Study "Energy / Power" Essays 221-275

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Refrigeration Methods and Price Term Paper

… (Instructables, nd, paraphrased)

According to U.S. Patent 200600080993 A1 a refrigerated liquid dispensing is inclusive of a cabinet that has a compartment that is refrigerated. This method of refrigeration requires a mounted bottle in the compartment receptacle with a value mounted to the bottle's neck which controls the liquid flow. It is stated that in one example of the invention that the valve is "actuated by a s0pring plunger mounted to the door of the compartment so that the valve can be actuated without opening the door to dispense water from a valve stem into a cup in a cup holder area below the compartment. In a further practice of the invention the valve is actuated by opening the door and acting directly on the valve. When the door opens a valve extension automatically slides outwardly so that a dispensing opening in the valve extension is disposed against a cup in the cup holder area." (Google Patents, 2014, p. 1)

Summary and Conclusion

This study has examined the use and operation of various refrigeration systems used in the American Craft Brewing industry. This includes such as glycol chillers, walk-in evaporative coolers and refrigerated dispensing systems and has related the principles and processes of these systems and their use in the American Craft Brewing industry. Each of these systems has their advantages and disadvantages and each of these systems require precise maintenance and monitoring to ensure efficiency in their operations.

Bibliography

A Brewery Glycol System Guide (nd) Prochiller. Retrieved from: http://www.prochiller.com/files/GLYCOLGUIDE.pdf

Evaporative Cooler (nd) Instructables. Retrieved from: http://www.instructables.com/id/Evaporative-Cooler-1/

King, MP (nd) CHILLER SYSTEMS AND GLYCOL USE . Chiller TechNet Document #1021. Seven Considerations. Retrieved from: http://www.legacychillers.com/cms_data/uploads/ChillerTechNet-Chiller%20Systems%20and%20Glycol.pdf EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT GLYCOL

Refrigerated liquid dispensing system (2014) U.S. 20060080993 A1. Google Patents. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/patents/US20060080993

VanderGeissen, J. (nd) Evolution of the…… [read more]


Project Development Term Paper

… In this case, the project met the continuing and long-term needs of stakeholders through increased amounts of transparency and controls. The biggest lesson that was learned, is how there will be additional challenges and cost overruns during the course of any large scale building project. (Subijanto 2013)

Ourzazate Solar Power Station

The Ourzazate Solar Power Station is utilizing the tremendous amounts of sunlight inside Morocco and converting it into a renewable source of electricity. It is currently being constructed in a series of stages. This is designed to meet the needs of the local economy and diversify the country's energy needs towards renewable sources. In this case, the needs of stakeholders are addressed by providing them with a reliable source of continuing power. Politically and from a regulatory perspective, this ensures that the country is able to meet the demands of the general public in way that is socially responsible. Environmentally, this decreases the carbon output and it limits the negative effects of the plant on different communities. At the same time, it will create jobs and improve the standard of living within the region. The financing model is focused on receiving funds directly through the African Development, World and European Development Banks. The project is monitored by having a series of independent contractors evaluate spending and what is happening. Risks are managed by utilizing a variety of local and foreign-based firms to work on specific stages. The independent contractors monitor any changes and oversee key challenges. This helped to reduce the possibility of cost overruns through having a series of checks and balances in place. Security is designed to reduce terrorism and prevent sabotage from those who are opposed to the project. Post implementation, requires using the fees generated to cover operating expenses and help enhance the needs of the local economy. In this case, these techniques allowed for an environmentally friendly project to be developed. However, the biggest lesson is that costs were higher than expected. This is from the importation of specific parts and the utilization of specialists to build / develop the plant. To deal with these issues, there needs to be two estimates provided. One will offer an initial cost for the project. While the other, will concentrate on possible cost overruns by adding a certain amount to the final price. This is designed to deal with setbacks and ensure there is adequate financing during the entire process. (Ourzazate Solar Power Station 2012)

References

Ourzazate Solar Power Station, 2012, African Development Bank. Available from: < http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Morocco%20-%20%20AR%20Ouarzazate%20Project%20I%20(2).pdf > [24 June 2014].

Subijanto, T, 2013, 'Key Success Factors,' Water Policy, vol. 15, pp. 183-205.… [read more]


Number of Different Factors Research Paper

… The other thing Edgar has to think about here is that even people who continue to patronize his gas station will have less money for discretionary items if the price of gas continues to rise. So not only will he… [read more]


Locker Construction Research Proposal

… As indicated in Figure IV-1, peak electricity prices are as high as $0.23 per kWh for buildings (including most state buildings) that are on time-of-use rates. At this time, it is not clear what future electricity prices will be. However, as the lockers are being constructed, less energy will be needed in regards to heating or cooling of the room. The room will not need to utilized computers, refrigerators, or other appliances that use energy. As such, savings can be realized overtime, through reduced usage of energy.

A-1 TOU

Single Phase Service per meter/day =$0.32854 Polyphase Service per meter/day =$0.65708

Summer

On peak

$0.23743

Part Peak

$0.22915

Off Peak

$0.20395

Winter

Part Peak

$0.16095

Off Peak

$0.14289

Source:

http://www.pge.com/tariffs/CommercialCurrent.xls

Utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems generally run at less than 50% capacity.113 However, during periods of peak electricity use, the generation and T&D systems may be close to overloaded. The benefits of reduced consumption are largest during periods of peak power consumption -- avoided congestion costs, reduced power quality and reliability problems, reduced pollution

Non-financial Benefit:

The benefit of using Good Housekeeping and Organization with the workplace is paramount to the success of the IPA. Workers in many instances value convenience. Stress and unforeseen circumstances can often reduce working productivity. With the use of lockers within the facility, patrons have convenient method to store items, ultimately reducing stress. Also, patrons will not need to worry about where to place items in the event that a wardrobe change is warranted. Further, the use of lockers helps to mitigate theft within the IPA as belongings can be secured. The peace of mind associated with securely locking items is a non-financial benefit.

Costs:

In general, large buildings consume a large… [read more]


Hydraulic Fracturing the Social Essay

… Hydraulic Fracturing

The social and economic evolution which unfolded, along the course of the industrialization era since the 1800s onwards has constituted the basis for many scientific investigations with regards to social and economic history. The creation and developmental process… [read more]


2011, an Interview Was Published Book Report

… Ovshinsky is not unwilling to confess that important leading figures of the U.S. are limited at merely verbal encouragement and he mentions President Obama in this respect who, in a gleeful manner, urged the inventor to ?keep at it. Thus, what one is to understand from the issues raised in the interview is that not only do techniques and resources to ensure quality energy at fair prices exist, but also, we possess the means for achieving success in this respect. However, Ovshinsky is pointing to something else that would indeed be concerning if proved accurate. He draws on the public's credulity in regards to governmental decisions about alternative sources of energy and bringing about changes: Does anyone really expect that Congress will ever support renewables? Current policy doesn't really support anything new… 2

The interview is indeed relevant in regards to contemporary challenges that our industrial and technological societies must meet. The cheapest resource which is exploited worldwide for producing energy is coal which is also known to be the cause for most of the carbon emissions everywhere. This indeed has a global impact and it is likely that pollution in one part of the world will be the cause for negative side effects on another in the future. This is why the interview is not targeted at merely specific readers but indeed looks to draw on how societies everywhere could benefit from Ovshinsky's work, provided that relevant financial support exists. Moreover, while it presents certain technical explanations, the interview makes the information available to readers who are not perhaps as acquainted with the terminology as other interested audiences. In general terms, the information looks to cover and abide by the same initial principle which has been to inform people on potential dangers. And pollution represents a massive challenge for this new era of technological developments relying on electricity.

