contention that women would be damaged by the society of higher education, removing this environment from the equation by offering home coursework was a broadening of the role of women.

The stress of vocational education was clearly one that outpaced the more academic liberal arts and broader education standards of higher learning, making it clear that in many places in the world people were very interested in learning those things which they believed they would most likely use in their daily lives, rather than more theoretical curriculum of universities, and much of this came about prior to the full establishment of compulsory education for children which really was an ideology based on the idea that educating citizens, specifically about government and civic institutions would make better voters in the future. To a large degree the early distance education system, even when attached to the new land grant universities associated with the Morrill Act intended to bring education to the masses, not just to those who could afford the time and tuition it took to attend universities. Early demands by the culture, even prior to the passage of the Merrill Act were seeking to strengthen the nation by strengthening one of its greatest resources, agriculture and skilled trades, rather than simply continuing to support the elite through supporting university instruction of law and medicine, the two most common forms of university education.

It is also interesting that when the early distance education programs began they were dependant upon the newly established postal systems in every nation where they began. The postal systems and then the rail and road systems spread information as well as goods, a reality not necessarily thought of by many who study the history of these infrastructural systems, in the U.S. And elsewhere. Working people for the first time had greater access to fundamental educational pursuits that actually contributed to the ways they lived their lives.

The early 1930s trend to legitimize correspondence schools by attempting to set standards and codify them through the National Home School Study Council and other organizations also enlightens the reader. The trend to…… [read more]

Resource Room Teacher Term Paper

… Specail Education and Inclusion

One of the most concerning issues with regard to education in the United States is the fact that there is an increasingly alarming shortage of teachers in the system. The difficulty associated with this problem would seem to some to be that there are too few quality teachers to fill the available positions, but the reality, statistically, according to many educators is that teacher retention and turnover rates are astounding. This fact creates a demographic of teachers who are highly skilled and effective but who resist working in their original field of choice for many reasons and the attrition rate among special education, resource room teachers is particularly troubling.

Reports from various states indicate that special education teachers leave special education teaching positions at disproportionally higher rates than their peers in general education. For example, in the 1995-1996 school year, attrition rates in Wisconsin were 6.5% for general education teachers and 8.4% for special education teachers (Lauritzen, 1997), and there was an average annual attrition rate for special educators of 24.2% in California (Pyecha & Levine, 1995) and 8.9% in Kansas (McKnab, 1995). (Katsiyannis, Zhang & Conroy, 2003, p. 246)

There are likely many reasons for this problem, some associated with condition, pay, empowerment, and the increasing numbers of student with disabilities and even environment. (Katsiyannis, Zhang & Conroy, 2003, p. 246) Furthermore, one of the most important reasons has to do with feelings of preparedness, or in this case lack there of. Teachers entering the field frequently cite as a reason for leaving that they feel woefully under prepared to teach in the environment they encountered once they entered the classroom. In special education this is particularly troubling, because traditional resource room teaching offers a diversity of such extremes that the ability of one teacher and a few secondary staff to meet the diverse needs of all the students is challenged daily if not hourly. Resource room teachers, feel under prepared to encounter the varied degrees of skill level, behavioral challenges and even personalities because the diversity of just these three factors, in addition to any physical limitations that special education students might have comprises a multitude of issues requiring specialized training. The kind of specialized training required goes far beyond general education offerings and a sense of doing the right thing for the love of children with special needs, though such elements are also crucial.

In an interview study of beginning special educators, Kilgore and Griffin (1998) found that novice special educators reported different problems from their beginning colleagues in general education. They often described themselves as insufficiently prepared, frustrated, and…… [read more]

Teacher Work Sample Term Paper

… Teacher Work Sample

Community, District and School Factors:

San Francisco and the greater San Francisco school district and community is largely associated with a liberal political climate, that invites creativity in teaching, falling within the set goals of the California… [read more]

Influence of Culture on Learning Styles Term Paper

… ¶ … Culture on Learning Styles

Multiculturalism as a backdrop for culturally-based learning styles in Australia

The concept of multiculturalism was imported, according to one opponent of the idea, form Canadian politics "to represent a vague set of ideas which… [read more]

Learning Styles and Comprehension of Secondary Special Education Students Term Paper

… ¶ … Multiple Instructional Strategies Used to Teach students to Each of Their Learning Styles Improve Their Reading Comprehension Levels Significantly More Than Students Who are Taught Using the Traditional Instructional Strategies?

