Study "Energy / Power" Essays 111-164

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Application of Solar Thermal Systems in the UK Dissertation

… ¶ … economic and environmental benefits of using a solar water heating system for hot water applications in a typical British commercial building. Of particular interest was to initially estimate the energy use for heating of water. The most relevant… [read more]


Application of Solar Thermal Systems in the UK Literature Review

… Solar Thermal Systems

According to Mallik (2008), the technology that generates clean and sustainable energy from a number of sources such as water, sun, plants and wind is termed as renewable energy technology. In the year 2007, the Energy Information… [read more]


Greenhouse Emissions "The EPA&#8230DECLARED Essay

… The question of the maintenance of some of the systems is also a factor.

There is substantial evidence that proves that emissions of greenhouse gases are causing climate change and global warming. It is a serious problem that will need strict standards to be enforced to even begin to at least put limits on the amounts of these gases emitted into the air. Strict standards that are strongly enforced with strong consequences would help in making the emissions not worth the consequences, more especially where industrial business is concerned.

Renewable energy sources may be natural alternatives, but there are still the questions of cost effectiveness and the limitations where some geographic locations would not be able to participate. Renewable energy products would create some industrial business that would build economic conditions, but the question of the affordability with initial costs of buying the products and installing them coupled with the maintenance would be out of reach for undeveloped countries as well as many in industrialized nations, even where the governments are concerned.

Setting strict standards is a more economical approach to the problem of greenhouse emissions. By setting strict standards, it not only limits the amount of greenhouse gases into the air, but also assists in raising public awareness of the environmental problems that everybody could participate in reducing the damages being done. Where the greenhouse emissions are a major factor, the questions of land and water resources also are made aware of because the damages affect all these resources. Setting strict standards and building public awareness of these issues and what each person can do to limit them is more cost effective for society as a whole, even on a global basis.

Bibliography

Renewable Energy Cost. (n.d.). Retrieved from Renewable Energy Blog: http://www.solarpowerwindenergy.org/renewable-energy-cost/

Writer, D.N. (2009, Apr 17). In major shift: EPA citess 'overwhelming' evidence of greenhouse gas dangers, paving way for new laws. Retrieved from NY Daily News: http://articles.nydailynews.com/2009-04-17/news/17920962_1_clean-air-act-greenhouse-gases-climate-change… [read more]


Cefc and the Future Essay

… You also utilize soft loans and growth capital as financing for these types of projects (Clean Energy Council 2012).

The CEFC will also fund commercial scale demonstration of technologies such as ocean wave in tribal Power Systems, as well a… [read more]


Wind Turbines the Depleting Fossil Fuel Research Paper

… Wind Turbines

The depleting fossil fuel, sky rocketing oil prices, polluting air and global warming facilitates the demand for pollution free renewable energy resources. Among the various sources of renewable energy, wind energy is visualized as much promising because the… [read more]


Demand Side Management Research Paper

… Demand Side Management (DSM)

Define DSM (Demand Side Management)-Who are the participants and why?

'Demand Side Management' is the term that was coined to denote the efforts by the electric and gas suppliers to control and restrict the customers' energy… [read more]


Offshore Wind Energy Creating Literature Review

… The Economy

Three essential structural factors of the global energy-economic system - uncertainty, technological shifts, and international action - that affect the climate system via CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, each factor has been subjected to in-depth modeling analysis. The… [read more]


Grid Connected Photovoltaic PV Systems Research Paper

… Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

Though French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered the photovoltaic (PV) phenomenon about 1839, the earliest practical application came in the 1950s, when crystalline silicon cells powered United States space satellites (Solar Direct) by generating electrons from sunshine.… [read more]


Hydrogen as a Source of Alternative Fuel Research Proposal

… Hydrogen as a Source of Alternative Fuel for Singapore

The research proposal here offers a rationale for a more intensive investigation of the prospects for adoption of hydrogen fuel cells as a primary sources of alternative fuel in Singapore. The… [read more]


Physics Practical Book Report

… ¶ … Physics Practical

The ratio of charge to mass in electrons is the focus of this experiment; the observation of the deflective effects that magnetic and electric fields will enable the researcher to measure this ratio by achieving a balance in the magnetic and electric fields influencing an electron beam. An electron has kinetic energy that is equal to its initial potential energy, which creates a definite and known relationship between the velocity of the electron and the charge-to-mass ratio, as is described in the formula below:

The velocity of an electron can only be determined if the overall force being acted upon it is balanced or essentially non-existent. If the experimental setup can be achieved in such a way that the only two forces working on the electron beam are the controlled electronic and magnetic fields, as shown in the below diagram, the overall effects of this force can be brought to zero.

D1

The formula to determine velocity is shown here:

Using this, and the following formula, the electric field E. that exists between the two infinite parallel plane can be defined:

A pair of Helmholtz coils with distance R. And radius R. is used to create magnetic field B,

Where the permeability of the vacuum is a constant equal to 4 A- 10-7 H/m. Further simplification of the previous formula can also be achieved, as shown here:

And through a utilization of these formulas and the proper equipment setup, the charge-to-mass ratio can be achieved by working backwards through these formulas and through measuring/controlling the electric and magnetic fields.

METHOD:

Handout experiment 2A describes the exact procedure.

Ensuring that the circuits pictured in figures 2 and 3 are connected correctly and in the right position is of primary importance.

Turning on the power supply shown in figure 2 and turning off the power supply in figure 3, and turning the anode voltage to 3000V will cause the electron beam to curve up in between the two deflecting plates -- a direct result of the force of the electric field.

After making this observation, reduce the anode voltage to 1000V and turn on the power for the magnetic coils (in figure 3). The magnetic field is now exerting more force on the electronic beam and it curves down as a result. The goal, however, is to adjust the strength of each field until the beam is as straight as possible.

The ammeter can be placed through the could to measure the current. See what happens at anode potential differences of 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 4000 and 5000V. Create a table in which your observations of anode potential difference and corresponding current in…… [read more]


Will Hydrogen Replace Fossil Fuels for Cars Research Paper

… Society's continuing concern about gas prices and supply has stimulated interest in alternative energy sources. One of the energy sources receiving attention is the use of hydrogen as a possible replacement for fossil fuels in powering our automobiles (Pielke). Interestingly,… [read more]


Energy and World Economy Essay

… This entails that the figure of nations in quest of such like possessions would spend in those nations where there is a profusion of such possessions and this would indicate a considerable quantity of development probable for these growing nations.

For us to realize how trends have performed with as well as against one another in molding the future of energy most specifically oil and gas, some of the fundamental factors has to be scrutinized. And as Terry Kerl, (2008) says, these will commence by analyzing the single most important element of business which is the demand of our commodity. Anticipation of the rise in demand by the end of 2010 had been in place hence bringing on board the considerable benefit of hydrocarbon energy. It is clear that consumption of oil and gas is essential to countries that are gearing toward prosperity as well as economical sustenance. Minus the improvement, the demand increases deem to be grater that ever. This means that the companies have to increase the number for the oil equivalent barrels to meet the sky rocketing demand. (Peter. F. Johnson 2010)

Environment fears have already led to restrictions to explore in places such as Alaska. There has been an outrageous cry on potential climate change hence leading for huge control of energy use and could well impede the ability to produce adequate amounts of energy. There is also a need to increase distances from consuming market by so allocating novel supplier. Another key element in our success will be everything possible to lower the co-operate resources cost as low as possible to pave way for operation efficiency as seen by Erick ruguly (2009). Political aspects might also play a role in supplying energy. There are some extra impacts which we should mention in this paper such as global warming, oils spill as well as extraction.

