"Education / Teaching / Learning" Essays

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Flat World and Education Linda Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,229 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


However, in Finland, a decision was made "to invest in a uniformly well-prepared teaching force by recruiting top candidates and paying them to go to school" (Darlin-Hammond, 2010). As a result, the author observes that in the latter case, teacher training program slots tend to be highly valued thus making shortages rather unlikely. In such a country, deliberate steps are taken to ensure that schools are equitably funded. Indeed, in regard to Finland, the author of this text paints a picture of a largely equitable school system. This also happens to be the case in not only South Korea but also Singapore. In my opinion, were the U.S. To use the same approaches used by Finland especially when it comes to teacher preparation, a widespread skilful and motivated knowledge base would be created to the benefit of learners at all levels.

There is also the issue of small school units. In the opinion of Darlin-Hammond, parents, students as well as teachers have in the past observed that the relevance of small size cannot be overstated when it comes to the success of a school. One of the key benefits associated with smaller size schools include but they are not limited to enhanced safety. In this case, it is argued that the relatively small number of students creates a closely knit community where individuals know each other relatively well. Proper learning thrives in a safe environment where incidence rates are relatively low. I am convinced that should our education system move towards small school units, learning will be greatly enhanced.

In chapter nine, the author caps it all with the question, "what would a well-functioning teaching and learning system look like under a federal form of government, such as the United States?" In seeking to address this question, Darlin-Hammond recommends that such a system should have a number of critical elements including meaningful student learning, equitable and adequate resources, strong professional practice, schools organized for student and teacher learning, and finally intelligent, reciprocal accountability. These elements in my view are not only valid but also well-thought-out.

Should Darlin-Hammond's recommendations be adopted, they will no doubt have a positive impact on not only school restructuring but also teacher preparation and by extension, quality of education. Using a number of states as her basis, the author successfully highlights what has worked in the past and that which has not as far as education reform is concerned. In my opinion, this provides policy makers and educators with a rare opportunity to try out approaches that have a high probability of success rather than resort to experimentation. I am convinced that this country still has a chance to revamp its education system. Indeed, as the author puts it, "…entire nations have developed strong and equitable education systems, often from very weak beginnings" (Darlin-Hammond, 2010). If others have done it, so can we.


Personally, I would recommend Darlin-Hammond's book to any individual concerned about the future of education in this country. This is a book… [read more]

Andragogy Malcolm Knowles' Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Because of the experiential format of clinical coursework, where students primarily learn from their mistakes, the student will only get as much out of the course as she puts in. That is, a student who is poorly prepared for clinical coursework will commit mistakes at the basic level, out of which she will derive only basic lessons in the practice of nursing. Such a student will receive what amounts to remedial education from the clinical component of the course. A student who is prepared to the minimum level expected by the coursework, however, will commit mistakes at the relatively advanced level, and will derive more advanced lessons from her participation in the clinical component.

The Necessary Climate for Clinical Teaching or Learning

Clinical coursework is best delivered in a setting with ample training resources. Some element of professional training is necessary for clinical coursework because a student cannot be expected to know how to perform certain professional duties and procedures, which constitute the learning activities themselves, from their classroom-based coursework alone. An experienced clinical professional must be available to instruct the student on how to perform the duties and procedures that she will be evaluated on.

The other fundamental component of clinical coursework is ample feedback and evaluation from an experienced clinical professional with sufficient knowledge of the student and her work in the clinical setting. Formal evaluations completed by the student's official clinical supervisor should be considered the absolute minimum for this component. Effective clinical coursework would require ample amounts of immediate feedback from the professional supervising the student's work on a particular task.

The training and feedback components of clinical coursework are best delivered through the same individual or group of individuals. The individuals who provide the training are best qualified to evaluate the student on her application of that training during the respective task. The training and feedback components are best delivered through a single supervisor/mentor, an experienced clinical professional. It is optimal if the mentor has experience supervising students in a clinical setting, but not essential.

Number of Students in a Clinical Setting

Clinical coursework is best delivered in a learning environment with no more than 4 students assigned to each supervising professional/mentor. This ratio allows the supervisor to develop a substantial professional relationship with each student in order to deliver substantive and focused feedback tailored to the student's particular needs. It also ensures that the supervisor has enough time to meet any additional training interactions that any particular student might request or require.


Knowles, M.S. (1970). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy vs. pedagogy. New York: Association Press.

Kaakinen, J., & Arwood, E. (May 07, 2009). Systematic Review of Nursing Simulation Literature for Use of Learning Theory. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 6, 1.)

"Instructional Design: Theories - Andragogy (M. Knowles)." Encyclopedia of Psychology.

"Instructional Design: Theories - Andragogy (M. Knowles)." Encyclopedia of Psychology.

Kaakinen, J., & Arwood, E. (May 07, 2009). Systematic Review of Nursing Simulation Literature…… [read more]

Desecration of Public Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (5,238 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Without quality public education, the youth will only learn skills needed for low profile jobs and will fail to play an active role in civil life. This is corporate oligarchy, not democracy (Davidson, 2010).

Lack of education can also lead to despotism or fascism which will directly kill democracy.

Purpose of Charter Schools

With the failing public education system, charter… [read more]

Lesson Plan - Nurses Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


14, Issue 4, pp. 503 -- 508

Sharma, S.; Sastri, O.; Ahluwalia, P.K.; (2010) Design of instructional objectives of undergraduate solid state physics course: A first step to physics education research, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1263, Issue 1, pp. 171 -- 174

Tschannen, D. & Kalisch, B.J.; (2009) The impact of nurse/physician collaboration on patient length of stay, Journal of Nursing Management, Vol. 17, Issue 7, pp. 796 -- 803

Wittmann-Price, R.A. & Fasolka, B.J.; (2010) Objectives and outcomes: The fundamental difference, Nursing Education Perspectives, Vol. 31, Issue 4, pp. 233 -- 236

The collaboration teaching strategy makes a lot of sense to me. I have always believed that each individual can add some bit of knowledge to the group-based either on experience, education or intelligence. Collaborating in the classroom or clinical setting allows for interactions that will surely be beneficial to most (if not all) the participants. Collaboration also provides a setting for enhanced personal relationships with those people we work with on a regular basis. One of the drawbacks to collaboration is that its success oftentimes is based on the relationship(s) between the various participants. If there are some that do not wish to participate, or perhaps they think they know too much (or too little) then the process could become bogged down or frustrating…… [read more]

Teacher Education in Nigeria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, private donations and federal support in the form of research grants are of utmost importance. At the same time, the public is demanding that tuition costs be reduced and that higher education provide better services for the cost ADDIN ENRfu (Matthews, 1999).

Both countries are experiencing teacher shortages. In Nigeria, this is blamed on the lack of focus on… [read more]

Learning Disabled During the Course Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,262 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alternate Hypothesis 2: There are positive effects that result when teachers label students as learning disabled, including academic achievement and performance-based consequences.

The formation of the primary hypothesis is grounded in a large body of research which suggests that labeling does impact students in a potentially negative manner.

Significance of Study

Because early child is a time when most children are forming their sense of self-perception, cognition, self-concept and self-esteem, it is critical that educators do everything possible to maximize a student's ability to achieve their highest potential. The intent of this research is to examine whether or not labeling students as "learning disabled" will negatively impact their ability to achieve to their highest potential.

Presently there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that labeling may in fact have a negative impact on a student's sense of self-perception and ability. There are studies that both support labeling and refute it. The aim of this study will be to provide concrete evidence that either verifies or refutes the idea that labeling students impacts their potential for success and overall achievement within the classroom.

Perceived social skills deficits, often attributed by teachers to students with learning disabilities, might impact a student's ability to interact well with other students and excel in the classroom environment (Gut & Safran, 2002). It is important to examine this impact early on, because evidence also suggests that this impact may extend into the later educational years and adulthood of children.

In fact, there is evidence to suggest that the impact of labeling may extend into higher education as well. An examination of the impact of learning disabled labeling on students by Beilke & Yssel (1999) suggest that as much as 30% more college level freshman now enter school labeled with the title learning disabled. The term has created according to the researchers a divide in the classroom with regard to perceptions of student achievement.

In a qualitative study conducted by Persaud (2000) the problematic aspects of labeling of students are addressed. The study suggests that labels generally result in negative depictions of a student's deficit and may even become the defining characteristic of a person overshadowing other complex aspects of their personality.

The intent of this study will be to provide concrete evidence related to the effects of labeling, so that educational administrators, faculty and staff can make well grounded decisions when it comes to labeling students, and help maximize all students' potential for success regardless of their perceived ability or disability.


Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3

Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:


Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.

Retrieved Oct. 4, 2004 from… [read more]

Interview With Teacher &amp Report Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,168 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Herbert Spencer held that curriculum should be designed with a focus on human activities and was utilitarian positivist in his philosophy and defended natural rights. (Education Foundations, 2014, p. 1) From the view of Jane Adams, education is the foundational base for democracy.

The applications of the principles of assessment informing instruction and curriculum development is a process stated as follows:

"Progress monitoring to see if the students are progressing in a particular subject according to the curriculum, usually the standards of benchmark of the grade level" is used in an ongoing assessment because the use of interventions that are not effective and ineffective instruction creates difficulties for students however, the implementation of a "supplemental assessment procedure to help in deciding if an intervention is ineffective within a shorter time period could greatly benefit the student." (Jones, 2008, p.15) Teachers have come to collectively realize and acknowledge that the one-off standardized testing each year is a very ineffective method for informing instruction and thereby informing the curriculum. Instead, the curriculum must be a treated as something living and always in the process of transformation depending upon the information derived from assessments which are ongoing in nature and always providing feedback to the instructional and assessment processes. The best example, according to Kari provided on teaching to diverse learners is provided by Jesus as he models "how the teaching and learning cycle should be implemented." (Jones, 2008, p.1)

Throughout the Gospels -- Matthew, Mark, Luke and John -- many of the writings were about Jesus teaching his disciples with the ultimately purpose of answering the guiding question 'What is Truth?'(Jones, 2008, p. 14) Jesus is reported to have utilized "ongoing progress monitoring (questioning and observation) of his disciples to assess if the disciples understood. If the disciples did not, Jesus retaught the concept with different strategies of methods such as using parables, performing a miracle or teaching one-on-one." (Jones, 2008, p. 14) Jesus mapped his questions out according to what he wanted those listening to learn. (Jones, 2008, paraphrased)

Interview Conclusion

This study has reported an interview of an elementary teacher, Kari, and her views and philosophical outlook on the teaching practice and specifically teaching and standardized assessment of students. Various philosophical views have been examined including those held by Herbert Spencer, Jane Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Herbert Mann. Various beliefs about instruction, curriculum and assessment have been reported however, it is clear that when there is a disconnect between instruction, content of curriculum and student assessment that the process is skewed, students are not learning what they need to achieve high grades on assessment and ultimately the educational levels of today's learners is lower than the previous generation's achievement. One factor that is absent is family involvement in the education of today's learners and furthermore lack of civic involvement and engagement on the part of parents, children and entire families.

Civic involvement has always enabled cooperation and collaboration among the various sectors in society and civic involvement has created a… [read more]

Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education: Challenges and Opportunities Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  9 pages (2,758 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Teachers should also be aware that some cultures punish members who challenge authority, but to punish these students for not challenging assumptions or points-of-view would be unfair. These suggestions reveal treating everyone with respect and fairness is insufficient, if the goal is an equal chance at academic success for all students regardless of their racial and ethnic background (Brookfield &… [read more]

Overrepresentation of African-American Males in Special Education Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (5,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Special education programs abound throughout the United States. Such programs are needed and beneficial for many students that have problems remaining in general education classrooms. However, over the last few decades African-American males have represented a disproportionate amount of special education students. This overrepresentation has real-world consequences for these students and the communities in which they live.

