"Energy / Power" Essays

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Bidirectional Converter for Residential Grid Connected PV System Using SPMC Topology Research Proposal

2 pages (594 words)  |  IEEE Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… PV Sys Proposal

Bidirectional Converter for Residential Grid Connected PV System Using SPMC Topology

The proposed research will focus on the development and implementation of a Single Phase Matrix Converter (SPMC) for use in a standard residential grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. This will create a cost savings for the overall system, streamline operation, and simplify use of the system. The SPMC will allow a single switching unit to regulate the flow of electricity to the grid and to the battery in a typical PV system setup, providing the necessary bidirectional flow in a simpler manner than is currently available.

Overview of Previous Research

A number of engineering solutions have been proposed and implemented for the conversion and flow direction changes needed in a standard PV system, and typically increases in performance have been coupled with increases in the complexity of the solutions/systems installed (Seminar, 2011). Other systems are currently being research and in some cases applied in practical situations, however, that achieve high performance results with simplified converter/directional control setups or devices (Shiji et al., 2003; Zhang, 2008; Hamzah et al., 2006). Combined converter devices such as a boost&buckboost converter, allowed for bidirectional soft switching with a 97.1% forward power flow, demonstrating the potential for higher performance through simpler means (Shinji et al., 2003). A major problem with many attempts to simplify the control devices bidirectional conversions are the emergence of spikes or peaks in flow, which must be controlled or eliminated in order to operate efficiently; work in this area with technologies other than the proposed SPMC has provided valuable insight into some of the problems that might be faced as well as potential solutions (Zhang, 2008). Research into SPMCs themselves is still relatively scant, however simulations and limited experiments have suggested that their use has…… [read more]


Photosynthesis Essay

2 pages (631 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… The functioning of these cells is important in the conversion of one form of energy into another (Rana, 2008, p. 98).

Differences between Solar Cells and Plant Cells

1. Solar cells only absorb 20% of the incident sunlight as compared to 0.03% captured by the plants. Here the difference of the energy comes into light. A single photon of the sunlight is more than enough for a single plant atom to excite to higher energy levels whereas even more energy is required for functioning of the solar cells.

2. Plant cells convert solar energy into chemical energy while solar cells convert solar energy into electricity. Plants are one of the most important source that add up to moisture recycling and solar cells cannot obtain any befits from precipitation. Presence of dust in the air can greatly reduce the efficiency of the solar cells to more than 40%. Dust on the other hand has no effect on plant cells.

3. Solar cells use inorganic semiconductors as compared to the plants that use organic processes for the conversion. Thereby the main difference lies in the fact that the nature of the cells is different in both the plants and solar cells (Nelson, 2003, p. 23).

Conclusion

The main difference between solar cells and plant cells is based on the nature of the cells as organic reactions are involved in plant cells and inorganic reactions are involved in solar cells. Solar cells as compared to the plant cells are more sensitive to the presence of dust in the air that can reduce solar cell efficiency by more than 40%. Plant cells as compared to solar cells contribute oxygen and moisture to the environment whereas no contribution is given by the solar cells.

References

Nelson, J. (2003). The physics of solar cells, Volume 2 of Series on…… [read more]


Hvdc Research Paper

4 pages (1,239 words)  |  IEEE Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The CCC is a conventional converter used in HVDC systems by inserting capacitors within the line connections. However, the CCC is quickly being done away with due to another more practical converter called the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). The VSC completely does away with the need for 'extinction time' and as one recent study determined "voltage source multi-level power converter structures are being considered for high power high voltage applications where they have well-known advantages (such as no extinction time)" (Chaves, Margato, Silva, Pinto, Santana, 2011, p. 1436). Their study also showed that for both converter sides "the control strategy considers active and reactive power to establish ac grid currents on sending and receiving ends while guaranteeing the balancing of both NPC dc bus capacitor voltages" (p. 1436). Another study determined that "this technology had captured a significant proportion of the HVDC market" and that VSC technology "will probably eventually replace all simple thyristor-based systems now in use" (Arrillage, Liu, Watson, Murray, 2009).

One of the future trends seems to be towards the self-commutated converters (SCC). The problem with self-commutated converters is that it loses a lot of energy during the shut-down process. A recent study however, determined that self-commutated power converters that use zero-current soft-switching techniques are much more likely to have reduced switching losses.

The study found that "switching losses of HVDC are reduced by adding a commutation circuit" (Senjyu, Kurohane, Miyagi, Urasaki, 2009, p. 316). This reduction is accomplished by introducing the self-commutated converter. Evidence of this accomplishment was verified by the Matlab/Simulink as discussed earlier in this paper.

Many of the trends towards more effective use of inverters and converters are based on the technology that makes simulations possible. The effects of adjusting and tweaking of converters and inverters can easily be determined by the use of this technology. With the demands made by larger populations and the introduction of more and more electrical uses, the demand for electricity throughout the world will likely continue to grow. Transmission of this electricity will need to be accomplished in the most effective and efficient method. Introducing inverters and converters that help in accomplishing this task is certain to continue into the future. Whether the converters are of the conventional, voltage-sourced or self-commutated versions will likely depend on how quickly improvements can be made to their use. By using technology tools studies such as the one conducted by Senjyu et al. are able to determine that "the proposed circuit concludes that switching losses with all self turn-off devices are nearly zero by connecting commutation circuits for power converters" (p. 323).

Being ready to implement the necessary changes effectively will take center stage during the next decade and the introduction of more effective converters and inverters will be a major component of those necessary changes.

References

Alasooly, H. & Redha, M.; (2010) Simulation of some of the power electronics case studies in Matlab Simpowsystem Toolbox, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1239, Issue 1, pp. 120 -- 133

Arrillaga, J.; Liu, Y.H.; Watson,… [read more]


How Inadequate Hydro Gaming of the System Hot Summers Let to Failure of California Deregulation Essay

2 pages (885 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Electricity

How inadequate hydro, gaming of the system, hot summers let to failure of California deregulation

Californian Crisis

How inadequate hydro, gaming of the system, hot summers let to failure of California deregulation

The failure of the deregulation of electricity in California had a number of complex causes. These included the issue of the lack of sufficient hydroelectric power in the region, as well as drought during the period of deregulation which placed further strain on the electricity supply. However, a central causative factor lay in the process and nature of the deregulation itself, as well as the important factor of the manipulation of the market and the gaming of the system for profit.

The electricity crisis in the region, also known as the Western Energy Crisis during 2000 and 2001, refers to a critical period when the state was subjected to numerous blackouts, as well as the failure of one of California's largest energy companies. As has already been noted, the reasons for the failure of deregulation in the region are complex. However, a number of central factors can be isolated and shown to have provided the impetus towards the failure of this deregulation.

In 1998, California was one of the first states to implement deregulation (Bradshaw and Woodrow). In 1997, before the advent of deregulation, the Public Utilities Commission moved to open the twenty billion dollar market to competition. The rationale behind this thinking was that such a move would have a number of benefits. These included the view that it would result in a reduction of prices due to increased competition and that this increased competition would also lead to new services and innovations in the market. In 1998 residential customers were permitted to "…buy competitive retail electric power. Expectations about the benefits were high." ( Ritschel and Smestad 1380)

Other benefits that were envisaged included improved customer services and new products, as well as improved environmental benefits, such as "green" power.

( Ritschel and Smestad 1379)

However, while at the beginning the move towards deregulation seemed to be successful, the results were a failure, with rolling blackouts in 2001. (Bradshaw and Woodrow) A central reason given for this crisis was the "gaming of the system." In other words, there was a manipulation of various market factors by some players, which contributed to the failure of the deregulation. Gaming is in referred to as the practice by "…greedy private companies gaming the system through rules they helped write." (Bradshaw and Woodrow) As one study on this subject notes: "….generators "gamed" California's electricity auctions to extract high prices." (THE CALIFORNIA CRISIS) Other factors that are also mentioned are the"…lack of…… [read more]


Kyoto Protocol UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun Case Study

5 pages (1,571 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Kyoto Protocol & Poland

Kyoto Protocol - UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun & Poland

Kyoto Protocol -- UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun & Poland

Climate change has been the most important environmental challenge to create the plans and policies for sustainable resource development. United Nations also recognized this challenge and adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate… [read more]


Ecology and the Environment Essay

2 pages (538 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Biology/Ecology

Afghanistan

Canada

2008 Pop (millions)

BR/1000

DR/1000

GR

PGR

Afghanistan's population, assuming constant BR/DR and no emigration, immigration, will double every 29 years, or in 2036; Because Canada's birth rate is much smaller in relation to death rate, it will not be until 2182 that Canada's population will double. (See: http://www.metamorphosisalpha.com/ias/population.php)

Afghanistan Projected Population (millions)

Canada Projected Population (millions)

Human Population Growth

GR = 20/1000

PGR = 20/1000 X 100 = 2%

DT = 70/.02 = 35 years

Population in 2044 = 199,988

Population in 2079 = 399,955

Afghanistan represents an example of a moderate/rapid growing population.

Part 5 - Profile A is more representative of Canada.

Part 6 - E, both B. And D. important due to high birth rate and potential mortality issues.

