Study "Education / Teaching / Learning" Essays 111-164

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Creating a Proactive Learning Environment Article Review

… ¶ … Left Behind

Even after earning a degree in education and becoming certified to teach, a new teacher may still become overwhelmed by the challenges he or she faces when entering the classroom for the first year. New teachers can learn to build on skills they learned in college and, with support and guidance from veteran teachers, become more effective in meeting the needs of their students. Special educator Barbara Fink Chorzempa shared her thoughts on self-directed learning and teacher collaboration in a recent article for Kappa Delta Record entitled "Don't Get Left Behind: Improve Your Experiences as a New Teacher."

The article's title is a play on words. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act, commonly referred to as "No Child Left Behind," was designed to reform education by developing high standards and measurable goals for all learners. In order for a teacher to ensure that her students are not left behind, she herself must not be left behind. She must avail herself of learning opportunities beyond the degree in education to bring effective strategies and practices into the classroom for the benefit of all learners.

In her first year as a classroom teacher, Chorzempa met Noah, a sixth grader who could barely read at the first grade level. Chorzempa was determined to build a good rapport with Noah, about whose temper and attitude she had been warned. Midway during the school year, Noah tearfully expressed his frustration with his inability to read. Frustrated herself, and sad that she had failed, Chorzempa enlisted the aid of a colleague who met with Noah every day for reading, while Chorzempa continued to teach him writing and math. Noah made progress, and from that time, Chorzempa was determined to focus on meeting the needs of her students even if it meant relying, at…… [read more]


Childhood Education Skills and Career-Related Skills Summary Term Paper

… Childhood Education Skills and Career-Related Skills

Summary of Tasks and Responsibilities of Childhood Education Teachers

First and foremost, childhood education teachers are responsible for safeguarding the health and general welfare of children in their custody throughout the entire school day. This fundamental responsibility is always their most important concern and it includes a wide range of potential concerns. Childhood educators must protect children from hazardous conditions, from harm caused by other children, from exposure to idiosyncratic allergens, and they must also monitor their prescribed medication schedules.

Once the safety and well-being of all students is ensured, the responsibilities of childhood education teachers shifts to educating. In that regard, childhood educators have a unique opportunity and responsibility of introducing education to children in a manner that is conducive to their future educational success. Generally, that means presenting the concept of school in a positive manner that encourages children's curiosity and rewards their efforts instead of in a negative manner that dictates subject matter too strictly or pressures them to perform to avoid negative consequences or embarrassment. Ideally, childhood educators should endeavor to make sure that their students develop positive expectations from education that will motivate them to view their future education as an opportunity more than an unavoidable obligation.

Skills, Experience, and Educational Background of Childhood Education Teachers

In keeping with their foremost responsibility of keeping children safe and healthy, childhood education teachers must have basic skills and experience in the everyday care and supervision of children. Luckily, as a parent and as someone who has always been involved in caring for siblings and for children in my extended family, I have extensive experience in that area and I have developed good instincts and habits for recognizing potential problems and concerns before they materialize and for addressing those that are unavoidable.

Childhood educators should…… [read more]


Adult Learning Ranking of Relevance Essay

… ¶ … Adult Learning

Ranking of Relevance of the Components of What we Know About Adult Learning

With regard to what we know about adult learners, these are the most relevant reasons to me:

(1) Adults need to be able to integrate new ideas with what they already know if they are going to keep - and use - the new information (from curriculum design).

(2) Adults prefer self-directed and self-designed learning projects over group-learning experiences led by a professional, they select more than one medium for learning, and they desire to control pace and start/stop time (from curriculum design).

(3) the more life change events an adult encounters, the more likely he or she is to seek out learning opportunities. Just as stress increases as life-change events accumulate, the motivation to cope with change through engagement in a learning experience increases (from motivation to learn).

(4) Adults who are motivated to seek out a learning experience do so primarily because they have a use for the knowledge or skill being sought. Learning is a means to an end, not an end in itself (from motivation to learn).

(5) Regardless of media, straightforward how-to is the preferred content orientation. Adults cite a need for application and how-to information as the primary motivation for beginning a learning project (from curriculum design).

(6) Adults tend to take errors personally and are more likely to let them affect self-esteem. Therefore, they tend to apply tried-and-true solutions and take fewer risks (from curriculum design).

(7) Adults bring a great deal of life experience into the classroom, an invaluable asset to be acknowledged, tapped and used. Adults can learn well -and much - from dialogue with respected peers (from in the classroom).

(8) Nonhuman media such as books, programmed instruction and television have become popular with adults in recent years (from curriculum design).

(9) Increasing or maintaining one's sense of self-esteem and pleasure are strong secondary motivators for engaging in learning experiences (from motivation to learn).

(10) the learning environment must be physically and psychologically comfortable; long lectures, periods of interminable sitting and the absence of practice opportunities rate high on the irritation scale.

Reflection Upon Ranking:

When I first began ranking my choices, my number one and number three choices were the same which reinforces that which I firmly believe: that learning taken out of context will go in one of my ears and out the other. When either the professor or myself is able to draw a connection of a concept to something I have previously experienced or have knowledge about, then I can think through the concepts…… [read more]


Adult Education Lesson Cognition vs. Metacognition Essay

… Adult Education

Lesson

Cognition vs. Metacognition

There are significant differences between learning and learning how to learn. Learning is a cognitive strategy, whereas learning how to learn is metacognitive. According to the cognitive approach, learning involves interaction and experience, and learning is scaffolded upon previously learned information (Wirth & Perkins, 2008). The cognitive viewpoint suggests that learning can be defined as not only knowing information, but knowing how to use it. This is different, however, from learning how to learn, which is metacognitive. Metacognition is a term which essentially means 'thinking about thinking.' Metacognition involves the use of higher order thinking skills to regulate one's learning. Sternberg suggests that "the ability to appropriately allocate cognitive resources, such as deciding how and when a given task should be accomplished, is central to intelligence" (Sternberg, 1984 as cited by Livingston, 2003). Livingston (2003) defines metacognitive strategies as "sequential processes that one uses to control cognitive activities, and to ensure that a cognitive goal (e.g., understanding a text) has been met." She indicates that metacognitive and cognitive strategies work together and often overlap. To demonstrate this overlap, Livingston uses the example of a person who is preparing to take a math exam. This person uses cognitive and metacognitive strategies by recognizing the fact that he has difficulty solving word problems (metacognitive) so he chooses to answer the other types of problems first (cognitive) and save the word problems for last. Metacognitive and cognitive strategies often overlap because a person who is aware of his or her own thinking will cognitively apply their awareness to maximize their learning experiences.

