"Energy / Power" Essays

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Alternative Fuels the Key to the Future Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (973 words)
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Alternative Fuels

THE KEY to the FUTURE of the PLANET

Over the past ten years or so, the American government and the public have increased their awareness of the problems associated with global warming, caused by what some call the "greenhouse effect" in which carbon dioxide, the byproduct of burning fossil fuels like coal and oil, prevents the earth from cooling down as it naturally would if not for the presence of CO2 in the atmosphere. Within recent times, many scientists have concluded that this "greenhouse effect" is warming up the planet to the point where ice caps and glaciers in Antarctica and the North Pole are melting at unprecedented rates, thus making it feasible that coastlines along all major continents will be inundated by melting water sometime in the future, causing huge numbers of people to seek higher ground. Without a doubt, this "greenhouse effect" is now occurring all over the globe which mandates that human beings must begin to use alternative fuels for heating and transportation or else continue on the downward path toward the complete destruction of the earth and its natural habitats and environments.

Historically, the quest of alternative sources of fuel dates back almost two hundred years when Sir William Grove invented the first true fuel cell in England in 1839. Many of his experiments focused on electrolysis or the "use of electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen" which led to Grove developing the first fuel cell, but is was not until Grove figured out that by linking several devices in a series that true fuel cells came into existence, a term coined by chemists Ludwig Mond and Charles Langer in 1889 "as they attempted to build the first practical device using air and industrial coal gas" ("Fuel Cell Basics," 2007, Internet).

However, scientists and experimenters soon learned that there were many technological hurdles to overcome if such devices were to become part of everyday life. To make matters worse, by the end of the 19th century, thanks in part to Henry Ford, "the internal combustion engine was emerging and the widespread exploitation of fossil fuels send the fuel cell the way of the scientific curiosity." But by the early 1930's, new interest in fuel cells and other alternative sources of energy became commonplace, especially when Dr. Francis Thomas Bacon of Cambridge University in England "resurrected the machine developed by Mond and Langer" which led to the development of the "Bacon Cell" which was "the first alkaline fuel cell (AFC)."

By 1959, Bacon had produced the first truly workable fuel cell and demonstrated "a machine capable of producing 5 kW of power, enough to power a welding machine." Also at this time, Harry Karl Ihrig, an engineer for a farm equipment maker in the United States, "demonstrated the first fuel cell-powered vehicle" by combining "1008 cells" to produce "a fuel cell stack which could generate 15kW and was capable…… [read more]


Valspar Corporation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Valspar Corporation

Industry supply and demand

The coating industry has grown considerably since 1993. However, as companies became larger their margin squeezed although the margin of other "players" along the value chain maintained or increased during this time (see fig.1).

FIG.1 - MARKET CAPITALIZATION - COATINGS VALUE CHAIN

Dow Chemical Company News Center, 2005.

According to Dow Chemical's senior vice-president… [read more]


Oil Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,488 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Oil Industry: Background and History

In historical terms the oil industry began more than five thousand years ago. In the Middle East oil was used in"... waterproofing boats and baskets, in paints, lighting and even for medication" (History of the oil industry). Oil and oil usage is evident in human society even in ancient times where the use… [read more]


Rising Gas Prices Anyone Who Has Filled Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,833 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … Rising Gas Prices

Anyone who has filled up their gas tank lately knows that prices have been on the rise for some time. Fluctuations in gasoline at the pump are a reflection of fluctuations in the price of the raw material from which it is made, crude oil (Federal Reserve, 2004). When oil prices peak the public, sparked… [read more]


Hoover Dam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,432 words)
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¶ … Hoover Dam. The writer explores the construction, the benefits to society the dam provides and the future plans for the dam. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

There are few dams in the world that have received the amount of attention the Hoover Dam has received since its construction years ago. With an annual tourist… [read more]


Emissions Standards and Global Warming Wald, Matthew Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (662 words)
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¶ … Emissions Standards and Global Warming

Wald, Matthew. (15 Feb 2007). "Study Questions Prospects for Much Lower Emissions."

