"Energy / Power" Essays

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Information Systems and Technology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (The Globalist, 2010) Leading the world in energy production in 2005 was Germany with total installed photovoltaic capacity of 17.32 watts per capital." (The Globalist, 2010) Coming in second was Japan with 11.13 watts per person followed by Switzerland (3.66), the Netherlands (3.12), Australia (2.97) and Austria (2.93). (The Globalist, 2010) It is reported that China "claims 30 million solar households -- or nearly 60% of the solar capacity installed in the world. (The Globalist, 2010) It is reported that the hurdles that the solar industry faces in its expansion is specifically due to a "chronic shortage of silicon -- the basic material used to convert the sun's rays into electricity." (The Globalist, 2010)

Rapier (2010) writes in the work entitled "Cleantech, Globalization and Energy Independence" that many private investors and financial institutions "are betting on who will win the green race, but contrary to how our national leaders and media outlets make things appear, they are not wagering on countries…"It is necessary that one "…recognize that companies win in the market place, not nations or their people; (2) accept that despite a local company's best efforts to develop its own technology, it must integrate core technology and components into its final product from diverse foreign partners due to the cutting-edge complexity of green energy; (3) See that this systems integration-requirement spawns transnational partnerships and joint-ventures (JV), which reduces national borders and accelerates global financial and production-network integration; and (4) Awaken to a reality where global economic connectedness binds economies into one unit, thus creating a single common energy security fate for every country regardless of their national energy mix: making self-reliance impossible without returning to the stone age. (Rapier, 2010)


Rapier, R. (2010) Cleantech, Globalization and Energy Independence. R Squared Energy. 12 Nov 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.consumerenergyreport.com/2010/11/12/cleantech-globalization-energy-independence/

Expanding with Green Technology (2010) Bosch. Retrieved from: http://www.bosch.com/content/language2/html/4445.htm

Solar Power and Globalization (2010) The Globalist Syndication Services. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobalist.com/rawmaterials/syndication/sample.htm

SPI Message: The Solar Industry if Ready to Fight (2010) Solar Feeds News and Commentary 12 Oct 2010 Climate Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.solarfeeds.com/climate-progress/14647-spi-message-the-solar-industry-is-ready-to-fight.

Palmer, Brian (2010) Solar Energy…… [read more]

Tree Wind Power Generator Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


sciencedaily.com: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100517152532.htm

Clabby, C. (2011, October). Analyzing Swimming Schools of Fish Inspired a California Biophysicist to try to Improve the Performance of Wind Turbines. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from www.americanscientist.org: http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/a-fish-of-an-idea/1

Eco20-20.com . (2012). Harnessing Tree Power. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from www.eco20-20.com: http://www.eco20-20.com/Harnessing-Tree-Power.html

Eriksson, S., Bernhoff, H., & Leijon, M. (2008). Evaluation of Different Turbine Concepts for Wind Power." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (5), 1419-1434.

Eshi Internatioan Pte Ltd. (2011, April 25). Artificial Trees Pave New Future for Energy and Cleaner Environment. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from www.ecofriend.com: http://www.ecofriend.com/artificial-trees-pave-new-future-for-energy-and-cleaner-environment.html

Hadhazy, A. (2009, May 20). Power Plants: Artificial Trees that Harvest Sun and Wind to Generate Electricity. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from www.scientificamerican.com: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=artificial-trees-harvest-sun-and-wind-energy

Hinrichsen, D. (1981). Blowing with the Wind. Ambio Vol.10, No.5, 246-247.

Hobbs, W.B., & Hu, D.L. (2011). Tree Inspired Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 1-12.

Inhabitat.com. (2012). Power Flower Wind Turbine Trees could Domesticate Wind Energy. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from www.inhabitat.com: http://inhabitat.com/power-flower-wind-turbine-trees-could-domesticate-wind-energy/power-flowers-2/?extend=1

Markham, D. (2012, August 3). New Bladeless Wind Turbine Claimed to be Twice as Efficient as Conventional Designs. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from www.treehugger.com: http://www.treehugger.com/wind-technology/new-bladeless-wind-turbine-claimed-be-twice-efficient-conventional-designs.html

Moyer, M. (2010). Know the Flow. Scientific American 303 Vol. 30, 10-30.

Pasqualetti, M.J. (2000). Morality, Space, and the Power of Wind-Energy Landscapes. Geographical Review Vol. 90, No. 3, 381-394.

Pritchard, H. (2011, August 8). Schools of Fish help Squeeze more Power from Wind Farms. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from www.bbc.co.uk: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14452133

Righter, R.W. (1996). Reaping the Wind: The Jacobs Brothers, Montana's Pioneer 'Windsmiths'. Montana: The Magazine of Western History Vol. 46, No. 4, 38-49.

Sorensen, J.N. (2011). Aerodynamic Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics Vol.43, 427-448.… [read more]

Saving Energy in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Article Review

Article Review  |  5 pages (1,706 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Saving Energy in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

The objective of this study is to compare a research paper titled "Span: An energy-efficient coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in ad hoc wireless networks" (Chen et al. 2001) with a paper titled "Geography informed Energy Conservation for Ad Hoc Routing" (Xu et al., 2001). The study also compares other paper titled "Adaptive… [read more]

Offshore Wind Energy Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  20 pages (5,974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15



2. Wind Power: "air that is in motion in relation to the earth's surface, especially in a horizontal direction."

3. Wind Energy: "the energy contained in the movement of air masses; in human energy use traditionally captured by means of the sails of a ship or the vanes of a windmill, and currently by mechanical blades similar to air… [read more]

Speech on How to Save Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


, n.d., Eco Mall). Using a programmable thermostat so the temperature of the house can drop during the nighttime or when no one is at home, yet rise in time for daybreak or when people are scheduled to return from work and school can make saving money on heating bills easy -- and try not to overheat or overcool the house even when in use (Orloff 2013). In terms of transportation, walking or biking when feasible saves money as well as offers a good source of exercise (20 things you can do to save energy., n.d., Eco Mall). Being outside will help you appreciate the environment! Car pooling and using public transportation also can help you save on the cost of gas.

Of course, it is not financially feasible for most people to immediately replace all of their ones appliances with energy-efficient ones and to get energy-efficient windows, siding and doors for every room of their home. However, they can be mindful of doing so as they plan for renovations over time (Orloff 2013). Switching to energy-efficient appliances and home fixtures can result in savings on electricity, heating and cooling bills. Buying a more gas-efficient car likewise will cut down your weekly fuel bill and improve the health of the planet (20 things you can do to save energy, n.d., Eco Mall.).

All of these examples show how saving energy is a win-win equation for both the consumer and the planet. The consumer saves money while sparing the environment unnecessary strain. Conserving energy requires a series of small, painless steps -- and even those which require some sacrifices, like buying a new car or refrigerator, can be undertaken when a replacement is required. The idea that helping the environment must come at the expense of humankind is misguided -- and after all, humans are still part of the environment!


20 things you can do to save energy. (n.d.) Eco Mall. Retrieved:


Orloff, Jeffrey. (2013). Ten tips for saving energy right now. About.com. Retrieved:

http://saveenergy.about.com/od/energyefficientappliances/tp/SaveNow.htm… [read more]

Canada's Environmental Wellbeing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,163 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



In his book Tar Sands: Dirty Oil and the Future of a Continent, Andrew Nikiforuk outlines his "12 steps to energy sanity." These are

Admit the magnitude and complexity of the energy crisis

Slow down tar sands development and cap production at two million barrels a day

Establish a national energy strategy for energy security and innovation

Impose a carbon tax with a 100% dividend

Challenge the first law of petropolitics

Challenge continental energy integration

Relocalize food production

Abandon economic dead-end activities such as carbon capture and storage

Orient all rural and urban planning to renewable energy

Pick the lowest-hanging fruit first

Don't wait for government

Renegotiate NAFTA

Of these twelve steps, the most important for Canada's environmental well-being is to orient all rural and urban planning to renewable energy. This step works best in conjunction with steps 10 and 11, but this essay will show that this one step alone will have a substantial impact on our environmental well-being.

The first reason that orienting all rural and urban planning to renewable energy is the most important is because so many of our energy problems revolve around our lifestyle choices. Nikiforuk notes that the Japanese use one-third the energy of Canadians per capita and Europeans one-half. Even when we set aside climate differences -- we need more fuel for winter heating than do most countries -- Canada has still made very poor choices with respect to urban and rural planning. Our cities are predominantly comprised of suburban sprawl. The sprawl pattern is incredibly energy inefficient in a number of ways. Houses are far larger than the occupants truly need, and the amount of paved roadway needed to make suburbs work properly is exceptional. Urban planners have emphasizes the hub-and-spoke planning model where people are essentially forced to live far from where they work, necessitating long commutes. Local governments are responsible for zoning, and make this choice deliberately because in many cases they earn more revenue from residential development than commercial or industrial. Provincial governments also contribute to this problem by developing transportation strategy that emphasizes the automobile. BC's new Port Mann Bridge is a good example of such a project, as this will only encourage further suburban sprawl in the Fraser Valley.

The current approach can be replaced by energy efficient approaches used in Europe and Japan. Their cities emphasize density, public transportation and bicycle lanes. With a history of these transportation modes, Japan and Europe do not have the same intense car culture that we have in Canada. You simply do not see the public outcry over new bike lanes in Europe that downtown Vancouver has seen. By focusing effort for all urban planning to emphasize energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy such as solar panels, wind turbines and in most parts of the country hydroelectric power, the culture that surrounds energy consumption will also change. It is the culture of energy consumption that feeds existing patterns, thereby shaping political discourse and policy, and providing strength… [read more]

Electrical Grids Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Florida Electrical Power Grid

Florida's Electrical Power Grid

Electrical power is the most reliable and available source of power used worldwide. It is produced from two broad categories of energy resources, renewable and non-renewable sources. Non-renewable sources are fossils fuels and nuclear fuel while renewable sources include wind, solar, geothermal and hydroelectric power. For the production of electricity, these sources… [read more]

Land Use and Finance Sustainable Local Development Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  12 pages (3,661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Land Use Sustainable Energy

This annotated bibliography will look at current research on the production, distribution and use of renewable energy technologies in the U.S. The work stresses the breadth of such research as well as the breadth and scale of its real implementation and potential implementation. This researcher tried to seek out renewable technologies and issues that demonstrate the… [read more]

Resources and the Environment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,684 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Environment

Pros and Cons of Solar Power

The United States currently depends overwhelmingly on coal, oil, and natural gas -- fossil fuels -- to supply its energy needs, which are massive. All of these fuels are not found in quantities that allow them to continue forever. They are nonrenewable. When they are gone, they are gone. It would… [read more]

Enron Was a Big Energy Company Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


ENRON was a big energy company in the U.S. that attempted to transform itself into the largest energy trader in the world. It rose as high as the seventh largest company in the U.S. In terms of stock value, which was believed to be due to the dynamism and political connection of its Chairman Kenneth Lay. Its share prices nose-dived when it became apparent that the company had been hiding losses by forming shell companies. Quite a few of its executives reaped large benefits by disposing their stock options for cash when the share prices were high. The employees were the losers as they put all their pension money in Enron shares and lost it all when the firm went bankrupt. (ENRON: Who's who?)

