"Energy / Power" Essays

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Wasted Energy Resources Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (461 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Energy

The Waste of Energy Resources

In the race through the industrialization process -- which actually took close to two hundred years for the developed world -- enormous amounts of fossil fuels have been burned that could have been used more sparingly and efficiently (WRI 2009). It is not clear, however, whether the same achievements in the growth of wealth and the (supposedly) higher quality of life enjoyed by citizens in the developed world could have been brought into existence if not for this rampant use of energy. It has also been argued that without the extensive and inefficient use of energy of the past centuries, we would not have arrived at a point where energy had the capability of being so efficiently produced and used as it can be today.

This last argument is either taking a naive view of history or is being deliberately disingenuous. Before the advent of fossil fuels, energy was incredibly efficient -- all of it was supplied wither directly by man or by the forces of nature (mostly wind and gravity). Without the use of any electricity or fossil fuels, the Romans were able to transport water throughout much of their empire and merchants were able to trade goods across vast distances for only the cost of feeding their crew. The voyages took longer and goods were more expensive because of it, it is…… [read more]


Energy Supply Systems Infrastructure -- Identify Key Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (473 words)
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Energy Supply Systems Infrastructure -- Identify Key Considerations When Assessing the Vulnerability of the Following Energy Supply Systems:

Electric power supply and distribution

The Bowling County EMT and its healthcare facilities do not specifically state in their manual that they have backup generators at the main hospital facility. Backup generators would be necessary to give assistance to patients that need constant, critical care in the form of electrically-powered devices such as ventilators. The EMT crew would need to know what nearby hospitals had generators to provide additional services in an emergency situation, should there be a power outage and the normal point-of-contact hospital was not operational.

For example, during Hurricane Katrina, flood waters rendered the city hospital's normal generators nonfunctional, causing excessively high indoor temperatures (Curiel 2006). Floodwaters disabled even wheeled generators which could only offer minimal power for hospital equipment, anyway (Bovender & Carey 2006). In New Orleans, patients died because they could not be transported from the ravaged city hospitals.

There should be backup access to medical records, either through paper files or battery-operated laptops to give necessary information about patients during transfers. Radio communication between EMT personnel is currently available and exists as an alternative to cell phone contact, should there be a disruption in service. Coordinating a response with hospitals far enough away from disaster areas, in light of Katrina-like situations, would enable helicopters to transport high-risk patients away from catastrophic situations.…… [read more]


Solution to a Misuse of Energy Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,012 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … solar energy in this country, and provide solutions to those problems. Solar energy is one way to solve the world's dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels. It is not the only solution, and it is not feasible in every location, but it can be a good solution to the overuse of fossil fuels in many areas.

Solar energy is one way the world can rid itself of its growing dependence on fossil fuels like oil, coal, and gas. Two writers note, "Solar energy technologies represent one of the least carbon-intensive means of electricity generation. Solar power produces no emissions during generation itself, and life-cycle assessments clearly demonstrate that it has a smaller carbon footprint from 'cradle-to-grave' than fossil fuels" (Resch, and Kaye). The rays of the sun are abundant in many areas of the world, which is a necessity for solar power, and there are many different forms of solar energy in development and already developed that can meet the electrical power needs of millions of homes. A solar energy Web site notes these types "include concentrating solar power systems, passive solar heating and daylighting, photovoltaic systems, solar hot water, and solar process heat and space heating and cooling" (Editors). These technologies can be used in small-scale systems on homes and offices, and in large-scale applications for industry and creating power for communities.

There are several problems with solar energy that must be addressed before its use becomes more widespread. The major problem associated with solar energy are the high costs to build and maintain a solar system, whether it is residential or commercial. It is more expensive to create solar energy than it is to create the same amount of fossil fuel energy in almost every case, and this means that development of solar energy plants lags far behind what could be developed. Another writer notes, "The system does have several disadvantages, such as the high expenses of building a solar power station and the unreliable nature of sunlight" (Woloski). This high cost is prohibitive for homeowners, too, because a solar system can cost thousands of dollars, and they will not see the return on their investment for decades. Photovoltaic systems (PV) are the most popular of the residential systems today, but they are expensive, although "The PV industry is striving to reduce system costs by 50 per cent by 2015, at which point PV will be cost-competitive with retail electricity costs in most of the United States and other developed countries" (Resch, and Kaye). That is one solution to the problem; reduce costs so solar energy systems are more affordable for residential and commercial use. If initial installation and production costs were reduced, more people could afford the systems, even on existing homes and businesses, and in the end, the solar energy companies would sell more systems, creating a profit while enhancing the environment at the same time.

Another solution is for utility companies and governments to provide assistance or rebates when consumers and businesses install solar… [read more]


Wind Power, Farms, &amp Turbines Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,540 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Wind Power

Wind Farms and Wind Turbines: An Examination of Their Role as a Sustainable Alternative Energy Source

Wind Farm in Boulder County, Wyoming

Wind Turbines at Burbo Bank in the Mouth of the River Mersey

Respective Percentage of U.S. Renewable Energy Consumption, 2004

Identifying sustainable and alternative energy sources has become a national priority in recent years, but the… [read more]


Energy Conservation Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,750 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Energy Conservation Plan

Energy conservation has become a matter of extreme interest at global level, but at individual level as well, given the fact that energy consumption has its repercussions on all of us. The effects that energy consumption has on the environment have determined world's nations to take measures that focus on energy conservation. The process of energy conservation… [read more]


Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,205 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Energy

When Albert Einstein introduced his Special Theory of Relativity in 1905, he revolutionized the future of man on Earth. One of the implications of Einstein's theory, represented by the infamous equation E = mc2 was the equivalence of mass and energy.

This equivalence meant that very small amounts of energy represented tremendous amounts of energy, which could be released through nuclear fission (Rennie, 2003).

Nuclear fission, when it occurs instantaneously, releases vast amounts of destructive energy; it is the basis for nuclear weapons. When it occurs much more gradually, it releases the same energy, but in ways that can be harnessed and controlled, for several beneficial purposes: it is the basis for advanced medical imaging technology and is instrumental in many cancer treatments, among many other industrial applications.

Fossil fuel supplies are finite, and quickly being depleted at a rate that guarantees need for alternate energy sources; our current dependence on OPAC oil and geopolitical issues in the Middle East further complicates the situation; and global warming is a consequence of the byproducts of generating energy from fossil fuels. Therefore, one of the most important uses of nuclear energy is its ability to be generated in ways that can be converted to electrical energy, for an efficient man-made source of unlimited usable energy in civilian nuclear reactors (Gundersen, 1999).

The dramatic use of two atomic bombs to end World War II in 1945 forever associated nuclear technology with its potential destructive power. Likewise, the fact that radioactive isotopes release radiation that is harmful to human health, (even deadly in high doses), is always a concern in any use of nuclear energy. Several operational catastrophes in functioning reactors in the first two decades of their use heightened those concerns. To many people, nuclear energy is another potential danger of irresponsible applications of human technology; to others, it represents the most economical alternative to fossil fuels and other sources of energy that are dependent on natural resources.

Because nuclear energy has such potential for destruction, and because even its beneficial uses are potentially so dangerous, it is an issue that requires a complete analysis that addresses the concerns expressed in both positions from the emotional perspective, the logical perspective, and the ethical perspective.

Emotional Perspective:

The emotional perspective is very easy to understand. The first demonstrated use of any type of nuclear energy was the instantaneous incineration of approximately

100,000 civilians in Hiroshima on August 9, 1945, followed three days later by a similar detonation of another atomic bomb over Nagasaki. Approximately three decades later, human error in responding to an equipment malfunction nearly resulted in a catastrophe at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania. Only a few years after a reactor meltdown was narrowly averted at Three Mile Island, a Soviet reactor did meltdown and the resulting explosion contaminated the entire city of Chernobyl, and eventually killed thousands who died from the medical consequences of radiation exposure (Gundersen, 1999).

Logical Perspective:… [read more]


Energy Efficiency Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (540 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Energy Efficiency

Energy conservation has become such a hackneyed topic that it has completely lost its shock and awe effect. Government's numerous energy conservation programs were certainly developed with best interests of the public at heart but over the years, their inability to penetrate public's consciousness have turned them into fatuous exercises. However energy conservation is not something that can be easily overlooked because lack of efficiency in the utilization of energy is costing the country dearly.

We must first understand what is meant by energy efficiency. Energy comes from host of sources- some of which are more vulnerable to depletion than others. In order to protect these sources from complete dissipation, we need to lessen our dependence on them and thus turn to more enduring sources of energy. In layman terms, there are renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. As their tags indicate, renewable sources are those that are continuously being replenished such as energy coming from sun and wind. On the other hand, non-replenished sources include coal, which is vulnerable to depletion because coal takes years to form and its consumption is higher than its production.

Our country's biggest challenge is the prodigious use of energy, which has only increased, in the last decade with greater technology and heavier dependence on foreign sources of energy. In the last decade, Americans used 17% more energy than they did in the decade before. By the year 2020, it is likely to grow by 32%, which will only further increase our dependence on quick but rapidly depleting sources of energy including foreign sources. At home, production of energy has increased by…… [read more]


Energy Crisis of 1973 in 1973, OPEC Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (375 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Energy Crisis of 1973

In 1973, OPEC, the cartel of the most oil-rich Middle-Eastern countries responsible for producing the majority of the world's crude oil, cut off exports of petroleum to Western nations in reaction to what they saw as the Israeli bias of the United States in recent Arab-Israeli conflicts. "Although the oil embargo would not ordinarily have made a tremendous impact on the U.S., panicking investors and oil companies caused a gigantic surge in oil prices. The situation, caused more by fear and irrationality than any firm economic basis, turned out to be one of the most memorable of the 1970s. Those who can remember the so-called 'Mideast oil crisis' also remember long lines at the gas pump due to petroleum shortages and high gasoline prices" ("The Mideast Oil Crisis," Energy Through History, 2007).

A realist international relations theorist would have stressed a 'power politics' solution to the crisis, such as pressuring OPEC member nations to release their supplies of crude. This might be accomplished levying economic sanctions against the Arab members and by forcing U.S. investors and oil companies to keep their prices down…… [read more]


Potential Use of Renewable Energy Technologies in the Buildings of Arabian Gulf Countries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,922 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … renewable energy technologies in the buildings of Arabian Gulf Countries

In the literature regarding the Middle East and the utilization of renewable energy there is a great deal of evidence of interest and even application. This is despite the region's critical interest in fossil fuels as a resource for change, as oil has been for the last 20… [read more]


Wind Power in 1987 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Another environmental problem is that in the past, birds have tended to fly into them, and some of these birds are endangered or otherwise important to the environment. However, recent technological improvements have significantly reduced this problem (Ottinger & Williams, 2002).

Thus, the primary objection to the use of wind power is an esthetic one: windmills, even the modern ones, far more unobtrusive than the first wooden windmills used to move water and grind grain, often mar an otherwise pristine landscape. Proponents argue that appropriate landscaping can diminish the effects and possibly even enhance the area where the windmills might be placed, but environmentalists see this as yet another manmade intrusion (Pasqualetti, 2000). While the environmentalists make an important point, it seems possible that the long-term benefits to the environment from wind power might well outweigh any changes in the environment where the windmills would be located.