Conclusion

Accomplishment in the prospect of oil as well as gas will necessitate the unremitting acceptance of a multifaceted business model to out of the blue challenges. Among the safe bets is that stipulate for oil as well as gas will continue heading the energy source for some time to come. There is also hope for unremitting enhance in discovery sensation as well as production as supplementary areas are established for exploration and as the technology evolve. Price remains unanswered question regardless of whom you chose to believe, as modalities of controlling it remains unclear. Despite all these, measures should be put in place to make sure that production cost remains as low as possible as the straggle to develop a controllable technology continues.

Work cited

Campbell C.J. The next oil price shock: the world's remaining oil and its depletion; Energy Expl. & Exploit., 13/1 19-46, 1995.

Erick Ruguly. Is the world awash in on the global and mail. 2009.

Carmalt S.W. And B.St.John. Giant oil and gas fields; in Future petroleum provinces of the world; Amer. Assoc.Petrol. Geol. Mem.40, 1986.

Terry Karl. Democracy over a barrel, oil regime change and… [read more]


Emissions Policy Making and Power Essay

… In addition to emissions reduction, both policies would present a cost savings to the municipal government in terms of supplying and maintaining the infrastructure of the local power supply. If the power plant is actually operated by the local government, this savings could be even greater by requiring less operation; even if it is privately owned and operated, the local government would experience reduced costs in line maintenance and several other areas of operation if the plant's power output is diminished. The same effect will be seen from the reduced consumption caused by more efficient appliances, and residents and businesses will ultimately experience a cost savings by switching to more efficient appliances and renewable energy sources.

The ultimate costs savings that would be experienced with both of these policies would require some initial up-front costs. Establishing an appropriate emissions for the first policy level that both reduces emissions yet allows for the majority of power needs to be met would require extensive monitoring and measuring, as well as numerous rounds of input-seeking from various community elements and negotiations with these same elements. The tax incentives and rebates offered for purchases of energy efficient appliances and solar panels would cost the local government money in the form of these incentives and rebates during the initial years of the program, though the reduced reliance on the local government for energy production would eventually make this expense financially worthwhile, it is believed.

Determining the best level of emission reduction, as stated previously, would require a balance in protecting the citizens and environment while at the same time allowing business and residential power needs to be met. The most effective way to go about this would be to develop a schedule for increasing emissions reductions over a period of years, as energy consumption reduction efforts get underway and as renewable energy resources become more prevalent. In this way, the government would be able to transition its community and economy to one where the use of emissions-producing power was simply not necessary. This would create a true long-term solution to the problem of "dirty energy," rather than simply trying to limit emissions now while growth is still going to occur.… [read more]


Green Energy Importance Research Paper

… The Center for American Progress goes onto conclude that the country needs to "kick the oil addiction by investing in clean-energy reform to reduce oil demand, while taking steps to curb global warming" (Lefton, and Weiss).

Furthermore, the issue of global warming is also a growing concern in modern day society. The increased greenhouse emissions from fossil fuels as well as the act of drilling for oil increases global warming, which has many detrimental effects on the world including, the increase of temperature on the earth and rising sea levels which will both have a detrimental impact on the world's natural resources, land masses and ecosystems ("Time for Change" ). Without alternatives to fossil fuels, the depletion of the earth that human beings live off of for sustenance will occur at a rapid rate, and create a less than optimal environment for the future. To that end, green energy must be researched and developed at a more rapid rate in order to halt and reverse the progression of global warming.

Wind energy, electric energy, hydrogen energy, among others are all possible alternative solutions to the oil dependency. With increased development of these technologies the economic woes of our nation can be altered as well as the environmental issues that America, and the world as an entity. To that end, green energy is something that needs to be explored so that America can strive to be like Sweden and create a pleasant, safe and comfortable environment for the future of the world.

Works Cited

"Effects of Global Warming." Time for Change. Time for Change.Org, n.d. Web. 17 May 2011. .

Lefton, Rebecca, and Daniel J. Weiss. "Oil Dependence is a Dangerous Habit." Center for American Progress, n.d. Web. 17 May 2011. .

Mouwad, Jad, and Nick Bunkley. "U.S. Better Prepared for Rising Gas Costs." New York TImes 09 Mar 2011: A1. Print.

"Sweden aims for oil-free economy." BBC News- Science and Nature. BBC News, 08 Feb 2006. Web. 17 May 2011. .… [read more]


Hydrogen Fuel Cars as an Alternative Energy Source Research Paper

… Hydrogen Fuel Cars as an Alternative Energy Source

Hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative source of energy and are likely to be the fuel of the future for cars. Cars are becoming more and more common and numerous people get cars because of their effectiveness, making the automobile-related pollution problem more serious than ever. Considering fossil fuels, the pollution they cause, and the fact that this energy resource is about to be depleted, hydrogen fuel cells energy comes at a perfect time. In spite of the energy's benefits, scientists are yet to develop it into a power that can be used every day by car owners and this respective energy source has to be perfected in order to become utilized effectively.

Fuel cells generate energy as a result of being fueled by hydrogen and do not require the fuel to be burned in order to convert it in electricity that powers the engine. Hydrogen is more effective than fossil fuels because it makes engines fuel flexible, meaning that they can also be powered by using other types of fuel (such as gasoline or methanol). Greenhouse gasses emissions would be significantly reduced in a society supporting the use of hydrogen as the main energy source for cars (Kiley 274).

Energy security is considered to be one of the main advantages related to the use of hydrogen as a fuel for cars. Hydrogen is expected to trigger stability from a geopolitical perspective and to encourage a constant economic growth ("How Soon for Hydrogen?").

Considering that people today mainly appreciate cars on the basis of their appearance, design is particularly important when considering a car's appeal. With fossil fuels, car designers are limited because the vehicles they design need to be created in accordance with conditions related to this respective energy source. Hydrogen presents designers with the opportunity to be less limited, this being clear through looking at GM's Hy-wire prototype ("How Soon for Hydrogen?").

In spite of the obvious benefits, it is going to be long before hydrogen fuel cell energy will become a common power source for cars, considering that costs for…… [read more]


Wind Power for Generation of Electricity Research Proposal

… Wind power generation is a hotly debated subject in political, business and legal circles these days. The increased pressure from public to reduce dependence on foreign oil has prompted governments to seek other ways of producing energy and wind power is one being excited discussed as a good alternative. Man-made carbon emissions have spurred a debate on environmental concerns as public worries about global warming and its long-term effects on the planet and hence alternative sources of energy are being exploited with even greater vigor. Wind energy is seen as green energy and it is one of the fastest growing sources of electricity around the world. (Brown & Escobar, 2007)

In the U.S. alone, wind energy is being exploited with immense interest and vigor resulting in the production of more than 12,000 MW of wind energy which can easily provide power to 3 million homes in the country. Had this source not been used, the country would need 40 million barrels of oil per day to have the same amount of electricity. Consumers are now increasingly interested in green sources of energy and even if they have to pay a slightly higher price, they are willing to do so in order to keep the environment cleaner and the planet safer.

Immense potential is seen in many areas of the country including Texas which alone has the capacity to produce 10 GW of wind energy. With increased production, it is expected that wind energy would become cheaper and people will be able to consume it more readily by 2020.