Traditional notions of… [read more]

Theory of Reflective Learning Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Traditional forms of learning do not take into account what learners learn and how they learn it (Peters, 2000). Constructivists, such as Peters look at learning as being built or constructed by individuals, in contrast to information that experts disseminate to passive learners. Constructivist learning provides skills that enhance understanding at the same time as learning. Peters noted… [read more]

Adult Education Lesson Cognition vs. Metacognition Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Adult Education


Cognition vs. Metacognition

There are significant differences between learning and learning how to learn. Learning is a cognitive strategy, whereas learning how to learn is metacognitive. According to the cognitive approach, learning involves interaction and experience, and learning is scaffolded upon previously learned information (Wirth & Perkins, 2008). The cognitive viewpoint suggests that learning can be defined as not only knowing information, but knowing how to use it. This is different, however, from learning how to learn, which is metacognitive. Metacognition is a term which essentially means 'thinking about thinking.' Metacognition involves the use of higher order thinking skills to regulate one's learning. Sternberg suggests that "the ability to appropriately allocate cognitive resources, such as deciding how and when a given task should be accomplished, is central to intelligence" (Sternberg, 1984 as cited by Livingston, 2003). Livingston (2003) defines metacognitive strategies as "sequential processes that one uses to control cognitive activities, and to ensure that a cognitive goal (e.g., understanding a text) has been met." She indicates that metacognitive and cognitive strategies work together and often overlap. To demonstrate this overlap, Livingston uses the example of a person who is preparing to take a math exam. This person uses cognitive and metacognitive strategies by recognizing the fact that he has difficulty solving word problems (metacognitive) so he chooses to answer the other types of problems first (cognitive) and save the word problems for last. Metacognitive and cognitive strategies often overlap because a person who is aware of his or her own thinking will cognitively apply their awareness to maximize their learning experiences.

Sternberg: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Robert J. Sternberg is an American psychologist who specializes in intelligence research. One of his major accomplishments was the development of the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. According to his definition, intelligence can be divided into three main groups, namely analytical, creative,…… [read more]

Adult Learning Ranking of Relevance Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Adult Learning

Ranking of Relevance of the Components of What we Know About Adult Learning

With regard to what we know about adult learners, these are the most relevant reasons to me:

(1) Adults need to be able to integrate new ideas with what they already know if they are going to keep - and use - the new information (from curriculum design).

(2) Adults prefer self-directed and self-designed learning projects over group-learning experiences led by a professional, they select more than one medium for learning, and they desire to control pace and start/stop time (from curriculum design).

(3) the more life change events an adult encounters, the more likely he or she is to seek out learning opportunities. Just as stress increases as life-change events accumulate, the motivation to cope with change through engagement in a learning experience increases (from motivation to learn).

(4) Adults who are motivated to seek out a learning experience do so primarily because they have a use for the knowledge or skill being sought. Learning is a means to an end, not an end in itself (from motivation to learn).

(5) Regardless of media, straightforward how-to is the preferred content orientation. Adults cite a need for application and how-to information as the primary motivation for beginning a learning project (from curriculum design).

(6) Adults tend to take errors personally and are more likely to let them affect self-esteem. Therefore, they tend to apply tried-and-true solutions and take fewer risks (from curriculum design).

(7) Adults bring a great deal of life experience into the classroom, an invaluable asset to be acknowledged, tapped and used. Adults can learn well -and much - from dialogue with respected peers (from in the classroom).

(8) Nonhuman media such as books, programmed instruction and television have become popular with adults in recent years (from curriculum design).

(9) Increasing or maintaining one's sense of self-esteem and pleasure are strong secondary motivators for engaging in learning experiences (from motivation to learn).

(10) the learning environment must be physically and psychologically comfortable; long lectures, periods of interminable sitting and the absence of practice opportunities rate high on the irritation scale.

Reflection Upon Ranking:

When I first began ranking my choices, my number one and number three choices were the same which reinforces that which I firmly believe: that learning taken out of context will go in one of my ears and out the other. When either the professor or myself is able to draw a connection of a concept to something I have previously experienced or have knowledge about, then I can think through the concepts…… [read more]

Classroom Management Toolkit Innovation in Education Career Exploration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Criterion 2: Innovations in Education

The pace of technological growth and innovation in the Internet Age has easily outstripped any other period in human development, leading to profound and seemingly permanent changes in the way information is created and communicated in the matter of a few short years. The impact that these innovations and the pace of change has had on the business world and on everyday interactions has been well documented and is clearly self-evident in many cases, yet the manner in which many specific new technologies as well as technology in general can and has impacted instruction and education remains less apparent and thus less practically useful. There are many ways that technologies including social networking websites, graphics displays, and a variety of other software, hardware, and information-sharing components can lead to more effective and more authentic learning experiences; specific methods for deriving this utility from current technologies will be explored below.

Social Networking: Collaboration and Motivation

Social networking tools are often seen as providing a distraction form educational activities and goals, but there is no reason that these tools cannot be utilized by educators towards positive educational goals. In fact, the degree to which students are distracted and/or occupied by social networking sites and activities is possibly an indicator of the level of usefulness they present towards such ends. As long as sites like Facebook and MySpace are recognized for how they are actually utilized by learners, they can provide utility to educators as well.

Research already shows that adolescents and emerging adults use social networking websites in a way that specifically and even consciously strengthens certain aspects of their offline social networks and activities (Subrahmanyam et al. 2008). This same research suggests that specific online contexts are created and utilized in response to specific offline areas of life, meaning that learners are already automatically differentiating (to some degree) the way that friends, family members, and employers or other "official" individuals are interacted with (Subrahmanyam et al. 2008). Educators can utilize this knowledge to create online communicative bonds with students that reinforce classroom relationships without creating privacy issues or resulting in a counterproductive sense of intrusion. Online networks can also be utilized to facilitate peer-to-peer study groups and discussion boards, making students better at seeking answers and developing critical responses to their peers' comments.

Educators can also use social networks to motivate students by sending simple reminders, providing encouragement outside of the classroom on a more efficient basis, and creating discussion/information pages with useful links, prompts, and other mass-transmitted as well as personalized guidance. These sites also present new challenges and opportunities in terms of motivating learners to become more responsible and self-aware citizens, through the universality of the access to information on their online profiles (Cain 2008). Linking behaviors and modes of self-portrayal directly to real-world consequences of both practical opportunities as well as prestige cannot help but motivate students towards greater degrees of civic responsibility (Cain 2008).

Authenticity and Constructivist Learning

There are of… [read more]

Creating a Proactive Learning Environment Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Left Behind

Even after earning a degree in education and becoming certified to teach, a new teacher may still become overwhelmed by the challenges he or she faces when entering the classroom for the first year. New teachers can learn to build on skills they learned in college and, with support and guidance from veteran teachers, become more effective in meeting the needs of their students. Special educator Barbara Fink Chorzempa shared her thoughts on self-directed learning and teacher collaboration in a recent article for Kappa Delta Record entitled "Don't Get Left Behind: Improve Your Experiences as a New Teacher."

The article's title is a play on words. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act, commonly referred to as "No Child Left Behind," was designed to reform education by developing high standards and measurable goals for all learners. In order for a teacher to ensure that her students are not left behind, she herself must not be left behind. She must avail herself of learning opportunities beyond the degree in education to bring effective strategies and practices into the classroom for the benefit of all learners.

In her first year as a classroom teacher, Chorzempa met Noah, a sixth grader who could barely read at the first grade level. Chorzempa was determined to build a good rapport with Noah, about whose temper and attitude she had been warned. Midway during the school year, Noah tearfully expressed his frustration with his inability to read. Frustrated herself, and sad that she had failed, Chorzempa enlisted the aid of a colleague who met with Noah every day for reading, while Chorzempa continued to teach him writing and math. Noah made progress, and from that time, Chorzempa was determined to focus on meeting the needs of her students even if it meant relying, at…… [read more]

Childhood Education Skills and Career-Related Skills Summary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Childhood Education Skills and Career-Related Skills

Summary of Tasks and Responsibilities of Childhood Education Teachers

First and foremost, childhood education teachers are responsible for safeguarding the health and general welfare of children in their custody throughout the entire school day. This fundamental responsibility is always their most important concern and it includes a wide range of potential concerns. Childhood educators must protect children from hazardous conditions, from harm caused by other children, from exposure to idiosyncratic allergens, and they must also monitor their prescribed medication schedules.

Once the safety and well-being of all students is ensured, the responsibilities of childhood education teachers shifts to educating. In that regard, childhood educators have a unique opportunity and responsibility of introducing education to children in a manner that is conducive to their future educational success. Generally, that means presenting the concept of school in a positive manner that encourages children's curiosity and rewards their efforts instead of in a negative manner that dictates subject matter too strictly or pressures them to perform to avoid negative consequences or embarrassment. Ideally, childhood educators should endeavor to make sure that their students develop positive expectations from education that will motivate them to view their future education as an opportunity more than an unavoidable obligation.

Skills, Experience, and Educational Background of Childhood Education Teachers

In keeping with their foremost responsibility of keeping children safe and healthy, childhood education teachers must have basic skills and experience in the everyday care and supervision of children. Luckily, as a parent and as someone who has always been involved in caring for siblings and for children in my extended family, I have extensive experience in that area and I have developed good instincts and habits for recognizing potential problems and concerns before they materialize and for addressing those that are unavoidable.

Childhood educators should…… [read more]

Teaching Scenarios Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Teaching Scenarios, v

Scenario #3 -- the Use of Literature in the Classroom Program- Level

Classroom Decision Making- the use of literature to teach reading literacy is well-documented in pedagogy as a way children can enter the world of literature, imagination, and genre while they learn the basic skills of reading and writing. As this progresses through the levels, though,… [read more]

Learning Styles Cognitive Learning Styles and Nonverbal Communication Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Learning Styles, Cognitive Learning Styles and Nonverbal Communication

Bilingual education and learning styles: Personal reflections

Learning a new language is by definition a multisensory experience. One of the difficulties some new students of a language have is the challenge of understanding the idioms, body language, and intuitive aspects of language that cannot be learned from a book. Bilingual education in… [read more]

Teacher Motivation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  64 pages (17,626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 32


Teaching is one of the professions that many and indeed probably even most people enter with a large measure of idealism. They seek out education as a profession not for the salary or the benefits (despite the belief of many non-teachers that teachers are primarily motivated by the long vacations) but because they feel that teaching is their vocation, their… [read more]

Living Learning Environment Program Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Living-Learning Environment/Program

Livinglearning Environment/Program

"The more effort students put into their experiences, or the more involved or engaged students are with their college environments, the more likely they are to exhibit positive cognitive and affective development"

(Inkelas & Weisman, 2003, ¶ 5).

