Study "Energy / Power" Essays 1-54

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Information Systems and Technology Research Paper

… " (The Globalist, 2010) Leading the world in energy production in 2005 was Germany with total installed photovoltaic capacity of 17.32 watts per capital." (The Globalist, 2010) Coming in second was Japan with 11.13 watts per person followed by Switzerland (3.66), the Netherlands (3.12), Australia (2.97) and Austria (2.93). (The Globalist, 2010) It is reported that China "claims 30 million solar households -- or nearly 60% of the solar capacity installed in the world. (The Globalist, 2010) It is reported that the hurdles that the solar industry faces in its expansion is specifically due to a "chronic shortage of silicon -- the basic material used to convert the sun's rays into electricity." (The Globalist, 2010)

Rapier (2010) writes in the work entitled "Cleantech, Globalization and Energy Independence" that many private investors and financial institutions "are betting on who will win the green race, but contrary to how our national leaders and media outlets make things appear, they are not wagering on countries…"It is necessary that one "…recognize that companies win in the market place, not nations or their people; (2) accept that despite a local company's best efforts to develop its own technology, it must integrate core technology and components into its final product from diverse foreign partners due to the cutting-edge complexity of green energy; (3) See that this systems integration-requirement spawns transnational partnerships and joint-ventures (JV), which reduces national borders and accelerates global financial and production-network integration; and (4) Awaken to a reality where global economic connectedness binds economies into one unit, thus creating a single common energy security fate for every country regardless of their national energy mix: making self-reliance impossible without returning to the stone age. (Rapier, 2010)


Rapier, R. (2010) Cleantech, Globalization and Energy Independence. R Squared Energy. 12 Nov 2010. Retrieved from:

Expanding with Green Technology (2010) Bosch. Retrieved from:

Solar Power and Globalization (2010) The Globalist Syndication Services. Retrieved from:

SPI Message: The Solar Industry if Ready to Fight (2010) Solar Feeds News and Commentary 12 Oct 2010 Climate Progress. Retrieved from:

Palmer, Brian (2010) Solar Energy… [read more]

Tree Wind Power Generator Research Paper


Clabby, C. (2011, October). Analyzing Swimming Schools of Fish Inspired a California Biophysicist to try to Improve the Performance of Wind Turbines. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from . (2012). Harnessing Tree Power. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from

Eriksson, S., Bernhoff, H., & Leijon, M. (2008). Evaluation of Different Turbine Concepts for Wind Power." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (5), 1419-1434.

Eshi Internatioan Pte Ltd. (2011, April 25). Artificial Trees Pave New Future for Energy and Cleaner Environment. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from

Hadhazy, A. (2009, May 20). Power Plants: Artificial Trees that Harvest Sun and Wind to Generate Electricity. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from

Hinrichsen, D. (1981). Blowing with the Wind. Ambio Vol.10, No.5, 246-247.

Hobbs, W.B., & Hu, D.L. (2011). Tree Inspired Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 1-12. (2012). Power Flower Wind Turbine Trees could Domesticate Wind Energy. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from

Markham, D. (2012, August 3). New Bladeless Wind Turbine Claimed to be Twice as Efficient as Conventional Designs. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from

Moyer, M. (2010). Know the Flow. Scientific American 303 Vol. 30, 10-30.

Pasqualetti, M.J. (2000). Morality, Space, and the Power of Wind-Energy Landscapes. Geographical Review Vol. 90, No. 3, 381-394.

Pritchard, H. (2011, August 8). Schools of Fish help Squeeze more Power from Wind Farms. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from

Righter, R.W. (1996). Reaping the Wind: The Jacobs Brothers, Montana's Pioneer 'Windsmiths'. Montana: The Magazine of Western History Vol. 46, No. 4, 38-49.

Sorensen, J.N. (2011). Aerodynamic Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics Vol.43, 427-448. [read more]

Saving Energy in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Article Review

… Saving Energy in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

The objective of this study is to compare a research paper titled "Span: An energy-efficient coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in ad hoc wireless networks" (Chen et al. 2001) with a paper titled… [read more]

Offshore Wind Energy Introduction

… 371-372).

2. Wind Power: "air that is in motion in relation to the earth's surface, especially in a horizontal direction."

3. Wind Energy: "the energy contained in the movement of air masses; in human energy use traditionally captured by means… [read more]

Speech on How to Save Essay

… , n.d., Eco Mall). Using a programmable thermostat so the temperature of the house can drop during the nighttime or when no one is at home, yet rise in time for daybreak or when people are scheduled to return from work and school can make saving money on heating bills easy -- and try not to overheat or overcool the house even when in use (Orloff 2013). In terms of transportation, walking or biking when feasible saves money as well as offers a good source of exercise (20 things you can do to save energy., n.d., Eco Mall). Being outside will help you appreciate the environment! Car pooling and using public transportation also can help you save on the cost of gas.

Of course, it is not financially feasible for most people to immediately replace all of their ones appliances with energy-efficient ones and to get energy-efficient windows, siding and doors for every room of their home. However, they can be mindful of doing so as they plan for renovations over time (Orloff 2013). Switching to energy-efficient appliances and home fixtures can result in savings on electricity, heating and cooling bills. Buying a more gas-efficient car likewise will cut down your weekly fuel bill and improve the health of the planet (20 things you can do to save energy, n.d., Eco Mall.).

All of these examples show how saving energy is a win-win equation for both the consumer and the planet. The consumer saves money while sparing the environment unnecessary strain. Conserving energy requires a series of small, painless steps -- and even those which require some sacrifices, like buying a new car or refrigerator, can be undertaken when a replacement is required. The idea that helping the environment must come at the expense of humankind is misguided -- and after all, humans are still part of the environment!