In the United States, wind energy still constitutes only one percent of the total energy supply but it is growing at a rapid rate and is being researched with serious enthusiasm. It all began in 1980s in California when wind farms were built to check the possibility of producing renewable energy. Within the next 20 years, things have changed dramatically as more and more states are willing to build wind farms and some of the largest farms are seen in Texas, California, Kansas and Wyoming. In Texas where the capacity has been astounding, some 2000 wind turbines can be seen and this is likely to grow as interest in renewable sources of energy increases. (Brown & Escobar, 2007)

Proposal for Wind-energy Conversion

While the enthusiasm is immense and benefits numerous, wind energy is still fraught with problems. Apart from the environmental concerns, there is one economic problem as well. Production of wind energy is very costly and hence it may not be easy to convert this power into a consistent energy source in the rural areas where electricity is still a luxury.

For this reason, we have chosen to look into the possibility of wind energy production in rural areas of developing countries since rural areas are mostly without power in many third world countries. The proposal will thus focus on wind energy production in India.

India is a poor nation when it comes to per capita income. Even though it is… [read more]


How Has Clean Development Mechanism Created Power Sustainability in Nigeria Research Paper

… ¶ … clean development mechanism created power sustainability in Nigeria?

In this paper, we discuss how CDM is creating sustainability in Nigeria. Various existing and proposed projects are analyzed in order to gauge the extent of CDM implementation in Nigeria.… [read more]


Energy Policy of the People's Republic of China Research Paper

… ¶ … 21st century shapes up to be the "Century of Asia" with China in the vanguard, it is becoming increasingly clear that the world's finite supplies of fossil fuels will not be able to satisfy the growing demand from… [read more]


Fuel Cells in Green Engineering Research Paper

… And, the technology was understood decades before that. Water as a fuel source is unimaginative though. Engineers want to see a problem and determine how they can make not only that process better, but how they can derive other solutions out of the one they are working on. Like a drug that has multiple uses, fuel cell technology may be the most green innovation currently being proposed because of its multiple possible applications.

As said previously, fuel cells have generally used water as a hydrogen source, but that process is being eclipsed by another idea. In the movie Back to the Future, doc Brown goes onto the future and re-equips his car with a fuel tank that takes trash and converts it to fuel. Modern microbial fuel cells may not quite live up to putting an old banana peel and a used beer can into the tank, but they operate on the principle of turning waste products into fuel.

Microbial fuel cells produce motive force in the same way as a traditional fuel cell, but they can use waste products such as farm runoff in the production of hydrogen. One of the greatest problems of the twentieth, and now twenty-first, century has been that farms produce so much waste that they are a negative impact on the environment. The Chesapeake Bay is becoming a forest of algae and dead fish because of the farm runoff along the waterway. If this waste could be put to some practical use, then it would help the environment and become useful.

The following is a shocking statement:

"The waste stream from one cow may hold 3,000 watts of potential power, but the electrical power required per cow on a dairy farm is only about 150 watts. This means that a first-generation MFC would have to be only 5% efficient to decouple the farm from external electrical infrastructure" (Birch)

Of course this is largely conjecture at this point, but what a boon for farmers and the environment alike. One dairy cow could potentially supply the needs of an entire farm. That is, if the fuel cells were 100% efficient, which they will never be. But they are much more efficient than regular means of electricity generation. This means that many areas could completely go off of the electrical grid which is powered by coal plants and nuclear plants. This green savings for the environment, in both reduced farm waste and reduced polluting emissions from traditional power plants, would be tremendous.

However, there is a potential green benefit that even outstrips these two. "MFCs are a budding technology that converts waste, such as industrial and agricultural byproducts, sewage, food scraps, paper, and plastics, into clean water and power" (Birch). The world is on the brink of having a serious dearth of clean water for its citizens (Fields). With this new technology that could be a problem of the past. Since the Earth itself is composed, in large part, of water, the technology could create clean, pure… [read more]


Renewable Energy 2nd Generation Biofuels Essay

… Renewable Energy

Biofuels are becoming an important component of renewable energy initiatives. While first generation ethanol production, mainly from corn in the U.S., has created negative externalities by repurposing agricultural output for energy usage, second generation biofuels have the potential… [read more]


Windmills as a Source of Green Power in Hawaii Essay

… Windmills as a Source of Green Power for Hawaii

We must remember that not all resources are renewable. Renewable resources are those defined as resources that can, through natural processes, be replaced regularly (for instance, oxygen in the atmosphere is produced by the earth's plants; water is typically replaced through weather patterns, and historically, many food resources were considered to be renewable (a balance of resources were taken per year so that the offspring would replace those used.) Nonrenewable resources, however, are finite, and not replaceable within a realistic time frame (e.g. natural gas, coal, etc.). It is interesting to note that many so-called renewable resources can also move into the category of non-renewable due to overuse (overfishing, deforestation, loss of ground water, etc.). (Khanna, 2003).

The Turning Point -- Transition to Renewable Energy -- The bleak reality is that the age of oil has dominated global energy needs for the past century. This has caused a number of social, cultural, and economic issues. While there may be enough oil to last fifty to one-hundred years, the ecological consequences of doing so would change the entire sphere of quality of life and health issues. It is thus necessary from an economic and ecological perspective to transition to renewable energy sources; after all, the same technological revolution and expertise that has so transformed the Internet and global communication paradigm can also change the way humans use and store wind, biomass, and solar energy -- which are 6,000 times more abundant on an annual basis than fossil fuels (WorldWatch Institute, intro). The 21st century must become a move away from fossile fuels, much as the 20th century was shaped by them. The computer chip market proved that conventional markets can shift quickly and decisively as lifestyles and market demand changes. It often seems that people vote with their pocketbooks, and if fossil-fuel prices rise enough, the impetus to change will likely increase.

Summary of Renewable Energy Resources - By definition, a renewable energy resource is one that can be constantly used because it replenshishes itself. For instance, wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, hydropower, bioenergy, wave (ocean) energy all are renewable but have not been developed enough yet because of the historical use of inexpensive fossil fuels. Wind power, of course, has been used for centuries to power sailing vessels, windmills, etc., but the idea of modern wind power is a manner in which the energy produced by the movement of the wind is turned into power (electricity) using a propeller like turbine. Currently, wind-power is on the rise, especially in Europe, but still only produces 1% of the world's electricity. It is inexpensive, even the turbines, relative to the output, however, to be effective, a large amount of real estate is necessary to provide adequate room for the propeller transports (Matthew, 2006). For instance, wind power is utilized much more in Europe than the United States, mostly out of perception and willing ness to invest.

Windpower for Hawaii -- Because of… [read more]


Nobel Laureate, Muhammad Yunus Has Been Selected Term Paper

… Nobel Laureate, Muhammad Yunus has been selected for 2010 SolarWorld Einstein Award. An economics professor hailing from Bangladesh, Yunus is being recognized for the idea of micro-loans. He has found a creative way of utilizing solar power in a cost efficient way to serve the poor. Apart from helping numerous people deal with poverty, micro-loans have been a crucial factor in setting up over 400,000 small scale solar power systems spread over Bangladesh. The Grameen Bank family, owned by Yunus has helped him utilize his idea of "social business" to deal with issues faced by the society. Grameen Shakti (GS) is a social business which was started in 1996 and had been focusing on rural areas devoid of the benefits of the national power grid. The solar power systems will allow residents to use electrical equipments, escape the health risks of kerosene lamps, continue with their work after sundown and establish night schools. Women trained in solar plant maintenance are provided with steady jobs. The savings accumulated from cutting down kerosene usage would allow the solar plant systems to be debt free within a couple of years. Grameen Shakti is directing their future plans towards setting up a million solar power systems at different locations by 2015.