A more serious problem reflects funding shifts over time. Today we have a variety of innovative technologies for producing electricity, including such things as solar energy as well as wind power. The development of this technology was funded with large grants from the government starting about 25 years ago (U of Tenn, 2000). That federal funding has begun to dry up, and it is left to individual states and private industry to close the gap. Some researchers feel that this approach will be too piecemeal and disjointed and advocate for a national fund that could receive its monies from private industry but that would have national direction and focus (U of Tenn, 2000). This might or might not work as experts note that funding from private industry is decreasing as well (U of Tenn, 2000).

The federal government is still working on energy problems, but currently it is focusing on the use of superconductors to improve transmission and storage (U of Tenn, 2000). This would also have benefits for wind power but does not directly fund its use or development.

The United States, and indeed the entire world, needs to stay focused on solving its growing energy needs. Modern society needs reliable sources of power, and dependable transmission of that power from the source of generation to the site of use. Carbon dioxide production must be reduced (U of Tenn, 2000). Wind power can help with all these issues. While predicting the future can be difficult, Renner and Renner (1987) were correct when they said we would again face a fuel shortage. Wind power can reduce our dependence on petroleum by lessening its use to generate a growing demand for electricity.

SOURCES

Ottinger, Richard L., and Williams, Rebecca. 2002. "Renewable Energy Sources for Development." Environmental Law, 32:2.

Pasqualetti, Martin J. 2000. "Morality, Space and the Power of Wind-Energy Landscapes." The Geographical Review, 90:3.

Renner, Michael G., and…… [read more]


Globalization and the Demand for Energy in the 21st Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Globalization and Energy Demands in the 21st Century

According to a May 2004 report from Deloitte Research, supplying enough energy on a reliable basis at prices that will not cripple the global economic growth has become a challenge with consequences that are difficult to predict (Globalization pp). Although this will provide new opportunities for oil and gas companies, pipelines, generators,… [read more]


Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (487 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The DOE or the U.S. Department of Energy is in fact presently engaged in developing the infrastructure that is necessary to protect the energy of the nation. (Energy Sources, U.S. Department of Energy)

It is a fact that the average American family ends up spending about $1,300 a year on the utility bills in their homes, and it is also a fact that a large amount of this energy ends up being wasted completely. If, for example, the basic insulation on the doors and the windows of homes were to be made more efficient, it would save a huge amount of energy. A 'whole house energy efficiency plan' would sort out this problem to a certain extent, and it can be said that conservation starts at home, and when there is more energy conserved at home, then in the larger picture, it would be more beneficial to the entire nation. (Energy Savers: Introduction)

This article is important because it would help those people who are interested in the benefits of saving and conserving energy to persevere in their efforts to do so, thereby bringing a large amount of gain to the whole nation.

References

Energy Savers: Introduction. Office of energy efficiency and renewable energy. Retrieved From http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/energy_savers/intro.html Accessed on 12 January, 2005

Energy Sources, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved From

http://www.energy.gov/engine/content.do-BT_CODE=ENERGYSOURCES Accessed on 12 January, 2005… [read more]


Renewable Energy Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Biomass, which uses forest and agricultural residues, is used around the world, and the use geothermal energy is growing slowly. All of these forms of energy need to be fully explored to gain more usage and recognition.

Another viable renewable energy source is the fuel cell, which has been around since 1829, longer than the internal combustion engine (Flavin &… [read more]


Geothermal Energy the Earth Formed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Aside from volcanic eruptions and plate tectonics, there is another way to witness and to use the thermal energy generated in the interior of our planet: geysers and hot springs. As aforementioned, magma rising towards the crust can heat natural water reservoirs. "Some of this hot geothermal water travels back up through faults and cracks and reaches the earth's surface as hot springs or geysers, but most of it stays deep underground, trapped in cracks and porous rock. This natural collection of hot water is called a geothermal reservoir." (Geothermal Education Office).

Humans have used this natural form of energy since before the dawn of civilization. The Romans used geothermal water for medical purposes, and for heating homes in some cities. American Indians, for perhaps as long as ten thousand years, have also made use of hot springs for medicine as well as for cooking (Geothermal Education Office).

Today, much more advanced and efficient techniques are employed to take advantage of this free form of energy. Geologists work to locate possible geothermal reservoirs, and then drill into them to release their steam. This rapid escape of steam can be used to turn turbine generators and transform what was once thermal energy into forms that can be much more useful and mobile -- like electricity. Presently, humans employ three different types of geothermal power plants: dry steam power plants, flash power plants, and binary power plants (Geothermal Education Office). The general difference between the three being the temperature of the water, and subsequently, the amount of steam that is generated.

There are many advantages to using geothermal rather than coal, oil, or nuclear generated energy. First, it is almost pollutant free. Second, by all human purposes, it is inexhaustible. Because of the convective nature of the earth's interior, our planet will continue to generate geothermal energy for billions of years to come. Other sources of energy like coal and oil are finite resources and will eventually run out. Third, Geothermal energy is quite reliable, and can be altered to the specific needs of a society. Finally, it requires less land area to build and maintain a geothermal power plant than any of the United State's other major sources of energy (Geothermal Education Office).

Unfortunately, geothermal energy cannot be trusted to supply all of the world's energy needs -- there are simply not enough geothermal reservoirs near the surface of the earth. However, some geologists are optimistic and believe that as drilling technology improves, humans will be able to reach enough geothermal reservoirs to accommodate a large percentage of the world's energy demands.

Bibliography

Gallant, Roy A. Geysers: When Earth Roars. New York: Franklin Watts, 1997.

Geothermal Energy Facts." Geothermal Education Office. December 23, 2000. Retrieved…… [read more]


Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,794 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

"Even when the planned cleanup has been carried out, billions of dollars and many years will be needed to address areas that are not in the cleanup plan." (Unavailable, 2000)

And the military was still up to their dirty work testing the might and killing power of the source. "The United States sets off first underground nuclear test in a… [read more]


Energy Conservation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

This will also help in the recycling of material from the kitchen and the farm instead of disposing off such.

The other source of power that can sustain the homestead is the harnessing of wind through installation of a windmill that will help in generating power from the little wind available. This is viable since the demands of the homestead will not be heavy as to need a large grid for the power. The installations will also not required external services hence can be expensive at installation but cheap in the long run due to eliminated running costs.

There will also be need for harvesting rain water into tanks such that the home will be supplied with water that comes from nature instead of the conventional supplied water that will require use of fossil fuel to be pumped to various destinations. The sewerage system should also be designed such that there is a septic tank underground with efficient compartments that will ensure the biodegradation of the sewer without use of public service system which will still use external fossil fuel to run the engines.

The insulated double wall can also be structured in a manner that the vacuum is connected to the fire furnace in the house such that in extremely cold weather there can be heating of the house through using dried firewood that might have been found rotting in the woods.

There is a possibility of building a house that is independent of the fossil fuel services hence helping in environmental conservation and it is possible to run such houses on the above suggested sources of energy.… [read more]


Economics of Oil and Gas Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

The critical thing is the difference between annual additions to the capacity of oil production and the annual rate of decline of the production from the wells that are in existence.

Since OPEC was formed in 1960, it has never been shy when it comes to flexing its energy fuelled power over the west. OPEC is likely to loose its market share in the years to come as their days of dominance in the oil industry are soon coming to an end. When bluntly put we can say that OPEC's power has been well and significantly reduced. Its decline has been fueled by U.S. And Israeli's gas as well as oil revolutions. Oil depletion is also not making it easy for the survival of OPEC. Its power is decreasing and in the next few years it will be completely powerless (Flynn, 20130.

It is beyond any doubt that Saudi has enormous oil reserves, for a long time now the country has been a world leader in the production of oil. However the development of U.S. shale has outplayed the oil production of Saudi Arabia and now all signs show that Saudi is desperate to keep their number one ranking in the world as leaders in oil production. Furthermore the meteoric rise in U.S. production is linked with technological developments which Saudi can not keep up with. Therefore even though Saudi Arabia has enormous reserves it is not expected that it will significantly expand its oil production capacity.

Reference

Campbell, C. (1998) Peak Oil: A Turning for Mankind. Retrieved April 14, 2014 from http://www.greatchange.org/ov-campbell,peakoil_turning_for_mankind.html

. Campbell J. & Laherrere J., (1998). The end of cheap oil. Retrieved April 14,2014 from http://dieoff.org/page140.htm

Jamail D., (2011).The Scourge of 'peak oil.' Retrieved April 14,2014 from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2011/07/201172081613634207.html

Flynn P., (2013). OPEC shudders as shale revolution could spell demise

Retrieved April 14, 2014 from http://www.futuresmag.com/2013/03/14/opec-shudders-as-shale-revolution-could-spell-demi… [read more]


Future of Natural Gas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,004 words)
Bibliography Sources: 17

SAMPLE TEXT:

Shale Gas

As the world, and the billions of people it supports, continues to evolve, new and important ways of delivering energy are needed to keep up with these changes and provide a safe and secure environment. Technology, reason and knowledge all contribute to these process of finding new ways of doing things that are more suitable for the times… [read more]


H2 O2 Fuel Cell Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,499 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Fuel Cell

The study focuses on the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell technology. The fuel cell is an energy delivered technology that combines hydrogen, oxygen and other oxidizing agents to produce energy. The paper discusses different types of fuel cell technologies, and their differences are based on their chemical components, their temperature output and differences in their level of power… [read more]


Non-Intrusive Monitoring Research Paper

Research Paper  |  22 pages (6,839 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Non-intrusive monitoring, developed by George Hart, Ed Kern and Fred Schweppe in the 1980s at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is commonly used in terms of non-intrusive load monitoring, a means of monitoring an electrical circuit which encompasses a particular number of appliances which are all able to turn on and off independent of one another. Instead of attaching… [read more]


Alberta Tar Sands Issues Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

What happens next is the solvent condenses on the "cold walls of the vapor chamber and dissolves the bitumen"; in turn, the bitumen "drains with the solvent down to a production well" and next a surface facility does the separating of the propane and other gases (methane is one of the gases produced) from the bitumen. The estimate by N-Solv,… [read more]


Speech for How Solar Energy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (815 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

For example, the governments of Germany and Japan have offered incentives for researching solar energy to scientists and to businesses and consumers for using it. "In 2009 alone, Germany installed 3,806 megawatts (MW) of PV solar energy capacity" more than eight times that of the United States (Top 10 countries using solar power, 2013, One Block Off The Grid). Germany has been particularly successful due to a "combination of a proven feed-in-tariff (FiT) scheme, good financing opportunities, a large availability of skilled PV companies, and a good public awareness of the PV technology" (Top 10 countries using solar power, 2013, One Block Off The Grid). But knowledge of the value of solar power has even spread to smaller countries: in Israel and Cyprus, more homes have solar water heaters than do not because of new building requirements (How solar energy works, 2012, Union of Concerned Scientists).

However the United States, despite its technical sophistication and wealth, lags behind. During the late 1970s and 1980s during the energy crisis, there was a rise in interest in solar power, particularly in warmer weather areas. But as fuel costs declined and tax credits expired, so did the desire to implement the technology (How solar energy works, 2012, Union of Concerned Scientists). But this is changing due to changes in government policies. "The cap on the federal solar tax credit was lifted in 2009, promoting growth in this industry. Despite the recent recession, the U.S. market for residential solar panels doubled in 2009, and increased 37% from 2008" (Top 10 countries using solar power, 2013, One Block Off The Grid).