Enron was the largest trader of natural gas in the U.S. In 1999 its revenues were $40 billion make it the eighteenth biggest company in the U.S. The business activities of Enron were not restricted to the U.S. alone, but rather were spread all around the world and included activities in countries like Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, China India, Indonesia, Mozambique and the Philippines. Enron also diversified its product range and expanded on to the Internet trading in a wide range of products from pulp and paper to petrochemicals and plastics. It also traded in esoteric products such as clean air credits that are made use of in utilities to keep within emission limits. (Meet Enron, Bush's Biggest Contributor)

Enron came into existence by the merger of Houston Natural gas Company of Houston, Texas and the natural gas company based in Omaha Nebraska called InterNorth, in 1985. To start with Enron operated interstate gas pipelines. In 1989 Enron diversified into trading energy related products. In the fleeting time of a few years Enron wore the mantle of the largest trader of energy in the United States and the United Kingdom. By 1994 Enron grew to be the largest seller of electric power in the U.S. In 1997 Enron implemented its plans to reshape its corporate image to appear as a new, more modern, stylish in appearance and environment conscious company. It brought in a new company logo and went on to acquire Zond Corporation a leading developer in the field of wind energy power. This led to the formation of Enron Renewable Energy Corporation. In August 1997 Enron made public that it was entering the market place with new weather derivative products.

This was in addition to its trading in energy and it also started trading in cellulose, pulp, paper, fertilizer, plastic, metals and bandwidth. With the progress of time into 1999, Enron had turned so big that it was involved in nearly a quarter of the energy deals worldwide. Enron was involved in a major power scandal in Dhabol, India and this led to the developing world looking on Enron with distaste. Houston's new ballpark was named Enron Field in 1999, when Enron agreed to pay $100 million during a period of thirty years. Again in… [read more]

Quantum Technologies: A Non-Financial Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,015 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Quantum Technologies: A Non-Financial Analysis

Non-Financial Analysis

Despite losses in market share and revenue over the past several years, quantum Technologies remains a leading innovator of alternative energy power trains for automobiles, carbon composite fuel storage vessels and other efficiency-enhancing features of motor vehicles, solar panels for use in stationary electricity production, and a host of other renewable energy technologies (Quantum 2011). The company has struggled under rising costs and a lack of demand for its products that require greater up-front expenditures from consumers during the recent economic recession, and the past three years have shown very poor performance in terms of market reach and sales numbers for the company (Fool.com 2011; Yahoo 2011; Google 2011). Throughout this period, however, the company continued to research and develop new products that keep the company a competitive choice.

At present, an exclusive contract with luxury electric and hybrid car manufacturer Fisker to produce solar panels for its Karma series promises to revitalize Quantum and place it back at the forefront of the alternative energy industry (Fool.com 2011; Quantum 2011). Continued diversification of the product offerings and research areas that Quantum Technologies remains involved in presents many opportunities for future growth as well as the ability to create effective branding, establishing the company as the source for alternative energy technologies Quantum 2011). Government subsidies for the adoption of renewable energy technologies and long-term savings as well as ethical incentives are expected to increase the market size and Quantum's market share as the global economy recovers (Google 2011; Yahoo 2011).

Quantum faces competition in several sectors, but does not really have a perfect competitor operating in all of the same industries and product lines that Quantum offers (Google 2011; Yahoo 2011). Primary competitors include BorgWarner, Inc., one of the leading manufacturers of drive-train and power-train components for traditional motor vehicles as well as industrial and agricultural vehicles; with no specialization in renewable energies, this company does not exactly compete directly with Quantum, but when energy source is considered optional BorgWarner's products can absolutely be produced cheaper than Quantum's, and are found in many vehicles (Yahoo 2011). At the other end of the spectrum, SatCon Technology Corp. creates utility-grade renewable energy sources for business; more direct competition is experienced with various products produced by this company, and in recent years SatCon has been more effective at securing industrial contracts (Google 2011).

Market trends are clearly leading to greater sales of "green" technologies as more and more consumers become aware of these products and the need for alternative energies (Fool.com 2011; Quantum 2011). It is expected that ten years from now, solar panels will be standard features in new home construction and utility department expansions, creating a great deal of increased demand for Quantum Technology's products. If these market trends continue even twenty years out, which seems likely as such technologies become cheaper to adopt the more they proliferate, Quantum could well be established as one of the leading providers of energy technologies in utility and… [read more]

Future Usages Replacing Oil-Based Fuels and Their Usage Trends Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (835 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Alternative Fuels

Future Usages - replacing oil-based fuels and their usage trends

Replacing oil with alternative fuels: Future outlook

Replacing oil with alternative fuels: Future outlook


One of the reasons for the unprecedented dependence of Americans upon fossil fuels is America's love affair with the automobile. However, hybrid vehicles have exploded in popularity. Particularly after the spike in energy prices, hybrid vehicles such as the Prius began to dominate the roadways. Some areas began to offer special incentives to drivers of hybrid cars, such as the ability to drive in carpooling lanes alone. And the scope of the ambition regarding electric vehicles has grown: A coalition of auto makers, battery manufacturers, utility operators and shipping companies wants the U.S. To offer tax credits for buying all-electric plug-in vehicles as part of a $128 billion program to get seven million such cars on the road by 2018"(Burns 2009). This would follow the lead of Japanese and European nations that already have made heavy investments in electric cars.

Electric cars are now much more expensive than conventional vehicles, but they cost only 2.5 cents per mile traveled, compared with 12 cents per mile for a gas-powered car, advocates say. "Electric cars already have a long-enough range for most Americans, who typically drive no more than 40 miles a day…Vehicle owners would be able to fully charge them at night in their own garages, using an ordinary electric plug…fast chargers, operating at 480 volts, available at public facilities, would allow drivers to charge vehicles on the go, removing the anxiety about the limited range of today's battery-powered cars" (Burns 2009). Electrically powered lawn mowers and other types of equipment, such as leaf blowers, that are traditionally powered by gas have now been phased into common use.

Wind energy

Like battery and outlet-powered electricity, wind energy is a naturally renewable source of power. Humankind has been using the wind as a source of power for hundreds of years, as manifested in the presence of windmills across Europe before the use of fossil fuels. Wind turbines create electricity through rotating blades: "When the wind blows, a pocket of low-pressure air forms on the downwind side of the blade. The low-pressure air pocket then pulls the blade toward it, causing the rotor to turn. This is called lift. The force of the lift is actually much stronger than the wind's force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag. The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to…… [read more]

Dubai Building Tomorrow's City Today Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



There certainly seems to be a pattern within human civilization that encourages each society to attempt to make their mark upon the world. Through the ages, such marks have come in many forms; the Great Pyramids of Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Colossus of Rhodes, and the Eiffel Tower of Paris have all represented something more significant… [read more]

Capturing and Storing Energy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


"Single small turbines, below 100 kilowatts, are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or water pumping. Small turbines are sometimes used in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and photovoltaic systems. These systems are called hybrid wind systems and are typically used in remote, off-grid locations, where a connection to the utility grid is not available" (U.S. Department of Energy, 2014). The… [read more]

Centralized Versus Decentralized Energy Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Centralized and Decentralized Power Generation

As the date for peak oil looms large in the future, traditional methods of power generation are being reevaluated to determine if they are the optimal approach. Innovations in technology have introduced improved micro-sized wind turbines and more efficient solar photovoltaics and in a growing number of cases, the centralized generation of power… [read more]

Is Wind Power Green? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … moves in energy prices are showing how the world is at or near peak oil production. This is troubling, as it means that developed and emerging economies must find alternate sources. One possible resource is wind energy. This is a renewable reserve that is using the power of the wind to generate electricity without polluting the atmosphere.

However, renewable energy is often seen as expensive and unreliable. As there are variety of organizations and individuals, who have a stake in maintaining fossil fuel-based reserves. To make matters worse, any attempt to move the world away from this source is often seen as anti-competitive. This is because these firms are interested in increasing their bottom results (so that the price of their stock will rise). As a result, these companies and organizations have no interest in promoting renewable resources. In this paper, we will prove that the use of alternative sources can address the world's current and future energy needs. All that is required is the commitment towards making these resources mainstream. This is when the costs will decrease (allowing this source to become more practical).

What is Wind Power?

Wind power is when a large generator is connected to a turbine. As the wind is blowing its blades will turn, producing electricity. In the last several years, worldwide generating capacity has increased by an average of 25% a year. Moreover, the costs (for this technology) have come down with oil prices remaining at around $80.00 per barrel. This has led to renewed calls for expanding this resource in order to address the world's energy needs. However, there are also many skeptics who believe that this is not efficient and are calling for the development of other sources (such as: natural gas and coal). This has caused some programs to face challenges from these individuals (who are spreading half-truths or outright lies). ("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)

Drawbacks of Wind Power

There are several drawbacks associated with wind power to include: the costs and the impact that it is having on the landscape. In the case of costs, many opponents will argue that wind does not produce enough electricity to justify the expenses. For example, to power an entire community will requires having acres of wind farms. This will cost tens of millions of dollars and it cannot produce the same kind of results as natural gas or coal operated power plants. Moreover, many individuals will argue that use of clean coal technology could negate its environmental impact (through the negative effect it is having on businesses). While natural gas has a limited effect on the environment. According to opponents, a smaller plant is the most productive way to address these challenges and use other clean resources. This will provide results that can address current and future needs…… [read more]

Environmental Science Nuclear Power Technical Summary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Environmental Science

Nuclear Power

Technical Summary

To eventually produce electricity with nuclear energy, a mining company must first find, purify, supplement, and make fuel-grade uranium pellets. Uranium is an element that exists in somewhat different forms in nature. All uranium atoms have the same number of protons, but not all uranium atoms have the same number of neutrons. The heat… [read more]

Dod: Pursuing Alternative Energy Conservation Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The Navy has indeed been long leading the way in the regard, by engaging in proactive testing of biofuels and demonstrating that there is absolutely no reason that the future of the Department of Defense has to include a dependence on foreign fuels. The Navy was the branch of the DOD which engaged in the testing and certification of 50-50 blends of advanced hydrotreated biofuel and aviation gas as a means of testing, evaluating and demonstrating the wide-range utility and functionality of advanced biofuels in an operational setting. "The military's ability to use fuels other than petroleum reduces vulnerability to rapid and unforeseen changes in the price of oil that can negatively impact readiness, while also increasing energy security….Kaiser delivered 700,000 gallons of hydro-treated renewable diesel fuel, or HRD76, to three ships of the strike group. Kaiser also delivered 200,000 gallons of hydro-treated renewable aviation fuel, or HRJ5, to Nimitz. Both fuels are a 50-50 blend of traditional petroleum-based fuel and biofuel comprised of a mix of waste cooking oil and algae oil."

This is quite so promising because it demonstrates the grand potential of biofuels. Biofuels offer up the possibility to offer affordable, renewable sources of energy for the future, without forcing this on-going situation of dependence on foreign fuel sources -- something which has been repeated far too often in the last few decades. The dependence on foreign fuel is akin to a reliance on a backwards and outdated form of technology -- it's as if the military had become dependent on an old-fashioned technology: using foreign fuels is like still being dependent on typewriters or muskrat rifles. Technology is evolving and the DOD has a strong obligation to apply this evolution to the arena of fuels and alternative energy sources.