20 things you can do to save energy. (n.d.) Eco Mall. Retrieved:

Orloff, Jeffrey. (2013). Ten tips for saving energy right now. Retrieved: [read more]

Canada's Environmental Wellbeing Term Paper

… Canada

In his book Tar Sands: Dirty Oil and the Future of a Continent, Andrew Nikiforuk outlines his "12 steps to energy sanity." These are

Admit the magnitude and complexity of the energy crisis

Slow down tar sands development and… [read more]

Electrical Grids Term Paper

… Florida Electrical Power Grid

Florida's Electrical Power Grid

Electrical power is the most reliable and available source of power used worldwide. It is produced from two broad categories of energy resources, renewable and non-renewable sources. Non-renewable sources are fossils fuels… [read more]

Land Use and Finance Sustainable Local Development Annotated Bibliography

… Land Use Sustainable Energy

This annotated bibliography will look at current research on the production, distribution and use of renewable energy technologies in the U.S. The work stresses the breadth of such research as well as the breadth and scale… [read more]

Resources and the Environment Research Proposal

… ¶ … Environment

Pros and Cons of Solar Power

The United States currently depends overwhelmingly on coal, oil, and natural gas -- fossil fuels -- to supply its energy needs, which are massive. All of these fuels are not found… [read more]

Enron Was a Big Energy Company Term Paper

… ENRON was a big energy company in the U.S. that attempted to transform itself into the largest energy trader in the world. It rose as high as the seventh largest company in the U.S. In terms of stock value, which… [read more]

Quantum Technologies: A Non-Financial Analysis Term Paper

… Quantum Technologies: A Non-Financial Analysis

Non-Financial Analysis

Despite losses in market share and revenue over the past several years, quantum Technologies remains a leading innovator of alternative energy power trains for automobiles, carbon composite fuel storage vessels and other efficiency-enhancing… [read more]

Future Usages Replacing Oil-Based Fuels and Their Usage Trends Thesis

… Alternative Fuels

Future Usages - replacing oil-based fuels and their usage trends

Replacing oil with alternative fuels: Future outlook

Replacing oil with alternative fuels: Future outlook


One of the reasons for the unprecedented dependence of Americans upon fossil fuels is America's love affair with the automobile. However, hybrid vehicles have exploded in popularity. Particularly after the spike in energy prices, hybrid vehicles such as the Prius began to dominate the roadways. Some areas began to offer special incentives to drivers of hybrid cars, such as the ability to drive in carpooling lanes alone. And the scope of the ambition regarding electric vehicles has grown: A coalition of auto makers, battery manufacturers, utility operators and shipping companies wants the U.S. To offer tax credits for buying all-electric plug-in vehicles as part of a $128 billion program to get seven million such cars on the road by 2018"(Burns 2009). This would follow the lead of Japanese and European nations that already have made heavy investments in electric cars.

Electric cars are now much more expensive than conventional vehicles, but they cost only 2.5 cents per mile traveled, compared with 12 cents per mile for a gas-powered car, advocates say. "Electric cars already have a long-enough range for most Americans, who typically drive no more than 40 miles a day…Vehicle owners would be able to fully charge them at night in their own garages, using an ordinary electric plug…fast chargers, operating at 480 volts, available at public facilities, would allow drivers to charge vehicles on the go, removing the anxiety about the limited range of today's battery-powered cars" (Burns 2009). Electrically powered lawn mowers and other types of equipment, such as leaf blowers, that are traditionally powered by gas have now been phased into common use.

Wind energy

Like battery and outlet-powered electricity, wind energy is a naturally renewable source of power. Humankind has been using the wind as a source of power for hundreds of years, as manifested in the presence of windmills across Europe before the use of fossil fuels. Wind turbines create electricity through rotating blades: "When the wind blows, a pocket of low-pressure air forms on the downwind side of the blade. The low-pressure air pocket then pulls the blade toward it, causing the rotor to turn. This is called lift. The force of the lift is actually much stronger than the wind's force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag. The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to… [read more]

Dubai Building Tomorrow's City Today Term Paper

… Dubai

There certainly seems to be a pattern within human civilization that encourages each society to attempt to make their mark upon the world. Through the ages, such marks have come in many forms; the Great Pyramids of Egypt, the… [read more]

Capturing and Storing Energy Research Proposal

… "Single small turbines, below 100 kilowatts, are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or water pumping. Small turbines are sometimes used in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and photovoltaic systems. These systems are called hybrid wind systems and are typically used… [read more]

Centralized Versus Decentralized Energy Essay

… ¶ … Centralized and Decentralized Power Generation

As the date for peak oil looms large in the future, traditional methods of power generation are being reevaluated to determine if they are the optimal approach. Innovations in technology have introduced improved… [read more]

Is Wind Power Green? Research Paper

… ¶ … moves in energy prices are showing how the world is at or near peak oil production. This is troubling, as it means that developed and emerging economies must find alternate sources. One possible resource is wind energy. This is a renewable reserve that is using the power of the wind to generate electricity without polluting the atmosphere.

However, renewable energy is often seen as expensive and unreliable. As there are variety of organizations and individuals, who have a stake in maintaining fossil fuel-based reserves. To make matters worse, any attempt to move the world away from this source is often seen as anti-competitive. This is because these firms are interested in increasing their bottom results (so that the price of their stock will rise). As a result, these companies and organizations have no interest in promoting renewable resources. In this paper, we will prove that the use of alternative sources can address the world's current and future energy needs. All that is required is the commitment towards making these resources mainstream. This is when the costs will decrease (allowing this source to become more practical).

What is Wind Power?

Wind power is when a large generator is connected to a turbine. As the wind is blowing its blades will turn, producing electricity. In the last several years, worldwide generating capacity has increased by an average of 25% a year. Moreover, the costs (for this technology) have come down with oil prices remaining at around $80.00 per barrel. This has led to renewed calls for expanding this resource in order to address the world's energy needs. However, there are also many skeptics who believe that this is not efficient and are calling for the development of other sources (such as: natural gas and coal). This has caused some programs to face challenges from these individuals (who are spreading half-truths or outright lies). ("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)

Drawbacks of Wind Power

There are several drawbacks associated with wind power to include: the costs and the impact that it is having on the landscape. In the case of costs, many opponents will argue that wind does not produce enough electricity to justify the expenses. For example, to power an entire community will requires having acres of wind farms. This will cost tens of millions of dollars and it cannot produce the same kind of results as natural gas or coal operated power plants. Moreover, many individuals will argue that use of clean coal technology could negate its environmental impact (through the negative effect it is having on businesses). While natural gas has a limited effect on the environment. According to opponents, a smaller plant is the most productive way to address these challenges and use other clean resources. This will provide results that can address current and future needs… [read more]

