"Energy / Power" Essays

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Infrastructure Project Evaluation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (785 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Here, the Ourzazate Solar Power Station project in Morocco will be examined. The project was completed quite quickly, especially compared to the hydroelectric plant which took over thirty years. This solar plant is still undergoing developments, but has used some of the most innovative solar energy technology on the market. This project will be evaluated in regards to how its construction has stayed on track and what can be adjusted in order to provide more successful implementations in future solar projects. In depth review of project spending, construction, and the output of the finished project will be compared to the much longer and more invasive hydroelectric project.

This will be an interesting contrast to the previous project, which was constructed on a much longer term, although with much more invasive and expensive strategies. The ultimate output of power will be an important element for analysis in regards to determining which project was more cost effective based on power outputs. The research will focus especially on the funding for the project, since both projects relied heavily on international investment and borrowing. Here, the primary comparison will be the amount of time and funding used in each project directly compared to the output of the amount of power each infrastructure is now producing. Understanding whether projects should be done with smaller funding increments over longer periods of time, or to be done quickly in order to speed up the time they can start producing necessary power is crucial to the research in this current project.

As the world continues to become more globalized, understanding how to set up financial investments in local infrastructures will prove beneficial for local and international stake holders. Thus, it will be important to measure quantitatively the success of the projects as much through the power outputs as well as the ability for the projects to run smoothly during construction.


Konate, Ibrahima, Arfquoi, Youssef, & Faller, Tanja. (2012). Project Ourzazate Solar Power Station. American Development Bank. Web. http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Morocco%20-%20%20AR%20Ouarzazate%20Project%20I%20%282%29.pdf

Shimomura, Yasutami. (2011). Infrastructure construction experiences in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative study for mutual learning. SOAS International Workshop on Aid and Development in Asia and Africa. Web. http://www.jica.go.jp/uk/english/office/topics/pdf/topics111028_04_02.pdf… [read more]

Corporate Social Responsibility Report Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In the report, the company recognizes that it operates within a finite natural environment that provides numerous opportunities but also confers constraints.

Since it functions in the energy industry, one of the major goals of sustainable development initiatives by this company is environmental protection. EPS tries to ensure that it meets the needs of the present community and generation through… [read more]

6Th Ave Condominium 6Th Avenue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


6th Ave Condominium

6th Avenue Condominium

Electric, HVAC, & Site Logistics

Electrical Power Distribution

Energy Efficiency

The electrical power distribution system in the condominium should begin first with commitment to use energy efficiently. Designing the building and the applications within the building to require less electricity will ultimately have implication for the power distribution design. Sustainable office and mixed purpose buildings often include multiple measures to reduce energy use and to monitor energy consumption. Energy represents 30% of operating expenses in a typical office building; this is the single largest and most manageable operating expense in the provision of office space (Eichholtz, Kok and Quigley).

Not only is the inclusion of energy efficiency good for the environment, but in many cases it also makes sound financial sense. For example, a national sample of U.S. office buildings that were certified by one of the two leading certification agencies with a "green rating" received, on average, three percent higher per square foot than otherwise identical buildings and selling prices of green buildings are also roughly sixteen percent higher than non-certified buildings with similar characteristics.

The design has limited ability to control energy production externally and will be connect to the standard local grid. However, there are substantial opportunities to increase the efficiency of the buildings energy requirements. Another design feature that should be included is active lighting control in the building which reduces energy consumption; occupancy sensors monitor light fixtures and ensure that lights are off when employees are not present. These devices are especially effective in areas that receive sporadic or infrequent use, such as storage rooms and building service equipment rooms (U.S. Green Building Council). The daylight harvesting system averages a 60% reduction in power consumption during the day over standard electronic ballasts.

Using a voltage of 480 reduces line losses and improves distribution efficiency; distributed with the modular underfloor system, office branch power is at 120/280 volts. (Power distribution is sized for a minimum of 10 W/ft2 utilization on all office floors. Equipment power density is 2 W/ft2 in office areas, plus transformers) (U.S. Green Building Council). By properly designing the floor plan to include non-critical rooms (conference rooms, storage, etc.) and heating/cooling these areas with local controls, energy consumption can be reduced to 50% peak-heating-load reduction, compared to base building scenarios in some cases. Optimize Energy Performance is, by far, the most important credit in LEED certifications, based on the number of points available; there are up to 19 points are at stake on this metric which can be determined through simulation (NC-2009 EAc1). Solar water heating further is another practical option to reduce energy loads and the building should consider the possibility of integrating some solar panels on the rooftop is the sunshine is sufficient to justify it. This would reduce the building's power consumption even further.

Sustainable HVAC

The mechanic features of a building are one of the most important aspects of sustainable design. The system requirements for the mechanical systems can be greatly reduced by… [read more]

Google Blimp Technologies Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, by using the search engine feature as well there are countless opportunities to find international companies that will ship drugs that are illegal in the United States. There are many of these companies that will appear on a search and even some YouTube videos that will describe the process to import illegal drugs. The U.S. Department of Justice described the process like this (The United States Department of Justice, 2011):

The shipment of prescription drugs from pharmacies outside the United States to customers in the United States typically violates the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and in the case of controlled prescription drugs, the Controlled Substances Act. Google was aware as early as 2003, that generally, it was illegal for pharmacies to ship controlled and non-controlled prescription drugs into the United States from Canada.

The importation of prescription drugs to consumers in the United States is almost always unlawful because the FDA cannot ensure the safety and effectiveness of foreign prescription drugs that are not FDA-approved because the drugs may not meet FDA's labeling requirements; may not have been manufactured, stored and distributed under proper conditions; and may not have been dispensed in accordance with a valid prescription. While Canada has its own regulatory rules for prescription drugs, Canadian pharmacies that ship prescription drugs to U.S. residents are not subject to Canadian regulatory authority, and many sell drugs obtained from countries other than Canada which lack adequate pharmacy regulations.

Google searches can be a powerful tool to find information. However, this tool can also be used to find information that is against the law. In this case, Google actually sold ads to companies that were knowingly breaking the law. In this case, the courts deemed that Google was negligent and they were forced to pay a fine. However, even though Google is not violating any laws, they can provide the information that is necessary for others to have the opportunity to break the law. This puts an interesting perspective on Google's role in providing the access to information. On one hand, there is a guaranteed right to free speech, however on the other hand Google can provide information to some things that are clearly wrong. Therefore there must be a line drawn somewhere and that line is far from clear.

Works Cited

Geere, D. (2013, May 26). Google blimps will carry wireless signal across Africa. Retrieved from Wired: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-05/26/google-blimps

Google. (N.d.). Google Blimp. Retrieved from Google: http://www.google.com/adwords/blimpads/

Google. (N.d.). Google Cloud Print. Retrieved from Google: http://www.google.com/cloudprint/learn/

Google. (N.d.). Renewable Energy. Retrieved from Google Green: http://www.google.com/green/energy/

Lee, J. (2013, June 10). Google Under Fire Again for Providing Easy Access to Prescription Drugs. Retrieved from Search Engine Watch: http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2273935/Google-Under-Fire-Again-for-Providing-Easy-Access-to-Prescription-Drugs

Richard, M. (2013, September 18). Google buys 240MW of wind power in Texas! Retrieved from Treehugger: http://www.treehugger.com/renewable-energy/google-buys-240mw-wind-power-texas.html

Rivington, J. (2013, August 8). Google Glass: what you need to know. Retrieved from Tech Radar: http://www.techradar.com/us/news/video/google-glass-what-you-need-to-know-1078114

The United States Department of Justice. (2011, August 24). Google Forfeits $500 Million Generated by Online Ads… [read more]

Technology and Project Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (454 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Buxton Hall

The Buxton Hall project was successful. Although there were compromises on the scope of the project, such as the reconditioning of some of the exterior walls, the project was successful in terms of its schedule and budget which were more important than achieving top quality in this case. The best practice that allowed for the successful completion of the project was likely the way the team handled compromises. Although the team did experience some conflict, they were able to make compromises to keep the project moving along.

A Day in the Life

Rachel seems to make very effective use of her time and has an incredibly demanding schedule. Nearly every aspect of her daily schedule is focused on something productive. Furthermore, Rachel must multitask constantly as she bounces from one project to another or from one aspect of a project to another. It seems like it would be difficult to keep all of the information that she acquires throughout the day in context. A day in the life of a project manager seems like it could be incredibly hectic at times and require a great deal of attention to details as well as effective personal time management to handle the jobs requirements.… [read more]

Africa's Petroleum and China's Economic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  25 pages (7,994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The world oil market has recorded important trends. The global demand for oil is projected to grow by more than five percent by 2030 with the Middle East, China, and India accounting for seventy percent of the increase. China's oil demand is anticipated to expand during this period, and oil imports will grow. This implies that China will overtake the… [read more]

Patenting Genes: Should it Be Considered Unethical? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,188 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Patenting Genes: should it be considered unethical?

Issue Synopsis and Opinion

Gene patents are patents given for a specific isolated gene sequence, its chemical composition, ways of obtaining or using it, or for a combination of all of these. It is, put in other words, a patent accorded to someone who has discovered a newly discovered gene, or modified it in such a way that it may be useful for diagnosis and treatment. Gene patents are a category of the larger subject of biological patents accorded for any specific discovery that is biology-related.

Gene patents are accorded for isolating a natural sequence of the gene, using it for medical / contributive purposes such as diagnostic testing, or altering it by adding a promoter or some other modification that can make it helpful for treatment and possible prevention of disease or pathological human condition.

What gene patenting, in effect allows, is for an individual or an organization to own certain unique segments of DNA which may code for certain diseases, psychological / physical conditions, or certain proteins. The permission to claim exclusive ownership over these unique DNAs is controversial with opponents claiming patenting of these genes unethical.

The USA has only provided patents for isolated gene sequences that have known functions and so far these patents have not been applied to the naturally occurring genes in humans or to any other naturally occurring organism.

The Argument for considering Patenting Genes as unethical

The human genome is a different business enterprise than other patent applications. The genome stands for essential building blocks of the human species and, therefore, questions of human dignity and ethics should be studied. Business people, lawyers, or those involved in the medical field and hoping to gain a tidy profit may see nothing wrong in gene patting abut raise this question amongst a layperson audience and they are likely to be discomfited.

Human DNA represents the essence of a human being and, therefore, is very different than patenting a real or intellectual property that is essentially inanimate. Patenting the human DNA treads on the dignity of the human being. Humans are more than the sum of their genes and cannot be simply reduced to a code.

Patenting human genes raises various ethical questions, another of which may be setting prices on certain treatments margin the burden of receiving treatment therefore too high for certain people and raising the flap between rich and poor. The decision of who should and should not receive treatment should not rest within the hands of a few individuals or organizations but this is what patenting would achieve.

The Argument for not considering patenting genes unethical

The U.S. Patent Office has issued thousands of patents on genes. It has investigated the matter and affirms legality of the procedure. It would not have acted so unhesitatingly on such a responsible matter would there be even slight scruples of ethical concern. The fact that it has assented to and possesses these patens points to the fact… [read more]

How Would a Business Benefit by Going Green? Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,298 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Global Warming


This document is designed to discuss the issue of global warming as it relates to business and society. This document will also discuss how global warming can be reduced through simple means. The document will also discuss why this issue is important to both society and the business community. In addition, a discussion on how both parties… [read more]

Innovation of the Kiln in Ceramic Manufacturing for Improve Efficiency by Insulation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … innovative kind of high temperature refractory and shield materials, an original top-firing system and an innovative low-mass kiln car design have been combined to create a tunnel kiln construction that can cut energy consumption and create better products. We shall employ the use of two fictional entities that have discovered an innovative solution in this area, and go… [read more]

Photosynthesis &amp Solar Photovoltaic Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


How are photosynthesis and photovoltaic technologies alike and how are they different?

(Alike) Photosynthesis and photovoltaics both take the energy from the Sun and convert it into different energy sources. (Different) And yet they operate in vastly different ways and they produce very different kinds of fuels. (Different). Photosynthesis provides stored chemical potential (sugars) for plant growth; Photovoltaic technologies don't store energy they provide "instantaneous electrical power" which may be stored but in the instant the Sunlight hits the cell there is a production of electricity (Green, 2011, p. 1). (Alike) The hydrogen that is produced through photovoltaic technologies is "…thermodynamically equivalent to the sugar produced by photosynthesis" (Green, p. 1). (Different) Photovoltaic technologies use "fundamental principles combined with advances in materials" and hence photovoltaic technologies complete solar-to-electrical power and "thereby hydrogen production from water electrolysis"; on the other hand photosynthesis "…originated in an environment…and provided for early life forms as a means of self-contained energy production" (Green, p. 1). (Alike) Because the distant future of energy production in society will not be oil or coal, but rather it will be solar, both photosynthesis and photovoltaic technologies will be (and are becoming) pivotal to the survival of humans, animals, and plant species as well.