Millennials reportedly want what they want now. The majority of these youth, even those who plan to enroll… [read more]

Differentiated Instruction in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  16 pages (4,869 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


Differentiated Instruction in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom

Differentiation in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom: A Defense of Differentiation and the Importance of Special Education Environments

Thanks to the No Child Left Behind Act, increasing educational research, and a revitalized interest in special education students and the methods by which they receive the best education possible, the question of differentiation… [read more]

Adult Education, Literature Review in Contemporary Western Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  11 pages (3,469 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Adult Education, Literature Review

In contemporary Western culture, may adults incorrectly assume that school and learning is a process reserved for children. May adults believe themselves incapable of relearning, hence the popular cliche, "You can't teach an old dog new tricks." This self-defeating belief, while less common than a few decades previous is still an attempt for many adults, particularly… [read more]

Health Education and Technology Evolution Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (318 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Health Education and Technology Evolution
Health Education concerns a deeply complex subject and yet is often
one of the less formalized compulsory courses in one's formative education.
The engagement over subjects such as nutrition, lifestyle, substance
abuse, sexual behavior and other bio-social concerns is important, but
little in the way of substantive evolution has marked the instruction or
curriculum of health education. However, new computing technologies are
lighting a path to the advancement of the discipline.
Most particularly, access to online stores of knowledge and
information, as well as the availability of sophisticated software designed
to meet the specific demands of the subject are enhancing opportunities in
the field. Indeed, for the instructor, the opportunities which are
presently available to him or her as a product of these technologies are
diverse in nature and providing of a greater arsenal of instruments for
gaining students' attention and gauging individual learning needs. This is
important because the relevance of health education…… [read more]

Technology in Contemporary Education Technology Plays Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (316 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Technology in Contemporary Education

Education technology plays a significant role in modern course design and development, particularly since the onset of the computer revolution. Educators have realized the value of alternatives to the traditional passive, lecture-based approach to course design and development for at least several decades (Adams & Hamm, 1994; Gardner, 2000). The introduction of computer technology to academic education has dramatically increased the range of effective non-traditional course design and development.

The modular approach to education has proven effective in both academic environments and in the practical professional training realm (Michea, Phelps, & Johnson, 2002). It allows the organization of topics into specific modules that correspond to practical applications of academic knowledge and training. The systems approach is useful in terms of designing curricula that correspond to the prevailing needs of professional business, but is less helpful in developing individual course design.

Technological evolution has profoundly influenced curriculum design and deployment in the healthcare education industry,…… [read more]

My Philosophy of Education Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,884 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Philosophy of Education

When it comes to my philosophy of education, I lean more toward essentialism. Essentialists believe that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The emphasis in this conservative perspective is on intellectual and moral standards that schools should teach. The core of the… [read more]

Effects Impact of Technology in Learning of Elementary School Special ED Students Thesis

Thesis  |  39 pages (10,688 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … technology in learning of elementary school special ed. Students

Action Research Paper:

Effects and Impact of Technology in Learning of Elementary School Special Education Students

The use of technologies to assist in the teaching of special education elementary school children presents unique challenges and illustrates how the creative use of Web-based learning systems can accelerate and support the… [read more]

Otto Peters Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Otto Peters (1997) Industrialized Teaching and Learning is as close to a chastisement of education, and certainly academics, for failing to recognize the potential for distance education and learning. For Peters, the lack of pedagogy on the subject arose out of academia's limited scope of impending change, and academics inability to think out of the box. Peters says that main stream institutions missed the boat by not taking seriously the trend towards distance education and learning. Academics continue to criticize distance education and learning instead of recognizing the opportunities that distance education and learning creates for professors, especially those whose work in teaching is highly sought by students, but limited by classroom and the commitment to a single institution. Peters says that distance education and learning is wrongly categorized by academics as industrialized education, and this is an accurate point. The industrial revolution has passed, and we are in the age of a technological revolution. Distance education and learning is, and always has been, the product of the growing move towards the world reliance on technology.

While Peters says that the relationship between industrialization and teaching has come to describe the relationship between the teacher and the learning process. Peters says:

But the concept of industrialised teaching and learning no longer refers to the application of individual or even several principles of industrialisation, but to the analogy between the teaching and learning process and the process of industrial production (Peters, 2)."

Use of the term "industrialization" to describe any relationship in the age of technology is outdated, and out of touch. Efforts to portray it as a necessity of industrialization, because many of the students of early industrialization were factory shift workers. This might have been accurate as a description of the students who were taking the courses, but it is difficult to say whether or not those students constituted a majority of the students utilizing distance learning. Also, in today's age of technology, it is no longer accurate to description the utilization of distance education and learning as a product of industrialization at any level. In fact, and Peters points this out, distance education and learning really is not about the relationship between the instructor and the learning process anymore. Distance education and learning is about where society is at now. Peters quotes Rumble, saying:

Greville Rumble (1995a, 19) is also of the opinion that regarding industrialisation as typical of distance education is incorrect, because proof can also be shown of the industrialisation of teaching and learning in classrooms and group instruction. If trends towards industrialisation can be verified in traditional universities, these critics claim that the characterisation of distance education…… [read more]

Education Mcintyre Discusses Various Paradigms of Research Thesis

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McIntyre Discusses Various Paradigms of Research

What are the different rules and assumptions of these paradigms?

The different rules and assumptions of these paradigms all revolve around how adult education is conducted, and how it should change to incorporate more ideas and research principles. One accepted paradigm that the author wants to change is the participation paradigm, because it is outdated and has been done repeatedly. The rules of this paradigm include why people take distance education courses, why they chose distance education, and what they get out of the courses (if they participate). While these studies have been valid in the past, they have been done, and instead of rehashing old information, and making assumptions from this old information, new research and paradigms need to be created to create a new type of adult and distance education information.

Another paradigm is the context and structure of learning. Often, the rules regarding this are quite strict and inflexible, making adult learning and adult learners conform to certain educational molds, even though they represent very non-traditional learners. Distance education has to be delivered in certain ways, and research into new types of distance learning meet with resistance, because it is limited by frameworks and perhaps the researchers own biases. Again, the author thinks researchers may have pre-established conjectures and assumptions about distance education before they start, so they follow the accepted rules and practices, and do not really come up with new results or ideas.

Social research is another paradigm the author promotes, as opposed to the idea of formal inquiry for scholarly purposes. He believes that advocacy and public interest organizations are more geared toward creating this type of research, because they are more open to new research methods instead of tied to the old "rules" and regulations of formal research. Social research is also more appropriate for adult education because most adult learners are out of the mainstream of higher education, and so, they have…… [read more]

Gunawardena's Viewpoint Thesis

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Gunawardena's remarks on distance learning, he makes the main points: acclimating educators and centers of education, universities and colleges, to an online environment where education information was once culled from, and now using that same environment to disseminate education. Gunawardena's second point was: how does cultural diversity impact distance learning, and how do educators ensure that the online process of education overcomes communication barriers, language barriers, to comply with learning standards and requirements. This is a brief reflection on these remarks, and the idea is to thoroughly discuss online education in a way that resolves Gunawardena's concerns.

Distance learning is going to increase, and it represents, as Gunawardena said, challenges to the educator, whose teaching style and methods will need to be adjusted to that technological transfer of teaching to learners. While this is a change, it is one that, as distance learning has become increasing utilized by colleges and universities, has been successful, which manifests itself by the increased numbers of courses being taught by distance learning. The educator's fears that distance learning will one day eliminate the educator's role in higher education, is unfounded, and seems to me rooted in the fear of the unknown. Educators will in fact become increasingly more important in distance education, and, like physicians, will be able to focus on their specialty in a way that affords them greater audiences in teaching. The expanded teaching audience should result in increased payment for the value of the educator's services to the educator.

Groups of educators will be able to form their own centers of academic services, apart from the college, and rather than being employees of a college or university, the educators will have an opportunity to realize greater potential in their value as educators as a business. The better the educator, the more…… [read more]

Teaching Adults by Griff Foley Thesis

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Teaching Adults by Griff Foley

How does Foley's perspective on teaching compare with your own understanding of teaching adults?

In the past, most of the articles and papers and books that were written about teaching were about young children, or teenagers - perhaps some people up to college age. That is not the same thing as adult learners, because many of them learn things quite differently than young children, and they often have to work harder to remember the same things. The issue of formal classroom learning is one that has been misunderstood for many years. There are individuals who study it and discuss how significant it is, and there are others that see it issues with it as some kind of made-up problem that is really not important enough to focus on.

Both of these are valid points-of-view but, in recent years, it has generally been accepted that formal classroom learning is still the best way for many people to learn, and that the study of it is important. The concern, however, is with what kinds of learning work the best, especially in the adult learner population. Both accelerated learning and suggestopedic learning have both been touted as working better for older learners than standard forms of classroom learning, but few studies into this issue have actually been performed.

There is a lot of evidence that accelerated learning, suggestopedic learning, and other different learning styles, such as extrinsic motivation, provide a better option for a lot of adult learners. Students who are allowed to learn through different styles fair better on tests and have a significantly higher average as a collective classroom group than students who do not have a different style of learning or teaching presented to them. Different learning styles, it would appear, would correlate with different teaching styles and also with motivation, in that the instructor creates different activities for the learners and rewards can be given for the learning of specific tasks. The types of rewards given are not as important as the fact that there was a reward at all.

Some of these reward/motivation ideas work better with children than adults, but all people have things that motivate them, and because of that there are many different options of that can be used where learning is concerned. Foley also seems to believe that there are a lot of different choices when it comes to adult learning. Not all people learn the same way, but children can more easily adjust to other learning styles and find ways that they can adapt. Adults have more of a difficulty with that, so giving them more learning styles is often the best choice if a person wants to find the best way to help them learn.

2.What is your reaction to Foley's emphasis on the idea that good teaching must be grounded in the passionate dedication of the adult teacher to his or her values?

It seems as though Foley is right. People who are passionate about…… [read more]

Motivation and Learning Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 12


Learning Motivation

Learning and Motivation in the TAFE Program

The TAFE program at the Alpha College is designed to help students from low income areas and students who are in need of various support services to achieve their degree ambitions. Like many schools in the Sydney region, Alpha experiences a distinct diversity of applicants and students. This means that its… [read more]

Failed Policy Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 2


Failure of Special Education

The Failure of the Current System of Special Education Teachers

Many new schools are popping up all over the country which specialize in the education of specific cases of students with learning disabilities. This is both positive and negative growth for a variety of reasons. Most teachers employed in special education programs are trained within one area of expertise, which leaves out a majority of the special needs population. With the shortage in certified special education teachers, essentially thousands of special needs students are not getting the proper assistance they need in order to fulfill State standards. Many teachers who were trained in one particular area are now filling the teacher shortage, and this leaves many special needs students in the hands of professionals who were not trained how to deal with wider variations of disabilities; the school system of the United States is essentially failing in its obligations to its special needs populations.

A large number of special education teachers "work with mild to moderate disabilities, using the general education curriculum, or modifying it, to meet the child's individual needs," (U.S. Department of Labor). These general education standards do not always provide the best academic strategies to fit the needs of many special needs students who have proven their inability to respond to more general education practices. Various special needs students are then grouped into various categories of physical, mental, and emotional disabilities. These categories include trouble with speech, learning disabilities, behavioral issues, autism, and physical disabilities, "Students are classified under one of the categories, and special education teachers are prepared to work with specific groups," (U.S. Department of Labor). Every state in the United States requires special education teachers to hold special licenses. Many states implement a system where teachers are required to get normal certification, and then choose one field of disabilities as the specialty they…… [read more]

Trends in Deaf Education Term Paper

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Deaf Education

Trends in Deaf Education

Teaching deaf children is a challenge for any educator. The Federal government mandates that the child has a right to receive the same education as the hearing population. However, sometimes providing this experience can be problematic for the educational agency. There are several key issues that can be identified regarding special needs teachers. This… [read more]

General Education Kindergarten and a Pre-K Classroom Term Paper

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¶ … general education Kindergarten and a pre-K classroom for a period of eight weeks. In addition the writer observed an inclusion pre-K and an inclusion Kindergarten classroom for a period of eight weeks. The writer than explains how the preconceived notions about the students and teaching in general changed during these observations.