It remains to be seen if the change in U.S. consumption habits regarding solar power is a fad or a true shift in how solar power is viewed. Regardless, there is little question that increased use of solar energy is safer and less damaging to the environment than using non-renewable fossil fuels, and cheaper once the initial investment in the technology is made. Hopefully, we will come full circle as a society and someday be able to use the form of energy that heated and lit our ancestor's homes…only in a way that will still support our modern, technological lifestyles.

References

How solar energy works. (2012). Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved:

http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/how-solar-energy-works.html

Top 10 countries using solar power. (2013).…… [read more]


Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (5,303 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

The OPA also expanded the role and breadth of the "National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan" (NCP), establishing a multi-layered "planning and response system" in order to improve the preparedness and responses to any spill that occurs in a marine environment (Ramseur, 13). Moreover, the OPA in 1990 required that oil tankers (flying the U.S. flag), offshore facilities… [read more]


Hydraulic Fracturing ("Fracking") the Legal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,330 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Law School Student Willie -- Let States Regulate Fracking

Matt Willie takes a position similar to Spence; at the same time he admits that the debate over the potential negative environmental effects of fracking has caused "an outright firestorm" in public opinion (Willie, 2011, 1743). Writing in the Brigham Young University Law Review, Willie asserts that environmental concerns vis-a-vis fracking… [read more]


Integrating Schooling Fish Movement Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,403 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Vertical axis wind generators tend to be perfect for the process, since they may be positioned near to each other and may seize wind power coming from all directions -- even from over and above. By getting each and every turbine placed within the opposite path of the neighbour, Caltech researchers discovered that effectiveness may be elevated because of opposing… [read more]


Solar Is the Solution Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (922 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

First, Heckeroth states that biomass takes viable land away from agriculture, thereby contributing to the problem of poverty. Poverty is a gross social injustice. Therefore, biomass is bad.

Hydrogen fuel cells are "no more efficient than biofuels," and inefficient energy sources are bad. Therefore, hydrogen fuel cells are bad. Heckeroth also points out, "96% of all hydrogen is currently extracted from fossil fuels." If this premise is true (which is unclear because Heckeroth does not cite his sources) then the conclusion that is drawn is that hydrogen fuel cells present the same environmental problems as fossil fuels do because they are the same basic source.

To substantiate the claim that solar energy is a good option that should be taken immediately, Heckeroth also uses a series of logical statements. Some of what Heckeroth states is unsubstantiated statistics such as: "simply incorporating passive solar design strategies…energy efficiency, conservation and other active solar heating strategies in the construction of buildings can save up to 95% of the energy used in conventional buildings," (p. 3).

Heckeroth states that "Energy from the sun can be used to power our vehicles," and therefore solar energy is highly efficient and should be used. When electric vehicles are charged with solar power, emissions are reduced "altogether," (p. 3). Even when using traditional power sources, an electric vehicle is more efficient than a standard internal combustion engine. Therefore, electric cars should replace standard vehicles If the goal is reducing emissions.

The author also picks apart logical fallacies in his detractors' arguments. For example, when discussing electric vehicles, Heckeroth claims that the opponents state that batteries are not well developed enough to be viable. Heckeroth claims that cellular phone batteries started out inefficient and then became better once consumer demand for the products increased. If consumer demand for electric cars increase, then the same will happen for electric car batteries.

Finally, the author presents a series of steps for making new homes more efficient. If new homes are designed to use less energy, overall energy consumption among new home dwellers will be considerably less. Less energy use equals fewer emissions; and fewer emissions means a cleaner environment. Similarly, less energy consumption leads to reduced green house gases and reduced impact of climate change. The central premise is that climate change itself is bad, as evidenced by the rising sea levels that made Hurricane Sandy so devastating. Although Heckeroth's argument is not air-tight in terms of his not backing up some of his core facts, the author does not use any logical fallacies. Unless some of his facts are proven wrong, the logical case for solar energy is a good one.

Work Cited

Heckeroth, Steve. "Solar is the Solution." Dec-Jan 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.motherearthnews.com/Renewable-Energy/2007-12-01/Solar-is-the-Solution.aspx?page=6… [read more]


Chernobyl Disaster Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

" ("Health Impacts") From the years 1992-2000, about 4000 cases of thyroid cancer were found with the exposed population, with three-quarters, close to 3000 individuals, being children and adolescents between the years 1-18. ("Health Impacts")

In the aftermath of the world's greatest nuclear disaster Chernobyl has caused a major shift in views toward nuclear power and its safety. Chernobyl has created a fear within the minds of the general population that nuclear power plants are an accident waiting to happen, and as a result "the expansion of nuclear capacity came to a near standstill." (El Baradei) In effect, the world said that it no longer wanted nuclear power plants built anywhere near them or their families. However, in the decades that have passed since the disaster's initial impact, the world has learned a number of lessons. First of all is the fact that a "nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere." (El Baradei) Therefore nuclear safety is an international concern and requires international cooperation. The IAEA has set international rules for nuclear energy involving "peer reviews, safety upgrades, and multilateral assistance efforts, safety conventions, and the body of globally recognized IAEA standards." (EL Baradei)

The world has also come to recognize that despite the best efforts of international authorities, nuclear accidents, while unthinkable, may still happen and the world needs to be prepared for them. The recent tsunami and resulting accident in Japan is a perfect example of how, no matter how safe one thinks a nuclear plant is built, nature can still cause unexpected problems. Because of this possibility, the IAEA, along with other international organizations, have begun to plan for nuclear accident responses. Chernobyl has taught the lesson that increased international coordination is necessary in the aftermath of any potential nuclear disaster. Most of all the international assistance from individual governments, international relief organizations, and other groups needs to be coordinated in an overall strategy. There also has to be plans in place to deal with the potential masses of people who would need to be relocated, either temporarily or permanently. But most of all, the Chernobyl accident has taught international authorities that facts are the most important weapon in response to a nuclear accident. There were numerous cases of preciously needed resources being wasted on unnecessary resettlements, economic disruption from panicked people, and a "widespread distrust of 'official' information & #8230;." (El Baradei)

The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of mankind, causing nuclear fallout to cover large areas, contaminating hundreds of thousands, killing thousands, either immediately or slowly over years, and panicking millions. The efforts to help and send aid were sporadic and uncoordinated, resulting in waste and suffering. But the world has learned from this disaster and now international cooperation and standards are the way to ensure that disasters like Chernobyl are avoided. International organizations have also learned to respond better to nuclear disasters and coordinate relief aid more effectively. Most of all they have learned that accurate information can… [read more]


Canada's Environmental Wellbeing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Canada's Environmental Well-Being and Reducing Dependence on Oil

Canada's current environmental state is in danger. The rich natural resources of this vast land are being sacrificed to feed an ongoing dependence on oil and petroleum products. There is no denying that the current state of the country is heavily impacted by energy strategies to extract various fossil fuels from the resource-rich landscape. In order to avoid future damage to Canada's rich environment, Andrew Nikiforuk provides what he calls "12 Steps to Energy Sanity," one of which prove the most important to protect Canada's environmental well being: the implementation of a carbon tax to help wean Canadians off their dangerous addiction to oil and thus protect the natural resources of the region for future generations to enjoy as we do today.

Oil sand drilling has a devastating impact on the natural resources of the country. Mining for bitumen is a huge source of deforestation in some of Canada's most rich forested areas. The huge land portion of 3,000 square km that has been allocated to oil sand mining is in direct danger of being devastated. Forrest areas will be wiped out, leaving open the potential for local wildlife in the region to also be affected. Essentially, this is securing a very bleak future for Canada's diverse array of wildlife in the region, one that may have a lasting impact on the natural resources of the country for generations to come, long after the mining has actually stopped. The use of extreme measures, like sandblasting, solvent injection, and firefloods are detrimental to the surrounding landscape and will prove unable to correct in future years as the devastation continues to show itself in future generations.

Moreover, there are issues with how drilling deals with Canada's limited fresh water and air supply. The Athabasca River has seen much lower than normal water flows in the last few decades. Yet, Canadian mining operations are still allowed to funnel larger portions of its fresh water out for the purpose of extracting bitumen. This has had a devastation of fish populations and habitats, as they are being restricted more and more each year from their natural feeding and breeding grounds the less and less water there is in each season. Without regulations to stop companies from taking too much valuable water when levels are at their lowest, there can only be more damage caused then money raised in the bitumen being mined. Water is an important step in the extraction of oil from sand material. As such, it has become a primary resource for oil drillers to utilize and harness to their advantage. Yet, with water levels so dangerously low, allowing more oil drilling to further seize Canada's fresh water supplies will only further continue to place local wildlife in danger due to extreme restrictions in water size and habitat. Unfortunately, water needs to be discarded after it has been used to help extract the oil rich material from sands. Canadian oil drillers have simply displaced the… [read more]


Competition in Energy Drinks Sports Drinks and Vitamin Enhanced Beverages Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (956 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Beverage Company Analysis

What are the strategically relevant components of the global and U.S. beverage industry macro-environment? How do the economic characteristics of the alternative beverage segment of the industry differ from that of other beverage categories? Explain.

The most strategically relevant components of the global and U.S. industry microenvironment include the annual per capita drink consumption of consumers, the demand for food services at drinking and entertainment establishments, and the demand for beverages from grocery stores and other retail outlets. Additional relevant components include the price of each ingredient that goes into the beverage, with sugar being one of the most pervasive and dependent on outside markets. While the overall beverage industry continues to consolidate and shows signs of being in a rapidly declining phase of its lifecycle, the alternative beverage industry is growing rapidly as consumers look for healthy, high energy alternatives to traditional forms of caffeinated beverages. The alternative energy segment is quickly capitalizing on this trend, using advanced forms of branding and marketing to underscore the unique value of these drinks and the healthy, high energy benefits to consumers. The combination of healthy attributes and exceptionally good marketing is leading to a growing, highly profitable market.

2. What is competition like in the alternative beverage industry? Which of the five competitive forces is strongest? Which is weakest? What competitive forces seem to have the greatest effect on industry attractiveness and the potential profitability of new entrants? Analyze all five forces.

The competition in the alternative beverage market is intensifying rapidly, as each of the five forces that comprise the Porter Model are undergoing significant transformation in this market. Figure 1 shows the Porter Five Forces Model. The strongest of the five forces in the market is Buyer Power today, hence the very aggressive marketing going on across all competitors in this market. The Threat of New Entry is also exceptionally high right now, yet the Buyers are actually driving even greater change overall. The Threat of New Entry is seeing barriers to the production fo new drinks becoming more expensive to overcome. Supplier Power initially was very strong in this market as there were differentiated, and often highly customized ingredients. Over time this specific force has become more dependent on Buyer Power to drive profitability. The fourth factor, Threat of Substitution, is ever-present across the many substituted energy-inducing beverages consumers can purchase. It is more at a steady-state however; it will never be as strong as Buyer Power for example. Finally, the fifth factor is Competitive Rivalry, and that will continue to accelerate and gain momentum over time in the beverage market. None will emerge however as strong as Buyer Power over time.

3. How is the market for energy drinks, sports drinks and vitamin-enhanced beverages changing? What are the underlying drivers of change and how might those forces individually or collectively make the…… [read more]


International Business and Politics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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International Business and Politics

In the last several years, outsourcing has become an integral part for helping a firm to decrease their costs and improve productivity. However, depending upon the region, this could have an adverse effect on their bottom line results. In the case of the GE plant, there is intense competition between the Philippines and the Ukraine. To fully understand the benefits that the Ukraine has to offer requires focusing on: the business environment and actual firms that are located in the country. Together, these different elements will highlight the strengths of the Ukraine for foreign direct investors.