It was proposed recently by Keer (2004) in… [read more]

Learning Disabled During the Course Term Paper

… Alternate Hypothesis 2: There are positive effects that result when teachers label students as learning disabled, including academic achievement and performance-based consequences.

The formation of the primary hypothesis is grounded in a large body of research which suggests that labeling does impact students in a potentially negative manner.

Significance of Study

Because early child is a time when most children are forming their sense of self-perception, cognition, self-concept and self-esteem, it is critical that educators do everything possible to maximize a student's ability to achieve their highest potential. The intent of this research is to examine whether or not labeling students as "learning disabled" will negatively impact their ability to achieve to their highest potential.

Presently there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that labeling may in fact have a negative impact on a student's sense of self-perception and ability. There are studies that both support labeling and refute it. The aim of this study will be to provide concrete evidence that either verifies or refutes the idea that labeling students impacts their potential for success and overall achievement within the classroom.

Perceived social skills deficits, often attributed by teachers to students with learning disabilities, might impact a student's ability to interact well with other students and excel in the classroom environment (Gut & Safran, 2002). It is important to examine this impact early on, because evidence also suggests that this impact may extend into the later educational years and adulthood of children.

In fact, there is evidence to suggest that the impact of labeling may extend into higher education as well. An examination of the impact of learning disabled labeling on students by Beilke & Yssel (1999) suggest that as much as 30% more college level freshman now enter school labeled with the title learning disabled. The term has created according to the researchers a divide in the classroom with regard to perceptions of student achievement.

In a qualitative study conducted by Persaud (2000) the problematic aspects of labeling of students are addressed. The study suggests that labels generally result in negative depictions of a student's deficit and may even become the defining characteristic of a person overshadowing other complex aspects of their personality.

The intent of this study will be to provide concrete evidence related to the effects of labeling, so that educational administrators, faculty and staff can make well grounded decisions when it comes to labeling students, and help maximize all students' potential for success regardless of their perceived ability or disability.


Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available:

Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:

Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.

Retrieved Oct. 4, 2004 from… [read more]

Pedagogic Model: Teaching Technology in Special Education Dissertation

… " (Dougiamas, 1998) Such trivial constructivism, though, is the bedrock from which Glaserfelds more radical constructivism springs. He continues to state that because knowledge is constructed by the learner, and because no two learners are the same, knowledge itself is… [read more]

Teacher Education in Nigeria Term Paper

… Thus, private donations and federal support in the form of research grants are of utmost importance. At the same time, the public is demanding that tuition costs be reduced and that higher education provide better services for the cost ADDIN… [read more]

Rise of Technology-Mediated Learning Systems Research Paper

… Nonetheless even though access to funding is one inspiration, it is not the single reason for the heightened awareness in corporate-academic businesses. There are some universities that put the emphasis on particular areas of applied research, for instance, while others… [read more]

Culture and Christian Education Essay

… True multicultural Christian education is based on changed attitudes of individuals attitudes as they are interacting with one can be found in relationships that are based on acceptance and appreciation for the existing individual differences and in the desire of representing a unified family of God. Multiculturalism is often used during the application of cross-cultural perspectives in education. However, there are still some arguments during the past century on the definition of the concept. The goal of multicultural Christian education is embodiment of a system of attitudes, beliefs and behaviors which recognize and respect presence of individuals from their diverse groups, acknowledge the values which they hold, their differences and offer inclusive context which gives empowerment to all members of the church in order for them to be encouraged and enable them make personal contributions to the Christ's society.

Programs in local churches which are truly cross-cultural in their approach are viewed as processes that affect the structural organization of the churches, give direction to instructional strategies and change personal values within the members of the congregation. These programs go beyond boundaries of local church. The purpose of multicultural Christian education is the provision of a wide scope and fair representation of the world surrounding (Cole, 2005).

Cross cultural sensitivity is quite important when it comes to warranting its own vision, mission, goal and statements. There is need to be consistent with general statements for overall church ministry as well as with specific statements when it comes to Christian education. There are several objectives when it comes to cross-cultural Christian education. These objectives assist local churches in the development of an approach which is more inclusive when it comes to educational ministries.