Environmental Science Nuclear Power Technical Summary Term Paper

… Environmental Science

Nuclear Power

Technical Summary

To eventually produce electricity with nuclear energy, a mining company must first find, purify, supplement, and make fuel-grade uranium pellets. Uranium is an element that exists in somewhat different forms in nature. All uranium… [read more]

Dod: Pursuing Alternative Energy Conservation Essay

… The Navy has indeed been long leading the way in the regard, by engaging in proactive testing of biofuels and demonstrating that there is absolutely no reason that the future of the Department of Defense has to include a dependence on foreign fuels. The Navy was the branch of the DOD which engaged in the testing and certification of 50-50 blends of advanced hydrotreated biofuel and aviation gas as a means of testing, evaluating and demonstrating the wide-range utility and functionality of advanced biofuels in an operational setting. "The military's ability to use fuels other than petroleum reduces vulnerability to rapid and unforeseen changes in the price of oil that can negatively impact readiness, while also increasing energy security….Kaiser delivered 700,000 gallons of hydro-treated renewable diesel fuel, or HRD76, to three ships of the strike group. Kaiser also delivered 200,000 gallons of hydro-treated renewable aviation fuel, or HRJ5, to Nimitz. Both fuels are a 50-50 blend of traditional petroleum-based fuel and biofuel comprised of a mix of waste cooking oil and algae oil."

This is quite so promising because it demonstrates the grand potential of biofuels. Biofuels offer up the possibility to offer affordable, renewable sources of energy for the future, without forcing this on-going situation of dependence on foreign fuel sources -- something which has been repeated far too often in the last few decades. The dependence on foreign fuel is akin to a reliance on a backwards and outdated form of technology -- it's as if the military had become dependent on an old-fashioned technology: using foreign fuels is like still being dependent on typewriters or muskrat rifles. Technology is evolving and the DOD has a strong obligation to apply this evolution to the arena of fuels and alternative energy sources.

The proof of this viability is in the progress that has already been made: in the beginning the overall objective of the BioFuels program was to develop an affordable alternative production process that will accomplish 60% of conversion efficiency by energy content of crop oil to military aviation fuel and elucidate a path to 90% conversion.

With each year, the military comes even closer to meeting that goal in a strong fashion and in a manner which relies on the strengths and abilities of various disciplines: chemistry, engineering, material engineering, biotechnology and propulsion system engineering.

Thus, this paper has attempted to demonstrate that the future of energy sources is directly connected to the usage and development of biofuels, without a doubt. Reliance of foreign fuels is so expensive and will continue to grow in cost, that one simply cannot rationalize spending another solitary cent on them. Furthermore, reliance of foreign fuels creates an unnecessary and skewed power structure that has never worked in the United States' favor and will continue to foster a relationship of dependence rather than self-sufficiency. Biofuels hold the key to a future which is not only greener and more renewable but which is also colored by autonomy.


Alexander, D. et al. Navy… [read more]

Solar Energy Essay

… Solar Energy

As typical hydrocarbon materials are significantly challenging and costly to draw out, energy businesses need to alter their approach in order to fulfil the needs of an expanding populace progressively depending on power. Renewable resource has actually become… [read more]

Solar Energy Essay

… Solar Energy

The threats posed by our relationship to energy has given rise to some devastating results on a global and a personal scale like human-induced climate change, famine, poverty and cycles of deforestation; all these while on our overzealous… [read more]

Mechanical Engineering Dissertation

… ¶ … shaping the future of energy production today, including the push for more environmentally friendly alternatives as well as the most cost effective approaches. In this environment, liquefied natural gas has emerged as a viable interim solution to many… [read more]

Nuclear Power for Energy and Its Impact to the Environment Research Paper

… Nuclear Power for Energy and Its Impact to the Environment

Louis Daleandro

History of use of nuclear energy

Production of nuclear power has a rich history of competing with various other energy-related technological sciences to rule the market. Technology of… [read more]

Hydroelectric Power: The Renewable Energy Term Paper

… S. Department of Energy Hydropower Program, 2001. p. 5). China also has moved on with the newest project of the Three Gorges Dam. The dam would be taking 400 miles for the reservoir only (Ordal, 2002).

However this technology sometimes does not work under specific circumstances. Norway, for example, ranked the sixth from the top hydroelectric generating countries in 1998. The country depends much on the hydroelectric stations that provide it economical source of electricity for its people. Once the government realized that they had trouble during the dry year, the electricity cost had increased to 400%. The prolonged dry season had left the dams empty that only limited sources of stored energy left, causing extreme hikes on electricity cost. It might cost 2-3 times higher than usual for the people to keep their houses warm and businesses to stay open.

Although reported to be efficient and satisfying, the development of large dams and utilization of powerful turbines have created superfluous effects that have traumatized the adjacent environment. (U.S. Department of Energy Hydropower Program, 2001. p. 7).

The main consideration is, such huge construction and landscape alteration required to build a dam will affect the organisms living in the streams and the natural platform of the neighboring areas. Dam construction will at least destroy the farms and villages, forcing the inhabitants to relocate; which costs very high.

The other obvious concern is about the threatened fish lifecycle in the river. The powerful movement of the water into the penstock and the turbine rotation has been proven of killing fishes in the rivers. The gravitation force draw fishes into the penstock, and the sharp blades of the turbine instantly bash them into pieces or leave them injured.

In North America, the dam operation is reported in endangering young fishes life, as the fishes are sucked into the pipes and smashed onto the wall, while others are killed for increasing water pressure inside the unit (Stoner, 2002. par. 7). Moreover, it is important to consider that the barrier effect of the dam building most likely blockade the natural salmon journey to the spawning site. Some dams have implemented ladder structures for the salmons to make their way through their home, however this method has been reported ineffective.

The U.S. Department of Energy recently introduced the new Advanced Turbine Technology to reduce the violent effect of the hydropower plant to the fishes. The new turbine has less blades and noise, and allows water to pass with less shocking effect to the fishes carried in the water. The design allows the turbine to produce more energy, around 6% greater than the conventional one (Stoner, 2002).