The Ukraine's Business Environment

The Ukraine is focused on energy imports to meet the demand of businesses and households. In 2009, a dispute over the price of energy resulted in a temporary embargo from Russia. However, the country was able to resolve these disputes and now has a ten-year agreement in place. At the same time, the economy is vulnerable to shocks from the global economy. This is because the nation has tremendous amounts of natural resources that are used in the production of steel, manufactured goods and agriculture. Evidence of this can be seen with the overall rates of GDP growth from 2009 to 2011 (which is illustrated in the below table). ("Ukraine")

Ukraine's GDP Growth from 2009 to 2011

Year

Rate of Growth

2009

-14.8%

2010

4.1%

2011

5.1%

("Ukraine")

These figures are showing how the Ukraine's economy is dependent upon changes that are occurring inside the global marketplace.

Moreover, the Ukraine has eliminated all imports / exports and business related taxes. This is designed to help fuel foreign direct investment. This means that firms that are looking to relocate to the region can reduce their costs of importing critical materials. The combination of these factors makes the country a popular location for many companies that are seeking to reduce their costs. ("Ukraine")

Examples of Firms that have located to the Ukraine

The plant the GE is planning on opening is going to concentrate on alternative forms of energy. The Ukraine is good location because of the low costs, favorable tax structure and other players who have been establishing operations. As far as foreign direct investment is concerned, the country is currently home to the largest alternate energy related power plant in all of Europe (which is owned by Activ Solar). Moreover,…… [read more]


Application of Solar Thermal Systems in the UK Dissertation

Dissertation  |  29 pages (7,982 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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¶ … economic and environmental benefits of using a solar water heating system for hot water applications in a typical British commercial building. Of particular interest was to initially estimate the energy use for heating of water. The most relevant variables were the horizontal solar irradiance, the sky clearness index, the solar declination angle and the ambient air temperature. Since… [read more]


Application of Solar Thermal Systems in the UK Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  15 pages (4,790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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Solar Thermal Systems

According to Mallik (2008), the technology that generates clean and sustainable energy from a number of sources such as water, sun, plants and wind is termed as renewable energy technology. In the year 2007, the Energy Information Administration reported that in the United States, around nine percent of the electricity generation and seven percent of whole energy… [read more]


Greenhouse Emissions "The EPA&#8230DECLARED Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The question of the maintenance of some of the systems is also a factor.

There is substantial evidence that proves that emissions of greenhouse gases are causing climate change and global warming. It is a serious problem that will need strict standards to be enforced to even begin to at least put limits on the amounts of these gases emitted into the air. Strict standards that are strongly enforced with strong consequences would help in making the emissions not worth the consequences, more especially where industrial business is concerned.

Renewable energy sources may be natural alternatives, but there are still the questions of cost effectiveness and the limitations where some geographic locations would not be able to participate. Renewable energy products would create some industrial business that would build economic conditions, but the question of the affordability with initial costs of buying the products and installing them coupled with the maintenance would be out of reach for undeveloped countries as well as many in industrialized nations, even where the governments are concerned.

Setting strict standards is a more economical approach to the problem of greenhouse emissions. By setting strict standards, it not only limits the amount of greenhouse gases into the air, but also assists in raising public awareness of the environmental problems that everybody could participate in reducing the damages being done. Where the greenhouse emissions are a major factor, the questions of land and water resources also are made aware of because the damages affect all these resources. Setting strict standards and building public awareness of these issues and what each person can do to limit them is more cost effective for society as a whole, even on a global basis.

Bibliography

Renewable Energy Cost. (n.d.). Retrieved from Renewable Energy Blog: http://www.solarpowerwindenergy.org/renewable-energy-cost/

Writer, D.N. (2009, Apr 17). In major shift: EPA citess 'overwhelming' evidence of greenhouse gas dangers, paving way for new laws. Retrieved from NY Daily News: http://articles.nydailynews.com/2009-04-17/news/17920962_1_clean-air-act-greenhouse-gases-climate-change… [read more]


Cefc and the Future Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (4,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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You also utilize soft loans and growth capital as financing for these types of projects (Clean Energy Council 2012).

The CEFC will also fund commercial scale demonstration of technologies such as ocean wave in tribal Power Systems, as well a second generation biofuels and bioenergy. For many of these projects it will help to provide the large upfront capital needed,… [read more]


Wind Turbines the Depleting Fossil Fuel Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,239 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Wind Turbines

The depleting fossil fuel, sky rocketing oil prices, polluting air and global warming facilitates the demand for pollution free renewable energy resources. Among the various sources of renewable energy, wind energy is visualized as much promising because the recent advances in technology have reduced its cost to a level wherein it has become competitive with other sources of… [read more]


Demand Side Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Demand Side Management (DSM)

Define DSM (Demand Side Management)-Who are the participants and why?

'Demand Side Management' is the term that was coined to denote the efforts by the electric and gas suppliers to control and restrict the customers' energy use patterns. In the United States, this is being done by adopting better energy saving technology and consumer practices. The… [read more]


Offshore Wind Energy Creating Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  15 pages (5,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

The Economy

Three essential structural factors of the global energy-economic system - uncertainty, technological shifts, and international action - that affect the climate system via CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, each factor has been subjected to in-depth modeling analysis. The starting point of the analysis is the perception that the CO2 problem is essentially one of high prospective energy demand,… [read more]


Grid Connected Photovoltaic PV Systems Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

Though French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered the photovoltaic (PV) phenomenon about 1839, the earliest practical application came in the 1950s, when crystalline silicon cells powered United States space satellites (Solar Direct) by generating electrons from sunshine. Despite the requirement for electricity storage at night, photovoltaics are becoming increasingly common, particularly as grid-connected systems (St. John). The… [read more]


Hydrogen as a Source of Alternative Fuel Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Hydrogen as a Source of Alternative Fuel for Singapore

The research proposal here offers a rationale for a more intensive investigation of the prospects for adoption of hydrogen fuel cells as a primary sources of alternative fuel in Singapore. The proposal provides a rationale for the intended study by discussing the connection between the use of fossil fuels in developing… [read more]


Physics Practical Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (890 words)
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¶ … Physics Practical

The ratio of charge to mass in electrons is the focus of this experiment; the observation of the deflective effects that magnetic and electric fields will enable the researcher to measure this ratio by achieving a balance in the magnetic and electric fields influencing an electron beam. An electron has kinetic energy that is equal to its initial potential energy, which creates a definite and known relationship between the velocity of the electron and the charge-to-mass ratio, as is described in the formula below:

The velocity of an electron can only be determined if the overall force being acted upon it is balanced or essentially non-existent. If the experimental setup can be achieved in such a way that the only two forces working on the electron beam are the controlled electronic and magnetic fields, as shown in the below diagram, the overall effects of this force can be brought to zero.

D1

The formula to determine velocity is shown here:

Using this, and the following formula, the electric field E. that exists between the two infinite parallel plane can be defined:

A pair of Helmholtz coils with distance R. And radius R. is used to create magnetic field B,

Where the permeability of the vacuum is a constant equal to 4 A- 10-7 H/m. Further simplification of the previous formula can also be achieved, as shown here:

And through a utilization of these formulas and the proper equipment setup, the charge-to-mass ratio can be achieved by working backwards through these formulas and through measuring/controlling the electric and magnetic fields.

METHOD:

Handout experiment 2A describes the exact procedure.

Ensuring that the circuits pictured in figures 2 and 3 are connected correctly and in the right position is of primary importance.

Turning on the power supply shown in figure 2 and turning off the power supply in figure 3, and turning the anode voltage to 3000V will cause the electron beam to curve up in between the two deflecting plates -- a direct result of the force of the electric field.

After making this observation, reduce the anode voltage to 1000V and turn on the power for the magnetic coils (in figure 3). The magnetic field is now exerting more force on the electronic beam and it curves down as a result. The goal, however, is to adjust the strength of each field until the beam is as straight as possible.

The ammeter can be placed through the could to measure the current. See what happens at anode potential differences of 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 4000 and 5000V. Create a table in which your observations of anode potential difference and corresponding current in…… [read more]


Will Hydrogen Replace Fossil Fuels for Cars Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Society's continuing concern about gas prices and supply has stimulated interest in alternative energy sources. One of the energy sources receiving attention is the use of hydrogen as a possible replacement for fossil fuels in powering our automobiles (Pielke). Interestingly, hydrogen is the most common element in the environment but it ordinarily exists as part of other compounds such as… [read more]


Energy and World Economy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,043 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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This entails that the figure of nations in quest of such like possessions would spend in those nations where there is a profusion of such possessions and this would indicate a considerable quantity of development probable for these growing nations.

For us to realize how trends have performed with as well as against one another in molding the future of energy most specifically oil and gas, some of the fundamental factors has to be scrutinized. And as Terry Kerl, (2008) says, these will commence by analyzing the single most important element of business which is the demand of our commodity. Anticipation of the rise in demand by the end of 2010 had been in place hence bringing on board the considerable benefit of hydrocarbon energy. It is clear that consumption of oil and gas is essential to countries that are gearing toward prosperity as well as economical sustenance. Minus the improvement, the demand increases deem to be grater that ever. This means that the companies have to increase the number for the oil equivalent barrels to meet the sky rocketing demand. (Peter. F. Johnson 2010)

Environment fears have already led to restrictions to explore in places such as Alaska. There has been an outrageous cry on potential climate change hence leading for huge control of energy use and could well impede the ability to produce adequate amounts of energy. There is also a need to increase distances from consuming market by so allocating novel supplier. Another key element in our success will be everything possible to lower the co-operate resources cost as low as possible to pave way for operation efficiency as seen by Erick ruguly (2009). Political aspects might also play a role in supplying energy. There are some extra impacts which we should mention in this paper such as global warming, oils spill as well as extraction.

Conclusion

Accomplishment in the prospect of oil as well as gas will necessitate the unremitting acceptance of a multifaceted business model to out of the blue challenges. Among the safe bets is that stipulate for oil as well as gas will continue heading the energy source for some time to come. There is also hope for unremitting enhance in discovery sensation as well as production as supplementary areas are established for exploration and as the technology evolve. Price remains unanswered question regardless of whom you chose to believe, as modalities of controlling it remains unclear. Despite all these, measures should be put in place to make sure that production cost remains as low as possible as the straggle to develop a controllable technology continues.

Work cited

Campbell C.J. The next oil price shock: the world's remaining oil and its depletion; Energy Expl. & Exploit., 13/1 19-46, 1995.

Erick Ruguly. Is the world awash in on the global and mail. 2009.

Carmalt S.W. And B.St.John. Giant oil and gas fields; in Future petroleum provinces of the world; Amer. Assoc.Petrol. Geol. Mem.40, 1986.

Terry Karl. Democracy over a barrel, oil regime change and… [read more]


Emissions Policy Making and Power Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (807 words)
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In addition to emissions reduction, both policies would present a cost savings to the municipal government in terms of supplying and maintaining the infrastructure of the local power supply. If the power plant is actually operated by the local government, this savings could be even greater by requiring less operation; even if it is privately owned and operated, the local government would experience reduced costs in line maintenance and several other areas of operation if the plant's power output is diminished. The same effect will be seen from the reduced consumption caused by more efficient appliances, and residents and businesses will ultimately experience a cost savings by switching to more efficient appliances and renewable energy sources.