Sternberg: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Robert J. Sternberg is an American psychologist who specializes in intelligence research. One of his major accomplishments was the development of the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. According to his definition, intelligence can be divided into three main groups, namely analytical, creative,…… [read more]


Teaching Scenarios Case Study

… Teaching Scenarios, v

Scenario #3 -- the Use of Literature in the Classroom Program- Level

Classroom Decision Making- the use of literature to teach reading literacy is well-documented in pedagogy as a way children can enter the world of literature,… [read more]


Learning Styles Cognitive Learning Styles and Nonverbal Communication Essay

… Learning Styles, Cognitive Learning Styles and Nonverbal Communication

Bilingual education and learning styles: Personal reflections

Learning a new language is by definition a multisensory experience. One of the difficulties some new students of a language have is the challenge of… [read more]


Theory of Reflective Learning Research Paper

… ¶ … Traditional forms of learning do not take into account what learners learn and how they learn it (Peters, 2000). Constructivists, such as Peters look at learning as being built or constructed by individuals, in contrast to information that… [read more]


Overrepresentation of African-American Males in Special Education Thesis

… Special education programs abound throughout the United States. Such programs are needed and beneficial for many students that have problems remaining in general education classrooms. However, over the last few decades African-American males have represented a disproportionate amount of special… [read more]


Teacher Motivation Research Proposal

… Teaching is one of the professions that many and indeed probably even most people enter with a large measure of idealism. They seek out education as a profession not for the salary or the benefits (despite the belief of many… [read more]


Living Learning Environment Program Thesis

… Living-Learning Environment/Program

Livinglearning Environment/Program

"The more effort students put into their experiences, or the more involved or engaged students are with their college environments, the more likely they are to exhibit positive cognitive and affective development"

(Inkelas & Weisman, 2003,… [read more]


Differentiated Instruction in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom Research Proposal

… Differentiated Instruction in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom

Differentiation in the Self-Contained Special Education Classroom: A Defense of Differentiation and the Importance of Special Education Environments

Thanks to the No Child Left Behind Act, increasing educational research, and a revitalized… [read more]


Adult Education, Literature Review in Contemporary Western Research Proposal

… Adult Education, Literature Review

In contemporary Western culture, may adults incorrectly assume that school and learning is a process reserved for children. May adults believe themselves incapable of relearning, hence the popular cliche, "You can't teach an old dog new… [read more]


Health Education and Technology Evolution Thesis

… Health Education and Technology Evolution
Health Education concerns a deeply complex subject and yet is often
one of the less formalized compulsory courses in one's formative education.
The engagement over subjects such as nutrition, lifestyle, substance
abuse, sexual behavior and other bio-social concerns is important, but
little in the way of substantive evolution has marked the instruction or
curriculum of health education. However, new computing technologies are
lighting a path to the advancement of the discipline.
Most particularly, access to online stores of knowledge and
information, as well as the availability of sophisticated software designed
to meet the specific demands of the subject are enhancing opportunities in
the field. Indeed, for the instructor, the opportunities which are
presently available to him or her as a product of these technologies are
diverse in nature and providing of a greater arsenal of instruments for
gaining students' attention and gauging individual learning needs. This is
important because the relevance of health education…… [read more]


Technology in Contemporary Education Technology Plays Thesis

… Technology in Contemporary Education

Education technology plays a significant role in modern course design and development, particularly since the onset of the computer revolution. Educators have realized the value of alternatives to the traditional passive, lecture-based approach to course design and development for at least several decades (Adams & Hamm, 1994; Gardner, 2000). The introduction of computer technology to academic education has dramatically increased the range of effective non-traditional course design and development.

The modular approach to education has proven effective in both academic environments and in the practical professional training realm (Michea, Phelps, & Johnson, 2002). It allows the organization of topics into specific modules that correspond to practical applications of academic knowledge and training. The systems approach is useful in terms of designing curricula that correspond to the prevailing needs of professional business, but is less helpful in developing individual course design.

Technological evolution has profoundly influenced curriculum design and deployment in the healthcare education industry,…… [read more]


My Philosophy of Education Thesis

… ¶ … Philosophy of Education

When it comes to my philosophy of education, I lean more toward essentialism. Essentialists believe that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way.… [read more]


Effects Impact of Technology in Learning of Elementary School Special ED Students Thesis

… ¶ … technology in learning of elementary school special ed. Students

Action Research Paper:

Effects and Impact of Technology in Learning of Elementary School Special Education Students

The use of technologies to assist in the teaching of special education elementary… [read more]


Otto Peters Thesis

… Otto Peters (1997) Industrialized Teaching and Learning is as close to a chastisement of education, and certainly academics, for failing to recognize the potential for distance education and learning. For Peters, the lack of pedagogy on the subject arose out of academia's limited scope of impending change, and academics inability to think out of the box. Peters says that main stream institutions missed the boat by not taking seriously the trend towards distance education and learning. Academics continue to criticize distance education and learning instead of recognizing the opportunities that distance education and learning creates for professors, especially those whose work in teaching is highly sought by students, but limited by classroom and the commitment to a single institution. Peters says that distance education and learning is wrongly categorized by academics as industrialized education, and this is an accurate point. The industrial revolution has passed, and we are in the age of a technological revolution. Distance education and learning is, and always has been, the product of the growing move towards the world reliance on technology.

While Peters says that the relationship between industrialization and teaching has come to describe the relationship between the teacher and the learning process. Peters says:

But the concept of industrialised teaching and learning no longer refers to the application of individual or even several principles of industrialisation, but to the analogy between the teaching and learning process and the process of industrial production (Peters, 2)."

Use of the term "industrialization" to describe any relationship in the age of technology is outdated, and out of touch. Efforts to portray it as a necessity of industrialization, because many of the students of early industrialization were factory shift workers. This might have been accurate as a description of the students who were taking the courses, but it is difficult to say whether or not those students constituted a majority of the students utilizing distance learning. Also, in today's age of technology, it is no longer accurate to description the utilization of distance education and learning as a product of industrialization at any level. In fact, and Peters points this out, distance education and learning really is not about the relationship between the instructor and the learning process anymore. Distance education and learning is about where society is at now. Peters quotes Rumble, saying:

Greville Rumble (1995a, 19) is also of the opinion that regarding industrialisation as typical of distance education is incorrect, because proof can also be shown of the industrialisation of teaching and learning in classrooms and group instruction. If trends towards industrialisation can be verified in traditional universities, these critics claim that the characterisation of distance education…… [read more]


Education Mcintyre Discusses Various Paradigms of Research Thesis

… Education

McIntyre Discusses Various Paradigms of Research

What are the different rules and assumptions of these paradigms?