Part 7 -- D, there would be very few young people in the population.

Part 8 - One of the clear challenges of reducing global warming is transferring the energy needs of the developed world into solutions that allow a burgeoning population access to some of the more common utilities of the developed world. In the developed world, for instance, capital and innovation are more apt to provide alternatives; solar power, wind power, hydro-electric power, nuclear power, etc. When translating these technologies to other countries, Afghanistan for instance, one must be mindful that a structure is necessary for construction and maintenance of many technologies, as well as the natural resources that are available in the country.

Of course, if money were no object and the developed countries of the world put funding together, hydroelectric power would be ideal for Afghanistan since it is…… [read more]


CISM in the Event Thesis

5 pages (1,824 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… These policies and strategies will continue to be examined and rewritten many years into the future. One of the key lessons learned was about how to achieve greater interagency cooperation in the development policies in this regards (NEI, 2011). (IAEA, 2011). At present, policies of concentrated on preventing in managing the physical disaster in very little attention. Caring for mental and emotional issues is not a consideration in the plans at this time. However, this issue needs to be addressed in order to prevent long-term consequences of the disaster that reach far beyond the initial event.

Conclusion

Little formal research has been conducted regarding the emotional impact of a critical incident involving a nuclear facility. The literature revealed that the emotional impact is greater the closer the person is to the incident. Taking this into consideration, it could be expected that first responders and those working within the plant would have the greatest potential for developing emotional problems associated with the disaster. This information suggests that providing CISM becomes more crucial the closer the responder is to the disaster. This will allow the development of a prioritized list for treating those who are involved in the disaster.

References

Barnett, L. (2007). Psychological effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Medicine, Conflict, and Survival. 23 (1), 2007.

Hatch, M., Wallenstein, S. & Beyea, J. et al. (1991). Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant. Am J. Public Health. 81(6): 719 -- 724.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2011). Fukishima Nuclear Accident Update Log. Retrieved from http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html

Jones, B. (2011, March). Praise for 'heroes' working to avert nuclear catastrophe. March 16, 2011. CNN World. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2011-03-16/world/japan.nuclear.heroes_1_millisieverts-radiation-nuclear-power-plant?_s=PM:WORLD

Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). (2011). Industry Actions: Incorporating Lessons from Japan. Nuclear Energy Institute. Retrieved from http://safetyfirst.nei.org/industry-actions/… [read more]


Policy Position of the President Essay

2 pages (723 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Policy Position of the President of the United States

There a number of policy positions that the President of the United States will take in regards to a host of different issues. One of the most recent ones are: his views on the debt ceiling and the levels of federal spending. What is happening is President Obama, wants to see a decrease in the spending levels of the federal government that are phased in over ten years. At the same time, he wants to see an increase in the marginal tax rate on the highest categories of affluent Americans. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how his position is creating a conflict between: the members of Congress and the White House. As, Congress want to see a decrease in the levels of spending immediately with: no increase in federal taxes that are levied against these individuals and businesses. (Heuvel, 2011) (Okungua, 2011) This has been contributing a budget impasse that could derail the economy if an agreement is not reached by August 2nd.

The Policy Position on the U.S. Supreme Court Justices

A recent policy position of the U.S. Supreme Court was that they ruled in favor of an Arizona immigration law that imposes stiff penalties on: employers and organizations that are hiring illegal immigrants. This was based on a 5 to 3 decision, where this directive was constitutional, due to the fact that the states were allowed to supplement a 1986 federal immigration law. The reason why is because, there was a provision that says, "Other than through licensing and similar laws." According to the majority opinion, this gives the states the power to go beyond these regulations when there are none currently that are in place on the federal level. The different justices that supported these views include: John Roberts, Antonin Scalia, Anthony M. Kennedy, Samuel A. Alito Jr. And Clarence Thomas. Evidence of these views can be seen with Chief Justice Roberts writing the majority opinion where he says, "Congress could easily have limited the phrase had it wanted to establish a more telling regulation. If it had intended such limited exceptions to…… [read more]


Expenditure Plan From the Office Research Paper

15 pages (3,754 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… ¶ … Expenditure Plan

From the Office of the Chief Administrative Officer

The city of Encinitas is a diverse and vibrant city that should reflect the allocated resources from the city budget and the federal funds matching program that will match the $10mm dollar for dollar. The aggregate operating budget for the city will be a handsomely sum of $20mm.… [read more]


Microeconomics Industry Description the Modern Essay

5 pages (1,389 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… The bargaining power of the buyers is limited as the prices of oil and gas are pegged to the costs incurred in their extraction, processing and distribution. Nonetheless, customers can choose the product to purchase based on its retail price, meaning as such that price sensitivity in the purchase decisions of customers force petroleum companies to implement competitive prices.

The threat of substitute products is still unclear. On the one hand, there are the natural resources, such as coal, whereas on the other hand, there are the alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as wind or solar energy. The alternative of natural resources is damaging for the environment, whereas renewable energy has yet to be globally available (Investoedia).

Finally, in such a context, the competition between the players in the industry -- the more important of them being Exxon Mobil, BP Plc., Chevron Corporation and Royal Dutch Shell Plc. (Hoovers, 2011) -- is intense and fierce.

2. In favor and against the Irving -- Exxon Mobil merger

The merger between Irving Limited Oil and the Exxon Mobil Corporation is debatable, with one side revealing positive arguments in favor of the merger, whereas another side revealing negative arguments against the merger. In terms of the arguments in favor of the merger, the following are noteworthy.

The combination of the resources from two different economic agents, including their logistics infrastructures, would materialize in increased operational efficiency and cost savings, which would in turn generate reductions in the retail price, to as such create benefits for the buyers and for the community

The unification of the two companies would create enhanced research and development budgets and would gather more talented staffs in this direction. This in turn means that the newly formed entity would be better able to conduct research and development operations, to create new products and to support environmental stability and sustainability.

Finally, through the centralization of the resources from the two companies, the newly formed entity would be better able to expand and to provide its products and services to a greater consumer market and as such serve the needs of more people, within and outside the United States.

The arguments mentioned above are generically pegged to the two companies entering the merger and they are formulated in an effort to convince the public that the merger is indeed beneficial for the entire community, not only for them, from a financial standpoint. Still, while through the lenses of the newly formed entity, the advantages are clear, the public could object to the merger, through the following arguments against it:

The joining of forces by the two oil and gas companies would result in the creation of a single price for the products and services sold under their brand. This in turn means that they would set the maximal price, rather than a lower one, and the customers would not be left with any choice but pay the price asked by the new entity.

At the level of the industry,… [read more]


To Persuade People Buy Solar Panels Essay

2 pages (738 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Solar Panels

We are currently facing a global energy crisis with incredibly significant implication for the future of human civilizations on Earth. Since the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, human societies have become completely dependent on fossil fuels for virtually every aspect of ordinary life. There are three separate but equally important problems that result directly from this dependence: First, the supplies of oil reserves are finite and rapidly approaching depletion because of the ever-increasing consumption in industrialized nations. Second, the byproducts and consequences of fossil fuel burning energy systems represent grave dangers to human health. Third, the constant burning of fossil fuels is causing highly destructive to the global ecology and it is directly responsible for highly detrimental environmental changes that threaten millions of biological species with extinction.

There is a desperate need for the development of and shift toward alternative energy sources that do not pollute the environment, negatively affect human health, and that are not subject to depletion by virtue of being finite in their supply and continued availability. Currently, nations that are now making the transition from being undeveloped to developed are experiencing some of the very same negative consequences of fossil fuel energy reliance that Western societies experienced during the late 19th century. In China, for example, air and water pollution problems have been accelerating as more and more of the population is becoming industrialized. There is no need for China and other developing societies to go through the same problems and threats to the quality of human life that eventually inspired energy regulation in the West. Unfortunately, the recent disaster at the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan illustrates the tremendous potential dangers associated with nuclear energy. In light of those risks, one of the only viable technologies that are safe enough for widespread use and incapable of depletion is solar energy.

In principle, solar energy is the most appropriate choice for future energy systems because it is entirely safe, it produces no harmful byproducts at all, and unlike fossil fuels, solar energy is available in unlimited supplies and indefinitely. Solar energy systems consist, generally, of solar panels that absorb photons emitted by the sun passively and continuously whenever sunshine is…… [read more]


Green Building Laws Term Paper

20 pages (6,463 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… The employees of NYSERDA who work for and maintain services regarding green building are kept in the same building as the group of Energy Efficiency Services. Employees of NYSERDA are of the view that it is only fair to accept their tries as that of a fundamental association based on an idea rather than merely an article in the budget… [read more]


Oil and Gas Development Research Paper

7 pages (2,370 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 9

… Thus, we cannot exist today without oil and gas. [12: "History of the World Petroleum Industry." The Geology link for the Canadian Oil and Gas Industry. 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. . ]

Yet oil and gas processes are damaging to our Earth, or rather the process through which the fuels are turned into usable energy. Furthermore, our dependence upon… [read more]


Rising Gas Prices Research Paper

9 pages (2,548 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… ¶ … rise in global oil prices and its effect on the global economy. We also discuss the possible reason of the rise in oil prices and the possible remedies. The specific effect of the increase in oil prices is also discussed. This is done according to specific industries. A conclusion is then provided

The issue of rising oil prices… [read more]


Fall on a Daily Basis Term Paper

3 pages (930 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Entry into this market requires little influence, as the demand for these products are extremely high. One piece of new technology could easily rewrite the competitive framework of this industry and market.