The ultimate costs savings that would be experienced with both of these policies would require some initial up-front costs. Establishing an appropriate emissions for the first policy level that both reduces emissions yet allows for the majority of power needs to be met would require extensive monitoring and measuring, as well as numerous rounds of input-seeking from various community elements and negotiations with these same elements. The tax incentives and rebates offered for purchases of energy efficient appliances and solar panels would cost the local government money in the form of these incentives and rebates during the initial years of the program, though the reduced reliance on the local government for energy production would eventually make this expense financially worthwhile, it is believed.

Determining the best level of emission reduction, as stated previously, would require a balance in protecting the citizens and environment while at the same time allowing business and residential power needs to be met. The most effective way to go about this would be to develop a schedule for increasing emissions reductions over a period of years, as energy consumption reduction efforts get underway and as renewable energy resources become more prevalent. In this way, the government would be able to transition its community and economy to one where the use of emissions-producing power was simply not necessary. This would create a true long-term solution to the problem of "dirty energy," rather than simply trying to limit emissions now while growth is still going to occur.… [read more]


Green Energy Importance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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The Center for American Progress goes onto conclude that the country needs to "kick the oil addiction by investing in clean-energy reform to reduce oil demand, while taking steps to curb global warming" (Lefton, and Weiss).

Furthermore, the issue of global warming is also a growing concern in modern day society. The increased greenhouse emissions from fossil fuels as well as the act of drilling for oil increases global warming, which has many detrimental effects on the world including, the increase of temperature on the earth and rising sea levels which will both have a detrimental impact on the world's natural resources, land masses and ecosystems ("Time for Change" ). Without alternatives to fossil fuels, the depletion of the earth that human beings live off of for sustenance will occur at a rapid rate, and create a less than optimal environment for the future. To that end, green energy must be researched and developed at a more rapid rate in order to halt and reverse the progression of global warming.

Wind energy, electric energy, hydrogen energy, among others are all possible alternative solutions to the oil dependency. With increased development of these technologies the economic woes of our nation can be altered as well as the environmental issues that America, and the world as an entity. To that end, green energy is something that needs to be explored so that America can strive to be like Sweden and create a pleasant, safe and comfortable environment for the future of the world.

Works Cited

"Effects of Global Warming." Time for Change. Time for Change.Org, n.d. Web. 17 May 2011. .

Lefton, Rebecca, and Daniel J. Weiss. "Oil Dependence is a Dangerous Habit." Center for American Progress, n.d. Web. 17 May 2011. .

Mouwad, Jad, and Nick Bunkley. "U.S. Better Prepared for Rising Gas Costs." New York TImes 09 Mar 2011: A1. Print.

"Sweden aims for oil-free economy." BBC News- Science and Nature. BBC News, 08 Feb 2006. Web. 17 May 2011. .… [read more]


Hydrogen Fuel Cars as an Alternative Energy Source Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Hydrogen Fuel Cars as an Alternative Energy Source

Hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative source of energy and are likely to be the fuel of the future for cars. Cars are becoming more and more common and numerous people get cars because of their effectiveness, making the automobile-related pollution problem more serious than ever. Considering fossil fuels, the pollution they cause, and the fact that this energy resource is about to be depleted, hydrogen fuel cells energy comes at a perfect time. In spite of the energy's benefits, scientists are yet to develop it into a power that can be used every day by car owners and this respective energy source has to be perfected in order to become utilized effectively.

Fuel cells generate energy as a result of being fueled by hydrogen and do not require the fuel to be burned in order to convert it in electricity that powers the engine. Hydrogen is more effective than fossil fuels because it makes engines fuel flexible, meaning that they can also be powered by using other types of fuel (such as gasoline or methanol). Greenhouse gasses emissions would be significantly reduced in a society supporting the use of hydrogen as the main energy source for cars (Kiley 274).

Energy security is considered to be one of the main advantages related to the use of hydrogen as a fuel for cars. Hydrogen is expected to trigger stability from a geopolitical perspective and to encourage a constant economic growth ("How Soon for Hydrogen?").

Considering that people today mainly appreciate cars on the basis of their appearance, design is particularly important when considering a car's appeal. With fossil fuels, car designers are limited because the vehicles they design need to be created in accordance with conditions related to this respective energy source. Hydrogen presents designers with the opportunity to be less limited, this being clear through looking at GM's Hy-wire prototype ("How Soon for Hydrogen?").

In spite of the obvious benefits, it is going to be long before hydrogen fuel cell energy will become a common power source for cars, considering that costs for…… [read more]


Wind Power for Generation of Electricity Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,099 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Wind power generation is a hotly debated subject in political, business and legal circles these days. The increased pressure from public to reduce dependence on foreign oil has prompted governments to seek other ways of producing energy and wind power is one being excited discussed as a good alternative. Man-made carbon emissions have spurred a debate on environmental concerns as public worries about global warming and its long-term effects on the planet and hence alternative sources of energy are being exploited with even greater vigor. Wind energy is seen as green energy and it is one of the fastest growing sources of electricity around the world. (Brown & Escobar, 2007)

In the U.S. alone, wind energy is being exploited with immense interest and vigor resulting in the production of more than 12,000 MW of wind energy which can easily provide power to 3 million homes in the country. Had this source not been used, the country would need 40 million barrels of oil per day to have the same amount of electricity. Consumers are now increasingly interested in green sources of energy and even if they have to pay a slightly higher price, they are willing to do so in order to keep the environment cleaner and the planet safer.

Immense potential is seen in many areas of the country including Texas which alone has the capacity to produce 10 GW of wind energy. With increased production, it is expected that wind energy would become cheaper and people will be able to consume it more readily by 2020.

In the United States, wind energy still constitutes only one percent of the total energy supply but it is growing at a rapid rate and is being researched with serious enthusiasm. It all began in 1980s in California when wind farms were built to check the possibility of producing renewable energy. Within the next 20 years, things have changed dramatically as more and more states are willing to build wind farms and some of the largest farms are seen in Texas, California, Kansas and Wyoming. In Texas where the capacity has been astounding, some 2000 wind turbines can be seen and this is likely to grow as interest in renewable sources of energy increases. (Brown & Escobar, 2007)

Proposal for Wind-energy Conversion

While the enthusiasm is immense and benefits numerous, wind energy is still fraught with problems. Apart from the environmental concerns, there is one economic problem as well. Production of wind energy is very costly and hence it may not be easy to convert this power into a consistent energy source in the rural areas where electricity is still a luxury.

For this reason, we have chosen to look into the possibility of wind energy production in rural areas of developing countries since rural areas are mostly without power in many third world countries. The proposal will thus focus on wind energy production in India.

India is a poor nation when it comes to per capita income. Even though it is… [read more]


How Has Clean Development Mechanism Created Power Sustainability in Nigeria Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (4,741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … clean development mechanism created power sustainability in Nigeria?

In this paper, we discuss how CDM is creating sustainability in Nigeria. Various existing and proposed projects are analyzed in order to gauge the extent of CDM implementation in Nigeria. The drawbacks to the process of implementation studied and recommendations given.

The change in climate has become a major source… [read more]


Energy Policy of the People's Republic of China Research Paper

Research Paper  |  29 pages (7,690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … 21st century shapes up to be the "Century of Asia" with China in the vanguard, it is becoming increasingly clear that the world's finite supplies of fossil fuels will not be able to satisfy the growing demand from China and other rapidly developing nations such as Brazil and India. In fact, some scientists believe that peak oil will… [read more]


Fuel Cells in Green Engineering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

And, the technology was understood decades before that. Water as a fuel source is unimaginative though. Engineers want to see a problem and determine how they can make not only that process better, but how they can derive other solutions out of the one they are working on. Like a drug that has multiple uses, fuel cell technology may be the most green innovation currently being proposed because of its multiple possible applications.

As said previously, fuel cells have generally used water as a hydrogen source, but that process is being eclipsed by another idea. In the movie Back to the Future, doc Brown goes onto the future and re-equips his car with a fuel tank that takes trash and converts it to fuel. Modern microbial fuel cells may not quite live up to putting an old banana peel and a used beer can into the tank, but they operate on the principle of turning waste products into fuel.

Microbial fuel cells produce motive force in the same way as a traditional fuel cell, but they can use waste products such as farm runoff in the production of hydrogen. One of the greatest problems of the twentieth, and now twenty-first, century has been that farms produce so much waste that they are a negative impact on the environment. The Chesapeake Bay is becoming a forest of algae and dead fish because of the farm runoff along the waterway. If this waste could be put to some practical use, then it would help the environment and become useful.

The following is a shocking statement:

"The waste stream from one cow may hold 3,000 watts of potential power, but the electrical power required per cow on a dairy farm is only about 150 watts. This means that a first-generation MFC would have to be only 5% efficient to decouple the farm from external electrical infrastructure" (Birch)

Of course this is largely conjecture at this point, but what a boon for farmers and the environment alike. One dairy cow could potentially supply the needs of an entire farm. That is, if the fuel cells were 100% efficient, which they will never be. But they are much more efficient than regular means of electricity generation. This means that many areas could completely go off of the electrical grid which is powered by coal plants and nuclear plants. This green savings for the environment, in both reduced farm waste and reduced polluting emissions from traditional power plants, would be tremendous.

However, there is a potential green benefit that even outstrips these two. "MFCs are a budding technology that converts waste, such as industrial and agricultural byproducts, sewage, food scraps, paper, and plastics, into clean water and power" (Birch). The world is on the brink of having a serious dearth of clean water for its citizens (Fields). With this new technology that could be a problem of the past. Since the Earth itself is composed, in large part, of water, the technology could create clean, pure… [read more]


Renewable Energy 2nd Generation Biofuels Essay

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Renewable Energy

Biofuels are becoming an important component of renewable energy initiatives. While first generation ethanol production, mainly from corn in the U.S., has created negative externalities by repurposing agricultural output for energy usage, second generation biofuels have the potential to achieve similar energy output levels without altering agricultural land use patterns. As with any new technology, there are a… [read more]


Windmills as a Source of Green Power in Hawaii Essay

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Windmills as a Source of Green Power for Hawaii

We must remember that not all resources are renewable. Renewable resources are those defined as resources that can, through natural processes, be replaced regularly (for instance, oxygen in the atmosphere is produced by the earth's plants; water is typically replaced through weather patterns, and historically, many food resources were considered to be renewable (a balance of resources were taken per year so that the offspring would replace those used.) Nonrenewable resources, however, are finite, and not replaceable within a realistic time frame (e.g. natural gas, coal, etc.). It is interesting to note that many so-called renewable resources can also move into the category of non-renewable due to overuse (overfishing, deforestation, loss of ground water, etc.). (Khanna, 2003).

The Turning Point -- Transition to Renewable Energy -- The bleak reality is that the age of oil has dominated global energy needs for the past century. This has caused a number of social, cultural, and economic issues. While there may be enough oil to last fifty to one-hundred years, the ecological consequences of doing so would change the entire sphere of quality of life and health issues. It is thus necessary from an economic and ecological perspective to transition to renewable energy sources; after all, the same technological revolution and expertise that has so transformed the Internet and global communication paradigm can also change the way humans use and store wind, biomass, and solar energy -- which are 6,000 times more abundant on an annual basis than fossil fuels (WorldWatch Institute, intro). The 21st century must become a move away from fossile fuels, much as the 20th century was shaped by them. The computer chip market proved that conventional markets can shift quickly and decisively as lifestyles and market demand changes. It often seems that people vote with their pocketbooks, and if fossil-fuel prices rise enough, the impetus to change will likely increase.