The different rules and assumptions of these paradigms all revolve around how adult education is conducted, and how it should change to incorporate more ideas and research principles. One accepted paradigm that the author wants to change is the participation paradigm, because it is outdated and has been done repeatedly. The rules of this paradigm include why people take distance education courses, why they chose distance education, and what they get out of the courses (if they participate). While these studies have been valid in the past, they have been done, and instead of rehashing old information, and making assumptions from this old information, new research and paradigms need to be created to create a new type of adult and distance education information.

Another paradigm is the context and structure of learning. Often, the rules regarding this are quite strict and inflexible, making adult learning and adult learners conform to certain educational molds, even though they represent very non-traditional learners. Distance education has to be delivered in certain ways, and research into new types of distance learning meet with resistance, because it is limited by frameworks and perhaps the researchers own biases. Again, the author thinks researchers may have pre-established conjectures and assumptions about distance education before they start, so they follow the accepted rules and practices, and do not really come up with new results or ideas.

Social research is another paradigm the author promotes, as opposed to the idea of formal inquiry for scholarly purposes. He believes that advocacy and public interest organizations are more geared toward creating this type of research, because they are more open to new research methods instead of tied to the old "rules" and regulations of formal research. Social research is also more appropriate for adult education because most adult learners are out of the mainstream of higher education, and so, they have…… [read more]


Gunawardena's Viewpoint Thesis

… Gunawardena's remarks on distance learning, he makes the main points: acclimating educators and centers of education, universities and colleges, to an online environment where education information was once culled from, and now using that same environment to disseminate education. Gunawardena's second point was: how does cultural diversity impact distance learning, and how do educators ensure that the online process of education overcomes communication barriers, language barriers, to comply with learning standards and requirements. This is a brief reflection on these remarks, and the idea is to thoroughly discuss online education in a way that resolves Gunawardena's concerns.

Distance learning is going to increase, and it represents, as Gunawardena said, challenges to the educator, whose teaching style and methods will need to be adjusted to that technological transfer of teaching to learners. While this is a change, it is one that, as distance learning has become increasing utilized by colleges and universities, has been successful, which manifests itself by the increased numbers of courses being taught by distance learning. The educator's fears that distance learning will one day eliminate the educator's role in higher education, is unfounded, and seems to me rooted in the fear of the unknown. Educators will in fact become increasingly more important in distance education, and, like physicians, will be able to focus on their specialty in a way that affords them greater audiences in teaching. The expanded teaching audience should result in increased payment for the value of the educator's services to the educator.

Groups of educators will be able to form their own centers of academic services, apart from the college, and rather than being employees of a college or university, the educators will have an opportunity to realize greater potential in their value as educators as a business. The better the educator, the more…… [read more]


Teaching Adults by Griff Foley Thesis

… Teaching Adults by Griff Foley

How does Foley's perspective on teaching compare with your own understanding of teaching adults?

In the past, most of the articles and papers and books that were written about teaching were about young children, or teenagers - perhaps some people up to college age. That is not the same thing as adult learners, because many of them learn things quite differently than young children, and they often have to work harder to remember the same things. The issue of formal classroom learning is one that has been misunderstood for many years. There are individuals who study it and discuss how significant it is, and there are others that see it issues with it as some kind of made-up problem that is really not important enough to focus on.

Both of these are valid points-of-view but, in recent years, it has generally been accepted that formal classroom learning is still the best way for many people to learn, and that the study of it is important. The concern, however, is with what kinds of learning work the best, especially in the adult learner population. Both accelerated learning and suggestopedic learning have both been touted as working better for older learners than standard forms of classroom learning, but few studies into this issue have actually been performed.

There is a lot of evidence that accelerated learning, suggestopedic learning, and other different learning styles, such as extrinsic motivation, provide a better option for a lot of adult learners. Students who are allowed to learn through different styles fair better on tests and have a significantly higher average as a collective classroom group than students who do not have a different style of learning or teaching presented to them. Different learning styles, it would appear, would correlate with different teaching styles and also with motivation, in that the instructor creates different activities for the learners and rewards can be given for the learning of specific tasks. The types of rewards given are not as important as the fact that there was a reward at all.

Some of these reward/motivation ideas work better with children than adults, but all people have things that motivate them, and because of that there are many different options of that can be used where learning is concerned. Foley also seems to believe that there are a lot of different choices when it comes to adult learning. Not all people learn the same way, but children can more easily adjust to other learning styles and find ways that they can adapt. Adults have more of a difficulty with that, so giving them more learning styles is often the best choice if a person wants to find the best way to help them learn.

2.What is your reaction to Foley's emphasis on the idea that good teaching must be grounded in the passionate dedication of the adult teacher to his or her values?

It seems as though Foley is right. People who are passionate about…… [read more]


Motivation and Learning Essay

… Learning Motivation

Learning and Motivation in the TAFE Program

The TAFE program at the Alpha College is designed to help students from low income areas and students who are in need of various support services to achieve their degree ambitions.… [read more]


Failed Policy Term Paper

… Failure of Special Education

The Failure of the Current System of Special Education Teachers

Many new schools are popping up all over the country which specialize in the education of specific cases of students with learning disabilities. This is both positive and negative growth for a variety of reasons. Most teachers employed in special education programs are trained within one area of expertise, which leaves out a majority of the special needs population. With the shortage in certified special education teachers, essentially thousands of special needs students are not getting the proper assistance they need in order to fulfill State standards. Many teachers who were trained in one particular area are now filling the teacher shortage, and this leaves many special needs students in the hands of professionals who were not trained how to deal with wider variations of disabilities; the school system of the United States is essentially failing in its obligations to its special needs populations.