Source: http://www.forbes.com/feeds/businesswire/2010/08/19/businesswire144079968.html

The president of United States, Barack Obama has declared that almost $2 billion in loans has been granted to their solar energy industry. This will be distributed among two firms, Abengoa Solar and Abound Solar Manufacturing to fund their projects. The first company has plans to set up a large scale solar power plant in Arizona. This would create at least 5000 new job opportunities along with fulfilling the power needs of over 70,000 homes. This project, named "Solana," located at Gilla Bend near Phoenix would cover around 1900 acres of land and utilize parabolic trough technology to…… [read more]


Energy and Energy Sources Term Paper

… Hydrogen Is Not an Appropriate Energy Source to Replace Fossil Fuels

The population is growing and so are its power needs. Fossil fuels are being used, their end products are increasing green house emissions, and there will come a time when they will be depleted. Further, oil spills, such as the current British Petroleum Gulf Coast Spill are becoming more common and more costly. Scientists have been searching for an appropriate alternative form of energy with less harmful global effects and many have focused on hydrogen. However, the use of hydrogen as an energy source will likely not replace fossil fuels. The overall hydrogen fuel process is inherently costly and inefficient, increases green house gas emissions and because of the low output would require extensive development of hydrogen processing plants.

The Hydrogen Fuel Cell

There is potential for the use of hydrogen in small scale powering, but it's potential for powering car engines of households is unlikely Hydrogen fuel cells are a storage battery for energy derived from other sources. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are sent to the anode and cathode of each cell. Electrons stripped from the hydrogen produce direct current electricity that can be used in a DC electric motor, such as in a kitchen appliance.

However, as an energy source for powering cars, hydrogen is an inefficient source partly because it is very reactive. When hydrogen gas makes contact with metal it decomposes into hydrogen atoms, which are small enough to penetrate metal (and most other materials) causing it to leak from even well insulated containers. For this reason, hydrogen in storage tanks will always evaporate, at a rate of at least 1.7% per day.

Additioanlly, the necessary size of the required fuel tanks is rather prohibitive. In gaseous form, a volume of 6,2873 gallons of hydrogen gas is necessary to replace the energy capacity of 20 gallons of gasoline.

Compressed hydrogen has been the primary source of hydrogen-powered cars to date.

Because of its low density, compressed hydrogen will not give a car as useful a range as gasoline. Moreover, a compressed hydrogen fuel tank would be at risk of developing pressure leaks that could result in explosions. Additionally, the energy costs of liquefying the hydrogen and maintaining it in a liquid state are likely to decrease the energy return on hydrogen fuel.

Producing Hydrogen for Use

Hydrogen does not freely occur in nature in useful quantities, therefore hydrogen must be split from molecules, either molecules of methane derived from fossil fuels or from water. Currently, most hydrogen is produced by the treatment of methane with steam, following the formula: Chapter 4 (g) + H2O + e…… [read more]


Energy and Energy Sources Term Paper

… Hydrogen Fuel

In the later part of the 20th century, most especially after the 1960s and more concern about ecology, environmental consequences, and the state of the World, alternative fuel technologies began to be studied in earnest. Some have hypothesized that the idea of utilizing alternative fuel methods were being studied as early as World War II, some even prior to that as the age of the automobile arose in the 20s and 30s in more developed countries (Gibilisco, 2006). Numerous technologies abound in search for clean fuel: electricity, natural gas, hydrogen and fuel cells. Each, of course, has its own adherents and detractors, each has a specific idea of why it is the "best" technology is, and why it should be utilized, and, each has its own bias. One thing that is probably clear, however, it will be more of a combination of these technologies that will be most effective in the short-term, rather than putting the fuel "eggs all in one basket" (Alternative Energy Institute, introduction).

Hydrogen, as fuel, is available now, but will need to become mass produced in order to become cost effective -- which is quite true of all these technologies. For at least 30 years, research has been ongoing on hydrogen power for cars. Of all the technologies, hydrogen offers a "zero emission technology" -- and the only byproduct from the car is water vapor (see:www.hydrogencarsnow.com). However, one of the biggest disadvantages of hydrogen cars is the way that the hydrogen is produced -- currently, those methods use a substantial amount of pollution, like carbon dioxide, to produce the fuel. Essentially, this means that the production of the fuel cells uses at least, and maybe more, energy and produces pollution, as current gasoline engines (Swain, 2007).

One idea postulates that Nanotechnology will have a big impact on environment. It can help to clean the air from pollution and nuclear residues through nano-sized particles of carbon atoms. Nanotechnology's ability to recycle water to any source for any use can save huge amount of water and allow the use of presently unusable water resources. The harnessing of photosynthesis, the mechanism by which plants derive their energy, is hoping to become a reality as researchers continue to search for alternative sources of energy. The idea is to create artificial systems that exploit the basic chemistry of photosynthesis in order to produce hydrogen, or other fuels, for both engines and electricity. Hydrogen burns cleanly, yielding just water and energy. There is…… [read more]


Alternative Energy in California Thesis

… Alternative Energy in California

"The energy crisis in California, the coming global energy crisis," a slogan used by energycrisis.com (2001), illustrates the necessity for alternative energy sources in California and by extension the whole world. Increasing wholesale electricity prices, power shortages during peak demand hours and fiscal destabilization of California's major power utility companies has lead to the current crisis. California and the Earth that provides the human race with so many resources are both beautiful places to live. Those resources however, are not unlimited in supply and will soon be exhausted. The state of California can do a better job by using free, limitless energy sources such as solar power, wind power and hydrogen power.

Solar power is the use of energy from the sun's rays to create energy. Solar energy is captured by solar panels and stored in batteries for later use. It is a renewable and limitless source of energy and with the use of battery storage can be used even on cloudy days.

The main advantages of solar power are cost, ease of installation, and free and unlimited power. The cost of purchasing and installing solar systems has decreased in the recent past. According to the U.S. Department of Energy (2003), a solar system costs 1% of what is cost in the 1970s. Also, some states, such as California, offer incentives to help offset the initial, major cost of solar systems. Solar panels are also becoming smaller and can be installed easily and inconspicuously on roofs or the side of buildings. The sun generates a lot of energy that mainly goes unharnessed currently. According to Sassoon et al. (2009), "The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined." A disadvantage of this type of energy is the usable amount of energy generated. It can take large areas of solar arrays to create usable energy. Also, even with battery back-up power, solar power is best suited to areas with lots of sunlight and is not ideal for areas with overcast weather.

Another alternative energy source is wind power. Wind power is generated by harnessing wind energy. This can be done by creating electricity with a wind turbine or mechanical power with wind mills for example. Most wind energy is generated from high wind speeds therefore in short bursts by wind gusts.

The major advantages of wind power are cost, and unlimited supply. Statistics indicate that wind power costs 60 dollars per megawatt hour to generate electricity whereas coal costs 74-88 dollars per megawatt hour (California Energy Commission, 2007). Also, wind is a renewable energy source. To put it in very simple terms: the wind will blow as long as the sun shines. This is because wind is caused by the uneven heating of the Earth's surface by the sun (U.S. Energy… [read more]


Import Export Strategies Involving Spain and the Company Scottish and Southern Energy Essay

… SS&E in Spain

Wind and Gas: Opening up the Spanish Front for SS&E

The potential for commercial partnerships between Spanish and UK utilities has rarely been more compelling. With additional power transmission interfaces coming online to facilitate increased power trading… [read more]


World War II Nuclear Technology Term Paper

… War

World War II Nuclear Technology

Nuclear technology is technology that entails the reactions of atomic nuclei. It has been used in things like smoke detectors, nuclear reactors, gun sights and nuclear weapons. In 1896, Henri Becquerel was examining phosphorescence in uranium salts when he discovered a new phenomenon which came to be called radioactivity. He, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie began looking at this phenomenon. In the development they isolated the element radium, which is highly radioactive. They revealed that radioactive materials produce intense, penetrating rays of several distinct sorts, which they called alpha rays, beta rays and gamma rays (Nuclear technology -- Definition, n.d.).

