"Education / Teaching / Learning" Essays

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Transformative Learning Theory in the Practice Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Transformative Learning Theory in the Practice of Adult Education:

One of the most powerful tools that have developed in the adult education field in understanding how adults learn is transformative learning. This aspect has attracted both researchers and practitioners from various theoretical persuasions and practice settings. Nonetheless, transformative learning is a complicated concept that provides significant hypothetical, practical, and moral challenges. According to an individual's theoretical perspective, the meaning of transformative learning and how it's effectively promoted within formal learning settings differs considerably. Educators of transformative learning are not necessarily involved in teaching content that is considerably different from increased instrumentally-oriented educators.

Since adult education is geared towards promoting critical consciousness among people and groups, the learning process helps adults to cultivate an increased understanding of the means with which social structures impact their beliefs and thoughts about themselves and the world. Therefore, the process is made up of action and reflection that are in dialectical or transactional relationship with one another (Dirkx, 1998). Consequently, education should promote freedom among learners through providing ways for these people to not only reflect on the world but also change it. As transformative learning enables adults to name the world and develop personal meaning of it, it's liberating at the individual and social level.

In consideration of adult learning as likely transformative, the process promotes the establishment and integration of learning content and processes within the lives of people involved in an educative capacity and social-cultural context where lives are rooted. As transformational learning is eternal, adult learning can be considered as transformational.


In explaining how adult learning is transformational, the author has divided the paper into various sections beginning with a discussion of what transformative learning is. The main sections are transformation as consciousness-raising, transformation as critical reflection, transformation as development,…… [read more]

Lives on the Boundary Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This is shown by the fact that, although started as an under prepared student, he eventually becomes a leading teacher and educator.


Rose Mike, 1990, Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America's Educationally Underprepared, Penguin Books publishers.

INGLEBY, E., JOYCE, D., & POWELL, S. (2010).Learning to teach in the lifelong learning sector. New York, NY, Continuum International Pub. Group pp 7-15

FRANCIS, M., & GOULD, J. (2009). Achieving your PTTLS award: a practical guide to successful teaching in the lifelong learning sector. Thousand Oaks, CA, SAGE Publications. Pp 5-25

AVIS, J., FISHER, R., & THOMPSON, R. (2010).Teaching in Lifelong Learning: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Milton Keynes, Open University Press. P 21

FAIRCLOUGH, M. (2008). Supporting learners in the lifelong learning sector. Maidenhead, Open University Press. Pp 167-173

CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AWARD SCHEME. (1999). CPD: continuing professional development award. Manchester, CPDA Office.

STEWARD, A. (2009). Continuing your professional development in lifelong learning. London [u.a.], Continuum International Pub. Group. http://www.ebrary.com. Pp 56-67.

GREAT BRITAIN. (2010). Training of teachers: fourth report of session 2009-10. Vol. II, Oral…… [read more]

Characteristics That an Educated Person Should Possess Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Educated person should possess the general knowledge needed for making informed rational decisions and inferences in their personal and intellectual life. One of the problems with this definition of an "educated person" is that it is extremely vague and open to interpretation. While it seems to provide a rather specific definition, it contains terms such as "informed rational decision," and… [read more]

Professional Development Plan the Design Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,986 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Professional Development Plan

The design of professional development should be a result of a district's professional development planning process. It is best done as part of a comprehensive district plan in which the planning process includes, at a minimum, a collection of needs assessment data, i.e. student and teaching staff needs; root cause identification; proposed activities; identification of… [read more]

Faculty Student Interaction in Online Learning Environment Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  15 pages (3,854 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Student engagement is important when teaching any class. It is especially significant when faculty teach in the online learning environment where students are not only isolated from their instructor but from fellow students. Advances in online technologies are creating exciting opportunities for learning in the virtual space. Benefits of online learning are well-known, but online learning also has its disadvantages… [read more]

Education - Theory Adult Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,103 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


On the other hand, it is irrefutable that individual is a starting point of everything. The association between individual and social concerns in Humanist's view is adult education will become an agency of development if its short-time goal of self-improvement can be made companionable with a long-time, experimental but determined policy of altering the social order. It does not matter… [read more]

Education for Economy Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,049 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


An anticipatory focus on adult education in fact saves governments capital by decreasing societal healthcare, public assistance, and incarceration expenses. Adult education also advances and enlarges the countries' accessible pool of human capital by aiding motivated but under educated people attains profitable employment in today's more and more high-tech and international job market, and at a far lower price per… [read more]

Personal Initial Teaching Philosophy Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Personal Teaching Philosophy

When most people think of a personal teaching philosophy, they will often assume that it has something to do with the way that an educator is effectively reaching out to their students. While this is true, there is much more to how these kind ideas are developed and the way that it is utilized to create a sense of passion and excitement about learning. To fully understand the approach that is being taken requires conducting an assessment of: who you are as a person, the way that you will reach out to learners, the role of the educator and how effective collaboration will take place. This is the point, that a teacher will have a basic approach that will effectively reach the student in an entertaining fashion. Once this occurs, they will have a sense of enthusiasm about the material that is being presented and they can be able to build off of these ideas throughout the course of their lives. ("Getting Started on Your Personal Teaching Philosophy," 2011)

Regardless of the subject matter that is being taught, there are a number of critical elements that must be taken into account. The most notable include: the ends, the degrees that various concepts are being applied and why understanding this material is important. The ends is when you are clearly stating to the student the overall goals and concepts that they will learn during the class itself. This is significant, because when you are applying these basic ideas you are giving the student a direction to go in for: understanding a host of different concepts that are being presented in class. The way that this will apply to self-reflection is to use these ideas to instill a sense of anticipation about: what will be covered and how it will have an impact on the lives of students. This will help the individual to understand the most significant concepts that they that need to remember. At which point, they will have a greater comprehension of these ideas. For the educator, they are playing a dual role in teaching them these basic concepts and collaborating with everyone to have a better understanding of what is taking place. This is the point that they can be able to more effectively reach out to the student, in a way that will give them sense of accomplishment about the information that…… [read more]

Distance Learning Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Students will reap the benefits of this if they become a strong independent learner and become confident and positive about their own abilities to investigate and understand the world at large.

There are also disadvantages to distance learning that will impact the learning and ultimate principles of education if they are not properly understood and addressed. The availability of certain courses and the availability of certain programs are not as widespread as some may like. Certain universities and educational institutions do not offer distance learning programs for all of their offered curriculum. For younger students, availability of quality programs are hard to qualify due to the lack of regulations and standards available. Having a wide variety of courses available for students to select from or having a variety of elementary and secondary school distance learning programs will help eliminate this disadvantage when more programs are available for this type of method.

The quality of distance learning programs are often put into question. Bronack noted that "the explicitly social nature of our virtual world process more often and be more opportunities for the students to take their own path through these resources and activities together" (230). Living in a virtual world does not provide the same physical and emotional qualities that human interaction provides. Distance learning may have a negative impact on students getting along with each other in larger and more social situations. Too much time in a virtual world can tempt young students to become despondent and not interested in other important aspects of life. This disadvantage in distance learning needs to be taken into account if proper and suitable courses are to be used effectively within our society today.

This problem is further compounded when students fail to learn how to communicate orally with others. Distance learning programs provide the opportunity for students to communicate in written words, but as a disadvantage, oral communication skills and abilities may diminish. The ability to communicate with one another is very important in today's world and an education system that does not provide a useful set of these pertaining skills is not very valuable. Explaining and understanding what we have learned to others is the essence of an education and the ability for both students and teachers to become too isolated and too drawn off from society becomes a risk to a solid and whole education if this promise not understood and address properly.

Overall, distance learning education has both positive and negative impacts. Once understanding the definitions behind distance learning and putting these definitions through a logical examination it is evident there are many learning opportunities contained in this particular subject. Weighing both pros and cons is important and mandatory if one is to determine what is the best and the most logical way to address this idea. This consistently changing method of educating our citizens significantly affects our social communities and children in the future

Works Cited

Bronack, Stephen, Riedl, Richard, Tashner, John. "Learning in the Zone: A social… [read more]

Formative Assessments Popham Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Formative assessments are typically more valuable because they allow both student and teach to "check" for understanding and adapt accordingly.

Fisher 2 - Checking for understanding allows the instructor to find out what background knowledge students bring to the classroom, what they know during and after a lesson, if they are understanding the lesson, and models appropriate questioning methods that may be translated into learning opportunities. Understanding by design approaches a learning target backwards -- what is the outcome, goal or object for student learning; then plan the instructional methods accordingly.

Fisher 3 -- In a differentiated classroom, the learning targets, curriculum, and even subject focus are alignted to the specific needs of the student or learner. Checking for understanding is critical if targets are to be aligned to a specific population or group so that the instructor ensures that the learning targets are not only met summatively, but in a regular, formative manner as well.

Brookhart 1a -- Statements made by the instructor (or curriculum) based on specific standards that need to be met. Learning targets are student friendly in that they are specific to the lesson for the day and directly connected to whatever assessment is being made.

Brookart 1b -- For psychologists, metacognition is "cognition about cognition," in other words, knowing about knowing. Typically, it knowledge about when and how to use particular strageies for problem solving; awareness about how one is learning; for students, the higher order thinking skills that involve more than rote memory (Livington, 1997).


Fisher, D. And Frey, N. (2007). Checking for Understanding. Alexandria, VA: Association

for Supervisrion and Curriculum Development.

Livingston, J. (1997). Metacognition: An Overview. State University of New York at Buffalo. Cited in: http://gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/cep564/metacog.htm

Moss, C. Brookhart, S. (2009). Advancing Formative Assessment in Every Classroom.

Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Popham, W.J. (2008). Transformative Assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and…… [read more]

Statement of Teaching Philosophy to ESL Students Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (962 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Teaching Philosophy

As an ESL teacher, my most immediate and practical goal is the delivery of effective instruction that promotes English fluency in all students. With that core goal in mind, I have developed a teaching philosophy that blends and borrows from a variety of theoretical traditions including progressivism, pragmatism, and humanism. What these three theories share in common is a respect for the individual as well as respect for social harmony.