These objectives include developing an increase in the awareness of Cultural diversity. Local churches should ensure that they make the congregation aware of the cultural diversity that exists. This will enable the congregation to be open and accommodate other cultural views that are in existence. This will help them in their interactions with other members of the congregation and hence easy for the church to impart Christian education in them. The other objective is to assess practices and attitudes within the church that are ethnocentric in nature. This will make sure that there are no practices and attitudes in the church that are biased. With minimal or no ethnocentric attitudes and practices then people will be free with each other and hence more interactions. Another objective is to encourage interethnic relationships that are positive within the church and the entire community (Cole, 2005).Positive interethnic relationship means that people will interact freely and share the gospel in an environment that is free. Another objective is to develop cross-cultural skills when it comes to teaching-learning setting and intercultural education. The entire church should be empowered with cross cultural skills when it comes to both teaching and learning. With these skills it will be easy for both the teachers and students to understand each other in process of learning Christian… [read more]

College Worth It?' Weighs on Local Students Research Paper

… ¶ … college worth it?' weighs on local students.

The Press Democrat. Jeremy Hay, May 18, 2013.

Ever since the post-Second World War era, a college education has been the traditional path of those focused on professional success in the… [read more]

Teaching Style of Lecturing Research Paper

… If the next generation of teachers is prepared to adapt their approach to lecturing with the demands of modern education and learning in mind, students will continue to benefit from the organized, systematic presentation of critical facts and figures.


Coughlin, S. (2013, May 01). Jimmy wales: Boring university lectures 'are doomed'. BBC News. Retrieved from

Exley, K., & Dennick, R. (2009). Giving a lecture: from presenting to teaching. (Vol. 10). Newy York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Knight, J.K., & Wood, W.B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education, 4(4), 298-310. Retrieved from

Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction. (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Revell, A., & Wainwright, E. (2009). What makes lectures 'unmissable'? Insights into teaching excellence and active learning. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 33(2), 209- 223. Retrieved from

Van Klaveren, C. (2011). Lecturing style teaching and student performance. Economics of Education Review, 30(4), 729-739. Retrieved from 2010.pdf… [read more]

Leading Professional Learning Chapter

… Building Relatinoal Trust

Leading professional organizations

Professional issue: Building relational trust

Fostering an atmosphere of relational trust in which reciprocal dialogue between teachers and administrators can take place is essential for a school to function. This enables an alignment between… [read more]

Learning That Is Imparted Term Paper

… Instructing English in a work-based environment may increase chances of professional growth. The participants of work-based learning programs get a whole new world of resources accessible by learning a language that has noteworthy professional importance. Rosen (1999) reported ESL as… [read more]

Admission Letter to Wright State Essay

… My transcripts tell part of my story; they reflect the success that a mature student has achieved beginning in 1988 with an impressive accumulation of credits. But there is another important component to my story. I was raised in a family where success wasn't just measured in how much money one makes or how many degrees one can accumulate.

In our family it was about the quality of one's contribution to the betterment of our society and our world. And for me, teaching students to become accomplished at helping others with their most important healthcare needs -- whether it is just a routine health checkup or attending to a seriously ill older person -- will be their way of making positive impacts.

Having a positive impact and making lives healthier means more than just serving the health needs one at a time. When my students complete their training and are able to make a clear-cut difference in the lives of others, they will be in effect paying it forward. Every individual that is made healthier through the efforts of an intelligent, well-trained healthcare professional, is also benefiting all those (family, loved ones, and others) around that person. Families benefit when one of their members receives warm, nurturing care in a hospital or other healthcare facility. Positive healthy outcomes have a domino effect in families.

As to my person life, I have five children and three have already graduated from high school; hence, I am at a point in my career when attending graduate school is practical.

Again, thank you for your consideration and I look forward to becoming an energetic and competent student in…… [read more]

Lesson Plan Analysis (Behavioral Model) Chapter

… "

Q3. What words are used to tell the students how their work will be evaluated?