Observation Reflection

As I entered the idea of observing in a general education and inclusion education classroom for both Kindergarten and Pre-K levels I had many ideas about what I tought the students would be like and how they would benefit from their individual experiences in the classrooms.

As I began my eight-week observations however, I found that many of the ideas that I had prior to the observation period simply would not work or hold up in the reality of an everyday classroom. In addition I didn't understand how important inclusion is not only to the special needs students but to the students who are not special needs. The eight-week observation period in each classroom style with each age level encouraged me to develop new ideas and beliefs about the importance of inclusion at this age level and encouraged me to be open to new ideas in regular general education as well.

General Education Kindergarten

The general education classroom I was assigned to observe for eight weeks at the Kindergarten level was a classroom that was comprised of 15 students. Seven of those students were boys and eight of those students were girls.

Within the classroom the demographic makeup included one Hispanic non-English speaking boy and two bilingual girls. There was one African-American student, and two Asian students and the rest of the classroom population was Caucasian.

The inclusion Kindergarten classroom had a similar demographic makeup.

The general education Pre-K classroom was primarily African-American with three white children and one Hispanic child while the Inclusion classroom was made up of eight African-Americans, Six Caucasians and one Hispanic child.

Prior to Observing Kindergarten

Before entering the Kindergarten classroom I had beliefs that had been derived from my life and the lives of friends and their children who went to Kindergarten. I believed that they were basically all at about the same level emotionally, academically and physically. I thought that most children in the Kindergarten environment were ready to read but not yet reading, able to count but not do math and able to color within the lines. I quickly found out through my observations that it was not true and that this grade level perhaps more than any other grade level has a large number of abilities and needs in its population.

The children in the general education classroom varied from already able to read short chapter books to being unable to sound out the letters of the alphabet. In addition I observed the emotional gaps between students as some suffered from mild separation anxiety when their parents dropped them off, while others raced in without glancing back.

When I got into the classroom I also noticed… [read more]

Teacher Competence Term Paper

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Teacher Competence

As a profession that directly involves working with people, teaching is a very arbitrary profession. What constitutes "good" teaching is even more so, as definitions of good vary from person to person. Furthermore, perceptions of teaching vary from student to student, each of which has his or her own ideals and expectations regarding good teachers. Furthermore, each student has a history of teachers, largely shaping the perception of what a good teacher is. It is therefore necessary to take some distance when describing the properties regarding good teaching. A good teacher is more than just friendly and understanding, although these qualities are important in any profession that involves people and psychology. A good teacher, in my personal view, should connect with his or her students in a personal and targeted way. He or she should be in touch with not only with each student's needs, but also with the student's dreams and ambitions, and how these can be brought closer to reality through the subject matter being taught. Most importantly, the teacher has a responsibility to make the teaching experience enjoyable for students. Students tend to be more responsive to a learning experience that is associated with enjoyment than one associated with pain or worse, boredom.

The ideal of enjoyment is closely associated with Felicity Haynes' (1999) ideal of aestheticism in teaching. According to this author, the aesthetic experience tends to be marginalized in schools, as pragmatism, accountability and functionalism took precedence over teaching the arts for the sake of the arts. Even the arts themselves have become functional rather than aesthetic, with the focus turned away from inherent talent and towards what can be taught by means of art.

However, I agree with Ms. Haynes' later views that functionalism is not all that there needs to be in teaching. I would go one step further towards placing aesthetic appreciation alongside functionalism and pragmatism in an integrated rather than separate paradigm of teaching. In attempting to make subject matter not only palatable, but actively enjoyable for students, a teacher can incorporate a targeted sense of aesthetic enjoyment. Haynes broadens the concept from its normal association with the arts towards an association with the more "practical" subjects such as science, as well.

Aesthetic enjoyment can also be used to bring about the integrated sense of humanity that has become so important in the more tolerant 21st century. Multicultural classrooms can for example learn to appreciate the aesthetics of the art from a variety of cultures. In the scientific classroom, children can learn to appreciate the visual beauty created by combining certain formulae. Nature, as Haynes also states, can also be appreciated in an aesthetic sense for its beauty and uncorrupted wildness.

While aesthetic appreciation is conventionally associated with the visual and the other physical sense perceptions, it can also relate to other forms of enjoyment, such as the imaginative appreciation of literature.…… [read more]

Teacher Disposition Similarities and Differences Between Elementary and Secondary School Teachers Term Paper

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The objective of this work is to research and examine the similarities and differences in teaching disposition between Elementary and Secondary school teachers and to answer the question of whether it requires a different type of personality to teach a certain age level, and if so, then what disposition… [read more]

Teaching Reading Term Paper

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Teaching: Lesson Plans

Teaching Methods in Education: Teaching Reading Fluency

The objective of this work is to design a plan to integrate fluency teaching strategies by (1) identifying a minimum of five fluency building strategies; (2) provide an explanation and rationale for each strategy; (3) describe how three reading fluency activities will be included in the Dr. Seuss unit; and (4) include a rationale for each activity (strategy).

Activities for early literacy programs include the activities as follows:

Listening to stories, poems and expository text;

Telling and retelling stories and nursery rhymes;

Singing and chanting (including the alphabet song)

Discussing word meanings, ideas, books and experiences;

Making predictions about words and stories (Building A Powerful Reading Program: From Research to Practice, 2003)

Activities that can be used in schools that teach children "concepts about print and foster a love of reading" include reading to children daily, using books with predictable patterns, repetition and rhyme and is inclusive of the following:

Labeling children's cubbies and work areas;

Listing birthdays, chores, and daily activities;

Teaching page arrangement, directionality and story structure through repeated readings and repetitive texts (big books are especially useful for these purposes)

Noting words that begin or end with the same sound, words with the same pattern, and punctuation cues;

Sharing wonderful stories and informational literature;

Creating and posting student-generated stories (Building A Powerful Reading Program: From Research to Practice, nd)

Phonemic awareness can be fostered by teaching children a general awareness of: (1) rhyming; (2) blending; (3) segmentation; (4) initial sound; (5) final sound; and (6) medial sound. Findings of the National Institute for Literacy published in the work entitled: "Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read" states five critical areas of reading instruction which are those of: (1) phonemic awareness; (2) phonics; (3) fluency; (4) vocabulary; and (5) test comprehension. (National Institute for Literacy, 2003) The National Institute for Literacy publication states that: "Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. Before children learn to read print, they need to become aware of how the sounds in words work." (National Institute for Literacy, 2003) Further related is that: "Phonemes are the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that makes a difference in the word's meaning." (National Institute for Literacy, 2003) The example given is the difference in the phoneme in the word hat when 'h' changes to 'p' and the word changes to pat.

The National Institute of Literacy states that: "Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters of written language and the individual sounds of spoken language. It teaches these children to use these relationships to read and write words. Teachers of reading and publishers of programs of beginning reading instruction sometimes use different labels to describe these relationships, including the following: (1) graphophonemic relationships; (2) letter-sound associations; (3) letter-sound correspondences; (4) sound-symbol correspondences; and (5) sound-spellings." (nd) The example given is the difference in the way… [read more]

Transformative Learning in Adults Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,188 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Less dramatic predicaments, such as those created by the teacher, also promote transformation.

The results of these studies have pin point to us the fact the study of this subject is coupled with myths that are etched deeply into the educators mind. This makes the learning weak. Even though warning have been sounded only a multitude of context and domain specific theories are likely to result. The energy expended on developing a general theory of adult learning shows no sign of dwindling. The theories to advance the adoption of this concept are often weak and hindered by the persistence myths. These myths when taken together comprise something of an academic belief in adult education.

Indeed as we examine learning across the life span the variable of cultures, ethnicity, personality and political culture, assume greater far significance in explaining how learning occurs and is experienced than does the variable of chronological age.

The four types of experiments were done on the following areas; transformational learning, roles of participants in transformative programs including students and instructors, course content, environments and instructional activities as they relate to transformational learning, and challenges for instructors who teach transformational material. (Mezirow, 1991

Hill, (2001) The corresponding data shows what mechanisms are required for adults to identify, assess and evaluate alternative sources of information, often sources that may look at how adults can identify, assess and evaluate new information, and in some cases, reframe their world-view through the incorporation of new knowledge or information into their world-view or belief system.

Controversy on transformative learning in adult arose when the theory say that adult learners posses different characteristics when it comes to learning from those of children and adolescent and thus adults should be given more than just knowledge and academic teachings strategies such as notes memorization and examinations. The argument here is that even the children and adolescents should be given something more than just what is offered in the classrooms- the learning goes beyond content knowledge acquisition, or learning equations, learning historical facts. They learning outcomes is as important as that of the adults.

The other controversy is due to the fact that adult education has always been spoken by educators as if it were a separate domain from the other types of education namely; learning in childhood and in adolescent. This is dangerous because it is likely to cause an academic imbalance among the different age groups given that a child will grow to an adult who is imbalanced academically.


From reviewing the article I have come to the conclusion that individuals need to change their frame of references by critically reflecting on their assumptions and beliefs and consciously making and implementing plans that bring about new ways of defining their world- this is an important part of transformative learning for individuals. This process is fundamentally rational and analytical. Besides that for adults to make meaning of their lives they will need to expand their consciousness about everything that surrounds them and have a… [read more]

Student Centered Learning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (646 words)
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Nurse Teaching

In consideration of a career in teaching the future nurses of the world, many of the positive aspects come into play. If an individual were interested on a legacy of long-lasting influence, a better method can hardly be imagined. A recent study determined that effective and successful management can be derived through "communication, intellectual cultivation, environmental adaptability, social learning, capital management and organizational grafting" (Templeton, Lewis, Snyder, 2002, p. 178). A career in teaching, especially in the field of nursing, would allow for the teaching of those management skills. As an educator it is important to understand that students are seeking knowledge that will assist them throughout their professional careers, and the educator is an important component in that process. The teacher can present methods and manners of communicating, cultivating and learning that will (if employed in an effective manner) provide the students not only the knowledge and skills that will help them in saving lives and caring for people, but will also provide the students with an understanding of how to further their own professional growth and development. As a former student, what I found to be important was the understanding of how to gain the knowledge I needed, as a teacher I hope to provide that same type of understanding for my students.

The traits I find most admirable in teachers is empathy, understanding, persistence, caring, knowledge and a sense of fairness. A teacher who is empathetic understands that students are there to gain an objective, accomplish a goal and reach a conclusion. The end result is almost as important as the process of achievement. Persistence takes place when the teacher is involved enough with the educational process to ensure that the students learn the required information and develop a full understanding of the importance of the data. A teacher of excellent standards will care about the students and their achievements; not necessarily only in the classroom but in…… [read more]

Adult Learning Theory Term Paper

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¶ … cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) class given by the American Heart Association (AHA). The class seemed to incorporate adult learning theory in some respects. For example, the instructor mentioned that some people learn better from reading whereas others tend to learn better from watching demonstrations or from practicing procedures themselves. She explained that a certain amount of all three types of learning would be necessary but that she would allow individuals to determine for themselves where to focus the majority of their efforts to learn the course material. While this was not an online learning environment, it seemed to parallel the fundamental principle of self-directed and experiential learning theories outlined by Cercone (2008).