From the previous study, the advanced turbine technology reduces fish mortality to less than 2%, while on the current turbine system may reach 5-30%. Moreover, the turbine also retains the Dissolved Oxygen level to 6 mg/L, which meets the standard water quality for the existence of the organisms (U.S. Department of Energy Hydropower Program, 2001. p 7). The quality… [read more]

Sources of Community Energy Term Paper

… That can be an issue, but it is a small one when compared to other energy sources that require nearly complete destruction of the natural environment in order to be useful (Lovins, 2011; Makower, Pernick, & Wilder, 2009). Additionally, the… [read more]

Nuclear Energy Research Paper

… The expectations of increased cost estimates and lack of adequate construction and engineering skills prove that building and maintaining a nuclear power plant is relatively a more expensive process that would require costly taxpayer subsidies. For example, the development of… [read more]

Solar Panel (Energy) in Saudi Research Paper

… Solar Panel (Energy) in Saudi Arabia

Solar panels in Saudi Arabia

Solar Panel Energy in Saudi Arabia

Solar energy has been generally known as energy that is produced by the sun heat and its collection is done in a flat… [read more]

Energy in the United States Term Paper

… It should be noted that if more is invested in the erection of a windmill or a generator and the interest rates that are being charged for the manufacturing equipment then the consumer of this energy will also have to… [read more]

Renewable Energy the Law Research Paper

… c. Solar energy

i. Pros: solar energy produces no pollution of the environment, less expensive if not counting the cost of solar panels and their instillation, the government offers tax credits up to $2,000 for using solar energy, you can receive energy credits if the solar panels produce more energy than you consume, solar energy will never run out whereas nonrenewable sources are quickly dwindling, in addition solar energy produces no noise pollution as the systems are completely silent (Bocchine 2007).

ii. Cons: the initial cost of the solar panels can be cost prohibitive, solar energy is subject to climate variability based upon weather and the hours of sunlight within a region which will impact that wattage produced, some people argue that the panels are aesthetically unpleasant, and the solar energy panels can only absorb energy in the day meaning electricity used at night must rely on stored energy within the panels (Bocchine 2007).

d. Wind power

i. Pros: completely clean energy source which does not require drilling or mining for materials, renewable and sustainable, costs are low, abundant supply of wind available, the power is essentially free once the structures have been paid for, can be [read more]

Comparison of Generators Used in Wind Power Generation Term Paper

… ¶ … Generators used in Wind Power Generation

Generators are of varied categories in the mechanical worlds. The differences in the mechanistic categories of the generators originate from the fact that there are varying differences and makes in the market.… [read more]

Nuclear Power -- the Future of Electricity Essay

… Nuclear Power -- the Future of Electricity Generation

Nuclear power production was first introduced in the United States and was touted as the future of energy. Nuclear power production has a wide range of benefits that it can offer the nation. Although there are some formidable risks in regard to nuclear power that have been illustrated by many disasters since its inception, modern technology and advanced safety management can now mitigate many of the concerns that plagued previous generations of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the risks that are being presented by climate change and the exponentially expanding amount of greenhouse gas pollution far exceed the risks that are proposed by the use of nuclear generated power.

The time has come for a reevaluation of nuclear power and its place in powering a modern nation. Traditional sources of power generation are damaging the Earth's ability to regenerate its natural systems while alternative sources cannot meet the modern demand for power. Although nuclear power has had a mixed track record in the past, the changing environmental conditions demand that this clean and relatively safe technology be reconsidered. This paper will look at many of the advantages that nuclear power has over alternative methods of power production.


Coal is a nonrenewable fossil fuel that has powered much of the development of the United States since it was first used for electric power generation. Even today there are over 600 plants across the country consuming 900 million tons per year to produce 40% of U.S. electricity (Congressional Digest). The use of coal in the United States has become so widespread because it is abundant in the country and the U.S. holds some of the largest reserves of coal in the world. It is estimated that, even with growing demand, the United States has enough coal to last over two hundred years based on current consumption and production patterns.

However, despite the prevalence of coal in the country, the percentage of electricity generated from coal in relations to other fuel sources is continually decline and is expected to continue doing so into the future. Coal fired plants are estimate to contribute approximately a third of all greenhouse gas emissions and contributes as much as pollution as all sources of all transportation sources combined (Congressional Digest). Therefore, coal fired plants have come under a lot of scrutiny for their environmental impacts and many older coal plants are being forced into retirement. Furthermore, advances in natural gas extraction have also made natural gas a viable alternative in many locations. Natural gas is generally cheaper than coal and hydraulic fracking has expanded the supply of natural gas. However, this too has an unknown amount of environmental impacts as well.

Geothermal Electricity Production

Of all the alternative fuel sources, geothermal power production has the most advantages. Unlike solar or wind power plants, the geothermal power plants may continuously produce electric power… [read more]

Nonrenewable vs. Renewable Energy Use Essay

… Non-renewable sources of energy have the potential of shaping foreign policies of industrialized and developed countries. Countries such as the U.S., China, Russia, and India strive to secure the non-renewable bases of energy resources (Asif & Muneer, 2007). Industrial and non-industrial use: Though, non-renewable energy has assumed much importance in the policy discourse of governments, NGOs, and transnational corporate bodies of the world, industrial and large scale manufacturing is still dependent on power generation from non-renewable sources of energy. Petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, and coal remain the dominant non-renewable resources used by manufacturing and production plants to generate power and other products. This particular difference is still large enough to exist during several years to come.


The use of non-renewable and renewable energy is for various purposes. Renewable sources are those energy sources that are not under the threat of depletion whereas non-renewable sources of energy are bound to be finished soon, if consumed at current rate. Fossil fuels and radioactive fuels are main types of energy sources in non-renewable category. In fossil fuels, natural gas, petroleum, and coal are widely used for energy. Petroleum is the most abundantly used non-renewable energy source vital in manufacturing of several hundred products. In renewable energy category, sun and sun light are the major source of energy. Wind and geothermal energy are also utilized for heating and power generation. Major contrast in both the energy types is related to their supply, usability, GHG emissions, cost, and industry development phase. The U.S. And Europe are two major investors in renewable and sustainable energy policy during the coming decades. As reported by NERL (2012), the U.S. government plans to meet 80% of its electricity needs from renewable sources of energy by 2050.