The threat of rivals, seems to be much more important than the others. The current state of energy markets are described by heavy reliance on the oil industry and all of its networks. Abstinence from energy consumption also serves as a rival product. The competitive nature of this market is fierce and unrelenting. The pace of this market is rapidly changing and it is important to keep tabs on all the changes that not only rivals demonstrate, but others in the general business marketplace as well. Governments will use political power to ensure substantial rivals are intact to combat and counterbalance this new green energy source and all of its accompanying technologies.

The threat of substitute products is evident with other green energy companies that do not supply the same items as quantum technologies. QT has a wide range of products that scan seemingly the entire market of energy. It is those energies that are secret and unavailable to the public that propose a threat of substitution. These technologies are perhaps under developed and awaiting market forces to usher in their arrival.

The customer base, is unlimited and global, and its actions as a threat to QT are indeed real. Consumers are consistently bombarded with new and innovative products in all facets of their existence. Warfare and the state of the world seem to be hinged upon energy, specifically oil accumulation and production. It is impossible for the consumer to ignore these facts and selecting products that may help alleviate these unfortunate and unnecessary events. The power to change the market rests within the customer base and it should be a focus of any strategic plans QT decides to enact.

Suppliers of QT's production also play important role within this analysis. QT depends on certain technologies be delivered to them before their product can be assembled and delivered to their customer. Any shortage in the compound make lithium-ion batteries, solar voltaic panels, hydrogen storing devices and various other computer-based technologies, will certainly affect the profitability of this agency and its profitability.

Overall QT is in a very profitable and quick changing market that requires flexibility, understanding and skillful integration of different markets. In relation to its competitors, quantum technologies should continue to build and exploit the information and technology relative to its experience to the other companies. Utilizing these resources will help this company maintains competitive advantage and provide new services useful to the everyday consumer and the general security of the nation and…… [read more]


Saving the Tuolumne Essay

2 pages (495 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… California Water Pricing

The proposed hydroelectric Clavey-Wards Ferry water project development should not be allowed. The river resource has already been developed to over capacity. Further development may ruin the precious natural resource beyond repair, including the drying up of the remaining down stream water supply to the California population in that area.

The following arguments support my recommendation:

By 1983 existing water projects captured 90% of the Tuolomne River's water. There simply is not much more to be taken (Kincaid, 1). Even a former California State Department of Fish and Game biologist's estimate that the new reservoir would contain less than 10 pounds of fish per acre as compared to the Tuolumne's present 1000 pounds per acre (Ibid, 6).

Every source of power has environmental costs. Although the hydroelectric power is "clean," the environmental impacts upon fishing, camping and downstream water customers who will have even less water than they currently do have to be weighed in as well as to the needs of large metropolitan areas such as San Francisco. The inundation of the remaining eighteen wild miles of river front will virtually dry up the remaining downstream flow of the river (Ibid). In addition, past environmental costs have been understated in applications for hydroelectric projects in the Sierras (Ibid, 7).

3) the costs of the project are far understated in terms of social cost. This is shown graphically in Exhibit 8 where total price tag in these costs will be $214,263,000 (Ibid, 18).

The…… [read more]


Chernobyl Disaster Research Paper

3 pages (1,097 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Chernobyl: The Disaster and Its Aftermath

The recent nuclear disaster in Japan has resurrected the ghost of Chernobyl in the public's imagination. The 1986 malfunction of the Ukrainian reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is still regarded as the worst nuclear disaster in history, although the Japanese crisis is still unfolding. The Chernobyl disaster "was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators. It was a direct consequence of Cold War isolation and the resulting lack of any safety culture" ("Chernobyl," WNA, 2011). The Chernobyl plant used a graphite moderator, unlike the "water-moderated, water-cooled reactor favored in the West" (Linneman 1987: 637). "Because of their confidence in the design of the reactor, the Soviets did not enclose the entire unit with a containment structure and had not developed either an off-site emergency plan or employed an off-site monitoring system" (Linneman 1987: 637). Additionally, the roof of the reactor was actually constructed of flammable material.

The incident occurred when the reactor crew "prepared to carry out a planned safety test involving one of the plant's eight turbine-generators" (Gillette 1986). The crew "inadvertently let steam voids form in the reactor's cooling water as it passed through the core" (Gillette 1986). One of the flaws of the reactor design was its "tendency to generate a sudden and uncontrollable burst of power if large steam bubbles or 'voids,' are allowed to form in the reactor core, as they did before the accident…as the fission accelerated, the reactor's heat output rose 330 million watts within three seconds. This triggered explosions of steam and hydrogen gas in the core that destroyed the reactor, blew the roof off the building and started a graphite fire in the core that spewed radioactive wastes into the atmosphere for the next 11 days" (Gillette 1986).

As well as the documented problem of the 'voids' inherent in the design, the reactor was in an even more unstable state than usual. The specific test the crew was conducting was to "determine how long turbines could spin and continue to supply power following loss of the primary electrical power supply. Similar tests had already been carried out at Chernobyl and other plants, despite the fact that these reactors were known to be very unstable at low power settings" (Kubiszewski & Cleveland 2009). During the test the operators had also disabled automatic shutdown mechanisms. When the dramatic power surge occurred this generated a steam explosion that destroyed the reactor core and killed several workers. The second explosion caused the graphite moderator to burst into flames, which was the main cause of the release of radioactivity into the environment (Kubiszewski & Cleveland 2009).

When reviewing the Chernobyl disaster, it is almost tempting to ask what the workers did right, rather than what they did wrong. Disabling the automatic shutdown mechanisms, performing a test on an unstable reactor, and failing to understand the fundamental operational principles behind the reactor (such as the dangers of it forming… [read more]


Physics the Heat Engine Discussion and Results Chapter

2 pages (602 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… In a kitchen, for example, there may be electric lights, small and large appliances, and floor cleaners.

Energy is transported through waves, such as sound waves. Electromagnetic is another form of these waves. Light is an example of an electromagnetic wave. Other electromagnetic waves include the microwaves in a microwave oven and radio waves and TV waves transmitted from broadcast stations. Waves look like the waves in an ocean, going up and down. The top is called the crest. These electromagnetic waves are different in wavelength, or the distance between one wave crest to the next.

Many chemical elements are found in solids, liquids and gases of the earth. These are all listed on the periodic chart or table. As scientists increase their knowledge, they are also finding new elements. For example, in 2009, Sigurd Hofmann at the Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany, added element 112. This was not a natural element, but a manmade one. To produce it, Hofmann fired a beam of charged zinc atoms at lead atoms with a machine called a particle accelerator. The nucleus from the zinc and the nucleus from the lead joined together or fused and they made this new element called ununbium. After that, similar manmade elements were added for 113-118: Ununtrium, Ununquadium, Ununpentium, Ununhexium, Ununseptium, Ununoxium. There is still some controversy about these, since they are so new.

Nuclear energy is produced either by splitting large nuclei and releasing the energy or combining the smaller nuclei. Nuclear energy supplies countries with electricity. Nuclear energy has advantages and disadvantages. It does not pollute the air, such as oil. However, the water used in the process becomes radioactive, which is very harmful to life. Nuclear waste has to be safely stored, and it lasts for a very…… [read more]


Hyperboloid Solar Concentrator Literature Review Chapter

9 pages (3,018 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… Hyperboloid Solar Concentrator

Following is a review of the literature associated with an analysis of hyperboloid solar concentrators. The structure of said review begins with a broad look at both the topics of water desalination and solar power, a more focused discussion of solar concentrators in general, and, finally, a look at the literature regarding hyperboloid solar concentrators.

Condensed History… [read more]


Alessandro Volta and First Electric Battery Essay

7 pages (2,141 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Alexander Volta and the First Battery

Some evidence suggests the use of primitive batteries in Iraq and Egypt as far back as 200 BC for electroplating and precious metal gilding (Rubin, 2011). Extant records suggest that magnetism and electricity first stirred curiosity in 600 BC, one of them the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus (HBCI, 2010). He observed that when… [read more]


Window Blinds Window Treatments (Blinds) Essay

3 pages (893 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Window blinds that are made of tough cotton can act as noise proof, and hence they can also be used to reduce noise pollution coming from places such as clubs, that are noisy. In offices they are also used as insulators to prevent direct heat and sunlight from computers, while in homes they are also used to prevent furniture from direct light which reduces their quality.

Source; Http.www.enbitec.co.za.ccc

How to measure the impact

The impact of window blinds in energy conservation can be measured using the daylight-linked lighting control system such as automatic on/off and continuous dimming. The impact of the two types of photo-controlled blinds is evaluated for various configurations of manual and photo-controlled automatic venetian blinds. The performance indicators to be measured include lighting energy consumption and space illumination.