Perhaps something to be taken into account when considering this interview is Ovshinsky's general attitude towards sustaining renewable forces. In this respect, while he does acknowledge wind power and solar thermal, he sees their utility as limited because of their dependence on specific environmental factors. He thus promotes in the interview his personal solution as ?universal solution, ? stating that it ?is the way to go because it is very low cost, and you don't need deserts and running water and other things that the solar-thermal companies don't like to talk about. 3 It is important thus that the author points to these already existing challenges for those looking to enhance the use of alternative energy. It may perhaps be that the interview was looking to foreground Ovshinsky's solution, however, the information clearly withstands such directives. The interview remains important because of the topic addressed which is relevant in present times' environmental challenges.

Reference list

Intellectual capital is a particularly important concept in the contemporary society and the success of many companies lies with…… [read more]


Nova Scotia Government and Politics Term Paper

… 6. By the year 2010, making sure that emission is cut back in order that health issues among the citizens will decrease.

7. Progress the coverage of public support services, particularly technical assistance and technology transfer. This support would need to involve not only an increase in resources for the recruitment of more technicians and professionals, but also a review of the content and methods utilized for technological modernization.

8. Set up programs and seminars in the community that will address the effects of having an ineffective environment and how it can cause serious health issues in humans and animals as well as how it can be destructive to the plants, water and air.

9. In the next five years coming up with an Energy efficiency plan that is a cost-effective energy resource for the reason that saving kilowatt hours would be much cheaper than having to yield them by constructing power plants and then burning fuels.

Paying for energy efficiency programs by means of power rates will reduce the future costs of the whole electricity system. This would then mean that less money that is going out of Nova Scotia's pockets to offer incomes for Nova Scotia Power.

Potential Partners

The soon to be created and also become a potential partner is the Efficiency Nova Scotia agency which is actually expected to operate an energy efficiency program on par with the most forward-thinking and determined programs in North America.

However that is the present plan. Also the Community Health Boards will come on board and they will be very helpful by are drawing up regional surveys that will be conducted by the respective District Health Authorities. The question that they will use is some questions that are also asked in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The data in these surveys will be used in order to get a better viewpoint of the needs of the people and also to see rather or not that the objectives being enforced are effective or not.

References:

Conrad, Catherine. 2006. Towards meaningful community-based ecological monitoring in nova scotia: Where are we vs. where we would like to be. Environments 34, (1): 25-36,

Korosi, Jennifer B., and John P. Smol. 2011. Distribution of cladoceran assemblages across environmental gradients in Nova Scotia (Canada) lakes. Hydrobiologia 663, (1) (03): 83-99,

Thompson, Shirley. 2004. from a toxic economy to sustainability: Women activists taking care of environmental health in Nova Scotia. Canadian Woman Studies 23, (1) (Fall): 108-114,

Bill 146, Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act, Bill 146, 1st sess., 60th Leg., Nova Scotia,

(assented to 13 April 2007).

Thompson, Shirley. 2004. from a toxic economy to sustainability: Women activists taking care of environmental health in Nova Scotia. Canadian Woman Studies 23, (1) (Fall): 108-114,

Originally published by ChronicleHerald.ca, "NDP: NSP shouldn't charge consumers for conservation

Plans," June 4, 2009.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), "Canada-Wide Standards for Mercury

Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Power Generation Plants," [2006], available at http://www.ccme.ca/assets/

Puff/hg_epg_cws_w_annex.pdf.

One of the…… [read more]


California's Natural Resources and Economic Development Essay

… California Natural Resources

California is now one of the largest regional economies in the world and its success is one of the pillars which made the United States an economic giant. Its success has been rapid starting between the 18th… [read more]


Coal to Gas Switching Essay

… Coal Gas

Switching from coal to gas has perceived environmental, economic, and political benefits. Because of this, the switch from coal to natural gas-generated power on the mainstream grids has increased significantly. As of 2008, natural gas is creating 30% of power in the United States, compared to 19% of the market in 2005. Part of the impetus for shifting from coal to natural gas is clearly price: the price of natural gas has decreased significantly over the course of the past several years. There are also political reasons for the shift from coal to natural gas. For example, the United States' refusal to participate in some of the Kyoto Protocol provisions, coupled with pressure from the European Union, have led to a gradual embrace of using natural gas over coal. This has in turn brought down the price of coal, in response to market demands. Prices have also been reduced in response to more advanced and accessible drilling technologies. Reduced carbon emissions are the primary driving factor in the shift from coal-generated power to natural gas-generated power.

Unfortunately, the switch is not a smooth transition. Natural gas prices are again rising. This is because of the phase of dismantling outmoded coal-generating energy plants, and the subsequent rise in demand for investments in natural gas-specific generating plants. Stricter environmental regulations are also driving up the cost of implementing a natural gas-centric power generation model. Renewable energy sources remain intermittent, and are only partially supplementing natural gas. The United States remains opposed to international solutions to the greenhouse gas emissions crisis, and clings to a privileged position in which American interests trump the interests of either global stability or even national security, let alone environmental harmony and ecological integrity.

Shifting from coal to natural gas leads to quantifiable…… [read more]


Smart Grid Term Paper

… Wind Farm Grids

Wind Farm Valuation

Value a new Wind Farm project

Hurricane or tornado survivors or anyone who has seen pictures of the aftermath of these storms will realize there is enormous energy potential in wind power. The problem… [read more]


Carbon Dioxide Emissions the Greenhouse Research Paper

… 4% in the year 2011 (U.S. 2012). However, this was after a 3.3% increase the year before. The year 2007 showed the greatest decreased in carbon emissions with a 7% decrease from the year before. This seems to be a positive development however given that there was still an increase in emissions as recently as 2010 is extremely disconcerting. Over the last forty years, carbon emissions have lowered after reaching a high in the 1970s and 1980s (Becker 2013). It is good, but as stated, this is not yet low enough.

Information Obtained:

Through this experiment, I have learned more about the dangers of carbon emissions in the atmosphere and exactly how problematic the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming is. People mostly think about this issue as something abstract and "going green" is a movement which will pass. Recycling and driving less are helpful things, but there is so much more that needs to be done to save our planet. Some 40% of carbon emissions come from power plants, such as nuclear plants and from oil refineries who convert fossil fuels into gasoline. By reducing the pollution these businesses produce, then there will be much more benefit to the environment than the simple tasks which everyday people can do to contribute to the green effort. It is a bigger problem than just one or two people can fix.

Works Cited

Becker, D & Gerstenzang, J. (2013). Limiting carbon dioxide pollution by power plants. The New York Times.

US…… [read more]


Green Technology Relationship Between World Term Paper

… Putting this into consideration, green house technologies is coming up with various methods aimed at reducing exploitation of energy. One of the main steps that these technologies are putting into account is the use of other sources of energy which are free from pollution. A Solar cell is one of the best known examples which are as a result of embracement of green technology.

A solar cell usually converts light energy directly to electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. A solar cell is a form of photoelectric cell generates and supports electric current when exposed to light. This happens without attachment to any source of external voltage. Through the use of solar cell, people can be able to get energy from the sunlight in a cheaper and easier way as compared to most sources of energy. Combination of several solar cells helps in making of solar modules, which take part in generating electrical power from the sunlight. The electrical power generated from the solar module, known as solar power is one of the main examples of solar energy.