Aresta, M., & Dibenedetto, A. (2007). Utilization of CO2 as a chemical feedstock: opportunities and challenges. Dalton Transactions, (28), 2975-2992.

Asif, M. & Muneer, T. (2007). Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11(7), 1388-1413.

CEC. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions about LNG. California Energy Commission, State of California. Retrieved from:

Conservation Council SA. (n.d.). Uses of Uranium: Is Uranium Needed. The Conservation Council of South Australia. Retrieved from:

EIA. (2013). International Energy Statistics: Total Coal Consumption (Quadrillion Btu). U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved from:,&syid=2007&eyid=2011&unit=QBTU

EIA. (2013). International Energy Statistics: Total Petroleum Consumption (Quadrillion Btu). U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved from:,&syid=2007&eyid=2011&unit=QBTU

Lund, H., & Mathiesen, B.V. (2009). Energy system analysis of 100% renewable energy systems -- the case of Denmark in years 2030 and 2050. Energy, 34(5), 524-531.

Mongillo, J.F. (2011). A Student Guide to Energy. USA: ABC-CLIO.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2012). Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Hand, M.M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J.M.; Mai, T.; Aren't, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D. eds. 4 vols. NREL/TP-6A20-52409. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved from:

Appendix I

Source: (Lund and Mathiesen, 2009) [read more]

Nuclear Power Term Paper

… However, despite the limitations present in this technology, it is among the best alternative available for producing cost efficient power that is suitable to meet the world's energy needs. Even though the plant in Japan suffered a catastrophic fate after the recent tsunami, the probability of the likelihood of such a disaster has diminished significantly. In fact, the plant in Japan that experienced problems was built in the 1960s and more current designs are substantially more fail safe. Furthermore, nuclear power does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions which are likely to be one of the most important considerations due to the increasing body of literature surrounding the climate change phenomenon. Therefore, nuclear power may be a necessary evil, but it will allow society to maintain its current energy consumption patterns and do so without further contributions to the most pressing environmental concerns.

Works Cited

Beaver, W. "The Failed Promise of Nuclear Power." Independent Review (2011): 399-411. Print.

CO2 Now. "Earth's CO2 Home Page." 11 October 2012. CO2 Now. Web. 11 October 2012.

Heiman, M. And B. Solomon. "Power to the People: Utility Restructuring and the Commitment to Renewable Energy." Annals of the Association of American Geographers (2004): 94-116. Print.

Hensen, J., et al. "Target Atmoshperic CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?" NASA Goddard Intitute for Space Studies (2008): 1-18. Web.

IPCC. "Synthesis Report." Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007). Print.

Miller, J., B. Stakenborghs and R. Tsai. "Improving Nuclear Power Plant's Operational Efficiencies in the U.S.A." Mechanical Engineering (2011): 47-52. Print.

Moniz, E. "Why We Still Need Nuclear Power." Foreign Affairs (2011): 90-96. Print.

Roberts, S. "U.N. Says 7 Billion Now Share the World." 31 October 2011. The New York Times. Web. 16 November 2011.

Stolyarevskji, A. "Production of Alternative Fuel on the Basis of Nuclear… [read more]

Consequences of Developing Nuclear Power Term Paper

… Consequences of Developing Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power

Using sustained nuclear fission of uranium in the generation of electricity and heat is referred to as a nuclear power source. For the nuclear generated electricity in the world, France, U.S., and Japan account for 50% generation together. Nuclear power reduces the carbon emissions and provides for sustainable energy sources Levendis, Block, & Morrel, 2006.

The main factor against nuclear power is the threat is posses to the environment and people in case of a disaster. Compared to the other energy technologies, the safety of nuclear power is much better, and there is continued research in improving the safety of nuclear power, and this would allow for its use in the future.

Negative ramifications of hydropower

Using hydropower alters the natural river flow, and may affect the habitat and ecology of the region. These changes may affect aquatic life. Fish being cold blooded need cold water to regulate their metabolism rate. The dam water since it is not freely moving tends to warm up which affects the body temperature regulation of the fish. There is a likelihood for a dam to break and this would result in a flood disaster that would affect the people who live near the dam. Case in point is the Johnstown flood in 1889. Flora around the dam is affected negatively because of large carbon amounts which cause crops to rot due to lack of enough oxygen. Creating dams affects travel routes for humans and animals and may affect wildlife nourishment areas.

Consequences of developing nuclear power

Nuclear power does not affect the environment during its production and does not alter the natural flow of nature. Production of nuclear power uses little energy and the quantity produced is enormous. This compared to the amount produced by hydropower is quite huge. Nuclear power production is purely dependent on availability of Uranium, and this is not affected by weather patterns like lack of rainfall. Hydropower is dependent on rainfall and drought seasons could lead to the dams drying. Nuclear power produces far less greenhouse emissions as compared to other fossil fuels, and… [read more]

Energy Policy Capstone Project

… The world now is a high tech world and technology previously has helped us achieve wonders and solving this energy crisis wouldn't be any different from that. The engineers and researchers are fully equipped and they all the technology readily… [read more]

Environmental Economic Policy Proposal for New York State on Sustainable Energy Research Proposal

… Environmental Economic Policy Proposal

Energy Sustainability in New York State

Environmental Economic Policy Proposal for New York State on Sustainable Energy

Environmental Economic Policy Proposal for New York State on Sustainable Energy

Energy use is inevitable, for any State like… [read more]

Implementation of Solar Power Research Paper

… Government Policies and Solar Power Systems

Government regulations and policies affect renewable power generation a great deal, as is revealed through a brief review of the history of governmental policy in regards to power generation. Federal, state, and local governments… [read more]

Alternatives to Traditional Fossil Fuels Essay

… Current estimates are that there are on the order of three million different species of algae, which is approximately one hundred times the number of species of known land plants. They can occur at the microscopic scale as unicellular cyanobacteria or microalgae, all the way to multicellular macroalgae like giant kelp. The advantage of algae as an energy source is that it grows easily and prolifically in any kind or quality of water, including salt, fresh, or brackish water. This means that algae provide not only an abundant and perpetually renewable source of energy biofeedstock, but also represents a source with extremely high genetic and ecological diversity. Cultivation of algae is environmentally beneficial, as algae currently account for 50% of the world's oxygen production, but constitutes less than 1% of overall plant biomass on the planet (Valone)