The New York Times. Retrieved 16 Feb 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/15/business/15carbon.html?ref=science&pagewanted=print

Congress, in response to the 1990 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change, has begun to respond to demands that the United States address the crisis of global warming in a meaningful fashion. Recently, Congress has attempted to place mandatory caps upon emissions. However, the utility industry argues that it will take "decades" before they are able to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. A report of the Electric Power Research Institute states electrical companies will need more than 20 years of investment and research to reduce their emissions below the levels of 1990. "The 1990 Kyoto Protocol on climate change, which the Bush administration declined to support in 2001, calls for emissions from large industrial nations to be below 1990 levels by about the year 2010" (Wald, 2007). Electric companies are responsible for one-third of America's global warming gases.

One of the researchers on the Electrical Power study, Dr. Brian Hannegan, worked as an environmental and economic adviser to the White House and on the Republican staff of the Senate Energy Committee. He called the report optimistic even as it currently stands, noting that: "cutting carbon dioxide...would mean pursuing every option, including energy efficiency, zero-carbon wind and sun power; new nuclear reactors; coal plants that capture and sequester their carbon; and even plug-in hybrid electric cars, which would require making more electricity but would reduce carbon dioxide and save gasoline" (Wald, 2007). To fulfill the Kyoto Protocol, the report also called for increased use of nuclear power, a highly controversial energy source, as well as increased use of solar and wind power, and coal plants that would capture their carbon dioxide, compress it and pipe it underground for sequestration. An environmental lobbying group, the Natural Resource Defense Fund, stated that the industry group's projections would not provide the necessary savings soon enough (Wald,…… [read more]


Strategic Assessment of the Microeconomic Strengths and Weaknesses of the Gas Turbines Industry in Hungary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,516 words)
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Strategic Assessment of the Microeconomic Strengths and Weaknesses of the Gas Turbines Industry in Hungary

The gas turbine industry is considered by many to be one of the most dynamic segment in the power generation industry and as a possible efficient alternative form of producing energy. The new developments in this industry have increased the effectiveness of the transformation from… [read more]


Problems Caused by Using Oil Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,337 words)
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Oil Dependency & Solutions

Problems Caused by Using Oil and the Increasingly Serious Consequences of Western Oil Dependency

Decades before the dawn of the 21st century (to be exact, on October 17, 1973 (see "1973 Oil Crisis")) America and the Western world in general began to first grow keenly aware that in the future America in particular, as the world's… [read more]


Eco Fuels Introduction Eco Fuels Are "Free Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (468 words)
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Eco Fuels
INTRODUCTION
Eco fuels are "free energy" fuels that can be easily made and are
environmentally safe.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Some Eco fuels can be made at home and some are bought from manufacturers
that may or may not be local. The main identifier of Eco fuels are that
they do not come through a utility meter.
THESIS STATEMENT
There are several fuels that already are available and free to use, once
the user knows how to make, store and use them.
I. Hydrogen may be used for heat, cooking and powering vehicles. It
qualifies as an eco-fuel because it can be produced in a totally
renewable way (Energy, 2006).

II. Alcohol: There are many types of alcohol, all being eco-fuels. Alcohol
is derived from a bio-mass readily re-grown from the environment
(Energy, 2006).

III. Wood: Wood is a bio-mass burned to produce heat and power. Public
transportations, such as ships and trains were wood-driven, burning
wood to create steam to drive the engines. Wood Gas may use wood to
power 'modern' internal combustion engines (Our, 2006).

IV. Hydrogen Peroxide: Hydrogen peroxide is a promising fuel of the
future, especially if combined with fuels that need oxidizing; such as
alcohol (Advancing, 2006).

V. Turds: Turds may be dried. Then you can burn them just as any other
bio-mass. Secondly they may be turned into methane. Methane (also
known as natural gas) is an eco-fuel…… [read more]


BP Solar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,982 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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BP Solar

Ever-increasing technological advances in entertainment are pulling together various media forms such as television, movies, computers, and music. Integration of media sources will provide an environment for fast moving changes in society. Driving these changes requires more efficient energy resources and the ability to provide more power at a lower cost. In addition to this need, companies must… [read more]


Ethanol Market Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (970 words)
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Ethanol Market

Ethanol is a substance often used in the renewable energy industry, and specifically in fuels. As such, ethanol is seen as part of the answer to the energy crisis the world currently faces. Economic issues such as escalating oil prices, along with environmental problems such as global warming can potentially be addressed by the ethanol market. There are however those that stand in opposition to this source of energy for a variety of reasons. While renewable energy in general is mostly seen as a necessary addition to the world's resources, ethanol specifically is somewhat more controversial in the light of both economic, political and environmental issues.