Method of measuring the impact

In an enclosed office space whose windows are directly exposed to the sunlight; the two types of photo-controlled blinds will be used. The method of measure is going to be based on the amount of energy that will be saved when the two blinds automatically adjust themselves depending n the sunlight intensity. When the sunlight intensity increases during the day the blinds will close for light control and at the same time the lightening power that was on in the room will go off, after the sunlight intensity reduces the drapes will open and also the dimming light will switch on. Using a set benchmark the effectiveness of the blinds will be measured in regards to energy saving i.e. The light that was saved when the window blinds were closed.

Conclusion

Previous experiments that have been conducted to measure the impact of window blinds show that under the clear sky and with blinds fully retracted, both lighting control were able to provide considerable lighting energy saving estimated 50% to 60% when compared to the lights being fully on during the same twelve-hour daytime interval.

This essay can thus conclude by asserting that installing window treatment by using blinds will benefit both the office and the house in terms of utility bills. And at the same time by using durable, renewable and natural blinds consumers will be participating in environmental conservation.

On the other hand it is evident that window blinds can help in reducing environmental impact by allowing natural light to com in while insulating against the sun's heat.

http.www.ebnonline.com.ccc///

Work cited

Buying green from Supply Chain Experts

//Http.//www.ebnonline.com.ccc// / retrieved 6 February, 2011.

Environmental range of Services, Products and Solutions,

//Http.//www.enbitec.co.za.ccc/ / retrieved 6 February.

French Thomas (2007) "Venetian Blinds," Thomas French and Sons Limited, England… [read more]


How Do Long-Term Take or Pay Contracts Guarantee Security of Gas Supply? Research Paper

13 pages (3,784 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 13

… ¶ … Long-Term Take-Or-Pay Contracts Guarantee Security of Gas Supply?

Given the potential effects of long-term take-or-pay contracts in the gas industry, it is not surprising that this topic has been the focus of an increasing amount of research and attention from scholars and the business community alike, with some observers suggesting that this issue represents one of the more… [read more]


Risk Allocated in Oil Research Paper

15 pages (4,231 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… ¶ … risk allocated in oil and gas contracts?

Petroleum agreements

Joint Venture Agreements (JV)

Contractual indemnity

Indemnity clauses in Oil and gas contracts

The legal interpretation of the indemnity clauses

Relationship between Operator and Contractor

Rights and obligations under the contract

Exclusion clauses

Limitation on liability clauses

Willful misconduct and gross misconduct

Fiduciary relationship: utmost good faith

Types of… [read more]


Limitations of Solar Stills Essay

1 pages (371 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Solar Stills

Limitations of Solar Stills

The single most important factor in the performance of a solar still is the amount of radiation it receives. More water can be distilled when a greater amount of energy is received. Thus, solar stills produce less distilled water in winter than in summer. In winter, there are fewer sunny days. The lower height of the sun above the horizon keeps daytime temperatures cooler and the air drier. The success of a solar still depends on both heat and humidity, both of which are less generally in winter, depending on the still's location relative to the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere. Mediating the poor wintertime performance of solar stills is the demand for drinking water, which is generally half as much compared to summertime demand.

According to various experimental and mathematical model results, best performance of the solar still is achieved when the following conditions are satisfied: high intensity of insulation, full insulation, and minimum wind velocity. Under these conditions, a maximum solar still efficiency of approximately 50% is obtained. Although the intensity of the insulation has a proportional…… [read more]


LNG Process Risk Safety Modeling and Consequence Analysis Thesis

20 pages (5,099 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 150

… LNG Process Risk Safety: Modeling and Consequence Analysis

The Risk Assessment/Analysis

Checklist

A checklist is made up of guidelines that are placed in questions or bullets in order to assist a given methodological health and safety (EHS) risks analysis (Fthenakis and Tramell, 2003).It is used in the stimulation of group discussion and thinking. The checklist is appropriately developed by a… [read more]


Carbon Emissions Reduction Target the University's Goal Essay

2 pages (529 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Carbon Emissions Reduction Target

The university's goal is to reduce carbon emissions according to a strategy that calls for improved environmental performance according to the best practices found in industry. The university's environmental management plan is designed to bring about reductions in carbon emissions either at or above annual targets and to effect real cultural change in the awareness of energy use and its by-products. Adrian Marshall showed a PowerPoint presentation that outlined the plan and progress made to date.

A graph shows greenhouse gas emissions from 2001 -- 2007. The amount of delivered energy (electricity) stayed relatively flat during the period, even dipping slightly in the years 2003 -- 2005 before increasing in both 2006 and 2007. Direct emissions were small and remained constant through the period. Increases in supply chain emissions remained relatively flat for the period, with a dramatic increase in 2007, when emissions of over three times the amounts shown in each of previous years were recorded. If an upward trend continues, it is more important than ever that the problem of carbon emissions be addressed.

A graph showing UniSA's sustainable water supply reveals that consumption has declined almost steadily since 2002. This illustrates the institution's commitment to conserving resources and their ability to manage a program dedicated to doing that. The slide entitled "Continuous Improvement (slide 7) shows how such a program might be implemented. The steps included -- policy, planning and implementation, monitor and measure, and review -- are depicted cyclicly, showing that the process is continually assessed and refined.

2

In an energy audit across fourteen buildings…… [read more]


American Food Prices Have Increased Research Paper

5 pages (1,789 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… ¶ … Agriculture [...] American grain and food prices. American grain and food prices have increased do to the energy used in the making of ethanol fuel and the removal of food from the market. A Washington Post reporter notes, "Greater demand for corn has inflated prices from a historically stable $2 per bushel to about $4" (Rosenwald, 2007, p.… [read more]


Fuel Options Essay

3 pages (811 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Fuel Options

In today's society, it's important to weigh the costs and options for fuel. With oil prices on the rise and environmentalists concerned about the impact of global warming, we need to be aware of the different options that are available to us and the multitude of affects that different fuels could have on the economy and the environment.

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) there are five different types of fuel programs and regulations (Fuels and Fuel Additives, 2010). These consist of gasoline, diesel fuels, E15, renewable fuels, and alternative/clean fuels.

Gasoline is the most common type of fuel, and over the last 20 years, the U.S. has seen a decline in energy prices (Basic Information, 2007). Since the U.S. saw such cheap gasoline prices, the excitement for vehicles that were larger and more powerful grew. The demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles increased the demand for gasoline, but Refiners chose not to build new refineries in the U.S. Now, it comes down to a balance of supply and demand, which has led the price of gasoline to increase. In 2004, gasoline prices reached the highest level in two decades (Basic Information, 2007).

Gasoline is largely made of crude oil, which is the biggest contributor to the cost (aside from taxes). Even with an increase in cost, the demand for gasoline is still high. The amount that people travel in the U.S. is up and continues to increase faster than the population growth (Basic Information, 2007).

Diesel fuel is very similar to gasoline as it's created from crude oil. It powers vehicles that are equipped with diesel engines. It is generally made from petroleum, although there is an increase in the use of alternatives. Most of the diesel fuel in the U.S. is called ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and contains lower sulfur amounts. The price of diesel fluctuates year round as the demand for heating oil increases over the winter months. Heating oil is created in a very similar fashion as diesel (Fuels and Fuel Additives, 2010). Gasoline and diesel are non-renewable sources of fuel.

The fuel type known as E15 is a combination of gasoline and ethanol (which is an alcohol derived from corn [Iowa Corn -- Ethanol, 2008]). The special blend results in a fuel that is cleaner burning that gasoline alone. it's called E15 because it's generally mixed with 15% ethanol, but there is also E10, which is mixed at…… [read more]


Alternative Fuels Essay

2 pages (691 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Alternative Fuels

Energy policy today should be focused on the development of alternative fuel sources. The case has never been more compelling. Peak oil occurred in 2006, meaning that oil production is already in decline, even as demand soars (Inman, 2010). Economically, the ramifications of peak oil are simply -- as supplies get tighter the price of oil will increase. This will have profound negative consequences for our economy if we cannot replace this energy supply. The oil price spike of 2008 has been found to have materially contributed to the current recession (Hamilton, 2009). Alternative energy policy is central to reducing our economic dependence on this dwindling resource, yet this policy has become bogged down in partisan politics, irrational obfuscation on the part of oil industry interest and entrenched special interests that take a strictly short-term view of economic issues.

If the need for a strong alternative energy policy was not evident on the basis of the simple economic facts, consider the national security implications. One of the biggest threats to national security is the dependence on oil from unstable regions such as the Middle East and Venezuela. Our involvement in the two Gulf wars in directly attributed to our interest in the region's oil reserves. The Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico illustrated that there are non-security risks associated with an oil-first energy platform.