Wind-generated electric power is presently one of the fastest-growing new energy sources. Since wind is a byproduct of solar heating of the earth's atmosphere, it is an indirect form of solar power. Wind generators harness the kinetic energy from moving air by using wind turbines to convert this energy into mechanical and subsequently electrical power. The environmental concerns related to wind power are restricted to the relatively small byproducts of constructing the generators themselves, and a somewhat greater concern regarding the rate of avian and bat injuries and mortalities resulting from the large, exposed turbine blades moving at high speeds in their habitat. In addition there are some concerns about the visual impact of proliferating numerous large terrestrial and oceanic wind farms. Aside from these concerns, wind power constitutes a perpetually renewed, cost free source of energy that cannot be depleted, and does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions or other air pollutants. The entry barriers to wind power production involve primarily regulatory and land acquisition challenges, but more prominently high start-up capital investments required for machinery and installation site preparation. Once installed and operating, wind power ultimately offsets the harmful emissions and carbon dioxide production of energy produced equivalent fossil fuel methods, and eliminates the troublesome waste generated by nuclear fission methods. ("Wind Energy Guide")

It is worth noting there has been significant debate surrounding whether nuclear energy should be considered a renewable resource. It was asserted by the former U.S. Bush Administration that the net creation of fissile plutonium fuel using breeder reactors to supply nuclear power generators constituted a renewable fuel and renewable process. However, current nuclear power plants utilize uranium 235, which is a naturally occurring element with a finite, limited supply. The prevailing view given the current state of nuclear technology has been well summarized in a civil petition sent to the office of the President in 2007, which asserted that nuclear power as we know it is not in fact a renewable energy source:

"Nuclear power is neither a renewable nor a clean source of energy. For that matter, oil, coal, and natural gas are also not renewable or clean sources of energy. Nuclear power and fossil… [read more]

Nuclear Power the Pros and Cons Term Paper

… Nuclear Power

The Pros and Cons of Nuclear Power

There are positives and negatives with any energy source that humankind chooses to utilize. Coal, for example, emits pollutants that contribute to climate change, whereas hydropower can disrupt river flows and place man-made obstacles in the way of river life.

However, nuclear energy, claimed by some to be the most dangerous energy source, can cause irreversible damage, if not properly handled. In fact, nuclear power is the only energy source that has the capability of killing so indiscriminately, and so powerfully, that a whole area of the world could be uninhabitable for centuries. This paper will aim to address some of the pros and cons of nuclear energy, and how it can be utilized for the benefit, not harm, of humankind.

In order to begin to build slowly and see how nuclear power might be beneficial, one must begin by analyzing its dangers. These were well-shown in two disasters that happened in our lifetime: Chernobyl and Fukushima. The Chernobyl disaster occurred in the mid-1980's in the Ukraine, when a nuclear reactor exploded and spread radioactive materials throughout the Western part of the country and into continental Eastern Europe. Chernobyl has been so devastating that there are still no people living in the area, which is truly a completely desolate ghost town. In a town nearby, Pripyat, which has been analyzed by experts, it is predicted that due to contaminants from the Chernobyl disaster, the town will continue to be uninhabitable for centuries to come.

Thus, one of the important cons is that nuclear reactors can suffer meltdowns, and they will cause severe damage not only to humans, but also to the physical environment which may surround them. Another similar incident to the one described above, and more recent, is the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Much like Chernobyl, at Fukushima reactors melted down, leading to widespread radiation danger. Unlike Chernobyl, however, the Fukushima catastrophe was more complex, as it was provoked by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and further damaged by a tsunami that followed it and that broke through many of the protections which Fukushima engineers had… [read more]

Nuclear Power Nuclear Energy Research Paper

… On the other hand, fossil fuels remain the only viable alternative energy source for powering the world's industry and travel. In fact, researchers have found that oil price increases have had a directly positive impact on nuclear energy consumption, as nuclear energy is cheaper to produce for a variety of reasons than many energy production methods that utilize oil-derived fuels (Lee & Chiu 2011). This means that in order to provide a real incentive to eliminate nuclear energy, there would either need to be a massive reduction in the cost of extracting, transporting, and refining oil, or a development of power plants and infrastructures that operate on entirely different fuel sources and mechanisms (e.g. solar, wind, or hydroelectric generation). Economically speaking, nuclear energy still makes more sense for most developed countries than expanding more traditional fossil fuel energy sources or moving to other alternatives, even with increased safety costs (Lee & Chiu 2011).

There are many other facets to the nuclear energy debate besides safety and cost, including both direct and indirect environmental concerns of both nuclear and fossil fuel plants, capacity and demand issues, and other concerns. All of these add to the complexity of the issue, and make it impossible to come to a simple conclusion regarding whether or not nuclear energy sources should continue to be utilized. As energy needs grow and fossil fuel supplies diminish, however, this question becomes ever more pressing.


Bommer, J., Papaspiliou, M. & Price, W. (2011). Earthquake response spectra for seismic design of nuclear power plants in the UK. Nuclear Engineering and Design 241(3): 968-77.

Lee, C. & Chiu, Y. (2011). Oil prices, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: New evidence using a heterogeneous… [read more]

Renewable Energy Sources Today Research Paper

… Currently, the vast majority of wind turbine capacity is located in only a few countries, including Germany, Spain, Japan, Italy, and the United States.


Almost without exception, all living matter derives most of its energy from the sun and stores it through carbon fixation. Traditional methods of converting solar energy into a useable form include the burning of firewood, straw, and animal dung for cooking and warmth, which still represents a major energy sourced in undeveloped countries. In developed countries the sources of biomass include agricultural and forestry residues, and municipal waste. Although still an important source of energy in developed economies, biomass provides a much smaller share of the energy consumed when compared to third world economies. The global energy contribution of biomass is around 9.5%, which represents 67.9% of the energy supplied by renewable energy sources (Balat 18). Biomass is converted to useable energy through combustion to generate heat, anaerobic digestion to produce methane, oil extraction for biofuels, or gasification to produce high grade fuels (Panwar, Kaushik, and Kothari). Unfortunately, the use of biomass generates greenhouse gases at almost the same rate as fossil fuels and therefore represents a threat to the environment.