A large number of special education teachers "work with mild to moderate disabilities, using the general education curriculum, or modifying it, to meet the child's individual needs," (U.S. Department of Labor). These general education standards do not always provide the best academic strategies to fit the needs of many special needs students who have proven their inability to respond to more general education practices. Various special needs students are then grouped into various categories of physical, mental, and emotional disabilities. These categories include trouble with speech, learning disabilities, behavioral issues, autism, and physical disabilities, "Students are classified under one of the categories, and special education teachers are prepared to work with specific groups," (U.S. Department of Labor). Every state in the United States requires special education teachers to hold special licenses. Many states implement a system where teachers are required to get normal certification, and then choose one field of disabilities as the specialty they…… [read more]


Teaching Math Concepts to Improve Test Scores Term Paper

… Elementary Measurement: Area, Perimeter, Volume



In an era of increased demands for teacher and student accountability, identifying better ways of delivering educational services represents a timely and worthwhile endeavor. There are some significant constraints involved in teaching… [read more]


Trends in Deaf Education Term Paper

… Deaf Education

Trends in Deaf Education

Teaching deaf children is a challenge for any educator. The Federal government mandates that the child has a right to receive the same education as the hearing population. However, sometimes providing this experience can… [read more]


Learning Communities: New York State Education Term Paper

… Learning Communities (New York State Education based)

What are they?

What is the mission and purpose?

What are their benefits?

How can they be implemented in the curriculum planning process?

Who established them?

Where did they originate?

When did they… [read more]


General Education Kindergarten and a Pre-K Classroom Term Paper

… ¶ … general education Kindergarten and a pre-K classroom for a period of eight weeks. In addition the writer observed an inclusion pre-K and an inclusion Kindergarten classroom for a period of eight weeks. The writer than explains how the preconceived notions about the students and teaching in general changed during these observations.

Observation Reflection

As I entered the idea of observing in a general education and inclusion education classroom for both Kindergarten and Pre-K levels I had many ideas about what I tought the students would be like and how they would benefit from their individual experiences in the classrooms.

As I began my eight-week observations however, I found that many of the ideas that I had prior to the observation period simply would not work or hold up in the reality of an everyday classroom. In addition I didn't understand how important inclusion is not only to the special needs students but to the students who are not special needs. The eight-week observation period in each classroom style with each age level encouraged me to develop new ideas and beliefs about the importance of inclusion at this age level and encouraged me to be open to new ideas in regular general education as well.

General Education Kindergarten

The general education classroom I was assigned to observe for eight weeks at the Kindergarten level was a classroom that was comprised of 15 students. Seven of those students were boys and eight of those students were girls.

Within the classroom the demographic makeup included one Hispanic non-English speaking boy and two bilingual girls. There was one African-American student, and two Asian students and the rest of the classroom population was Caucasian.

The inclusion Kindergarten classroom had a similar demographic makeup.

The general education Pre-K classroom was primarily African-American with three white children and one Hispanic child while the Inclusion classroom was made up of eight African-Americans, Six Caucasians and one Hispanic child.

Prior to Observing Kindergarten

Before entering the Kindergarten classroom I had beliefs that had been derived from my life and the lives of friends and their children who went to Kindergarten. I believed that they were basically all at about the same level emotionally, academically and physically. I thought that most children in the Kindergarten environment were ready to read but not yet reading, able to count but not do math and able to color within the lines. I quickly found out through my observations that it was not true and that this grade level perhaps more than any other grade level has a large number of abilities and needs in its population.

The children in the general education classroom varied from already able to read short chapter books to being unable to sound out the letters of the alphabet. In addition I observed the emotional gaps between students as some suffered from mild separation anxiety when their parents dropped them off, while others raced in without glancing back.

When I got into the classroom I also noticed… [read more]


Teacher Competence Term Paper

… Teacher Competence

As a profession that directly involves working with people, teaching is a very arbitrary profession. What constitutes "good" teaching is even more so, as definitions of good vary from person to person. Furthermore, perceptions of teaching vary from student to student, each of which has his or her own ideals and expectations regarding good teachers. Furthermore, each student has a history of teachers, largely shaping the perception of what a good teacher is. It is therefore necessary to take some distance when describing the properties regarding good teaching. A good teacher is more than just friendly and understanding, although these qualities are important in any profession that involves people and psychology. A good teacher, in my personal view, should connect with his or her students in a personal and targeted way. He or she should be in touch with not only with each student's needs, but also with the student's dreams and ambitions, and how these can be brought closer to reality through the subject matter being taught. Most importantly, the teacher has a responsibility to make the teaching experience enjoyable for students. Students tend to be more responsive to a learning experience that is associated with enjoyment than one associated with pain or worse, boredom.

The ideal of enjoyment is closely associated with Felicity Haynes' (1999) ideal of aestheticism in teaching. According to this author, the aesthetic experience tends to be marginalized in schools, as pragmatism, accountability and functionalism took precedence over teaching the arts for the sake of the arts. Even the arts themselves have become functional rather than aesthetic, with the focus turned away from inherent talent and towards what can be taught by means of art.

However, I agree with Ms. Haynes' later views that functionalism is not all that there needs to be in teaching. I would go one step further towards placing aesthetic appreciation alongside functionalism and pragmatism in an integrated rather than separate paradigm of teaching. In attempting to make subject matter not only palatable, but actively enjoyable for students, a teacher can incorporate a targeted sense of aesthetic enjoyment. Haynes broadens the concept from its normal association with the arts towards an association with the more "practical" subjects such as science, as well.

Aesthetic enjoyment can also be used to bring about the integrated sense of humanity that has become so important in the more tolerant 21st century. Multicultural classrooms can for example learn to appreciate the aesthetics of the art from a variety of cultures. In the scientific classroom, children can learn to appreciate the visual beauty created by combining certain formulae. Nature, as Haynes also states, can also be appreciated in an aesthetic sense for its beauty and uncorrupted wildness.

While aesthetic appreciation is conventionally associated with the visual and the other physical sense perceptions, it can also relate to other forms of enjoyment, such as the imaginative appreciation of literature.…… [read more]


Teacher Disposition Similarities and Differences Between Elementary and Secondary School Teachers Term Paper

… Teacher Disposition: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

The objective of this work is to research and examine the similarities and differences in teaching disposition between Elementary and Secondary school teachers and to answer the question of… [read more]


Teaching Reading Term Paper

… Teaching: Lesson Plans

Teaching Methods in Education: Teaching Reading Fluency

The objective of this work is to design a plan to integrate fluency teaching strategies by (1) identifying a minimum of five fluency building strategies; (2) provide an explanation and rationale for each strategy; (3) describe how three reading fluency activities will be included in the Dr. Seuss unit; and (4) include a rationale for each activity (strategy).