In conclusion, there are clearly differences and similarities between photosynthesis and the photovoltaic technologies now being built and marketed. The future of electrical energy will be solar, and the future of photosynthesis will be the same as the history of photosynthesis has been. So while one system is being fine-tuned (photovoltaics) the other (photosynthesis) has been around since the early stages of the Earth's development.

Works Cited

Green, Jenny. (2011). Photosynthesis or photovoltaics: Weighing the impact. ASU News

[Now]. Arizona State University. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from https://asunews.asu.edu/20110512_photosynthesis_photovolatics.

Luque, Antonio, and Hegedus, Steven. (2011). Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Mapel, J.K., and Baldo, M.A. (2007). "The Application of Photosynthetic Materials and Architectures to Solar Cells," in Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy

Conversion, T. Soga, Ed, Washington, D.C.: Elsevier.

Ohio State University. (2008). How does photosynthesis work? Wonders of Our World.

Retrieved October 29, 2012,…… [read more]

Emerging Smart Grid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (720 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Globalization is changing how humans live at a very rapid, and sometimes unpredictable, rate. This is particularly true when it comes to the expectations people have about using power -- everything technological needs a power supply, and the more these devices and technologies become part of society, the more power will be needed. If power is to be distributed fairly and inexpensively, then, the manner in which it is structured, delivered, and distributed must also evolve and become even more cost effective.

To manage this more effectively, research and development must aggressively continue. The future of not just the nation, but the planet, is at stake. National and competitive boundaries must be reduced or removed, and standards that will save billions of dollars should be solidified before it becomes too expensive to do so. For instance, the IntelliGrid, created by the Electric Power Research Institute, combines public and private stakeholders to integrate and optimize global efforts and technical information so that standards may adhere between countries, the architecture does not need to be reinvented each time, and applications can be distributed easier (EPRI, 2012). We know that the U.S. smart grid market is expected to reach almost $50 billion by 2015, and world markets even more and even faster. Investing in the smart grid limits electrical power down to the residential area, and becomes a small-scale network that can be more easily managed and developed. Private investors should receive incentives from governments the world wide to help defray this initial investment, and move into a truly global economic strategy, using grid technology to define and maintain a series of global grids so that there is rarely an outage that can affect millions. Placing regional and state bonds to help utilities expand, providing governmental initiatives, and keeping barriers to entry low will only provide further incentives for job creation, energy security, and sustainable electricity (Mazza, 2005).


EPRI. (2012). Smart Grid Resource Center. Electric Power Research Institute. Retrieved from:


Mazza, P. (2005). Power Up the Smart Grid. Climate Solutions. Retrieved from:

http://fortress.wa.gov/wutc/home/webdocs.nsf/de53b07997d108ea882563b50072c5b3/bc3ced6bb5f4cf29882570200083aaa3… [read more]

Ethics of Sustainable Design Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The afternoon for me is usually a time for reading, research, catching up on correspondence and perhaps another treadmill work out if it feels right to do a second one. More electricity is used due to those activities. In the evening (after a light dinner which might consist of steamed vegetables -- which of course requires natural gas -- and small portions of seafood or chicken) I watch movies, news, or sports on television, using more electricity. The light and reasonably healthy diet I am utilizing is due to my recent weight-loss project. I do not take a shower every day that I'm home writing, but of course there is the need to flush the toilet and that means water usage.

The average person uses 64 gallons of water a day, according to www.info.com. I know I don't use that much because I don't use the dishwasher (I wash dishes by hand and scrimp and save on water while doing that) and I don't immediately flush the toilet after urinating -- I may use the toilet 2 or 3 times that way prior to flushing. (I follow the rhyme, "If it's yellow, it's mellow; but if it's brown, flush it down). I have a TV in my bedroom and I usually fall asleep watching a movie, any movie, and the clock by my bedside tells me when it is 4:30 A.M. so I can begin to think about getting up and starting a new day.

Commentary on my Energy Usage

One of the reasons that many environmentally-minded people (including myself) have advocated the use of solar photovoltaic technologies for a number of years is because we know that burning coal and oil to generate electricity produces greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change. There is no more compelling environmental issue than the rising temperatures around the globe. "Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and is projected to rise another 2 to 11.5°F over the next hundred years" (EPA). When all climate change considerations are taken into account including the rising ocean levels, melting glaciers, droughts, super-charged storms (tornados, cyclones, and hurricanes), the need for citizens to curb their use of electricity (and fossil fuels) is right at the top of the list.

I have attempted to "energy-proof" my house (compact florescent light bulbs; insulated attic; windows that close properly) and I have a timed sprinkler system on my low-maintenance front yard (drought resistant native shrubs and plants). As for food, I try to buy local (and organic) and when I am away from the house for a period of time, I set my water heater to "vacation mode" (Jefferson). I use cold water to wash clothes, I recycle, and I don't use bottled water. I look back at the energy and other resources I use in a day's time and I am proud that at least I am trying to conserve. My next step is to have photovoltaic technologies attached to the roof. That… [read more]

Wireless Electricity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Wireless Electricity

Wireless Transmission of Electricity

The Nature of wireless Transmission

The dynamic and evolving world presents humanity with the increasing need to modify the environment and resources in order to adapt to these emerging situations. Electricity is part and parcel of human life and its transmission is normally one of the most important factors in question. While electricity has… [read more]

Delphi Study: Influence of Environmental Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  60 pages (17,687 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 100


Green IT and energy costs

Although IT devices consume energy, you can use them to control energy, particularly electricity consumption.

You can use IT systems to take care of building management. For example, using movement sensors, thermostats can be adjusted, lights switched on and off, and computers switched off out of hours and reawakened for software upgrades.

One of the… [read more]

Ethics Position - Nae Grand Challenges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethics Position - NAE Grand Challenges and 'Provide Energy from Fusion'

Government laws stated to limit engineers' actions in the U.S. about 150 years back Licensing, legal rules, regulations, standards, accidents like the recent nuclear plant collapse in Japan and lawsuits ensuing from injuries created by engineered products from the legal background of engineering activities. This legal structure ought to… [read more]

Human Ecology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Greer's area of focus is on the sustainablility of current energy strategies, and he makes it clear that our current mode of living will not survive the exhaustion of fossil fuel resources, and that the consequences of this change are likely to be drastic, but without the relief accorded by a sudden apocalyptic ending. This is also the point of Heinberg's article "Temporary Recession or the End of Growth?" -- Heinberg states outright that we are in transition to a post-fossil-fuel society already, and the only question is how intelligently we are able to manage such a transition with the large-scale "economic contraction" (as he terms it) that is its necessary consequence.

With so much chastening reading, however, certain factors stand out. Present modes of agriculture and energy are unsustainable -- but these are things that anyone can do their part to change. If the production of meat is, from an ecological standpoint, a vast waste of resources, then it is worth noting that anyone can easily survive on a meat-free diet. Similarly if the use of fossil fuels is unsustainable, then it is probably a good idea for any individual to wean himself or herself off the use of such fuels while they still exist. If fossil fuels are an "addiction" then it will surely be better to kick the habit before scarcity causes fight over the dwindling resource -- at that point, being an addict will be fatal. The only thing, in my opinion, that ecology needs to learn to do is to sell these choices (to live in ways that encourage sustainable agricultural and energy policies) as being the smart choice individually -- rather than making it sound like a grim moral duty, making it sound like a way to be ahead of the curve and to prepare for the future intelligently is probably the best way to appeal to the millennial generation. After all, this is the generation that will suffer the most from unsustainable past policies in the long run. Couching it as a matter of survival rather than ethical superiority seems like the wise thing to do.… [read more]

Cells Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Solar cells can be produced repeatedly since silicon does not place a strain on the environment. Solar cells are produced by doping or contaminating the semiconductor.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states, "In all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state." This is known as entropy. A watchspring-driven watch will run until energy in the spring is converted and reapplied to the spring to rewind it. Another example involves a care that has run out of gas. The car will not start until you walk 10 miles to a gas station to put more gas in the car. Once the potential energy converts to kinetic energy in carbohydrates, the organism will not receive any energy until more energy is put in. In energy transfer, some energy will dissipate. Entropy is a measure of disorder: cells have low entropy and are NOT disordered. The flow of energy preserves order and life. Entropy wins when organisms stop taking in energy and dies.


" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html

STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html

J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.


http://www.solarserver.de/wissen/photovoltaik-e.html.… [read more]

Enron Leadership Enron Collapsed Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,711 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Since the bill passed with bipartisan support in both houses of Congress, and was overwhelmingly favorable to the oil, coal and nuclear industries, the Democrats and their allies were only able to obtain some concessions for they allies and interest groups (Sherman, 2009, p. 36).

Under a Republican administration and Congress, any type of energy policy bill is going to… [read more]

Future Supply and Demand Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (3,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Thereafter, the supply remains stable until the end of the period. In terms of the net supply of electricity available for export, it doubles during the study period. (Viscusi et al. pp102-06)

The electricity prices are set in regional markets. The consumer price takes particular account of production costs, transport and distribution. They are generally lower in the countries that… [read more]

General Approaches to Reduce Carbon Emissions in Residential Houses Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Reducing Residential Carbon

One of the largest environmental and economic concerns of the current era is the use of carbon-producing energy production methods to provide most of our energy needs, from powering our factories to making our cars run to providing our homes with heat and light. The carbon produced from the burning of fossil fuels such as petroleum-based products, natural gases, and coal very likely contributes to global warming and climate change problems as well as other environmental issues, and is also growing increasingly expensive as resources become more scarce and demand increases. While factories and cars have been focused on for many changes that reduce carbon emissions, there are also many things that can be done to make residential dwellings less dependent on carbon-producing fuels.

Renewable energy sources are a primary means of generating the electricity and heating needs of modern homes, providing much cleaner and ultimately much cheaper alternatives to reliance on coal-fueled power plants and other non-renewable and carbon-emitting sources. Things like geothermal heat pumps, which can sink cool air into the ground to heat a home or draw cool air up from the ground to cool it (and in some areas, can actually draw heat from the ground to heat a home, as well) are one way to achieve significant reductions in the use of non-renewable energy (Sorenson, 2010). Other forms of renewable energy that can be used include solar panels (for generating electricity and/or as a water heating system), small wind turbines that can generate electricity, and even devices like stationary bikes with generators that can be used to generate small amounts of storable and usable energy (Sorenson, 2010). All of these methods can reduce carbon emitted into the atmosphere and reduce energy costs to the resident, creating a better environment for all and a better…… [read more]

Renewable Energy and Interdependencies: Six Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,785 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


One of the harsh realities of introducing one cost- or energy-saving initiative is that it will inevitably affect other constituent elements in a given system and this is certainly the case with the interdependencies that are involved in implementing and applying the initiatives envisioned for the Coed Darcy project. In this regard, the Council on Tall buildings and Urban Habitat… [read more]

Economics for Business Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … economic impact of persistent high oil prices. With extraction flatlined, some see this as evidence of peak oil. With demand growing, especially from emerging economies, the period of peak oil is characterized by increasing demand and decreasing supply. This will drive prices higher. There are a number of impacts on the market for oil that will occur as the result of this and impacts on the market for other fuels as well. This paper will assume a situation in which the long-run supply of oil is diminishing and the long-run demand is initially increasing, leading to higher prices.

The essay will begin with a set of key definitions. This will be followed by a description of some of the theories that are relevant to this problem. Examples of the impact will follow, illustrating how the increasing price of oil will impact on the market for both oil and its closest substitutes. Finally, conclusions will be drawn explaining the implication of these findings.


The most important concept to understand is the idea of peak oil. We know that there is a finite amount of oil on this planet, and as a result we know that at some point the production of oil will peak. The peak year for the discovery of new oil was in the 1960s, and world consumption that exceeded new discoveries was in 1981 (Campbell, 2011). Many believe that peak oil has already occurred. The implications of this are that we are still increasing demand at a point in time when we have peaked our extraction -- supplies will begin to diminish from the point of peak oil forward.

Another concept that is important is that of alterative fuels. In economics, alternatives are known as substitutes. Most of the time, a substitute is not a perfect substitute. This is true for energy as well. Alternative energy sources have different output levels than oil, different uses and they have different costs. While powering a light bulb can be done with a number of different sources, large internal combustion engines like jet engines or tractor-trailer engines typically require fossil fuels in order to function. The imperfect nature of alternatives is important in this discussion.

Another key concept is that of price elasticity of demand. This concept reflects the idea that demand for a good varies depending on its price. However, the degree to which price and demand are related is different for different goods. It is also different for the same good over different points in time. Goods with high price elasticity of demand will see demand change sharply in relation to the price; goods with low elasticity will not see much change in demand relative to the change in price. Related to this idea is the concept of cross-price elasticity of demand. This is the change in demand for one good (we'll call it solar power) when the price of another good changes (we'll call that one oil).