Under the section entitled "Explaining Criteria for Success" students are informed that they will earn 20 points for "successfully completing the Reciprocal Reading portion of the lesson with their partner. Success is defined as (a) alternating reading aloud / summarizing and (b) completing the selection. Students can earn up to 20 points for identifying and listing at least two possible causes of the revolution." The teacher will create a T-chart before breaking up the class intro groups in which the class will list what listening "looks like" and what listening "sounds like" so they will have a better idea of how to satisfy the criteria of the assignment and take good notes.

Q4. What elements of this lesson plan are for the teacher but not necessarily stated to the students?

The 'Deciding on the Lesson Plan' section and the 'Monitoring and Intervening' section.

Q5. Which word best describes this lesson plan: (a) linear, or (b) disconnected? Why do you think so?

Disconnected. Much of the learning is self-directed and conducted by the students at their desks in pairs, albeit under the guidance of the teacher. There is no linear, coherent lesson plan because the intended focus of the lesson is to stress student cooperation and students learning from one another rather than assimilating a specific skill or series of facts.

Q6. In order to determine if the student achieved the objective what would you expect the teacher to do? Why?

The teacher must use some individual assessments, such as a quiz, to ensure that the students learned the material individually. Although the lesson plan teachers a specific skill, the teacher cannot be certain that ever individual student understands one (or preferably multiple) causes of the American Revolution due to the discursive, cooperative format of the lesson.

Q7. In 50 words or less, state how can you tell this lesson comes from the Social-Psychological Systems of Models of Teaching?

Social models of teaching use collaborative learning models and emphasize teamwork as a way of reinforcing content (McIlrath & Huitt 1995). Content such as facts tend to be deemphasized at the expense of students learning how to learn, learning social values and understanding how to work together.


Garrison, C., & Ehringhaus, M. (2007). Formative and summative assessments in the classroom.

Association for Middle Level Learning. Retrieved from

McIlrath, D., & Huitt, W. (1995, December). The teaching-learning process: A discussion of models. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from

Teaching models. (n.d). The Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved:… [read more]

Elementary Education and Math Research Term Paper

… Elementary Education and Math Research

This is one of the well-conducted research studies on how pre-service teachers of mathematics and sciences should construct knowledge in teaching and pedagogy. Indeed, it is essential for teachers to have a deep understanding on… [read more]

Inclusion or Pull Out What Is Best for Students During Literacy Literature Review

… ¶ … Inclusion on Student Performance

The field of education has long been plagued by the question of how to handle a divergent student body. Particularly challenging in this regard is the group of students that has become known as… [read more]

Special Education Is Presided Admission Essay

… An IEP comprises the disability under which the child qualifies for Special Education Services, the specific services the team has determined that the school will supply, the child's yearly goals and objectives and any accommodations that must be made in order to help them in their learning. The IEP must also contain a statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services that are to be provided to the child (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).

The IEP is designed to help children reach their educational goals more easily than they otherwise would. In all cases the IEP must be customized to the individual student's needs as identified by the IEP evaluation process, and must particularly help teachers and related service providers, such as paraprofessional educators, understand the student's disability and how the disability affects that child's learning process (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).

Due to the increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities who are being included in the general education classroom along with the pressures of state accountability assessments, classroom teaching has become very complex. Inclusion calls for general education teachers (GETs) and special education teachers (SETs) to form partnerships that require a new role for special educators who previously were able to provide instruction for students with learning disabilities using materials and instructional approaches in a resource room setting outside of the general education classroom. Taking on the role of an inclusion teacher, SETs teach students with LD in inclusive general education classrooms utilizing materials from the general education curriculum. Special educators (SETs) have the tasks of ensuring that students with disabilities are progressing towards the same state standards as their non-disabled peers, addressing their individualized education goals, and providing them opportunities to access the general education curriculum (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).


Hallahan, D.P., Kauffman, J.M. & Pullen, P.C. (2011). Exceptional Learners: An

Introduction to Special Education (12th…… [read more]

Promotion of More Inclusive Education Research Paper

… The final area is the learning environment, which can be changed physically or in regards to learning in order to support the needs of all individuals within the classroom (Ernest et al., 2011).