During World War II, nuclear reactions were adequately well understood that all the factions began to see the possibility of constructing a nuclear weapon. Nuclear reactions discharge far more energy per reaction than chemical reactions, so if large numbers of reactions could be induced to occur at once, great amounts of energy could be released. The British and the Americans arranged the Manhattan Project under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer in order to build such a device with this technology (Nuclear technology -- Definition, n.d.).

Still, the tremendous energy release in the detonation of a nuclear weapon also suggested the possibility of a new energy source. There have been many things that have come from this realization. Nuclear power plants have been built in order to generate household electric power. Nuclear submarines have been built, and are able to travel at speed while submerged for months at a time. Nuclear ships have been created, primarily in the form of aircraft carriers, although a few icebreakers have been built. Research projects have begun looking into the possibility of nuclear-powered aircraft and nuclear thermal rockets (Nuclear technology -- Definition, n.d.).

The first generations of nuclear reactors were constructed to produce power and safety was a secondary consideration. But, as more nuclear reactors were built, it became apparent that they were complex devices in which failures were extremely hazardous. Early safety features were mainly concerned with the exposure of operators to intense radiation. However, it was steadily realized that the release of radioactive material into the environment, called radioactive contamination, was also potentially serious. Radioactive isotopes of common elements are chemically very alike to non-radioactive isotopes, so the human body may take up the radioactive materials and deposit them in the bones, thyroid, lungs, or elsewhere. The radioactive materials then decompose in place, often leading to cancer (Nuclear technology -- Definition, n.d.).

When looking a nuclear technology in regards to war, a deterrent power must be capable to inflict unacceptable damage, or more precisely the threatening nation has to be capable to exact payments at a cost acceptable to itself either by denying the opponent to achieve the objectives, by charging the opponent an excessive price for achieving it, or by a combination of the two. A nation has also to guarantee the safety of its nuclear arsenal. There must be no way for the opponent to… [read more]


Energy Speech Renewable Research Proposal

… Energy Speech

Renewable Energy Now

There is no question that we need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, both by developing alternative technologies and by reducing our energy usage overall. The most common argument heard for making these developments is the increasing evidence of global warming and other climate changes believed to be consequences of carbon emission from human activities. It is true that polar ice is meting at a faster rate than ever recorded and that a general warming trend has been observed over the last century. It is less clear that carbon emissions from the use of carbon-based fossil fuels in factories, cars, and other innovations of the industrial age is the cause of this warming trend, and many of opponents of the global warming theory use this to justify their continued unchecked consumption through such purchases as sports utility vehicles and a general lack of effort to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Although the evidence that there is a human basis for global warming is extensive and growing, it must be acknowledged that there is not, as yet, a proven link between the two.

Why, then, is it important that we increase our efforts at developing technologies that provide renewable sources of energy and reduce our general energy use altogether? If the major consequence of burning fossil fuels that we have been so often warned about -- the gradual warming of the Earth's climate, leading to the faster destruction of certain ecosystems and perhaps heralding future destruction -- is not really a threat, why shouldn't we continue to use the cheap energy afforded by burning fossil fuels? Is there something inherently wrong with consumption? The answer to this last question is a matter of debate, but from a utilitarian perspective the answer would have to be no; consuming on its own does not really do any harm, and if carbon emissions are not…… [read more]


Cape Wind Project Proposed Term Paper

… However, their views are not the biggest issue here. Many of these property owners have owned property on the Cape for decades, and their property values could plummet, leading to a loss in local taxes to the entire area.

In… [read more]


Hydrogen Fuel Replacing Fossil Essay

… ¶ … energy crisis of unprecedented proportions, and it is becoming apparent to even the most reluctant observers that the supply of fossil fuels is both finite and rapidly being depleted. Furthermore, many experts suggest that the enormous amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide are contributing to the global warming phenomenon being experienced today. In this environment, the search for effective alternative and renewable energy sources has assumed both new relevance and importance today. According to Elhefnawy (2006), "In short, the oil age may end within a generation given the present economic picture, with potentially dire consequences. The prospects of alternatives to fossil fuels are therefore the key issue, such as the expanded use of nuclear energy or, ideally, renewable energy sources." (p. 101).1 Besides nuclear energy, some authorities have suggested that wind and solar power as well as biomass production, among others, are such possible alternative energy sources, but a growing number of experts are pointing to hydrogen fuel as the fuel of choice for the future. As Ottinger and Williams (2002) point out, though, there are a number of major obstacles that must be overcome before hydrogen fuel can assume a leading role in helping the United States and other energy-starving countries overcome their current dependence of fossil fuels. According to Ottinger and Williams, "Hydrogen fuel cells require additional research and development to be economically or technically feasible."2 Moreover, because energy cannot be created (or destroyed), identifying sources of hydrogen that make its manufacture and application cost efficient are also critical issues that must be addressed before hydrogen can reasonably be expected to replace fossil fuels in the future. On the one hand, it would seem easy enough to use hydrogen as a renewable energy source simply based on its abundance. As Hiserodt (2007) points out, "Environmentalists looking for a source of energy to replace fossil fuels and nuclear energy rightly note that over 99.9% of the visible matter in the universe is hydrogen and that our oceans have an inexhaustible supply of hydrogen atoms."3 In this regard, Fay and Golomb (2002) report that, "Hydrogen has been promoted as an environmentally friendly synthetic fuel that can be used in…… [read more]


Geopolitical Energy Competition Term Paper

… Given the geography of the area, this typically means going through territory that is hostile to U.S. interests. Central Asia in general, being former Soviet colonies, is sympathetic to Russian interests. This is especially true in Kazakhstan, with its 30%… [read more]


Energy Sources and the Interchangeability Thesis

… ¶ … hydrogen fuel as an alternative energy in the United States. Hydrogen fuel is often touted as an alternative energy source to replace fossil fuels. However, hydrogen does not occur naturally and must be manufactured, and the energy used to manufacture it uses as much energy as it saves in fossil fuel, so it is really not an acceptable alternative to fossil fuels, it is simply a replacement, rather than a solution.

Hydrogen is created by "splitting water (H2O) into hydrogen and oxygen" (McCarthy). The energy used to split the water can be just about anything, from solar to nuclear, but they all cost money to produce and to utilize, so the energy savings from hydrogen is not nearly as great as many would think. The State of Hawaii has been working on this problem since the 1980s, and they still do not have a working infrastructure or a highly developed, working hydrogen program throughout the islands, in fact, they are still in the study phases of storage and fuel cells (Rocheleau). However, they are working on many alternative technologies for developing, storing, and using hydrogen, such as biomass and plankton, and alternative types of fuel cells that use hydrogen more efficiently.

One of the biggest problems with hydrogen is storage. It is powerful, but it also takes up a lot of room. That means that storage and fuel tanks have to be quite large to give an automobile any kind of range, and that is proving difficult. For example, the BMW that uses hydrogen or gasoline has a 300-mile range on gas, but only 125 miles on hydrogen (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen vehicles have to have hydrogen fuel stations spaced relatively close together, and that has not happened so far, making hydrogen vehicles impractical for many drivers who drive long distances in their vehicles.