Description of the Issue

The first question is… [read more]

Construction Safety Issues: Wind Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


For example during the construction of the Dansk Olie og Naturgas Energy's Horns Rev 2 wind farm in the North Sea, the project director emphasized that, "The biggest challenge on this project was not the size- it was the offshore site. Working offshore is a completely different way to approach a project. Climate conditions are much more severe, and safety was a big factor. It impacted the way we did everything" (quoted in Gale, 2010, p. 35). The enormity of many of the components that are employed in the construction of state-of-the-art wind turbines is staggering, with football field-sized turbine blades that are situated almost 380 feet above the ground (or water) in arrays that may extend several square miles (Gale, 2010).

Although solar-array farms do not involve all of the same types of construction hazards as those experienced with wind farms, there are some construction safety issues that must be taken into account. For example, as with wind farms, the siting of solar-array farms may involve isolated rural regions that experience high levels of consistent sunlight with little or no transportation infrastructure, necessitating the initial construction of access roads and the electrical facilities needed to connect the array to the grid (Schwartz, 2007). Furthermore, there are also two types of solar power that may be used, (a) solar thermal (this type uses the power of the sun to heat water and air) and (b) photovoltaic (this type uses the power of the sun to generate electricity), each of which will have its own corresponding construction safety issues involved (Schwartz, 2007).


The research showed that like any major construction project, renewable energy sources such as wind and solar-array farms involve the transportation, deployment and operation of large earth-moving equipment and other heavy machinery. The research also showed, though, that wind and solar-array farms also have some important construction safety issues involved that are not typical of other major construction projects, including their relative isolated siting in regions with little or no infrastructure. Indeed, the placement of massive wind farms in environmentally hostile locations offshore in regions such as the North Sea means that these projects will experience the same types of construction safety problems that were formerly unique only to the oil drilling platform industry.


Brown, B.T. & Escobar, B.A. (2007). Wind power: Generating electricity and lawsuits. Energy Law Journal, 28(2), 489-491.

Gale, S.F. (2010, April). A closer look. PM Network, 24(4), 34-36.

Hiserodt, E. (2010, November 8). The wind-farm eruption. The New American, 26(22), 17-19.

Schwartz, H. (2007). How Ontario and Ontario cities are coping with the cost of energy.

Canadian Journal of Regional Science,…… [read more]

Electric Vehicle Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,301 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Electric Cars

I would like to speak to you today about the importance of considering alternative energy forms. One of the most important choices that we can make in that regard is the shift to the use of electric automobiles instead of continuing to use the fuel-dependent vehicles that we have been using for more than a century. The main reason that this is necessary is that the burning of fossil fuels produces hydrocarbons that we know are deadly to the ecology of this planet.

This topic is one that has great personal significance to me because in the city where I was born there was so much air pollution that many people who never even smoked died from lung cancer and other respiratory illnesses that were caused solely by their environmental exposure to man-made pollutants. One of the people who died this way was my grandmother; she also suffered horribly from disability caused by respiratory illnesses for a long time before she died. In her last years, she was dependent on a mechanical breathing apparatus just to breathe.

Body of Speech

Carbon monoxide and other forms of air pollution have already ruined the environment of many American cities much the way that the first generation of post-Industrial revolution-era factories deposited soot everywhere in industrial cities in the 19th and century (Kirsch). Before the Industrial Revolution, there was no such thing as major pollution of the atmosphere because of human activity. Once we discovered that burning coal could produce usable energy, pollution caused by human activity exploded (Kirsch).

The difference is today's damage to the environment is occurring on a global scale and has the very real capacity of destroying biological life on earth. Even now, as we consider the implications of global climate change in the West, China is rapidly undergoing the same type of industrialization in many regions that took place in the West a century ago. If the entire population of China embraces fossil-fuel burning automobiles the same way that we did in the West last century, the environmental damage will accelerate at a tremendous rate instead of decreasing. Precisely because of this risk, China is participating with the U.S. In funding the development of electric vehicles.

Ironically, electric cars were once more popular than gas-burning vehicles. Before Henry Ford perfected the internal combustion engine, electrically powered cars were actually preferred when automobiles first began replacing travel by horseback. In fact, the evolution of gasoline engines illustrates what will be necessary for electric cars to become more popular. Specifically, gasoline engines already existed at the turn of the century but there was no infrastructure of gas stations available to refill gasoline engines. However, as soon as that infrastructure developed, it immediately resulted in the widespread adoption of gasoline-powered vehicles.

That is exactly what is necessary today with respect to electrically-powered vehicles. The current unavailability of an infrastructure for recharging electric car batteries is a significant obstacle that must be overcome the same way that a… [read more]

Future of Technology What Qualitative Article Review

Article Review  |  7 pages (1,992 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Technology: Heat transport system using vacuum insulation.

Reason for non-commercialization: Ready to go but the company went bankrupt.

This would have definitely benefited from the predictive ability that Godet speaks of. The company could have used the funds that they poured into this technology to remain viable, or they could have partnered with another firm to bring the system to market. Of course, this does not say why the company went under, but it can be assumed that part of the reason was because they spent money on untested projects such as this.

Technology: Compression/absorption hybrid heat pump.

Reason for non-commercialization: Cost too high and resource not readily available.

The report says that for "various reasons" this was not really available, although it technically was (Kimura). This could have been easily predicted and would have resulted in saving the money that was spent to develop this technology. It could have been seen with proper investigation of the processes before it was developed.

I agree with the conclusions. The main point that I get from this article is something I learned a while ago about the experimentation and failure rate of Thomas Edison. Edison went through more than a thousand different filaments for the light bulb before he finally found one that would work. The product became a commercial success, obviously, but a lot of R&D dollars were spent before the success could be realized. This success/failure rate is common on R&D. A person, group, or company has a great idea, but it takes a lot of money to bring that idea to fruition. There will also be many failures and the project itself may have to be cancelled. However, there would never be successes if there were not failures.

The one point that I find the most interesting is that success of the energy projects in Japan was often determined by the faith (and money) the government placed in the project. Two that succeeded were heavily funded by the government. To me, this means that there has to be some entity that believes in the process, and can fund its success, before it can be realized.

Works Cited

Brandon, Gwendolyn, & Alan Lewis. "Reducing Household Energy Consumption: A Qualitative and Quantitative Field Study." Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19 (1999): 75-85.

Ellis, P.G., Griffith, B., Long, N., Torcellini, P., & Crwaley, D. "Automated Multivariate Optimization Tool for Energy Analysis." National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2006. Print.

Environmental Science. "Energy: Synthesis and Analysis." 2010. Web.

Flame (1). "More Conventional Approaches." Technology Forecasting. Print.

Flame (2). "The Philosophy of Michael Godet -- Starting with a Controversial View." Technology Forecasting. Print.

Kimura, Osamu. "Public R&D and Commercialization of Energy Efficient Technology: A Case Study of Japanese Products." Energy Policy, 2010. Print.

Smith, Marsha H., & Rogers, James E. "National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change." National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency, 2008. Web.

World…… [read more]

My Own Modest Proposal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Modest Proposal

Global warming has grown to be one of the most debated topics currently being discussed among leaders from around the world. This issue is particularly important, especially given that its aftermath can be observed more and more often. Although there currently are a series of individuals actively involved in restoring nature and reducing some of the main elements causing the planet to warm, matters are yet to be resolved and people are slowly but gradually heading toward a catastrophe. One of the key matters that need to be taken into consideration is the fact that global warming is actually providing the general public with a motive to increase greenhouse gas production and to gain more profits from pollutant industries.

There is no doubt about the effectiveness of fossil fuels, given that they are mainly responsible for making the technology today possible. Some people are apparently too ignorant to observe that fossil fuels still exist in large quantities and that it would be extremely costly to reform society so as for this source of energy to be left behind. Why on earth would someone want to abandon a very efficient product in order to adopt newer and (from my point-of-view) more controversial products? One can virtually consider that people interested in leaving fossil fuels behind are eccentrics that are reluctant to stick to practical solutions. A serious society needs to concentrate on practicality before thinking about design, as the latter generates larger expenses and is in most cases unlikely to put across effectiveness.

The feeling one gets while using a car that runs on fossil fuels is incomparable, as the sound, the power, and the smell coming from the exhaust are some of the first elements that most contemporary people think about when relating to a car. Global warming has come to be an…… [read more]

Photosynthesis vs. Solar Cells: Producing Natural Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (915 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Photosynthesis vs. solar cells: Producing natural and human-Generated energy

Photosynthesis, an organically-occurring chemical process, is used to sustain essential life forces. Without the ability to convert light into energy, plants (and in some forms of bacteria and simple organisms known as protistans) would not be able to create the necessary sugar compounds required for them to grow and flourish. Without plants, animal life on the earth would not exist as we know it. This is because one of the byproducts released in photosynthesis is oxygen, while plants 'feed' off carbon dioxide to complete the chemical reactions of photosynthesis (Farabee 2007).

Photosynthesis in plants converts the light of the sun into a usable source of energy for living organisms in a natural fashion. Solar cells likewise convert the natural light of the sun into energy. However, the use of semiconductor-based solar cells, while useful, is a non-necessary, human-generated process designed to increase the convenience of modern life at relatively low cost. One common example of this technology is found in solar-powered calculators. Solar cells also convert the sun's heat into electrical energy. Because the conversion is not a chemical process like photosynthesis, no necessary gases are released and no food is generated for the organism.

It should be noted that in photosynthesis some electrical transfers do occur. "The first two steps of photosynthesis involve capturing photons released from the sun and using that energy to create a flow of electrons. From there, photosynthesis involves using that electrical energy to create chemical energy, from which ultimately the products of photosynthesis are created" in the form of glucose (Stier 2009). Solar energy captures the same photons and uses the energy to create a flow of electrons that generate heat (Stier 2009). To enable solar cells to trap energy, the cells are constructed with two layers of semiconductor material, one of which has positively-charged material with a low electron concentration, the other of which has negatively-charged material with a high electron concentration. "The space where these two layers come in close contact is known as the p-n junction. As light heats these sensitive semiconductor layers, a flow of electrons is ignited, resulting in a direct current which ultimately results in electricity" that generates enough energy to power a device or can be used to heat an entire home (Stier 2009). In contrast, in the process of photosynthesis, energy is trapped by the plant's physical structures known as chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are similarly constructed of layers of material like a solar cell: the grana and the stroma that make up the structural unit of the chloroplast, the thylakoid. "The areas between grana are referred to as stroma….the chloroplast has three [membranes] forming three compartments" (Farabee 2007).

Solar cells are usually…… [read more]

Israeli Culture Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Solar-Powered Water Heaters in Israel

On its face, the initiative may not appear to be all that important, but the Israeli people have taken advantage of their geographic location to significantly decrease their dependence on foreign imported energy and increase their self-sufficiency by installing solar-powered water heaters on residential rooftops across the country. For instance, according to Sandler, "Rooftops all over Israel look strikingly similar: More than 1 million households in the nation of 7.1 million people have solar panels that produce hot water -- a relatively simple technology that gained popularity after the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, when oil prices shot up sharply" (2). The ubiquity of these rooftop solar-powered water heaters is readily discernible in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Rooftop solar-powered water heaters in Tel Aviv

Source: http://www.metaefficient.com/wp-content/uploads/solar-hot-water-heater-rooftops-israel2.jpg

The impetus for this initiative gained momentum in the early 1990s when the Israeli government mandated that all new residential buildings must install solar water-heating systems (Sandler), and for good reason. According to Hamer, "Solar energy is especially well suited for heating water, a task that requires 15 -- 20% of a home's total energy consumption. Solar water heaters can provide 50 -- 90% of that hot water, and their original cost can be recovered through energy bill savings over the course of 4 -- 7 years" (145). From a strictly pragmatic perspective, this initiative is also making a significant difference in the energy-dependency of Israel. In this regard, Hamer adds that, "The potential value of the technology is shown in Israel, where solar hot water heaters displace 6% of the country's total electricity consumption" (146). By using improved solar power technologies, that percentage could increase to as much as 16% a major factor for Israelis given that the nation is almost entirely dependent on imported energy sources (Sandler). Beyond the energy savings realized by solar-powered hot water tanks, there are some other benefits to using solar energy in Israel. For instance, Abramowitz and Lehreer emphasize that, "Israel's heavy reliance on imported, carbon-based fuels is bad for the environment and for public health. Fortunately, Israel is blessed with enough sunshine: Solar power alone could fuel up to 40% (8 gigawatts) of Israel's anticipated electricity needs by 2020" (2). This point is also made by Katsioloudis, Bondi and Deal who emphasize, "In countries like Israel, the abundance of solar radiation, together with a good technological base, has created favorable conditions for the exploitation of solar energy" (11).