My students are by definition a diverse group of individuals from a wide range of backgrounds. They have different worldviews and different personal and academic goals. I intend to foster diversity by promoting the personal development of all students within the framework of the ESL classroom.

English has become the lingua franca of the world, necessary for the financial and social success of my students. Not only for their achievements in this country but also in other countries, students with English fluency ensure their future will be full of possibilities. At the same time, I recognize that English is only one of many hundreds of global languages. Far from creating a monolingual classroom, I will promote linguistic diversity and cultural exploration. My students need to capitalize on their multilingual heritage, which I will foster based on a teaching philosophy that is rooted in progressivism and humanism.

With a practical eye cast on the founding father of American education, I honor John Dewey's emphasis on pragmatism. This is why my classrooms are structured with pragmatism in mind. Students need hands-on ways to apply what they are learning both inside and outside the classroom. Active learning and frequent field trips to enhance classroom activities will promote pragmatic learning in the tradition of Dewey. Pragmatism is especially important for English language learners, because the essence of language is communication. Learners cannot master a language without regular instructive interactions with their peers and other members of the society. The pragmatic tools I use in the classroom vary to honor the diversity of learning styles, too. It is the pragmatic leg of my teaching philosophy that focuses on the daily activities and assessments that ensure students' second language acquisition.

Teachers too often rest on their laurels, ignoring opportunities for personal and professional development. Integral to my teaching philosophy is continual learning for both my students and me. My teaching philosophy centers on four main concepts, which can be represented by the acronym DEAL: Diversity, English, Application, and Long-term Learning.

Students learn a great DEAL in my classroom. With my students, I make a DEAL that I shall support each and every one of them in the achievement of their academic and personal goals. I honor and value different learning styles. We shall set goals together at the onset of each class. Collectively, the class establishes goals that are meaningful to them and which promote collaboration and cooperation within the diverse classroom. Goals are related…… [read more]

Biggest Challenge in Education Today Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … biggest challenge in education today is the daily ability of teachers to strike a balance between teaching to prepare students for rigorous high stakes tests as well as teaching in a way that is creative and engaging to build creativity and intrinsic desire to learn (Longo, 2010). In my own practice site this balance is an obvious and daily struggle as entire blocks of time preceding testing are set aside to make sure that students are fully prepared for the testing process and the material. I believe this happens in most public school classrooms and though it seems a challenge to ethically administer material in such a way that it is not deemed as cheating would be difficult but entirely depends on the material presented and what the high stakes test is testing for. Any preparation for a test that is considered an assessment test would seem to be ethically murky, as traditionally these tests are meant to organically check the existing curriculum to see what the students are learning, yet these test seem to get more and more specialized as the years go on, testing for far more specific materials and it would seem lax and even irresponsible not to prepare children in some way for what they will face in the testing material.

Depending on the material there would seem to be a way to align curriculum to meet testing expectations without stressing out students and in a way that is creative enough to engender engagement, but again this is the balance that must be struck. Teachers often are given little choice as they are often relegated to specific materials, i.e. structured pre-exam material that they are mandated to work on in the classroom in preparation for testing. The biggest problem with much of this added material is that memorizing facts and processes does not engender creativity or thinking skills and as facts and focuses change over time the noted inability to think and innovate in learning becomes a problem in the long-term and could be seen as a huge failing of our education system (Gallagher 2010). In my experience in the classroom the material mandated to prepare students for assessment does not engender independent learning skills or ask the student to think about anything beyond the fear and frustration associated with the unknown and the test itself.…… [read more]

Proletarianization and Professionalization Politics of Educational Reform Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Proletarianization and Professionalization

Politics of Educational Reform in Alberta and Teacher's Struggle against Proletarianization

In the 1990s, Canadian educational system went through a series of reforms. The province of Alberta, under the leadership of Premier Ralph Klein and the Progressive Conservatives, took a lead role in implementing these reforms. The reforms were rooted in neo-liberal and neo-conservative ideologies and aimed… [read more]

Assessment and Monitoring in Special Education Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Classroom Management

Effective classroom management is vital in today's classrooms where teachers are teaching children with various academic, cultural and social backgrounds, not to mention that more and more classrooms today are having to manage students who are less proficient in English, have little experience being in a classroom, and in some cases, have physical or mental disabilities (Capizzi 2009). Without effective classroom management, teachers face many more challenges when it comes to helping children learn. While a strategy for managing a classroom is important, so is choosing the right type of strategy as they are not all created equal (2009).

Promoting positive behavior in the classroom is essential for creating a positive learning environment, according to Capizzi (2009). The biggest concern that teachers face is having to discipline. Teachers must endure a lot of stress when it comes to children who behave badly. When teachers know how to handle these discipline problems, they feel more relaxed in their classrooms and this makes their overall stress levels decrease, making them better equipped to do what they are meant to be doing -- teaching.

Capizzi (2009) notes that there are six key areas that teachers (and administrators) can use to guide their development of new plans (or plans that they already have in place. These six areas are: structure, classroom layout, classroom decor, rules, routines, an maintaining and monitoring behavior. Within these six areas, the plans should be "tailor to fit each group of students and their unique needs" (2009). When there is a better organized classroom -- that is, more structured -- students have been know to demonstrate more appropriate academic and social behavior, in general (2009). When using a Classroom…… [read more]

Philosophical Influences in American Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,516 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Educational Philosophies

Richard D. Mosier (1951) discusses two views of American education, one which frames education as experience, as formation from without, and the other that sees education as growth or development within. These two ideas can also be defined as traditional and progressive approaches to education.

In traditional educational settings educators teach the skills, facts, and standards of moral… [read more]

Cyborged: Hybrid Pedagogy and Student Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The distinction, however, makes us keenly aware that information is not knowledge per se, yet pedagogical theories are seeking accommodation in the hybrid 'mind' of mediated learning as many students have become so difficult to engender with the expected knowledge where performance is concerned. Assistance by way of instructional learning technologies and internet-based tools is increasingly proven to circumvent continued problems in test scores, for example.

Where is the evidence that hybrid or online learning promotes other best practices core competencies such as 'learner centered' facilitation? In Developing Outcomes Based Assessment: for learner centered education, Driscoll and Wood (2007), OBE decision making has led to the convergence of institutional approaches to standardized curricula, student competency, and continuity in innovation. Education practice setting research shows ample proof that educators stand to benefit from the ready facilitation technological tools in the extended classroom where outcomes-based education (OBE) is monitored. Evidence-based practices derived from findings to the plethora of investigation that has culminated as a viable platform for recommended practice in education, is largely the result of an earlier shift just prior to the hybrid revolution, stemming from impacts to episteme on democratic education, and the elimination of older, authoritarian approaches to proscriptive learning. Where teacher centered has been replaced by learner centered methodologies, renewed emphasis on classical models of Socratic praxis permeate both spheres of dialectic engagement.

Baseline praxis to learner centered formats certainly fosters the iterative structure of new alternatives in instructional learning technologies, as students find positive resource in the evaluative methodologies of proto score mechanisms. Faculty perception of OBE, argue Driscoll and Wood, also supports this idea, where student outcomes proffer investigative findings respective to contemporary educator questions on the utility of those resources. The network aspect of the knowledge sharing phenomenon is also made more complete, where professional dialogue is informed by student participation and grounded research is put at the center of the OBE model. Pedagogical transformations, then, are reliant upon the hybrid rather than comparative approach as provision to the construction of better learner centered applications.

As professional educators are contracted into online dialogue in emails, chat rooms and website experience engagements of their own, the 'use value' of online learning is made apparent through the demands of everyday life. It is not surprising that the hybrid model of learner centered facilitation in the practice setting of the academic classroom as segue to life-long career success. The growth of multi-media options in educational sphere in the last twenty years has been exceptional in terms of the history of classical thought, and our ability to share in dialogue within the amorphous realm called 'information' has inevitably led to lightning speed capacity in the development of new fields of knowledge as we engage in a multitude of ideas.

Exponential knowledge production is the new name of the game. Standardization in the classroom is so distant from the radical influx of information society that testing on curricula-based topics appears as detour from the broader 'priority' areas of knowledge evolving… [read more]

Clark Kozma Debate Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Clark-Kozma Debate

The popularity of online schools and the use of the Internet have fueled a debate among educators. From the time educational television first hit the media circuits, the ability of any media form to improve education has come under scrutiny. The Internet is just another form of media and educators balk at the idea that computers or any other type of media can result in improved education and improved academic scores. This research will explore what has become known as the Clark-Kozma debate about the value that the Internet will have in improved academic performance. As new forms of media enter into the educational arena, the Clark-Kozma debate will become an increasingly important part of educational theory and strategy. Let us examine the key points of both sides of the debate.

Clark's position is that educational technology is not important in the educational process. It is only the deliver system. Clark (1983) argues that the content is more important than the delivery method. Kozma (1994) believes that a connection exists between the media and learning, but that we do not see it due to our behavioral roots. Clark does not feel that learning is the cognitive response to the delivery method of the instruction. This is where the schism between these two theorists is the greatest. Kozma argues that the cognitive processes surrounding the media are an important part of the learning process. The following will explore these two theories.

Since the debate began in the early 1990s, technology has advanced to an even greater level and has become an integral part of the educational system. The questions posed by Clark and Kozma are even more important now, than they were when the debate first began. Considerable academic study has been dedicated to this topic recently. Research now finds that electronic media can help certain types of learners grasp the material better. This research supports the idea that learners have different styles of learning and will respond better to the message when presented in one format or media over another (Trail & Hadley, 2010). This would lend support to Kozma's argument that the form of media plays an important role in learning.