An already strong case for a dramatically improved alternative energy policy is bolstered by the realization that America's strength as a nation is specifically dependent on developing alternative energy technology. Our nation grew to become the richest in the world because we lead the world in innovations -- automobiles, airplanes, consumer appliances, pharmaceuticals and later the media and the Internet just to name a few. Technological leadership has always been essential to America's standing in the world (LaMonica, 2010). There is no reason to believe that the 21st century will be different -- the country that develops the majority of the world's most critical technologies will be the one that assumes the position as the dominant player…… [read more]


How Does the Use of Coal Impact People and Technology? Research Paper

8 pages (2,354 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… ¶ … Coal Impact People and Technology

An important feature which characterizes the modern day society is given by the incremental pressure put on environmental stability. Human kind has still a long way to go before becoming entirely environmentally responsible, but the first steps in this direction are made by individual efforts of energy consumption, the development of environmentally responsible… [read more]


Alternative Fuels vs. Fossil Literature Review Chapter

9 pages (2,764 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Fossil fuels have been a primary fuel source for the industrial world, for centuries. Today, there are numerous alternative fuels developed and being developed to compete with fossil fuel usage. When comparing the two fuels, the literature on this topic uncovers numerous facets, centering on environmental, economic and social factors.

Fossil Fuels vs. Alternative Fuels

Categorization of Fuel Types:

According… [read more]


Fate of Earth the World Population Research Paper

5 pages (1,529 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Fate of Earth

The world population is growing at an astounding rate. As the population clock is racing towards the 7 billion mark, we are faced with a huge problem. [U.S. Census Bureau] A problem of balancing the ever-increasing demands for the earth's natural resources and the fast depleting sources. Our over dependence on fossil fuels to meet the surging… [read more]


China's Three Gorges Dam and India's Narmada River Research Paper

5 pages (1,602 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… China's Three Gorges Dam And India's Narmada River Dam

China and India, two fast growing economies of the world, are at the center of controversy relating to the construction of Dams. China's 'Three Gorges dam' built in the mighty Yangtze river, the third largest river in the world, and the 'Sardar Sarovar Dam' constructed in the Heart of the Narmada… [read more]


Public Administration British Petroleum BP Research Paper

9 pages (3,069 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Public Administration

British Petroleum

BP is one of the world's major energy companies. It supplies its customers with fuel for transportation, energy for heat and light, retail services and petrochemicals products for everyday living. BP's businesses are organized to deliver the energy products and services to people around the world, that is needed right now. Their business is broken down… [read more]


Environmental Conflict Case Study

6 pages (2,505 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Message Board for Order Number

HTMLCONTROL Forms.HTML:Hidden.1

customer 2010 Jul 28 4:22 PM

If you could edit it to a more environmental conservation / local environmental conflict topic and have it done by tomorrow morning

am that would be great.THANKS!

Environmental Conflict

The April explosion at the BP Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform has had far-reaching effects on political ecology,… [read more]


Can Satellite Images Be Used to Identify Anomalous Hotspots Associated With Geothermal Activity in Malawi Literature Review Chapter

10 pages (4,413 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 45

… Satellite Sensing of Geothermal Activity

Using Satellite Images to Identify Anomalous Geothermal Hotspots in Malawi

Finding more efficient and cost effective means to find electrical grade geothermal systems is important for the development of more environmentally friendly generation of electrical power. This is important in Malawi due to its current inability to meet generation demand. The use of satellite systems… [read more]


Hydroelectricity China's Three Gorges Dam Term Paper

8 pages (2,320 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Technology

Hydroelectricity China's Three Gorges DAM

Hydroelectricity is a widely used form of energy, accounting for approximately 10% of the energy production in the United States alone and even more worldwide. Thus, hydroelectricity accounts for up to 80% of the renewable energy used in the United States, making it by far the most widely used means of alternative energy production.… [read more]


Micro DMFC Modeling Fuel Cell Term Paper

5 pages (1,420 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Methanol Fuel Cell

Modeling Environmental and Performance Differences in Miniaturized Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Interest in the use of micro direct methanol fuel cells in applications with low power needs has been growing since the technology was first developed, and the many different devices and scenarios in which such fuel cells would be of enormous benefit continues to drive… [read more]


Strategy Porter's Schools Case Study

2 pages (845 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Pounds Case Study

Business Models and Relationships

F.X. Pounds: Case study

F.X. Pounds: Case study

F.X. Pounds is at a crossroads. For many years it has flourished as a member of a fairly stable industry. However, increased competition, most notably from a larger, more regionally-based company known as Miller Fuel is threatening the F.X. Pound's future profitability. F.X. must expand and solidify its market base, and find a way to offer some unique brand value, in comparison to its main competition.

The greatest strength enjoyed by F.X. Pounds is that, according to a Porter's Five Forces analysis, the threat of the entry of new competitors is relatively low in utility markets, compared with more price-sensitive industries. The bargaining power of customers is also relatively low, particularly for coal users, given the three other oil companies operating in the area do not offer coal. However, Miller Fuel offers an even wider array of coal products, along with more extensive goods and services for all energy customers, in comparison to F.X. Pounds. Still, heating remains a necessity for all consumers, which creates a less price-elastic industry structure, which buys F.X some 'time' to reformulate its strategic position.

Traditionally, the bargaining power of suppliers is relatively high amongst utility companies, given the limited amount of competition in the market. But competition has increased in recent decades, in the wake of government deregulation and privatization (Michaels 2008). Because of the diversity of offerings provided by Miller Fuel, the intensity of competitive rivalry has sky-rocked. This makes a broad-based cost leadership strategy difficult for F.X. Pounds, given that Miller Fuel operates at a larger economy of scale. A broad-based differentiation strategy that involves offering a highly unique product or range of services to a wide market segment is unwise because F.X. is unlikely to be able to compete with Miller Fuel on pricing or variety of products (Zachman 2007).

More feasible is a combination of a narrowly-based focus pricing strategy which concentrates on a specific market segment and pricing services low for that segment alone. This would likely be the best option -- pricing F.X. Pound's services lower than Miller's, or offering a more diverse range of 'lock in' pricing schemes attractive to only certain types of customers. Concentrating on a market segment that is both narrow and highly differentiated could involve offering senior citizen discounts or discounts for locally-based consumers. This would retain F.X. Pound's grip upon its current customer base and slightly widen its outreach. Generating more secure consumer loyalty and controlled expansion will suit…… [read more]


Gas Field Development Term Paper

25 pages (8,229 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Engineering

Gas Field Development

In gas field development, it is vital to clearly discover the structure and properties of the underground gas buildup and house them in surface facilities. The gas reservoir field data is the foundation for development of exploration and production planning. This includes the economic efficiency and lifecycle cost of the development of the field. After getting… [read more]


Strategy and Policies of the Oil Industry in Responding to Global Warming Essay

11 pages (4,060 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Strategy and Policies of the Oil Industry

Over the last several decades the issue of global warming has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this is the changes in the environment that are being seen around the globe worldwide. A good example of this would be the in the North Pole, where during the summer… [read more]


Biofuels in Brazil Term Paper

2 pages (675 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… ¶ … Brazilian Experience with Sugarcane Ethanol

In 1976, the government of Brazil mandated that all vehicles run on a blend of ethanol and gasoline. It required not major changes to existing gas-powered automobiles; rather, only a minor change in gaosline motors was needed to adjust to the new fuel blend.

Brazil has a unique experience with for their automobile fuel model. They are the world's largest sustainable agriculture for sugarcane, which has a closed loop system for producing sugarcane ethanol. It is cheap to grow (large agricultural fields), cheap to produce (closed loop system of production), and required minimal changes to gas-powered vehicles to adjust to the change. Brazil is the world leader in the production of sugarcane ethanol (Moraes 2008).

During the 1970's, the world experienced a rising crisis in the price of crude oil, due in part to the instability occurring in the Middle-Eastern market. Iran had undergone a revolution and was longer an ally of the United States; indeed, they adopted an anti-American stance that to no small degree, continues to the modern day (Papageorgiou 2005).

The Brazilian car manufacturing industry has been a factor in the success, as well as a beneficiary of, the switch to using sugarcane ethanol. With the developmen to 'flex' vehicles, the market penetration by 2010 had reached an astounding ten million vehicles. The success of this marketing program lays in the fact that the flex vehicles can run on any proportion of ethanol and gasoline (Delgadoa, Araujo, & Fernandes, 2007).