Summary of Renewable Energy Resources - By definition, a renewable energy resource is one that can be constantly used because it replenshishes itself. For instance, wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, hydropower, bioenergy, wave (ocean) energy all are renewable but have not been developed enough yet because of the historical use of inexpensive fossil fuels. Wind power, of course, has been used for centuries to power sailing vessels, windmills, etc., but the idea of modern wind power is a manner in which the energy produced by the movement of the wind is turned into power (electricity) using a propeller like turbine. Currently, wind-power is on the rise, especially in Europe, but still only produces 1% of the world's electricity. It is inexpensive, even the turbines, relative to the output, however, to be effective, a large amount of real estate is necessary to provide adequate room for the propeller transports (Matthew, 2006). For instance, wind power is utilized much more in Europe than the United States, mostly out of perception and willing ness to invest.

Windpower for Hawaii -- Because of… [read more]


Nobel Laureate, Muhammad Yunus Has Been Selected Term Paper

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Nobel Laureate, Muhammad Yunus has been selected for 2010 SolarWorld Einstein Award. An economics professor hailing from Bangladesh, Yunus is being recognized for the idea of micro-loans. He has found a creative way of utilizing solar power in a cost efficient way to serve the poor. Apart from helping numerous people deal with poverty, micro-loans have been a crucial factor in setting up over 400,000 small scale solar power systems spread over Bangladesh. The Grameen Bank family, owned by Yunus has helped him utilize his idea of "social business" to deal with issues faced by the society. Grameen Shakti (GS) is a social business which was started in 1996 and had been focusing on rural areas devoid of the benefits of the national power grid. The solar power systems will allow residents to use electrical equipments, escape the health risks of kerosene lamps, continue with their work after sundown and establish night schools. Women trained in solar plant maintenance are provided with steady jobs. The savings accumulated from cutting down kerosene usage would allow the solar plant systems to be debt free within a couple of years. Grameen Shakti is directing their future plans towards setting up a million solar power systems at different locations by 2015.

Source: http://www.forbes.com/feeds/businesswire/2010/08/19/businesswire144079968.html

The president of United States, Barack Obama has declared that almost $2 billion in loans has been granted to their solar energy industry. This will be distributed among two firms, Abengoa Solar and Abound Solar Manufacturing to fund their projects. The first company has plans to set up a large scale solar power plant in Arizona. This would create at least 5000 new job opportunities along with fulfilling the power needs of over 70,000 homes. This project, named "Solana," located at Gilla Bend near Phoenix would cover around 1900 acres of land and utilize parabolic trough technology to…… [read more]


Energy and Energy Sources Term Paper

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Hydrogen Is Not an Appropriate Energy Source to Replace Fossil Fuels

The population is growing and so are its power needs. Fossil fuels are being used, their end products are increasing green house emissions, and there will come a time when they will be depleted. Further, oil spills, such as the current British Petroleum Gulf Coast Spill are becoming more common and more costly. Scientists have been searching for an appropriate alternative form of energy with less harmful global effects and many have focused on hydrogen. However, the use of hydrogen as an energy source will likely not replace fossil fuels. The overall hydrogen fuel process is inherently costly and inefficient, increases green house gas emissions and because of the low output would require extensive development of hydrogen processing plants.

The Hydrogen Fuel Cell

There is potential for the use of hydrogen in small scale powering, but it's potential for powering car engines of households is unlikely Hydrogen fuel cells are a storage battery for energy derived from other sources. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are sent to the anode and cathode of each cell. Electrons stripped from the hydrogen produce direct current electricity that can be used in a DC electric motor, such as in a kitchen appliance.

However, as an energy source for powering cars, hydrogen is an inefficient source partly because it is very reactive. When hydrogen gas makes contact with metal it decomposes into hydrogen atoms, which are small enough to penetrate metal (and most other materials) causing it to leak from even well insulated containers. For this reason, hydrogen in storage tanks will always evaporate, at a rate of at least 1.7% per day.

Additioanlly, the necessary size of the required fuel tanks is rather prohibitive. In gaseous form, a volume of 6,2873 gallons of hydrogen gas is necessary to replace the energy capacity of 20 gallons of gasoline.

Compressed hydrogen has been the primary source of hydrogen-powered cars to date.

Because of its low density, compressed hydrogen will not give a car as useful a range as gasoline. Moreover, a compressed hydrogen fuel tank would be at risk of developing pressure leaks that could result in explosions. Additionally, the energy costs of liquefying the hydrogen and maintaining it in a liquid state are likely to decrease the energy return on hydrogen fuel.

Producing Hydrogen for Use

Hydrogen does not freely occur in nature in useful quantities, therefore hydrogen must be split from molecules, either molecules of methane derived from fossil fuels or from water. Currently, most hydrogen is produced by the treatment of methane with steam, following the formula: Chapter 4 (g) + H2O + e…… [read more]


Energy and Energy Sources Term Paper

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Hydrogen Fuel

In the later part of the 20th century, most especially after the 1960s and more concern about ecology, environmental consequences, and the state of the World, alternative fuel technologies began to be studied in earnest. Some have hypothesized that the idea of utilizing alternative fuel methods were being studied as early as World War II, some even prior to that as the age of the automobile arose in the 20s and 30s in more developed countries (Gibilisco, 2006). Numerous technologies abound in search for clean fuel: electricity, natural gas, hydrogen and fuel cells. Each, of course, has its own adherents and detractors, each has a specific idea of why it is the "best" technology is, and why it should be utilized, and, each has its own bias. One thing that is probably clear, however, it will be more of a combination of these technologies that will be most effective in the short-term, rather than putting the fuel "eggs all in one basket" (Alternative Energy Institute, introduction).

Hydrogen, as fuel, is available now, but will need to become mass produced in order to become cost effective -- which is quite true of all these technologies. For at least 30 years, research has been ongoing on hydrogen power for cars. Of all the technologies, hydrogen offers a "zero emission technology" -- and the only byproduct from the car is water vapor (see:www.hydrogencarsnow.com). However, one of the biggest disadvantages of hydrogen cars is the way that the hydrogen is produced -- currently, those methods use a substantial amount of pollution, like carbon dioxide, to produce the fuel. Essentially, this means that the production of the fuel cells uses at least, and maybe more, energy and produces pollution, as current gasoline engines (Swain, 2007).

One idea postulates that Nanotechnology will have a big impact on environment. It can help to clean the air from pollution and nuclear residues through nano-sized particles of carbon atoms. Nanotechnology's ability to recycle water to any source for any use can save huge amount of water and allow the use of presently unusable water resources. The harnessing of photosynthesis, the mechanism by which plants derive their energy, is hoping to become a reality as researchers continue to search for alternative sources of energy. The idea is to create artificial systems that exploit the basic chemistry of photosynthesis in order to produce hydrogen, or other fuels, for both engines and electricity. Hydrogen burns cleanly, yielding just water and energy. There is…… [read more]


Alternative Energy in California Thesis

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Alternative Energy in California

"The energy crisis in California, the coming global energy crisis," a slogan used by energycrisis.com (2001), illustrates the necessity for alternative energy sources in California and by extension the whole world. Increasing wholesale electricity prices, power shortages during peak demand hours and fiscal destabilization of California's major power utility companies has lead to the current crisis. California and the Earth that provides the human race with so many resources are both beautiful places to live. Those resources however, are not unlimited in supply and will soon be exhausted. The state of California can do a better job by using free, limitless energy sources such as solar power, wind power and hydrogen power.

Solar power is the use of energy from the sun's rays to create energy. Solar energy is captured by solar panels and stored in batteries for later use. It is a renewable and limitless source of energy and with the use of battery storage can be used even on cloudy days.

The main advantages of solar power are cost, ease of installation, and free and unlimited power. The cost of purchasing and installing solar systems has decreased in the recent past. According to the U.S. Department of Energy (2003), a solar system costs 1% of what is cost in the 1970s. Also, some states, such as California, offer incentives to help offset the initial, major cost of solar systems. Solar panels are also becoming smaller and can be installed easily and inconspicuously on roofs or the side of buildings. The sun generates a lot of energy that mainly goes unharnessed currently. According to Sassoon et al. (2009), "The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined." A disadvantage of this type of energy is the usable amount of energy generated. It can take large areas of solar arrays to create usable energy. Also, even with battery back-up power, solar power is best suited to areas with lots of sunlight and is not ideal for areas with overcast weather.

Another alternative energy source is wind power. Wind power is generated by harnessing wind energy. This can be done by creating electricity with a wind turbine or mechanical power with wind mills for example. Most wind energy is generated from high wind speeds therefore in short bursts by wind gusts.

The major advantages of wind power are cost, and unlimited supply. Statistics indicate that wind power costs 60 dollars per megawatt hour to generate electricity whereas coal costs 74-88 dollars per megawatt hour (California Energy Commission, 2007). Also, wind is a renewable energy source. To put it in very simple terms: the wind will blow as long as the sun shines. This is because wind is caused by the uneven heating of the Earth's surface by the sun (U.S. Energy… [read more]


Import Export Strategies Involving Spain and the Company Scottish and Southern Energy Essay

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SS&E in Spain

Wind and Gas: Opening up the Spanish Front for SS&E

The potential for commercial partnerships between Spanish and UK utilities has rarely been more compelling. With additional power transmission interfaces coming online to facilitate increased power trading across the English Channel, companies like Scottish & Southern Energy can become active participants in broader European energy markets or… [read more]


World War II Nuclear Technology Term Paper

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War

World War II Nuclear Technology

Nuclear technology is technology that entails the reactions of atomic nuclei. It has been used in things like smoke detectors, nuclear reactors, gun sights and nuclear weapons. In 1896, Henri Becquerel was examining phosphorescence in uranium salts when he discovered a new phenomenon which came to be called radioactivity. He, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie began looking at this phenomenon. In the development they isolated the element radium, which is highly radioactive. They revealed that radioactive materials produce intense, penetrating rays of several distinct sorts, which they called alpha rays, beta rays and gamma rays (Nuclear technology -- Definition, n.d.).

During World War II, nuclear reactions were adequately well understood that all the factions began to see the possibility of constructing a nuclear weapon. Nuclear reactions discharge far more energy per reaction than chemical reactions, so if large numbers of reactions could be induced to occur at once, great amounts of energy could be released. The British and the Americans arranged the Manhattan Project under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer in order to build such a device with this technology (Nuclear technology -- Definition, n.d.).

Still, the tremendous energy release in the detonation of a nuclear weapon also suggested the possibility of a new energy source. There have been many things that have come from this realization. Nuclear power plants have been built in order to generate household electric power. Nuclear submarines have been built, and are able to travel at speed while submerged for months at a time. Nuclear ships have been created, primarily in the form of aircraft carriers, although a few icebreakers have been built. Research projects have begun looking into the possibility of nuclear-powered aircraft and nuclear thermal rockets (Nuclear technology -- Definition, n.d.).