Using this argument, one could conclude that Clark was wrong and that there is more to the message than content. If this is so, then it leads to the question of what role the teacher actually plays in the learning process. In response to this question, let us examine recent literature on the social elements of learning. Dewan and Dewan (2010) found that the teacher takes on the role of leader, whether they are in a brick and mortar classroom or in an online classroom. West, Hall, & Thackeray et al. (2010) found that social networking sites can be used to support online health behavior change projects.

The key to resolving the argument is that in the cases found, the type of media was used to support classroom instruction, whether this instruction took place online or… [read more]

Working and Learning Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Human Resources

Working and Learning

Schools today are not focused on economic needs. They should do more to prepare students for work, particularly for jobs in the trades.

How people live, work, play and learn has been dramatically altered by technology over the past 20 years. There appears to be a need for diverse skills today than there was in… [read more]

Self Check Questions on Indexes Use Questionnaire

Questionnaire  |  2 pages (445 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Self Check Questions on Indexes

Use an Infotrac database to find a review of your favorite video.

Index: Infotrac newsstand

Subject heading: Movie review

New Moon shines through silliness

Magazine: Sacramento Bee

What have reviewers said about the Big Burn: Teddy Roosevelt and the Fire That Saved America by Timothy Egan?

Index: Infotrac newsstand

Journal: Houston Chronicle

I need a Halloween poem for my newsletter. Do you know of a short one?

"The Hag" by Robert Herrick

Access Point: LitFinder

Find your favorite poem in the Columbia Granger's Index to Poetry.

Do a title or first line search for the poem in the Title and First Line Index.

Your favorite poem: "The Road Not Taken"

Did you find it? How? (title or first line search) Title

Name at least one other poem by the same author? "Mending Wall"

Are there other poems on the same subject? X____ Yes ____ No

If yes, give the title of one. Hughes, T. "The Other."

5. What is the name of the hurricane that hit Florida in 1992? Hurricane Andrew

What part of Florida was damaged?

South Florida

Index: Infotrac newsstand

Source: Houston Chronicle

Date of information: January 28, 2010

6. I would like to know if the whole language approach to teaching reading is an effective approach. Could you recommend two articles?

Index: Educator's Reference…… [read more]

Learning in Recent Years Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Learning in recent years is understood to be an active, not a passive, process. Thus, many teachers have implemented learning contracts so as to provide a learning process as opposed to a directed learning content. In the specific context of learning styles, learning contracts may be especially beneficial to the overall acquisition of knowledge since the student whom is knowledgeable about his or her learning styles can create an educational plan or a learning contract which reflects or emphasizes his or her particular learning style (Codde, PhD, 2006). By doing this, the student may see a greater amount of success, may acquire a greater amount and quality of knowledge, and may intrinsically find motivation for fostering further learning.

(2) as an adult educator, I would use knowledge of learning styles in my particular classroom to help with curriculum development as well as classroom delivery of instruction, creation of assignments, and overall assessment. If I understand that the vast majority of my class learns through kinetic means, then I should incorporate opportunities to move during the learning. If I understand which learners are visual, then I can make sure that my lessons not only include a verbal component, but that there is a visual component as well. Assignments can be tailored so as to reflect the qualities that the students possess and the ones in which they should learn to accommodate. In discussing assignments, I will need to be cognizant of the learning differences because a question that might seem nonsensical and evident to one type of learner, might be more confusing to a different type of learning. In this sense, it gives me more empathy into the needs of the students, more patience toward potential misunderstanding, and a greater chance to help the students meet or exceed his or her potential. I would also use assessments which took into consideration the different qualities within…… [read more]

Adult Education: Lesson Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Adult Education: Lesson


Adult Education Lesson


Human Resource Development and Adult Education

Human Resource Development should fall under the larger umbrella of Adult Education for several reasons. First, according to Merriam (1984), one of the primary reasons adults learn is "out of a need to face the tasks they encounter during the course of their development." Many of those tasks Merriam describes are challenges that adults face in the workplace. Secondly, as business systems change, adults need to be able to meet those challenges. Last, since there is such a great overlap between HRD and AE, it is in the "best interests of the student and the educational institution but also of the business community to eliminate redundant programs" (Grubb, 1998).

Control of Learning Phases

According to Knowles, adult learners must be involved in the process of discovering their own learning needs as well as in charting his or her own course for learning (Unger, 1977). Andragogy differs from pedagogy in that adults are involved in their own learning process. Most adults are in control of their own learning. They are out of the K-12 school system, and there are no longer authoritarian figures in their lives who insist upon rigid formats for learning and assessment. Adults are in control of what they learn and what format works best for their needs.

The self-directed learning process can be easy for some and difficult for others, depending upon the cognitive ability of the adult and the relative ease or difficulty of the learning material. To implement successful learning, adult learners must also be able to control the learning phases. First, they must recognize a need to know certain information or develop a new skill. Second, they must be able to create a goal or chart a path to obtaining that knowledge. Third, they must implement their goal by attending classes, reading a book, or practicing their new skills. Finally, they must evaluate their performance and determine whether they have achieved their goal or whether they need to chart a different…… [read more]

Avoiding Bias in Special Education Classroom Assessments Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (357 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Avoiding Bias in Special Education Classroom Assessments

The principal way of avoiding biases in the administration of assessments is for the special education teacher to develop a comprehensive awareness of the nature of different types of disabilities and their relationship to cognitive capacity and disability. Special education students possess varying degrees of cognitive, social, and developmental abilities and struggle with a wide range of disabilities in those different realms (FDDS, 2002). Consequently, it is crucial for the needs assessment process to be accurate for the benefit of special education students as well as for the benefit of their classmates. In that regard, avoiding bias requires a fundamental appreciation on the part of the educator of the specific nature of different elements of learning (and other types of) disabilities.

The principal difficulty in conducting accurate assessments is the degree to which cognitive, learning, behavioral, developmental, and social impairments can co-exist or exist in relative isolation from one another (Polloway, Patton, Smith, et al., 1997). Moreover, where apparent disabilities unrelated to learning capacity are misunderstood by educators responsible for conducting…… [read more]

PSI System and Other Educational Methods Personal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,885 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … PSI System and Other Educational Methods

Personal Statement

The Keller/PSI Concept

The Educational Benefits of Keller/PSI

The Problems Associated with Keller/PSI

Computer-assisted Personal System of Instruction (CAPSI)

Multiple Intelligences Theory

Hands-on, Inquiry-based Active Learning

Kolb's Learning Style Inventory

Conclusion and Implications for Future Avenues of Empirical Study

The Keller Personal System of Instruction (PSI) in education (also known… [read more]

Successful Steps to Transition Through Self-Advocacy and Self-Determination Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,911 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15



Steps to Successful Transition Through Self-Advocacy Towards Self-Determination

The inclusion of disabled individuals in the general social, educational and occupational contexts which are welcoming to mainstream populations is a goal which appears to parallel the progressive orientation of our culture. Modern education shows evidence of the trend toward change, facilitating the increasing integration of individuals who are physically, emotionally… [read more]

E-Learning Impact of Information Technology on Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,767 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



The Impact of E-Learning on Education at All Levels

The traditional geographical, linguistic, cultural and spatial parameters shaping education are being altered today by patterns of technological innovation. The face of education has changed at every level due to the availability of new computing and telecommunication opportunities that are quite literally removing the boundaries of the classroom. Those conditions… [read more]

Middle School Grades 6-9 Field Experience Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,493 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Teaching as a Profession

How I Perceived Classroom Experience vs. How It Really Turns Out to Be

While in college I had originally hoped to become a guidance counselor, or perhaps a social worker in the school system on Long Island. But I could see that jobs in counseling were few and far between, and so I planned to become… [read more]

Michael Gurian's Book Boys and Girls Learn Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (678 words)
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¶ … Michael Gurian's book Boys and Girls Learn Differently

Gurian, Michael. (2001). Boys and girls learn differently. New York: Jossey-Bass.

According to Michael Gurian's 2001 book Boys and girls learn differently because of the way that the male and female brains are structured from a young age, girls and boys learn in fundamentally different ways. Gurian's thesis is similar to that of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, namely that different students learn in different ways, and excel in different areas. For the classroom environment to be optimized for learning, it must be tailored to suit each student's particular needs. However, Gurian structures his book along the lines of gender divisions, rather than the innate talents particular students may possess. According to Gurian, sitting still and learning things in a verbal manner comes more easily to girls than boys. But boys are taught, often by women in the lower grades, and are locked in a system where these sorts of behaviors are prized to the exclusion of other gifts.

This is why many boys struggle, particularly in subject areas where the male brain is less quick to develop than the female brain, like reading. Difficulties at home and difficulties at school place many young boys under near-constant stress, which further interferes with their learning. Although Gurian does admit that girls can be 'stressed' as well, he is particularly concerned about boys who are quick to anger and have little channel for their frustrations in a school environment. Boys are also less apt to be verbal as soon as girls, have more trouble dealing with their emotions, and less support in finding ways to channel their anger. They are also more likely to experience language delays.

Even if an educator disagrees with the degree to which Gurian emphasizes differences between the sexes, he offers helpful suggestions for more diversified learning strategies. Incorporating more hands-on activities stimulates the learning process of less verbal children. Involving parents in the school environment is a source of additional input for different children's unique needs.…… [read more]

Different Learning Styles Essay

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Learning Styles

In essence, learning styles are theoretical and practical constructs and guidelines that are in effect different approaches or ways of learning. Learning styles are important to success because they provide the individual with strategies and techniques on how to learn a particular subject.

Each individual has a preferred learning style and this style or combination of styles is… [read more]

Gutek's Theory of Education Thesis

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Gutek's Theory Of Education

Education is one of the basic needs that must be addressed in our present time. The realization of this need is premised on the ability of teachers to be innovative in their teaching strategies and more importantly, their commitment in their profession. This essay explores Gerald Gutek's theory of education pertaining to authentic assessments, excellence in education, no child left behind, educating the whole child and education that makes a difference.