The issues of ethanol use in Brazil are found both in the production side, and the marketing end of the business. On the production side, the sugarcane agribusiness that supplies the raw sugarcane for pressing is centered upon family owned enterprises. However, that trend is beginning to change with large global conglomerates coming into play as the successful model of ethanol-based energy becomes more widely known. Regardless, on the production side, issues within the family-owned sugarcane agribusiness include abuses of labor and unfair labor practices. As the…… [read more]


What Are the Effects and Implications of Petroleum Subsidies in Ghana? Research Paper

10 pages (3,017 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 45

… ¶ … petroleum subsidies have worked to increase the wealth of the middle class in Ghana while making it harder for members of the poorest classes to increase their wealth and social stability. Another way to phrase this is to note that petroleum subsidies in Ghana have historically worked in a way that is counter-productive to the ways in which… [read more]


Managerial Economics Rise of Global Gas Prices and Impact on a Company Thesis

5 pages (1,878 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Gas Prices

High Gas Prices and Economic Turmoil

Today, the world is coming to terms with the reality of a global oil shortage. The petroleum which has constituted the dominant and exponentially consumed energy source of the last century is becoming scarcer and more costly. The race is on to determine the most practical substitute for this precious but environmentally… [read more]


Green Marketing Term Paper

11 pages (3,752 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Green Marketing

Over the last decade or so the word "green" has taken on meanings far beyond the color of green. Indeed, in response to the urgent issues of climate change, pollution, and responsible consumer use of natural resources, green has come to mean a philosophy and a strategy that the consumer can adopt to reduce his or her "carbon… [read more]


Environment James Bay Project Essay

8 pages (2,991 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… ¶ … Cree's Opposition to the James Bay Hydroelectric Dam Project

Canada is one of the leading producers and users of hydroelectric power, and, its electricity production has been considered "green" or better for the environment because of that usage. However, it is inaccurate to portray hydroelectric power production as environmentally neutral, because the projects do have lasting impacts on… [read more]


Reservoir Refugees and the Three Gorges Dam Project Thesis

20 pages (6,487 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 13

… Reservoir Refugees and the Three

Gorges Dam Project

This is a template and guideline only. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

Reservoir Refugees and the Three Gorges Dam Project

The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest project of its kind undertaken in the history of the world. It has also been the costliest… [read more]


BP Strategy Based on Oil Price Variation Research Proposal

17 pages (4,930 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Companies competing in the oil and gas industry today are faced with a two-fold dilemma. On the one hand, they have invested enormous sums in an infrastructure that it specifically designed to identify and extract fossil fuels in the most efficient manner possible and most have entered into long-term contractual agreements with other countries where the proven reserves are located.… [read more]


Toulmin Model Argument About the Environment Essay

3 pages (1,007 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Christians Are Charged With Being Good Stewards of the Environment

Since the very beginning of Man, Christians have been charged with being good stewards of the environment. "And the Lord God planted a garden in Eden, in the east; and there he put the man whom he had formed. Out of the ground the Lord God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food, the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to till it and keep it" (The Holy Bible, Gen. 2:8-9, 15). Man's duty has been to work the land and protect it. However, in these simple tasks, Man has been faltering and therefore needs to take proactive measure to reduce resource consumption and develop renewable energy resources.

In some respects, Man has begun to understand how important the care of the Earth is to the survival of humanity. One only has to look at the reduction of the consumption of ozone depleting substances, over the recent years, to see that progress in some areas is being made. In 2002, the United States alone consumed 16,206.4 ODP tonnes. By 2007, that had been reduced to 8,516.5 ODP tonnes, a reduction of more than 47% ("Air Pollution"). Yet, so much more needs to be done. For example, CO2 emissions have continued to climb, despite advancements in technology reducing emissions from machinery and automobiles and legislation enforcing these reductions. In 2006, the United States produced 5,975.1 tonnes of CO2 emissions, an 18.1% increase since 1990 ("Greenhouse Gas"). With this disregard for the environment, the world has seen an increase in the number of natural disasters, as global warming takes effect.

In the United States, in the 1980s, there were 6 recorded climatological disaster events. In the 1990s, 29 climatological disaster events happened in the United States alone. As of October 2009, the United States had experienced 46 climatological disaster events ("Climatological Disasters"). These startling rises in disasters due to changes in the world's climate clearly points to a need for Man to do more to reverse the damage he has done. By reducing the consumption of resources, developing renewable energy resources, and repairing the damage that has already been done to the Earth,

Reducing the consumption of resources is one significant way Christians can fulfill their duty as good stewards of the Earth. Energy consumption reduction can be done with simple, everyday tasks. Appliances that are seldom used should be unplugged. Chargers should be unplugged when not in use. Computers should be set to sleep or hibernate. Setting the thermostat in winter to 68 and 78 in the summer can save considerable energy. Water heater settings should be between 120 and 130 degrees. "Use power strips to switch off televisions, home theater equipment, and stereos when you're not using them. Even when you think these products are… [read more]


Oil Crisis in Nigeria Thesis

9 pages (2,627 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Oil Crisis in Nigeria

Nigeria, a land of 137 million people coming from 250 ethnic communities, achieved independence from Britain in 1960 and turned into a republic in 1963. This country which has witnessed crisis after crisis in terms of colonial rule, religious strife and harsh military dictatorships saw a small silver lining of economic hope when oil was discovered… [read more]


Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source Thesis

2 pages (596 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Article Analysis and Paraphrasing
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2008). Renewable Fuel Standard
Program. U.S. Government. Online at
http://www.cwcleancities.org/resourcespolicy.php#standardPrograms

The United States government has battled with the problem of energy
policy based on the mutual economic, environmental and practical flaws in
the dependency on petroleum. This is the condition at the center of a 2008
article derived from the government's own Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA). Authoring its own Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program, the EPA
has shown a clear favoritism for biofuel, corn ethanol and biodiesel fuels
in creating a new strategy that might remove the high level of need
currently related to fossil fuels such as oil and gasoline.
The EPA article supports this focus by recognizing the need for a
change in energy policy. The world's dependency upon petroleum and other
fossil fuels comprises an energy scenario which cannot be sustained. In
most scientifically informed circles, and within the context of the
progressive political discourse, it is fairly well-understood that the
environmental consequences of burning gasoline can no longer be endured.
Thus there is a movement on the part of many more progressive
organizations, corporations and world governments to pursue viable forms of
alternative fuel generation, exemplified here by the EPA.
The EPA demands in this article that all producers of energy and
fossil fuels must begin to shift a certain portion of their production
efforts toward so-called 'renewable fuel' sources. Among these, the
development and endorsement of biofuels, and in particular of cellulose-
based ethanol, as an eventual replacement for gasoline, is the most
explicitly endorsed. Additionally, this has created a government dictated
correlation between agencies, with the article indicating that the
Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture are beholden to the
EPA on the subject of renewable fuel production.
The specific EPA article…… [read more]


Nuclear Fusion Learning From Failure Thesis

4 pages (1,242 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Nuclear Fusion: Learning From Failure

Wednesday, April 1, 2009. "After more than a decade of work and an investment of $3.5 billion, scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory say they have created a super laser that will enable them to build a miniature sun within the lab in the next two years" (Doyle, 2009).

Since the middle of that last century, scientists have attempted to capture the same energy that powers the sun, to produce an energy source that is inexpensive, clean, and limitless. Now, they think they are within two to three years of making the first nuclear fusion ignition which would be the first step in that process.

Smash two atoms together; their nuclei join -- or "fuse" -- creating one very heavy atom and energy is released. That's it. In the sun, hydrogen atoms are smashed together by the enormous amount of gravitational pressure, creating a heavy atom of helium and creating "tons" of energy, at a temperature of 10 to 15 million degrees. The pressure needed to do this are about 100 times the pressure felt in the deepest trenches of Earth's oceans. In other words, it would be simple, if we could recreate the temperature and pressure conditions of the sun (Brooks, 2009, pp. 58-59).

Scientists have theorized that, by using heavy hydrogen, and deuterium and tritium, available in abundance in sea water, that there is enough energy present in our oceans to meet our requirements. However, after decades of experiments, it has become obvious that reality doesn't necessarily follow theory (Brooks, 2009, p. 59).

It has been a long road with many failures, but many successes as well as we discover the practical applications and necessary test conditions to produce pure fusion. In over fifty years of experiments, not one attempt at igniting nuclear fusion has been successful. Probably the most infamous, but not so certain, failure was the 1989 announcement by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, chemists at the University of Utah, that they had discovered "cold fusion" -- a simple, inexpensive way to produce nuclear fusion. With "tabletop" equipment, they proudly proclaimed, the mystery had been solved. After millions of research dollars and countless nuclear scientists becoming involved in recreating their spectacular, world-changing discovery, it was determined, in a controversial decision, that cold fusion was impossible (Kahney, 1999). However, the U.S. Navy continued to research the project under the budget anonymity of "miscellaneous." In 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy announced that there might be something to cold fusion, and suggested that funding agencies should consider requests for research dollars (Brooks, 2009, p. 64). Research continues to this day, and limited indications of possible success have been achieved on a small scale. Fleischmann and Pons may have been correct, after all.

The whole experiment regarding cold fusion has been a disaster on the surface. However, through the persistence of a few scientists, curiosity, and chance, this failure created a heat and energy source that could not be explained. It did change our… [read more]


Alternative Fuels for Commercial Aviation Thesis

9 pages (2,489 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… ¶ … alternative fuels as well as the presently available fuels and those which are still in the developmental phases. There has been an increase in concern over degradation of the environment over the past two decades and "of the various options open to society to reduce the environmental burden, technology is widely considered as the most attractive option." (Kemp,… [read more]


Security Agenda Question Raised: Going Thesis

1 pages (370 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Security Agenda

Question Raised:

Going over the readings on Environmental Security, it seems that most of the problems are stemming from over population. Too many people consuming too much of the worlds resources and expending too much energy doing it. If this is the case, should measures be put in place to try and slow down the expansion of the world population (such as China's one child policy or something similar)? And if this is the case, could this amount to a new security threat to nations who are looking to increase their population for economic or other reasons?