The proof of this viability is in the progress that has already been made: in the beginning the overall objective of the BioFuels program was to develop an affordable alternative production process that will accomplish 60% of conversion efficiency by energy content of crop oil to military aviation fuel and elucidate a path to 90% conversion.

With each year, the military comes even closer to meeting that goal in a strong fashion and in a manner which relies on the strengths and abilities of various disciplines: chemistry, engineering, material engineering, biotechnology and propulsion system engineering.

Thus, this paper has attempted to demonstrate that the future of energy sources is directly connected to the usage and development of biofuels, without a doubt. Reliance of foreign fuels is so expensive and will continue to grow in cost, that one simply cannot rationalize spending another solitary cent on them. Furthermore, reliance of foreign fuels creates an unnecessary and skewed power structure that has never worked in the United States' favor and will continue to foster a relationship of dependence rather than self-sufficiency. Biofuels hold the key to a future which is not only greener and more renewable but which is also colored by autonomy.


Alexander, D. et al. Navy… [read more]

Solar Energy Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Solar Energy

As typical hydrocarbon materials are significantly challenging and costly to draw out, energy businesses need to alter their approach in order to fulfil the needs of an expanding populace progressively depending on power. Renewable resource has actually become the focus for numerous energy businesses as they look to a 'greener' future. Whether this enhancing dedication has actually come… [read more]

Solar Energy Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,976 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Solar Energy

The threats posed by our relationship to energy has given rise to some devastating results on a global and a personal scale like human-induced climate change, famine, poverty and cycles of deforestation; all these while on our overzealous appetite search for energy. Global economic, environmental and social pressures are driving the human race to search for a better… [read more]

Mechanical Engineering Dissertation

Dissertation  |  23 pages (6,370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 70


¶ … shaping the future of energy production today, including the push for more environmentally friendly alternatives as well as the most cost effective approaches. In this environment, liquefied natural gas has emerged as a viable interim solution to many of the challenges involved in the transition from a fossil-fuel-based global infrastructure to one where a blend of energy-production approaches… [read more]

Nuclear Power for Energy and Its Impact to the Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (4,593 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Nuclear Power for Energy and Its Impact to the Environment

Louis Daleandro

History of use of nuclear energy

Production of nuclear power has a rich history of competing with various other energy-related technological sciences to rule the market. Technology of light water reactor (LWR) finally topped this struggle, which started right after the Second World War. This LWR technology is… [read more]

Hydroelectric Power: The Renewable Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Department of Energy Hydropower Program, 2001. p. 5). China also has moved on with the newest project of the Three Gorges Dam. The dam would be taking 400 miles for the reservoir only (Ordal, 2002).

However this technology sometimes does not work under specific circumstances. Norway, for example, ranked the sixth from the top hydroelectric generating countries in 1998. The country depends much on the hydroelectric stations that provide it economical source of electricity for its people. Once the government realized that they had trouble during the dry year, the electricity cost had increased to 400%. The prolonged dry season had left the dams empty that only limited sources of stored energy left, causing extreme hikes on electricity cost. It might cost 2-3 times higher than usual for the people to keep their houses warm and businesses to stay open.

Although reported to be efficient and satisfying, the development of large dams and utilization of powerful turbines have created superfluous effects that have traumatized the adjacent environment. (U.S. Department of Energy Hydropower Program, 2001. p. 7).

The main consideration is, such huge construction and landscape alteration required to build a dam will affect the organisms living in the streams and the natural platform of the neighboring areas. Dam construction will at least destroy the farms and villages, forcing the inhabitants to relocate; which costs very high.

The other obvious concern is about the threatened fish lifecycle in the river. The powerful movement of the water into the penstock and the turbine rotation has been proven of killing fishes in the rivers. The gravitation force draw fishes into the penstock, and the sharp blades of the turbine instantly bash them into pieces or leave them injured.

In North America, the dam operation is reported in endangering young fishes life, as the fishes are sucked into the pipes and smashed onto the wall, while others are killed for increasing water pressure inside the unit (Stoner, 2002. par. 7). Moreover, it is important to consider that the barrier effect of the dam building most likely blockade the natural salmon journey to the spawning site. Some dams have implemented ladder structures for the salmons to make their way through their home, however this method has been reported ineffective.

The U.S. Department of Energy recently introduced the new Advanced Turbine Technology to reduce the violent effect of the hydropower plant to the fishes. The new turbine has less blades and noise, and allows water to pass with less shocking effect to the fishes carried in the water. The design allows the turbine to produce more energy, around 6% greater than the conventional one (Stoner, 2002).

From the previous study, the advanced turbine technology reduces fish mortality to less than 2%, while on the current turbine system may reach 5-30%. Moreover, the turbine also retains the Dissolved Oxygen level to 6 mg/L, which meets the standard water quality for the existence of the organisms (U.S. Department of Energy Hydropower Program, 2001. p 7). The quality… [read more]

Sources of Community Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


That can be an issue, but it is a small one when compared to other energy sources that require nearly complete destruction of the natural environment in order to be useful (Lovins, 2011; Makower, Pernick, & Wilder, 2009). Additionally, the sources of power that Willows is using will not be used up by their consumption, so there is no concern… [read more]

Nuclear Energy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,543 words)
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The expectations of increased cost estimates and lack of adequate construction and engineering skills prove that building and maintaining a nuclear power plant is relatively a more expensive process that would require costly taxpayer subsidies. For example, the development of two new nuclear power plant reactors in southeast Florida cost between $6 billion and $9 billion for each plant. Therefore,… [read more]

Solar Panel (Energy) in Saudi Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,005 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Solar Panel (Energy) in Saudi Arabia

Solar panels in Saudi Arabia

Solar Panel Energy in Saudi Arabia

Solar energy has been generally known as energy that is produced by the sun heat and its collection is done in a flat plate collector known as solar panels. Then the energy undergoes conversion to come up with electricity in most cases. For… [read more]

Energy in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


It should be noted that if more is invested in the erection of a windmill or a generator and the interest rates that are being charged for the manufacturing equipment then the consumer of this energy will also have to bear a part of this cost. According to a study it was discovered that if the finance of the wind… [read more]

Renewable Energy the Law Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


c. Solar energy

i. Pros: solar energy produces no pollution of the environment, less expensive if not counting the cost of solar panels and their instillation, the government offers tax credits up to $2,000 for using solar energy, you can receive energy credits if the solar panels produce more energy than you consume, solar energy will never run out whereas nonrenewable sources are quickly dwindling, in addition solar energy produces no noise pollution as the systems are completely silent (Bocchine 2007).

ii. Cons: the initial cost of the solar panels can be cost prohibitive, solar energy is subject to climate variability based upon weather and the hours of sunlight within a region which will impact that wattage produced, some people argue that the panels are aesthetically unpleasant, and the solar energy panels can only absorb energy in the day meaning electricity used at night must rely on stored energy within the panels (Bocchine 2007).

d. Wind power

i. Pros: completely clean energy source which does not require drilling or mining for materials, renewable and sustainable, costs are low, abundant supply of wind available, the power is essentially free once the structures have been paid for, can be… [read more]

Comparison of Generators Used in Wind Power Generation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,039 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Generators used in Wind Power Generation

Generators are of varied categories in the mechanical worlds. The differences in the mechanistic categories of the generators originate from the fact that there are varying differences and makes in the market. The different roles and responsibilities that are accrued to the materials and machines make them to take differing protocols of… [read more]

Nuclear Power -- the Future of Electricity Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Nuclear Power -- the Future of Electricity Generation

Nuclear power production was first introduced in the United States and was touted as the future of energy. Nuclear power production has a wide range of benefits that it can offer the nation. Although there are some formidable risks in regard to nuclear power that have been illustrated by many disasters since its inception, modern technology and advanced safety management can now mitigate many of the concerns that plagued previous generations of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the risks that are being presented by climate change and the exponentially expanding amount of greenhouse gas pollution far exceed the risks that are proposed by the use of nuclear generated power.

The time has come for a reevaluation of nuclear power and its place in powering a modern nation. Traditional sources of power generation are damaging the Earth's ability to regenerate its natural systems while alternative sources cannot meet the modern demand for power. Although nuclear power has had a mixed track record in the past, the changing environmental conditions demand that this clean and relatively safe technology be reconsidered. This paper will look at many of the advantages that nuclear power has over alternative methods of power production.


Coal is a nonrenewable fossil fuel that has powered much of the development of the United States since it was first used for electric power generation. Even today there are over 600 plants across the country consuming 900 million tons per year to produce 40% of U.S. electricity (Congressional Digest). The use of coal in the United States has become so widespread because it is abundant in the country and the U.S. holds some of the largest reserves of coal in the world. It is estimated that, even with growing demand, the United States has enough coal to last over two hundred years based on current consumption and production patterns.

However, despite the prevalence of coal in the country, the percentage of electricity generated from coal in relations to other fuel sources is continually decline and is expected to continue doing so into the future. Coal fired plants are estimate to contribute approximately a third of all greenhouse gas emissions and contributes as much as pollution as all sources of all transportation sources combined (Congressional Digest). Therefore, coal fired plants have come under a lot of scrutiny for their environmental impacts and many older coal plants are being forced into retirement. Furthermore, advances in natural gas extraction have also made natural gas a viable alternative in many locations. Natural gas is generally cheaper than coal and hydraulic fracking has expanded the supply of natural gas. However, this too has an unknown amount of environmental impacts as well.

Geothermal Electricity Production

Of all the alternative fuel sources, geothermal power production has the most advantages. Unlike solar or wind power plants, the geothermal power plants may continuously produce electric power…… [read more]

Nonrenewable vs. Renewable Energy Use Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,046 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Non-renewable sources of energy have the potential of shaping foreign policies of industrialized and developed countries. Countries such as the U.S., China, Russia, and India strive to secure the non-renewable bases of energy resources (Asif & Muneer, 2007). Industrial and non-industrial use: Though, non-renewable energy has assumed much importance in the policy discourse of governments, NGOs, and transnational corporate bodies of the world, industrial and large scale manufacturing is still dependent on power generation from non-renewable sources of energy. Petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, and coal remain the dominant non-renewable resources used by manufacturing and production plants to generate power and other products. This particular difference is still large enough to exist during several years to come.


The use of non-renewable and renewable energy is for various purposes. Renewable sources are those energy sources that are not under the threat of depletion whereas non-renewable sources of energy are bound to be finished soon, if consumed at current rate. Fossil fuels and radioactive fuels are main types of energy sources in non-renewable category. In fossil fuels, natural gas, petroleum, and coal are widely used for energy. Petroleum is the most abundantly used non-renewable energy source vital in manufacturing of several hundred products. In renewable energy category, sun and sun light are the major source of energy. Wind and geothermal energy are also utilized for heating and power generation. Major contrast in both the energy types is related to their supply, usability, GHG emissions, cost, and industry development phase. The U.S. And Europe are two major investors in renewable and sustainable energy policy during the coming decades. As reported by NERL (2012), the U.S. government plans to meet 80% of its electricity needs from renewable sources of energy by 2050.


Aresta, M., & Dibenedetto, A. (2007). Utilization of CO2 as a chemical feedstock: opportunities and challenges. Dalton Transactions, (28), 2975-2992.

Asif, M. & Muneer, T. (2007). Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11(7), 1388-1413.