Activities for early literacy programs include the activities as follows:

Listening to stories, poems and expository text;

Telling and retelling stories and nursery rhymes;

Singing and chanting (including the alphabet song)

Discussing word meanings, ideas, books and experiences;

Making predictions about words and stories (Building A Powerful Reading Program: From Research to Practice, 2003)

Activities that can be used in schools that teach children "concepts about print and foster a love of reading" include reading to children daily, using books with predictable patterns, repetition and rhyme and is inclusive of the following:

Labeling children's cubbies and work areas;

Listing birthdays, chores, and daily activities;

Teaching page arrangement, directionality and story structure through repeated readings and repetitive texts (big books are especially useful for these purposes)

Noting words that begin or end with the same sound, words with the same pattern, and punctuation cues;

Sharing wonderful stories and informational literature;

Creating and posting student-generated stories (Building A Powerful Reading Program: From Research to Practice, nd)

Phonemic awareness can be fostered by teaching children a general awareness of: (1) rhyming; (2) blending; (3) segmentation; (4) initial sound; (5) final sound; and (6) medial sound. Findings of the National Institute for Literacy published in the work entitled: "Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read" states five critical areas of reading instruction which are those of: (1) phonemic awareness; (2) phonics; (3) fluency; (4) vocabulary; and (5) test comprehension. (National Institute for Literacy, 2003) The National Institute for Literacy publication states that: "Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. Before children learn to read print, they need to become aware of how the sounds in words work." (National Institute for Literacy, 2003) Further related is that: "Phonemes are the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that makes a difference in the word's meaning." (National Institute for Literacy, 2003) The example given is the difference in the phoneme in the word hat when 'h' changes to 'p' and the word changes to pat.

The National Institute of Literacy states that: "Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters of written language and the individual sounds of spoken language. It teaches these children to use these relationships to read and write words. Teachers of reading and publishers of programs of beginning reading instruction sometimes use different labels to describe these relationships, including the following: (1) graphophonemic relationships; (2) letter-sound associations; (3) letter-sound correspondences; (4) sound-symbol correspondences; and (5) sound-spellings." (nd) The example given is the difference in the way… [read more]


Personal Learning Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … personal learning theory. The author incorporates the works of Albert Bandura to explain the elements of the learning theory and how it is incorporated into the classroom practice. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

When… [read more]


Co-Teaching Amy's Story Perfectly Illustrates Term Paper

… Regularly scheduled meetings will enable Amy and her co-teachers like Joe to work on their lesson plans, discuss problematic areas of concern, and offer each other feedback. The rationale behind the meetings is that they will ensure that the two teachers will have an open forum with which to discuss their needs rather than try to squeeze their comments into brief moments before or after class. Regular meetings also ensure that the lesson plans are being followed and that the educational goals are being met. Amy and Joe would also be able to experiment with different co-teaching methods: one teaches/one drifts; alternate co-teaching; and parallel co-teaching and discuss their experiences during meetings. The co-teachers can also discuss their student's progress and other specific issues related to their classroom. Meetings can be scheduled at the beginning or at the end of each week.

However, before regularly scheduled meetings become a reality for Amy and her co-teachers, the principal must become more open to allowing Amy to use her school time for meetings. The soundest option is to schedule Amy and Joe's planning period together. Alternatively, the principal could set up a time during which the two teachers could meet in the library. Ideally, the principal should attend a few of these meetings each year. The rationale behind involving the principal in co-teaching processes is that collaboration with the principal will enable her to understand what co-teaching entails. The process would improve communication and understanding among all parties. If other special education teachers or mainstream teachers in the school are interested in co-teaching they could also attend the meetings to get a better idea of what co-teaching entails.

Ideally, this three-part plan involving shared lesson plans, regularly scheduled meetings, and increased contact between teachers and the principal should be implemented immediately. The proposed action plan would immensely help eliminate some of the tension that Amy and Joe experienced as they floundered without having any clear-cut goals or plans regarding their co-teaching.… [read more]


Teaching Theory Adult Teaching Theory the Bigge Term Paper

… Teaching Theory

Adult Teaching Theory

The Bigge & Shermis, Learning Theories for Teachers Table 1.1 stresses the divisions between different theories of learning. For example, behaviorist theories, such as the process of Skinnerian Operant Conditioning proposes that a student or subject is highly influenced by the conditioning and influences of his or her teacher. This stands opposed to more student-empowered theories such as Vygotsky's Thought and Language Theory and Bruner's Cognitive-Interactionist, Narrative-Centered Psychology. Both of these philosophies stress the dialogue between teacher and student over the course of the learning process. Bandura's Linear-Interactionist Social Cognitive vs. Cognitive-Field Interactionist Theory of Learning stress, respectively, the developmental nature of human learning vs. A more holistic acquisition of knowledge.

Malcolm Knowles' theory of adult learning substantiates the developmental concept in his stress upon the difference of adult's way of learning vs. A child's way of learning. Knowles places a greater stress upon student-determined learning objectives and drawing from the adult learner's past experiences. Knowles conception of humankind's moral and actional nature states that as person matures his or self-concept as a student moves from one of being a dependent personality toward a concept of becoming a self-directed human being. In other words, rather than the directional focus of child-centered learning, where student's learning is brought to fruition via various outside pressures, adults must take responsibility of their own education. Adults wish to do so, as this gives them the fullest sense of empowerment as people. The readiness, motivation, and orientation to learn increase with age, and past experience becomes basis for transfer of learning.

The emphasis in teaching must be on andragogy, in adult learning, not pedagogy, said Knowles. Although Smith (2002) sees Knowles attempts to merge humanistic and behaviorist theories of learning as 'dodgy,' it is equally possible to say that Knowles skillfully merges the…… [read more]


Standards-Based Education Term Paper

… Standards-Based Education

Education of all students in United States has to reach the same standard, at least in a particular state. That is the main reason why standards-based education was set up in the country, and since it has existed… [read more]


Technology Learning Environ New Term Paper

… Similarly, engineers need to take into account the diverse needs of a heterogeneous society when developing educational technologies. Sociological and psychological studies can lend insight into the particular ways educators and engineers can tailor their research, development, and implementation programs.