It was suggested by Ernest et al. (2011) in their case study of a teacher implementing differentiated instruction within a special education context that there are barriers to this implementation. The most prominent barrier observed by the researchers was the common perception among teachers and the public that differentiated education is just another passing fad. The researchers expressed the necessity for a shift in classroom models from the tradition deductive view that teaching strategies that work for most should work for all, to a more inductive approach that understands and respects the needs, skills, learning styles, and interests of individual students. It is acknowledged by the researchers that several challenges will be present with regards to inclusion of special needs students within the classroom. These challenges may include keeping every student on track with learning and the curriculum, aiding children with any difficulties they may be having with comprehension or retention of the curriculum content, dealing with tedium and boredom within the classroom. It is noted by the researchers that strategies that work for children with special needs and abilities are generally effective and engaging for children of all skill levels and abilities (Ernest et al., 2011). These effective strategies include the use of lively whole group activities, ensuring individual acknowledgment within the group, as well as the presentation of content in a manner that is a reflection of the developmental needs of the child (Ernest et al., 2011).

The importance of development of effective instructional strategies for special education by teachers is emphasized in a study conducted by Fullerton et al. (2011). These researchers described how merged program models that involve a single curriculum for general and special education students involve courses and field experienced that are aimed at providing the most optimal learning experience for students representing all types of learning styles, abilities, skills, and interests. These merged programs are most often seen at the elementary school level, but the researchers described the development and implementation of an education program for secondary educators called the Secondary Dual Educators Program, which is based in a merged education model. Initial findings indicated that the program resulted in competency with regard to the teachers' abilities to effectively design and implement differentiated education at the secondary level (Fullerton et al., 2011).


Buffum, A., Mattos, M., Weber, C. (2010). The why behind RTI. Educational Leadership, 68(2), 10-16.

Ernest, J.M., Heckaman, K.A., Thompson, S.E., Hull, K.M., Carter, S. (2011). Increasing the teaching efficacy of a beginning special education teacher using differentiated instruction: a case study. International Journal of Special Education, 26(1), 191-201.

Fullerton, A., Ruben, B.J.,…… [read more]

Sociology and Adult Education Research Paper

… Today, adult education can be a method of empowerment for individuals and groups that reside just outside the majority group's characteristics. Practices of adult education can help empower members of certain racial groups gather acknowledgment and actively move towards a… [read more]

How to Improve Curriculum for Special Education Essay

… Special Education Curriculum Improvement Ideas

First Course -- Foundations of Educational Leadership


One of the goals of the special education teacher should be to research ideas through the literature that can produce creative curricula reforms or innovations for the classroom. In this paper two suggestions will be offered in order to provide fresh ideas that can bring greater success and a sense of result-oriented intervention to the special education classroom. Parent training should be given consideration, and children with mild disabilities can and should participate in general education classrooms notwithstanding that some discourage this strategy.

Training Parents -- Boosting Curricula

Children with autism spectrum disorders are among those students who are said to have "special needs" in special education classrooms, but if there are barriers to the strategy of training parents to work with their children, those barriers need to be broken down. In their peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions the authors suggest that there are several obstacles to involving parents in training programs: a) teachers are "rarely trained in how to use parent education strategies"; b) most special education teachers are prepared in pedagogic matters relating to students, but not adults, and hence they may lack the knowledge as to how adults learn; c) the majority of "evidence-based parent training models" are not available to teachers; and d) there isn't a good fit between empirically-based parent education models and the structure of special education curricula (Ingersoll, 2006, p. 79).

Moreover, because special education teachers have their hands full dealing with their students' needs, keeping the existing curriculum materials on time and on target, there needs to be an intervention to provide those teachers with the support materials and training they need, Ingersoll continues. With that in mind, the authors offer a model that can be helpful, even pivotal in terms of a teacher adding a parent intervention into the existing curriculum. The model entails teachers being trained to train parents; once ready to train parents, teachers spend about 2.5 hours per session (and about 18-20 hours outside of the typical school day) for several weeks. The data that is linked to this model should be systematically gathered prior to involving parents.