According to Eckhart, there are three main drivers for the general renewable energy market, and for the ethanol market specifically. These include environmental concerns, economic factors, and national energy consumption trends. In terms of the environment, air, land and water pollution is fast becoming a crisis. According to environmentalists, no time can be wasted to research renewable energy sources. The environmental driver is likely to become increasingly urgent over the next decades, increasing the need for renewable and cleaner energy sources.

In terms of economics and politics, projections for the future of the oil market shows the U.S. consumption of oil increasing beyond the domestic ability to produce the energy source. The increasing pressure to therefore import oil from foreign markets is responsible for projected increases in prices. The drives the search for alternative sources of fuel sources such as ethanol, which can be produced at lower costs domestically. Both economic and political drivers are likely to increase their intensity and urgency in the future. This is especially the case, as the main oil producing countries are in a state of extreme economic and political instability. Increasing imports from these countries will therefore necessarily mean increasing prices to both suppliers and consumers. Specifically, developing countries such as China and India have increased the strain on the world oil market. This problem is also likely to worsen over time, as demonstrated by the rise in oil prices: in mid-June 2006, oil was priced at $70 per barrel as opposed to $30 not many years ago.

The market for a cheaper, domestically produced alternative is therefore favorable (Eckhart).

Currently maize-based ethanol is one of the biggest investment markets within the renewable energy sector in the United States over the next few years. According to Eckhart, recent studies have disproved that the energy-intensive production of maize-based ethanol negates any environmental benefits. Less petroleum is required for ethanol production, and 15 to 20% less greenhouse gases are emitted with the use of such fuel.

This is good news for the market, as methyl tertiary-butyl ether, used in gasoline, has been banned in 22 American states. This ban has increased the demand for the ethanol alternative. It is projected that more than 4.7 billion gallons of ethanol will be produced. According to…… [read more]


Alternative Fuels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,822 words)
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Ethanol for Fuel

In the famous fairy tale Rumplestiltskin, the miller's daughter is required to spin straw into gold. Only magic can accomplish it. But today, as the price of gasoline goes up and up, most Americans believe that alternative fuels must be developed -- soon -- and are hoping for some similar magic. The reality of the impending fuel… [read more]


Wind Farms in Nantucket Cape Cod Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (4,378 words)
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Wind Farms in Nantucket (cape Code)

The attitude of the energy industry internationally has changed, and there are two important factors that are the prime reasons for this - the environmental impact due to the different international protocols that have been agreed on, and the cost of the energy at present along with the likely movement of the base source… [read more]


White Collar Crime and Coal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,804 words)
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In spite of these legislative initiatives, though, Whiteside suggests that these and comparable laws fail to address the fundamental safety issues that coal miners face on a daily basis.

Conclusion

The research showed that as industries go, the coal mining industry has had more than its share of influence on the American economy and landscape over the years. Coal mining is an incredibly dangerous and dirty job, but someone has to do it. American coal workers have suffered the hazards of this "dusty occupation" for more than a century now, but in many ways things have not changed at all. In spite of technological innovations in how coal mining is performed today and improved profitability for the coal companies, many coal mining families continue to live below the federal poverty line in communities that have also suffered from the serious environmental effects of coal mining. While there has been some movement in years past to address these issues, the sad fact remains that the legacy of the nation's coal industry is one of corporate shenanigans, wrong-doing and malfeasance, all at the expense of the American public in general and the coal miners in particular. All in all, coal mining might be a "dusty occupation," but there is apparently still plenty of white collar crime taking place.

References

Buckley, G.L. (1998). The environmental transformation of an Appalachian valley, 1850-1906.

The Geographical Review, 88(2), 175.

Fishback, P.V. (1992). Soft coal, hard choices: The economic welfare of bituminous coal miners, 1890-1930. New York: Oxford University Press.