The fourth biggest producer of renewable energy in the world is geothermal energy, which provides about 0.5% of the world's energy needs (Philips 2415). Geothermal energy exploits the heat stored within the earth, which was formed by the heat already present in the matter prior to the formation of earth, created as gravitational energy was spent as the matter combined to form the earth, and by ongoing radioisotope decay. From a human perspective, geothermal energy is essentially limitless.

Energy is produced by either tapping underground hot water reservoirs or pumping surface water deep into a borehole to heat it. If the temperature is hot enough to produce steam then electricity can be generated, otherwise it can be used as a heat source. There are several important limitations to using geothermal energy. For example, the steam derived from a geothermal reservoir can sometimes contain enough greenhouse gases to rival that produced by fossil fuels. The steam may also contain toxins, like mercury, boron, and radon. Other potential environmental hazards include water pollution, damage caused during the construction and operation of a geothermal power plant, soil erosion, and noise pollution. Still, with an annual rate of growth around 3.7% there is continued interest in exploiting this renewable energy source (Balat 21).


With the world's governments racing against time to have renewable energy sources online before fossil fuel prices become untenable, public investment into this energy sector is expected to continue to increase. With a goal of supplying 50% of global energy needs by the year 2040 (Panwar, Kaushik, and Kothari 1514) considerable investment into renewable energies will be required. Global photovoltaic, geothermal, and wind energy-producing capacity is expected catch up to hydropower by 2040, even though hydroelectric capacity is expected to increase by 17-fold during the same period. These projections reflect a dramatic shift… [read more]

Augmenting Traditional Electric Power With Solar Power Is a Wise Investment in South Florida Research Paper

… Science

Augmenting Traditional Electric Power with Solar Power is a Wise Investment in South Florida

Solar is a powerful source of energy that can be utilized to heat, cool, and light homes and businesses. This is for the reason that… [read more]

Solar Energy for Thermal Desalination Research Proposal

… (Blanco, 2008) The method of water desalination that appears to be the most effective and economical is the desalination process known as the 'Multi-Effect' desalination process. The Multi-Effect desalination process is a thermal distillation process in which the feed water "is sprayed or otherwise distributed onto the surface of the evaporator surface of different changes in a thin film to promote evaporation after it has been preheated in the upper section of each chamber." (Review of CSP and Desalination Technology, nd) The evaporator tubes are then steam heated using steam extraction from a powercycle or boiler with the steam produced. It is reported that the surfaces of the other effects receive heat by the steam from the preceding effect and that each effect is required to have pressure that is lower than the previous one. The process is repeated up to 16 effects with the steam produced in the last effect being condensed separately in a heat exchanger referred to as the final condenser stated to be cooled using the incoming seawater. The incoming seawater is stated to be used as "preheated feed water for the desalinati8on process." (Review of CSP and Desalination Technology, nd) The Multi-Effect Desalination method has better thermal performance than other processes of desalination and can be used both for high or low temperature desalination operations. There are various configurations of the MED process making it more versatile for use in desalination processes. (Review of CSP and Desalination Technology, nd)

Summary of Literature Reviewed

The literature reviewed in this brief initial study indicates that the Multi-Effect desalination process is an effective and versatile process that can be used for desalination of seawater to make it suitable for drinking water.


It is recommended, based on the literature reviewed, that the Multi-Effect desalination process be examined closely and compared to other desalination processes to determine if the Multi-Effect desalination process is more effective and economical than other desalination processes.


Review of CSP and Desalination Technology (2007)

Blanco, J. et al. (2008) Solar Energy and Feasible Applications to Water Processes. 5th European Thermal-Sciences Conference, The Netherlands, 2008.

Blanco, J. And Alarcon, D. (2007) The PSA Experience on Solar Desalinati9on: Technology Development and Research Activities. Springer, 2007.

Sagie, D. Weinberg, J. And Mandelberg. E. Commercial scale Powered Desalination. Israeli Ministry of National Infrastructure.

Blanco, J. et al. (2007) Advanced Multi-Effect Solar Desalination Technology: The PSA Experience.

Garcia-Rodriguez L., Gomez-Camacho C. Perspectives of solar-assisted seawater distillation. Desalination 2001; 136:213-218.

Al-Shammiri M., Safar M. Multi-effect distillation plants: state of the art. Desalination 1999; 126:45-59.

Kronenberg G., Lokiec F. Low-temperature distillation processes in single- and dual-purpose plants. Desalination 2001; 136:189-197.

Zarza E, Blanco M. Advanced M.E.D. solar desalination plant: Seven years of experience at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. In: Proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Renewable Energy Sources for Water Production, Santorini, Greece, 1996.

Wangnick K. A global overview of water desalination technology and the perspectives. In: Proceedings of the International Conference Spanish Hydrologic Plan and Sustainable Water Management: Environmental… [read more]

Human Powered Electronics Thesis

… ¶ … Marketing a Human-Powered Electricity Generating Device

Given the pending power doom, there aren't nearly as many mad scientists out there figuring out alternatives to the battery as one would wish. -- Steve Morgensterndan Clinton and Suzanne Kantrakirschner, 2004… [read more]

Renewable Energy Alternatives, Including Wind Power, Biomass Literature Review

… ¶ … renewable energy alternatives, including wind power, biomass, and solar power. An analysis of the potential for solar energy applications in Greece is followed by an assessment of the impact of the current economic crisis taking place in Greece… [read more]

Renewable Energy Marketing Bill Bryson Described Australia Essay

… Renewable Energy Marketing

Bill Bryson described Australia as the "Sunburned Country," which would imply that there is potential for a strong solar panel industry. However, whereas decidedly cloudier countries such as Germany have used strong government incentives to create a… [read more]

Alternative Energy Source or Technology Term Paper

… Alternative Energy Sources

United States consumes about 3.8 trillion kWh per year. About 87% of this power is derived from fossil fuel power resources. With the increasing global population the power demand is sky rocketing. In the recent years power… [read more]

Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant as of 2007 Research Proposal

… Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant

As of 2007, the last year for which complete and reliable data is available, approximately fourteen percent of the world's electricity was produced in nuclear power plants. Though they are still controversial, given fears of reactor… [read more]

Nuclear Power Thesis

… Nuclear power has long been one of the world's major sources of energy, especially electricity. Touted as a viable alternative to fossil fuels, nuclear energy does create waste but its waste is not carbon-based and therefore not a greenhouse gas.… [read more]

Energy Audit Thesis

… Home Energy Audit

Energy Sources: _X_ Electrical _X_ Gas

Location of the power plant: The power plant is located at Benning Road, Washington, D.C., along the Potomac River

Capacity of the power plant: The plant currently supplies electricity to more than 750,000 homes and businesses in D.C. And Maryland suburbs

Type of power plant: Regulated electricity utility that operates only during times of peak demand

Fuel source of the power plant: Fuel oil

Amount of fuel the plant uses per day: 27,000 barrels of fuel oil

How old is the plant? The plant has been in operation since 1906

What pollutants are emitted by the plant? sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, VOCs, sulphuric acid

What health effects do these pollutants have?