The use of solar energy from the solar cell is one of the most researched technologies in the 21st century. Researchers are coming up with various ways on where and how they can apply solar energy in almost all the areas that require energy. Currently, there are many areas are using solar energy in operations. Some of these include power for domestic use, cars, toys, and electronics. People are testing the use of solar energy in various applications. Going with this rate of experimenting, it is true that most applications will be using solar energy in the near future. One of the main advantages of solar energy is that it does not pollute the natural environment. Moreover, it is a renewable source of energy, and hence people can use it as long as they wish provided they have the solar cells. The embracement of green technology through the use of solar energy will significantly help in conserving the natural environment, offering a favorable atmosphere for people as well as animals to live…… [read more]


Legal Issues in Hydraulic Research Paper

… The companies that carry out the fracing process are also not trustworthy in taking caution to protect the environment. Mishandling of the waste from this process is rampant causing pollution of the environment.

It is for these reasons that the government and other non-governmental organizations have strongly come out to voice out for the protection of the environment. The government has taken a keen interest in this issue that involves one of the industries that contribute immensely to the economy and the markets of the world. The government has taken precautionary measures to control and counter the environmental impacts. The measures involve drafting, debating and constituting laws that govern the process of oil and petroleum mining and transportation.

Such measures include the proposed federal FRAC Act. H.R. 1084; S.587. This regulation seeks to address the issue of water pollution in the underground. The Michigan DEQ permitting instructions (2011) outlines the guidelines to permitting of the use of the hydraulic fracturing method. Another regulation is Wyoming Oil and GS Regulation, Chapter 3 section 45(September 2010). There are also local laws involved in this regulation process. These laws hold for the drillers, and they have introduced protective drilling formulae for use as cracking fluid. The laws overriding the chemical disclosure also are different from one state to another.

The hydraulic fracturing method is effective for extraction of oil, petroleum and gas. The process directly influences the economy of the nation as well as the environment. It is my opinion that the government and local authorities clearly understand that, and they have taken effective measures to control the process. The laws are effective and will reduce the impacts of the process to the environment.

References

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2012). Natural Gas Extraction

Hydraulic Fracturing. Retrieved on 8th January 2013 from http://www.epa.gov/hydraulicfracture/

Boman, K. (2013). .Alaska Proposes Changes to Hydraulic Fracturing Rules. Retrieved on 8th

Jan 2013, from http://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_gas/a/123178/Alaska_Proposes_Changes_to_Hydrauli

c_Fracturing_Rules… [read more]


Complex Organization Book Review

… ¶ … Organization

The Empathic Civilization, by Jeremy Rifkin is a fresh analysis of the history of civilization, how we got to the place we are in presently, and what we can do to guarantee the highest likelihood of survival… [read more]


Cellular Respiration Give the Overall Term Paper

… Respiration and oxygen consumption rates both increase during any form of exercise or physical activity.

According to the data collected, is there a correlation between the mass of the mice and their room temperature respiration rates?

The heavier mice had lower room temperature respiration rates. Larger organisms tend to have higher metabolic rates in general. Metabolic rates are chemical processes that require an expenditure of energy and thus impact respiration rates. It is not surprising to see that the mice weighing 35.9g and 43.2g had lower oxygen consumption rates at room temperature than the mice weighing 30.6g and 32.5g.

How is exercise an example of the Second Law of Thermodynamics?

Under the Second Law of Thermodynamics, energy is always moving from areas of higher concentration to lesser concentration. As it does, it becomes less and less useful. Exercise causes the body to become hotter as more energy is utilized (blood is pumped to areas that need it most) until energy is burned off and fatigue sets in. The energy that was once required for physical activity is eventually depleted.

Describe how cellular respiration and photosynthesis are related.

Cellular respiration involves the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide. This process provides cells with the energy required to produce energy. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants do the same thing, except it is reversed. Energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar. This provides the plant with energy. The by-product is oxygen. Together, both photosynthesis and cellular respiration help recycle carbon dioxide and oxygen throughout the environment.

Do plant cells conduct cellular respiration? Why or why not?

Plants, like all living things, undergo processes of cellular respiration. This is because all living things require energy. Energy must be released so that it can be converted into a useful form for cells. The energy stored within the "food" consumed by all living things must be adequately processed to sustain life. Otherwise, the organism will die.

Reference

"Molecular Biology." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2011): 1. Academic…… [read more]


Grand Challenge I'll Focus On. To Demonstrate Term Paper

… ¶ … Grand Challenge I'll focus on. To demonstrate, I have chosen "Provide energy from fusion" as the focus. It may also be a good idea to provide reasons for choosing this specific Grand Challenge. Energy is one of the major needs in the world today, affecting almost everything that relates to our lifestyle today, from our basic needs such as food to entertainment such as television and films. Everything today needs energy for its power, movement, or function. So providing a sustainable source of energy is one of the major challenges that engineers face today, which would make a discussion of this Grand Challenge both interesting and relevant. I would start by describing the challenge and its components, such as the potential of fusion energy, its challenges, what is currently being done, and the general safety concerns involved.

These safety concerns will then provide a good connecting point for the next part of the paper, which would focus on ethics. To relate to the discussion of energy from fusion, I have chosen the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Code of Ethics for Engineers. There are six fundamental canons, three of which could be considered to be specifically related to fusion as an energy source.

Canon #1 states that engineers are to "Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. I would relate this to the idea that fusion energy has several challenges, including the fact that the radio activity created by the process needs to be contained. The structure built to create the energy should also be made of material that is sturdy enough to withstand the process in the long-term. Failure to do this could lead to safety concerns for workers and those living close to the facility.

Canon #3 states that engineers are to "issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. One of the challenges that relate to fusion energy is that its possible…… [read more]


Production and Consumption Habits Essay

… Human Production and Consumption Habits

As the most intelligent, creative, and resourceful species ever to inhabit this planet, human beings have continually transformed and reshaped their physical environment to suit their needs. A substantial part of that process has always involved consumption of natural resources. Today, the global population faces several different crises resulting from irresponsible over-consumption and irresponsible production habits without due regard for complex long-term consequences.

The Industrial Revolution radically changed human life throughout 19th century Europe and in North America. Industrialization allowed the fastest spread of the benefits of modern life ever seen. The mass production methods and processes made possible by electric and gasoline-powered machinery allowed virtually all of the modern conveniences that changed the quality of everyday life for millions of people in the last two hundred years. However, as early as a few decades after the spread of industrial technology to cities, various negative consequences emerged.

The industrialized cities of the late 19th century were filthy and dangerous, largely because of the byproducts of totally unregulated industrial production processes (Attfield, 2003). Factories and production plants spewed out heavy smoke and toxic materials in great plumes that entered the atmosphere and heavily polluted the air. Larger particles of soot floated down, often forming a light coating on any exposed areas. During the 20th centuries, the nations of the so-called "First World" developed measures to regulate and control the pollution attributable to fossil fuels but that did not address consumption issues (Attfield, 2003).

By the dawn of the 21st century, human consumption habit in relation to fossil fuels had resulted in a pending energy crisis (Attfield, 2003). The existing supplies…… [read more]


OSHA Electrical Safety Term Paper

… OSHA Electrical Safety

Occupational Safety & Health Administration -- OSHA electrical safety standards have been formulated to safeguard workers from risks of electrocution, electrical fires and other explosions related to electrical equipments. Implementations of these safeguards have been done as… [read more]


Arrangement and Composition of Fuels A-Level Coursework

… Running parallel below the shelf is a desk. The desk appears to be made of the same material as the walls. On the desk, there is a cathode computer screen. Alongside the screen is a collection of files and books others lying on top of the desk and other placed upright next to the screen. There is a computer keyboard almost attached to the screen. Back of the desk is a seat made of plastic, cloth, foam and metal. Under the desk, there are two piles of about two feet each of paper.

Amounts of fuel in each

The amounts of fuel in the three workstations are similar. Having looked at the arrangements of each of the workstations, the amount of fuel in them evidently are the same. However, the only differences that exist among the three workstations are the walls or partitioning. The two-sided workstation is half-open and has the two walls or partitioning in a "L" shape. The three sided work station has a "U" shaped wall around it and the four sided workstation is fully covered on all sides leaving a small opening as a door.