Laidler, H.W. (1931). Concentration of control in American industry. New York: Thomas Y.

Crowell.

Nyden, P.J. (2004). From pick and shovel to mountaintop removal: Environmental injustice in the…… [read more]


Can Hydrogen Replace Fossil Fuels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,400 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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White Pages: Hydrogen Fuel -- a Feasible Replacement for Fossil Fuels?

The manifestation of a hydrogen economy holds much technical and political appeal. However, the realization of this vision is fraught with many complications and issues. Despite investment and political interest, especially among the Bush administration in the U.S., the hydrogen economy is far from a reality. Switching from fossil… [read more]


Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel for Vehicles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,382 words)
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¶ … elucidates on the possibilities of using ethanol as an alternative fuel in vehicles. The chemical composition, procedure of preparation and blending, as well as the pros and cons of using the substance are then examined. Ethanol is an alcohol-based organic compound produced by fermenting and distilling starch crops that have been converted into simple sugars. The feedstock or raw materials used in the preparation of this substance include corn, barley or wheat. Ethanol can also be produced from "cellulosic biomass" for instance corn stalks, rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, pulpwood, switch grass, and municipal solid waste. When prepared by using the starch called cellulose found in the plant cells, it is called Bioethanol. Ethanol is most commonly used to increase octane and improve the emission quality of gasoline.

ETHANOL AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FOR VEHICLES

Ethanol also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol has an empirical formulae, EtOH. It is a colorless, clear liquid, soluble in aqueous or water-based solution and has a sweet flavor; but in high concentrations it gives a tingling or somewhat burning taste. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH as referred in chemical symbology) is made up of a combination of chemical compounds having molecules containing a hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded covalently to a carbon atom. The amendments made in the Clean Air Act 1990 authorized the selling of oxygenated fuel in areas with unhealthy levels of carbon monoxide. Since then, the demand for ethanol as oxygenate blended with gasoline has been ever increasing. Every year in the United States, approximately 2 billion gallons of ethanol is added to gasoline for increasing octane and improving the emission quality of gasoline (Alternative Fuels Data Center, 2005). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 mandates the blending of at least 85% of ethanol in gasoline to be used as an alternative fuel. Such a composition is industrially referred to as E85 which is a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. This formula is readily used in flexible fuel vehicles or FFVs that are being currently manufactured by most major auto manufacturers having capability of running on gasoline, E85 or any combination of the two. Also in some areas, ethanol is blended with a greater ratio of gasoline to form an E10 blend which comprises of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. Initially, the need of alternative fuel was gravely felt during the oil embargo of the 1970s; investors began to explore the possibilities of developing a homegrown treatment for the energy problem as two-thirds of the fuel was imported from the Middle East. Moreover environmental benefits of opting for ethanol as an alternate included reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions and also toxic emissions. In 2004, the required use of ethanol comprised of about 2 billion gallons of consumption while voluntary consumption (i.e. non-governmental) accounted for about one billion gallons of E-10.

Ethanol-blended fuels cut greenhouse gases from tailpipe emissions.

Climate Change connection, tailpipe emissions, June 2003, Climate Change connection retrieved online on October 26, 2005 at www.climatechangeconnection.org/

Any biological… [read more]


Marpol Annex (VI) Requirements on Sulfur Content Term Paper

Term Paper  |  26 pages (7,615 words)
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¶ … MARPOL Annex (VI) requirements on sulfur content of fuel oil

For several decades now, the development of global marine environmental principles has become more important than ever before the evolution of maritime law. As pollution problems have become more severe and indications of deterioration have emerged more frequently in the marine environmental system, the requirement for innovative international… [read more]


Gas Prices Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,477 words)
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The present situations favored the suppliers who had the opportunity to increase prices for increase in profits and then stabilize at a higher level. (Ending the Gasoline price spiral)

The usage of petroleum has already been discussed, but in certain industries, there is also substantial usage of coal. One of them is with regard to electric utilities, and they used… [read more]


Rising Cost of Fuel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,238 words)
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In 1973, the retail price of a gallon of gasoline rose from a national average of 38.5 cents in May 1973 to 55.1 cents in June 1974. Meanwhile, New York Stock Exchange shares lost $97 billion in value in six weeks. Underscoring the interdependence of the world societies and economies, oil-importing nations in the noncommunist industrial world saw sudden inflation… [read more]