Despite their ubiquity, the solar-powered water heaters…… [read more]

Solar Energy Is Interesting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The slide show then takes on a dire scenario attitude by showing how the entire world will come to an end within the next 10 years, but it also states that Australia can be the world's knight in shining armor if only a more substantial solar energy program is adopted.

The second presentation deals with a new approach to rebuilding societies that have been decimated. It uses as an example of one society the country of Cambodia, which has been in dire straits since the 1970's and only recently has begun to change its overall approach to rebuilding. The presentation ends with a Helen Keller saying "So much has been given to me, I have not time to ponder over that which has been denied." This is an excellent ending to a presentation that focuses on that attitude as one method for changing Cambodia (and other countries that might be in the same boat).

2. The presentation touts an approach that is more a bottom up than a top down approach. The presentation also uses the history of Cambodia to show how a country can adopt a tone of complete failure, but it also presents a method for overcoming that sense of defeat. A couple of slides list what the program is all about; 1) ownership 2) development takes time 3) the in-line dilemma 4) flexibility 5) incentives matter 6) training 7) build up 8) build capacity 9) plan for turnover 10) plan to leave 11) consider culture 12) expectations 13) be creative.

It's interesting to read through how an entirely different approach such as the one being touted in this presentation could provide improved results and conditions, not only on an individual or company level, but for an entire country.…… [read more]

Energy According to Some Experts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The problem is that policy making is much more complex than most environmentalists believe. One recent article attempted to explain the problem by stating "providing secure energy supplies at reasonable prices has and continues to be a preoccupation of most, if not all national governments, and a myriad of energy policies and related environmental policies have been developed and implemented over time to help achieve these objectives" (Baker, 2010, p. 57).

A long-term approach to energy policy will always be difficult to achieve due to the many varied interests that will have influence over such policy. What will be needed is someone of strength and character to lead the way, which is a problem when Presidents rule through the use of polling numbers rather than from a principled viewpoint.

Some Presidents will push for one method, while others will likely push for an entirely different energy source, however a key would be to continue using the readily available sources while developing other forms of energy at the same time.

According to Baker "there will be no significant short-term relief for the United States from dependence upon oil imports, given the lead times required to develop existing resources and alternative energy sources on a sufficient scale, achieve significant conservation, and generally alter the pattern of energy end uses" (Baker, p. 58).

The experts agree that alternative sources of energy can be developed, but they also agree that it is going to take time. Each President will have to make choices based on the expectations of how long it will take to replace what is currently being used. Attempting to shortcut those projections will likely lead to a more disastrous scenario.

The future likely holds out much in the way of hope in developing alternative fuels, after all the attitude that first developed electricity, oil and coal fuel is the same attitude that is 'fueling' the growth of alternative energies. Working together, and that includes our current and future Presidents, will surely see some of those energies provide America (and the world) with a clean, inexpensive and efficient energy source. Working against each other will only provide further obstacles for accomplish that feat. As Baker so aptly states "energy is a critical resource that underpins economic growth and development and enables the military and national security" (p. 58). Keeping that thought in mind will likely assist the future Presidents of the United States in making those tough decisions that will have to be made.

Works Cited

Baker, A.B. (2010) International economic interdependency and U.S. national energy policy, Energy Journal, Vol. 31, Issue 4, pp. 57-78

Demirbas, A.; (2009) Global renewable energy projections, Energy Sources Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 212 -- 224

Klare, M.T. (2010) Clean, green, safe and smart, Nation, Vol. 291, Issue 5/6, pp. 11 -- 15

Sheehan, J.; Cambreco, V.; Duffield,…… [read more]

Era of Cheap Oil Is Over Forever Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … era of cheap oil is over forever. We need to learn to live without it and to rely on alternative, renewable sources of energy. With global demand rising and available supplies shrinking, higher and more volatile prices and shortages could provoke the end of suburbia. The era of cheap, abundant oil is indeed coming to a close and unfortunately paradoxically, the fight against climate change could be in very deep trouble. According to James Schlessinger, peak oil theories are correct and the world oil supply has reached a maximum and will fall off dramatically and demand will outstrip supply. According to Jeroen vander Veer, CEO of Royal Dutch Shell, after 2015 easily accessible oil and gas will not keep up with demand. Citibank feels it will be 2012. Whichever is correct, this does not give us much time to cure our addiction to energy and our need for a more exotic "fix." This transition to other forms of energy such as wood to coal and coal to oil were gradual, but the oil peak is abrupt and will bring revolutionary results (Hertsgaard). Unfortunately, the pressure to find quick fixes could jeopardize efforts to mitigate global warming and pollution.

Everything from mining tar sands to nuclear energy is being posited to pick up the slack. The cost of such alternatives in terms of pollution cleanup (especially with regard to nuclear energy) may make such alternatives uneconomical and could cause an economic downward spiral even worse than the present one once the hidden costs are considered. Ironically, our imagining living without oil could make our lives without it worse by bringing on more extreme alternatives to oil. A more gradual transition could be brought about by crash development programs to develop solar, wind and other types of energy. Conservation could put off the day of the oil peak and facilitate a more gradual transition so that we will not have to rely upon the more extreme energy types such as nuclear energy. Unfortunately, the scenario that the author may be painting of a world without oil and oil products may be a radioactive wasteland.

Ironically, the construction…… [read more]

Chernobyl Disaster Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Chernobyl Disaster

The disaster that occurred at Chernobyl changed the way the world views Nuclear Energy. It caused a lot of damage to the surrounding environment as well as to people's physical and mental well-being. It not only affected the immediate area but also many other areas as well. Russia determined after this disaster that there were totally… [read more]

Creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,061 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Tva

Tapping Water Power

The Creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority

The Origins of the Tennessee Valley Authority

In 1916, the federal government acquired the Tennessee Valley area to construct a dam, which would generate electricity to produce explosives for World War I

This did not materialize. In the following years, there were efforts to sell it to… [read more]

Construction Thermal Insulation Materials Rockwool Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Construction Thermal Isolation Materials [Rockwool]

Isolation construction materials

Building insulation consist roughly to anything in a structure that is utilizes as insulation for any reason. Thermal insulation in structures is a significant feature to attaining thermal comfort for its tenants. Insulation decreases unnecessary warmth loss or gain and can reduce the power burdens of heating and cooling structures. It… [read more]

Government's Reaction on the Gulf Oil Spill Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Government's Reaction On The Gulf Oil Spill

On April 20, 2010, catastrophe struck the Gulf of Mexico with the explosion and eventual sinking of BP's Deepwater Horizon oil rig which resulted in the death of 11 crew members and left many others injured. While threatening at least 400 species, at least 19 vital wildlife refuges, and communities depending on the… [read more]

Gulf Coast Oil Spill Gulf of Mexico Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Gulf oil spill [...] whether the United States should continue to pursue offshore drilling. Offshore drilling made the headlines when the British Petroleum (BP) drilling rig Deepwater Horizon exploded on April 20, 2010. Offshore drilling is necessary to augment our dependence on foreign oil, at least until we bring our usage of oil down, but the United States… [read more]

Hydrogen Fuel as an Alternative Energy Source Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Hydrogen Fuel as an Alternative Energy Source

Hydrogen is one of two natural elements that combine to make water. Hydrogen is not an energy source, but more an energy carrier because it takes a lot of energy to remove it from water. It is helpful as a compact energy source in fuel cells and batteries. There are many companies are working hard in order to develop technologies that can proficiently use the potential of hydrogen energy. Because of increasing fossil fuel prices and uncertainty of energy supplies along with a concern over the effect of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, the role of hydrogen fuel as an alternative energy source is being looked at more intensely (O'Sullivan, 2008).

Hydrogen is the most widespread element in the universe and ranks as the third most abundant element overall. Hydrogen does not exist as a pure component, but exists as part of other compounds, mainly those of water and fossil fuels. Hydrogen is mostly formed from fossil fuel and to a lesser extent by the process of electrolysis using energy that is produced from fossil fuels. Hydrogen is presently produced on an industrial scale by steam reforming natural gas. Hydrogen produced from either fossil fuels or by electrolysis involves a loss of energy and results in high emissions of greenhouse gases (O'Sullivan, 2008).

Energy is present in many forms, such as heat, light, chemical energy, and electrical energy. Energy consists of the capability to bring about change or to do work. The study of energy is known as thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics says that energy can be altered from one state to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The entire amount of energy and matter in the Universe is thought to remain steady. It is thought that it merely changes from one form to another. The First Law of Thermodynamics also states that energy is always preserved. In essence, energy can be converted from one form into another form but never destroyed (Laws of Thermodynamics, 2010).

The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that during all energy exchanges, if there is no energy put into or taken away from the system, the potential energy will remain less than it…… [read more]

Various Methods of Electricity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Electricity:

A form of energy which involves the flow of electrons is known as electricity. Electricity is one of the most widely used forms of energy and has become a basic part of nature. As a secondary energy source, electricity is produced from the conversion of other sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, oil and nuclear… [read more]

Energy Issues Book Report

Book Report  |  7 pages (2,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … generations are proving unacceptable for future use. As both environmental and political factors threaten the status quo, and our dependence on fossil fuels for our main energy source, it is clear that new sources of energy must be found and pursued. Thus, the current governmental administration is pushing for huge energy reforms. With this push comes a new… [read more]

Use of Hydrogen Fuel as an Alternative to Replace the U.S. Dependency on Fossil Fuels Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (613 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Hydrogen Fuel as a Possible Renewable Energy Source

In the search to find new energy sources that would reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels, and the United States' dependency on foreign sources for these fuels, hydrogen is emerging as a likely partial replacement. There are several methods by which hydrogen can be produced domestically, and when used in fuel cells the only emission hydrogen produces is water -- there are absolutely no greenhouse gases or airborne pollutants (AE 2009). There are also significant problems with hydrogen fuel that must be surmounted before it truly becomes a viable replacement for fossil fuels and other alternative energy sources; it is much more costly to produce in terms of both money and energy than fossil fuels are, making the actual efficiency of the fuel in the global energy system too low in the current situation (U.S. Dept. Of Energy 2009). A comparison of the benefits of hydrogen use however, especially with the possibilities for overcoming the difficulties in its use, reveals that this technology is well poised to be our next major fuel source.

The major problems with hydrogen as a replacement for fossil fuels are the expensive and energy-intensive methods of extracting and storing hydrogen. Though hydrogen is abundant in many forms, especially water, it takes a great del of energy to remove hydrogen form water and other sources. As this is the same energy that is released in joining hydrogen to water, it is incredibly inefficient to try to extract hydrogen from water for use as fuel -- the net result in the overall system will always be negative (more energy will be used to produce the fuel and lost as heat than will make it to the fuel cell) (U.S. Dept. Of Energy 2009). New on-vehicle storage methods also need to be developed (AE 2009).…… [read more]

Map Reviews Platts, a Provider of Energy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Map Reviews

Platts, a provider of energy and metals, has created this map to inform consumers that it is progressive in its use of wind resources. However, for a number of reasons, consumers will have trouble understanding what Platts is actually trying to convey. The largest problem is the legend which includes wind power density, wind power plants, transmission lines, and geography. Because the text of the legend is so small and because it includes so much information, it's impossible to tell what the symbols actually stand for. For instance, there are three types of wind power plants represented by green, light blue, and blue circles, but the reader will be unlikely to know what these colors represent. On the map itself, it's impossible to locate wind power density perphaps because the colors to use it are so similar to the color of the map's background. Lighter colored transmission lines are also very difficult to identify because their color is close to the map's background color. The symbols use for geography, whatever they may represent, are difficult to locate because they are so small on the map.

With all these flaws, there is significant room for improvement. The following is a list of recommendations for improving the map's display:

Keep it simple. Platts might consider eliminating the mapping of one of its variables such as wind power density or geography. I doubt if the average consumer would even understand wind power density. However, they would understand wind power plants if it not been offiscated by too much data.

Include a title on the map that describes the data and its timeframe

Use a larger text size for the legend.

Use colors in the legend which are distinct from the color of the map's background to increase readability.

Increase the size of symbols so that they are more apparent.

These changes should give the user a better understanding of what the data actually represents.


Wind resources of the Western United States, 2007-2008 edition. http://www.esri.com/mapmuseum/mapbook_gallery/volume24/electric2.html

This map is intended to help staff at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6 to analyze regional pollution so they can better understand the ozone problem in key areas. The symbols used in the legend and on the map are varied, colorful and eye catching. Overall, this is a very good visual representation of the data. Unfortunately, the text used to dsecribe what data the symbols stand for is too small to read. Further, the font color for names of the geographies on the map blend in with the map's background color, making them difficult to read. Also, the text associated with the dashed red lines that flow from the map is too small. Finally, a large amount of data is found in one area of the map, making it a bit too crowded to understand.