Implementing new technologies into the existing classroom environment will be challenging, requiring a structural reworking of the school's physical infrastructure as well as a remodeling of the school curriculum. In order for technology to reach its maximum potential it must be seamlessly integrated into each school. Learning styles, variances in cognitive styles, linguistic background, cultural needs, and disabilities must be taken into account in order to develop the most accessible educational technologies. Finally, using technology for educational ends must be in accordance with the changing needs of the marketplace. Educators can use technologies to show students the relevance of their particular skills, talents, and motivations for particular vocational or career sectors. Technology can and will be an immense boon to education, facilitating the role of educators and helping students find learning more fun, accessible, and relevant to the modern world.… [read more]


Planning Term Paper

… Students tended to calm down fast using these techniques; most educators I have spoken to agree that yelling doesn't work. Maintaining control in the classroom works best via simple methods.

Furthermore, I helped students keep their attention on the material… [read more]


Transformational Learning More Than Twenty-Five Term Paper

… Clark and Wilson state that Mezirow's claim that indiviudals have difficulty changing because their world views become habits of the mind, frames of reference lacks appropriate context. Conext reflects the personal and socio-cultural factors that play an influencing role in the process of transformative learning. These factors, as identified by Clark and Wilson, include the surroundings of the immediate learning event, made up of the personal and professional situation of the individual at that time and the more distant background context involving the familial and social history that has influenced the individual growing up.

5.0 Higher Education

Transformative learning should be implemented in higher education with caution for a variety of reasons. First, as explained throughout this research, there is no commonly accepted model of transformative learning. Therefore, it's not clear if transformational learning should be approached as a rational process or through more intuitive, imaginative processes. Secondly, studies by Taylor (1998) reveal that not all learners and teachers are predisposed to engage in transformative learning and that adult learning situations do not always lend themselves to transformative learning.

If transformative learning is a goal of adult education, there are commonalities across transformative models that teachers should keep in mind. Often, too much emphasis has been placed on the role of the teacher at the expense of the learner (Taylor, 1998). Instead, according to Taylor, the teacher's role should be to establish an environment that builds trust and care and facilitates the development of sensitive relationships among learners. Further, the teacher sets the stage for transformative learning by serving as a role model and demonstrating a willingness to learn and change by expanding and deepening understanding of and perspectives about both subject matter and teaching (Cranton 1994).

To reconcile different models of transformation such as Mezirow's and Boyd's, it may be helpful to consider them both as playing a role in transformative learning. Although historical emphasis has been on transformative learning as a rational process, teachers need to consider how they can help students connect the rational and the affective by using feelings and emotions both in critical reflection and as a means of reflection (Taylor 1998).

6.0 Summary Conclusion

The four major models of transformative learning: the cognitive-rational approach of Mezirow, Freire's social transformation, the concept of development by Daloz and spirituality dimensions advocated by Dirkx and Healey as well as the different views of transformative learning described by Mezirow, Boyd, and Clark and Wilson suggest that no single mode of transformative learning exists today. Differences in learning contexts, learners, and teachers all affect the experiences of transformative learning. Because people learn in different but interwoven ways, educators should not see transformative learning as the only goal of education (Cranton 1994). Although adult learning situations do not necessarily lend themselves to transformative learning, studies suggest that it offers potentiation that should be understood and appreciated by adult educators.

Bibliography

Boyd, R.D., and Myers, J.G..(1988, October-December). Transformative education. International Journal Of Lifelong Education 7, no. 4, 261-284.

Clark, M.C., &… [read more]


My Educational Philosophy Term Paper

… Education

As an educator, I am ready to take anything that helps me understand and teach children better, but overall my philosophy could best be labeled as "constructionist." I believe that as a teacher, all my knowledge and experiences have led me to understand the world as I do. Both the things I have been formally taught and the things I have experienced have contributed to my large education.

Adults construct rules and "mental models" to help them understand the world around them. If we treat the children we teach with true respect, we will realize that they do the same thing. As they have new experiences, they form rules that are sort of like test hypotheses. They actively compare their conclusions, "the rules," to new experiences. They refine the rules and build their own mental models. This is the learning process -- the act of finding meaning in and making sense of the world around us. When children are taught well I believe the learning experience needs to be both interactive and hands-on. By interactive, I mean more than the teacher and student interacting with the lesson. I mean that in addition, the student needs to have hands-on experience with the subject whenever possible. So, for instance, it makes far more sense to teach children about weights and measures by actually having them weigh and measure things for a purpose: if a box label says it will hold 25 lb., how many copies of the dictionary will it hold? If we measure the table and the space between the bookcases, we can be sure whether the table will fit there or not before moving it.

Thus it stands to reason that children should be taught those things they are ready for based both on development and prior experiences. Since learning involves understanding the world around us, the chlidren's families and communities should play an important role in the educational process. This will help them tie what they learn to real life, and learning won't merely be abstract concepts presented from books and on worksheets. It will have everyday meaning for them.

This means that the best educational environment for children will be one that encourages exploration and allows them to experiment, test hypotheses and hunches, and encourage them to draw a variety of conclusions. Such a teaching approach will emphasize the process of discovering information rather than simply focusing on "right" and "wrong" answers.

In formal education, all teaching environments are headed by teachers. A teacher who teaches in such an exploratory environment will need to be curious, open to new ways of looking at old problems, and a person who respects children as thinkers and learners. Such a teaching approach also requires someone who understands the wider community in which the child and the school exist. For instance, if the children live in a community with a significant Hispanic or other ethnic population, the teacher should incorporate examples from the whole of that environment, not just the things… [read more]


Direct Instruction: The Effect Term Paper

… In her journal article "Effective instruction begins with purposeful assessments" Cobb (2003) points out that building administrators and reading specialists have to take a leadership role and help teachers differentiate between assessment and evaluation. Further Cobb suggests that teaching will… [read more]


Adult Education Within Human Resources Term Paper

… Meanwhile, a scholarly and well-thought-out piece in Adult Education Quarterly (Glastra, et al., 2004), speaks to many issues within the context of "Lifelong Learning" (LLL), and sees the big picture of today's workplace and learning dynamics. Indeed, the article, which… [read more]


Distance Learning Term Paper

… Both the lecture sessions and the course laboratory require substantial individual study, concentration, and practice to demonstrate mastery of related concepts. Likewise, ME 172 has enduring linkages to industrial practices.

The Distant Education component offered a fifty-minute connection made three… [read more]


Co-Teaching Strategy Best for Learning Thesis

… Co-Teaching Strategies

Which Co-teaching Strategies is the Best for High School

Since the U.S. government has enacted the NCLB (No Child Left Behind) Act in 2001, schools in the United States have been searching for a quality educational delivery option… [read more]


Educational Challenges Term Paper

… Moving to what it is and what it isn't, the resource clearly mentions that differentiated instruction includes instruments such as multiple assignments that fit the needs of all the students in the classroom, creative learning centers and giving options to students so that they may turn their attention towards those areas of study that are of most interest to them.