Another problem with storage is evaporation. Even in a perfect system, the insulation is not impeccable, and hydrogen will be lost through evaporation. This ties in to the first law of thermodynamics and loss,…… [read more]


Science - Solar Power TH Grade) Thesis

… Science - Solar Power (8th Grade)

SOLAR POWER

The current energy crisis is caused by our dependence on gasoline because there is not enough oil left in the world. That is because oil comes from the fossilized remains of ancient animals like dinosaurs buried deep in the earth. That is why it is called "fossil fuels" (Bobick, 1997). We have used so much of the fossil fuels that pretty soon there will be no more left for us to use anymore. To make sure that we have enough energy in the future, we have to find some other ways of making all the energy we need. One of the best new ways of making energy without oil is solar energy because the earth receives a constant supply of sunlight that is all free (Sachs, 2008).

If we could figure out how to use solar energy instead of gas powered energy, we would save a lot of money that we spend on oil. The other reasons that it is important to find different ways of getting energy are that gas power causes a lot of pollution and destroys the environment. Also, by using oil that we have to buy fro the Middle East, we are supporting some of the countries who support terrorism against the United States (Zuckerman, 2007).

Changing to Solar Power:

If we don't change to different forms of energy like solar power soon, we could run out of oil before we have a different way of making the energy we need. This problem has been known for a very long time but not much has been done about it yet. In 1930, we found 10 billion barrels of oil and we used only 1.5 billion. In 1964, we found 48 billion barrels of oil and we used 12 billion. Twenty years ago, we found 23 billion barrels of oil and we used 23 billion barrels. By the year 2005, we found only about 6 billion barrels of oil but we used 30 billion barrels (Zuckerman, 2007). It is obvious that oil will run out completely at this rate of discovery and use.

Solar energy works by capturing natural sunlight and then converting it in ways that make useful energy. There are two kinds of solar energy system. Passive solar energy systems work by catching the warmth from the sun and then using it. One example is new architectural designs that let enough sunshine into windows and skylights to warm houses without using oil or electric heat. Active solar energy systems work by storing energy from the sun and then letting us use some of that stored energy on demand (Bobick, 1997).

The problem is that not enough money is being spent on developing solar energy and other alternative sources of energy to oil. In the United States,…… [read more]


Biofuel the Search for Alternative Term Paper

… One of the most controversial aspect of biofuel is the debate over food vs. fuel. One of the main problems of problems with the production of ethanol in particular is that the crops are destroyed in the process and as… [read more]


Wind Power: One of the Best Answers Thesis

… Wind Power: One of the Best Answers for an Energy-Hungry World

As gas prices top $4.00 a gallon across the country, the search for alternative energy sources has assumed new importance and relevance today. Although the concept is centuries old,… [read more]


Natural Energy Resources Term Paper

… Managing Natural Resources - Natural Gas

Natural gas is a non-renewable energy source. It is often found with oil. Natural gas makes up a significant proportion of the energy used by the United States. Effective management of this energy source… [read more]


Lighting Design Term Paper

… Lighting Design: Examination of Full-Spectrum Lighting Benefits

Studies exist which show that lighting in the office and workspace greatly affects workers whether in a positive or negative manner. This work examines the utility of a design of full spectrum lighting… [read more]


Exxon Mobil the Global Energy Demand Continues Term Paper

… Exxon Mobil

The global energy demand continues to increase at an extraordinary rate. The world's energy producers are challenged to increase capacity to support a growing demand. As the global population increases, the demand for energy increases as a result.… [read more]


Brazil Biofuel Term Paper

… Brazil Biofuel

This work will discuss the biofuel developments in Brazil and the many issues surround it. It will serve as an introduction to biofuel efficacy and create a sense of the current epicenter of biofuel use and production. The… [read more]


Tennessee Valley Authority Are Powered by Coal Term Paper

… TVA: What do you think is causing this problem?

Coal has grown increasingly unpopular as a source of fuel, and it is not difficult to see why -- coal is dirty, environmentally problematic, and coal mines have terrible reputations of safety, particularly after a number of recent horrific mine accidents. "Several of TVA's 11 coal-fired power plants earned dubious rankings in a report detailing the country's dirtiest power plants...What we really need to be seeing from these utilities, said [the] Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, is action to retire some of these older power plants" (Eder, 2007). Poor quality coal may be the only available coal at present, given the shortages of coal due to recent mine accidents and the fact that coal is a non-renewable source of fossil fuel. And the poor quality of the coal only compounds the environmental problems of the TVA. Stricter standards by the procurement department for coal may be required, and more knowledgeable staff members about the quality of coal required by the TVA, but the procurement department may only be part of the problem.

What changes would you make to help…… [read more]


Eco-Fuels in the Face of Future Scarcity Term Paper

… Eco-Fuels

In the face of future scarcity and high costs (economical & environmental) of oil and petroleum products, eco fuels can be considered an alternative."

Oil can be considered a source of energy that has become the indispensable part of… [read more]


Benefits of No Greenhouse Gases vs. Hazards of Nuclear Waste Term Paper

… ¶ … Nuclear Power do not Outweigh the Risks Posed by Nuclear Waste

For decades, the quest for an energy source that is inexpensive and safe to both humans and the environment has been a significant concern. With the development of nuclear power, society had thought that they had found the Holy Grail for energy, with the abundant availability of fissile material such as Uranium-235. Once one considers the dangers, in the end, the benefits of nuclear power do not outweigh the risks posed.

The primary benefit touted of nuclear power, in addition to the relative cost effectiveness and a reduced dependence on fossil fuels, is its supposedly environmentally friendly nature. Lipper and Stone note that pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and dust are not released during the creation of energy via nuclear power. However, the process of uranium enrichment for fuel releases huge quantities of carbon dioxide, including the gases released during decommissioning and the transport of nuclear waste. Additionally, the enrichment of uranium is responsible for more than 90% of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 114 gas released into our air. CFCs are 10,000 to 20,000 times more potent as a global warmer than carbon dioxide (Hays).

With the release of CFC gases, clearly, the primary benefit of nuclear power is in question. Now, couple this loss of a significant benefit with the dangers of nuclear energy production, including nuclear accidents such as was experienced at Chernobyl, and the risks far outweigh what little benefits are left.

Perhaps…… [read more]


Finance Exxon Corporation Term Paper

… ¶ … worldwide energy market, focusing on one of its largest players, Exxon Corporation, and its influence over the overall economy. There are a number of key issues and challenges that have to be highlighted and analyzed in the context… [read more]


Decision Making at Chesapeake Energy Term Paper

… The foregoing was expected to lead to reduced production and revenue growth in those years, compared to previous projections. This announcement caused the Company's stock to decline 25% in one day on trading volume of over 8 million shares, more than ten times the Company's average daily volume. While the investing public was stunned by this announcement, the Company's insiders do not appear to have been. Many of them sold significant portions of their own personal holdings in Chesapeake's stock throughout this period at prices that were artificially inflated.

This complaint was dismissed on March 3, 2000 in favor of the Company. The Court found that throughout the alleged class period, Chesapeake had disclosed to its investors the precise risks associated with its investments and activities in the Louisiana Trend. The court also determined that the plaintiffs had provided no factual support for their allegations of misstatements or omissions by Chesapeake. In spite of the court victory for Chesapeake, the fact that Company insiders sold during this period, does not look appropriate.

Other than this legal challenge, it does not appear that Chesapeake has done much wrong over the last fifteen years. Rising from nothing, it has become one of the preeminent energy companies in the U.S. It developed a strategy of seeking reserves in an area that it knew well and stuck to that strategy. The Company looked for targets of opportunity, but did not overbuy.