Fire Development In Terms Of Heat Flux and Heat Transfer

"The rate of the heat release (HRR) increases or decreases as a Time function is usually expressed in kW per second (kW/s)" (Kennedy & Kennedy, 2003). The slide show reveal that the fire in the four sided workstation developed faster than both the two sided and three side workstation. It took 360 seconds t for the fire to produce 6.9 megawatts of energy as compared to 3.8 megawatts in 480 seconds in three sided workstation. The two sided workstation recorded 3.0 megawatts in 420 seconds.

The enclosure of the four-sided workstation appears to be the main reason for the fast spread of fire. The enclosure enabled faster heat transfer within the workstation through conduction. The surrounding fuels as well as the ventilation control the rate at which the heat was released from one item to the other within the workstation. Moreover, composition of the fuels within the four sided workstation could have lead to faster rates of combustion within the workstation resulting to production of higher levels of energy. "The rate at which fire develops, peak heat release rate, and time of burning depend on both the characteristics of the fuel involved and ventilation profile" (Hartin, 2007). Most items or the fuel in the workstation were also of light density enabling the fire to spread fast to a fully developed stage where all the all combustible items are on fire in the workstation and flames extend through to top opening. (Karlsson & Quintiere, 2000).

Reference

Hartin, E. (2007). Fire Development and Fire Behavior Indicators. Retrieved March 6,

2012, from www.firehouse.com: http://www.firehouse.com

Karlsson, B., & Quintiere, J.G. (2000). Enclosure Fire Dynamics,. Boca Raton: CRC

Press LLC.

Kennedy, P.M., & Kennedy, K.C. (2003). Flashover and…… [read more]


Mechanism Description Essay

… ¶ … appearance, and a list of parts. It also contains a description for each part individually including a definition, function, appearance, and link to the next part. In conclusion it contains a summary of the function of flashlight and… [read more]


Bidirectional Converter for Residential Grid Connected PV System Using SPMC Topology Research Proposal

… PV Sys Proposal

Bidirectional Converter for Residential Grid Connected PV System Using SPMC Topology

The proposed research will focus on the development and implementation of a Single Phase Matrix Converter (SPMC) for use in a standard residential grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. This will create a cost savings for the overall system, streamline operation, and simplify use of the system. The SPMC will allow a single switching unit to regulate the flow of electricity to the grid and to the battery in a typical PV system setup, providing the necessary bidirectional flow in a simpler manner than is currently available.

Overview of Previous Research

A number of engineering solutions have been proposed and implemented for the conversion and flow direction changes needed in a standard PV system, and typically increases in performance have been coupled with increases in the complexity of the solutions/systems installed (Seminar, 2011). Other systems are currently being research and in some cases applied in practical situations, however, that achieve high performance results with simplified converter/directional control setups or devices (Shiji et al., 2003; Zhang, 2008; Hamzah et al., 2006). Combined converter devices such as a boost&buckboost converter, allowed for bidirectional soft switching with a 97.1% forward power flow, demonstrating the potential for higher performance through simpler means (Shinji et al., 2003). A major problem with many attempts to simplify the control devices bidirectional conversions are the emergence of spikes or peaks in flow, which must be controlled or eliminated in order to operate efficiently; work in this area with technologies other than the proposed SPMC has provided valuable insight into some of the problems that might be faced as well as potential solutions (Zhang, 2008). Research into SPMCs themselves is still relatively scant, however simulations and limited experiments have suggested that their use has…… [read more]


Photosynthesis Essay

… The functioning of these cells is important in the conversion of one form of energy into another (Rana, 2008, p. 98).

Differences between Solar Cells and Plant Cells

1. Solar cells only absorb 20% of the incident sunlight as compared to 0.03% captured by the plants. Here the difference of the energy comes into light. A single photon of the sunlight is more than enough for a single plant atom to excite to higher energy levels whereas even more energy is required for functioning of the solar cells.

2. Plant cells convert solar energy into chemical energy while solar cells convert solar energy into electricity. Plants are one of the most important source that add up to moisture recycling and solar cells cannot obtain any befits from precipitation. Presence of dust in the air can greatly reduce the efficiency of the solar cells to more than 40%. Dust on the other hand has no effect on plant cells.

3. Solar cells use inorganic semiconductors as compared to the plants that use organic processes for the conversion. Thereby the main difference lies in the fact that the nature of the cells is different in both the plants and solar cells (Nelson, 2003, p. 23).

Conclusion

The main difference between solar cells and plant cells is based on the nature of the cells as organic reactions are involved in plant cells and inorganic reactions are involved in solar cells. Solar cells as compared to the plant cells are more sensitive to the presence of dust in the air that can reduce solar cell efficiency by more than 40%. Plant cells as compared to solar cells contribute oxygen and moisture to the environment whereas no contribution is given by the solar cells.

References

Nelson, J. (2003). The physics of solar cells, Volume 2 of Series on…… [read more]


Hvdc Research Paper

… The CCC is a conventional converter used in HVDC systems by inserting capacitors within the line connections. However, the CCC is quickly being done away with due to another more practical converter called the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). The VSC completely does away with the need for 'extinction time' and as one recent study determined "voltage source multi-level power converter structures are being considered for high power high voltage applications where they have well-known advantages (such as no extinction time)" (Chaves, Margato, Silva, Pinto, Santana, 2011, p. 1436). Their study also showed that for both converter sides "the control strategy considers active and reactive power to establish ac grid currents on sending and receiving ends while guaranteeing the balancing of both NPC dc bus capacitor voltages" (p. 1436). Another study determined that "this technology had captured a significant proportion of the HVDC market" and that VSC technology "will probably eventually replace all simple thyristor-based systems now in use" (Arrillage, Liu, Watson, Murray, 2009).

One of the future trends seems to be towards the self-commutated converters (SCC). The problem with self-commutated converters is that it loses a lot of energy during the shut-down process. A recent study however, determined that self-commutated power converters that use zero-current soft-switching techniques are much more likely to have reduced switching losses.

The study found that "switching losses of HVDC are reduced by adding a commutation circuit" (Senjyu, Kurohane, Miyagi, Urasaki, 2009, p. 316). This reduction is accomplished by introducing the self-commutated converter. Evidence of this accomplishment was verified by the Matlab/Simulink as discussed earlier in this paper.

Many of the trends towards more effective use of inverters and converters are based on the technology that makes simulations possible. The effects of adjusting and tweaking of converters and inverters can easily be determined by the use of this technology. With the demands made by larger populations and the introduction of more and more electrical uses, the demand for electricity throughout the world will likely continue to grow. Transmission of this electricity will need to be accomplished in the most effective and efficient method. Introducing inverters and converters that help in accomplishing this task is certain to continue into the future. Whether the converters are of the conventional, voltage-sourced or self-commutated versions will likely depend on how quickly improvements can be made to their use. By using technology tools studies such as the one conducted by Senjyu et al. are able to determine that "the proposed circuit concludes that switching losses with all self turn-off devices are nearly zero by connecting commutation circuits for power converters" (p. 323).

Being ready to implement the necessary changes effectively will take center stage during the next decade and the introduction of more effective converters and inverters will be a major component of those necessary changes.