Answer to Question Raised:

The question raised seems to focus exclusively on the causal connection between a broad security agenda and population growth. In fact, it is not necessarily population growth (much less in impoverished communities or those in countries with exploding populations) that is the source of the problem. Actually, the over-consumption of available energy is more attributable to wealthier societies, such as in the United States. Despite accounting for less than five percent of the global population, Americans consume approximately twenty-five percent…… [read more]


Ecology and Denmark Is a Scandinavian Country Essay

4 pages (1,686 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Ecology and Denmark

Denmark is a Scandinavian country in northern Europe, the southernmost of the Nordic countries and lies just south of Norway and southwest of Sweden. It is essentially a large peninsula, and borders both the Baltic and North Seas. Politically, it is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government, and is also a large welfare state which underlies… [read more]


Crude Oil Thesis

8 pages (2,604 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… OPEC's Role In Global Supply, Demand And Pricing Of Crude

The global crude oil market is among the most important engines and indicators of the world's economic behavior. The commodity also generally known as petroleum in its commercial form has a direct bearing on consumer pricing, production costs, transport expenses and a whole host of other factors shaping economic realities.… [read more]


How OPEC Muscled Its Monopoly to Manipulate World Oil Prices Research Proposal

6 pages (1,687 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … OPEC, a Natural Progression of Power…

How OPEC muscled its monopoly

"OPEC: A Natural Progression of Power…"

"OPEC: A Natural Progression of Power in the Oil Industry"

Economic Place of OPEC

Reasons for Dominance

Market Share

Impact of Alternative Oil Markets

Alternative Energy Options

Other Players' Support

"OPEC: A Natural Progression of Power in the Oil Industry"

OPEC… [read more]


Environmental Science Contribution That Fossil Fuels Essay

7 pages (1,860 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 9

… ¶ … Environmental science [...] contribution that fossil fuels have made to modern human society, and consider their environmental implications. Fossil fuels really allowed the expansion of the United States and the world, and they led to major breakthroughs in technologies that impact our lives to this day. From locomotives and automobiles to the Industrial Revolution and high-tech development, fossil… [read more]


Converting Sugar Into Fuel Research Proposal

6 pages (2,102 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… Converting Sugar Into Fuel

Man's body is a machine and an extremely efficient one. This machine also requires fuel to keep it going just like other man-made machines. Plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and convert it into carbohydrate or sugar in the presence of sunshine and water molecules. Variations of this basic process serve as the source… [read more]


Renewable Chemical Feedstocks the Fossil Fuels Research Proposal

15 pages (5,669 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… Renewable Chemical Feedstocks

The fossil fuels are not renewable and in the near future will run out. Of the eighty thousand or more of chemicals on which all industries depend and which is the main domain of the chemical industry will face severe setbacks as a great percentage of the chemicals are derived from fossil fuel oil extraction processes and… [read more]


Chevron Corporation Thesis

12 pages (4,043 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Chevron Corporation (NYSE:CVX) is one of the world's leading producers of oil and gas products, and has created one of the most advanced exploration, production and distribution networks globally in existence today. Chevron has operations that encompass the entire oil and natural gas industry value chain, from exploration and production to refining, international or global marketing, and logistics. At present… [read more]


Biofuels the Department of Agriculture Thesis

2 pages (807 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Biofuels

The Department of Agriculture has been asked to provide an opinion on the issue of biofuels so that the party can develop a position on the matter for the upcoming federal election. If re-elected, we will need a clear, concise strategy for addressing the issue of biofuels. The issue represents a tradeoff between the uses of agricultural product, especially corn, to create ethanol. This reduces the amount of corn that goes into the food chain, which has been blamed as a contributing factor in rising fuel prices.

It is the position of the Department of Agriculture that the government should let the free market dictate the use of food products for the production of biofuels. We believe that this is the best course of action for several reasons. One is that the impact of price increase in agricultural prices is overstated. The majority of our corn production is used for animal feed, rather than directly for human food. As a result, products such as corn represent a relatively minor input in the cost of food at the grocery store. This is especially pronounced when we consider the high degree of processing that most food eaten has undergone. Evidence in the United States has shown that "when there are cost shocks in the food processing system due to changes in the commodity or farm product market, most retailers respond by passing on a fraction of their higher costs to consumers." (Leibtag, 2008). Thus, we do not believe that there are significant negative impacts on food prices to Canadians as a result of commodity price increases due to ethanol usage.

We also believe that higher commodity prices will benefit Canadian farmers. Demand for biofuel is increasingly rapidly. In the U.S., 14% of total corn production was used for biofuel production; that figure is expected to increase to 30% by 2010 (Lapidos, 2008). As demand increases, so do corn prices. This stimulates demand for other grains that can be used as feed, such as wheat or sorghum (Ibid.). The animal feed business is also finding other substitutes, such as ethanol byproducts (Hoffman et al., 2007). Therefore, we believe that not only will corn farmers benefit, but farmers of other feed grains will benefit as well. We believe that this will be a short-term impact, as biofuel is likely to act only as a bridge to other forms of energy not yet developed.

In terms of…… [read more]


Electricity Restructuring Term Paper

38 pages (10,558 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… " (Knittle, 2006) Toward this end the National Electric Light Association (NELA) Subcommittee on Public Regulation and Control is stated to have reached three main conclusions as follows:

That the NELA should favor properly constituted general supervision and regulation of the electric light industry;

That if state commissions be constituted, they should be appointed in that manner which will give… [read more]


Ride Alone, Your Ride With Bin Laden Thesis

5 pages (1,604 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Ride Alone, Your Ride With Bin Laden

When You Ride Alone, You Ride with Bin Laden

The thesis that Bill Maher drives home is straight-forward: instead of waving flags and using "patriotism" to divide society, the U.S. Government (Congress and the George W. Bush Administration) should be asking Americans to change habits, to sacrifice for the good of… [read more]


US Oil Dependency and Its Future Thesis

6 pages (1,635 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… U.S. Oil dependency and it's future.

United States' Oil Dependency

The foreign oil dependency that currently characterizes the United States is expected to continue following this ascending path over the following decades also. Even more, the U.S.'s will be particularly dependent from oil imported from the Middle East, regardless of the nation's efforts of acquiring oil from non-OPEC sources, like… [read more]


Foreseeable Future. Throughout History, International Conflicts Essay

2 pages (725 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… ¶ … foreseeable future. Throughout history, international conflicts have raged over two basic items - religion and natural resources. That is true as far back as time has been recorded, and there is no reason to think that will change in the future - especially with our increased dependence on foreign resources to support our energy heavy lifestyle.

When we think of international conflict over resources, the 1991 Gulf War and the current war in Iraq immediately come to mind. The truth is, these wars, no matter what the official "reason" given by Washington and the government, have one thing in common. The Middle East is the home of the world's greatest oil supply, and these wars involve oil and its distribution on at least some level. This is just the tip of the iceberg for the oil wars. As a 2001 article notes, "There are more Americans than ever, and they are using more power, although energy resources remain limited" (Baker, and Anderson 32). Today, those words seem even more prophetic, as oil has soared to record prices, and so has gasoline. Clearly, the world is more dependent on fossil and non-renewable resources than ever before, and there are fewer of them to go around, so costs rise, and will continue to rise.

Another endangered resource is water, and that has been a bone of contention throughout the world, as well. Three writers note, "At the international level, water has likewise led to hostilities between Arabs and Israelis, Indians and Bangladeshis, Americans and Mexicans, and among all ten Nile basin co-riparian nations" (Giordano, Giordano, and Wolf). Water, clearly, will continue to be an issue around the world, as more people use more water and climate change alters weather and rain patterns. This will lead to more altercations over water and water related issues, and will force nations to conserve water, curb growth, and attempt to take water from neighbors, by treaty or by force.

Many experts have studies conflicts throughout the world, and they predict the squabbles and fighting over resources will continue. One journalist sums up their conclusions, "Other threats to peace that are likely to cause future international conflict…… [read more]


Fossil Fuels - An Exploration Thesis

10 pages (3,278 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Fossil Fuels - an Exploration of a Dying Resource

As fuel prices continue to rise across the world and effects of global warming are already being observed in some degree, the public's need to know about fossil fuels is greater than ever. Most understand that the fuels are non-renewable resources produced during the years of the dinosaurs, but most do… [read more]


Revolution Is U.S Thesis

4 pages (1,384 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Revolution in U.S. By Thomas L. Friedman. Specifically it will discuss the validity of Friedman's five-gas-stations theory of the world. The five-gas-stations theory of the world revolves around oil, the economy, and much more. It revolves around the social processes at work in each gas station, including the underlying social theories of the nations these gas stations represent. They represent globalization, and the westernization of the world, at the world's expense. That is why the five-gas-stations theory is so compelling. It is not just about gas, it is about how the world perceives the United States and in that arena, the U.S. needs a revolution.

Of course, Friedman's essay is not really just about gas stations and his five-gas-station theory. In reality, his essay touched on globalization and society in the world today. It also touches on how American ingenuity (and pomposity) is flowing around the world unchecked. The gas station theory is simply part of a much larger and disturbing picture as Freidman sees it. He writes, "In most societies people cannot distinguish anymore among American power, American exports, American cultural assaults, American cultural exports, and plain vanilla globalization" (Friedman 133). This inability to distinguish between influences and American power indicates America's influence is flowing around the world, changing cultures, lives, and countries, and many people see that as alarming and somehow malevolent at the same time.