Gutek suggests that authentic assessment refers to the applicability of learning to real life situations. The teacher and student have different contexts that they are coming from, a careful consideration of these contexts is essential in assessing learning (Gutek 2004). These assessments can include assessments through their written and oral examinations. One instance is when students are able to operationalize concepts and theories they have learned in lecture discussions by their ability to relate it to actual events. Theories of individuals practicing rational choice are manifested when students answer that people premised their decisions on the benefits that can be derived for their personal gain. For instance, individuals who choose to elect a president of their organization based their decision which is rational on their perspective primarily because the leader would give them something in return in the form of material gain for their support.

Excellence in education is grounded on the idea that students should rediscover perfect ideas and that everyone has the right to access education. Mastery of the subject matter is a manifestation of excellence of education. Gutek contends that there is a hierarchy of subjects and this includes most general disciplines, philosophy, theology, mathematics and languages. Gutek stated that it is important to recognize the relationships of this subjects and a process of integration must then follow (Gutek 1997).

This in my view is the synergy of the various disciplines which is vital because there are certain common grounds of different disciplines that must be considered. For example, when we talk about human behavior, it is important to consider several perspectives of a number social science disciplines. Political science deals with human behavior concerning voting, advocacy and specific stands on political issues. Such behaviors are however based on the individual's family background and social standing through which the disciplines of sociology and economics would come into play. Another form excellence in education is manifested in the approach of modeling. Students learn more from imitation. This is one of the critical roles that teachers play; they should always serve as good epitomes of values that their students can emulate. They…… [read more]

Political Education Thesis

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Political Education

What role, if any, will distance education have in the future of American political education? Distance learning, in its best form, should be learner-centered and learner-focused.

The tool of social networking technology shapes education towards this contention for a variety of domains, but it even more relevant to political education

Referring to social networking technology, Ewan McIntosh, National Adviser on Learning and Technology Futures for Learning and Teaching, Scotland states, "It's more about helping learners become more world-aware, more communicative, learning from each other and understanding first-hand what makes the world go round." (Economist debate series, 2008)

One of the greatest strengths of online education is its ability to facilitate discussion. Building of community through discussions occurs by presenting learners with the opportunity to explore diverse perspectives and build tolerance for ambiguity and complex ideas. This is reflective of what we are seeing occur in online social networking and is highly applicable to political education where the open-minded pursuit of truth is enhanced by engaging students with different ideas in active…… [read more]

Peter Dirr Thesis

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Peter Dirr

How can the quality of distance education be measured reliably and validly?

According to Dirr, the quality issues in distance education are addressed in a variety of ways. Some of these issues relate to the differences between online and classroom education. Such issues then for example relate to the "quality of instruction and the amount of interaction between the instructor and student.

In order to reliably and validly measure the quality of distance education, it is best to consider the outcomes of the instruction. Students can for example be tested against a control group of classroom students for the same material. A favorable result would then be one in which students obtain similar results.

According to Dirr, there is indeed a body of evidence towards highlighting the qualitative effect of e-learning on the student experience. Despite a lack of gestures and other subtle clues that are present only in the classroom, online instruction has the advantage of developing higher level thinking skills. The cited experience of both faculty and students, according to the author is that online communication allows clearer thought processes by means of revision, resulting in higher level thinking, interaction, and understanding.

What criteria are appropriate for assessing the quality of distance education? Are those same criteria appropriate for assessing the quality of classroom-based education?

Because the instruction environments differ so completely, the same criteria cannot be applied to measuring the quality of both. Dirr cites Charles Cook's view of the matter: "...assumptions of what happens in a traditional classroom cannot be made about an online course." Indeed, according to Cook, more explicit and detailed criteria would be applicable to the latter for a variety of reasons. Not least of these is the fact that online education has not been part of any curriculum for a long time. Many new issues are at stake, including the quality of instruction and time spent during interaction. Furthermore, teacher training is also an essential element in this; online communication between instructor and student have particular elements that differ from classroom interaction. Although some critics have projected that more stringent criteria would ultimately elevate the standard of classroom instruction as well, the likelihood of this has been debated.

The most important issue to understand is that criteria have to be standardized and applied in a uniform way across all online instruction settings. Communication among tertiary education institutions and relevant education professionals as well as academics is essential.

2.Do tertiary institutions have clear policies about distance education course in program quality?

While considerable research has been aimed at the issue, not all tertiary institutions have…… [read more]

Adult Education Annotated Bibliography Beach, Dennis Research Proposal

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Adult Education

Annotated Bibliography

Beach, Dennis and Carlson, Marie (2004) Adult Education Goes to Market: An Ethnographic Case Study of the Restructuring and Reculturing of Adult Education. European Educational Research Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2004. Online available at http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/validate.asp?j=eerj&vol=3&issue=3&year=2004&article=9_Beach_EERJ_3_3_web

The work of Dennis Beach and Marie Carlson relates restructuring of adult education in Goteborg and states it was "first initiated experimentally with respect only to SFI education (an education in beginning Swedish for ethnic minorities living in Sweden)." This study was completed in alignment with the Goteborg Municipal Council decisions in 1999 however "restructuring came into full force for all municipal adult education in the Gteborg municipality later in 2002, after the completion of the National Adult Education Initiative (AEI)." (2004) Beach and Carlson relate that the process of restructuring "followed guidelines for franchise in the public sector as per the 1992 Purchasing Act and had consequences for all education suppliers" (2004)

2) Gustafsson, Uwe (1991) Can Literacy Lead to Development?: A Case Study in Literacy, Adult Education, and Economic Development in India. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. University of Texas at Arlington.

The work of Gustafsson (1991) reports a case study that describes a literacy and community development project in India that was successful in its attempt and serves as a "model for linguistics and literacy planners involved with adult literacy, functional education and development..." (Gustafsson, 1991)

3) Principles in Practice: Assessing Adult Learning Focused Institutions (2005) Adult Learning Focused Institution of Higher Education. Case Studies. Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) 2005.

The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning reports that a presecondary degree or credential "is increasingly important in the U.S. economy, both for new entrants into the labor force and those already employed." (2005) the National Center for Education Statistics relates that adult students often: (1) have delayed enrollment into postsecondary education; (2) attend part-time; (3) are financially independent of their parents; (4) work full-time while enrolled; (5) Have dependents other than a spouse; (6) are a…… [read more]

Hal Beder Thesis

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¶ … represents several different paradigms. The way that individuals learn is a very important issue, but how they are taught is a different thing. In other words, the paradigm of adult learning is not always addressed appropriately. People learn in different ways, and the article looks at adult learners who are addressing the issue of literacy. There are many illiterate adults in this country today, and they are not getting the help that they need. The article represents the illiteracy paradigm that adults must be taught to read in the same way that children are. This was the expectation of thinking in the past, and it appears to be continuing toward the future. However, there is somewhat of a paradigm shift that is being looked for by people like Beder who are trying to show that the old ways might not always be the best ways. Cognitive issues were the most closely addressed in the past, and because of that there were a lot of people who did not get what they needed from their adult learning opportunities. Some of them remained illiterate - not because they could not learn but because they were not taught in a way that they could understand and they became frustrated.

All teachers who teach adults have to be able to teach kindergarten through twelfth grade and they have to be certified to do that. It is important that all teachers know how to do their job correctly, but it is equally important that teachers are aware of the fact that adults and children do not learn in the same way. If one has a group of twelve-year-olds and a group of thirty-year-olds, they are going to have different goals, agendas, and thought processes. With that being the case, teachers need to acknowledge the fact that there is a paradigm shift away from the older models of traditional learning and toward the newer models of learning that are more flexible and more closely oriented to the student.

2.What characteristics helped you identify the paradigms?

These paradigms and how they are changing and evolving can be…… [read more]

Constructivists Don't Blame the Tools Thesis

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Constructivists Don't Blame the Tools

In "Constructivists: Don't blame the tools," Moore (2004) argues that constructivist learning experience in distance education has had little to do with the communication tools, but has been directly relative to the structure of the courses and the dialog the instructor has been able to set up and then facilitate. Moore believes that emphasis on communications technology will lead to "an industrial form of teaching that emphasizes packaged information and authoritarian teacher ownership of knowledge." After dismissing communications technology, he then shares his views on how to best set up a constructivist learning environment.

For Moore, the basis for creating a constructivist learning environment is finding the right balance between structure and dialogue. He states that the correct ratio depends on the sophistication of the students and the area of study. When unsure what the right balance should be, Moore advises to err on the side of structure because too much structure is much easier to correct than too little structure. He also suggests establishing the minimum, relating that creativity in formulating question for discussion and for individual group research is important.

Moore believes that creating a learning community is necessary to achieve constructivist learning and that the sense of community will determine the quality of knowledge that is generated. For this reason, Moore makes sure that he defines a learning community for the students and what he expects of them and why it is important. In this community, students are supposed to build knowledge together and support each other emotionally and in practical ways. The professor can help make these things happen, according to Moore, by being respectful, by assuring individual learners and the group of their progress, by monitoring the content and the tone…… [read more]

Gibson See as Some of the Unanswered Thesis

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¶ … Gibson see as some of the unanswered questions related to distance education?

Gibson wonders how distance education can become part of what the author proposes as emancipatory pedagogy: education for total liberation. One of the main unanswered questions related to distance education is how it is actually increasing access to learning opportunities. If distance education is increasing access -- which is questionable -- then why aren't more universities actually participating in the distance learning revolution? Gibson claims that Northeastern schools and smaller universities are developing the fewest distance learning programs. Funding may be part of the reason why distance learning is not more ubiquitous. Distance learning is one of the only ways to make education truly universal, and a true force for positive change. Corporations, the military, and government are digitizing their training courses. Distance learning eliminates geographic bias, class bias, and a number of other impediments to an emancipatory pedagogy.