References

Alasooly, H. & Redha, M.; (2010) Simulation of some of the power electronics case studies in Matlab Simpowsystem Toolbox, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1239, Issue 1, pp. 120 -- 133

Arrillaga, J.; Liu, Y.H.; Watson,… [read more]


How Inadequate Hydro Gaming of the System Hot Summers Let to Failure of California Deregulation Essay

… Electricity

How inadequate hydro, gaming of the system, hot summers let to failure of California deregulation

Californian Crisis

How inadequate hydro, gaming of the system, hot summers let to failure of California deregulation

The failure of the deregulation of electricity in California had a number of complex causes. These included the issue of the lack of sufficient hydroelectric power in the region, as well as drought during the period of deregulation which placed further strain on the electricity supply. However, a central causative factor lay in the process and nature of the deregulation itself, as well as the important factor of the manipulation of the market and the gaming of the system for profit.

The electricity crisis in the region, also known as the Western Energy Crisis during 2000 and 2001, refers to a critical period when the state was subjected to numerous blackouts, as well as the failure of one of California's largest energy companies. As has already been noted, the reasons for the failure of deregulation in the region are complex. However, a number of central factors can be isolated and shown to have provided the impetus towards the failure of this deregulation.

In 1998, California was one of the first states to implement deregulation (Bradshaw and Woodrow). In 1997, before the advent of deregulation, the Public Utilities Commission moved to open the twenty billion dollar market to competition. The rationale behind this thinking was that such a move would have a number of benefits. These included the view that it would result in a reduction of prices due to increased competition and that this increased competition would also lead to new services and innovations in the market. In 1998 residential customers were permitted to "…buy competitive retail electric power. Expectations about the benefits were high." ( Ritschel and Smestad 1380)

Other benefits that were envisaged included improved customer services and new products, as well as improved environmental benefits, such as "green" power.

( Ritschel and Smestad 1379)

However, while at the beginning the move towards deregulation seemed to be successful, the results were a failure, with rolling blackouts in 2001. (Bradshaw and Woodrow) A central reason given for this crisis was the "gaming of the system." In other words, there was a manipulation of various market factors by some players, which contributed to the failure of the deregulation. Gaming is in referred to as the practice by "…greedy private companies gaming the system through rules they helped write." (Bradshaw and Woodrow) As one study on this subject notes: "….generators "gamed" California's electricity auctions to extract high prices." (THE CALIFORNIA CRISIS) Other factors that are also mentioned are the"…lack of…… [read more]


Kyoto Protocol UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun Case Study

… Kyoto Protocol & Poland

Kyoto Protocol - UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun & Poland

Kyoto Protocol -- UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun & Poland

Climate change has been the most important environmental challenge to create the plans and… [read more]


Ecology and the Environment Essay

… Biology/Ecology

Afghanistan

Canada

2008 Pop (millions)

BR/1000

DR/1000

GR

PGR

Afghanistan's population, assuming constant BR/DR and no emigration, immigration, will double every 29 years, or in 2036; Because Canada's birth rate is much smaller in relation to death rate, it will not be until 2182 that Canada's population will double. (See: http://www.metamorphosisalpha.com/ias/population.php)

Afghanistan Projected Population (millions)

Canada Projected Population (millions)

Human Population Growth

GR = 20/1000

PGR = 20/1000 X 100 = 2%

DT = 70/.02 = 35 years

Population in 2044 = 199,988

Population in 2079 = 399,955

Afghanistan represents an example of a moderate/rapid growing population.

Part 5 - Profile A is more representative of Canada.

Part 6 - E, both B. And D. important due to high birth rate and potential mortality issues.

Part 7 -- D, there would be very few young people in the population.

Part 8 - One of the clear challenges of reducing global warming is transferring the energy needs of the developed world into solutions that allow a burgeoning population access to some of the more common utilities of the developed world. In the developed world, for instance, capital and innovation are more apt to provide alternatives; solar power, wind power, hydro-electric power, nuclear power, etc. When translating these technologies to other countries, Afghanistan for instance, one must be mindful that a structure is necessary for construction and maintenance of many technologies, as well as the natural resources that are available in the country.

Of course, if money were no object and the developed countries of the world put funding together, hydroelectric power would be ideal for Afghanistan since it is…… [read more]


CISM in the Event Thesis

… These policies and strategies will continue to be examined and rewritten many years into the future. One of the key lessons learned was about how to achieve greater interagency cooperation in the development policies in this regards (NEI, 2011). (IAEA, 2011). At present, policies of concentrated on preventing in managing the physical disaster in very little attention. Caring for mental and emotional issues is not a consideration in the plans at this time. However, this issue needs to be addressed in order to prevent long-term consequences of the disaster that reach far beyond the initial event.

Conclusion

Little formal research has been conducted regarding the emotional impact of a critical incident involving a nuclear facility. The literature revealed that the emotional impact is greater the closer the person is to the incident. Taking this into consideration, it could be expected that first responders and those working within the plant would have the greatest potential for developing emotional problems associated with the disaster. This information suggests that providing CISM becomes more crucial the closer the responder is to the disaster. This will allow the development of a prioritized list for treating those who are involved in the disaster.

References

Barnett, L. (2007). Psychological effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Medicine, Conflict, and Survival. 23 (1), 2007.

Hatch, M., Wallenstein, S. & Beyea, J. et al. (1991). Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant. Am J. Public Health. 81(6): 719 -- 724.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2011). Fukishima Nuclear Accident Update Log. Retrieved from http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html

Jones, B. (2011, March). Praise for 'heroes' working to avert nuclear catastrophe. March 16, 2011. CNN World. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2011-03-16/world/japan.nuclear.heroes_1_millisieverts-radiation-nuclear-power-plant?_s=PM:WORLD

Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). (2011). Industry Actions: Incorporating Lessons from Japan. Nuclear Energy Institute. Retrieved from http://safetyfirst.nei.org/industry-actions/… [read more]


Policy Position of the President Essay

… ¶ … Policy Position of the President of the United States

There a number of policy positions that the President of the United States will take in regards to a host of different issues. One of the most recent ones are: his views on the debt ceiling and the levels of federal spending. What is happening is President Obama, wants to see a decrease in the spending levels of the federal government that are phased in over ten years. At the same time, he wants to see an increase in the marginal tax rate on the highest categories of affluent Americans. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how his position is creating a conflict between: the members of Congress and the White House. As, Congress want to see a decrease in the levels of spending immediately with: no increase in federal taxes that are levied against these individuals and businesses. (Heuvel, 2011) (Okungua, 2011) This has been contributing a budget impasse that could derail the economy if an agreement is not reached by August 2nd.

The Policy Position on the U.S. Supreme Court Justices

A recent policy position of the U.S. Supreme Court was that they ruled in favor of an Arizona immigration law that imposes stiff penalties on: employers and organizations that are hiring illegal immigrants. This was based on a 5 to 3 decision, where this directive was constitutional, due to the fact that the states were allowed to supplement a 1986 federal immigration law. The reason why is because, there was a provision that says, "Other than through licensing and similar laws." According to the majority opinion, this gives the states the power to go beyond these regulations when there are none currently that are in place on the federal level. The different justices that supported these views include: John Roberts, Antonin Scalia, Anthony M. Kennedy, Samuel A. Alito Jr. And Clarence Thomas. Evidence of these views can be seen with Chief Justice Roberts writing the majority opinion where he says, "Congress could easily have limited the phrase had it wanted to establish a more telling regulation. If it had intended such limited exceptions to…… [read more]


Expenditure Plan From the Office Research Paper

… ¶ … Expenditure Plan

From the Office of the Chief Administrative Officer

The city of Encinitas is a diverse and vibrant city that should reflect the allocated resources from the city budget and the federal funds matching program that will… [read more]


Microeconomics Industry Description the Modern Essay

… The bargaining power of the buyers is limited as the prices of oil and gas are pegged to the costs incurred in their extraction, processing and distribution. Nonetheless, customers can choose the product to purchase based on its retail price, meaning as such that price sensitivity in the purchase decisions of customers force petroleum companies to implement competitive prices.