With only a few minor changes, this would be an excellent map. The following is a list of recommendations for improving the map's display:

The legend must absolutely be… [read more]

Advantages and Disadvantages of Each of the Perpetual or Renewable Energy Resources Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (380 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Environmental Science

Our current addiction to oil will eventually ruin the world we live in. Oil and coal are destroying the natural balance of the earth. In response to this, new developments have been made in renewable energy sources that will help reduce our dependency on oil and provide cleaner energy for us to use. These new energy sources have both their advantages and disadvantages, but will prove a necessary step in the right direction for our near future.

Compared to our current energy addiction to oil and coal, renewable forms of energy prove to have several key benefits that will prove great advantages in the modern context. Solar, wind, ocean biomass, and geothermal energy sources are all perpetual and will not run out like our traditional energy sources like oil (White 2009). They cannot be exhausted and provide clean energy without the nasty effects oil and gas has been seen to have which are now causing the complications associated with global warming. According to research, "since their sources are natural the cost of operations is reduced and they also require less maintenance on their plants," which proves incredible benefits…… [read more]

Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells Geothermal Heat Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (2,890 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


¶ … Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells

Geothermal Heat Production


Red letters need addressing; either need number or have not been rewritten.

In "Geothermal Well Design, Construction and Failures," James N.A. Southon (2005) notes that the formation environment, for example, the presence of corrosive fluids, may cause a high temperature geothermal well to fail on the first heat up… [read more]

Florida Manatees Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (726 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Florida manatees are classified as a threatened species. Their increasing dependence on the warm water runoff from power plants may become a problem in the near future. An estimated 60% of all Florida manatees are wintering near power plants instead of migrating south to naturally warmer waters (Lelis 2007). Manatees are converging in large numbers during the winter near Florida Power and Light Company power plants at Cape Canaveral, Fort Lauderdale, Riviera Beach and Fort Myers and at the Tampa Electric Company's Apollo Beach power plant in Tampa Bay (Bayan-Gagelonia 2000). Power plants have altered manatee migration patterns. Whereas manatees once only migrated south to warm waters during the winter months, the animals now find solace in the warm waters surrounding the state's power plants.

Florida Power and Light's coal-burning and nuclear power plants present environmental hazards including toxic waste and greenhouse gases. Interestingly and ironically, Florida's power plants have become a boon for manatee populations. Unbridled development, especially in the southern part of the state, has encroached drastically on manatee habitat. Bereft of their winter home, manatees found power plants a suitable alternative. Manatees are generally unable to tolerate waters any cooler than 68 degrees Fahrenheit. "As coastal development pressures in southeast and southwest Florida have pushed manatees further north, power plant effluents have played a critical role in manatee protection," (Save the Manatee Club nd).

However, a large number of Florida's power plants have become outdated and are going offline (Save the Manatee Club nd). The result is that migrating populations have fewer warm water spots to dwell in the winter. Manatee populations, already threatened by boat accidents and real estate development, may suffer a real blow as power plants shut down. In the opening months of 2009, about 50 manatees died as a result of suddenly cold waters in Central Florida (FPL Given Permission To Install Heaters For Manatees 2009).

At the same time, Florida power plants do need to become more environmentally efficient. Many are transitioning from nuclear to natural gas (FPL Given Permission To Install Heaters For Manatees 2009). While the state develops and promotes new public power technologies, warm water sources for manatees must be preserved,…… [read more]

Geobacter in 1987, Derek Lovley Was Searching Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,257 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 25



In 1987, Derek Lovley was searching the "muddy bottom of the Potomac River just downstream from Washington, D.C., in search of the microscopic creature he believed was interacting with subsurface iron oxide to make phosphorous" (Davis). What he ended up discovering was Geobacter metallireducers, designated GS-15 ("About Geobacter"). This micro-organism has been found to capable of doing some pretty amazing stuff. It may be used to remediate contaminated soil and power batteries, for a variety of useful applications. Geobacter is a reddish-colored micro-organism and are of particular interest due to "their electron transfer capabilities, impact on the natural environment and their application to the bioremediation of contaminated environment and harvesting electricity from waste organic matter" ("About Geobacter").

Geobacter can actually eat groundwater and soil contaminants. Materials dangerous to the environment, such as benzene and MBTE, a gasoline additive, can all be consumed by the handy microbes, even in an environment that's oxygen-free. They're at work cleaning Boston Harbor and have been found to live in dentists' spit sinks. Although they can't decontaminate radioactive material, they do "flourish in uranium-contaminated sites, converting soluble radioactive material to one that's insoluble in groundwater, so it's easier to isolate for cleanup" (Davis).

Davis notes, in addition to their ability to act as a microbial remediation team, Geobacter actually exhales electricity when they breathe in iron oxide, through the 20 to 30 hair-like structures, on the micro-organism, each just 3 to 5 nanometers in diameter, called pili, lined up along one side of the organism. This process finds the bacteria creating webs of electrical wiring, linking each of the bacteria into a web-like electrical circuit. Through this formation, Geobacter is able to rid their bodies of the electrons that were generated during their metabolism process. In nature, this web transports these excess electrons to a distant 'electron dump', making the earth act like a gigantic circuit, for the microbes ("Bacteria")

There are a variety of practical applications that could find this discovery quite useful. The electronics industry could utilize Geobacter Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) in place of manufacturing nanowires, which come from expensive metals and silica. Geobacter fuel cells could be placed in medical devices that are implanted in a patient, with the organisms feeding off the patient's own blood sugar to power the device, meaning the batteries would never need to be replaced (Davis). Dr. Leonard Tender, at the Naval Research Laboratory, has put this research into use in his Benthic Unattended Generator (BUG). This Geobacter MFC is being utilized to power remote instruments and sensors deployed in marine environments (Greer).

The use of bacteria to generate power is not a new idea. Nearly a century ago, an English botany professor discovered the phenomenon. In fact, Geobacter batteries are similar to bacterial batteries created by scientists, where sugar-eating microbes from the ocean are used to produce electricity from their metabolic process ("Green Energy"). However, in the past, MFCs didn't generate enough power to attract the interest of serious applications. Thanks to technological advancements… [read more]

Management and Organization Theory Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (670 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Management and Organization Theory

Clipper WindPower SWOT


Growing concern about global warming is making organizations and individuals more aware of the need to find alternative sources of energy. "Wind turbines don't produce atmospheric emissions that cause acid rain or greenhouse gasses" ("Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy," Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program, 2008).

Clipper WindPower received an Outstanding Research and Development Partnership Award from the U.S. Department of Energy for the design and development of its 2.5 MW Liberty Wind Turbine (Selko 2008).


Unfamiliarity of the benefits and possibilities of wind technology amongst the general public and business community.

Shrinking U.S. economy may make companies less inclined to invest in new technology: "even though the cost of wind power has decreased dramatically in the past ten years, the technology requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators" ("Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy," Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program, 2008).

Concerns about sound of wind power and lack of applicability to diverse locations (Barron 2008).

Limited applicability on a wide scale to residences might make the public less interested in this source of energy


Global outreach -- Clipper currently has a number of offices in the U.S. (California, Colorado, Iowa and Maryland), but is also based in Mexico, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Other nations may be more receptive to wind energy if they have shown themselves to be more concerned about global warming than the U.S.


Solar power generated by solar panels, other renewable resources may compete with Clipper.

Off-shore drilling may offset concern about energy crisis.


Clipper WindPower is uniquely poised to capitalize upon the new interest in non-fossil fuels as renewable sources of energy. The rising price of gas, the political instability in the Middle East, and concerns about global warming have conspired to make environmentally-friendly policies popular for economic, political, and ethical reasons all over the world. Marketing Clipper WindPower not simply as a company, but as a company that provides services necessary to the sustainability of…… [read more]

Scientific Progress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Scientific Progress

Scientific Responsibility: Nuclear Energy

When one hears the word "nuclear," the image that springs to mind is one of destruction. After all, the world was first introduced to nuclear energy in the form of the atomic bomb, two of which were used to devastate Japan, ushering in the conclusion of the Pacific part of World War II. Hiroshima and Nagasaki experienced such tremendous devastation that it was probably impossible, at that time, for people to envision any responsible use of nuclear energy. These feelings grew during the Cold War; the United States and the Soviet Union both increased their nuclear arsenals, hoping to prevent the other Super Power from using nuclear weapons against them. Other major nations developed their nuclear capabilities as well. This proliferation of weapons helped ensure that humanity would never again know a world without the threat of nuclear war. However, the proliferation of nuclear weapons may also have been substantially responsible for preventing another war on the scale of World War I or World War II. Furthermore, it was during this time that the world also came to understand the practical, non-weapons uses of nuclear power. Nuclear power plants sprang up in various countries, providing people with affordable power without depleting precious fossil fuel resources or causing environmental damage, like fossil fuel power sources. However, this use of nuclear energy is not without controversy. The looming possibility of an accident makes the use of nuclear power very controversial.

To understand why people are so concerned about the impact of a nuclear accident, it is important to look at what has happened in the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. "The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear power industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation." (Kinley, p.8). The accident caused the deaths of many of the on-site personnel and over 600,000 people were eventually deemed to have received low-level radiation exposure as a result of the accident. It has been impossible to conclusively identify the full health impact of Chernobyl, but it is linked to a dramatic increase in early childhood thyroid cancer because of the absorption of radioactive iodine. Relatively few people died as a direct result of radiation immediately following the accident. While the results of the accident were devastating, they were undoubtedly mitigated by the fact that the Soviet Union acted quickly to evacuate people from the area immediately surrounding Chernobyl, and then later evacuated people in a greater surrounding radius.

In the United States, many people continue to associate nuclear energy with the disaster at Three-Mile Island. In fact, so many people associate the idea of Three-Mile Island with a large-scale nuclear disaster that they stop to consider the truth behind that accident. In contrast to the condition at Chernobyl, even though Three-Mile Island experienced the most serious event that a nuclear…… [read more]

Global Community Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Global Community

Globalization and the Need for Global Community Response: An Exploration of Three Case Studies

In his discussion of the beginnings of globalization, economists O'Rourke and Williamson compare the creation of a global community to the creation of the world, with economists taking a more recent "big bang" view and historians taking a later "big bang" approach (109). Though the exact moment that the global community sprang into existence is unknown, it is relatively easy to trace the development of that community. In 1492, Christopher Columbus made the European world aware of the Americas and paved the way for colonization of and trade with the "new world." On April 6, 1917, the isolationist United States balked as Congress dragged American troops into Europe's "Great War." For decades, globalization may have existed, but the global community did not. If one were to argue that it did exist, one could not argue that it was anything more than a community enticed by the trade opportunities and frightened by the firepower of its neighbors. But with the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 175 states, companies in different states collaborating on alternative fuel research, and states across the world taking up arms in oil rich countries, it is clear that the global community has evolved to consider concerns beyond economics and war. In fact, three contemporary problems -- global climate change, the peak oil problem, and political struggles over energy -- convey and increasing need for global community and collaborative solutions in the global community.

As environmental science revealed more and more about the facts of global climate change, the need for the global community to address the issue became apparent. Unlike the economic and military concerns that convinced states to interact with their global neighbors based on their own self-interest, the potential effects of global climate change have left many states certain that working with their neighbors to fight the problem will result in the best solution for the entire community. That global actors acknowledge the need and desire for a global community response to the problem can be evidenced by the action that has already taken place to address it. In 1992, intergovernmental organization (IGO) the United Nations launched the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which strongly suggested that sates regulate emissions in order to reduce the elevation of greenhouse gasses. Though a step in the right direction, member nations soon became convinced that a more stringent commitment, rather than suggestion, was needed to affect real change. Thus, the Kyoto Protocol, which required a commitment to the reduction of greenhouse gasses, was adopted in 1997 and took effect in 2005 (Kyoto).

Because of the collective voices of the global community -- states, IGOs, and other non-state actors like environmental researchers and interest groups -- the Framework Convention on Climate Change and finally the Kyoto Protocol was adopted. Because of a global community effort, a solution to the problem of global climate change has begun, but it is not yet complete.… [read more]

Organic Farming and Solar Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (986 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Ecotopia Imagined:

As a thought experiment, take seriously the society that Ecotopia Emerging creates. Picture living in that society. What would be difficult? What would be fulfilling?

The world envisioned in Ernest Callenbach's text Ecotopia Emerging seems both familiar and foreign, dated yet oddly prescient to a 21st century reader. The book was written during a period of rising conservative sentiment in the nation, and was meant to criticize an anti-environmentalist, pro-consumption, and fuel-wasting America around 1981. Callenbach wrote during the beginnings of the Reagan administration and towards the end of the last spiral of inflation, high oil prices, and turmoil in the Middle East. The nation in Ecotopia Emerging is ideologically split, between East and West Coasts, rather than 'red' and 'blue' states today. The novel depicts the breaking away of pro-environmentalist, ecologically-minded states like Oregon, California, and Washington from the rest of the nation, after the Supreme Court declares a proposed car tax invalid. There is a crisis in the Middle East involving Saudi Arabia, and the rest of the nation is preoccupied with the pointless war the U.S. is waging with Brazil. The ideals of the Ecotopia Survivalist Party begin to seem more appealing to the residents of the West Coast.