On the financial side, Chesapeake started a program on improving the balance sheet by seeking equity capital. Between 1998 and 2005, they increased their shareholders equity by $3.4 billion. This gave them the capital resources to pursue acquisitions and acquire gas-producing properties. The Company has always operated on the…… [read more]


Negative Argument for Debate Term Paper

… org/issue22/041016gov.asp), "is the level of idiocy the Conference board report reflects."

Temperatures are not rising as fast as some environmentalists say they are

Yes, ground-level temperature measures have risen between 0.3 and 0.6 degrees Celsius since 1850, NCPA data suggests,… [read more]


China Syndrome Several Interesting Facts Term Paper

… For example, rather than push Detroit to build cars that get much better mileage, the administration has sided with the auto industry, and worked against legislation that would force Detroit to make more fuel-efficient cars. Two years ago, the administration even went so far as to advocate tax breaks for people who buy big gas-guzzling SUVs.

Rather than push solar power usage on middle class homes, cutting the need for electricity to heat hot water in homes, the administration has pushed for more the building of more nuclear plants, and has re-written rules regarding the Clean Air Act, in order to help utilities avoid having to install expensive equipment to put out less pollution.

The administration has also pushed for more oil drilling in places like Alaska, which plays into the hands of the oil companies, and does nothing for the average consumer and homeowner. And as for energy policies, and getting input from Americans as to what they feel should be pursued for future energy sources, this administration has been very pro-oil, pro-nuclear, and secretive about its plans. Vice President Dick Cheney held an energy meeting at the White House in 2001, and though many groups sought information about what corporations were represented, and sued to find out what companies were invited and participated, the case went all the way to the…… [read more]


Automotive National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Nrel) Term Paper

… Automotive

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is one of the Energy's premier laboratories for renewable energy research and development, which leads for energy efficiency research and development. This lab is presently looking for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A vehicle is called a hybrid when it combines the power of two or more sources of different kinds. For example, a moped (a motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its rider. Similarly, many of the locomotives pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids.

With the increasing cost of the gasoline, there has been a shift in auto-manufacturing. For example, the gasoline-electric hybrid car is one development of it. The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one is on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid is smaller and uses advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency. The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device with higher energy density than batteries do. For example, it takes about 1,000 pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gasoline. The other part of the hybrid car consists of an electric motor. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries. The other components of a hybrid car are the generator that is used to produce electrical power, batteries that are used as the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid…… [read more]


Green Technology Jim Lorick Term Paper

… Green Technology

Jim Lorick discusses the economic ramifications and implications of environmentalism in his article "Green Technology." According to Lorick, "green," or environmentally sound, technologies are one of the market's latest trends. Green technology can include anything from energy-saving appliances to solar paneling to alternative fuel sources. The market has shifted toward a greater demand for high environmental standards, at least in first-world nations. Public policies are beginning to reflect the growing trend in green technology. At the moment only wealthy individuals, organizations, corporations, and governments can afford to make the shift from "dirty" to "green" technologies. However, future payoffs for implementing environmental technologies will be great. If companies are willing to invest even small amounts of money into developing or implementing green technologies, then they will reap the financial rewards a few years down the line. Many companies are not willing, ready, or able to take the risk. Moreover, there is considerable debate about which technologies are truly "green," and which are ultimately going to be financially or environmentally feasible. Many organizations and governmental bodies are already…… [read more]


Invention Energy Term Paper

… Another method by which water can be split into hydrogen and oxygen with very little electrical input is when it is bombarded with its own molecular resonant frequency. The efficiency of the process can be increased dramatically by using electrolytes that increase the electrical conductivity of water.

It is even possible to break down water into its constituents without any electrical input and without causing any chemical changes in the metal itself by the use of special metal alloys. Such a metal alloy was patented in the U.S.A. As long ago as 1957 by an inventor named Freedman but further progress on the development requires additional funding which is being blocked by vested interests. (Ibid.)

Apart from the problem of finding a cost effective system of extracting hydrogen from water, no viable storage system was available in the past for storing the highly explosive hydrogen gas. With the recent advancements in metallurgical science such lightweight storage tanks have been developed that can safely store hydrogen and be fitted as fuel tanks in cars. Chemical additives that control the volatility of hydrogen are now commercially available making the use of hydrogen as a common fuel safer.

The benefits of the invention described above would extend beyond prevention of pollution and the depletion of fuel reserves. The abundant availability of a basic resource for all is likely to result in the development of an enlightened world community which would have no need to be greedy or unjust, ushering in an era of universal peace and prosperity.

Works Cited

Lindemann, Peter DSc. "Where in the World is all the Free Energy?" Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 8, Number 4. (2001) September 23, 2003 http://www.nexusmagazine.com/freeenergy.html

Patch, Kimberly. "Sunlight turns Water to Fuel." Technology Research News. January 9, 2002 September 23, 2003 http://www.trnmag.com/Stories/2002/010902/Sunlight_turns_water_to_fuel_010902.html

Since nuclear energy is derived from uranium -- a finite resource -- it is a non-renewable resource

Kimberly Patch (2002). "Sunlight turns water to fuel" Technology Research News

Peter Lindemann. (2001) "Where in the World is all the Free Energy?"

Invention… [read more]


Nuclear Energy Term Paper

… For example, solar and wind farms of a 1,000 MW capacity would require approximately 35,000 acres, 150,000 acres of land respectively. A nuclear power plant of similar capacity requires an area of less than 500 acres. Uranium (the nuclear fuel) also requires less land intrusion for its mining as it is a low-volume, energy-concentrated fuel. (Ibid.)

Reliable Electricity a) Secure Power: Nuclear energy is not dependant on climatic conditions (like hydropower), price fluctuations or unreliable foreign supplies (imported oil). It is, therefore, an important substitute for imported oil. For example, at the time of the 1973 oil embargo, oil accounted for about 17% of U.S. electric supply while nuclear energy was about 5%. In 1990, oil represented only about 4% of U.S. electric supply, with the share of nuclear energy increasing to 21% ("Nuclear Energy: Benefits for All...").

A b) Stable Electricity: Nuclear power plants are an important source of "base-load" generation characterized by large units that can run for extended periods.

A c) Infrequent Unplanned Shutdowns: Unplanned "trippings" in nuclear power plants have been on a constant downward trend. In 1998, 61% of all nuclear power suffered no unplanned outages at all and amounted to a total of just 0.04 per unit. ("Reliable Electricity" 2003) Average re-fuelling outage times have also declined significantly (by 59% in the period1990-99).

3) Improving Economics

Nuclear energy has become more efficient and cost-effective in recent years due to continuing plant modernization, stable nuclear fuel prices, high plant performance, renewal of plant licenses, and consolidation of plant ownership in the industry.

The improvement in economics is reflected in increasing plant capacity factors that improved from 58.5% in 1980 to 88.5% in 1999. ("Quantifying Nuclear's Econ.Value," 2003) The production cost (O&M and fuel cost) has accordingly declined from 3.04 ¢ / kWh (1988) to 2.14 ¢ / kWh (1998). (Ibid.)