Generally, adult learning differs substantially from early learning in that adults are more capable of benefiting from specific learning strategies that match their optimal learning styles (Brookfield, 1995). To some degree, this is simply because learning motivation (or its absence) in children makes it impractical to distinguish obstinacy from learning style preference. Unlike children, adults in learning environments are usually voluntary rather than reluctant participants. More specifically, there are four major aspects of learning that are applicable to most adult learning scenarios: self-directed learning, critical reflection, experiential learning, and learning to learn. In that regard, chronological age is only one relevant factor, along with culture, ethnicity, personality, political ethos, and gender (Brookfield, 1995).

According to the literature, adult learning principles are useful in various clinical settings, such as in relation to new employee orientation and training (Hohler, 2003), and also in relation to patient education, such as in connection with teaching program for peritoneal dialysis using adult learning principles (Hall, Duffy, Lizak, et al., 2004). In my clinical practice I have observed the usefulness of considering learning approaches based on the specific preferences and abilities of individual patients. Some patients benefit the most from detailed verbal and quasi-academic explanations of clinical issues; others have limited attention span…… [read more]

Theoretical Underpinnings of My Teaching Philosophy Constructivist Research Paper

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¶ … Theoretical Underpinnings of My Teaching Philosophy

Constructivist learning approach

Audience Analysis and Considerations

Instructional Strategies and Delivery Methods

Lesson Plan Analysis

The lesson is Database Systems. The course covers the fundamentals of databases systems, database management, and database design as well as database architecture. The principles and methodologies of database design as well as the techniques for database… [read more]

Technology Assessment Application Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 9


Technology Assessment in Nursing

Changes in healthcare management are really requiring that nurses to become a little more technically knowledgeable and capable to rapidly familiarize themselves to by means of tools that are technical in their exercises. Educators that are nurse are acclimatizing to this obligatory capability by presenting technology into nurse education core curriculum as their finances will support… [read more]

How to Improve Curriculum for Special Education Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2


Special Education Curriculum Improvement Ideas

First Course -- Foundations of Educational Leadership


One of the goals of the special education teacher should be to research ideas through the literature that can produce creative curricula reforms or innovations for the classroom. In this paper two suggestions will be offered in order to provide fresh ideas that can bring greater success and a sense of result-oriented intervention to the special education classroom. Parent training should be given consideration, and children with mild disabilities can and should participate in general education classrooms notwithstanding that some discourage this strategy.

Training Parents -- Boosting Curricula

Children with autism spectrum disorders are among those students who are said to have "special needs" in special education classrooms, but if there are barriers to the strategy of training parents to work with their children, those barriers need to be broken down. In their peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions the authors suggest that there are several obstacles to involving parents in training programs: a) teachers are "rarely trained in how to use parent education strategies"; b) most special education teachers are prepared in pedagogic matters relating to students, but not adults, and hence they may lack the knowledge as to how adults learn; c) the majority of "evidence-based parent training models" are not available to teachers; and d) there isn't a good fit between empirically-based parent education models and the structure of special education curricula (Ingersoll, 2006, p. 79).

Moreover, because special education teachers have their hands full dealing with their students' needs, keeping the existing curriculum materials on time and on target, there needs to be an intervention to provide those teachers with the support materials and training they need, Ingersoll continues. With that in mind, the authors offer a model that can be helpful, even pivotal in terms of a teacher adding a parent intervention into the existing curriculum. The model entails teachers being trained to train parents; once ready to train parents, teachers spend about 2.5 hours per session (and about 18-20 hours outside of the typical school day) for several weeks. The data that is linked to this model should be systematically gathered prior to involving parents.

Special…… [read more]

Sociology and Adult Education Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Today, adult education can be a method of empowerment for individuals and groups that reside just outside the majority group's characteristics. Practices of adult education can help empower members of certain racial groups gather acknowledgment and actively move towards a more progressive stance within the larger community. A lot of efforts to educate adults here in the United States aim… [read more]

My Educational Philosophy Term Paper

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As an educator, I am ready to take anything that helps me understand and teach children better, but overall my philosophy could best be labeled as "constructionist." I believe that as a teacher, all my knowledge and experiences have led me to understand the world as I do. Both the things I have been formally taught and the things I have experienced have contributed to my large education.

Adults construct rules and "mental models" to help them understand the world around them. If we treat the children we teach with true respect, we will realize that they do the same thing. As they have new experiences, they form rules that are sort of like test hypotheses. They actively compare their conclusions, "the rules," to new experiences. They refine the rules and build their own mental models. This is the learning process -- the act of finding meaning in and making sense of the world around us. When children are taught well I believe the learning experience needs to be both interactive and hands-on. By interactive, I mean more than the teacher and student interacting with the lesson. I mean that in addition, the student needs to have hands-on experience with the subject whenever possible. So, for instance, it makes far more sense to teach children about weights and measures by actually having them weigh and measure things for a purpose: if a box label says it will hold 25 lb., how many copies of the dictionary will it hold? If we measure the table and the space between the bookcases, we can be sure whether the table will fit there or not before moving it.

Thus it stands to reason that children should be taught those things they are ready for based both on development and prior experiences. Since learning involves understanding the world around us, the chlidren's families and communities should play an important role in the educational process. This will help them tie what they learn to real life, and learning won't merely be abstract concepts presented from books and on worksheets. It will have everyday meaning for them.

This means that the best educational environment for children will be one that encourages exploration and allows them to experiment, test hypotheses and hunches, and encourage them to draw a variety of conclusions. Such a teaching approach will emphasize the process of discovering information rather than simply focusing on "right" and "wrong" answers.

In formal education, all teaching environments are headed by teachers. A teacher who teaches in such an exploratory environment will need to be curious, open to new ways of looking at old problems, and a person who respects children as thinkers and learners. Such a teaching approach also requires someone who understands the wider community in which the child and the school exist. For instance, if the children live in a community with a significant Hispanic or other ethnic population, the teacher should incorporate examples from the whole of that environment, not just the things… [read more]

Transformational Learning More Than Twenty-Five Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,173 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Clark and Wilson state that Mezirow's claim that indiviudals have difficulty changing because their world views become habits of the mind, frames of reference lacks appropriate context. Conext reflects the personal and socio-cultural factors that play an influencing role in the process of transformative learning. These factors, as identified by Clark and Wilson, include the surroundings of the immediate learning event, made up of the personal and professional situation of the individual at that time and the more distant background context involving the familial and social history that has influenced the individual growing up.

5.0 Higher Education

Transformative learning should be implemented in higher education with caution for a variety of reasons. First, as explained throughout this research, there is no commonly accepted model of transformative learning. Therefore, it's not clear if transformational learning should be approached as a rational process or through more intuitive, imaginative processes. Secondly, studies by Taylor (1998) reveal that not all learners and teachers are predisposed to engage in transformative learning and that adult learning situations do not always lend themselves to transformative learning.

If transformative learning is a goal of adult education, there are commonalities across transformative models that teachers should keep in mind. Often, too much emphasis has been placed on the role of the teacher at the expense of the learner (Taylor, 1998). Instead, according to Taylor, the teacher's role should be to establish an environment that builds trust and care and facilitates the development of sensitive relationships among learners. Further, the teacher sets the stage for transformative learning by serving as a role model and demonstrating a willingness to learn and change by expanding and deepening understanding of and perspectives about both subject matter and teaching (Cranton 1994).

To reconcile different models of transformation such as Mezirow's and Boyd's, it may be helpful to consider them both as playing a role in transformative learning. Although historical emphasis has been on transformative learning as a rational process, teachers need to consider how they can help students connect the rational and the affective by using feelings and emotions both in critical reflection and as a means of reflection (Taylor 1998).

6.0 Summary Conclusion

The four major models of transformative learning: the cognitive-rational approach of Mezirow, Freire's social transformation, the concept of development by Daloz and spirituality dimensions advocated by Dirkx and Healey as well as the different views of transformative learning described by Mezirow, Boyd, and Clark and Wilson suggest that no single mode of transformative learning exists today. Differences in learning contexts, learners, and teachers all affect the experiences of transformative learning. Because people learn in different but interwoven ways, educators should not see transformative learning as the only goal of education (Cranton 1994). Although adult learning situations do not necessarily lend themselves to transformative learning, studies suggest that it offers potentiation that should be understood and appreciated by adult educators.


Boyd, R.D., and Myers, J.G..(1988, October-December). Transformative education. International Journal Of Lifelong Education 7, no. 4, 261-284.

Clark, M.C., &… [read more]

Special Education Is Presided Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


An IEP comprises the disability under which the child qualifies for Special Education Services, the specific services the team has determined that the school will supply, the child's yearly goals and objectives and any accommodations that must be made in order to help them in their learning. The IEP must also contain a statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services that are to be provided to the child (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).

The IEP is designed to help children reach their educational goals more easily than they otherwise would. In all cases the IEP must be customized to the individual student's needs as identified by the IEP evaluation process, and must particularly help teachers and related service providers, such as paraprofessional educators, understand the student's disability and how the disability affects that child's learning process (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).

Due to the increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities who are being included in the general education classroom along with the pressures of state accountability assessments, classroom teaching has become very complex. Inclusion calls for general education teachers (GETs) and special education teachers (SETs) to form partnerships that require a new role for special educators who previously were able to provide instruction for students with learning disabilities using materials and instructional approaches in a resource room setting outside of the general education classroom. Taking on the role of an inclusion teacher, SETs teach students with LD in inclusive general education classrooms utilizing materials from the general education curriculum. Special educators (SETs) have the tasks of ensuring that students with disabilities are progressing towards the same state standards as their non-disabled peers, addressing their individualized education goals, and providing them opportunities to access the general education curriculum (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).


Hallahan, D.P., Kauffman, J.M. & Pullen, P.C. (2011). Exceptional Learners: An

Introduction to Special Education (12th…… [read more]

Planning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Students tended to calm down fast using these techniques; most educators I have spoken to agree that yelling doesn't work. Maintaining control in the classroom works best via simple methods.

Furthermore, I helped students keep their attention on the material and on me by keeping them actively engaged in the lessons, interested and enthusiastic. For example, in the year ten… [read more]

Technology Learning Environ New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (364 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Similarly, engineers need to take into account the diverse needs of a heterogeneous society when developing educational technologies. Sociological and psychological studies can lend insight into the particular ways educators and engineers can tailor their research, development, and implementation programs.

Implementing new technologies into the existing classroom environment will be challenging, requiring a structural reworking of the school's physical infrastructure as well as a remodeling of the school curriculum. In order for technology to reach its maximum potential it must be seamlessly integrated into each school. Learning styles, variances in cognitive styles, linguistic background, cultural needs, and disabilities must be taken into account in order to develop the most accessible educational technologies. Finally, using technology for educational ends must be in accordance with the changing needs of the marketplace. Educators can use technologies to show students the relevance of their particular skills, talents, and motivations for particular vocational or career sectors. Technology can and will be an immense boon to education, facilitating the role of educators and helping students find learning more fun, accessible, and relevant to the modern world.… [read more]

Standards-Based Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,200 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Standards-Based Education

Education of all students in United States has to reach the same standard, at least in a particular state. That is the main reason why standards-based education was set up in the country, and since it has existed for some time now, there are different evaluations from different quarters to find out what is really happening. The results… [read more]

Teaching Theory Adult Teaching Theory the Bigge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Teaching Theory

Adult Teaching Theory

The Bigge & Shermis, Learning Theories for Teachers Table 1.1 stresses the divisions between different theories of learning. For example, behaviorist theories, such as the process of Skinnerian Operant Conditioning proposes that a student or subject is highly influenced by the conditioning and influences of his or her teacher. This stands opposed to more student-empowered theories such as Vygotsky's Thought and Language Theory and Bruner's Cognitive-Interactionist, Narrative-Centered Psychology. Both of these philosophies stress the dialogue between teacher and student over the course of the learning process. Bandura's Linear-Interactionist Social Cognitive vs. Cognitive-Field Interactionist Theory of Learning stress, respectively, the developmental nature of human learning vs. A more holistic acquisition of knowledge.