CEC. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions about LNG. California Energy Commission, State of California. Retrieved from: http://www.energy.ca.gov/lng/faq.html#700

Conservation Council SA. (n.d.). Uses of Uranium: Is Uranium Needed. The Conservation Council of South Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.ccsa.asn.au/nuclearsa/b1.html

EIA. (2013). International Energy Statistics: Total Coal Consumption (Quadrillion Btu). U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=1&pid=1&aid=2&cid=ww,&syid=2007&eyid=2011&unit=QBTU

EIA. (2013). International Energy Statistics: Total Petroleum Consumption (Quadrillion Btu). U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=5&pid=5&aid=2&cid=ww,&syid=2007&eyid=2011&unit=QBTU

Lund, H., & Mathiesen, B.V. (2009). Energy system analysis of 100% renewable energy systems -- the case of Denmark in years 2030 and 2050. Energy, 34(5), 524-531.

Mongillo, J.F. (2011). A Student Guide to Energy. USA: ABC-CLIO.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2012). Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Hand, M.M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J.M.; Mai, T.; Aren't, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D. eds. 4 vols. NREL/TP-6A20-52409. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved from: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/52409-1.pdf

Appendix I

Source: (Lund and Mathiesen, 2009)… [read more]

Nuclear Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


However, despite the limitations present in this technology, it is among the best alternative available for producing cost efficient power that is suitable to meet the world's energy needs. Even though the plant in Japan suffered a catastrophic fate after the recent tsunami, the probability of the likelihood of such a disaster has diminished significantly. In fact, the plant in Japan that experienced problems was built in the 1960s and more current designs are substantially more fail safe. Furthermore, nuclear power does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions which are likely to be one of the most important considerations due to the increasing body of literature surrounding the climate change phenomenon. Therefore, nuclear power may be a necessary evil, but it will allow society to maintain its current energy consumption patterns and do so without further contributions to the most pressing environmental concerns.

Works Cited

Beaver, W. "The Failed Promise of Nuclear Power." Independent Review (2011): 399-411. Print.

CO2 Now. "Earth's CO2 Home Page." 11 October 2012. CO2 Now. Web. 11 October 2012.

Heiman, M. And B. Solomon. "Power to the People: Utility Restructuring and the Commitment to Renewable Energy." Annals of the Association of American Geographers (2004): 94-116. Print.

Hensen, J., et al. "Target Atmoshperic CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?" NASA Goddard Intitute for Space Studies (2008): 1-18. Web.

IPCC. "Synthesis Report." Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007). Print.

Miller, J., B. Stakenborghs and R. Tsai. "Improving Nuclear Power Plant's Operational Efficiencies in the U.S.A." Mechanical Engineering (2011): 47-52. Print.

Moniz, E. "Why We Still Need Nuclear Power." Foreign Affairs (2011): 90-96. Print.

Roberts, S. "U.N. Says 7 Billion Now Share the World." 31 October 2011. The New York Times. Web. 16 November 2011.

Stolyarevskji, A. "Production of Alternative Fuel on the Basis of Nuclear…… [read more]

Consequences of Developing Nuclear Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Consequences of Developing Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power

Using sustained nuclear fission of uranium in the generation of electricity and heat is referred to as a nuclear power source. For the nuclear generated electricity in the world, France, U.S., and Japan account for 50% generation together. Nuclear power reduces the carbon emissions and provides for sustainable energy sources Levendis, Block, & Morrel, 2006.

The main factor against nuclear power is the threat is posses to the environment and people in case of a disaster. Compared to the other energy technologies, the safety of nuclear power is much better, and there is continued research in improving the safety of nuclear power, and this would allow for its use in the future.

Negative ramifications of hydropower

Using hydropower alters the natural river flow, and may affect the habitat and ecology of the region. These changes may affect aquatic life. Fish being cold blooded need cold water to regulate their metabolism rate. The dam water since it is not freely moving tends to warm up which affects the body temperature regulation of the fish. There is a likelihood for a dam to break and this would result in a flood disaster that would affect the people who live near the dam. Case in point is the Johnstown flood in 1889. Flora around the dam is affected negatively because of large carbon amounts which cause crops to rot due to lack of enough oxygen. Creating dams affects travel routes for humans and animals and may affect wildlife nourishment areas.

Consequences of developing nuclear power

Nuclear power does not affect the environment during its production and does not alter the natural flow of nature. Production of nuclear power uses little energy and the quantity produced is enormous. This compared to the amount produced by hydropower is quite huge. Nuclear power production is purely dependent on availability of Uranium, and this is not affected by weather patterns like lack of rainfall. Hydropower is dependent on rainfall and drought seasons could lead to the dams drying. Nuclear power produces far less greenhouse emissions as compared to other fossil fuels, and…… [read more]

Energy Policy Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  8 pages (2,327 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The world now is a high tech world and technology previously has helped us achieve wonders and solving this energy crisis wouldn't be any different from that. The engineers and researchers are fully equipped and they all the technology readily available. Events in history has taught everyone a lesson, dependence on oil can be a risky thing to do as… [read more]

Environmental Economic Policy Proposal for New York State on Sustainable Energy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Environmental Economic Policy Proposal

Energy Sustainability in New York State

Environmental Economic Policy Proposal for New York State on Sustainable Energy

Environmental Economic Policy Proposal for New York State on Sustainable Energy

Energy use is inevitable, for any State like New York, carrying out activities, which are industrial. To another extent, New York State also contains a proportionally high population… [read more]

Implementation of Solar Power Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,777 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Government Policies and Solar Power Systems

Government regulations and policies affect renewable power generation a great deal, as is revealed through a brief review of the history of governmental policy in regards to power generation. Federal, state, and local governments support solar power creation, progress and improvement through a broad assortment of strategy and regulatory instruments. As the cost of… [read more]

Alternatives to Traditional Fossil Fuels Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Current estimates are that there are on the order of three million different species of algae, which is approximately one hundred times the number of species of known land plants. They can occur at the microscopic scale as unicellular cyanobacteria or microalgae, all the way to multicellular macroalgae like giant kelp. The advantage of algae as an energy source is that it grows easily and prolifically in any kind or quality of water, including salt, fresh, or brackish water. This means that algae provide not only an abundant and perpetually renewable source of energy biofeedstock, but also represents a source with extremely high genetic and ecological diversity. Cultivation of algae is environmentally beneficial, as algae currently account for 50% of the world's oxygen production, but constitutes less than 1% of overall plant biomass on the planet (Valone)

Wind-generated electric power is presently one of the fastest-growing new energy sources. Since wind is a byproduct of solar heating of the earth's atmosphere, it is an indirect form of solar power. Wind generators harness the kinetic energy from moving air by using wind turbines to convert this energy into mechanical and subsequently electrical power. The environmental concerns related to wind power are restricted to the relatively small byproducts of constructing the generators themselves, and a somewhat greater concern regarding the rate of avian and bat injuries and mortalities resulting from the large, exposed turbine blades moving at high speeds in their habitat. In addition there are some concerns about the visual impact of proliferating numerous large terrestrial and oceanic wind farms. Aside from these concerns, wind power constitutes a perpetually renewed, cost free source of energy that cannot be depleted, and does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions or other air pollutants. The entry barriers to wind power production involve primarily regulatory and land acquisition challenges, but more prominently high start-up capital investments required for machinery and installation site preparation. Once installed and operating, wind power ultimately offsets the harmful emissions and carbon dioxide production of energy produced equivalent fossil fuel methods, and eliminates the troublesome waste generated by nuclear fission methods. ("Wind Energy Guide")

It is worth noting there has been significant debate surrounding whether nuclear energy should be considered a renewable resource. It was asserted by the former U.S. Bush Administration that the net creation of fissile plutonium fuel using breeder reactors to supply nuclear power generators constituted a renewable fuel and renewable process. However, current nuclear power plants utilize uranium 235, which is a naturally occurring element with a finite, limited supply. The prevailing view given the current state of nuclear technology has been well summarized in a civil petition sent to the office of the President in 2007, which asserted that nuclear power as we know it is not in fact a renewable energy source:

"Nuclear power is neither a renewable nor a clean source of energy. For that matter, oil, coal, and natural gas are also not renewable or clean sources of energy. Nuclear power and fossil… [read more]

Nuclear Power the Pros and Cons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Nuclear Power

The Pros and Cons of Nuclear Power

There are positives and negatives with any energy source that humankind chooses to utilize. Coal, for example, emits pollutants that contribute to climate change, whereas hydropower can disrupt river flows and place man-made obstacles in the way of river life.

However, nuclear energy, claimed by some to be the most dangerous energy source, can cause irreversible damage, if not properly handled. In fact, nuclear power is the only energy source that has the capability of killing so indiscriminately, and so powerfully, that a whole area of the world could be uninhabitable for centuries. This paper will aim to address some of the pros and cons of nuclear energy, and how it can be utilized for the benefit, not harm, of humankind.

In order to begin to build slowly and see how nuclear power might be beneficial, one must begin by analyzing its dangers. These were well-shown in two disasters that happened in our lifetime: Chernobyl and Fukushima. The Chernobyl disaster occurred in the mid-1980's in the Ukraine, when a nuclear reactor exploded and spread radioactive materials throughout the Western part of the country and into continental Eastern Europe. Chernobyl has been so devastating that there are still no people living in the area, which is truly a completely desolate ghost town. In a town nearby, Pripyat, which has been analyzed by experts, it is predicted that due to contaminants from the Chernobyl disaster, the town will continue to be uninhabitable for centuries to come.

Thus, one of the important cons is that nuclear reactors can suffer meltdowns, and they will cause severe damage not only to humans, but also to the physical environment which may surround them. Another similar incident to the one described above, and more recent, is the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Much like Chernobyl, at Fukushima reactors melted down, leading to widespread radiation danger. Unlike Chernobyl, however, the Fukushima catastrophe was more complex, as it was provoked by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and further damaged by a tsunami that followed it and that broke through many of the protections which Fukushima engineers had…… [read more]

Nuclear Power Nuclear Energy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


On the other hand, fossil fuels remain the only viable alternative energy source for powering the world's industry and travel. In fact, researchers have found that oil price increases have had a directly positive impact on nuclear energy consumption, as nuclear energy is cheaper to produce for a variety of reasons than many energy production methods that utilize oil-derived fuels (Lee & Chiu 2011). This means that in order to provide a real incentive to eliminate nuclear energy, there would either need to be a massive reduction in the cost of extracting, transporting, and refining oil, or a development of power plants and infrastructures that operate on entirely different fuel sources and mechanisms (e.g. solar, wind, or hydroelectric generation). Economically speaking, nuclear energy still makes more sense for most developed countries than expanding more traditional fossil fuel energy sources or moving to other alternatives, even with increased safety costs (Lee & Chiu 2011).

There are many other facets to the nuclear energy debate besides safety and cost, including both direct and indirect environmental concerns of both nuclear and fossil fuel plants, capacity and demand issues, and other concerns. All of these add to the complexity of the issue, and make it impossible to come to a simple conclusion regarding whether or not nuclear energy sources should continue to be utilized. As energy needs grow and fossil fuel supplies diminish, however, this question becomes ever more pressing.


Bommer, J., Papaspiliou, M. & Price, W. (2011). Earthquake response spectra for seismic design of nuclear power plants in the UK. Nuclear Engineering and Design 241(3): 968-77.