Gibson also brings up the Raising Responsible Teens program at the University of Wisconsin extension. The Raising Responsible Teens program uses technology not just as a pedagogical tool for traditional classroom environments but also as a medium for broader social change. For example, the program allows at-risk youth to discuss controversial issues in an open but anonymous forum to foster dialogue between parents and teens, between policy officials and the youth they serve, and also for research. Gibson asks how more programs can serve whole communities by incorporating the principles and technologies used in distance learning to more progressive settings.

The author critiques attempts to transfer traditional models of pedagogy into a distance learning setting. For instance, the "talking head" in a teleconference or "hairy arm" of an impersonal lecturer are unlikely to evoke any substantive change in students or the…… [read more]

Comparison of Learning Between USA and France Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (7,981 words)
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¶ … Adult Learning Styles in the United States and France

Today, the United States and France enjoy a longstanding relationship based on many of the same fundamental principles of democratic thought and pluralism, and both countries are among the leading economies of the world. There are some distinct differences involved in how educational services are delivered and received between… [read more]

Montessori Method of Teaching Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Montessori style education for young children. The Montessori style of education has been in existence since 1907, and today there are Montessori-based schools around the world. The educational method is based on the methods of Dr. Maria Montessori, who created a new environment for learning and teaching, based on her own observations of children and how they learn. The Montessori educational method has many distinct advantages over traditional educational methods for a wide variety of reasons.

At the turn of the 20th century, just when Dr. Montessori was creating and perfecting her educational methods, most schools were viewed as factories, with the schools viewed as "plants," the children viewed as "raw materials" and the teachers as "mid-level managers." They were also commonly ranked at how efficient they were at moving children up through the grades (Lillard 7). Clearly, this is a very different view of education than Montessori's nurturing and choosing process. The Montessori Web site notes, "Montessori emphasizes learning through all five senses, not just through listening, watching, or reading. Children in Montessori classes learn at their own, individual pace and according to their own choice of activities from hundreds of possibilities" (Editors).

Montessori also places children of different age groups together, which has distinct advantages over the traditional educational methods. Children, even if they are the same age, learn at different levels, and they have different styles of learning, as well. By observing the children and their learning styles, and placing like children together in three-year age groups (for example, three to six, six to nine, and so on), they will learn more efficiently, and more rapidly, and this is an advantage over traditional classroom models. The older children also tend to pass on their knowledge to the younger ones, and the learning is made attractive and fun, rather than a chore and boring (Lillard 192).

Another advantage is the student to teacher ratio in Montessori schools. There is one teacher and one non-teaching aide per every 30 students, which gives the teacher the time to work one-on-one with each student, and to get to know the students. Students learn in three-hour sessions, and they are free to move around their classroom and stop at different work centers that interest them. The teacher also creates individual projects for each child based on their learning style, interests, and educational needs. The motto of Montessori teachers is "Teach by teaching, not by correcting" (Editors). Thus, they monitor each child and adjust their goals and objectives accordingly. This takes the student into consideration, rather than simply following a set, standard educational model for all students, no matter what, and that makes it another distinct advantage over traditional schools.

In addition, children are educated in the ideals of character, giving them skills they can use throughout their lives. The Web site continues, "Education of character is considered equally with academic education, children learning to take care of themselves, their…… [read more]

Elementary Measurement, (Area, Perimeter, Volume) Term Paper

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Elementary Measurement, (area, perimeter, volume)

Elementary Measurement: Area, Perimeter, Volume

In an era of increased demands for teacher and student accountability, identifying better ways of delivering educational services represents a timely and worthwhile endeavor. There are some significant constraints involved in teaching young learners about mathematics concepts, though, that must be taken into account in devising such approaches. Nevertheless, the… [read more]

Educational Goals Term Paper

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Educational Goals

First Statement

As a result of my teaching, my students will become life-long learners, and use the learning skills I teach them in higher education and in their professional lives. Many educators and researchers note continuing education is an important element of success; nearly all professional and executive candidates engage in some level of continuing education (Olson &… [read more]

Multi Cultural Issues in Deaf Education Term Paper

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Multi-Cultural Issues in Deaf Education

Review of Multicultural Issues in Deaf Education

The United States has long ceased being a "melting pot" and has emerged in the 21st century as more of a "salad bowl" that is characterized by increasing multiculturalism in society and the nation's classrooms. In this changing environment, understanding how deaf students from different cultural backgrounds might… [read more]

Visual Literacy in Higher Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,931 words)
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Visual Literacy in Higher Education

The contemporary learning and experiential environment is highly visual. Students are exposed to Web sites, television and a plethora of other sources of image and visual data. This increase in the pervasiveness of the visual aspect in our daily lives has also changed the meaning of being literate. As Ron Bleed states in an article… [read more]

Lack of Collaboration Between Special Education and General Education Teachers Term Paper

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¶ … collaboration between special education teachers.

Many people would assume that the difficulties that arise from teaching in the special education arena arise solely from the obvious difficulty that is associated with dealing with the needs of children many consider to be inherently difficult to manage. This is a very narrow view, as for many special education teachers the challenge of these students is the main reason why they enter into the specialty and remain there. The real difficulties, or those which could potentially create a disconnect between the special education educator and the field, are far deeper and more important than managing learning disabilities and possibly behavior problems in children.

The hours are extreme, as many work overtime, on salary to help meet the needs of a varied and individual group of students with special needs. The environment can be challenging, as allocated resources rarely if ever meet the structural or educational resource needs in special education. Pay can be challenging to accept in an environment where inflation is far outstripping the average salary and benefits are getting leaner and all of these things contribute to the shortage of special education teachers, another obstacle for those in the field as well as for all schools, (Billingsley, 2004, p. 39) but this is not the core problem. The core problem is empowerment and isolation. Special education teachers by virtue of work load and the diversity of curriculum and schedule often work in isolation of other teachers and staff, and this feeling of being out there on the fringes of the school and the system is unsettling and destructive to moral and is one of the main reasons why special education teachers leave or never enter the profession. Just like the children they teach have lived in relative isolation from society for most of history, teachers live in elative isolation in the work place. (Armstrong, 2004, p. 10)

Support has been shown to be critical to teacher retention, particularly administrative support. However, the relationship between collaboration and attrition has received only scant attention in the attrition literature. Given the different cultures in general and special education (Pugach, 1992) and…… [read more]

Learning Styles and Student Achievement Term Paper

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Learning Styles and Student Achievement

According to William Watson Purkey and John M. Novak, in order to teach a student, you have to be able to reach the student. They do not mean 'reach' in the physical sense, as in touching the student, but rather making a mental or emotional connection between the teacher and the student (Purkey, 1984).

Opening… [read more]

Teaching Special Needs Students John Term Paper

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Teaching Special Needs Students

John S.)

Teaching Special Needs

It is not uncommon today for a teacher to have special needs children in his or her classroom. There is a widespread notion that all students learn betting in an inclusive classroom setting that does not only include children of special needs, but multi-cultural differences as well. When it comes to… [read more]

Curriculum Implementation Term Paper

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Curriculum Implementation

An implementation of a new curriculum in school is difficult, especially within a group of educators who are used to the old method of teaching-learning process, thus afraid of trying out new strategies and techniques that would further improve the learning process of the students. Jesup High School Principal Roark Horn admits this fact however found what he thought would be an appropriate strategy in addressing this issue. Horn, encourages the students to learn through teaching and "move beyond just telling what happened." The students' responses were great such that they have engaged themselves into self-evaluation and exercising their critical thinking skills. (Franklin, 2002)

Technological innovations have made tremendous changes even across educational systems and policies. There had been learning programs or soft wares that had been developed in order to facilitate and enhance the learning process as well as ease the teachers from the arduous tasks of preparing supplementary learning materials for children.

One aspect of computers that is now being implemented in some schools such as the Web-based learning has started a revolution in instructional design that is providing new opportunities for education. Instructional design for educational purposes is the systematic design of teaching and learning environments as well as instructional systems (Shu-Sheng, 2004). The proper integration of which may however, be found too difficult due to some of the teachers' bigoted opinions regarding change.

Nevertheless, as a school principal, it is necessary to create a planned strategy in order to make the integration successful. Some forms of resistance that may be encountered would be the non-readiness of the teachers in implementing the computer software.

In order to successfully implement a computer software program in math, engaging the teachers into learning the technology is deemed necessary as the initial…… [read more]

Gaming as an Instructional Strategy in Nursing Education Term Paper

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Gaming as an Instructional Strategy to Enhance Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Learning

Nurse educators play a key role in preparing a future workforce of nurses to provide quality care that meets the health care needs of the population (the National League of Nursing [NLN], 2002). Nurse educators are responsible for facilitating student learning and evaluating outcomes. In 2003, the NLN stated… [read more]

Cooperative Learning Advantages and Disadvantages Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cooperative Learning

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cooperative Learning

Through the years, the educational system has developed innovations and teaching models that aimed to develop holistic learning among students. As changes in educational philosophy took place in the 21st century, particularly after the proliferation of critical theories of education, learning models have been developed as a response to these critical theories.

Among these critical theories are Paulo Freire's 'banking concept of education,' wherein learning is merely transmitted from teacher to student, when learning should be experiential and the student must be able to understand information s/he receives from the teacher from its social context or environment. Thus, as a response to the critical assessment of teaching and learning, cooperative learning aims to let the student experience learning not only with the teacher, but with other students as well.

Defined as an "instructional method in which students work in small groups to accomplish a common learning goal under the guidance of the teacher," cooperative learning has been applied to educational institutions for its advantages, such as increased interaction among students, collaborative learning, and development of students' interpersonal and group skills as they accomplish a particular task or activity (Lin, 2006:34-5). In the texts that follow, the researcher provides an in-depth discussion and analysis of the advantages and disadvantages that cooperative learning has with regards to student learning and as a teaching method.