Living in an entirely self-sustaining land that is not dependant upon dictatorships for fuel would be fulfilling on an emotional level, but the loss of freedom and mobility with the shift from cars to buggies would initially be difficult, especially since the rest of the world would still be using cars. Of course, there might be a certain amount of fun in learning how to drive a horse and carriage, and the emotional relationship provided by living so close to nature, and being dependant upon a warm and caring living being rather than a box of metal would be a bonus. But there would be added extra time every morning, to feed the horse, to hitch it up to a buggy or to saddle the animal, and to take the time to ride to work or school.

Train travel would mean that an Ecotopian would not have to live like a 19th century dweller. But even though mobility across wide geographical expanses would still be possible, life would become recognizably different. Despite a greater availability of public transportation, individuals would be forced to live in a more collective manner, and plan their schedules around the time table of transport, the needs of animals, and other community schedules, rather than just jump into a car and 'joy ride,' or get a quart of milk from the 7-11 at 3am. People would appreciate their transportation more, and the cost involved to the environment, but there would be a loss of freedom and individual autonomy, at least for middle-class and wealthy people used to using cars.

Organic farming would produce healthier produce, but it also might limit the types of produce available around the year. People would have to buy fruits and…… [read more]

Party's Over by Richard Heinberg Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,426 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies" by Richard Heinberg. Specifically it will contain a detailed book report on the book, including the usefulness of reading this book in changing my current energy practices. Author Richard Heinberg is a professor at a California college and an author of several other books. He explores the world's… [read more]

Oil Drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Specifically, it will discuss the issues of greenhouse gases and the importance of maintaining wilderness in America today. Proponents of drilling in the area note the 1002 area, where drilling would occur, is just a small area of the entire Refuge. However, Americans now know how dangerous greenhouse gases from fossil fuels can be, and alternative energy sources are what the country should be investigating now, rather than more dependence on national (or foreign) oil. Drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is a stopgap measure at best, and ruining one of America's last pristine wilderness areas is not worth the cost of a few barrels of oil.

The ANWR has been considered a source for additional U.S. oil since the 1980s, and in fact, in 1980, Congress postponed making a decision about oil and gas reserves on 1.55 million acres of the Reserve (known as section 1002). They could have designated this area wilderness, along with the rest of the Reserve, but they chose not to do so (Stanke). Thus, this decision to drill for oil in the Refuge has been a long time in the making, and continues to inspire debate and contention today. There are many reasons why opponents so vehemently oppose drilling in the area. Greenhouse gas emissions and American dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels is one significant argument.

By now, just about everyone in America has heard about global warming, the not so gradual warming of our planet that will someday make it uninhabitable for most life as we know it, unless we act today. Global warming is due in large part to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which remove the "sunscreen" from the atmosphere and allow the sun's rays to warm the planet more than they would normally. Greenhouse gases come in large part from the burning of non-renewable fossil fuels, such as coal, natural gas, and oil. In addition, at its peak estimates show drilling in the area would produce about 1.5 million barrels of oil a day (Herndon). Considering the U.S. uses about 19.7 million barrels a day, Arctic drilling would produce a relative drop in the barrel, certainly not worth disturbing and forever damaging a pristine wilderness forever (Herndon). Thus, developing oil-producing areas, especially when they lie in a natural wonder such as the ANWR, simply does not make sense.

On the other hand, using the resources and funds that would be utilized in the Arctic to develop alternative forms of fuel does make sense. America desperately needs to stop depending on foreign oil imports, and begin developing alternative forms of energy for mass consumption. This development is not simply about saving natural resources. It is a necessity to reduce greenhouse gases and stop the rushing tide of global warming. Drilling for oil is so last millennium; instead, America needs to develop renewable, clean forms of energy, such as solar, wind, and electric-powered vehicles,… [read more]

What Is Wrong With Gas Prices Today? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  23 pages (6,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Drp)

What is wrong with Gas Prices?

I am afraid, not many Americans will agree with my point-of-view, when I submit that what is wrong with gas prices is that we have become used to low gas prices. I believe that higher energy prices will benefit United States and our planet in many ways, and I for one… [read more]

Is it Time to Revive Nuclear Power? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (913 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Halting the Revival of Nuclear Energy

While some will argue that nuclear energy should be revived, consideration of this will show that there is no justification for nuclear energy being revived. Instead, there are too many unresolved issues associated with nuclear energy and too many other energy options that do not have the risks. In either case, nuclear energy remains as an option. However, while significant risks and problems exists and while there remain to be better energy options, there is no reason to actually pursue the revival of nuclear energy.

Ansolabehere himself points out the many alternative options for generating electricity while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. These options include: increasing the efficiency of electricity generation; using renewable energy sources such as wind, solar energy, biomass, and geothermal; capturing carbon dioxide emissions and treating them; and increased use of nuclear power (Ansolabehere 196). Comparing all of these options, nuclear power seems like one of the least attractive options. This is especially true considering that the renewable energy source option is not really just one option, but contains many possible options for generating electricity. The problems with nuclear energy will be discussed shortly. For now, it is important to note that nuclear energy is far from being the only solution to an energy problem. With this in mind, there is little reason to suggest that nuclear energy needs to be revived. Ansolabehere (p. 196) would be likely to argue against this point since he considers that "it is likely that we shall need all of these options." However, there is no justification that all of these sources of energy will be required. Again then, there is no reason to suggest that nuclear energy is necessary.

The next issue that needs to be considered is the problems related to nuclear energy generation. Ansolabehere (p. 197) notes four major unresolved problems: costs, safety, proliferation, and waste. While these are general categories for the problems, they really describe more than just four essential problems. For example, safety is an overall problem, but can also be divided into separate problems including safety to workers and their health, safety to the surrounding community, and safety to the environment. The same is true for proliferation which Ansolabehere (p. 197) describes as "the possible misuse of commercial or associated nuclear facilities and operations to acquire technology or materials as a precursor to the acquisition of a nuclear weapons capability." This complicated description essentially refers to the potential for nuclear power plants to increase the risk of nuclear weapons being used, including their potential use in terrorist attacks. This potential risk exists in more than just one way. For example, nuclear power plants themselves could become terrorist targets, the fuel or waste material could be…… [read more]

Environmental Power Options Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Environmental problem in the world today [...] environmentally friendly power options that are renewable, rather than non-renewable and harmful such as oil and coal. This has always been an interesting topic to me, because it seems that people do not think that these types of fuels will ever go away, and they tend to waste energy without thinking… [read more]

Reiki Faith the "Religion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Reiki Faith

The "religion" known as Reiki has existed for thousands of years under many different names. Based on principles of healing energy, Reiki is a process which allows individuals to help themselves through their own energy forces. While Reiki is not associated with any ideology, there are certain principles and ideas which help to define the method as a… [read more]

Americans Today Think Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


On the surface there was an easy solution: legalization of the new status quo by confirming the previous sea borders of the former republics amongst the newly independent states, just as was done with territorial borders. However, the problem was complicated by political struggles over the new situation.

Among the key political questions that were raised a decade ago was… [read more]

Proposed Technology for Water Purification Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Technology for Clean Drinking Water

In many countries, the idea of clean drinking water is just that, an idea, a mirage. These countries continue to struggle in efforts to ensure accessibility of clean drinking water to their citizens. Actually, clean drinking water is a problem for more than 1 billion people across the globe, especially in developing countries where women and children are forced to walk several kilometers daily in search of safe drinking water. Women and children in the developing world usually end up collecting contaminated water for their families which in turn generates several health effects such as diarrhea. Consumption of contaminated water in areas where clean drinking water remains a mirage results in several illnesses and deaths.

Therefore, providing clean drinking water in the developing world is crucial towards improving the health and well-being of individuals and families. Generally, water is an essential human need, which is important to human life just like the air we breathe (Hadhazy par, 1). The provision of clean, purified, drinking water is regarded as one of the major measures for lessening the risk of disease and death, particularly in developing countries. Following the recognition of the need for clean drinking water and its role in lessening the risk of disease, several initiatives have been undertaken by governments to ensure the provision of such water to citizens. While these efforts have helped in improving access to clean drinking water, they have had little impact in lessening consumption of dirty and deadly polluted or contaminated water.

The most suitable means of ensuring developing countries have access to clean drinking water is by using technology to develop means for purification of water. Researchers have continued to look for cost-effective means for water purification that ranges from low-tech to high-tech concepts and solutions. Through these efforts, researchers have identified simple and portable concepts as well as large and scalable concepts that help in solving the issue of clean drinking water in developing countries.

In light of the situations in these countries, the use of solar stills seems to be the most cost-effective way of water purification. A solar still can be utilized to exploit the sun's…… [read more]

Electricity Lesson Plan for 7-12 Assessment

Assessment  |  4 pages (1,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … lesson plan CCCS on Electricity that is appropriate for grades 7 to 12. The lesson plan will cover procedures, objectives, materials, and assessment strategies.

Heading: Electricity Unit Lesson

Grades: 7 -- 12

Objectives (Watson): Explore the basic principles concerning electricity

Identify the important questions concerning electricity, electric currents, and electromagnetism.

Give answers to questions asked by students by use of BrainPOP resources.

Share research findings with the members of the class.

To warm-up the students and to assess their prior knowledge, the class will take the Electricity Quiz. Have the class discuss answers to the quiz.

Show a movie related to electricity to the class. Tell the students the various kinds of electricity and what they are used for (Watson).

Have the Q&A projected to the students. Tell them that they shall compose their own electricity related Q&A. Have the students brainstorm either with a partner or independently and choose what questions they would like to give answers to (Watson).

4. Give the students a chance to explore the movies that are there on BrainPop. The students are to watch movies connected in some way to their Q&A and determine the answers to the questions.

5. Do a compilation of the Q&A of the class. This compilation can be shared in the blog of the class or any other platform that allows sharing of a similar nature like a web 2.0 platform (Watson). Alternatively, an interactive bulletin board can be created and the Q&A displayed on the board with the answers covered with paper slips that can be lifted to reveal them.

Text/Concept Introduction:

Electricity is the energy that results when electrons are moved along a path in a conductor. The energy that the moving electrons carry is called electrical energy. Electrical conductors are very good at allowing electrons to flow through them. Many metals can be considered as very good in conducting electricity; this explains their wide usage as electrical circuits. While electricity is not visible to the eye, it is very useful. Power plants are not the creators of electricity, though. Energy cannot be created and cannot be destroyed. As per the Law of Conservation of Energy, the transformation of energy is what leads to electricity (Forms of Energy). For instance, power plants are able to turn the chemical energy present in fuels into thermal energy. The thermal energy then turns water into steam. As the steam goes through the turbines it produces what is known as mechanical energy. The generators are then spun by the turbines and this results in electricity being produced. The electrical energy generated can be used for lighting and heating (Forms of Energy).

Static energy is also a representation of electrical energy. Static energy results when electrons charge/electrons build up at one place. Lightning and thunder are phenomena that can be explained by the release of this static charge. Electrical Potential is the potential energy a charge has due to its location in an electrical field. Volt is the unit used… [read more]

Develop Workplace Policy and Procedures for Sustainability Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



a) the Queensland Sustainable Planning Act of 2009

b) Queensland has a specific code of practice for the sugar cane industry, for example, as found here: http://www.canegrowers.com.au/

c) The American company Wal-Mart is one of the biggest companies in the world and has famously imposed sustainability standards on its suppliers in China:

d) EEO/diversity principles reflect human rights and removing barriers

e) Reducing pollution, such as eliminating mining waste is a workplace health and sustainability issue.

2a) When stakeholders are directly involved and when they are indirectly affected.

2b) Communication makes audience understanding of issues easier and you can convince them of your argument, but every audience is different.

Government websites, and subject matter experts, maybe in an interview

You find out what the laws are, then the best practices, draw up in implementation plan, and then communicate to the organization. Then review to see if it worked.

5)a) It will take time, but the rainwater collectors should be first, then the plumbing.

5b) objectives, benchmark indicators, strategy, resources needed, timeframe, budget

5c) One must gain consensus from management, reach an agreement through negotiation

6.a) Make sure the targets were realistic, then increase communications, get leaders to champion the effort

6b) Leaflets, meetings, maybe bring in an expert to talk about.

6c) Periodic reviews of policies are an effective way to ensure the strategy is still valid.