Lee, C. & Chiu, Y. (2011). Oil prices, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: New evidence using a heterogeneous…… [read more]

Renewable Energy Sources Today Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Currently, the vast majority of wind turbine capacity is located in only a few countries, including Germany, Spain, Japan, Italy, and the United States.


Almost without exception, all living matter derives most of its energy from the sun and stores it through carbon fixation. Traditional methods of converting solar energy into a useable form include the burning of firewood, straw, and animal dung for cooking and warmth, which still represents a major energy sourced in undeveloped countries. In developed countries the sources of biomass include agricultural and forestry residues, and municipal waste. Although still an important source of energy in developed economies, biomass provides a much smaller share of the energy consumed when compared to third world economies. The global energy contribution of biomass is around 9.5%, which represents 67.9% of the energy supplied by renewable energy sources (Balat 18). Biomass is converted to useable energy through combustion to generate heat, anaerobic digestion to produce methane, oil extraction for biofuels, or gasification to produce high grade fuels (Panwar, Kaushik, and Kothari). Unfortunately, the use of biomass generates greenhouse gases at almost the same rate as fossil fuels and therefore represents a threat to the environment.


The fourth biggest producer of renewable energy in the world is geothermal energy, which provides about 0.5% of the world's energy needs (Philips 2415). Geothermal energy exploits the heat stored within the earth, which was formed by the heat already present in the matter prior to the formation of earth, created as gravitational energy was spent as the matter combined to form the earth, and by ongoing radioisotope decay. From a human perspective, geothermal energy is essentially limitless.

Energy is produced by either tapping underground hot water reservoirs or pumping surface water deep into a borehole to heat it. If the temperature is hot enough to produce steam then electricity can be generated, otherwise it can be used as a heat source. There are several important limitations to using geothermal energy. For example, the steam derived from a geothermal reservoir can sometimes contain enough greenhouse gases to rival that produced by fossil fuels. The steam may also contain toxins, like mercury, boron, and radon. Other potential environmental hazards include water pollution, damage caused during the construction and operation of a geothermal power plant, soil erosion, and noise pollution. Still, with an annual rate of growth around 3.7% there is continued interest in exploiting this renewable energy source (Balat 21).


With the world's governments racing against time to have renewable energy sources online before fossil fuel prices become untenable, public investment into this energy sector is expected to continue to increase. With a goal of supplying 50% of global energy needs by the year 2040 (Panwar, Kaushik, and Kothari 1514) considerable investment into renewable energies will be required. Global photovoltaic, geothermal, and wind energy-producing capacity is expected catch up to hydropower by 2040, even though hydroelectric capacity is expected to increase by 17-fold during the same period. These projections reflect a dramatic shift… [read more]

Augmenting Traditional Electric Power With Solar Power Is a Wise Investment in South Florida Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Augmenting Traditional Electric Power with Solar Power is a Wise Investment in South Florida

Solar is a powerful source of energy that can be utilized to heat, cool, and light homes and businesses. This is for the reason that more energy from the sun falls on the earth in one hour than is utilized by everybody in the world… [read more]

Solar Energy for Thermal Desalination Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


(Blanco, 2008) The method of water desalination that appears to be the most effective and economical is the desalination process known as the 'Multi-Effect' desalination process. The Multi-Effect desalination process is a thermal distillation process in which the feed water "is sprayed or otherwise distributed onto the surface of the evaporator surface of different changes in a thin film to promote evaporation after it has been preheated in the upper section of each chamber." (Review of CSP and Desalination Technology, nd) The evaporator tubes are then steam heated using steam extraction from a powercycle or boiler with the steam produced. It is reported that the surfaces of the other effects receive heat by the steam from the preceding effect and that each effect is required to have pressure that is lower than the previous one. The process is repeated up to 16 effects with the steam produced in the last effect being condensed separately in a heat exchanger referred to as the final condenser stated to be cooled using the incoming seawater. The incoming seawater is stated to be used as "preheated feed water for the desalinati8on process." (Review of CSP and Desalination Technology, nd) The Multi-Effect Desalination method has better thermal performance than other processes of desalination and can be used both for high or low temperature desalination operations. There are various configurations of the MED process making it more versatile for use in desalination processes. (Review of CSP and Desalination Technology, nd)

Summary of Literature Reviewed

The literature reviewed in this brief initial study indicates that the Multi-Effect desalination process is an effective and versatile process that can be used for desalination of seawater to make it suitable for drinking water.


It is recommended, based on the literature reviewed, that the Multi-Effect desalination process be examined closely and compared to other desalination processes to determine if the Multi-Effect desalination process is more effective and economical than other desalination processes.


Review of CSP and Desalination Technology (2007)

Blanco, J. et al. (2008) Solar Energy and Feasible Applications to Water Processes. 5th European Thermal-Sciences Conference, The Netherlands, 2008.

Blanco, J. And Alarcon, D. (2007) The PSA Experience on Solar Desalinati9on: Technology Development and Research Activities. Springer, 2007.

Sagie, D. Weinberg, J. And Mandelberg. E. Commercial scale Powered Desalination. Israeli Ministry of National Infrastructure.

Blanco, J. et al. (2007) Advanced Multi-Effect Solar Desalination Technology: The PSA Experience.

Garcia-Rodriguez L., Gomez-Camacho C. Perspectives of solar-assisted seawater distillation. Desalination 2001; 136:213-218.

Al-Shammiri M., Safar M. Multi-effect distillation plants: state of the art. Desalination 1999; 126:45-59.

Kronenberg G., Lokiec F. Low-temperature distillation processes in single- and dual-purpose plants. Desalination 2001; 136:189-197.

Zarza E, Blanco M. Advanced M.E.D. solar desalination plant: Seven years of experience at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. In: Proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Renewable Energy Sources for Water Production, Santorini, Greece, 1996.

Wangnick K. A global overview of water desalination technology and the perspectives. In: Proceedings of the International Conference Spanish Hydrologic Plan and Sustainable Water Management: Environmental… [read more]

Human Powered Electronics Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (5,598 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Marketing a Human-Powered Electricity Generating Device

Given the pending power doom, there aren't nearly as many mad scientists out there figuring out alternatives to the battery as one would wish. -- Steve Morgensterndan Clinton and Suzanne Kantrakirschner, 2004

The proliferation of electronic-powered mobile devices such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, and iPods continues to increase and current… [read more]

Renewable Energy Alternatives, Including Wind Power, Biomass Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  20 pages (6,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 37


¶ … renewable energy alternatives, including wind power, biomass, and solar power. An analysis of the potential for solar energy applications in Greece is followed by an assessment of the impact of the current economic crisis taking place in Greece on solar energy initiatives today and in the future. A summary of the literature review concludes this chapter.

Overview of… [read more]

Renewable Energy Marketing Bill Bryson Described Australia Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Renewable Energy Marketing

Bill Bryson described Australia as the "Sunburned Country," which would imply that there is potential for a strong solar panel industry. However, whereas decidedly cloudier countries such as Germany have used strong government incentives to create a burgeoning market for solar panels, the same cannot be said for Australia. When the Rudd government cancelled the rebate for… [read more]

Alternative Energy Source or Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,401 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Alternative Energy Sources

United States consumes about 3.8 trillion kWh per year. About 87% of this power is derived from fossil fuel power resources. With the increasing global population the power demand is sky rocketing. In the recent years power plants have been increasing their production capacities to carter for the ever increasing demand, this has led to the increases… [read more]

Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant as of 2007 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant

As of 2007, the last year for which complete and reliable data is available, approximately fourteen percent of the world's electricity was produced in nuclear power plants. Though they are still controversial, given fears of reactor meltdowns, general hazards of radioactivity, and the issue of the disposal of nuclear waste, interest in nuclear power is surging… [read more]

Nuclear Power Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,419 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Nuclear power has long been one of the world's major sources of energy, especially electricity. Touted as a viable alternative to fossil fuels, nuclear energy does create waste but its waste is not carbon-based and therefore not a greenhouse gas. Fossil fuel energy production, on the other hand, is a culprit in global warming and climate change as well as… [read more]

Energy Audit Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (855 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Home Energy Audit

Energy Sources: _X_ Electrical _X_ Gas

Location of the power plant: The power plant is located at Benning Road, Washington, D.C., along the Potomac River

Capacity of the power plant: The plant currently supplies electricity to more than 750,000 homes and businesses in D.C. And Maryland suburbs

Type of power plant: Regulated electricity utility that operates only during times of peak demand

Fuel source of the power plant: Fuel oil

Amount of fuel the plant uses per day: 27,000 barrels of fuel oil

How old is the plant? The plant has been in operation since 1906

What pollutants are emitted by the plant? sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, VOCs, sulphuric acid

What health effects do these pollutants have?

Sulphur dioxide is harmful to health and in cases of high exposure may be life-threatening, although this would have to be at the level of 100 ppm in the air. It can create a burning sensation in the nose and throat and may also lead to breathing difficulties. It is also believed that exposure to lower levels of sulphur dioxide over the long-term may create lung problems, although the amounts present in the air from the power plant are still not likely to be at the levels required for this type of effects. Asthma sufferers are however likely to be more sensitive to the health effects of sulphur dioxide.

At low levels of exposure over the long-term, nitrous oxide may be associated with damage to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, hepatic system, haemopoetic system, and reproductive system. In particular there have been shown to be increased risks of spontaneous abortion and infertility in those exposed to low levels on a consistent basis.

Carbon monoxide affects the transport of oxygen around the body, and at high levels is deadly. It may also affect the amount of oxygen in the cardiovascular system and the heart in particular. This means that it may create greater health problems in those who already have heart conditions, as they may be more sensitive to small changes. The main problems associated with carbon dioxide on the other hand are environmental rather than health impacts. It is however possible that global warming may indirectly impact on health due to the changing climatic conditions which it brings.