The threat of substitute products is still unclear. On the one hand, there are the natural resources, such as coal, whereas on the other hand, there are the alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as wind or solar energy. The alternative of natural resources is damaging for the environment, whereas renewable energy has yet to be globally available (Investoedia).

Finally, in such a context, the competition between the players in the industry -- the more important of them being Exxon Mobil, BP Plc., Chevron Corporation and Royal Dutch Shell Plc. (Hoovers, 2011) -- is intense and fierce.

2. In favor and against the Irving -- Exxon Mobil merger

The merger between Irving Limited Oil and the Exxon Mobil Corporation is debatable, with one side revealing positive arguments in favor of the merger, whereas another side revealing negative arguments against the merger. In terms of the arguments in favor of the merger, the following are noteworthy.

The combination of the resources from two different economic agents, including their logistics infrastructures, would materialize in increased operational efficiency and cost savings, which would in turn generate reductions in the retail price, to as such create benefits for the buyers and for the community

The unification of the two companies would create enhanced research and development budgets and would gather more talented staffs in this direction. This in turn means that the newly formed entity would be better able to conduct research and development operations, to create new products and to support environmental stability and sustainability.

Finally, through the centralization of the resources from the two companies, the newly formed entity would be better able to expand and to provide its products and services to a greater consumer market and as such serve the needs of more people, within and outside the United States.

The arguments mentioned above are generically pegged to the two companies entering the merger and they are formulated in an effort to convince the public that the merger is indeed beneficial for the entire community, not only for them, from a financial standpoint. Still, while through the lenses of the newly formed entity, the advantages are clear, the public could object to the merger, through the following arguments against it:

The joining of forces by the two oil and gas companies would result in the creation of a single price for the products and services sold under their brand. This in turn means that they would set the maximal price, rather than a lower one, and the customers would not be left with any choice but pay the price asked by the new entity.

At the level of the industry,… [read more]


To Persuade People Buy Solar Panels Essay

… ¶ … Solar Panels

We are currently facing a global energy crisis with incredibly significant implication for the future of human civilizations on Earth. Since the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, human societies have become completely dependent on fossil fuels for virtually every aspect of ordinary life. There are three separate but equally important problems that result directly from this dependence: First, the supplies of oil reserves are finite and rapidly approaching depletion because of the ever-increasing consumption in industrialized nations. Second, the byproducts and consequences of fossil fuel burning energy systems represent grave dangers to human health. Third, the constant burning of fossil fuels is causing highly destructive to the global ecology and it is directly responsible for highly detrimental environmental changes that threaten millions of biological species with extinction.

There is a desperate need for the development of and shift toward alternative energy sources that do not pollute the environment, negatively affect human health, and that are not subject to depletion by virtue of being finite in their supply and continued availability. Currently, nations that are now making the transition from being undeveloped to developed are experiencing some of the very same negative consequences of fossil fuel energy reliance that Western societies experienced during the late 19th century. In China, for example, air and water pollution problems have been accelerating as more and more of the population is becoming industrialized. There is no need for China and other developing societies to go through the same problems and threats to the quality of human life that eventually inspired energy regulation in the West. Unfortunately, the recent disaster at the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan illustrates the tremendous potential dangers associated with nuclear energy. In light of those risks, one of the only viable technologies that are safe enough for widespread use and incapable of depletion is solar energy.

In principle, solar energy is the most appropriate choice for future energy systems because it is entirely safe, it produces no harmful byproducts at all, and unlike fossil fuels, solar energy is available in unlimited supplies and indefinitely. Solar energy systems consist, generally, of solar panels that absorb photons emitted by the sun passively and continuously whenever sunshine is…… [read more]


Green Building Laws Term Paper

… The employees of NYSERDA who work for and maintain services regarding green building are kept in the same building as the group of Energy Efficiency Services. Employees of NYSERDA are of the view that it is only fair to accept… [read more]


Oil and Gas Development Research Paper

… Thus, we cannot exist today without oil and gas. [12: "History of the World Petroleum Industry." The Geology link for the Canadian Oil and Gas Industry. 2010. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. . ]

Yet oil and gas processes are damaging… [read more]


Rising Gas Prices Research Paper

… ¶ … rise in global oil prices and its effect on the global economy. We also discuss the possible reason of the rise in oil prices and the possible remedies. The specific effect of the increase in oil prices is… [read more]


Fall on a Daily Basis Term Paper

… Entry into this market requires little influence, as the demand for these products are extremely high. One piece of new technology could easily rewrite the competitive framework of this industry and market.

The threat of rivals, seems to be much more important than the others. The current state of energy markets are described by heavy reliance on the oil industry and all of its networks. Abstinence from energy consumption also serves as a rival product. The competitive nature of this market is fierce and unrelenting. The pace of this market is rapidly changing and it is important to keep tabs on all the changes that not only rivals demonstrate, but others in the general business marketplace as well. Governments will use political power to ensure substantial rivals are intact to combat and counterbalance this new green energy source and all of its accompanying technologies.

The threat of substitute products is evident with other green energy companies that do not supply the same items as quantum technologies. QT has a wide range of products that scan seemingly the entire market of energy. It is those energies that are secret and unavailable to the public that propose a threat of substitution. These technologies are perhaps under developed and awaiting market forces to usher in their arrival.

The customer base, is unlimited and global, and its actions as a threat to QT are indeed real. Consumers are consistently bombarded with new and innovative products in all facets of their existence. Warfare and the state of the world seem to be hinged upon energy, specifically oil accumulation and production. It is impossible for the consumer to ignore these facts and selecting products that may help alleviate these unfortunate and unnecessary events. The power to change the market rests within the customer base and it should be a focus of any strategic plans QT decides to enact.

Suppliers of QT's production also play important role within this analysis. QT depends on certain technologies be delivered to them before their product can be assembled and delivered to their customer. Any shortage in the compound make lithium-ion batteries, solar voltaic panels, hydrogen storing devices and various other computer-based technologies, will certainly affect the profitability of this agency and its profitability.

Overall QT is in a very profitable and quick changing market that requires flexibility, understanding and skillful integration of different markets. In relation to its competitors, quantum technologies should continue to build and exploit the information and technology relative to its experience to the other companies. Utilizing these resources will help this company maintains competitive advantage and provide new services useful to the everyday consumer and the general security of the nation and…… [read more]


Saving the Tuolumne Essay

… California Water Pricing

The proposed hydroelectric Clavey-Wards Ferry water project development should not be allowed. The river resource has already been developed to over capacity. Further development may ruin the precious natural resource beyond repair, including the drying up of the remaining down stream water supply to the California population in that area.

The following arguments support my recommendation:

By 1983 existing water projects captured 90% of the Tuolomne River's water. There simply is not much more to be taken (Kincaid, 1). Even a former California State Department of Fish and Game biologist's estimate that the new reservoir would contain less than 10 pounds of fish per acre as compared to the Tuolumne's present 1000 pounds per acre (Ibid, 6).

Every source of power has environmental costs. Although the hydroelectric power is "clean," the environmental impacts upon fishing, camping and downstream water customers who will have even less water than they currently do have to be weighed in as well as to the needs of large metropolitan areas such as San Francisco. The inundation of the remaining eighteen wild miles of river front will virtually dry up the remaining downstream flow of the river (Ibid). In addition, past environmental costs have been understated in applications for hydroelectric projects in the Sierras (Ibid, 7).

3) the costs of the project are far understated in terms of social cost. This is shown graphically in Exhibit 8 where total price tag in these costs will be $214,263,000 (Ibid, 18).