7. Right now, none. I recommend weight for refuse/recycling, water and power metres.

1. The library's metric is kilowatt hours so that should be the metric used for the new lighting plan. The 10% reduction should be based on an average figure (?9800 Kwh) unless there is a logical reason for the spike last year.

2a). Continuous improvement will be tough -- unless new light bulbs are introduced every year to continually reduce energy consumption, the library is going to hit a point of diminishing returns on its efforts, constrained by the available technology. But it should aim for subsequent reductions based on other factors besides the type of light bulb. There is opportunity to improve for more than just one year, such as reduced use of lighting (more natural lighting), or reduced winter evening hours.

2b) A recording system helps provide data to management to track the results of its efforts. Without this, it will be difficult to know whether improvements are being made, and impossible to determine what the source of…… [read more]

Refrigeration Methods and Price Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Instructables, nd, paraphrased)

According to U.S. Patent 200600080993 A1 a refrigerated liquid dispensing is inclusive of a cabinet that has a compartment that is refrigerated. This method of refrigeration requires a mounted bottle in the compartment receptacle with a value mounted to the bottle's neck which controls the liquid flow. It is stated that in one example of the invention that the valve is "actuated by a s0pring plunger mounted to the door of the compartment so that the valve can be actuated without opening the door to dispense water from a valve stem into a cup in a cup holder area below the compartment. In a further practice of the invention the valve is actuated by opening the door and acting directly on the valve. When the door opens a valve extension automatically slides outwardly so that a dispensing opening in the valve extension is disposed against a cup in the cup holder area." (Google Patents, 2014, p. 1)

Summary and Conclusion

This study has examined the use and operation of various refrigeration systems used in the American Craft Brewing industry. This includes such as glycol chillers, walk-in evaporative coolers and refrigerated dispensing systems and has related the principles and processes of these systems and their use in the American Craft Brewing industry. Each of these systems has their advantages and disadvantages and each of these systems require precise maintenance and monitoring to ensure efficiency in their operations.


A Brewery Glycol System Guide (nd) Prochiller. Retrieved from: http://www.prochiller.com/files/GLYCOLGUIDE.pdf

Evaporative Cooler (nd) Instructables. Retrieved from: http://www.instructables.com/id/Evaporative-Cooler-1/

King, MP (nd) CHILLER SYSTEMS AND GLYCOL USE . Chiller TechNet Document #1021. Seven Considerations. Retrieved from: http://www.legacychillers.com/cms_data/uploads/ChillerTechNet-Chiller%20Systems%20and%20Glycol.pdf EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT GLYCOL

Refrigerated liquid dispensing system (2014) U.S. 20060080993 A1. Google Patents. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/patents/US20060080993

VanderGeissen, J. (nd) Evolution of the…… [read more]

Project Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (895 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In this case, the project met the continuing and long-term needs of stakeholders through increased amounts of transparency and controls. The biggest lesson that was learned, is how there will be additional challenges and cost overruns during the course of any large scale building project. (Subijanto 2013)

Ourzazate Solar Power Station

The Ourzazate Solar Power Station is utilizing the tremendous amounts of sunlight inside Morocco and converting it into a renewable source of electricity. It is currently being constructed in a series of stages. This is designed to meet the needs of the local economy and diversify the country's energy needs towards renewable sources. In this case, the needs of stakeholders are addressed by providing them with a reliable source of continuing power. Politically and from a regulatory perspective, this ensures that the country is able to meet the demands of the general public in way that is socially responsible. Environmentally, this decreases the carbon output and it limits the negative effects of the plant on different communities. At the same time, it will create jobs and improve the standard of living within the region. The financing model is focused on receiving funds directly through the African Development, World and European Development Banks. The project is monitored by having a series of independent contractors evaluate spending and what is happening. Risks are managed by utilizing a variety of local and foreign-based firms to work on specific stages. The independent contractors monitor any changes and oversee key challenges. This helped to reduce the possibility of cost overruns through having a series of checks and balances in place. Security is designed to reduce terrorism and prevent sabotage from those who are opposed to the project. Post implementation, requires using the fees generated to cover operating expenses and help enhance the needs of the local economy. In this case, these techniques allowed for an environmentally friendly project to be developed. However, the biggest lesson is that costs were higher than expected. This is from the importation of specific parts and the utilization of specialists to build / develop the plant. To deal with these issues, there needs to be two estimates provided. One will offer an initial cost for the project. While the other, will concentrate on possible cost overruns by adding a certain amount to the final price. This is designed to deal with setbacks and ensure there is adequate financing during the entire process. (Ourzazate Solar Power Station 2012)


Ourzazate Solar Power Station, 2012, African Development Bank. Available from: < http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Morocco%20-%20%20AR%20Ouarzazate%20Project%20I%20(2).pdf > [24 June 2014].

Subijanto, T, 2013, 'Key Success Factors,' Water Policy, vol. 15, pp. 183-205.… [read more]

Number of Different Factors Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,152 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The other thing Edgar has to think about here is that even people who continue to patronize his gas station will have less money for discretionary items if the price of gas continues to rise. So not only will he have fewer customers, but the remaining customers will spend less as well. The latter trend will be evident in the… [read more]

Locker Construction Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


As indicated in Figure IV-1, peak electricity prices are as high as $0.23 per kWh for buildings (including most state buildings) that are on time-of-use rates. At this time, it is not clear what future electricity prices will be. However, as the lockers are being constructed, less energy will be needed in regards to heating or cooling of the room. The room will not need to utilized computers, refrigerators, or other appliances that use energy. As such, savings can be realized overtime, through reduced usage of energy.


Single Phase Service per meter/day =$0.32854 Polyphase Service per meter/day =$0.65708


On peak


Part Peak


Off Peak



Part Peak


Off Peak




Utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems generally run at less than 50% capacity.113 However, during periods of peak electricity use, the generation and T&D systems may be close to overloaded. The benefits of reduced consumption are largest during periods of peak power consumption -- avoided congestion costs, reduced power quality and reliability problems, reduced pollution

Non-financial Benefit:

The benefit of using Good Housekeeping and Organization with the workplace is paramount to the success of the IPA. Workers in many instances value convenience. Stress and unforeseen circumstances can often reduce working productivity. With the use of lockers within the facility, patrons have convenient method to store items, ultimately reducing stress. Also, patrons will not need to worry about where to place items in the event that a wardrobe change is warranted. Further, the use of lockers helps to mitigate theft within the IPA as belongings can be secured. The peace of mind associated with securely locking items is a non-financial benefit.


In general, large buildings consume a large… [read more]

Hydraulic Fracturing the Social Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,800 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hydraulic Fracturing

The social and economic evolution which unfolded, along the course of the industrialization era since the 1800s onwards has constituted the basis for many scientific investigations with regards to social and economic history. The creation and developmental process of national industry has very much been an important and dominant facet of economic upheaval. Despite the numerous benefits, industrialization… [read more]

2011, an Interview Was Published Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (1,007 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Ovshinsky is not unwilling to confess that important leading figures of the U.S. are limited at merely verbal encouragement and he mentions President Obama in this respect who, in a gleeful manner, urged the inventor to ?keep at it. Thus, what one is to understand from the issues raised in the interview is that not only do techniques and resources to ensure quality energy at fair prices exist, but also, we possess the means for achieving success in this respect. However, Ovshinsky is pointing to something else that would indeed be concerning if proved accurate. He draws on the public's credulity in regards to governmental decisions about alternative sources of energy and bringing about changes: Does anyone really expect that Congress will ever support renewables? Current policy doesn't really support anything new… 2

The interview is indeed relevant in regards to contemporary challenges that our industrial and technological societies must meet. The cheapest resource which is exploited worldwide for producing energy is coal which is also known to be the cause for most of the carbon emissions everywhere. This indeed has a global impact and it is likely that pollution in one part of the world will be the cause for negative side effects on another in the future. This is why the interview is not targeted at merely specific readers but indeed looks to draw on how societies everywhere could benefit from Ovshinsky's work, provided that relevant financial support exists. Moreover, while it presents certain technical explanations, the interview makes the information available to readers who are not perhaps as acquainted with the terminology as other interested audiences. In general terms, the information looks to cover and abide by the same initial principle which has been to inform people on potential dangers. And pollution represents a massive challenge for this new era of technological developments relying on electricity.

Perhaps something to be taken into account when considering this interview is Ovshinsky's general attitude towards sustaining renewable forces. In this respect, while he does acknowledge wind power and solar thermal, he sees their utility as limited because of their dependence on specific environmental factors. He thus promotes in the interview his personal solution as ?universal solution, ? stating that it ?is the way to go because it is very low cost, and you don't need deserts and running water and other things that the solar-thermal companies don't like to talk about. 3 It is important thus that the author points to these already existing challenges for those looking to enhance the use of alternative energy. It may perhaps be that the interview was looking to foreground Ovshinsky's solution, however, the information clearly withstands such directives. The interview remains important because of the topic addressed which is relevant in present times' environmental challenges.

Reference list

Intellectual capital is a particularly important concept in the contemporary society and the success of many companies lies with…… [read more]

Nova Scotia Government and Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


6. By the year 2010, making sure that emission is cut back in order that health issues among the citizens will decrease.

7. Progress the coverage of public support services, particularly technical assistance and technology transfer. This support would need to involve not only an increase in resources for the recruitment of more technicians and professionals, but also a review of the content and methods utilized for technological modernization.

8. Set up programs and seminars in the community that will address the effects of having an ineffective environment and how it can cause serious health issues in humans and animals as well as how it can be destructive to the plants, water and air.

9. In the next five years coming up with an Energy efficiency plan that is a cost-effective energy resource for the reason that saving kilowatt hours would be much cheaper than having to yield them by constructing power plants and then burning fuels.

Paying for energy efficiency programs by means of power rates will reduce the future costs of the whole electricity system. This would then mean that less money that is going out of Nova Scotia's pockets to offer incomes for Nova Scotia Power.

Potential Partners

The soon to be created and also become a potential partner is the Efficiency Nova Scotia agency which is actually expected to operate an energy efficiency program on par with the most forward-thinking and determined programs in North America.

However that is the present plan. Also the Community Health Boards will come on board and they will be very helpful by are drawing up regional surveys that will be conducted by the respective District Health Authorities. The question that they will use is some questions that are also asked in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The data in these surveys will be used in order to get a better viewpoint of the needs of the people and also to see rather or not that the objectives being enforced are effective or not.


Conrad, Catherine. 2006. Towards meaningful community-based ecological monitoring in nova scotia: Where are we vs. where we would like to be. Environments 34, (1): 25-36,

Korosi, Jennifer B., and John P. Smol. 2011. Distribution of cladoceran assemblages across environmental gradients in Nova Scotia (Canada) lakes. Hydrobiologia 663, (1) (03): 83-99,

Thompson, Shirley. 2004. from a toxic economy to sustainability: Women activists taking care of environmental health in Nova Scotia. Canadian Woman Studies 23, (1) (Fall): 108-114,

Bill 146, Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act, Bill 146, 1st sess., 60th Leg., Nova Scotia,

(assented to 13 April 2007).

Thompson, Shirley. 2004. from a toxic economy to sustainability: Women activists taking care of environmental health in Nova Scotia. Canadian Woman Studies 23, (1) (Fall): 108-114,

Originally published by ChronicleHerald.ca, "NDP: NSP shouldn't charge consumers for conservation

Plans," June 4, 2009.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), "Canada-Wide Standards for Mercury

Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Power Generation Plants," [2006], available at http://www.ccme.ca/assets/


One of the…… [read more]

California's Natural Resources and Economic Development Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


California Natural Resources

California is now one of the largest regional economies in the world and its success is one of the pillars which made the United States an economic giant. Its success has been rapid starting between the 18th century and 19 century. The state is blessed with natural resources which have been fundamental in explaining the meteoric rise… [read more]

Coal to Gas Switching Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Coal Gas

Switching from coal to gas has perceived environmental, economic, and political benefits. Because of this, the switch from coal to natural gas-generated power on the mainstream grids has increased significantly. As of 2008, natural gas is creating 30% of power in the United States, compared to 19% of the market in 2005. Part of the impetus for shifting from coal to natural gas is clearly price: the price of natural gas has decreased significantly over the course of the past several years. There are also political reasons for the shift from coal to natural gas. For example, the United States' refusal to participate in some of the Kyoto Protocol provisions, coupled with pressure from the European Union, have led to a gradual embrace of using natural gas over coal. This has in turn brought down the price of coal, in response to market demands. Prices have also been reduced in response to more advanced and accessible drilling technologies. Reduced carbon emissions are the primary driving factor in the shift from coal-generated power to natural gas-generated power.