One of the distinct characteristics of cooperative learning is that it promotes shared responsibility as the sharing of ideas begins in the learning process. In Lin's (2006) analysis of cooperative learning in the science classroom setting, shared responsibility through sharing of ideas are promoted the concept of "rewarding positive interdependence and individual accountability" (38). This concept illustrates how, despite working in a group, each student working collaboratively with a team of students learns how to be dependent with other people while at the same, inculcate the attitude of independence in learning. The individual, through dependence with his/her team, learns how to share responsibility when accomplishing a task or activity. However, cooperative learning also promotes independence because the student, as a member of the group, must assume a role or position wherein s/he must be able to accomplish so that the group will be successful with the task they are working on.

A second advantage of cooperative learning is that it develops the individual's communication skills at all levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group communication). Bandiera (2006) noted in her study of cooperative learning in the classroom that students become more articulate of their learning in the classroom when cooperative learning was applied. That is, students showed "greater involvement...were demonstrated by students in discussions..." (132). In fact, the author noted that students' participation and involvement were overwhelmingly positive that, and ultimately led to a "positive evaluation of the teaching activity." More importantly, however, is that this finding shows teachers and education practitioners that communication and articulation of thoughts is developed and enhanced as students are engaged in a highly interactive and collaborative… [read more]

Adapted Physical Education Personnel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
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(Physical Education) It is clear that physical education is still an important part of teaching.

2) What is the role of the Adapted Physical Education Specialist in the creation of a "community of learners" within a school district?

The concept of committee of learners itself is a new concept and the concept itself is being used for different purposes. Let us take the example of a Ph D. student from Birmingham, Gavin Brown who won a Distinguished Dissertation Award this year. The award is given to the student who presented the best thesis in Computer Sciences during the current year. His thesis stated that sometimes a committee of learners can perform better if they disagreed with one another. (No Frozen Carrot as Jasper Sparkles at Shackleton Launch) Let us look at another case of the Learners' Advisory Network from Canada and that is made up of learners from all the provinces and territories in Canada. This calls itself a committee of learners and "offers a unique perspective on literacy issues affecting all Canadians." (From the Editor's Desk)

It claims it is doing practical research. Providing advice and advocating the use of network and thus help adult learners all over Canada. The result is expected to be of help to the learners in using clear language and thus help the adult literacy programs gain support. Well one does not know that if literacy was so simple what are the old times teachers doing? Another group is using committee of learners through the use of active learners. In this the question to be asked, which is generally dependent some independent factors is now to be decided on the decisions by the students. This is expected to make the questions more intelligent and thus of relevance. This is the form of questions like which query strategy does the learner follow, what is the role of the training algorithm, how many members should there be in a committee, and whether there is any difference in groups of learners. (Active Sample Selection for Supervised Learning)

This sounds very good but one of the fundamental theories in the subject that this person is referring to is called GIGO and that means garbage in, garbage out. Just getting information is not the point, one has to be sure that it has some relevance or meaning. Similarly it would be quite easy to set up a committee of learners among a group of adapted physical educators, but the point is that one has to first fix up the objective of this group before it is fixed. If it… [read more]

Martin Luther and My Interpretations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Faber, 1998)

Today, research covering the effects of diversity in the classroom show how and why effective teaching can be linked to the ability of instructors to incorporate diversity into their classrooms. These studies repeatedly show that there is a direct correlation between a child's attitude towards his or her race and ethnic grouping and other cultural groups from as early as the preschool years. In other words, young children develop their stereotypes in the classroom or in the home environment at very early ages.

Teachers can therefore help reduce or hopefully even eliminate negative stereotypes by being diversity conscious themselves. Through the use of culturally sensitive class initiatives for example, teachers have an opportunity to establish more positive examples for their students. "Researchers agree that new models of professional development are needed, and that such models must include a focus on the development of local cultures of interest if they are to be sustainable." (Swan, Vargas, & Holmes, 2004)


In conclusion, this paper was on Martin Luther and also my interpretations of his views on the treatise of scholarship and education. From Luther's point-of-view, this report attempted to propose possible reforms in the area of curriculum. The report was formatted in the form of an action plan that articulated my personal philosophies of teaching and identified with Martin Luther as my selected scholar. Issues addressed were the educational and conceptual frameworks of collaboration, social justice, diversity and critical self-reflection. Obviously Martin Luther appreciated the structured approach of schools since one of his first official acts as a reformer was to convert existing monasteries into schools. This may even be the underlying foundation of all modern public schools systems around the world. Who could be a better scholar for this particular project. "There is no denying the huge gap between the sixteenth century and the twenty-first. Luther's Germany was overwhelmingly Christian; he could look to the state to further the agenda of Christian education, although he insisted that the responsibility for education was not solely, or even primarily, the responsibility of government. We live in a very different world from that of Luther. The United States is rich in cultural and religious diversity, and, from an early age, children experience that diversity and multiplicity of religious traditions and values in school and community." (Harran, 2004)


Faber, Dr. R. (1998). Martin Luther on Reformed Education (from Clarion Vol. 47, No. 16). Retrieved on May 3, 2005, from Spindle Works Web Site at http://spindleworks.com/library/rfaber/luther_edu.htm

Harran, Marilyn J. (2004). Reflections on Martin Luther and Childhood Education. Journal of Lutheran Ethics, Volume 4, Issue 1. Retrieved on May 3, 2005, from ELCA.Org Web Site at http://www.elca.org/scriptlib/dcs/jle/article.asp?aid=202

National Research Council (1989). Everybody Counts: A Report to the Nation on the Future of Mathematics Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Swan, Karen, Vargas, Juan D., & Holmes, Aliya (n.a.). Situated Professional Development and Technology Integration: The CATIE Mentoring Program. Ellen Meier; Center for Technology and School Change, Teachers College. Retrieved on May…… [read more]

Teacher Workshop Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Teacher Workshop

Teacher's Workshop is devoted to raise the opportunities for the progress of the practical staff. These opportunities come directly to a school by means of the speaker's office or to the school and to the teachers by special conference events at great places. (the Teacher's Workshop) Bilingual education in essence is an education in which a student is taught to use two different languages with equal capability, about half his schoolwork being done in each. Bilingual education can be classified into three basic programs. These programs are inclusive of local English speakers who are studying a second language which encompass the majority students, students who talk a foreign language and are learning English which encompass the minority students and a two-way bilingual program, which includes both the majority and minority students in a single classroom. In the first two programs, the children are trained in one language, but are aspiring for full bilingualism in both languages. When children learn school subjects in a second language, it is called immersion education. The language of teaching is national language for the minority students and a second language for language majority students in two-way immersion program. (Cargas; Ryan, 2002)

The native students are studying and improving their native language and slowly learning English, while the majority students are studying a second language. Concurrently the students are studying the second language with the topics covered in their classes. This is an instance of why bilingual education is more valuable than monolingual education. In bilingual education the student is studying their basic subject matter and only getting more knowledge through a second language. In our present day is a second language essential? Of late this is the hot topic. Do parents need to force their child to learn two languages in elementary school? It is almost essential to know two languages, if we live in multicultural locality, deal with the global marketplace and need to use all the resources available which relate to technology. Multilingual people and society seem to have an advantage over monolingual competition. This gives people of all ages a motivation to study a second language. Teachers have an intense, daily challenge in front of them, though the Two-way education program - TWI program seems astonishing. For instance, when an English speaker is studying Spanish the teacher must ensure that the child is recognizing the Spanish instruction, as well as trying to understand the lessons and encourage the native Spanish-speaking children. Practical activities are very much applied to motivate children's participation. Teachers must make sure that students take part in educational environments. (Cargas; Ryan, 2002)

Historically, the subject of bilingual education in the modern world can be drawn to the colonial period. When the Spaniards first came to this continent, they came across a number of Indian tribes who did not know Spanish. Fray Pedro de Gante set up the first bilingual school in the new continent in 1521 by means of the local language of the Aztecs to change… [read more]

Computer Mediated Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As educators refine their philosophy of distance learning, they are concerned about sustaining interactivity in their educational process. Today's adult learning theories are built upon the premise that teachers will assist their students to become self-directed and independent. Learners must assume responsibility for their educational experiences, but independent study has natural limitations. Without adequate teacher feedback and reinforcement, students may not know whether they possess an accurate knowledge of their subject matter. Distance learning products must be carefully designed activities that guide students and promote personal acquisition of knowledge simultaneously with independence.

This requires planning creative online instructional assignments that intellectually stretch students but do not confuse or overwhelm them (Muirhead, 2001). Distance educators view computer-mediated education as an excellent format to encourage a variety of adult learning styles while serving an ethnically diverse student population. A recent successful implementation of distance learning is Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, where Professor Yuanchun Shi's "smart classroom" displays photos of students at other universities across China who have logged in (Huang, 2004). Shi poses a question and calls on a remote student by shining a laser pointer on his photo. The student's picture switches to live video and audio as he answers. Shi writes on a digital whiteboard that transmits her handwriting to the students' computers, complementing audio and visual feeds from cameras and microphones (Huang, 2004). Changes such as these can be made to implement the computer-mediated module as a distance learning product, for the successful "new education" of the future.


Huang, G.T. (2004). China's Clever Classroom. Technology Review, 26.

Muirhead, B. (2001). Practical Strategies for Teaching Computer-Mediated Classes.

Retrieved March 15, 2005, from Ed at a Distance Web site:

http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/may01_Issue/article02.html…… [read more]

Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Diagnosis and Incidence of Mental Retardation with Autism. The incidence of mental retardation has been estimated at 3% for the general population (MacMillan et al. 1996); however, as noted above, because definitions of mental retardation with or without autism vary and the syndrome can be easily confused with similar conditions, depending on what criteria are used, slightly more or slightly… [read more]

What Is Special Education? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Special Education

What is Special Education? Special Education is explained as certain specialized learning activities that have been designed for those students who are generally known as 'exceptional' in any particular field of education, meaning that their innate cognitive abilities may be at fault, or they may be slow learners or students with some sort of learning or understanding disabilities.… [read more]

Sequencing Literacy Activities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sequencing Lit Activities

Sequencing Literacy Activities teacher is about to start on a unit of work on the environment. Her ultimate aim is for her students to be able to comprehend and produce written factual descriptive texts on the subject using technical vocabulary and a scientific register as described in the syllabus.

