Study "Energy / Power" Essays 496-500

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Hazardous Material Operations Term Paper

… Hazardous Material Operations

Chemical Name: Chlorine

Product Identification:

Trade Name:

Liquid Chlorine


Liquefied chlorine gas, chlorine gas, chlor (German), molecular chlorine, diatomic chlorine, dichlorine

Chemical Formula:

Product Labeling:

DOT Hazard Class:

2, 8 (Subsidiary Risk)

DOT Label:

DOT Marking:… [read more]

Rising Gas Prices Term Paper

… That rules out the first two suggestions and leaves only the third -- the company must charge more. Consumers are finding that, not only are they paying more at the gasoline pumps, but the rising gas prices are causing them to pay more in almost every other aspect of their lives as well. This has a huge effect on the economy, and especially on areas of the economy that deal with individuals who live paycheck to paycheck already and do not know where they will get any extra money to fight the rising cost of the gasoline prices in this country.

There are bound to be repercussions in the future as well, because many people are losing their jobs or struggling to survive because they can no longer afford everything that they used to buy. They may not be able to put gasoline in their car and still pay their electric bill, or they may not be able to buy enough food for their family if they are going to need to have gasoline to drive to work. Some people can carpool and make other arrangements, but there are many individuals in our society today that are not able to do this and the repercussions for these individuals will likely continue well into the future.

Works Cited

Burrows, Dan. 2004. Rising gas prices may hurt moderate, discount retailers. Home Furnishing Network.

DeWeese, Adrianne. 2005. Supply, demand control gas prices. University Wire.

Joyner, Tammy. 2005. Fill tank, empty wallet Commuters feel the pinch of rising gas prices. The Atlanta… [read more]

Relationship Among Boyle's, Dalton Term Paper

… Therefore, the pressure of a gas sample would be the same whether it was the only gas in the container or if it were among other gases. However, lowering the temperature and/or compressing the gas will upset that assumption.

Henry's Law states that the amount of any gas that will dissolve in a liquid at a given temperature is a function of the partial pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid and the solubility coefficient of the gas in that particular liquid. That is, as the pressure of any gas increases, more of that gas will dissolve into any solution with which it is in free contact.

Taken together, Henry's and Dalton's laws predict two very important consequences:

When ambient pressure is lowered as at altitude, the partial pressure of oxygen and nitrogen in the body must fall, and there will be less molecules of each gas dissolved in the blood and tissues (Wagner, 1993). An example of this phenomenon is altitude sickness, which may occur at altitudes above 7000 feet.

When ambient pressure is raised as when diving, the partial pressure of oxygen and nitrogen in the body must rise, and there will be more molecules of each gas dissolved in the blood and tissues (Ewalenko, 2002). An example of this phenomenon is a condition known as the bends. The bends may occur in divers if they ascend to the water surface too quickly.

In summary, Boyle's, Dalton's, and Henry's Laws remain valid assumptions. Each of these Laws have pronounced influence on the physiology and pathophysiology of human respiration.


Ewalenko, M. (2002). [Scuba diving: practical aspects]. Rev Med Brux, 23(4), A218-222.

Wagner, P.D. (1993). Algebraic analysis of the determinants of VO2,max. Respir Physiol, 93(2), 221-237.

West, J.B. (1999). The… [read more]

Marketing: Canadian Oil Are Canadian Oil Companies Term Paper

… Marketing: Canadian Oil

Are Canadian oil companies price gouging or do they have a case for the prices they charge? Explain your answer.

Although the Canadian oil companies themselves would point to the rising price of crude oil in the world market, and the fact that such a stratospheric increase in oil prices is endemic to the entire industrialized world, including the United States as well as Canada, Guy Cramer's article "Evidence of Price Fixing by Oil Companies?" In August 25, 2004 ( notes that although "the percentage rise in the price of crude oil" was passed on to the Canadian consumer with an equal percentage rise in the price of gas at the pump, this appears fair only until one considers that that crude oil costs consists of only 37% of the price paid at the pump.

What is the pricing strategy employed by Canadian gasoline retailers?

Thus, the percentage increase in the amount of money the consumer pays should not be fully commensurate with the price increase of gas overall, according to Cramer, "as taxes make up 43%," of the price, "refining and marketing costs consist of 17% and only 3% is profit for the oil company." (Cramer, 2004) but, taking advantage of consumer confusion, the "oil companies had been adding the same percentage increase of the crude oil costs to the taxes, refining and marketing and the profit." (Cramer, 2004) Cramer adds that although adding to these figures leaves the percentages intact the consumer is still paying more than he or she should, in terms of the percentage required by the pricing breakdown of gas prices, as consumer prices are only 43% of the overall total.

What influence does the market structure have on pricing strategy? You must determine the type of market structure the oil industry in Canada and the U.S. is and explain your answer.

Theoretically, the Canadian oil industry is competitive, although one of the largest Canadian… [read more]

Oil Prices and the Stock Term Paper

… Simply put, profits will decrease if expenses increase significantly, barring other factors. As profits decrease, stock markets will decrease as well as investor confidence declines.

Higher oil prices also result in a decline in spending on consumer goods. Wal-Mart has noted that its customers will spend about $7 each week more on fuel as a result of recent increases. This may lead directly to reduced spending on consumer goods, prompting Wal-Mart to remark that sales may decrease as a result (Evans).

Importantly, spiking oil prices introduce an element of uncertainly into the stock market (McMahon). As noted earlier, there is a well-known historical connection between rising oil prices and declining stock prices. This connection alone can worry investors in times of increasing oil prices, spurring a loss of investor confidence that can lead to market.

The link between oil prices and stock market performance is likely to remain strong as long as our economy retains its dependence on oil. Currently, the world is moving toward a shortage of oil that is economically viable to extract, making existing reserves in countries like Iraq and Saudi Arabia especially important. Today's economy depends on ensuring these reserves are available, while potentially working toward alternatives to oil as a long-term solution (Leeb and Leeb, 2004).

One important factor in controlling oil prices is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Oil can be released from the reserve in order to force oil prices to decline, thus potentially staving off any associated decreases in the stock market. The reserve is currently at about 660 million barrels (Evans).

It is important to consider that while oil is at an all-time high of close to $50 per barrel, this does not take into account the impact of inflation. When inflation is taken into account, oil prices today are only about 6% above 1971-2003 averages. However, uncertainty in the Middle East, extra demand from China and India will likely result in further increases, and political uncertainty may fuel further increases (Evans).


In conclusion, stock market declines have been strongly associated with sharp rises in oil prices. Such prices fuel uncertainty on the stock market, increase the cost of doing business, and decrease consumer spending. Taken together, these factors can cause stock markets to fall. Today's climate of high oil prices, potential oil shortages, increased demand, and political uncertainty all suggest that the near future may see stock markets fall in association with increasing oil prices.


E-Commerce Times. Record High Oil Prices Send Markets Lower, Financial News, 09/27/04 1:54 PM PT. 27 September 2004.

Evans, Stephen. Rising oil prices threaten U.S. economy. BBC News, May 19, 2004. 27 September 2004.

Leeb, Stephen and Leeb, Donna. (2004). The Oil Factor: How Oil Controls the Economy and Your Financial Future. Warner Business Books.… [read more]

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