It is very important, and this resource emphasizes this, to understand what differentiated instruction is not, among these overburdening high achieving students or focusing on weaknesses.

Classroom space

Instructional goals and classroom space (http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/738?ref=search)

This resource is associated to the Lean NC program, which is a program with the University of North Carolina that aims to identify good educational practices and make them available to teachers and professors throughout North Carolina (since this is a website, one can assume that the goal is to popularize these notions to the greatest degree possible).

This article is particularly interesting because it tells the purpose and role of the classroom space from the very beginning. The role is to arrange the classroom to "meet your pedagogical goals." Based on this overarching concept, the author makes several recommendations about what makes a good educational environment from a space perspective. This includes flexible spaces, giving the students the possibility of moving around the classroom and even of rearranging the space, particularly for different activities.

It is also interesting how the classroom space is intrinsically linked to cultural diversity in the classroom. One recommendation is to group students in the classroom according to different cultural backgrounds. This is a point that works well when referring to cultural diversity too. It encourages students to be open and communicative with people who are different than them and, in the entire educational process, it also increases the value of the individual, as he gains more knowledge about groups different from his own.

So, classroom space should take into consideration a wider spectrum of elements, including the educational aspect, cultural diversity, communication issues/elements or particular deficiencies of the students (students with visual deficiencies, for example, should sit in the front).

Project Para -- Paraeducator Self-Study Program-lesson 1 (http://para.unl.edu/legacy/Organization/lesson1.php)

This project helps schools with online training and lessons for paraeducators. There are several topics, one of which, discussed in lesson 1, is the organization of the classroom, namely managing classroom space and materials. As the lesson points out from the very beginning, in line with what was discussed in the previous resource, the best option for the classroom space is one that "promotes efficient learning and minimize behavior problems."

The educator aims to have an environment that encourages the student in the learning process, supports his creativity and social skills and helps him develop. At the same time, the educator aims to reduce potential risks to the educational environment, namely to reduce threats that would cause different behavioral problems, including conflicts between students.

The online lesson presents several suggestions for the arrangement of the classroom. Some of them are extremely useful,… [read more]


CEC Website Review Founded Research Paper

… b) Children with gifted minds or creative capabilities require special schools in order to fully develop their advanced capabilities.

c) A toddler under 3 years of age risks experiencing a substantial developmental delay if early intervention services are not provided.

Teachers of grades 1-12 can inform themselves of these exceptional conditions and help raise awareness in schools so that the relevant children of the society get the treatment and education they truly deserve.

Conclusion

The CEC website is an education portal which hits on all fronts of the relevant subjects in the area of special education. The website design takes good care of the fact that audiences with disabilities may use the site and thus ensures a perfectly legible, clutter-free experience to the user. The website features its own store and community which makes it a complete portal for anyone seeking information about special education.

URL: https://www.cec.sped.org/

Bibliography

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) (n.d.). Special Edition Topics.

Retrieved October 22, 2013, from Council for Exceptional Children web site: http://www.cec.sped.org/Special-Ed-Topics

Chrysan (2012, May 7). How to Review A Website.

Retrieved October 22, 2013, from Hub pages web site: http://chrysan.hubpages.com/hub/How-to-Review-a-Website

Rand Fishkin (2011, October 27). A Framework for Site Reviews (with Examples).

Retrieved October 22, 2013, from Moz web site: http://moz.com/blog/a-framework-for-site-reviews… [read more]


Curriculum Laws and Gifted Education Essay

… Curriculum Development

What historical or political occurrences do you think have most influenced current curriculum design?

The social and political history of the United States has always had an influence on schools and the curricula schools devise for their students.… [read more]


Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete Dissertation

… ¶ … Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete High School

Richard Wieringo

This case study explores the experiences of students with disabilities who have dropped out of high school, so as to identify related factors that led to their… [read more]


Different Preferences in Learning Between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting Dissertation

… ¶ … Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on results. This study investigates the role of culture in the learning… [read more]


IEP Project Term Paper

… Individualized Education Program - Shawn

IEP

Individualized Education Program -- Shawn

Individualized Education Plan -- Shawn

CONFIDENTIAL

Educational Assessment

Shawn Date of Birth: 5/22/2000 Age

Ellicott Mills Middle Assessment Date: 11/23/12 Evaluator: R

Grade/Program: Remedial & Special Education w/Resource Room… [read more]


Faculty Support and Development in Curriculum Essay

… Nursing Curriculum Development

Curriculum Development:

The first required step before initiating an RN-to-BSN degree completion program is determining the need for such a curricular change. Indeed, this will ultimately call for application to accredited in this area. Therefore, the demanding process of change must be warranted within the community. This means that the initial step would be to explore the apparent need for professional development in the research and academic capacities of nursing. If it can be determined that adding the Bachelor's program to the community's offerings would substantially address the demand in the field for nurses who are thusly educated, it would be appropriate to proceed with the new curriculum development.

Resources required for making this a reality would include the funding for achieving accreditation, the support of faculty for developing a proper course of education and the means for preparing the faculty that would ultimately be required to administer to newly advanced path of learning. It is expected that it would require roughly two years of application and development before a new curriculum could be put into place.

Once done, the positive offshoot would be a more attractive range of course offerings for prospective students and a better set of presenting skills for graduates entering the job market. The only negative consequence anticipated would be the demand to bring new and differently skilled personnel onboard. With an adjustment period, this negative could be quickly erased.

Case #1:

1.

The most immediately pressing factor for Meadowvale is the apparent lack of applicability of current curriculum to the professional standards reflected on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses. A 20% failure rate, combined with a generally voiced discontent among the school's graduates, suggests that the current curriculum has become outdated relative to the demands and expectations of actual professional development. Therefore, Meadowvale is propelled by its declining performance to bring major change to a long-standing curricular orientation.

2.