Unfortunately, the switch is not a smooth transition. Natural gas prices are again rising. This is because of the phase of dismantling outmoded coal-generating energy plants, and the subsequent rise in demand for investments in natural gas-specific generating plants. Stricter environmental regulations are also driving up the cost of implementing a natural gas-centric power generation model. Renewable energy sources remain intermittent, and are only partially supplementing natural gas. The United States remains opposed to international solutions to the greenhouse gas emissions crisis, and clings to a privileged position in which American interests trump the interests of either global stability or even national security, let alone environmental harmony and ecological integrity.

Shifting from coal to natural gas leads to quantifiable…… [read more]

Smart Grid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Wind Farm Grids

Wind Farm Valuation

Value a new Wind Farm project

Hurricane or tornado survivors or anyone who has seen pictures of the aftermath of these storms will realize there is enormous energy potential in wind power. The problem is taming this energy so that it is useful without being destructive.

Wind energy is derived from the sun. Because… [read more]

Carbon Dioxide Emissions the Greenhouse Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


4% in the year 2011 (U.S. 2012). However, this was after a 3.3% increase the year before. The year 2007 showed the greatest decreased in carbon emissions with a 7% decrease from the year before. This seems to be a positive development however given that there was still an increase in emissions as recently as 2010 is extremely disconcerting. Over the last forty years, carbon emissions have lowered after reaching a high in the 1970s and 1980s (Becker 2013). It is good, but as stated, this is not yet low enough.

Information Obtained:

Through this experiment, I have learned more about the dangers of carbon emissions in the atmosphere and exactly how problematic the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming is. People mostly think about this issue as something abstract and "going green" is a movement which will pass. Recycling and driving less are helpful things, but there is so much more that needs to be done to save our planet. Some 40% of carbon emissions come from power plants, such as nuclear plants and from oil refineries who convert fossil fuels into gasoline. By reducing the pollution these businesses produce, then there will be much more benefit to the environment than the simple tasks which everyday people can do to contribute to the green effort. It is a bigger problem than just one or two people can fix.

Works Cited

Becker, D & Gerstenzang, J. (2013). Limiting carbon dioxide pollution by power plants. The New York Times.

US…… [read more]

Green Technology Relationship Between World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Putting this into consideration, green house technologies is coming up with various methods aimed at reducing exploitation of energy. One of the main steps that these technologies are putting into account is the use of other sources of energy which are free from pollution. A Solar cell is one of the best known examples which are as a result of embracement of green technology.

A solar cell usually converts light energy directly to electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. A solar cell is a form of photoelectric cell generates and supports electric current when exposed to light. This happens without attachment to any source of external voltage. Through the use of solar cell, people can be able to get energy from the sunlight in a cheaper and easier way as compared to most sources of energy. Combination of several solar cells helps in making of solar modules, which take part in generating electrical power from the sunlight. The electrical power generated from the solar module, known as solar power is one of the main examples of solar energy.

The use of solar energy from the solar cell is one of the most researched technologies in the 21st century. Researchers are coming up with various ways on where and how they can apply solar energy in almost all the areas that require energy. Currently, there are many areas are using solar energy in operations. Some of these include power for domestic use, cars, toys, and electronics. People are testing the use of solar energy in various applications. Going with this rate of experimenting, it is true that most applications will be using solar energy in the near future. One of the main advantages of solar energy is that it does not pollute the natural environment. Moreover, it is a renewable source of energy, and hence people can use it as long as they wish provided they have the solar cells. The embracement of green technology through the use of solar energy will significantly help in conserving the natural environment, offering a favorable atmosphere for people as well as animals to live…… [read more]

Legal Issues in Hydraulic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The companies that carry out the fracing process are also not trustworthy in taking caution to protect the environment. Mishandling of the waste from this process is rampant causing pollution of the environment.

It is for these reasons that the government and other non-governmental organizations have strongly come out to voice out for the protection of the environment. The government has taken a keen interest in this issue that involves one of the industries that contribute immensely to the economy and the markets of the world. The government has taken precautionary measures to control and counter the environmental impacts. The measures involve drafting, debating and constituting laws that govern the process of oil and petroleum mining and transportation.

Such measures include the proposed federal FRAC Act. H.R. 1084; S.587. This regulation seeks to address the issue of water pollution in the underground. The Michigan DEQ permitting instructions (2011) outlines the guidelines to permitting of the use of the hydraulic fracturing method. Another regulation is Wyoming Oil and GS Regulation, Chapter 3 section 45(September 2010). There are also local laws involved in this regulation process. These laws hold for the drillers, and they have introduced protective drilling formulae for use as cracking fluid. The laws overriding the chemical disclosure also are different from one state to another.

The hydraulic fracturing method is effective for extraction of oil, petroleum and gas. The process directly influences the economy of the nation as well as the environment. It is my opinion that the government and local authorities clearly understand that, and they have taken effective measures to control the process. The laws are effective and will reduce the impacts of the process to the environment.


United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2012). Natural Gas Extraction

Hydraulic Fracturing. Retrieved on 8th January 2013 from http://www.epa.gov/hydraulicfracture/

Boman, K. (2013). .Alaska Proposes Changes to Hydraulic Fracturing Rules. Retrieved on 8th

Jan 2013, from http://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_gas/a/123178/Alaska_Proposes_Changes_to_Hydrauli

c_Fracturing_Rules… [read more]

Complex Organization Book Review

Book Review  |  6 pages (1,857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Organization

The Empathic Civilization, by Jeremy Rifkin is a fresh analysis of the history of civilization, how we got to the place we are in presently, and what we can do to guarantee the highest likelihood of survival of our species. Jeremy Rifkin is one of the most well-liked social thinkers of our time. He is a counselor… [read more]

Cellular Respiration Give the Overall Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Respiration and oxygen consumption rates both increase during any form of exercise or physical activity.

According to the data collected, is there a correlation between the mass of the mice and their room temperature respiration rates?

The heavier mice had lower room temperature respiration rates. Larger organisms tend to have higher metabolic rates in general. Metabolic rates are chemical processes that require an expenditure of energy and thus impact respiration rates. It is not surprising to see that the mice weighing 35.9g and 43.2g had lower oxygen consumption rates at room temperature than the mice weighing 30.6g and 32.5g.

How is exercise an example of the Second Law of Thermodynamics?

Under the Second Law of Thermodynamics, energy is always moving from areas of higher concentration to lesser concentration. As it does, it becomes less and less useful. Exercise causes the body to become hotter as more energy is utilized (blood is pumped to areas that need it most) until energy is burned off and fatigue sets in. The energy that was once required for physical activity is eventually depleted.

Describe how cellular respiration and photosynthesis are related.

Cellular respiration involves the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide. This process provides cells with the energy required to produce energy. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants do the same thing, except it is reversed. Energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar. This provides the plant with energy. The by-product is oxygen. Together, both photosynthesis and cellular respiration help recycle carbon dioxide and oxygen throughout the environment.

Do plant cells conduct cellular respiration? Why or why not?

Plants, like all living things, undergo processes of cellular respiration. This is because all living things require energy. Energy must be released so that it can be converted into a useful form for cells. The energy stored within the "food" consumed by all living things must be adequately processed to sustain life. Otherwise, the organism will die.


"Molecular Biology." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2011): 1. Academic…… [read more]

Grand Challenge I'll Focus On. To Demonstrate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Grand Challenge I'll focus on. To demonstrate, I have chosen "Provide energy from fusion" as the focus. It may also be a good idea to provide reasons for choosing this specific Grand Challenge. Energy is one of the major needs in the world today, affecting almost everything that relates to our lifestyle today, from our basic needs such as food to entertainment such as television and films. Everything today needs energy for its power, movement, or function. So providing a sustainable source of energy is one of the major challenges that engineers face today, which would make a discussion of this Grand Challenge both interesting and relevant. I would start by describing the challenge and its components, such as the potential of fusion energy, its challenges, what is currently being done, and the general safety concerns involved.

These safety concerns will then provide a good connecting point for the next part of the paper, which would focus on ethics. To relate to the discussion of energy from fusion, I have chosen the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Code of Ethics for Engineers. There are six fundamental canons, three of which could be considered to be specifically related to fusion as an energy source.

Canon #1 states that engineers are to "Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. I would relate this to the idea that fusion energy has several challenges, including the fact that the radio activity created by the process needs to be contained. The structure built to create the energy should also be made of material that is sturdy enough to withstand the process in the long-term. Failure to do this could lead to safety concerns for workers and those living close to the facility.

Canon #3 states that engineers are to "issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. One of the challenges that relate to fusion energy is that its possible…… [read more]

Production and Consumption Habits Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Human Production and Consumption Habits

As the most intelligent, creative, and resourceful species ever to inhabit this planet, human beings have continually transformed and reshaped their physical environment to suit their needs. A substantial part of that process has always involved consumption of natural resources. Today, the global population faces several different crises resulting from irresponsible over-consumption and irresponsible production habits without due regard for complex long-term consequences.

The Industrial Revolution radically changed human life throughout 19th century Europe and in North America. Industrialization allowed the fastest spread of the benefits of modern life ever seen. The mass production methods and processes made possible by electric and gasoline-powered machinery allowed virtually all of the modern conveniences that changed the quality of everyday life for millions of people in the last two hundred years. However, as early as a few decades after the spread of industrial technology to cities, various negative consequences emerged.

The industrialized cities of the late 19th century were filthy and dangerous, largely because of the byproducts of totally unregulated industrial production processes (Attfield, 2003). Factories and production plants spewed out heavy smoke and toxic materials in great plumes that entered the atmosphere and heavily polluted the air. Larger particles of soot floated down, often forming a light coating on any exposed areas. During the 20th centuries, the nations of the so-called "First World" developed measures to regulate and control the pollution attributable to fossil fuels but that did not address consumption issues (Attfield, 2003).

By the dawn of the 21st century, human consumption habit in relation to fossil fuels had resulted in a pending energy crisis (Attfield, 2003). The existing supplies…… [read more]

OSHA Electrical Safety Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,245 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


OSHA Electrical Safety

Occupational Safety & Health Administration -- OSHA electrical safety standards have been formulated to safeguard workers from risks of electrocution, electrical fires and other explosions related to electrical equipments. Implementations of these safeguards have been done as any fault due to electrical causes can pose a serious hazard to a workplace. Electrical safety hazards are delineated in… [read more]

Arrangement and Composition of Fuels A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Running parallel below the shelf is a desk. The desk appears to be made of the same material as the walls. On the desk, there is a cathode computer screen. Alongside the screen is a collection of files and books others lying on top of the desk and other placed upright next to the screen. There is a computer keyboard almost attached to the screen. Back of the desk is a seat made of plastic, cloth, foam and metal. Under the desk, there are two piles of about two feet each of paper.

Amounts of fuel in each

The amounts of fuel in the three workstations are similar. Having looked at the arrangements of each of the workstations, the amount of fuel in them evidently are the same. However, the only differences that exist among the three workstations are the walls or partitioning. The two-sided workstation is half-open and has the two walls or partitioning in a "L" shape. The three sided work station has a "U" shaped wall around it and the four sided workstation is fully covered on all sides leaving a small opening as a door.

Fire Development In Terms Of Heat Flux and Heat Transfer

"The rate of the heat release (HRR) increases or decreases as a Time function is usually expressed in kW per second (kW/s)" (Kennedy & Kennedy, 2003). The slide show reveal that the fire in the four sided workstation developed faster than both the two sided and three side workstation. It took 360 seconds t for the fire to produce 6.9 megawatts of energy as compared to 3.8 megawatts in 480 seconds in three sided workstation. The two sided workstation recorded 3.0 megawatts in 420 seconds.

The enclosure of the four-sided workstation appears to be the main reason for the fast spread of fire. The enclosure enabled faster heat transfer within the workstation through conduction. The surrounding fuels as well as the ventilation control the rate at which the heat was released from one item to the other within the workstation. Moreover, composition of the fuels within the four sided workstation could have lead to faster rates of combustion within the workstation resulting to production of higher levels of energy. "The rate at which fire develops, peak heat release rate, and time of burning depend on both the characteristics of the fuel involved and ventilation profile" (Hartin, 2007). Most items or the fuel in the workstation were also of light density enabling the fire to spread fast to a fully developed stage where all the all combustible items are on fire in the workstation and flames extend through to top opening. (Karlsson & Quintiere, 2000).


Hartin, E. (2007). Fire Development and Fire Behavior Indicators. Retrieved March 6,

2012, from www.firehouse.com: http://www.firehouse.com

Karlsson, B., & Quintiere, J.G. (2000). Enclosure Fire Dynamics,. Boca Raton: CRC

Press LLC.

Kennedy, P.M., & Kennedy, K.C. (2003). Flashover and…… [read more]

Mechanism Description Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,514 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … appearance, and a list of parts. It also contains a description for each part individually including a definition, function, appearance, and link to the next part. In conclusion it contains a summary of the function of flashlight and its components.

Mechanism Description

A portable hand held electric device which provides light is commonly called a flashlight. The function… [read more]

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