This step of pre-planning highlights how, before even dealing with the class, the teacher sets forth what she wishes to accomplish with her lesson.

She knows this might be ahead of where the students are 'at' but she is determined to help them acquire the necessary literacy skills for more academically orientated work.

This teacher sets ambitious goals for her students, which means that the lesson is likely to be valuable for them on many levels.

The first thing the teacher does is to inform the students as to what the series of lessons is going to be about by giving the students the program and discussing the relevant syllabus outcomes.

This is the first step the teaches deploys before the classroom, not only because it has 'first' as a guideline, but because a teacher, no matter what the lesson, must make the class cognizant of the syllabus overview, and give the students an idea of where they will be 'going' as a class and as individual learners over the next few weeks.

She relates these concepts to the students' own writing and the notion of text and context in general.

The teacher makes her lesson aims clear to the students, not just the content of the subject overall.

The teacher then outlines the assessment procedures of the whole unit, which incorporate some negotiable aspects like due dates, length and mark weighting.

Students are given a map of where the lesson plan will be going in the next few weeks.

She doesn't know how much background they have in the area, so she produces stimulus pictures of polluted environments, dividing the students into small groups and asking them to brainstorm possible words and phrases associated with the stimulus pictures.

The students are going to be doing more intensive group work later on, so this familiarizes them with one another as learners and barnstormers, as well as the general topic. From the beginning, the "learning cycle" is honored so, students can "make their own discoveries, stressing the process of science as a way of learning." (Reinhardt, 2004)

The teacher distributes some pollution case studies and proceeds to read them with the students following. Questions and discussion follow.

In this case, the lesson plan is about pollution. So the students have an idea of what the topic area is, they read about the effects of the phenomenon in the world outside the classroom, from objective sources.

The teacher then produces a model text on a related but different pollution topic, which incorporates some of the desirable features of technical description.

Now, the learning and lesson plan model the students will be actually dealing with is presented, along with a more… [read more]

Leadership Skills Impact International Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  108 pages (29,649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, many people do not understand what leadership is and how it applies to the school environment. In their 1997 study of visionary companies, James Collins and Jerry Porras define leaders as people who "displayed high levels of persistence, overcame significant obstacles, attracted dedicated people, influenced groups of people toward the achievement of goals, and played key roles in guiding… [read more]

Classroom Atmosphere Which Encourages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


To do so, they must learn the what, the how, and the why before they have the tools to make unique distinctions of their own. When an educational system insists on teaching children to obtain mastery of a specific body of knowledge, then the system also has the opportunity to teach a student how tho use that data as building… [read more]

Special Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,234 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


' This condition has multiplied three fold from a figure of 1.8% of the student population in the year 1976-77 to 6% in the year 1998-99. Studies have indicated that all other classifications of special education which are mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance, deafness, blindness, autism and head injury, have actually decreased from 6.5% to 5.8% of the total student… [read more]

Community College Students Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (739 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is extremely surprising to me that readers today might find this article to be new or innovative, and in fact I found it to be almost humorous and absurd how these everyday technologies were being treated like alien concepts -- it almost read like satire. By 1999 when this article was written, use of computers and the Internet in an education setting should have already been the standard. Even in the 1980's, many classrooms found it to be standard to have access to at least one computer for student use. By the 1990's, The Internet was well established and part of mainstream culture. Today, it is considered to be the norm to have access to e-mail, Instant Messenger, and the Web -- many people don't even know their own phone number because they only communicate online. It is pathetic when, to this day, teachers will tell students not to use Internet sources, even when most journals and newspapers can now be found archived online, and these sources are just as "real" as ones printed on paper. It is also ridiculous that some teachers still tell students not to turn in typed papers because they may have cheated and used spell-check. Computers, The Internet, and technology are here to stay, and they should be integrated in every way with the educational experience immediately and fully.

Personally, as an instructor, I would make full use of any technology the school fit deem to provide. I would also constantly be petitioning the school to provide more funds for technology. While administrators may be spending money on paper, pens, postage, phone bills, text books, and other vital classroom supplies, all of these can be replaced by use of technology, which will save money in the long run after the initial investment. I would hope that every student would leave my class having full knowledge of how to use The Internet, E-mail, Word Processors, and Multimedia presentation software, and that their learning experience would be greatly heightened and made more enjoyable by use of these tools. Students are more than ready for technology, and it is only fair that the teachers and…… [read more]

Inclusion Special Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The overall findings though leads to a much less clear cut answer and that is that the LRE for each student is different and can fluctuate with success and failure in each option at any given time individually. (p.4)

Some arguments of full inclusion site studies that suggest that the comparative model of mainstreaming introduces an inherent flaw that causes… [read more]

Special Education Has Changed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  22 pages (5,921 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fold paper or draw lines on paper to assist the student with spacing. This is particularly useful in math.

Use different color chalks and felt pens to emphasize different points, and to make it easier for the student to find his place on the board or paper.

Use highly contrasting colors.

Enlarge the print.

Glue steps of a math operation… [read more]

Special Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  40 pages (10,876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


McConnell (2000) confirms that early childhood special education and early intervention can greatly improve the academic careers of students with learning disabilities. McConnell asserts that early childhood intervention is designed to improve competencies, skills and to aid children and their families in making the proper educational adjustments. (McConnell 2000)

McConnell writes that many early childhood education assessment practices have been… [read more]

Teaching as a Career Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It also required social skills, self-motivation and the ability to enjoy working with people from varying backgrounds. Between 1999 and 2000, I worked 900 hours as a substitute Educational Assistant for all grade levels in Special Education. In this position I worked with mildly to severely mentally challenged students. In 2000, I was hired full time as an Educational Assistant in the Resource Center, and am currently still employed in this position. I tutor multiple subjects, science, consumer math, algebra, social studies, and English, to special educational students. These students are mainstreamed into regular educational classes, however, still need tutoring. I have approximately 700 hours in this position.

As a wife and mother, I have devoted my life to my family and was always involved with my children and their activities. I have raised two sons, both graduated college. I have an Associate of Arts degree and will be returning to college to work towards a degree in education, with a teaching certificate and an endorsement in Special Education.

The years that I spent working as a substitute, and now full time as an Educational Assistant has given me the opportunity to understand and fully appreciate this field of study. I feel my diverse working background and life experience gives me the foundation for dedication in this area. I enjoy teaching and working with the students is very rewarding for me. I am confident that I have chosen the right career to move into at this time in my life and feel comfortable that I…… [read more]

Nursing Education Strategies Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … communication process for example age, ethnicity/Culture, gender, environment, etc.

This statement goes well with the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) standards and guidelines that focus on communication in conjunction with effective instruction. Standard 3 of CCNE specifically covers curricular objectives as well as providing clear statements to students of expected learning relating to student outcomes. Most students… [read more]

How to Make Co-Teaching Effective Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … co-teacher: Strategies for before, during, and after co-Teaching by Wendy W. Murawski and Lisa Dieker

A co-teaching relationship is when a mainstream teacher and a special education services provider (such as a special education teacher, a speech pathologist, etcetera) teach side-by-side in a diverse classroom of both special needs students and general education students. However, frequently these relationships can be strained and ineffective. First and foremost, Murawski & Dieker (2008) stress the need for proper planning to make such a relationship work well. Teachers need to be trained to make the relationship functional, this does not occur intuitively. "Seizing opportunities for staff development in-service training and workshops is helpful, as is reading books and articles that focus on the collaborative relationship in inclusive classrooms" (Murawski & Dieker 2008: 41).

A second key idea is that co-teaching requires substantive reorganization of conventional teaching methods. The co-teacher cannot simply be inserted into the classroom. Often this may mean splitting up the regular classroom into smaller groups. Parents should also be informed about the nature of the co-teaching relationship and the teacher should be aware that not all students may necessarily flourish in the co-teaching environment, depending upon their needs. The plan should address diverse learning needs and have components for H (igh achieving), A (verage achieving), L (ow achieving), and O (ther) students (Murawski & Dieker 2008: 42). This does not mean that all types of conventional wisdom about teaching should be ignored -- the authors stress the value of repetition and other tried and true strategies but the team-taught classroom has its own needs and structure that must be acknowledged.

Thirdly, co-teaching is a dynamic process. After the initial efforts, some modifications may be necessary to address the needs of learners. Teachers should talk about how to change things after the first sessions and come to an agreement about how to more effectively grade students. The authors…… [read more]

Teaching Adults in Today's Society Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  25 pages (7,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25



Training and learning when it comes to adults has a lot of layers, iterations and theories as it relates to its practice. Whether it be training men vs. women, the younger adults vs. The older adults, life and death skills such as police training, training in developed countries vs. training in developing continents or countries like… [read more]

Online Learning Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,303 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Online Learning

Theories of Online Learning -- a research framework

The Need for Education Theory

The Theories of Learning

Attributes of Learning

The Learner Centered approach

The Knowledge Centered approach

The Assessment Centered

Possible variations to the Theories

Online learning is a mode of education that is rapidly developing and gaining in popularity. It eliminates the distance factor in education… [read more]

Action Research Teacher Coaching -- Vocabulary Building Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,914 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Action Research Teacher Coaching -- Vocabulary Building

Evaluation of Coaching in Action Research

Considerations Regarding Working with the Teacher

Theory of Action Guiding the Action Research

Specific Design Methodology to Clarify and Answer the

Conclusions Regarding Your Action Research Project

Central City, Third Grade Reading Scores

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate an action research project,… [read more]

Learning Through Experience Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (465 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Poster Title: Work, Internship, and Volunteer Abroad: Student learning through experience!

Poster Abstract: Students who experience education abroad through work, internships and volunteerism may be more inclined to continue, and even expand their educational forays upon returning home.