Malcolm Knowles' theory of adult learning substantiates the developmental concept in his stress upon the difference of adult's way of learning vs. A child's way of learning. Knowles places a greater stress upon student-determined learning objectives and drawing from the adult learner's past experiences. Knowles conception of humankind's moral and actional nature states that as person matures his or self-concept as a student moves from one of being a dependent personality toward a concept of becoming a self-directed human being. In other words, rather than the directional focus of child-centered learning, where student's learning is brought to fruition via various outside pressures, adults must take responsibility of their own education. Adults wish to do so, as this gives them the fullest sense of empowerment as people. The readiness, motivation, and orientation to learn increase with age, and past experience becomes basis for transfer of learning.

The emphasis in teaching must be on andragogy, in adult learning, not pedagogy, said Knowles. Although Smith (2002) sees Knowles attempts to merge humanistic and behaviorist theories of learning as 'dodgy,' it is equally possible to say that Knowles skillfully merges the…… [read more]

Co-Teaching Amy's Story Perfectly Illustrates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (675 words)
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Regularly scheduled meetings will enable Amy and her co-teachers like Joe to work on their lesson plans, discuss problematic areas of concern, and offer each other feedback. The rationale behind the meetings is that they will ensure that the two teachers will have an open forum with which to discuss their needs rather than try to squeeze their comments into brief moments before or after class. Regular meetings also ensure that the lesson plans are being followed and that the educational goals are being met. Amy and Joe would also be able to experiment with different co-teaching methods: one teaches/one drifts; alternate co-teaching; and parallel co-teaching and discuss their experiences during meetings. The co-teachers can also discuss their student's progress and other specific issues related to their classroom. Meetings can be scheduled at the beginning or at the end of each week.

However, before regularly scheduled meetings become a reality for Amy and her co-teachers, the principal must become more open to allowing Amy to use her school time for meetings. The soundest option is to schedule Amy and Joe's planning period together. Alternatively, the principal could set up a time during which the two teachers could meet in the library. Ideally, the principal should attend a few of these meetings each year. The rationale behind involving the principal in co-teaching processes is that collaboration with the principal will enable her to understand what co-teaching entails. The process would improve communication and understanding among all parties. If other special education teachers or mainstream teachers in the school are interested in co-teaching they could also attend the meetings to get a better idea of what co-teaching entails.

Ideally, this three-part plan involving shared lesson plans, regularly scheduled meetings, and increased contact between teachers and the principal should be implemented immediately. The proposed action plan would immensely help eliminate some of the tension that Amy and Joe experienced as they floundered without having any clear-cut goals or plans regarding their co-teaching.… [read more]

Personal Learning Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … personal learning theory. The author incorporates the works of Albert Bandura to explain the elements of the learning theory and how it is incorporated into the classroom practice. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

When I first decided to become a teacher I made the decision because I loved to learn and I loved helping… [read more]

Learning Communities: New York State Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Learning Communities (New York State Education based)

What are they?

What is the mission and purpose?

What are their benefits?

How can they be implemented in the curriculum planning process?

Who established them?

Where did they originate?

When did they become an educational trend?

How do they affect the technology trend?

Strategies to promote the learning culture?

This paper focuses… [read more]

Inclusion or Pull Out What Is Best for Students During Literacy Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Inclusion on Student Performance

The field of education has long been plagued by the question of how to handle a divergent student body. Particularly challenging in this regard is the group of students that has become known as "special needs" students. In the past, these students have generally been subject to "pull-out" strategies, where they received targeted education… [read more]

Elementary Education and Math Research Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Elementary Education and Math Research

This is one of the well-conducted research studies on how pre-service teachers of mathematics and sciences should construct knowledge in teaching and pedagogy. Indeed, it is essential for teachers to have a deep understanding on the pedagogical content and knowledge necessary for use in school-based settings. The article also advances the extent by which teachers of mathematics and sciences ought to construct their knowledge. These vital elements promote effectiveness in teaching mathematics and sciences.

The article reflects an in-depth research process by its authors. In this regard, the authors embraced the use of a qualitative methodology. This is evidenced on how the article expands teacher knowledge construction. The article significantly emphasizes on the process of constructing teacher knowledge, which is often relevant in a school-based setting. The use of qualitative methodology facilitated the collection of data on the process of knowledge construction. Knowledge construction in this case involved the process of acquisition, understanding the dimensions of knowledge, and the social context.

The methods employed in carrying out the research were content specific. This is because the research involved critiquing instruction and its related processes among the teachers of sciences and mathematics. In addition, the research process involved analyzing the learning experiences of the learners of these subjects. In this regard, the learning experiences recorded were based on the national standards. There were also biases in the use of a constructivist instructional approach, alongside the knowledge gained from the field experiences of the teachers involved in this research.

Various participants were involved in the research process. In this regard, the article involved the input of the pre-service teachers. The teachers played a significant role in collecting data on the best approaches of teacher knowledge construction. Other parties also played a crucial role in support of the research process. They include the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), which provided a significant amount of information on this subject. Finally, the National Research Council (NRC) also contributed significantly in the research process.

The article's case study is in the context of a context-specific inquiry, which looked into the issues of constructing teacher knowledge in mathematics and sciences. The process involved data collection on this area. The research process spanned for a semester. This is because the researcher had taken the time to learn about the school culture. He also took time to build trust with the stakeholders of the school and developing rapport that led to the high credibility of the research process. All these were done to facilitate the use of multiple data sources in the research process. The information presented in the article holds much weight because of the diversity of sources used in the research process. It is through this diversity that the processes of data analysis and interpretation were facilitated (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000).

The data collection procedures involved establishing the types and nature of source materials for research. The research involved many source materials to increase the credibility of… [read more]

College Worth It?' Weighs on Local Students Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … college worth it?' weighs on local students.

The Press Democrat. Jeremy Hay, May 18, 2013.

Ever since the post-Second World War era, a college education has been the traditional path of those focused on professional success in the United States, and elsewhere in the industrial world. As a result, there is a general expectation that pursuing a college… [read more]

Teaching Style of Lecturing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


If the next generation of teachers is prepared to adapt their approach to lecturing with the demands of modern education and learning in mind, students will continue to benefit from the organized, systematic presentation of critical facts and figures.


Coughlin, S. (2013, May 01). Jimmy wales: Boring university lectures 'are doomed'. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-22160988

Exley, K., & Dennick, R. (2009). Giving a lecture: from presenting to teaching. (Vol. 10). Newy York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Knight, J.K., & Wood, W.B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education, 4(4), 298-310. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1305892/

Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction. (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Revell, A., & Wainwright, E. (2009). What makes lectures 'unmissable'? Insights into teaching excellence and active learning. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 33(2), 209- 223. Retrieved from http://dspace.brunel.ac.uk/bitstream/2438/3045/1/JGHE25_016%20Final%20draft.pdf

Van Klaveren, C. (2011). Lecturing style teaching and student performance. Economics of Education Review, 30(4), 729-739. Retrieved from http://www.tierweb.nl/assets/files/UM/publicaties%20Chris/Lecturing_styles_01-01- 2010.pdf… [read more]

Leading Professional Learning Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  4 pages (1,232 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Building Relatinoal Trust

Leading professional organizations

Professional issue: Building relational trust

Fostering an atmosphere of relational trust in which reciprocal dialogue between teachers and administrators can take place is essential for a school to function. This enables an alignment between teaching styles and the goals and objectives of the school as a whole. There also must be mutual respect between teachers and administrators must be willing to learn from the lived experience of teachers in the classroom. A mutually beneficial, trusting relationship ensures that goals are realistic yet the activities of teachers in the classroom support those goals. Unfortunately in my present employment situation, there is a great deal of animosity between teachers and administrators and a reluctance to support current professional development and assessment methods. Teachers are mistrustful of administrators; administrators feel that teachers are unwilling to comply with reasonable requirements to improve the educational process.

When different components of the school see one another as 'the enemy' or even simply as misguided, this indicates a clear lack of relational trust, a critical component of organizational improvement. According to Bryk & Schneider (2002) when they asked what factors "made the difference between schools that got better at educating children over the course of that decade -- as measured by improved test scores -- and schools that did not? The answer was not money, models of governance, up-to-date curricula, the latest in teaching techniques, or any other external variable. The answer was 'relational trust' between teachers and administrators, teachers and parents, teachers and teachers. Schools with high relational trust, and/or leaders who cared about it, had a much better chance of serving students well than schools that ranked low on those variables" (Cited by Barkley 2008). Schools without relational trust are riddled with factions which are more apt to advance their own personal interests than the interests of the students the school is ultimately supposed to serve.

To encourage more accountability, at my own school teachers are presently required to compare their activities to a predetermined rubric describing effective teaching and asked to identify professional learning goals. After identifying areas in which they are lacking, they then are expected to work on these areas in need of improvement. However, this method of self-reflection has failed to substantially improve student outcomes. Teachers do not seem to take the process seriously or 'trust' that it can be helpful. Our proposed solution to reform the program is to mentor teachers to help them set more useful and concrete objectives while engaging in dialogue with administrators to ensure that the goals and expectations are commensurate with the realities experienced by the teachers in the classroom. This is designed to take transformational approach to leadership. "Applied transformational leadership encompasses the act of empowering individuals to fulfill their contractual obligations, meet the needs of the organization, and go beyond the 'call of duty' for the betterment of the organization" (Santamaria & Santamaria 2012: 3). However, unless the organization responds to the human needs of teachers and… [read more]

Learning That Is Imparted Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (8,696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Instructing English in a work-based environment may increase chances of professional growth. The participants of work-based learning programs get a whole new world of resources accessible by learning a language that has noteworthy professional importance. Rosen (1999) reported ESL as being the most taught language surpassing Spanish in all centers of Berlitz in the U.S. English for reading purposes, English… [read more]

Admission Letter to Wright State Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


My transcripts tell part of my story; they reflect the success that a mature student has achieved beginning in 1988 with an impressive accumulation of credits. But there is another important component to my story. I was raised in a family where success wasn't just measured in how much money one makes or how many degrees one can accumulate.

In our family it was about the quality of one's contribution to the betterment of our society and our world. And for me, teaching students to become accomplished at helping others with their most important healthcare needs -- whether it is just a routine health checkup or attending to a seriously ill older person -- will be their way of making positive impacts.

Having a positive impact and making lives healthier means more than just serving the health needs one at a time. When my students complete their training and are able to make a clear-cut difference in the lives of others, they will be in effect paying it forward. Every individual that is made healthier through the efforts of an intelligent, well-trained healthcare professional, is also benefiting all those (family, loved ones, and others) around that person. Families benefit when one of their members receives warm, nurturing care in a hospital or other healthcare facility. Positive healthy outcomes have a domino effect in families.

As to my person life, I have five children and three have already graduated from high school; hence, I am at a point in my career when attending graduate school is practical.