What does the plant do with the "spent" fuel and any other bi-products? There is no official information available as to how the power plant disposes of "spent fuel" and other bi-products. Environmental groups have suggested that the waste is disposed of in an…… [read more]

Why Clean Renewable Energy Is Imperative to Our Future Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,552 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Renewable Energy

The United States is facing a seminal moment in terms of energy policy. Since 1970, the percentage of our oil that has been imported has increased from 24% to 70% (Pickens, 2008). While some of this oil comes from close allies such as Canada, Mexico, and the United Kingdom the majority of it comes from producers with whom… [read more]

Trends in U.S. Nuclear Energy Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,234 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



In the research initiative to more fully understand the policy stance of the United States on nuclear and energy policy, one quickly gains an understanding that there are several different dimensions to U.S. nuclear and nuclear energy policy matters. Declaratory policy many times fails to "correspond closely" with arms control and nonproliferation policy, which also should but does not always appear to be highly correlated with either targeting and employment policy and/or R&D policy." (Potter, 2005)


The work of William C. Potter (2005) entitled: "Trends in U.S. Nuclear Policy" states that it is well-known that in the first part of 2002 "the U.S. Department of Defense released to Congress the findings of its Nuclear Posture Review (NPR)." This 'comprehensive review' was a Congress mandate calling for a review of the "policy, strategy, plans, stockpile, and infrastructure for U.S. nuclear forces." (Potter, 2005) the NPR central findings states that there is a need for what is termed a "New Triad" of:

Offensive strike systems (nuclear and non-nuclear);

Defenses (both active and passive); and a Revitalized defense infrastructure to provide new capabilities in a timely fashion to meet emerging threats. (Potter, 2005)

The report by the NPR states that the New Triad would not only bring about a reduction in the dependence of the United States on nuclear weapon but would also bring about an improvement in the capability of deterring attack in a time when weapons of mass destruction are proliferating and that this would be accomplished by two means as follows:

The addition of defenses to reinforce deterrence; and the addition of non-nuclear strike forces. (Potter, 2005)


The position of the Bush administration has been one that "is widely associated with the view that negotiated, legally-binding arms control accords unduly constrain U.S. flexibility and force requirements." (Potter, 2005) Potter holds that while this position does not rule out great nuclear forces reduction, it emphasizes the freedom of the U.S. To "maneuver and reverse reductions" if the nuclear arsenal of the U.S. has a need to be quickly reconstituted. In alignment with this belief, the U.S. has failed to take advantage of opportunities "to constrain Russian nuclear forces if such action would also impeded U.S. freedom of action." (Potter, 2005) the U.S. military, according to the report of Potter states that weapons are needed with seven specific characteristics:

Precision guidance for nuclear weapons;

Low yield nuclear weapons and the ability to certify yield with high precision and confidence;

Earth penetration;

Tailored effects, including ability to choose the appropriate mix of shock waves and radiation;

Ability to destroy chemical and biological agents;

Improved reliability;

Flexible employment, including the ability to target and retarget flexible weapons during the mission. (Potter, 2005)


The work of the Energy Information Administration entitled: "Annual Energy Outlook 2008" states that energy use of electricity generated by: (1) coal; (2)… [read more]

Energy and the 21st Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,565 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … energy" is hard to define, because the concept of energy is embedded in the infrastructure of our daily lives. In the natural sciences, energy can be loosely defined as the capacity of a system to do work. In this case, work is the result of application of a force through distance. Since there exists many different types of… [read more]

Spray-On Solar Power Cells Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This breakthrough could have far reaching effects of how we generate energy.


Brautigam, Tara. "Canadian Professor Develops Plastic that More Efficiently Converts Solar Energy." Canadian Press. January 10, 2005. July 1, 2005. < http://www.mindfully.org/Technology/2005/Infrared-Sensitive-Plastic10jan05.htm>.

Conan-Davies, Richard. "Spray on solar cells." January 12, 2005. July 1, 2005. http://clearlyexplained.com/news/nature/2005/jan/1N1201_2005.html.

Hines, M.A. And G.D. Scholes. Advanced Materials (2003) 15, 1845.

Hutcheson, G. Dan. "The First Nanochips." Scientific American. April 2004. July 1, 2005. < http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa002& articleID=000CE8C4-DC31-1055-973683414B7F0000>.

L'Abbe, Sonnet. "Infrared-sensitive material could lead to better use of solar spectrum." January 10, 2005. July 1, 2005. < http://www.news.utoronto.ca/bin6/050110-832.asp>.

Lovgren, Stefan. "Spray-On Solar-Power Cells Are True Breakthrough." National Geographic News. January 14, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

"New plastic can better convert solar energy." Canadian Press. Jan 9, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

"Nano paint could boost antiterrorism, rescue efforts." February 2, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

Porod, Wolfgang. "Nanotechnology is getting real: after years of hype, it is entering the market." The Chief Executive. March 2005. July 1, 2005. .

"Spray-On Solar Cells." January 17, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

Wolfgang Porod "Nanotechnology is getting real: after years of hype, it is entering the market."

The Chief Executive. March 2005. July 1, 2005. .

Lovgren, Stefan. "Spray-On Solar-Power Cells Are True Breakthrough." National Geographic News. January 14, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

Tara Brautigam. "Canadian Professor Develops Plastic that More Efficiently Converts Solar Energy." Canadian Press. January 10, 2005. July 1, 2005. < http://www.mindfully.org/Technology/2005/Infrared-Sensitive-Plastic10jan05.htm>.

L'Abbe, Sonnet. "Infrared-sensitive material could lead to better use of solar spectrum." January 10, 2005. July 1, 2005. < http://www.news.utoronto.ca/bin6/050110-832.asp>.… [read more]

Economics of Energy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Further, it is not renewables that are pushing the fossil fuel industry towards collapse. First, he contradicts himself -- if the collapse is inevitable it cannot be renewables causing it. More than that, it is declining supplies of fossil fuels that will bring about their eventual collapse, and renewables may rise up as substitutes but only when fossil fuels are no longer economically viable.

Another issue to take is his discussion that climate change and the collapse of fossil fuels are related. This is misplaced causation. Climate change is already occurring, and its most dramatic effects will be concurrent with the end of fossil fuel consumption, but are not the cause of it. One could also take issue with his pronouncements about solar. Prices might be coming down -- that's great -- but widespread deployment to this point has relying on market-distorting subsidies (in Germany, for example). The market case for solar that he tries to make is not really a free market case at all.

One thing Gilding is right about is that localized power is a threat to centralized grids. Right now, people with their own power can sell back to the grid, but eventually, communities will be able to power themselves. But at the end of the day, he's projecting way out into the future on a lot of things. I get that he's trying to sell books, but the hyperbole and rampant projections hurt his credibility. There's nuggets of value, but he's not writing for an audience predisposed to critical thinking.


EIA. (2014). AEO 2014 early release overview. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/0383er%282014%29.pdf

Gilding, P. (no date). Carbon crash solar dawn. Paul Gilding. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://paulgilding.com/cockatoo-chronicles/carbon-crash-solar-dawn.html

IanMearns.co.uk. (2014). Entire website. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.ianmearns.org.uk/press.htmhttp://www.ianmearns.org.uk/press.htm

Ruhl, C. (2014). Over the hump for oil demand. BP. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/energy-blog/over-the-hump-for-oil-demand.html… [read more]

Siemens Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,159 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Should Siemens invest in a number of alternative energy technologies to ensure it has its hand in which ever one proves itself as most successful? This may seem like the best strategy because the market environment is so uncertain. However, this is not the case for Siemens. The company just underwent a major restructuring in 2008, "consolidating the number of sectors from more than one dozen down to just three -- Industry, Energy, and Healthcare" (Rothaermel & Hoepfer, 2010, p 283). It would be a step backwards to just undo all the work that was so recently done in order to restructure again with a model that obviously was not working for the company previously.

Instead, Siemens should focus on a more narrow net and invest into one particular field. This would allow the company to maximize the ROE on its investments made. Currently, the largest market share of alternative energy is biomass, which made up about 6% of the global energy sold in 2008 (Rothaermel & Hoepfer, 2010). However, there are more lucrative potential markets for Siemens, which has already begun the process of investing in wind energy technologies.

Wind turbine power is a source of energy that has been undergoing some major changes recently. According to the research, "modern windmills are high-tech devices capable of producing several megawatts of energy each, enough for one turbine to supply electricity to an entire small village" (Rothaermel & Hoepfer, 2010, p 288). They are extremely efficient at producing renewable power when used in the correct environment or circumstances. There have been major wind plant construction projects recently, showing proof of the energy source's success. As such, "wind power is deemed to have immense upward potential for at least the nest two decades" (Rothaermel & Hoepfer, 2010, p 288). It is thus a sound investment because of its high potential in the years to come. Therefore, "it is the fastest growing energy alternative sector, a trend that is predicted to continue" (Rothaermel & Hoepfer, 2010, p 289). Yet, wind power is extremely expensive to get started in, with high barrier entries (Rothaermel & Hoepfer, 2010). This would also justify the concept of Siemens investing heavily into only one technology, as it could not feasibly try to enter the wind power industry only partially.

Another reason why wind power would be the best choice for investments is because the company is already in a strong position in the market. Siemens has experience already, and so it can maximize its early start in the field to become one of the dominant players in the market environment. Here, "Siemens Energy builds wind turbines, claiming to have globally 1,800 megawatts of offshore wind capacity installed or on order as of late 2008. One major project off of Denmark's seacoast was its 2008 Rodsand II wind farm contract with E.ON to manufacture 90 wind turbines" (Stanat, 2010). Today, there are very few competitors in place already in the market, making Siemens' poised for market entry in a… [read more]

Energy Sources Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Newly developed mining techniques for this resource such as fracking have demonstrated that this resource may not be as viable as it once was however.

Battery power is very prevalent energy source that I use on a very consistent basis. This renewable source allows my smartphone to work. The battery is ultimately charged with electricity that comes from the power plant nearly my home which is powered by a combination of sources including nuclear power. Nuclear energy is very powerful but very dirty and many risks are involved with this power source as demonstrated by recent power plant meltdowns in Japan and Russia.

To reduce the strain on the environment and maximize my personal energy consumption changes are necessary. Swanson (2005) wrote "many of the appliances in our homes are extremely inefficient and antiquated. If we simply take a little time to look at our habitats of energy use and make a few changes, we can have a dramatic effect on our personal energy consumption. " She is basically suggesting that individual responsibility is necessary in order for any significant improvement can be made on a larger scale. It all begins with the individual's choice of becoming more efficient.

There are many tools that can help track, and then eventually identify opportunities for savings. Monitoring devices and energy trackers can help produce information that will lead us t make more effective decisions regarding this problem. Hertzog (2011) seemed to agree with this approach: "The benefits of a new value model for energy consumption data can directly accrue to individuals, communities, businesses, and achieve environmental and energy security objectives too. "

To conclude, there are three ways in which I can begin to make a difference:

1. Understand exactly how much energy I am using.

2. Detect ways in which the energy can be saved.

3. Implement and consistently employ these practices.


Hertzog, C (2011). Should we Monetize Personal Energy Consumption Data? Smart Greid Library 4 July 2011. Retrieved from http://www.smartgridlibrary.com/2011/07/04/should-we-monetize-personal-energy-consumption-data/

Swanson, K. (2005). Taking Charge of Your Personal Energy Use. Alternative Energy Magazine, December 2005. Retrieved from http://www.altenergymag.com/emagazine.php?issue_number=05.12.01&article=monitor… [read more]

Nuclear Power. Need Write Assessment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


When considering nuclear power and reasons why it would be wrong for society to consider it a viable alternative to fossil fuels and to all other kinds of energy, most people are probable to think about nuclear accidents that occurred throughout history and claimed numerous lives. The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion and emission of radioactive material into the environment is certainly one of the most catastrophic nuclear events throughout history. This incident enabled people to understand that it was wrong for them to underestimate the potential harm that nuclear energy can cause. The more recent Fukushima power plant incident further contributed to emphasizing the fact that nuclear energy was very unstable and that it is very dangerous to use it. The event involved a tsunami causing a power plant to malfunction and for the area in the plant's vicinity to become polluted with radioactive energy, thus causing individuals there to have to be relocated to safer territories. Among other problems with nuclear accidents, one of the most important issues is that they rendered a place inhospitable for numerous years after they actually occur (Mcleish 7).

People are virtually presented with an ethical dilemma when having to choose whether they consider nuclear energy to be good or bad. Even though it has caused catastrophic accidents throughout history, nuclear power has a very good safety record. One of the best methods to deal with nuclear energy would be to invest large amounts of finances in testing strategies that would make power plants safer, as these respective finances would most certainly be compensated by the series of gains associated with nuclear energy.