The first generations of nuclear reactors were constructed to produce power and safety was a secondary consideration. But, as more nuclear reactors were built, it became apparent that they were complex devices in which failures were extremely hazardous. Early safety features were mainly concerned with the exposure of operators to intense radiation. However, it was steadily realized that the release of radioactive material into the environment, called radioactive contamination, was also potentially serious. Radioactive isotopes of common elements are chemically very alike to non-radioactive isotopes, so the human body may take up the radioactive materials and deposit them in the bones, thyroid, lungs, or elsewhere. The radioactive materials then decompose in place, often leading to cancer (Nuclear technology -- Definition, n.d.).

When looking a nuclear technology in regards to war, a deterrent power must be capable to inflict unacceptable damage, or more precisely the threatening nation has to be capable to exact payments at a cost acceptable to itself either by denying the opponent to achieve the objectives, by charging the opponent an excessive price for achieving it, or by a combination of the two. A nation has also to guarantee the safety of its nuclear arsenal. There must be no way for the opponent to… [read more]


Energy Speech Renewable Research Proposal

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Energy Speech

Renewable Energy Now

There is no question that we need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, both by developing alternative technologies and by reducing our energy usage overall. The most common argument heard for making these developments is the increasing evidence of global warming and other climate changes believed to be consequences of carbon emission from human activities. It is true that polar ice is meting at a faster rate than ever recorded and that a general warming trend has been observed over the last century. It is less clear that carbon emissions from the use of carbon-based fossil fuels in factories, cars, and other innovations of the industrial age is the cause of this warming trend, and many of opponents of the global warming theory use this to justify their continued unchecked consumption through such purchases as sports utility vehicles and a general lack of effort to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Although the evidence that there is a human basis for global warming is extensive and growing, it must be acknowledged that there is not, as yet, a proven link between the two.

Why, then, is it important that we increase our efforts at developing technologies that provide renewable sources of energy and reduce our general energy use altogether? If the major consequence of burning fossil fuels that we have been so often warned about -- the gradual warming of the Earth's climate, leading to the faster destruction of certain ecosystems and perhaps heralding future destruction -- is not really a threat, why shouldn't we continue to use the cheap energy afforded by burning fossil fuels? Is there something inherently wrong with consumption? The answer to this last question is a matter of debate, but from a utilitarian perspective the answer would have to be no; consuming on its own does not really do any harm, and if carbon emissions are not…… [read more]


Cape Wind Project Proposed Term Paper

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However, their views are not the biggest issue here. Many of these property owners have owned property on the Cape for decades, and their property values could plummet, leading to a loss in local taxes to the entire area.

In addition, tourism is a major part of the area's economy, especially in the summertime, and if tourism dollars plummet, as… [read more]


Hydrogen Fuel Replacing Fossil Essay

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¶ … energy crisis of unprecedented proportions, and it is becoming apparent to even the most reluctant observers that the supply of fossil fuels is both finite and rapidly being depleted. Furthermore, many experts suggest that the enormous amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide are contributing to the global warming phenomenon being experienced today. In this environment, the search for effective alternative and renewable energy sources has assumed both new relevance and importance today. According to Elhefnawy (2006), "In short, the oil age may end within a generation given the present economic picture, with potentially dire consequences. The prospects of alternatives to fossil fuels are therefore the key issue, such as the expanded use of nuclear energy or, ideally, renewable energy sources." (p. 101).1 Besides nuclear energy, some authorities have suggested that wind and solar power as well as biomass production, among others, are such possible alternative energy sources, but a growing number of experts are pointing to hydrogen fuel as the fuel of choice for the future. As Ottinger and Williams (2002) point out, though, there are a number of major obstacles that must be overcome before hydrogen fuel can assume a leading role in helping the United States and other energy-starving countries overcome their current dependence of fossil fuels. According to Ottinger and Williams, "Hydrogen fuel cells require additional research and development to be economically or technically feasible."2 Moreover, because energy cannot be created (or destroyed), identifying sources of hydrogen that make its manufacture and application cost efficient are also critical issues that must be addressed before hydrogen can reasonably be expected to replace fossil fuels in the future. On the one hand, it would seem easy enough to use hydrogen as a renewable energy source simply based on its abundance. As Hiserodt (2007) points out, "Environmentalists looking for a source of energy to replace fossil fuels and nuclear energy rightly note that over 99.9% of the visible matter in the universe is hydrogen and that our oceans have an inexhaustible supply of hydrogen atoms."3 In this regard, Fay and Golomb (2002) report that, "Hydrogen has been promoted as an environmentally friendly synthetic fuel that can be used in…… [read more]


Geopolitical Energy Competition Term Paper

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Given the geography of the area, this typically means going through territory that is hostile to U.S. interests. Central Asia in general, being former Soviet colonies, is sympathetic to Russian interests. This is especially true in Kazakhstan, with its 30% Russian population. Turkic-speaking Uzbekistan has leaned towards the west as it attempts to leverage its historical connection to Turkey to… [read more]


Energy Sources and the Interchangeability Thesis

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¶ … hydrogen fuel as an alternative energy in the United States. Hydrogen fuel is often touted as an alternative energy source to replace fossil fuels. However, hydrogen does not occur naturally and must be manufactured, and the energy used to manufacture it uses as much energy as it saves in fossil fuel, so it is really not an acceptable alternative to fossil fuels, it is simply a replacement, rather than a solution.

Hydrogen is created by "splitting water (H2O) into hydrogen and oxygen" (McCarthy). The energy used to split the water can be just about anything, from solar to nuclear, but they all cost money to produce and to utilize, so the energy savings from hydrogen is not nearly as great as many would think. The State of Hawaii has been working on this problem since the 1980s, and they still do not have a working infrastructure or a highly developed, working hydrogen program throughout the islands, in fact, they are still in the study phases of storage and fuel cells (Rocheleau). However, they are working on many alternative technologies for developing, storing, and using hydrogen, such as biomass and plankton, and alternative types of fuel cells that use hydrogen more efficiently.

One of the biggest problems with hydrogen is storage. It is powerful, but it also takes up a lot of room. That means that storage and fuel tanks have to be quite large to give an automobile any kind of range, and that is proving difficult. For example, the BMW that uses hydrogen or gasoline has a 300-mile range on gas, but only 125 miles on hydrogen (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen vehicles have to have hydrogen fuel stations spaced relatively close together, and that has not happened so far, making hydrogen vehicles impractical for many drivers who drive long distances in their vehicles.

Another problem with storage is evaporation. Even in a perfect system, the insulation is not impeccable, and hydrogen will be lost through evaporation. This ties in to the first law of thermodynamics and loss,…… [read more]


Science - Solar Power TH Grade) Thesis

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Science - Solar Power (8th Grade)

SOLAR POWER

The current energy crisis is caused by our dependence on gasoline because there is not enough oil left in the world. That is because oil comes from the fossilized remains of ancient animals like dinosaurs buried deep in the earth. That is why it is called "fossil fuels" (Bobick, 1997). We have used so much of the fossil fuels that pretty soon there will be no more left for us to use anymore. To make sure that we have enough energy in the future, we have to find some other ways of making all the energy we need. One of the best new ways of making energy without oil is solar energy because the earth receives a constant supply of sunlight that is all free (Sachs, 2008).

If we could figure out how to use solar energy instead of gas powered energy, we would save a lot of money that we spend on oil. The other reasons that it is important to find different ways of getting energy are that gas power causes a lot of pollution and destroys the environment. Also, by using oil that we have to buy fro the Middle East, we are supporting some of the countries who support terrorism against the United States (Zuckerman, 2007).

Changing to Solar Power:

If we don't change to different forms of energy like solar power soon, we could run out of oil before we have a different way of making the energy we need. This problem has been known for a very long time but not much has been done about it yet. In 1930, we found 10 billion barrels of oil and we used only 1.5 billion. In 1964, we found 48 billion barrels of oil and we used 12 billion. Twenty years ago, we found 23 billion barrels of oil and we used 23 billion barrels. By the year 2005, we found only about 6 billion barrels of oil but we used 30 billion barrels (Zuckerman, 2007). It is obvious that oil will run out completely at this rate of discovery and use.

Solar energy works by capturing natural sunlight and then converting it in ways that make useful energy. There are two kinds of solar energy system. Passive solar energy systems work by catching the warmth from the sun and then using it. One example is new architectural designs that let enough sunshine into windows and skylights to warm houses without using oil or electric heat. Active solar energy systems work by storing energy from the sun and then letting us use some of that stored energy on demand (Bobick, 1997).

The problem is that not enough money is being spent on developing solar energy and other alternative sources of energy to oil. In the United States,…… [read more]


Biofuel the Search for Alternative Term Paper

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One of the most controversial aspect of biofuel is the debate over food vs. fuel. One of the main problems of problems with the production of ethanol in particular is that the crops are destroyed in the process and as such they cannot be consumed by human being or livestock.

An article published in the journal Renewable Energy argues explains… [read more]


Wind Power: One of the Best Answers Thesis

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Wind Power: One of the Best Answers for an Energy-Hungry World

As gas prices top $4.00 a gallon across the country, the search for alternative energy sources has assumed new importance and relevance today. Although the concept is centuries old, recent innovations in wind turbine design have made wind farms competitive with traditional oil- and coal-powered generators, and improvements in… [read more]


Natural Energy Resources Term Paper

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Managing Natural Resources - Natural Gas

Natural gas is a non-renewable energy source. It is often found with oil. Natural gas makes up a significant proportion of the energy used by the United States. Effective management of this energy source is vital. Though the United States is a major producer of natural gas, it also must import to meet its… [read more]


Lighting Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,838 words)
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Lighting Design: Examination of Full-Spectrum Lighting Benefits

Studies exist which show that lighting in the office and workspace greatly affects workers whether in a positive or negative manner. This work examines the utility of a design of full spectrum lighting in the office and workspace and one that would includes a customized manual setting allowing users to choose the intensity… [read more]


Exxon Mobil the Global Energy Demand Continues Term Paper

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Exxon Mobil

The global energy demand continues to increase at an extraordinary rate. The world's energy producers are challenged to increase capacity to support a growing demand. As the global population increases, the demand for energy increases as a result. Given this market scenario, the energy sector appears to be an excellent prospect for increasing portfolios. However, the industry is… [read more]


Brazil Biofuel Term Paper

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Brazil Biofuel

This work will discuss the biofuel developments in Brazil and the many issues surround it. It will serve as an introduction to biofuel efficacy and create a sense of the current epicenter of biofuel use and production. The work will discuss the history of biofuel use in Brazil, the effects it has had on culture and economy, the… [read more]


Tennessee Valley Authority Are Powered by Coal Term Paper

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TVA: What do you think is causing this problem?

Coal has grown increasingly unpopular as a source of fuel, and it is not difficult to see why -- coal is dirty, environmentally problematic, and coal mines have terrible reputations of safety, particularly after a number of recent horrific mine accidents. "Several of TVA's 11 coal-fired power plants earned dubious rankings in a report detailing the country's dirtiest power plants...What we really need to be seeing from these utilities, said [the] Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, is action to retire some of these older power plants" (Eder, 2007). Poor quality coal may be the only available coal at present, given the shortages of coal due to recent mine accidents and the fact that coal is a non-renewable source of fossil fuel. And the poor quality of the coal only compounds the environmental problems of the TVA. Stricter standards by the procurement department for coal may be required, and more knowledgeable staff members about the quality of coal required by the TVA, but the procurement department may only be part of the problem.