Again, thank you for your consideration and I look forward to becoming an energetic and competent student in…… [read more]

Lesson Plan Analysis (Behavioral Model) Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  3 pages (959 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Q3. What words are used to tell the students how their work will be evaluated?

Under the section entitled "Explaining Criteria for Success" students are informed that they will earn 20 points for "successfully completing the Reciprocal Reading portion of the lesson with their partner. Success is defined as (a) alternating reading aloud / summarizing and (b) completing the selection. Students can earn up to 20 points for identifying and listing at least two possible causes of the revolution." The teacher will create a T-chart before breaking up the class intro groups in which the class will list what listening "looks like" and what listening "sounds like" so they will have a better idea of how to satisfy the criteria of the assignment and take good notes.

Q4. What elements of this lesson plan are for the teacher but not necessarily stated to the students?

The 'Deciding on the Lesson Plan' section and the 'Monitoring and Intervening' section.

Q5. Which word best describes this lesson plan: (a) linear, or (b) disconnected? Why do you think so?

Disconnected. Much of the learning is self-directed and conducted by the students at their desks in pairs, albeit under the guidance of the teacher. There is no linear, coherent lesson plan because the intended focus of the lesson is to stress student cooperation and students learning from one another rather than assimilating a specific skill or series of facts.

Q6. In order to determine if the student achieved the objective what would you expect the teacher to do? Why?

The teacher must use some individual assessments, such as a quiz, to ensure that the students learned the material individually. Although the lesson plan teachers a specific skill, the teacher cannot be certain that ever individual student understands one (or preferably multiple) causes of the American Revolution due to the discursive, cooperative format of the lesson.

Q7. In 50 words or less, state how can you tell this lesson comes from the Social-Psychological Systems of Models of Teaching?

Social models of teaching use collaborative learning models and emphasize teamwork as a way of reinforcing content (McIlrath & Huitt 1995). Content such as facts tend to be deemphasized at the expense of students learning how to learn, learning social values and understanding how to work together.


Garrison, C., & Ehringhaus, M. (2007). Formative and summative assessments in the classroom.

Association for Middle Level Learning. Retrieved from http://www.amle.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.asp

McIlrath, D., & Huitt, W. (1995, December). The teaching-learning process: A discussion of models. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/modeltch.html

Teaching models. (n.d). The Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved:

http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/events/gtaprograms/workbook/files/teachingmodels.html… [read more]

Promotion of More Inclusive Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The final area is the learning environment, which can be changed physically or in regards to learning in order to support the needs of all individuals within the classroom (Ernest et al., 2011).

It was suggested by Ernest et al. (2011) in their case study of a teacher implementing differentiated instruction within a special education context that there are barriers to this implementation. The most prominent barrier observed by the researchers was the common perception among teachers and the public that differentiated education is just another passing fad. The researchers expressed the necessity for a shift in classroom models from the tradition deductive view that teaching strategies that work for most should work for all, to a more inductive approach that understands and respects the needs, skills, learning styles, and interests of individual students. It is acknowledged by the researchers that several challenges will be present with regards to inclusion of special needs students within the classroom. These challenges may include keeping every student on track with learning and the curriculum, aiding children with any difficulties they may be having with comprehension or retention of the curriculum content, dealing with tedium and boredom within the classroom. It is noted by the researchers that strategies that work for children with special needs and abilities are generally effective and engaging for children of all skill levels and abilities (Ernest et al., 2011). These effective strategies include the use of lively whole group activities, ensuring individual acknowledgment within the group, as well as the presentation of content in a manner that is a reflection of the developmental needs of the child (Ernest et al., 2011).

The importance of development of effective instructional strategies for special education by teachers is emphasized in a study conducted by Fullerton et al. (2011). These researchers described how merged program models that involve a single curriculum for general and special education students involve courses and field experienced that are aimed at providing the most optimal learning experience for students representing all types of learning styles, abilities, skills, and interests. These merged programs are most often seen at the elementary school level, but the researchers described the development and implementation of an education program for secondary educators called the Secondary Dual Educators Program, which is based in a merged education model. Initial findings indicated that the program resulted in competency with regard to the teachers' abilities to effectively design and implement differentiated education at the secondary level (Fullerton et al., 2011).


Buffum, A., Mattos, M., Weber, C. (2010). The why behind RTI. Educational Leadership, 68(2), 10-16.

Ernest, J.M., Heckaman, K.A., Thompson, S.E., Hull, K.M., Carter, S. (2011). Increasing the teaching efficacy of a beginning special education teacher using differentiated instruction: a case study. International Journal of Special Education, 26(1), 191-201.

Fullerton, A., Ruben, B.J.,…… [read more]

Learning Theories to Current Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The students who experienced peer models perform best on a subtraction post-test, as well reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The outcome were interpreted as backing up the hypothesis that supposed correspondence of the model to the learner raise in self-efficacy, resulting to more efficient learning of modeled behaviors. It is believed that peer modeling is specifically effective for… [read more]

Culture and Christian Education Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,288 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


True multicultural Christian education is based on changed attitudes of individuals attitudes as they are interacting with one another.it can be found in relationships that are based on acceptance and appreciation for the existing individual differences and in the desire of representing a unified family of God. Multiculturalism is often used during the application of cross-cultural perspectives in education. However, there are still some arguments during the past century on the definition of the concept. The goal of multicultural Christian education is embodiment of a system of attitudes, beliefs and behaviors which recognize and respect presence of individuals from their diverse groups, acknowledge the values which they hold, their differences and offer inclusive context which gives empowerment to all members of the church in order for them to be encouraged and enable them make personal contributions to the Christ's society.

Programs in local churches which are truly cross-cultural in their approach are viewed as processes that affect the structural organization of the churches, give direction to instructional strategies and change personal values within the members of the congregation. These programs go beyond boundaries of local church. The purpose of multicultural Christian education is the provision of a wide scope and fair representation of the world surrounding (Cole, 2005).

Cross cultural sensitivity is quite important when it comes to warranting its own vision, mission, goal and statements. There is need to be consistent with general statements for overall church ministry as well as with specific statements when it comes to Christian education. There are several objectives when it comes to cross-cultural Christian education. These objectives assist local churches in the development of an approach which is more inclusive when it comes to educational ministries.

These objectives include developing an increase in the awareness of Cultural diversity. Local churches should ensure that they make the congregation aware of the cultural diversity that exists. This will enable the congregation to be open and accommodate other cultural views that are in existence. This will help them in their interactions with other members of the congregation and hence easy for the church to impart Christian education in them. The other objective is to assess practices and attitudes within the church that are ethnocentric in nature. This will make sure that there are no practices and attitudes in the church that are biased. With minimal or no ethnocentric attitudes and practices then people will be free with each other and hence more interactions. Another objective is to encourage interethnic relationships that are positive within the church and the entire community (Cole, 2005).Positive interethnic relationship means that people will interact freely and share the gospel in an environment that is free. Another objective is to develop cross-cultural skills when it comes to teaching-learning setting and intercultural education. The entire church should be empowered with cross cultural skills when it comes to both teaching and learning. With these skills it will be easy for both the teachers and students to understand each other in process of learning Christian… [read more]

Distance Learning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  52 pages (13,316 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Both the lecture sessions and the course laboratory require substantial individual study, concentration, and practice to demonstrate mastery of related concepts. Likewise, ME 172 has enduring linkages to industrial practices.

The Distant Education component offered a fifty-minute connection made three times a week for fifteen weeks during each semester. Collaborating students from both University locations were required to complete nineteen… [read more]

Adult Education Within Human Resources Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,195 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Meanwhile, a scholarly and well-thought-out piece in Adult Education Quarterly (Glastra, et al., 2004), speaks to many issues within the context of "Lifelong Learning" (LLL), and sees the big picture of today's workplace and learning dynamics. Indeed, the article, which was published in August, is entitled, "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning," and emphasizes from the outset that "Globalization and individualization… [read more]

Pedagogic Model to the Teaching Term Paper

Term Paper  |  230 pages (60,754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There is a degree to which knowledge is an illusion, and every individual constructs their own conception of reality which (while susceptible to the demands of "real" or normal reality) does not necessarily align with the normal paradigm. Constructivism does embrace this relativistic and existential approach to reality, but it also holds as a primary value the idea of constraint… [read more]

Direct Instruction: The Effect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In her journal article "Effective instruction begins with purposeful assessments" Cobb (2003) points out that building administrators and reading specialists have to take a leadership role and help teachers differentiate between assessment and evaluation. Further Cobb suggests that teaching will be more meaningful when instruction is directed and when administrators and teachers collaborate to develop a curriculum that is integrated… [read more]

Rise of Technology-Mediated Learning Systems Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,144 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Nonetheless even though access to funding is one inspiration, it is not the single reason for the heightened awareness in corporate-academic businesses. There are some universities that put the emphasis on particular areas of applied research, for instance, while others give out instruction that is tailored to the exclusive necessities of specific career paths, providing corporate partner's admission to exceedingly… [read more]

Adult Education: Lesson Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Adult Education: Lesson


Adult Education Lesson


Human Resource Development and Adult Education

Human Resource Development should fall under the larger umbrella of Adult Education for several reasons. First, according to Merriam (1984), one of the primary reasons adults learn is "out of a need to face the tasks they encounter during the course of their development." Many of those tasks Merriam describes are challenges that adults face in the workplace. Secondly, as business systems change, adults need to be able to meet those challenges. Last, since there is such a great overlap between HRD and AE, it is in the "best interests of the student and the educational institution but also of the business community to eliminate redundant programs" (Grubb, 1998).

Control of Learning Phases

According to Knowles, adult learners must be involved in the process of discovering their own learning needs as well as in charting his or her own course for learning (Unger, 1977). Andragogy differs from pedagogy in that adults are involved in their own learning process. Most adults are in control of their own learning. They are out of the K-12 school system, and there are no longer authoritarian figures in their lives who insist upon rigid formats for learning and assessment. Adults are in control of what they learn and what format works best for their needs.

The self-directed learning process can be easy for some and difficult for others, depending upon the cognitive ability of the adult and the relative ease or difficulty of the learning material. To implement successful learning, adult learners must also be able to control the learning phases. First, they must recognize a need to know certain information or develop a new skill. Second, they must be able to create a goal or chart a path to obtaining that knowledge. Third, they must implement their goal by attending classes, reading a book, or practicing their new skills. Finally, they must evaluate their performance and determine whether they have achieved their goal or whether they need to chart a different…… [read more]

Learning in Recent Years Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Learning in recent years is understood to be an active, not a passive, process. Thus, many teachers have implemented learning contracts so as to provide a learning process as opposed to a directed learning content. In the specific context of learning styles, learning contracts may be especially beneficial to the overall acquisition of knowledge since the student whom is knowledgeable about his or her learning styles can create an educational plan or a learning contract which reflects or emphasizes his or her particular learning style (Codde, PhD, 2006). By doing this, the student may see a greater amount of success, may acquire a greater amount and quality of knowledge, and may intrinsically find motivation for fostering further learning.