Works cited:

Elliot, David, "Fukushima: Impacts and Implications," (Palgrave Macmillan, 30.10.2012)

McLeish, Ewan, "Nuclear Power: The Pros…… [read more]

Analyzing Energy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Energy Sources

There have been a lot of efforts directed towards taping of the green or renewable sources of energy with the aim of maximizing the natural resources within the environment as well as saving the ozone from the continued depletion. However this has been elusive for long hence many resorts have been made to the primary sources in general. Primary energy sources targeted are the sun, water, wind fossil fuels and radioactive minerals. From these primary sources comes generation of secondary sources of energy like electricity which can be used in the day-to-day lives.

Of interest within the scope of this paper are the nuclear power as well as the coal energy sources. Nuclear power production is achieved through a process known as nuclear fission that generates heat. Continuous nuclear fission results in a chain of reaction that in turn releases heat. The released heat is then used for turning water into steam which in turn spins turbines and generating electricity. Uranium is mined in many parts of the world and is used to generate nuclear energy.

Coal is composed mainly of carbon and hydrocarbons and is an abundant fossil fuel used in energy production. The energy from coal comes as a result of stored energy from plants that lived millions of years ago. Over time, the dead plants are covered in layers and trap energy found within the dead plants. Pressure and heat on the top part turns the plant remains into coal. Coal that is mined is taken to coal-fired plants for power production and consequent electricity generation. Coal undergoes combustion so that it can boil water for steam production which in turn operates steam turbines that produce electricity.

Purpose of research

The research aims at determining the human sustainability of major primary sources of energy. The primary energy sources that will be on focus are nuclear power and coal. It will determine between the two energy sources coal and nuclear power which is better for human sustainability, giving the salient reasons as to the environmental as well as economical aspect of the source of energy.


Taking into account the rate of depletion and the economic input vs. The economic output, coal has proven to be a fast disappearing source of energy which proves to be expensive to gather and process usable energy from it, let alone the limited energy levels it produces. This therefore means the reliable primary source with an ourput worth the input is nuclear energy.

Sustainability of coal vs. nuclear power

Most of the electrical power is generated from either uranium or coal. Each of these has a long history of electricity production in power…… [read more]

Why the World Should Use More Nuclear Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Nuclear Energy

Why the World Should Use More Nuclear Energy

Capacity to Provide Energy

The G8 and Other Developed Countries


Cost of Waste Treatment


Measures Required

Small and Advanced Nuclear Power Generation Plants

The Waste Management

The world energy requirements are souring with the passing days. The requirements are increasing in a multiplying manner as more and more populations are gaining access to developed facilities. The changing life styles and increased usage of urbanized amenities plays a vital role in increasing energy demands. The major developed countries and developing nations across the globe keep energy as their central focus to maintain the levels of growth they have already attained. Furthermore they aim to provide uninterrupted and economically viable energy for their citizens. All these factors combined require diligent planning and a long-term assessment for various sources to provide energy.

Capacity to Provide Energy:

The availability of various sources regarding provision can be related to the capacity and capability of the source to provide reliable energy. Numerous options provide various advantages and disadvantages. These advantages are in terms of the cost verses the benefits of the source. A long-term view also requires understanding the availability, viability, and usability of the energy source. The traditional sources of energy are oil, coal, wood, natural gas, and renewable energy. The technological developments have enabled energy sourcing thorough nuclear power generation plants. It is a highly technological yet economical and long-term source with reliable results (Goudie and David).

The G8 and Other Developed Countries:

The industrially developed countries enjoy a significant contribution of nuclear energy in fulfilling their requirements. The G8 are regarded as most advanced and developed nations in world. The reliance on nuclear energy in terms of their capacity and usage is as following. United States fulfills 20% of its total energy requirements through nuclear. France generates 80% of its energy form nuclear sources. Japan is also among notable countries utilizing nuclear energy. Russia has 31 nuclear reactors providing 16% of its total energy. United Kingdom generates 205 of its electricity from nuclear reactors. Canada is also among countries relying on nuclear to contribute for its national requirements of energy. China and India are also among countries relying on nuclear energy. The G8 leaders have also agreed to develop safe and secure technologies in nuclear energy filed as the capability of fulfilling energy requirements is reliable (Goudie and David).


Environmentalists and peace protestors around the globe react to the global efforts for increased usage of nuclear energy. The basic argument is based on the safety of nuclear reactors, contaminated waste production, and accidents in nuclear reactors. All these arguments cannot undermine the capacity and cost of producing energy through nuclear sources. These arguments can be addressed through various technological and safety protocol enhancements. The nuclear energy is infect an environmentally safe source of energy production given the waste produced is treated and reused to produce energy. The emissions of fuel and gas energy are most dangerous for environment.… [read more]

Earthquake in Japan, Nuclear Power and Fusion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … earthquake in Japan, nuclear power and fusion have become much more controversial in terms of providing the world with power than the case have been in the past. While many still contend that this form of power and energy is the safest, cleanest, and most abundant that an increasingly needy world could hope for, others warn that the path towards nuclear power and fusion is a dangerous, murky one, filled with difficult moral and ethical issues. Today, many critics have begun to examine the issue with a much more critical eye than before, and not without good reason. Indeed, it does seem that there is reason for concern. Nuclear fusion is not only dangerous. It also seems that the government and proponents of this form of power are treading some murky ethical grounds by failing to be entirely honest with the public regarding its potential dangers.

Providing the world with energy from fusion is one of the listed Grand Challenges of it engineering. However, doing so without the necessary ethical considerations is irresponsible. Before it engineers meet this Grand Challenge, it is therefore necessary to familiarize themselves with the various ethical issues behind this form of power.

Today, as mentioned, many engineers view fusion as the solution to all the energy problems that society may face. And indeed, the abundant sources of elements required to provide such energy seems to be a dream come true. Sea water, for example contains all the hydrogen nuclei a scientist can dream of to provide this energy source. An ordinary power station of 600 MW would need a daily input of a mere 15 tonnes of ordinary water, for example, to provide its daily quota of power to the world. Furthermore, the potential for environmental problems from providing this power source appears minimal. The temptation to regard this as a near perfect form of power to the world is therefore great. However, many warn that it is not this simple, and that engineers should tread carefully.

One potential problem is created by the very high temperatures required for the fusion process. Indeed, the temperature required is as high as 50,000,000 degrees Celsius. Pressures also need to be sustained for long periods. There is, as yet, no existing material to withstand the extreme conditions that the process would create. This in itself should serve as a warning sign that the process may not be as safe as its proponents claim. One breakdown of materials, even should it be successfully created, could result in a highly toxic environment that would remain that way for tens, or even hundreds, of years.

Another potential challenge is that the energy required for nuclear plants will have to be laboriously created. This means that a large amount of energy will be required to create this apparently limitless source of energy. Most of this energy will still be required from fossil fuel…… [read more]

Macroeconomics My Energy Use Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


If my heating oil or coal came from Russia, I doubt I would see much difference as a consumer. The price of this fuel might be higher, as the cost of importing it would rise, but otherwise it burns the same. The price might be more volatile as well, if the fuel was sourced from overseas. The utility might also prefer to use different types of fuel. If coal came from Russia, the utility might choose to build a wind farm or a nuclear power plant in order to reduce dependence on an uncertain supply.

One environmental bill that I am in favor of is California AB32. This bill, known as the Climate Change Scoping Plan contains the following initiatives: expanding energy efficiency programs, improving statewide renewable energy, developing a cap-and-trade system, establishing targets for greenhouse gas emissions and bringing about new standards for clean cars. Bills like this work well because they address environmental issues on a number of fronts simultaneously. This bill represents a comprehensive package of environmental measures that when taken as a sum will make a difference. The bill also represents a commitment on the part of the State of California to build on the progress the state has already made, and to continue improving its environmental legislation. The state plays a leadership role in this type of legislation so it is good to see that it is proposing to improve its implementation of environmental measures.

Appendix: Energy Usage

Energy Use

Home Gas



Auto Gas


x xxx x xxx


x xxxx x xxx


x xxx x xxx


xx xxx xxxx x xxxx xxx


xx xxxxx xxx


xx xxxx x x


xxx xxxx xxx


x xxx x xxx


x xxxx x xxxx


x xxxx x xxx


xx xxxxx xx


one usage

Home gas =


Electrical =


Solar =

some localized heating

Auto gas =

Trips in car


EDF (2011). California's global warming solutions act. Environmental Defense Fund. Retrieved October 31, 2011…… [read more]

Energy Economics Types of Energy/Fuel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Similarly, I have determined that an uncomplicated way for me to become more efficient in my energy use would be to carpool with friends more often in order to save gasoline and reduce harmful emissions. Additionally, I have recently begun replacing the light bulbs in my home with more energy efficient fluorescent light bulbs. This is an extremely simple way for me to increase my energy efficiency by more than 50%. Furthermore, if some change were to occur in my current energy supply system and my energy were to be sourced from Russia, I would certainly expect a much higher price on my bills. Even though Russia has a substantially larger supply of many fuel sources as compared to my local supplier, transportation and distribution costs typically represent a very large percentage of overall energy costs. Therefore, knowing that Russia would have to invest much more in distribution and transportation infrastructures I would expect such costs to be reflected in their pricing model.

Finally, the recent legislative debate concerning oil drilling, especially in deep-sea locations, is extremely interesting and stimulating to me. I believe that these tactics are extremely detrimental to our natural environment (as evident from the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico) and should be prohibited. And while I understand that there is a short-term need for these facilities and the energy and jobs they currently provide, I definitely think that our country (along with the rest of the world) should discourage these practices and wean our way off these risky fuel sources. With the modern advancements in clean, safe and sustainable fuel and energy sources, there should be no need for these environmentally harmful methodologies in the future.… [read more]

Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydro Power Plant Disaster Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


24th February 2010

Turbine 5 was made under installation

22 March 2010

Turbine 4 successfully unloaded

4th August 2010

Turbine 2 construction was finished

All the turbines in operation


The cost estimated during the re-construction of the power plant was great and it was estimated that 10 billion rubles will be used in the restoration project in the year… [read more]

International Energy Law Essay

Essay  |  16 pages (5,741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


State authorities sat in front of formal and proper arbitral tribunals and were assisted by foreign counsel, the result of which were important, fair, and legally balanced cases (Kosheri, n.d.).

The International Energy Sector Landscape: In the 1980s

During this decade, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) arbitrators of the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) panels rendered… [read more]

Alternate Energy in Daily Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Students and others living in apartments or other rentals, especially those living in old rental units, would probably not have enough power for an entire day and would likely be part of the class of have-not Americans who had to suffer by having unreliable electricity in their daily life.

Back in the mid-20th century, science fiction commonly envisioned a future… [read more]

Energy Planning Assessment

Assessment  |  4 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Energy Planning -- Main Goals

"We are addicted to foreign oil and we have to wean ourselves off it."

Over the last twenty years or more, the American public has heard a similar refrain about energy use issues from just about every politician that has run for office and certainly from every politician that gets elected and takes a stand… [read more]

Nuclear Energy Chernobyl Incidents and Japan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nuclear Power Issues and Concerns

What is nuclear energy?

Nuclear energy is the process of using the natural decay of certain elements to produce heat that can be converted into usable mechanical energy.

Why is nuclear energy often used instead of traditional fossil fuel burning plants?