Learning Objectives:

Students will be able to describe various educational and learning experiences through their efforts abroad.

Students will learn about the different cultures of work as it applies to them individually and to society as a whole.

Students will be able to describe their initial perceptions of volunteerism as compared to their perception(s) after completing a stint as a volunteer.

Students will be able to define and describe the differences between work, volunteerism and internships and what those differences mean to them as an individual.

A recent study found that "what we do not have, however, is strong and convincing evidence from activities and programs implemented in diverse contexts that resulted in better practice and improved student learning" (Guskey, 2014, p. 11).

Another study showed that "because of its importance andsocietal contribution, the framing of the teaching/learning process needs theoretical thought" (Wittman-Price, Fasolka, 2010, p. 233).

And one more study determined that "learning -- the acquisition of knowledge and skill by instruction or study -- is a continuous process in which new experiences integrate into those previously acquired" (Hauer, Quill, 2011, p. 503).

The three items mentioned above are the focus of this…… [read more]

Collaborative Teaching Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


During this process, planning efforts should also be allocated towards focusing on non-academic behaviors, including social skills and integration into regular society.

Co-teaching programs should also be evaluated on a regular basis by monitoring the satisfaction levels of all stakeholders, including students, parents, the principal, and the like. This evaluation process can also then form the basis of further collaboration between the school and the community to help all students reach their full potential.

Fattig and Taylor (2008, p. 7) suggest that there are several advantages to collaboration. Effective collaborating both inside and beyond the classroom ensures that students have a solid basis for their educational efforts. It is vital that the community and schools work together to help children reach as much of their potential as they can. This includes, but is not limited to, the use of medication to control certain conditions and behaviors.

According to a Dailymotion.com feature "The Medicated Child" (2008), for example, many children are heavily over-medicated with drugs that are far from harmless to control behaviors that have not been diagnosed effectively or accurately and without seeking alternative interventions first. As such, the community and school need to work with the medical community to ensure that such diagnoses are not simply the result of frustrated teaching. This is another way in which co-teaching can help. By removing some of the burden from the general education teacher, the special education teacher can make recommendations for the effective and alternative treatment of children with behavioral difficulties. Hence, paraprofessionals such as psychiatrists can be included in the educational effort when psychotherapy would be an effective intervention technique.

Of course, parents play a vital role in education. The home is the place where children spend most of their time besides schools. Hence, parents have a significant influence on how their children perceive and experience education. Parents of special needs children are particularly important and should collaborate regularly with their children's educators to provide input and insight into their children's learning process and possible problems teachers may encounter with them in the classroom. To do this effectively, parents should meet with teachers before the learning program starts and also regularly throughout the year to discuss progress and further strategies.

Another potentially useful collaboration would be with technology leaders within the community. Innovators can, for example, create computer programs and games that would help special needs children learn and communicate better. CBS News, for example, screened a story that focused on tablet applications by means of which people with severe autism could communicate with those around them. Such "apps" can be developed for various groups of children in need of a means for expressing themselves and who cannot do so effectively in the general social environment. Such technology can help not only socialization and integration, but also the learning process itself.

In conclusion, there is no way to deny that special needs children have become part and parcel of the general education setting, and rightly so. In their adult lives,… [read more]

Gifted Education Delivery in the Small School Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Approximately 8% of the K-12 public school students in Arizona are -- or can be -- identified as gifted or advanced learners. The purpose of the Gifted Education Unit at the Arizona State Department of Education is to provide leadership and assistance to public schools in Arizona in the provision of appropriate gifted education services, so that gifted and advanced learners may develop and achieve at levels commensurate with their potential and abilities. Smaller schools in the Arizona public school system may find it difficult to address the needs of students who have been identified as gifted or advanced learners. Indeed, smaller schools my have diverse student populations characterized by unique disadvantages associated with rural living, higher levels of poverty, and lifestyles dominated by the demands of earning a living through migrant labor. At-risk students with the potential and capability of advanced learning may be overlooked in smaller schools and districts where the provision of gifted education consumes resources, leaving little for a robust identification process. Because Arizona law does not prescribe the models that districts must use to provide gifted education services to gifted learners, there is considerable opportunity for inadvertent policy slippage.

An overarching recommendation for the school is to develop an action plan that will enable them to take full advantage of the supports, resources, and guidance provided by the Arizona Department of Education, Gifted Education unit. Areas to target include: 1) Ensuring participation in professional development; 2) pursuit of funding to provide stipends and tuition reimbursement to teachers seeking Gifted Education endorsements; 3) Obtaining a full battery of tests to better identify gifted children and ensure fewer children slip through the cracks; and, 4) partnering with the state department to develop an itinerant Gifted Education Coordinator.

[Type text]… [read more]

Classroom Motivation and Instruction Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,295 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Therefore, the incorporation of technology in this classroom will involve using media to enhance teaching, learning, engagement, and motivation.

Instructional Intervention for Sarah:

Sarah who struggles with concentration and wanders around while distracting others requires the use of direct interactive instruction, which is a powerful one-on-one teaching strategy. Direct interactive instruction is commonly known as interactive teaching or active teaching because it focuses on the engagement of students in the learning process (Dell'Olio, 2007). This strategy combines the provision of information or developing systematic skills with promoting discussion and sharing in class. Direct interactive instruction will help Sarah to focus on her studies because she will be involved completely in the learning process. The motivational theory used in this instructional intervention for Sarah is the expectancy value theory, which teachers use to maintain highly interactive, individualized learning activities. The theory is based on the premise that a learning activity is carried out because of expectation to perform the activity successfully and obtain rewards as well as how valuable the reward is upon successful completion of the task (Tollefson, 2000, p.65). Through the use of the instructional intervention, the teacher will be able to interact with Sarah more and address some of her concerns and issues.

Instructional Intervention for Walden:

From an assessment of the students' involvement in class, Walden barely engages in class discussions except when learning about the solar system. The student would benefit from differentiated instruction, which incorporates providing various students with varying methods of learning and developing measures through which all students learn effectively despite their differences in ability. The suitability of this instructional intervention in Walden's case is that it will enable the teacher to make connections between the curriculum and Walden's diverse experiences and interests. Moreover, differentiated instruction will help in pushing the student to a point where he can work with minimal assistance in order for greatest learning to occur (Willoughby, n.d.). Through this intervention, Walden will not only have several learning options but also suitable levels of challenge. The instructional intervention utilizes differentiation theory, which postulates that students become more motivated and excited to learn through implementation of choice in the classroom (Koeze, 2007). Based on this theory, the intervention does not allow students to do whatever they want but about knowing the students and preparing learning activities accordingly while implementing best practices.

In conclusion, teaching and learning is a multi-faceted process that requires teachers to develop appropriate learning activities and assignments that promote effective learning. Some of the major elements teachers should address include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, especially for students with varying difficulties in the learning process. In a classroom of students who differ greatly in academic and social skills levels, the teacher should apply principles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, use technology appropriately, and utilize effective instructional intervention for each student to promote effective learning for all students.


Dell'Olio. (2007, January 23). Chapter 4 -- Direct Instruction. Retrieved February 28, 2014,

from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/14255_Chapter4.pdf

Koeze, P.A. (2007, January 1). Differentiated… [read more]

Distance Learning an Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Student Progress in Florida Virtual School Dissertation

Dissertation  |  17 pages (4,722 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 40


Distance Learning Intro Revised

Hello Kevin

Thank you for submitting the initial draft for my review. Here is my reply.

INTRO -- Is uploaded with requested revisions

Working on it -- when do you need it?

Waiting for your overview of the research problems, etc., the raw data, and the data from the state or national testing statistics that you… [read more]

Curriculum and Course Development Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,419 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Curriculum and Course Development

Debate the issue of having a theoretical framework from nursing serve as the organizing framework of a curriculum. Discuss the pros and cons, and defend your position of the matter.

A nursing theoretical framework represents a valuable starting point for developing timely and relevant curricular offerings for both nursing and non-nursing courses in healthcare settings today… [read more]

Stress to Students With Disabilities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


A close assessment of disabilities of different students illustrates that they are likely to experience high stress levels accruing from the stressing education and family environments. Parents who emphasize on unrealistic educational expectations or the denial about the disabilities of their children are also a source of stress to the students. In addition, peer pressure may lead to increased anxiety levels (Comer & Gould, 2013).

Stress management entails effective means of dealing with stress and stressors; in encompasses varied strategies of coping, behavioral and lifestyle changes and stress releasing methods. Some of the positive strategies of coping with stress for students with disabilities include the ability to prioritize activities, setting realistic goals, and engaging in positive personal talk coupled with playtimes (Mace, Coons & Weaverdyck, 2009). Changes in lifestyles require appropriate time management approaches, sustaining appropriate physical health through proper sleep and good eating and identifying stressors affecting disabled students. Temporary stress management strategies comprise of study breaks, constant breathing exercises, temporary vacations and regular walk exercises. Students with disabilities are advised to ensure proper time management and offer indications of potential events triggering stress. As service providers and learning experts claim, recognizing the external indicators of stress overload among students with disabilities is integral (Comer & Gould, 2013). These indicators include:

1. Dramatic decrease or increase in academic efforts

2. Main adjustments in temperament or attitudes (carelessness and irritability)

3. Outburst and withdrawals

4. Distracting and overactive behaviors

5. Complaints of fatigue

6. Alcohol or drug use

7. Increased asthmatic or allergic attacks

8. Excessive eating or lost appetite

9. Sleeping problems

10. Lack of interest in school

11. Anti-social tendencies (Mace, Coons & Weaverdyck, 2009)


Comer, R.J., & Gould, E. (2013). Psychology around us. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Davies, J.L., & Janosik, E.H. (2010). Mental health and psychiatric nursing: A caring approach. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Mace, N.L., Coons, DH, & Weaverdyck, S. (2009). Teaching Dementia Care: Skill and understanding. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Stinson, A. (2010).…… [read more]

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