(2) as an adult educator, I would use knowledge of learning styles in my particular classroom to help with curriculum development as well as classroom delivery of instruction, creation of assignments, and overall assessment. If I understand that the vast majority of my class learns through kinetic means, then I should incorporate opportunities to move during the learning. If I understand which learners are visual, then I can make sure that my lessons not only include a verbal component, but that there is a visual component as well. Assignments can be tailored so as to reflect the qualities that the students possess and the ones in which they should learn to accommodate. In discussing assignments, I will need to be cognizant of the learning differences because a question that might seem nonsensical and evident to one type of learner, might be more confusing to a different type of learning. In this sense, it gives me more empathy into the needs of the students, more patience toward potential misunderstanding, and a greater chance to help the students meet or exceed his or her potential. I would also use assessments which took into consideration the different qualities within…… [read more]

Statement of Teaching Philosophy to ESL Students Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (962 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Teaching Philosophy

As an ESL teacher, my most immediate and practical goal is the delivery of effective instruction that promotes English fluency in all students. With that core goal in mind, I have developed a teaching philosophy that blends and borrows from a variety of theoretical traditions including progressivism, pragmatism, and humanism. What these three theories share in common is a respect for the individual as well as respect for social harmony.

My students are by definition a diverse group of individuals from a wide range of backgrounds. They have different worldviews and different personal and academic goals. I intend to foster diversity by promoting the personal development of all students within the framework of the ESL classroom.

English has become the lingua franca of the world, necessary for the financial and social success of my students. Not only for their achievements in this country but also in other countries, students with English fluency ensure their future will be full of possibilities. At the same time, I recognize that English is only one of many hundreds of global languages. Far from creating a monolingual classroom, I will promote linguistic diversity and cultural exploration. My students need to capitalize on their multilingual heritage, which I will foster based on a teaching philosophy that is rooted in progressivism and humanism.

With a practical eye cast on the founding father of American education, I honor John Dewey's emphasis on pragmatism. This is why my classrooms are structured with pragmatism in mind. Students need hands-on ways to apply what they are learning both inside and outside the classroom. Active learning and frequent field trips to enhance classroom activities will promote pragmatic learning in the tradition of Dewey. Pragmatism is especially important for English language learners, because the essence of language is communication. Learners cannot master a language without regular instructive interactions with their peers and other members of the society. The pragmatic tools I use in the classroom vary to honor the diversity of learning styles, too. It is the pragmatic leg of my teaching philosophy that focuses on the daily activities and assessments that ensure students' second language acquisition.

Teachers too often rest on their laurels, ignoring opportunities for personal and professional development. Integral to my teaching philosophy is continual learning for both my students and me. My teaching philosophy centers on four main concepts, which can be represented by the acronym DEAL: Diversity, English, Application, and Long-term Learning.

Students learn a great DEAL in my classroom. With my students, I make a DEAL that I shall support each and every one of them in the achievement of their academic and personal goals. I honor and value different learning styles. We shall set goals together at the onset of each class. Collectively, the class establishes goals that are meaningful to them and which promote collaboration and cooperation within the diverse classroom. Goals are related…… [read more]

Biggest Challenge in Education Today Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … biggest challenge in education today is the daily ability of teachers to strike a balance between teaching to prepare students for rigorous high stakes tests as well as teaching in a way that is creative and engaging to build creativity and intrinsic desire to learn (Longo, 2010). In my own practice site this balance is an obvious and daily struggle as entire blocks of time preceding testing are set aside to make sure that students are fully prepared for the testing process and the material. I believe this happens in most public school classrooms and though it seems a challenge to ethically administer material in such a way that it is not deemed as cheating would be difficult but entirely depends on the material presented and what the high stakes test is testing for. Any preparation for a test that is considered an assessment test would seem to be ethically murky, as traditionally these tests are meant to organically check the existing curriculum to see what the students are learning, yet these test seem to get more and more specialized as the years go on, testing for far more specific materials and it would seem lax and even irresponsible not to prepare children in some way for what they will face in the testing material.

Depending on the material there would seem to be a way to align curriculum to meet testing expectations without stressing out students and in a way that is creative enough to engender engagement, but again this is the balance that must be struck. Teachers often are given little choice as they are often relegated to specific materials, i.e. structured pre-exam material that they are mandated to work on in the classroom in preparation for testing. The biggest problem with much of this added material is that memorizing facts and processes does not engender creativity or thinking skills and as facts and focuses change over time the noted inability to think and innovate in learning becomes a problem in the long-term and could be seen as a huge failing of our education system (Gallagher 2010). In my experience in the classroom the material mandated to prepare students for assessment does not engender independent learning skills or ask the student to think about anything beyond the fear and frustration associated with the unknown and the test itself.…… [read more]

Assessment and Monitoring in Special Education Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Classroom Management

Effective classroom management is vital in today's classrooms where teachers are teaching children with various academic, cultural and social backgrounds, not to mention that more and more classrooms today are having to manage students who are less proficient in English, have little experience being in a classroom, and in some cases, have physical or mental disabilities (Capizzi 2009). Without effective classroom management, teachers face many more challenges when it comes to helping children learn. While a strategy for managing a classroom is important, so is choosing the right type of strategy as they are not all created equal (2009).

Promoting positive behavior in the classroom is essential for creating a positive learning environment, according to Capizzi (2009). The biggest concern that teachers face is having to discipline. Teachers must endure a lot of stress when it comes to children who behave badly. When teachers know how to handle these discipline problems, they feel more relaxed in their classrooms and this makes their overall stress levels decrease, making them better equipped to do what they are meant to be doing -- teaching.

Capizzi (2009) notes that there are six key areas that teachers (and administrators) can use to guide their development of new plans (or plans that they already have in place. These six areas are: structure, classroom layout, classroom decor, rules, routines, an maintaining and monitoring behavior. Within these six areas, the plans should be "tailor to fit each group of students and their unique needs" (2009). When there is a better organized classroom -- that is, more structured -- students have been know to demonstrate more appropriate academic and social behavior, in general (2009). When using a Classroom…… [read more]

Proletarianization and Professionalization Politics of Educational Reform Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Proletarianization and Professionalization

Politics of Educational Reform in Alberta and Teacher's Struggle against Proletarianization

In the 1990s, Canadian educational system went through a series of reforms. The province of Alberta, under the leadership of Premier Ralph Klein and the Progressive Conservatives, took a lead role in implementing these reforms. The reforms were rooted in neo-liberal and neo-conservative ideologies and aimed… [read more]

Philosophical Influences in American Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,516 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Educational Philosophies

Richard D. Mosier (1951) discusses two views of American education, one which frames education as experience, as formation from without, and the other that sees education as growth or development within. These two ideas can also be defined as traditional and progressive approaches to education.

In traditional educational settings educators teach the skills, facts, and standards of moral… [read more]

Clark Kozma Debate Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Clark-Kozma Debate

The popularity of online schools and the use of the Internet have fueled a debate among educators. From the time educational television first hit the media circuits, the ability of any media form to improve education has come under scrutiny. The Internet is just another form of media and educators balk at the idea that computers or any other type of media can result in improved education and improved academic scores. This research will explore what has become known as the Clark-Kozma debate about the value that the Internet will have in improved academic performance. As new forms of media enter into the educational arena, the Clark-Kozma debate will become an increasingly important part of educational theory and strategy. Let us examine the key points of both sides of the debate.

Clark's position is that educational technology is not important in the educational process. It is only the deliver system. Clark (1983) argues that the content is more important than the delivery method. Kozma (1994) believes that a connection exists between the media and learning, but that we do not see it due to our behavioral roots. Clark does not feel that learning is the cognitive response to the delivery method of the instruction. This is where the schism between these two theorists is the greatest. Kozma argues that the cognitive processes surrounding the media are an important part of the learning process. The following will explore these two theories.

Since the debate began in the early 1990s, technology has advanced to an even greater level and has become an integral part of the educational system. The questions posed by Clark and Kozma are even more important now, than they were when the debate first began. Considerable academic study has been dedicated to this topic recently. Research now finds that electronic media can help certain types of learners grasp the material better. This research supports the idea that learners have different styles of learning and will respond better to the message when presented in one format or media over another (Trail & Hadley, 2010). This would lend support to Kozma's argument that the form of media plays an important role in learning.

Using this argument, one could conclude that Clark was wrong and that there is more to the message than content. If this is so, then it leads to the question of what role the teacher actually plays in the learning process. In response to this question, let us examine recent literature on the social elements of learning. Dewan and Dewan (2010) found that the teacher takes on the role of leader, whether they are in a brick and mortar classroom or in an online classroom. West, Hall, & Thackeray et al. (2010) found that social networking sites can be used to support online health behavior change projects.

The key to resolving the argument is that in the cases found, the type of media was used to support classroom instruction, whether this instruction took place online or… [read more]

Working and Learning Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Human Resources

Working and Learning

Schools today are not focused on economic needs. They should do more to prepare students for work, particularly for jobs in the trades.

How people live, work, play and learn has been dramatically altered by technology over the past 20 years. There appears to be a need for diverse skills today than there was in… [read more]

Formative Assessments Popham Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Formative assessments are typically more valuable because they allow both student and teach to "check" for understanding and adapt accordingly.

Fisher 2 - Checking for understanding allows the instructor to find out what background knowledge students bring to the classroom, what they know during and after a lesson, if they are understanding the lesson, and models appropriate questioning methods that may be translated into learning opportunities. Understanding by design approaches a learning target backwards -- what is the outcome, goal or object for student learning; then plan the instructional methods accordingly.

Fisher 3 -- In a differentiated classroom, the learning targets, curriculum, and even subject focus are alignted to the specific needs of the student or learner. Checking for understanding is critical if targets are to be aligned to a specific population or group so that the instructor ensures that the learning targets are not only met summatively, but in a regular, formative manner as well.

Brookhart 1a -- Statements made by the instructor (or curriculum) based on specific standards that need to be met. Learning targets are student friendly in that they are specific to the lesson for the day and directly connected to whatever assessment is being made.

Brookart 1b -- For psychologists, metacognition is "cognition about cognition," in other words, knowing about knowing. Typically, it knowledge about when and how to use particular strageies for problem solving; awareness about how one is learning; for students, the higher order thinking skills that involve more than rote memory (Livington, 1997).


Fisher, D. And Frey, N. (2007). Checking for Understanding. Alexandria, VA: Association

for Supervisrion and Curriculum Development.

Livingston, J. (1997). Metacognition: An Overview. State University of New York at Buffalo. Cited in: http://gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/cep564/metacog.htm

Moss, C. Brookhart, S. (2009). Advancing Formative Assessment in Every Classroom.

Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Popham, W.J. (2008). Transformative Assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and…… [read more]

Self Check Questions on Indexes Use Questionnaire

Questionnaire  |  2 pages (445 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Self Check Questions on Indexes

Use an Infotrac database to find a review of your favorite video.

Index: Infotrac newsstand

Subject heading: Movie review

New Moon shines through silliness

Magazine: Sacramento Bee

What have reviewers said about the Big Burn: Teddy Roosevelt and the Fire That Saved America by Timothy Egan?

Index: Infotrac newsstand

Journal: Houston Chronicle

I need a Halloween poem for my newsletter. Do you know of a short one?

"The Hag" by Robert Herrick

Access Point: LitFinder

Find your favorite poem in the Columbia Granger's Index to Poetry.

Do a title or first line search for the poem in the Title and First Line Index.

Your favorite poem: "The Road Not Taken"

Did you find it? How? (title or first line search) Title

Name at least one other poem by the same author? "Mending Wall"

Are there other poems on the same subject? X____ Yes ____ No

If yes, give the title of one. Hughes, T. "The Other."

5. What is the name of the hurricane that hit Florida in 1992? Hurricane Andrew

What part of Florida was damaged?

South Florida

Index: Infotrac newsstand

Source: Houston Chronicle

Date of information: January 28, 2010

6. I would like to know if the whole language approach to teaching reading is an effective approach. Could you recommend two articles?

Index: Educator's Reference…… [read more]

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