What changes would you make to help…… [read more]


Eco-Fuels in the Face of Future Scarcity Term Paper

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Eco-Fuels

In the face of future scarcity and high costs (economical & environmental) of oil and petroleum products, eco fuels can be considered an alternative."

Oil can be considered a source of energy that has become the indispensable part of our economy. We also acknowledge the fact that oil is a finite resource and we are constantly using this precious… [read more]


Benefits of No Greenhouse Gases vs. Hazards of Nuclear Waste Term Paper

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¶ … Nuclear Power do not Outweigh the Risks Posed by Nuclear Waste

For decades, the quest for an energy source that is inexpensive and safe to both humans and the environment has been a significant concern. With the development of nuclear power, society had thought that they had found the Holy Grail for energy, with the abundant availability of fissile material such as Uranium-235. Once one considers the dangers, in the end, the benefits of nuclear power do not outweigh the risks posed.

The primary benefit touted of nuclear power, in addition to the relative cost effectiveness and a reduced dependence on fossil fuels, is its supposedly environmentally friendly nature. Lipper and Stone note that pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and dust are not released during the creation of energy via nuclear power. However, the process of uranium enrichment for fuel releases huge quantities of carbon dioxide, including the gases released during decommissioning and the transport of nuclear waste. Additionally, the enrichment of uranium is responsible for more than 90% of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 114 gas released into our air. CFCs are 10,000 to 20,000 times more potent as a global warmer than carbon dioxide (Hays).

With the release of CFC gases, clearly, the primary benefit of nuclear power is in question. Now, couple this loss of a significant benefit with the dangers of nuclear energy production, including nuclear accidents such as was experienced at Chernobyl, and the risks far outweigh what little benefits are left.

Perhaps…… [read more]


Finance Exxon Corporation Term Paper

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¶ … worldwide energy market, focusing on one of its largest players, Exxon Corporation, and its influence over the overall economy. There are a number of key issues and challenges that have to be highlighted and analyzed in the context of change, globalization and political instability relevant to the topic. The global energy market has such an impact on all… [read more]


Decision Making at Chesapeake Energy Term Paper

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The foregoing was expected to lead to reduced production and revenue growth in those years, compared to previous projections. This announcement caused the Company's stock to decline 25% in one day on trading volume of over 8 million shares, more than ten times the Company's average daily volume. While the investing public was stunned by this announcement, the Company's insiders do not appear to have been. Many of them sold significant portions of their own personal holdings in Chesapeake's stock throughout this period at prices that were artificially inflated.

This complaint was dismissed on March 3, 2000 in favor of the Company. The Court found that throughout the alleged class period, Chesapeake had disclosed to its investors the precise risks associated with its investments and activities in the Louisiana Trend. The court also determined that the plaintiffs had provided no factual support for their allegations of misstatements or omissions by Chesapeake. In spite of the court victory for Chesapeake, the fact that Company insiders sold during this period, does not look appropriate.

Other than this legal challenge, it does not appear that Chesapeake has done much wrong over the last fifteen years. Rising from nothing, it has become one of the preeminent energy companies in the U.S. It developed a strategy of seeking reserves in an area that it knew well and stuck to that strategy. The Company looked for targets of opportunity, but did not overbuy.

On the financial side, Chesapeake started a program on improving the balance sheet by seeking equity capital. Between 1998 and 2005, they increased their shareholders equity by $3.4 billion. This gave them the capital resources to pursue acquisitions and acquire gas-producing properties. The Company has always operated on the…… [read more]


Negative Argument for Debate Term Paper

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org/issue22/041016gov.asp), "is the level of idiocy the Conference board report reflects."

Temperatures are not rising as fast as some environmentalists say they are

Yes, ground-level temperature measures have risen between 0.3 and 0.6 degrees Celsius since 1850, NCPA data suggests, but "global satellite data, the most reliable of climate measurements, show no evidence of warming during the last 18 years."… [read more]


China Syndrome Several Interesting Facts Term Paper

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For example, rather than push Detroit to build cars that get much better mileage, the administration has sided with the auto industry, and worked against legislation that would force Detroit to make more fuel-efficient cars. Two years ago, the administration even went so far as to advocate tax breaks for people who buy big gas-guzzling SUVs.

Rather than push solar power usage on middle class homes, cutting the need for electricity to heat hot water in homes, the administration has pushed for more the building of more nuclear plants, and has re-written rules regarding the Clean Air Act, in order to help utilities avoid having to install expensive equipment to put out less pollution.

The administration has also pushed for more oil drilling in places like Alaska, which plays into the hands of the oil companies, and does nothing for the average consumer and homeowner. And as for energy policies, and getting input from Americans as to what they feel should be pursued for future energy sources, this administration has been very pro-oil, pro-nuclear, and secretive about its plans. Vice President Dick Cheney held an energy meeting at the White House in 2001, and though many groups sought information about what corporations were represented, and sued to find out what companies were invited and participated, the case went all the way to the…… [read more]


Automotive National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Nrel) Term Paper

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Automotive

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is one of the Energy's premier laboratories for renewable energy research and development, which leads for energy efficiency research and development. This lab is presently looking for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A vehicle is called a hybrid when it combines the power of two or more sources of different kinds. For example, a moped (a motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its rider. Similarly, many of the locomotives pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids.

With the increasing cost of the gasoline, there has been a shift in auto-manufacturing. For example, the gasoline-electric hybrid car is one development of it. The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one is on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid is smaller and uses advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency. The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device with higher energy density than batteries do. For example, it takes about 1,000 pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gasoline. The other part of the hybrid car consists of an electric motor. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries. The other components of a hybrid car are the generator that is used to produce electrical power, batteries that are used as the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid…… [read more]


Green Technology Jim Lorick Term Paper

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Green Technology

Jim Lorick discusses the economic ramifications and implications of environmentalism in his article "Green Technology." According to Lorick, "green," or environmentally sound, technologies are one of the market's latest trends. Green technology can include anything from energy-saving appliances to solar paneling to alternative fuel sources. The market has shifted toward a greater demand for high environmental standards, at least in first-world nations. Public policies are beginning to reflect the growing trend in green technology. At the moment only wealthy individuals, organizations, corporations, and governments can afford to make the shift from "dirty" to "green" technologies. However, future payoffs for implementing environmental technologies will be great. If companies are willing to invest even small amounts of money into developing or implementing green technologies, then they will reap the financial rewards a few years down the line. Many companies are not willing, ready, or able to take the risk. Moreover, there is considerable debate about which technologies are truly "green," and which are ultimately going to be financially or environmentally feasible. Many organizations and governmental bodies are already…… [read more]


Invention Energy Term Paper

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Another method by which water can be split into hydrogen and oxygen with very little electrical input is when it is bombarded with its own molecular resonant frequency. The efficiency of the process can be increased dramatically by using electrolytes that increase the electrical conductivity of water.

It is even possible to break down water into its constituents without any electrical input and without causing any chemical changes in the metal itself by the use of special metal alloys. Such a metal alloy was patented in the U.S.A. As long ago as 1957 by an inventor named Freedman but further progress on the development requires additional funding which is being blocked by vested interests. (Ibid.)

Apart from the problem of finding a cost effective system of extracting hydrogen from water, no viable storage system was available in the past for storing the highly explosive hydrogen gas. With the recent advancements in metallurgical science such lightweight storage tanks have been developed that can safely store hydrogen and be fitted as fuel tanks in cars. Chemical additives that control the volatility of hydrogen are now commercially available making the use of hydrogen as a common fuel safer.

The benefits of the invention described above would extend beyond prevention of pollution and the depletion of fuel reserves. The abundant availability of a basic resource for all is likely to result in the development of an enlightened world community which would have no need to be greedy or unjust, ushering in an era of universal peace and prosperity.

Works Cited

Lindemann, Peter DSc. "Where in the World is all the Free Energy?" Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 8, Number 4. (2001) September 23, 2003 http://www.nexusmagazine.com/freeenergy.html

Patch, Kimberly. "Sunlight turns Water to Fuel." Technology Research News. January 9, 2002 September 23, 2003 http://www.trnmag.com/Stories/2002/010902/Sunlight_turns_water_to_fuel_010902.html

Since nuclear energy is derived from uranium -- a finite resource -- it is a non-renewable resource

Kimberly Patch (2002). "Sunlight turns water to fuel" Technology Research News

Peter Lindemann. (2001) "Where in the World is all the Free Energy?"

Invention… [read more]


Nuclear Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,382 words)
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For example, solar and wind farms of a 1,000 MW capacity would require approximately 35,000 acres, 150,000 acres of land respectively. A nuclear power plant of similar capacity requires an area of less than 500 acres. Uranium (the nuclear fuel) also requires less land intrusion for its mining as it is a low-volume, energy-concentrated fuel. (Ibid.)

Reliable Electricity a) Secure Power: Nuclear energy is not dependant on climatic conditions (like hydropower), price fluctuations or unreliable foreign supplies (imported oil). It is, therefore, an important substitute for imported oil. For example, at the time of the 1973 oil embargo, oil accounted for about 17% of U.S. electric supply while nuclear energy was about 5%. In 1990, oil represented only about 4% of U.S. electric supply, with the share of nuclear energy increasing to 21% ("Nuclear Energy: Benefits for All...").

A b) Stable Electricity: Nuclear power plants are an important source of "base-load" generation characterized by large units that can run for extended periods.

A c) Infrequent Unplanned Shutdowns: Unplanned "trippings" in nuclear power plants have been on a constant downward trend. In 1998, 61% of all nuclear power suffered no unplanned outages at all and amounted to a total of just 0.04 per unit. ("Reliable Electricity" 2003) Average re-fuelling outage times have also declined significantly (by 59% in the period1990-99).

3) Improving Economics

Nuclear energy has become more efficient and cost-effective in recent years due to continuing plant modernization, stable nuclear fuel prices, high plant performance, renewal of plant licenses, and consolidation of plant ownership in the industry.

The improvement in economics is reflected in increasing plant capacity factors that improved from 58.5% in 1980 to 88.5% in 1999. ("Quantifying Nuclear's Econ.Value," 2003) The production cost (O&M and fuel cost) has accordingly declined from 3.04 ¢ / kWh (1988) to 2.14 ¢ / kWh (1998). (Ibid.)

Nuclear power plants, due to their continuing modernization process, are long-life power plants. This is reflected in the large number of license renewal applications put in by owners of U.S. nuclear power plants in recent years. In addition, de-regulation in the electric power industry is resulting in consolidation of nuclear generation companies leading to economies of scale. All these developments are leading to better economics for nuclear energy. ("Economical Energy Source" 2003)

4. Improved Waste Management

Following the 3-Mile Island (1979) and the Chernobyl (1985) accidents, heightened concern about nuclear safety has led to substantially improved safety practices. As a result of improved process efficiencies, the average volume of waste generated at nuclear power plants has decreased significantly in the past two decades. ("Nuclear Waste Disposal" 2003)

Conclusion

The usefulness of nuclear energy is inherent in the large amount of energy that is released in the fission and fusion processes (10 million times more than the energy in conventional fossil fuel). Other factors such as nuclear energy's environmental friendliness, reliability of the electricity produced, and the improved safety and waste management practices in the nuclear industry, make nuclear energy a viable alternative to fossil fuels… [read more]

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