One aspect missing in Friedman's essay is the personal preference. What gas station would most people like to patronize? Each of them has their own strengths and weaknesses. The communist gas station is cheapest, of course, and with today's skyrocketing gas prices, that is extremely attractive, but of course, it is not openly available, and the American consumer would never stand for that. The developing-country gas station is not appealing because it is so exploitive, (and it seems dirty), while the European gas station is too expensive and exploitative in its own right. The American gas station seems "just right," but is it really? In reality, pumping gas is not a hardship, but the lack of any human contact with ATM machines and automated pumps makes the American experience devoid of any contact or care, which seems to be just what most Americans want and accept. The Japanese gas station, on the other hand, could be work of art. The gas is expensive, but the attendants pamper driver and auto, and even better, they are guaranteed employment for life, so they are dependable and accountable at the same time. In a perfect world, the Japanese gas station would merge with the American gas station to offer great service, dependability, and low costs, just like many American businesses used to offer on their own.

Does Friedman stereotype cultural patterns in his essay? Of course, it may be difficult not to stereotype cultural patterns in this type of comparison. Societies are different, have different ideals and methods, and that leads to stereotyping patterns, right or wrong. Is every person and gas station… [read more]


Gas and Oil Shortage Term Paper

5 pages (1,616 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Gas & Oil Shortage

Oil and Gas Shortage

The contemporaneous society is marked by various changes and the primary one within highly developed countries is that of increasing rates of consumerism. Due to increased wages and improved living standards, but also due to marketing strategies that place an increased focus onto the complete satisfaction of customers' needs and wants, the… [read more]


Biodiesel Plant Term Paper

9 pages (2,519 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Biodiesel Business Plan

Executive Summary "Biodiesel Business plan in Tampa Florida"

The biodiesel industry is currently a growth industry with almost exponential potential as it is economically and environmentally sound in ways that many other fuel deriving industries are not. It has only limited controls and subsidies but requires little consumer adaptation to utilize it. This work will serve as… [read more]


Biodiesel Plant Term Paper

6 pages (1,700 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Biodiesel Plant Marketing & Business Plan

Biodiesel is a processed fuel that is produced from biological sources that are biodegradable and produce less C02 than conventional diesel (Woodman, 2007). The biodiesel industry today is well situated to take advantage of the combination of increasing consumer dissatisfaction with American reliance on foreign fossil-fuel energy sources while representing an environmentally responsible alternative… [read more]


Corn Ethanol Term Paper

14 pages (3,874 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… Corn Ethanol

The Flawed Argument in Favor of Corn Ethanol as a Replacement for Fossil Fuels

There is a proven need, both environmentally and economically, for the world community to transfer its oil dependency to an alternative source of energy. Many industry and government agencies have endorsed the use of biofuels, such as ethanol and specifically corn-based ethanol in the… [read more]


Impact of the Higher Gas Prices in the Automobile Industry Term Paper

44 pages (12,212 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 20

… ¶ … High Gas Prices on the Automobile Industry

The heart and soul of this study, the primary research question, purports: What impact(s) do higher gas prices exert on the automobile industry (GM; Ford; Toyota; BMW; other manufacturers)? Subsequent questions include: How has the price of gas progressed through history? What do higher gas prices impact?

The study presents pertinent… [read more]


Coal Mining Term Paper

5 pages (1,477 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Coal Mining Industry Report

The objective of this work is to discuss the impact on the coal mining industry in terms of shifts and price elasticity of supply and demand, positive and negative externalities, wage inequality and monetary and fiscal policies. This work will conclude with final thoughts on how the economy affects the success of this industry and the… [read more]


Market and Behavior Analysis in the Oil Term Paper

7 pages (3,038 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Market and Behavior Analysis in the Oil Industry

According to a Council on Foreign Relations report published December 10, 2007, 'Oil prices went up as much as 40% in 2007, a change that rivals the historic price spikes of the 1970s oil embargo." (Johnson, 2007) Analysts are responding to the growing concerns about the high prices of oil which "rivals… [read more]


Environmental Policies and Problems in China Term Paper

11 pages (2,855 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… Environmental Policies and Problems in China: Air Pollution

From all appearances the economic success of China is secured, as China's economy is the fastest growing in the entire world however, unfortunately, China also has the highest annual incidence of early deaths stated to be attributed to air pollution. The National Geographic report entitled: "Chinese Air Pollution Deadliest in World" states… [read more]


Karen Smith Makes Some Valid Points Term Paper

2 pages (712 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Karen Smith makes some valid points in her article, "Sitting in the Dark." Her comments bring to light a number of challenges that Americans would face if we were to have an oil crisis. As in Smith's experience in 1973, lack of heat would be a major concern. A more modern problem, not mentioned by Smith, is the major economic crisis that would occur without power and access to computer-operated systems. Finally, the lack of transportation due to oil restrictions would create difficulty in not only transporting people but in transporting food and other essentials that people need to live. While continued oil exploration should still be part of the process in addressing our increased energy needs, the obvious problems related to Smith's argument also make a clear point for conservation and economical government control of resources.

As in Smith's experience in 1972, a shortage of oil would most notably leave many without heat. As a result, some people might die either directly as the result of no heat or as the result of sickness from harsher conditions. Smith remembers, "without heat Londoners dressed warmly, but the winter nights... were bitter. I slept fully clothed" (77). While Smith was a healthy adult, the elderly and the young or sick would not have been able to adjust to such conditions. Their inability to cope would cost people their lives.

One major impact not mentioned by Smith is the effect that power outages due to oil shortage would have on economics. Economics affects each of us, since it controls how much we can buy to eat and for supplies. If an oil shortage caused gaps in electricity, the computer systems that control our banking systems, our retirement funds, and our bill paying would be set seriously off kilter. As a result, individuals who were depending on money to take care of them in a crisis may no longer have access to their money. Or worse, the devaluation of money due to an oil crisis may mean that a savings will no longer help. If heat and oil are not subsidized enough for individuals to afford it, some people's…… [read more]


Government Contracting and the Buy Green Revolution Term Paper

3 pages (1,081 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Government contracting and the "Buy Green" revolution

Government Contracting and Green Buying

The aim of this paper is to define the term 'Green buying' and link it to the Governmental procurement. Among other important issues, the report describes the reasons why the Central authority must involve in the environmental elements of the national society. In the end, the author shall present its conclusions.

The increasing level of pollution and diminishing resources of the natural environment, among which we would like to point out petroleum, gas, coal as the most important ones, drinkable water, had brought the attention of the public on Ecologic issues more than ever.

Specialists in the field highlight the fact that the natural resources for the above mentioned elements would last for a limited number of years - let us say 30-50 years. But what happens after that? It is well-known that energetic factors are a very delicate issue- petroleum and natural gas are topics that deploy wars and terror against entire countries. Corporations have made the first step in handling the case by focusing on the finding of new methods to create energy and replace the traditional energetic means. The 'Green power' includes factors like wind, bio-energy, geothermal, solar and hydroelectric energy. However, corporations are not alone in this struggle against the limited resources of Earth; Governments around the world try under different forms to create incentives or even enforce directives for enabling the focus on green products for the end consumer and third companies involved. In the next paragraphs, we shall tackle the Green power topics, briefly describing each element of the category and describe how Governments can induce the ecologic point-of-view in the national economies of states around the globe.

Definition of Green Power

Green power is the solution to a cleaner, sustainable energy system that would replace the traditional framework, dedicated to a large extent to non-renewable resources having a mineral origin. The fundament of Green Power is the renewable energy -- the power created by sun, wind, plants, and moving water. The characteristics of the new energetic factors relate to sustainability of the natural environment, durable development of the economy, that is not using Earth's limited resources any more, but finds other ways of creating wealth and benefits for the involved individuals. Next we shall present the main elements of the Green power:

Wind energy is obtained by the conversion of moving air into electricity. Wind power does not produce carbon dioxide emissions, does not generate solid waste that pollutes the natural environment or uses water that is more and more considered as a precious and limited asset of the Planet.

Bio-energy refers to the energy produced by trees and plants, including crops cultivated with the sole energetic purpose and for using other organic wastes (such as wood residues from paper mills and methane from landfills). Using bio-energy to generate electricity reduces global warming emissions, and is based again on renewable resources as new plants are cultivated to replace the harvested ones.… [read more]


Concrete History Term Paper

10 pages (3,333 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Concrete

HISTORY of CONCRETE

The history of concrete goes back about twelve million years according to the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (www.matse1.mse.uiuc.edu).What happened back then was that limestone and oil shale mixed to create a "spontaneous combustion" in what is now the country of Israel, and the result of that combustion… [read more]


Alternative Fuel for Lotus Alternative Fuel Assessment Term Paper

7 pages (2,145 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… ¶ … Alternative Fuel for Lotus

ALTERNATIVE FUEL ASSESSMENT for LOTUS CAR RENTAL

In the past few decades, citizens, environmentalists and government officials alike have become increasingly aware of the threatening approach of the fuel shortage crisis in the United States. This shortage is illustrated by the steady increase in gasoline prices, the wars for oil fought in the Middle… [read more]