The…… [read more]


Chernobyl Disaster Research Paper

… Chernobyl: The Disaster and Its Aftermath

The recent nuclear disaster in Japan has resurrected the ghost of Chernobyl in the public's imagination. The 1986 malfunction of the Ukrainian reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is still regarded as the worst nuclear disaster in history, although the Japanese crisis is still unfolding. The Chernobyl disaster "was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators. It was a direct consequence of Cold War isolation and the resulting lack of any safety culture" ("Chernobyl," WNA, 2011). The Chernobyl plant used a graphite moderator, unlike the "water-moderated, water-cooled reactor favored in the West" (Linneman 1987: 637). "Because of their confidence in the design of the reactor, the Soviets did not enclose the entire unit with a containment structure and had not developed either an off-site emergency plan or employed an off-site monitoring system" (Linneman 1987: 637). Additionally, the roof of the reactor was actually constructed of flammable material.

The incident occurred when the reactor crew "prepared to carry out a planned safety test involving one of the plant's eight turbine-generators" (Gillette 1986). The crew "inadvertently let steam voids form in the reactor's cooling water as it passed through the core" (Gillette 1986). One of the flaws of the reactor design was its "tendency to generate a sudden and uncontrollable burst of power if large steam bubbles or 'voids,' are allowed to form in the reactor core, as they did before the accident…as the fission accelerated, the reactor's heat output rose 330 million watts within three seconds. This triggered explosions of steam and hydrogen gas in the core that destroyed the reactor, blew the roof off the building and started a graphite fire in the core that spewed radioactive wastes into the atmosphere for the next 11 days" (Gillette 1986).

As well as the documented problem of the 'voids' inherent in the design, the reactor was in an even more unstable state than usual. The specific test the crew was conducting was to "determine how long turbines could spin and continue to supply power following loss of the primary electrical power supply. Similar tests had already been carried out at Chernobyl and other plants, despite the fact that these reactors were known to be very unstable at low power settings" (Kubiszewski & Cleveland 2009). During the test the operators had also disabled automatic shutdown mechanisms. When the dramatic power surge occurred this generated a steam explosion that destroyed the reactor core and killed several workers. The second explosion caused the graphite moderator to burst into flames, which was the main cause of the release of radioactivity into the environment (Kubiszewski & Cleveland 2009).

When reviewing the Chernobyl disaster, it is almost tempting to ask what the workers did right, rather than what they did wrong. Disabling the automatic shutdown mechanisms, performing a test on an unstable reactor, and failing to understand the fundamental operational principles behind the reactor (such as the dangers of it forming… [read more]


Physics the Heat Engine Discussion Chapter

… In a kitchen, for example, there may be electric lights, small and large appliances, and floor cleaners.

Energy is transported through waves, such as sound waves. Electromagnetic is another form of these waves. Light is an example of an electromagnetic wave. Other electromagnetic waves include the microwaves in a microwave oven and radio waves and TV waves transmitted from broadcast stations. Waves look like the waves in an ocean, going up and down. The top is called the crest. These electromagnetic waves are different in wavelength, or the distance between one wave crest to the next.

Many chemical elements are found in solids, liquids and gases of the earth. These are all listed on the periodic chart or table. As scientists increase their knowledge, they are also finding new elements. For example, in 2009, Sigurd Hofmann at the Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany, added element 112. This was not a natural element, but a manmade one. To produce it, Hofmann fired a beam of charged zinc atoms at lead atoms with a machine called a particle accelerator. The nucleus from the zinc and the nucleus from the lead joined together or fused and they made this new element called ununbium. After that, similar manmade elements were added for 113-118: Ununtrium, Ununquadium, Ununpentium, Ununhexium, Ununseptium, Ununoxium. There is still some controversy about these, since they are so new.

Nuclear energy is produced either by splitting large nuclei and releasing the energy or combining the smaller nuclei. Nuclear energy supplies countries with electricity. Nuclear energy has advantages and disadvantages. It does not pollute the air, such as oil. However, the water used in the process becomes radioactive, which is very harmful to life. Nuclear waste has to be safely stored, and it lasts for a very…… [read more]


Hyperboloid Solar Concentrator Literature Review

… Hyperboloid Solar Concentrator

Following is a review of the literature associated with an analysis of hyperboloid solar concentrators. The structure of said review begins with a broad look at both the topics of water desalination and solar power, a more… [read more]


Alessandro Volta and First Electric Battery Essay

… Alexander Volta and the First Battery

Some evidence suggests the use of primitive batteries in Iraq and Egypt as far back as 200 BC for electroplating and precious metal gilding (Rubin, 2011). Extant records suggest that magnetism and electricity first… [read more]


Window Blinds Window Treatments (Blinds) Essay

… Window blinds that are made of tough cotton can act as noise proof, and hence they can also be used to reduce noise pollution coming from places such as clubs, that are noisy. In offices they are also used as insulators to prevent direct heat and sunlight from computers, while in homes they are also used to prevent furniture from direct light which reduces their quality.

Source; Http.www.enbitec.co.za.ccc

How to measure the impact

The impact of window blinds in energy conservation can be measured using the daylight-linked lighting control system such as automatic on/off and continuous dimming. The impact of the two types of photo-controlled blinds is evaluated for various configurations of manual and photo-controlled automatic venetian blinds. The performance indicators to be measured include lighting energy consumption and space illumination.

Method of measuring the impact

In an enclosed office space whose windows are directly exposed to the sunlight; the two types of photo-controlled blinds will be used. The method of measure is going to be based on the amount of energy that will be saved when the two blinds automatically adjust themselves depending n the sunlight intensity. When the sunlight intensity increases during the day the blinds will close for light control and at the same time the lightening power that was on in the room will go off, after the sunlight intensity reduces the drapes will open and also the dimming light will switch on. Using a set benchmark the effectiveness of the blinds will be measured in regards to energy saving i.e. The light that was saved when the window blinds were closed.

Conclusion

Previous experiments that have been conducted to measure the impact of window blinds show that under the clear sky and with blinds fully retracted, both lighting control were able to provide considerable lighting energy saving estimated 50% to 60% when compared to the lights being fully on during the same twelve-hour daytime interval.

This essay can thus conclude by asserting that installing window treatment by using blinds will benefit both the office and the house in terms of utility bills. And at the same time by using durable, renewable and natural blinds consumers will be participating in environmental conservation.

On the other hand it is evident that window blinds can help in reducing environmental impact by allowing natural light to com in while insulating against the sun's heat.

http.www.ebnonline.com.ccc///

Work cited

Buying green from Supply Chain Experts

//Http.//www.ebnonline.com.ccc// / retrieved 6 February, 2011.

Environmental range of Services, Products and Solutions,

//Http.//www.enbitec.co.za.ccc/ / retrieved 6 February.

French Thomas (2007) "Venetian Blinds," Thomas French and Sons Limited, England… [read more]


How Do Long-Term Take or Pay Contracts Guarantee Security of Gas Supply? Research Paper

… ¶ … Long-Term Take-Or-Pay Contracts Guarantee Security of Gas Supply?

Given the potential effects of long-term take-or-pay contracts in the gas industry, it is not surprising that this topic has been the focus of an increasing amount of research and… [read more]


Risk Allocated in Oil Research Paper

… ¶ … risk allocated in oil and gas contracts?

Petroleum agreements

Joint Venture Agreements (JV)

Contractual indemnity

Indemnity clauses in Oil and gas contracts

The legal interpretation of the indemnity clauses

Relationship between Operator and Contractor

Rights and obligations under… [read more]


Limitations of Solar Stills Essay

… Solar Stills

Limitations of Solar Stills

The single most important factor in the performance of a solar still is the amount of radiation it receives. More water can be distilled when a greater amount of energy is received. Thus, solar stills produce less distilled water in winter than in summer. In winter, there are fewer sunny days. The lower height of the sun above the horizon keeps daytime temperatures cooler and the air drier. The success of a solar still depends on both heat and humidity, both of which are less generally in winter, depending on the still's location relative to the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere. Mediating the poor wintertime performance of solar stills is the demand for drinking water, which is generally half as much compared to summertime demand.