The primary sources of support will be those personnel with whom Dr. Lopez has established a strong and positive working relationship. According to the case history, Lopez benefits specifically from a successful working relationship with faculty members, university administrators, and clinical and professional colleagues. This gives her a great opportunity to make inroads into development by selecting key members of the faculty to help drive the new curriculum home with colleagues. According to the Keating (2011) text, supportive faculty will be the most important source in both developing curriculum and working against the inevitable resistance that is likely to arise. Keating tells that "in a study of faculty perceptions of implementation of curriculum change, Powell-Cope, Hughes, Sedlak, and Nelson (2008) found that administrators, other faculty, and students who were 'champions for curricular change' were also identified as facilitators of successful implementation of the new curriculum." (Keating, p. 34)

This is especially true in a case where change has been necessitated by a 15-year curricular holding pattern. Many faculty professionals who have become too comfortable with the current system may prove… [read more]


Wright State University Website Review Web Content

… Library Resources

The University Libraries, consisting of the Paul Laurence Dunbar Library and the Fordham Health Sciences Library, are linked through the OhioLINK system and Internet to holdings of other major academic libraries in Ohio and to a wide range of databases for electronic research. The Department of Archives and Special Collections includes an African-American collection, as well as sections on the Wright brothers and early aviation history, local history, children's literature, and university history. In line with this, the university's electronic resources include more than 200 research databases, 8,000 electronic journals, and 22,000 e-books. This wide range of resources makes the search easier for e-learning materials. This makes it easier for students to search for books either alphabetically or by typing the author's name.

Critique Summary

The current website tends to render the student a passive viewer of the sparse material, rather than inviting them to be engaged participants. The Wright State University library website has many elements that need to be addressed to become an interactive and engaging proponent of the institution's mission. Therefore, there are several recommendations given essential for the reformation of the website to be fully efficient in tackling students' interactivity and accessibility of the e-learning resources.

Recommendations

It is important that the website entirely focuses on learning material for the students' by providing convenient access to information that links students to college resources thus promoting their development. Therefore, the site should target development of the whole person by providing opportunities that address the Social, Physical, Intellectual, Career, Emotional, and Spiritual (SPICES) aspects of student life. Despite students being the primary targeted audience, the site can serve as a resource for the campus community by providing information on the developmental tasks of students and the services available to address those tasks.

How website technology is coordinated in an institution is of prime concern. Collaborative opportunities are necessary to achieve coordinated information in development of web-based support services (Barratt, 2001). In line with this, student affairs professionals must provide leadership to help institutions respond to the changing needs of students. Inclusion of departments, divisions, and students as stakeholders in website development ensures consistency of college mission.

In order to implement online student services, ongoing evaluation of web-based support services, technical support, staff proficiency, and technological training are necessary to support all activities within the organization, increase effectiveness and productivity, and improve delivery service while providing flexibility for future change.

Student affairs-based websites do serve as a form of marketing. The focus of a student-centered website is to ensure that each student's first connection with the institution meets the quality, accuracy, and responsiveness expectations of today's students; the institution's customers. Student affairs websites can provide opportunity for a student to feel connected to the institution and its resources after they begin classes.

References

Barratt, W. (2001). Managing information technology in student affairs: A report on policies, practices, staff, and technology. Student Affairs Online, 2 .

Benedict, L.G. (1996). Technology and information systems. In S.R. Komives, D.B. Woodard… [read more]


Goal of Indiana Students Reading Proficiently Term Paper

… ¶ … goal of Indiana students reading proficiently by the end of 3rd grade for special Ed students, we will have to strengthen the initial program in reading. That basis must allow students to not only become skilled, but to… [read more]


Transformative Learning Theory in the Practice Article Review

… Transformative Learning Theory in the Practice of Adult Education:

One of the most powerful tools that have developed in the adult education field in understanding how adults learn is transformative learning. This aspect has attracted both researchers and practitioners from various theoretical persuasions and practice settings. Nonetheless, transformative learning is a complicated concept that provides significant hypothetical, practical, and moral challenges. According to an individual's theoretical perspective, the meaning of transformative learning and how it's effectively promoted within formal learning settings differs considerably. Educators of transformative learning are not necessarily involved in teaching content that is considerably different from increased instrumentally-oriented educators.

Since adult education is geared towards promoting critical consciousness among people and groups, the learning process helps adults to cultivate an increased understanding of the means with which social structures impact their beliefs and thoughts about themselves and the world. Therefore, the process is made up of action and reflection that are in dialectical or transactional relationship with one another (Dirkx, 1998). Consequently, education should promote freedom among learners through providing ways for these people to not only reflect on the world but also change it. As transformative learning enables adults to name the world and develop personal meaning of it, it's liberating at the individual and social level.

In consideration of adult learning as likely transformative, the process promotes the establishment and integration of learning content and processes within the lives of people involved in an educative capacity and social-cultural context where lives are rooted. As transformational learning is eternal, adult learning can be considered as transformational.

Reflection:

In explaining how adult learning is transformational, the author has divided the paper into various sections beginning with a discussion of what transformative learning is. The main sections are transformation as consciousness-raising, transformation as critical reflection, transformation as development,…… [read more]


Lives on the Boundary Research Paper

… This is shown by the fact that, although started as an under prepared student, he eventually becomes a leading teacher and educator.

References

Rose Mike, 1990, Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America's Educationally Underprepared, Penguin Books publishers.

INGLEBY, E., JOYCE, D., & POWELL, S. (2010).Learning to teach in the lifelong learning sector. New York, NY, Continuum International Pub. Group pp 7-15

FRANCIS, M., & GOULD, J. (2009). Achieving your PTTLS award: a practical guide to successful teaching in the lifelong learning sector. Thousand Oaks, CA, SAGE Publications. Pp 5-25

AVIS, J., FISHER, R., & THOMPSON, R. (2010).Teaching in Lifelong Learning: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Milton Keynes, Open University Press. P 21

FAIRCLOUGH, M. (2008). Supporting learners in the lifelong learning sector. Maidenhead, Open University Press. Pp 167-173

CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AWARD SCHEME. (1999). CPD: continuing professional development award. Manchester, CPDA Office.

STEWARD, A. (2009). Continuing your professional development in lifelong learning. London [u.a.], Continuum International Pub. Group. http://www.ebrary.com. Pp 56-67.

GREAT BRITAIN. (2010). Training of teachers: fourth report of session 2009-10. Vol. II, Oral…… [read more]


Characteristics That an Educated Person Should Possess Essay

… Educated person should possess the general knowledge needed for making informed rational decisions and inferences in their personal and intellectual life. One of the problems with this definition of an "educated person" is that it is extremely vague and open… [read more]


Professional Development Plan the Design Essay

… ¶ … Professional Development Plan

The design of professional development should be a result of a district's professional development planning process. It is best done as part of a comprehensive district plan in which the planning process includes, at a… [read more]

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