Special…… [read more]

Technology Assessment Application Term Paper

… Technology Assessment in Nursing

Changes in healthcare management are really requiring that nurses to become a little more technically knowledgeable and capable to rapidly familiarize themselves to by means of tools that are technical in their exercises. Educators that are… [read more]

Theoretical Underpinnings of My Teaching Philosophy Constructivist Research Paper

… ¶ … Theoretical Underpinnings of My Teaching Philosophy

Constructivist learning approach

Audience Analysis and Considerations

Instructional Strategies and Delivery Methods

Lesson Plan Analysis

The lesson is Database Systems. The course covers the fundamentals of databases systems, database management, and database… [read more]

Adult Learning Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) class given by the American Heart Association (AHA). The class seemed to incorporate adult learning theory in some respects. For example, the instructor mentioned that some people learn better from reading whereas others tend to learn better from watching demonstrations or from practicing procedures themselves. She explained that a certain amount of all three types of learning would be necessary but that she would allow individuals to determine for themselves where to focus the majority of their efforts to learn the course material. While this was not an online learning environment, it seemed to parallel the fundamental principle of self-directed and experiential learning theories outlined by Cercone (2008).

Generally, adult learning differs substantially from early learning in that adults are more capable of benefiting from specific learning strategies that match their optimal learning styles (Brookfield, 1995). To some degree, this is simply because learning motivation (or its absence) in children makes it impractical to distinguish obstinacy from learning style preference. Unlike children, adults in learning environments are usually voluntary rather than reluctant participants. More specifically, there are four major aspects of learning that are applicable to most adult learning scenarios: self-directed learning, critical reflection, experiential learning, and learning to learn. In that regard, chronological age is only one relevant factor, along with culture, ethnicity, personality, political ethos, and gender (Brookfield, 1995).

According to the literature, adult learning principles are useful in various clinical settings, such as in relation to new employee orientation and training (Hohler, 2003), and also in relation to patient education, such as in connection with teaching program for peritoneal dialysis using adult learning principles (Hall, Duffy, Lizak, et al., 2004). In my clinical practice I have observed the usefulness of considering learning approaches based on the specific preferences and abilities of individual patients. Some patients benefit the most from detailed verbal and quasi-academic explanations of clinical issues; others have limited attention span…… [read more]

Student Centered Learning Term Paper

… Nurse Teaching

In consideration of a career in teaching the future nurses of the world, many of the positive aspects come into play. If an individual were interested on a legacy of long-lasting influence, a better method can hardly be imagined. A recent study determined that effective and successful management can be derived through "communication, intellectual cultivation, environmental adaptability, social learning, capital management and organizational grafting" (Templeton, Lewis, Snyder, 2002, p. 178). A career in teaching, especially in the field of nursing, would allow for the teaching of those management skills. As an educator it is important to understand that students are seeking knowledge that will assist them throughout their professional careers, and the educator is an important component in that process. The teacher can present methods and manners of communicating, cultivating and learning that will (if employed in an effective manner) provide the students not only the knowledge and skills that will help them in saving lives and caring for people, but will also provide the students with an understanding of how to further their own professional growth and development. As a former student, what I found to be important was the understanding of how to gain the knowledge I needed, as a teacher I hope to provide that same type of understanding for my students.

The traits I find most admirable in teachers is empathy, understanding, persistence, caring, knowledge and a sense of fairness. A teacher who is empathetic understands that students are there to gain an objective, accomplish a goal and reach a conclusion. The end result is almost as important as the process of achievement. Persistence takes place when the teacher is involved enough with the educational process to ensure that the students learn the required information and develop a full understanding of the importance of the data. A teacher of excellent standards will care about the students and their achievements; not necessarily only in the classroom but in…… [read more]

Transformative Learning in Adults Article Review

… Less dramatic predicaments, such as those created by the teacher, also promote transformation.

The results of these studies have pin point to us the fact the study of this subject is coupled with myths that are etched deeply into the… [read more]

Learning Theories to Current Education Research Paper

… The students who experienced peer models perform best on a subtraction post-test, as well reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The outcome were interpreted as backing up the hypothesis that supposed correspondence of the model to the learner raise… [read more]

Classroom Management Toolkit Innovation in Education Career Exploration Term Paper

… ePortfolio

Criterion 2: Innovations in Education

The pace of technological growth and innovation in the Internet Age has easily outstripped any other period in human development, leading to profound and seemingly permanent changes in the way information is created and… [read more]

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