According to various experimental and mathematical model results, best performance of the solar still is achieved when the following conditions are satisfied: high intensity of insulation, full insulation, and minimum wind velocity. Under these conditions, a maximum solar still efficiency of approximately 50% is obtained. Although the intensity of the insulation has a proportional…… [read more]


LNG Process Risk Safety Modeling and Consequence Analysis Thesis

… LNG Process Risk Safety: Modeling and Consequence Analysis

The Risk Assessment/Analysis

Checklist

A checklist is made up of guidelines that are placed in questions or bullets in order to assist a given methodological health and safety (EHS) risks analysis (Fthenakis… [read more]


Carbon Emissions Reduction Target the University's Goal Essay

… Carbon Emissions Reduction Target

The university's goal is to reduce carbon emissions according to a strategy that calls for improved environmental performance according to the best practices found in industry. The university's environmental management plan is designed to bring about reductions in carbon emissions either at or above annual targets and to effect real cultural change in the awareness of energy use and its by-products. Adrian Marshall showed a PowerPoint presentation that outlined the plan and progress made to date.

A graph shows greenhouse gas emissions from 2001 -- 2007. The amount of delivered energy (electricity) stayed relatively flat during the period, even dipping slightly in the years 2003 -- 2005 before increasing in both 2006 and 2007. Direct emissions were small and remained constant through the period. Increases in supply chain emissions remained relatively flat for the period, with a dramatic increase in 2007, when emissions of over three times the amounts shown in each of previous years were recorded. If an upward trend continues, it is more important than ever that the problem of carbon emissions be addressed.

A graph showing UniSA's sustainable water supply reveals that consumption has declined almost steadily since 2002. This illustrates the institution's commitment to conserving resources and their ability to manage a program dedicated to doing that. The slide entitled "Continuous Improvement (slide 7) shows how such a program might be implemented. The steps included -- policy, planning and implementation, monitor and measure, and review -- are depicted cyclicly, showing that the process is continually assessed and refined.

2

In an energy audit across fourteen buildings…… [read more]


American Food Prices Have Increased Research Paper

… ¶ … Agriculture [...] American grain and food prices. American grain and food prices have increased do to the energy used in the making of ethanol fuel and the removal of food from the market. A Washington Post reporter notes,… [read more]


Fuel Options Essay

… Fuel Options

In today's society, it's important to weigh the costs and options for fuel. With oil prices on the rise and environmentalists concerned about the impact of global warming, we need to be aware of the different options that are available to us and the multitude of affects that different fuels could have on the economy and the environment.

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) there are five different types of fuel programs and regulations (Fuels and Fuel Additives, 2010). These consist of gasoline, diesel fuels, E15, renewable fuels, and alternative/clean fuels.

Gasoline is the most common type of fuel, and over the last 20 years, the U.S. has seen a decline in energy prices (Basic Information, 2007). Since the U.S. saw such cheap gasoline prices, the excitement for vehicles that were larger and more powerful grew. The demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles increased the demand for gasoline, but Refiners chose not to build new refineries in the U.S. Now, it comes down to a balance of supply and demand, which has led the price of gasoline to increase. In 2004, gasoline prices reached the highest level in two decades (Basic Information, 2007).

Gasoline is largely made of crude oil, which is the biggest contributor to the cost (aside from taxes). Even with an increase in cost, the demand for gasoline is still high. The amount that people travel in the U.S. is up and continues to increase faster than the population growth (Basic Information, 2007).

Diesel fuel is very similar to gasoline as it's created from crude oil. It powers vehicles that are equipped with diesel engines. It is generally made from petroleum, although there is an increase in the use of alternatives. Most of the diesel fuel in the U.S. is called ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and contains lower sulfur amounts. The price of diesel fluctuates year round as the demand for heating oil increases over the winter months. Heating oil is created in a very similar fashion as diesel (Fuels and Fuel Additives, 2010). Gasoline and diesel are non-renewable sources of fuel.

The fuel type known as E15 is a combination of gasoline and ethanol (which is an alcohol derived from corn [Iowa Corn -- Ethanol, 2008]). The special blend results in a fuel that is cleaner burning that gasoline alone. it's called E15 because it's generally mixed with 15% ethanol, but there is also E10, which is mixed at…… [read more]


Alternative Fuels Essay

… Alternative Fuels

Energy policy today should be focused on the development of alternative fuel sources. The case has never been more compelling. Peak oil occurred in 2006, meaning that oil production is already in decline, even as demand soars (Inman, 2010). Economically, the ramifications of peak oil are simply -- as supplies get tighter the price of oil will increase. This will have profound negative consequences for our economy if we cannot replace this energy supply. The oil price spike of 2008 has been found to have materially contributed to the current recession (Hamilton, 2009). Alternative energy policy is central to reducing our economic dependence on this dwindling resource, yet this policy has become bogged down in partisan politics, irrational obfuscation on the part of oil industry interest and entrenched special interests that take a strictly short-term view of economic issues.

If the need for a strong alternative energy policy was not evident on the basis of the simple economic facts, consider the national security implications. One of the biggest threats to national security is the dependence on oil from unstable regions such as the Middle East and Venezuela. Our involvement in the two Gulf wars in directly attributed to our interest in the region's oil reserves. The Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico illustrated that there are non-security risks associated with an oil-first energy platform.

An already strong case for a dramatically improved alternative energy policy is bolstered by the realization that America's strength as a nation is specifically dependent on developing alternative energy technology. Our nation grew to become the richest in the world because we lead the world in innovations -- automobiles, airplanes, consumer appliances, pharmaceuticals and later the media and the Internet just to name a few. Technological leadership has always been essential to America's standing in the world (LaMonica, 2010). There is no reason to believe that the 21st century will be different -- the country that develops the majority of the world's most critical technologies will be the one that assumes the position as the dominant player…… [read more]


How Does the Use of Coal Impact People and Technology? Research Paper

… ¶ … Coal Impact People and Technology

An important feature which characterizes the modern day society is given by the incremental pressure put on environmental stability. Human kind has still a long way to go before becoming entirely environmentally responsible,… [read more]


Alternative Fuels vs. Fossil Literature Review

… Fossil fuels have been a primary fuel source for the industrial world, for centuries. Today, there are numerous alternative fuels developed and being developed to compete with fossil fuel usage. When comparing the two fuels, the literature on this topic… [read more]


Fate of Earth the World Population Research Paper

… Fate of Earth

The world population is growing at an astounding rate. As the population clock is racing towards the 7 billion mark, we are faced with a huge problem. [U.S. Census Bureau] A problem of balancing the ever-increasing demands… [read more]


China's Three Gorges Dam and India's Narmada River Research Paper

… China's Three Gorges Dam And India's Narmada River Dam

China and India, two fast growing economies of the world, are at the center of controversy relating to the construction of Dams. China's 'Three Gorges dam' built in the mighty Yangtze… [read more]


Public Administration British Petroleum BP Research Paper

… Public Administration

British Petroleum

BP is one of the world's major energy companies. It supplies its customers with fuel for transportation, energy for heat and light, retail services and petrochemicals products for everyday living. BP's businesses are organized to deliver… [read more]


Environmental Conflict Case Study

… Message Board for Order Number

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customer 2010 Jul 28 4:22 PM

If you could edit it to a more environmental conservation / local environmental conflict topic and have it done by tomorrow morning

am that would be great.THANKS!… [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.