Traditional energy production processes and methods of burning fossil fuel plants are limited by the natural reserves of those resources. Fossil fuels are, as the name suggests, a product of the fossilization process that converts organic matter such as prehistoric plants and vegetation into hydrocarbons. That process requires millions of years to occur; unfortunately, that means that the available reserves are finite and not capable of being increased. In addition, burning fossil fuels produces pollutants that can negatively affect the environment and seriously endanger life on earth. Conversely, nuclear energy is not dependent on scarce resources and does not generate pollution.

What are the pros of nuclear energy? Cons?

The most substantial benefits of nuclear energy are that it does contribute directly to polluting the environment and that it eliminates any reliance on foreign nations for their oil. The most substantial risks associated with nuclear energy were recently illustrated by in Japan: when nuclear reactors in nuclear energy plants break down, they may threaten human life and welfare in their vicinity by releasing radioactive materials into the environment.

4. Where should nuclear plants be located?

Nuclear plants should, ideally, be located far away from population centers, and should never be located anywhere near earthquake fault lines or other known threats to their ability to operate safely.

5. What natural features that would be handy to have around a nuclear reactor?

Space between nuclear reactor and human populations would be the most important natural feature to have around a nuclear reactor to minimize threats to human beings in the event of emergencies. Likewise, proximity to large bodies of water would also be handy because they provide a source of water to combat the types of situations currently…… [read more]

Strategy of Renewables Energy in UK Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Strategy of Renewable Energy in UK

Strategies of Renewable Energy in UK

Energy resources are one of the most important natural resource for any economy around the world. This is because the energy is an essential and integral part of every human's life. From domestic use to industrial operations, from transportation to power generation, energy is the fundamental requirement in… [read more]

Environmental Issues and Nuclear Power Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Environmental Issues and Nuclear Power

The consensus among scientists is that there is an ongoing environmental crisis a large part of which is associated with Global Warming (Poiman & Poiman, 2007). Another very significant part of the environmental issues facing our descendants as well as many of us, particularly in the United States is the problem of dependence on fossil… [read more]

Renewable Energy Resources and Investment Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


At least 20 countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa have active renewable energy markets. Outside of Europe and the United States, other developed countries like Australia, Canada, and Japan are seeing recent gains and broader technology diversification. The increasing geographic diversity is boosting confidence that renewable are less vulnerable to policy or market dislocations in any specific country. (Sawin and Martinot 9)

This global trend creates a situation where less developed nations as well as developed nations may have less reason to seek outside sources, reducing cost of transport of renewable energy sources. Seeking energy independence, by any nation or entity necessarily allows that entity the freedom to function without the added burden of energy procurement and costs.

These two works are invaluable in developing a clear picture of the renewable energy trends across the world as they both seek to illuminate the strengths and foreseeable weaknesses in renewable energy markets. The only failure of these two documents is that they do not clearly illuminate the limited nature of the renewable energy market, i.e. offer a comparison between non-renewable energy production and use and renewable energy production and use. In other words they, by their very nature limit the scope of the picture, stressing the growth of renewable energy without stressing the height of the mountain it needs to climb to realize sustainable energy systems in any given nation and across the globe.

Works Cited

Sawin, Janet L. And Eric Martinot. "Renewables 2010: Global…… [read more]

Transition to Renewable Energy Since the Industrial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Transition to Renewable Energy

Since the Industrial Revolution, modern society has been dependent on fossil fuels and petroleum products for energy to power the many inventions and technological developments that have made life so much easier in the developed world. However, the planet does not have unlimited supplies of natural energy-producing resources. The oil that we have been mining from deep underneath the ground for approximately two centuries cannot be replenished by the natural processes that accounted for its formation originally. That is because petroleum is a natural byproduct of the decaying vegetations and biological life that lived on the planet millions of years ago.

The gasoline that powers today's automobiles literally comes from the bodies of dinosaurs and other living creatures that lived long before the emergence of Homo Sapiens roughly one million years ago. The tremendous rate of technological growth, especially in the United States since the 19th century has already used up the largest available portion of the planet's entire oil reserves. At the current rate of consumption, the world will likely completely run out of fossil fuel-based energy source before the end of this century. Moreover, the use of fossil fuels for energy generates large amounts of airborne carbon and myriad other byproducts, some of which are toxic. These carbon emissions are believed by most scientists to be a principal cause of environmental damage as well as global warming.

In addition to the problems caused by oil shortages, there are very dangerous geopolitical consequences of the fact that oil reserves are not distributed uniformly throughout the world. Instead, they are concentrated in the Middle East where they have made several nations that are otherwise largely backward socially to become tremendously wealthy and influential on a global scale. Throughout the 20th century, much of American foreign policy was a reflection of the need to maintain favorable relations with the Arab oil kingdoms. Today, when radical Islamic factions are engaged in worldwide terrorism against American and Western interests, the continued dependence on their crude oil products are capable of being used as a weapon against us. The…… [read more]

Engineering and Sustainability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/Nature/8127177.stm

Wind has the potential of reforming UK's electricity requirements. According to a study presented by Poyry analysis, the wind power systems in the UK can be revamped significantly by 2030 without hampering the national grid or causing any energy shortages. The electric charges would be decided by the customer usage rather than wind speed. A study conducted over the National Grid, Centrica incorporated around 2.5 million weather reports recorded hourly which recorded the wind speeds in the different parts of the UK. According to the "Renewable Obligations Certificates," the study came to the conclusion that strong winds could lower electricity costs significantly. They are capable of overloading a wind turbine which are hardly ever used more that 33% of their potential. According to the situation forecasted for 2030, around 40% of the operational energy will come from renewable sources. The study stated that manageable levels of wind would allow their development to be secure yet affordable. While Dr. Phil Hare (a Poyry analyst) did believe that cheap green power is a myth, the results from the study emphasized how the use of wind power would not imply a heavy expenditure on gas or coal-based power plants to back up their progress.

Article - http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/28/business/energy-environment/28storage.html?_r=2

The growing use of wind farms has brought forth the problem of synchronizing the power supply with the periods of peak energy needs. Hawaii has been facing the problem of importing or exporting power to the companies nearby, which is a problem with regards to its aim of having 70% of its demands met by renewable sources. Storage batteries have been decided as the most efficient solution. They would allow harnessing energy at some of the windiest locations in Hawaii. A 30-megawatt wind farm is being planned in association with the Texas-based company, Xtreme Power. A 15-megawatt battery will be installed and controlled by…… [read more]

Obama Energy Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The plan seeks to limit and reduce the amount carbon that polluters are allowed to pump into the atmosphere.

President Obama proposals are very ambitious indeed and they need and demand an altogether effort and partnership between the private sectors, the government, Wall Street and all individual Americans. Through this initiative President Obama puts together the economic revival goal and… [read more]

Energy Sources of the Future Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Energy Sources of the Future

One of the key changes of the late 20th century, certainly enhanced in the early 21st, is that of the economic, political, and cultural movements that broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together. This idea, called globalism, refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events and actions are tied together, regardless of the geographic location of a specific country (political unit). The idea of globalism has become popular in economic and cultural terms with the advent of a number of macro-trade agreements combined with the ease of communication brought about with the Internet and cellular communication.

The Environment as a Global Issue - the rapid growth of the global economy profoundly effects modern economic development and stability, labor, and, most especially, the environment. In combination with the Earth's natural geologic functions, the process of human globalization radically transforms local issues into national and international problems, heightening very serious challenges, such as pollution, global warming, and overpopulation (Levin Institute). Pollution is not a new global issue, nor is it strictly manmade. Since the Earth's very formation, contaminants were introduced into the atmosphere, water, or soil, having a detrimental effect. From prehistoric fires and trash dumps, to the blatant release of tons of toxic chemicals into the air and water following the Industrial Revolution, the various problems associated with humanity's excess wastes, however, have increased man's negative environmental impact (Markham, 34-82). After World War II, modern factories produced non-biodegradable plastics like PCBs and inorganic pesticides like DDT; these types of materials are not only toxic, but being non-biodegradable, accumulate in the environment. Over time this accumulation causes increased rates of cancers, birth defects, health problems,…… [read more]

Economic and Environmental Effect of Solar Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Solar Energy With Respect to Its Environmental and Economic Benefits

Solar energy is one of the most promising energy alternatives currently available to those individuals, businesses, and communities that are aiming to gather their power from a more sustainable source. Compared to traditional oil and gas, the benefits of solar power seem endless, and literally are in terms of availability.… [read more]

1979 Energy Crisis Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


the 1979 Energy Crisis' Impact on U.S. Foreign and Domestic Policies

The 1979 Energy Crisis was a major international turning point in energy policy and had far reaching political and economic ramifications. The crisis created a raised awareness of the interconnected nature of the world energy markets, specifically the oil markets and gave citizens in the U.S. specifically, a new perspective on oil consumption. During the crisis, products like oil and gasoline were rationed and prices went sky high, creating a financial as well as logistics nightmare for many people. There were some positive ramifications that came from the crisis however, namely some modification to socially acceptable gas mileage requirements and the overarching realization that the U.S. was extremely dependent on foreign oil, and therefore had a major infrastructure and civilization related vulnerability.

The major cause of the 1979 energy crisis was the Iranian Revolution which after the Shah of Iran left the country, and protests and oil production slowed, gave rise to a newly created Iranian government and foreign policy measures. This disrupted and later decreased oil production created a landscape of gas rationing and general panic over the lowered supply of petroleum products. Really for the first time, the U.S. began to realize that its dependency on foreign oil for its transportation and security needs was a potential security issue. Then President Jimmy Carter referred to the crisis in one of his most famous speeches as, "The moral equivalent of war." Eventually, Saudi Arabia and other OPEC nations were able to increase their oil production to make up for the decrease in Iranian output, effectively ending the crisis.

In the U.S., Plans were made to begin to move away from…… [read more]

Alternative Energy Conservation Planning Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … energy industry is heavily dependent on fossil fuel production, consumption, and technology. In order to better understand a more sustainable, environmentally friendly way forward, it is necessary to examine some of the more conventional alternative energy technologies available for use. Solar, wind, nuclear, natural gas, ethanol, hybrid, and hydrogen technologies all have their costs and benefits, and understanding… [read more]

Environmental Issue Energy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,195 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Wind Energy

Proposal for research project

First Segment

I first became interested in the energy of the wind as a young girl flying kites. At that time I didn't think about wind as an practical source in the sense of turning turbines to generate electricity. I was just fascinated with the flight of the kite, the way a nice heavy… [read more]

Unlike Energy Production From Coal Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (347 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Unlike energy production from coal and other fossil fuels, nuclear power does not lead to the emission of greenhouse gases. Therefore, nuclear power is often included in the arsenal of options for environmentally sound power generation. Including nuclear power in a progressive energy protocol is a sensible option for the future; at least until a major breakthrough in power generation occurs.

Nuclear power is not without its problems, though. One of its gravest problems from an environmental standpoint is the toxic waste produced by the nuclear fission process. Most nuclear waste is radioactive and cannot be disposed of in unequivocally safe ways, although proponents of the technology downplay the dangers of radioactive waste disposal ("Nuclear Power Now" nd; Till nd). The Chernobyl accident sounded an alarm about the severe short-term and long-term consequences of nuclear power. Human error can lead to human fatalities and multi-generational issues such as genetic mutations (Till nd).

In spite of the concerns and genuine dangers of nuclear power production, it remains an integral and essential part of the…… [read more]

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