Nuclear power plants, due to their continuing modernization process, are long-life power plants. This is reflected in the large number of license renewal applications put in by owners of U.S. nuclear power plants in recent years. In addition, de-regulation in the electric power industry is resulting in consolidation of nuclear generation companies leading to economies of scale. All these developments are leading to better economics for nuclear energy. ("Economical Energy Source" 2003)

4. Improved Waste Management

Following the 3-Mile Island (1979) and the Chernobyl (1985) accidents, heightened concern about nuclear safety has led to substantially improved safety practices. As a result of improved process efficiencies, the average volume of waste generated at nuclear power plants has decreased significantly in the past two decades. ("Nuclear Waste Disposal" 2003)

Conclusion

The usefulness of nuclear energy is inherent in the large amount of energy that is released in the fission and fusion processes (10 million times more than the energy in conventional fossil fuel). Other factors such as nuclear energy's environmental friendliness, reliability of the electricity produced, and the improved safety and waste management practices in the nuclear industry, make nuclear energy a viable alternative to fossil fuels… [read more]


Infrastructure Project Evaluation Term Paper

… Here, the Ourzazate Solar Power Station project in Morocco will be examined. The project was completed quite quickly, especially compared to the hydroelectric plant which took over thirty years. This solar plant is still undergoing developments, but has used some of the most innovative solar energy technology on the market. This project will be evaluated in regards to how its construction has stayed on track and what can be adjusted in order to provide more successful implementations in future solar projects. In depth review of project spending, construction, and the output of the finished project will be compared to the much longer and more invasive hydroelectric project.

This will be an interesting contrast to the previous project, which was constructed on a much longer term, although with much more invasive and expensive strategies. The ultimate output of power will be an important element for analysis in regards to determining which project was more cost effective based on power outputs. The research will focus especially on the funding for the project, since both projects relied heavily on international investment and borrowing. Here, the primary comparison will be the amount of time and funding used in each project directly compared to the output of the amount of power each infrastructure is now producing. Understanding whether projects should be done with smaller funding increments over longer periods of time, or to be done quickly in order to speed up the time they can start producing necessary power is crucial to the research in this current project.

As the world continues to become more globalized, understanding how to set up financial investments in local infrastructures will prove beneficial for local and international stake holders. Thus, it will be important to measure quantitatively the success of the projects as much through the power outputs as well as the ability for the projects to run smoothly during construction.

References

Konate, Ibrahima, Arfquoi, Youssef, & Faller, Tanja. (2012). Project Ourzazate Solar Power Station. American Development Bank. Web. http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Morocco%20-%20%20AR%20Ouarzazate%20Project%20I%20%282%29.pdf

Shimomura, Yasutami. (2011). Infrastructure construction experiences in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative study for mutual learning. SOAS International Workshop on Aid and Development in Asia and Africa. Web. http://www.jica.go.jp/uk/english/office/topics/pdf/topics111028_04_02.pdf… [read more]


Corporate Social Responsibility Report Research Paper

… In the report, the company recognizes that it operates within a finite natural environment that provides numerous opportunities but also confers constraints.

Since it functions in the energy industry, one of the major goals of sustainable development initiatives by this… [read more]


6Th Ave Condominium 6Th Avenue Term Paper

… 6th Ave Condominium

6th Avenue Condominium

Electric, HVAC, & Site Logistics

Electrical Power Distribution

Energy Efficiency

The electrical power distribution system in the condominium should begin first with commitment to use energy efficiently. Designing the building and the applications within the building to require less electricity will ultimately have implication for the power distribution design. Sustainable office and mixed purpose buildings often include multiple measures to reduce energy use and to monitor energy consumption. Energy represents 30% of operating expenses in a typical office building; this is the single largest and most manageable operating expense in the provision of office space (Eichholtz, Kok and Quigley).

Not only is the inclusion of energy efficiency good for the environment, but in many cases it also makes sound financial sense. For example, a national sample of U.S. office buildings that were certified by one of the two leading certification agencies with a "green rating" received, on average, three percent higher per square foot than otherwise identical buildings and selling prices of green buildings are also roughly sixteen percent higher than non-certified buildings with similar characteristics.

The design has limited ability to control energy production externally and will be connect to the standard local grid. However, there are substantial opportunities to increase the efficiency of the buildings energy requirements. Another design feature that should be included is active lighting control in the building which reduces energy consumption; occupancy sensors monitor light fixtures and ensure that lights are off when employees are not present. These devices are especially effective in areas that receive sporadic or infrequent use, such as storage rooms and building service equipment rooms (U.S. Green Building Council). The daylight harvesting system averages a 60% reduction in power consumption during the day over standard electronic ballasts.

Using a voltage of 480 reduces line losses and improves distribution efficiency; distributed with the modular underfloor system, office branch power is at 120/280 volts. (Power distribution is sized for a minimum of 10 W/ft2 utilization on all office floors. Equipment power density is 2 W/ft2 in office areas, plus transformers) (U.S. Green Building Council). By properly designing the floor plan to include non-critical rooms (conference rooms, storage, etc.) and heating/cooling these areas with local controls, energy consumption can be reduced to 50% peak-heating-load reduction, compared to base building scenarios in some cases. Optimize Energy Performance is, by far, the most important credit in LEED certifications, based on the number of points available; there are up to 19 points are at stake on this metric which can be determined through simulation (NC-2009 EAc1). Solar water heating further is another practical option to reduce energy loads and the building should consider the possibility of integrating some solar panels on the rooftop is the sunshine is sufficient to justify it. This would reduce the building's power consumption even further.

Sustainable HVAC

The mechanic features of a building are one of the most important aspects of sustainable design. The system requirements for the mechanical systems can be greatly reduced by… [read more]


Google Blimp Technologies Essay

… However, by using the search engine feature as well there are countless opportunities to find international companies that will ship drugs that are illegal in the United States. There are many of these companies that will appear on a search and even some YouTube videos that will describe the process to import illegal drugs. The U.S. Department of Justice described the process like this (The United States Department of Justice, 2011):

The shipment of prescription drugs from pharmacies outside the United States to customers in the United States typically violates the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and in the case of controlled prescription drugs, the Controlled Substances Act. Google was aware as early as 2003, that generally, it was illegal for pharmacies to ship controlled and non-controlled prescription drugs into the United States from Canada.

The importation of prescription drugs to consumers in the United States is almost always unlawful because the FDA cannot ensure the safety and effectiveness of foreign prescription drugs that are not FDA-approved because the drugs may not meet FDA's labeling requirements; may not have been manufactured, stored and distributed under proper conditions; and may not have been dispensed in accordance with a valid prescription. While Canada has its own regulatory rules for prescription drugs, Canadian pharmacies that ship prescription drugs to U.S. residents are not subject to Canadian regulatory authority, and many sell drugs obtained from countries other than Canada which lack adequate pharmacy regulations.

Google searches can be a powerful tool to find information. However, this tool can also be used to find information that is against the law. In this case, Google actually sold ads to companies that were knowingly breaking the law. In this case, the courts deemed that Google was negligent and they were forced to pay a fine. However, even though Google is not violating any laws, they can provide the information that is necessary for others to have the opportunity to break the law. This puts an interesting perspective on Google's role in providing the access to information. On one hand, there is a guaranteed right to free speech, however on the other hand Google can provide information to some things that are clearly wrong. Therefore there must be a line drawn somewhere and that line is far from clear.

Works Cited

Geere, D. (2013, May 26). Google blimps will carry wireless signal across Africa. Retrieved from Wired: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-05/26/google-blimps

Google. (N.d.). Google Blimp. Retrieved from Google: http://www.google.com/adwords/blimpads/

Google. (N.d.). Google Cloud Print. Retrieved from Google: http://www.google.com/cloudprint/learn/

Google. (N.d.). Renewable Energy. Retrieved from Google Green: http://www.google.com/green/energy/

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