Sulphur dioxide is harmful to health and in cases of high exposure may be life-threatening, although this would have to be at the level of 100 ppm in the air. It can create a burning sensation in the nose and throat and may also lead to breathing difficulties. It is also believed that exposure to lower levels of sulphur dioxide over the long-term may create lung problems, although the amounts present in the air from the power plant are still not likely to be at the levels required for this type of effects. Asthma sufferers are however likely to be more sensitive to the health effects of sulphur dioxide.

At low levels of exposure over the long-term, nitrous oxide may be associated with damage to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, hepatic system, haemopoetic system, and reproductive system. In particular there have been shown to be increased risks of spontaneous abortion and infertility in those exposed to low levels on a consistent basis.

Carbon monoxide affects the transport of oxygen around the body, and at high levels is deadly. It may also affect the amount of oxygen in the cardiovascular system and the heart in particular. This means that it may create greater health problems in those who already have heart conditions, as they may be more sensitive to small changes. The main problems associated with carbon dioxide on the other hand are environmental rather than health impacts. It is however possible that global warming may indirectly impact on health due to the changing climatic conditions which it brings.

What does the plant do with the "spent" fuel and any other bi-products? There is no official information available as to how the power plant disposes of "spent fuel" and other bi-products. Environmental groups have suggested that the waste is disposed of in an… [read more]

Why Clean Renewable Energy Is Imperative to Our Future Thesis

… Renewable Energy

The United States is facing a seminal moment in terms of energy policy. Since 1970, the percentage of our oil that has been imported has increased from 24% to 70% (Pickens, 2008). While some of this oil comes… [read more]

Trends in U.S. Nuclear Energy Policy Term Paper


In the research initiative to more fully understand the policy stance of the United States on nuclear and energy policy, one quickly gains an understanding that there are several different dimensions to U.S. nuclear… [read more]

Energy and the 21st Century Term Paper

… ¶ … energy" is hard to define, because the concept of energy is embedded in the infrastructure of our daily lives. In the natural sciences, energy can be loosely defined as the capacity of a system to do work. In… [read more]

Spray-On Solar Power Cells Term Paper

… This breakthrough could have far reaching effects of how we generate energy.


Brautigam, Tara. "Canadian Professor Develops Plastic that More Efficiently Converts Solar Energy." Canadian Press. January 10, 2005. July 1, 2005. <>.

Conan-Davies, Richard. "Spray on solar cells." January 12, 2005. July 1, 2005.

Hines, M.A. And G.D. Scholes. Advanced Materials (2003) 15, 1845.

Hutcheson, G. Dan. "The First Nanochips." Scientific American. April 2004. July 1, 2005. < articleID=000CE8C4-DC31-1055-973683414B7F0000>.

L'Abbe, Sonnet. "Infrared-sensitive material could lead to better use of solar spectrum." January 10, 2005. July 1, 2005. <>.

Lovgren, Stefan. "Spray-On Solar-Power Cells Are True Breakthrough." National Geographic News. January 14, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

"New plastic can better convert solar energy." Canadian Press. Jan 9, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

"Nano paint could boost antiterrorism, rescue efforts." February 2, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

Porod, Wolfgang. "Nanotechnology is getting real: after years of hype, it is entering the market." The Chief Executive. March 2005. July 1, 2005. .

"Spray-On Solar Cells." January 17, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

Wolfgang Porod "Nanotechnology is getting real: after years of hype, it is entering the market."

The Chief Executive. March 2005. July 1, 2005. .

Lovgren, Stefan. "Spray-On Solar-Power Cells Are True Breakthrough." National Geographic News. January 14, 2005. July 1, 2005. .

Tara Brautigam. "Canadian Professor Develops Plastic that More Efficiently Converts Solar Energy." Canadian Press. January 10, 2005. July 1, 2005. <>.

L'Abbe, Sonnet. "Infrared-sensitive material could lead to better use of solar spectrum." January 10, 2005. July 1, 2005. <>. [read more]

Economics of Energy Essay

… Further, it is not renewables that are pushing the fossil fuel industry towards collapse. First, he contradicts himself -- if the collapse is inevitable it cannot be renewables causing it. More than that, it is declining supplies of fossil fuels that will bring about their eventual collapse, and renewables may rise up as substitutes but only when fossil fuels are no longer economically viable.

Another issue to take is his discussion that climate change and the collapse of fossil fuels are related. This is misplaced causation. Climate change is already occurring, and its most dramatic effects will be concurrent with the end of fossil fuel consumption, but are not the cause of it. One could also take issue with his pronouncements about solar. Prices might be coming down -- that's great -- but widespread deployment to this point has relying on market-distorting subsidies (in Germany, for example). The market case for solar that he tries to make is not really a free market case at all.

One thing Gilding is right about is that localized power is a threat to centralized grids. Right now, people with their own power can sell back to the grid, but eventually, communities will be able to power themselves. But at the end of the day, he's projecting way out into the future on a lot of things. I get that he's trying to sell books, but the hyperbole and rampant projections hurt his credibility. There's nuggets of value, but he's not writing for an audience predisposed to critical thinking.


EIA. (2014). AEO 2014 early release overview. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from

Gilding, P. (no date). Carbon crash solar dawn. Paul Gilding. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from (2014). Entire website. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from

Ruhl, C. (2014). Over the hump for oil demand. BP. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from [read more]

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