1973 and 1979 Oil and Gasoline Crisis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (771 words)
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1970's Oil Crisis

The 1973 and 1979 Oil and Gasoline Crisis

Throughout the 1950's and 1960's, oil supplies had been abundant to the point of glut, and prices were in the basement, however, during this period, the United States began consuming more oil than it could produce from domestic sources, thus, by 1973, oil imports toped 3.4 million barrels per day, or 35% of its supply, with 1 million barrels per day coming from Arab sources (Reid pp). By June, it was estimated that a gasoline supply shortage, ranging from 300,000 to 400,000 barrels per day existed, leading refiner-suppliers to begin putting branded jobbers and dealers on allocation and pulling price protections (Reid pp). Then the Yom Kippur War of October 1973 sent the world economy reeling when at the end of the sixteen day war, OPEC enacted a 70% price increase on remaining oil exports, from $3.01 to $5.12 a barrel, and then two days later boosted prices again to $11.65 a barrel (Reid pp). Although Arab supplies to the United States dried up, the need was met by other sources, but at a reduction in the general world supply that further impacted downstream prices internationally, resulting was rampant inflation, high interest rates, recession and unemployment (Reid pp). At the jobber and dealer level, there was a hunt for supply, and moreover, the price controls that had been put in place not only prevented them from enjoying increased profits but prevent them from passing on much of their increased costs (Reid pp). Many stations were forced to be open only a few hours each day, cars were lining up to get a "ration" of gasoline, and approximately 25,000 stations had closed by the end of the year (Reid pp).

The retail price of a gallon of gasoline in the United States rose from a national average of 38.5 cents in May 1973 to 55.1 cents by June 1974, and the New York Stock Exchange shares lost $97 billion in value in sex weeks (1973 pp). At the height of the crisis, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers could only buy on even-numbered days (1973 pp). In the industrialized countries, especially the United States, the crisis was…… [read more]


Natural Gas Supply, Demand Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (817 words)
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The supply of natural gas has not kept up with the increasing demand for natural gas. Although it is projected that we have an adequate supply for the near future, increased production will be needed to sustain this increase in demand. Gas exploration and development have increased significantly over the past year. There is a 6 to 18 months lag time between the time of initial drilling and when additional production is brought to market. Additionally, there is a limitation by the federal government that prevents drilling for natural gas in some areas that contain some of the largest potential resources left in the U.S. This has forced producers to go to more technically challenging and higher cost areas.

The result is the consumer is paying higher prices due to the limitations on supply and the increased need for additional natural gas supply.

The growing discrepancy between increasing demand for natural gas and available supplies could result in continued higher prices for natural gas consumers unless public policies and personal attitudes change about bringing fresh supplies of natural gas to market ("America's Natural Gas Supply Challenge").

Further, this growing imbalance between available supplies of natural gas and expected demand is not likely to be short-lived. Instead, it reflects the early stages of a long-term structural imbalance, in which supplies of natural gas available to the U.S. market are likely to consistently fall 10% or more below the levels achieved during the 1990's, at the same time that the underlying rate of demand is likely to continue to increase every year at least at prices anywhere near current levels. These continuing increases in the amount of natural gas needed to supply the U.S. market are due primarily to increased demand in the power sector, which is expected to increase by at least 2.5 -- 3.0 TCf between now and the end of the decade (qtd. In "Natural Gas Supply, Demand and Pricing").

References

"America's Natural Gas Supply Challenge." American Gas Association. 2004. American Gas

Association. 16 June 2005

.

"Natural Gas Price in Canada." National Energy Board. 2005. National Energy Board. 16 June

2005 < http://www.neb.gc.ca/energy/ngprice_e.htm>.

"Natural Gas Supply, Demand and Pricing." Multiut.com. 2003. Multiut.com. 16 June 2005

< http://www.multiut.com/ctarticle5.htm>.… [read more]


Oil and the Affects of Increased Consumption by Competing Economies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,967 words)
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Oil and the Affects of Increased Consumption by Competing Economies

Crude oil is an important commodity in the world of today where it provides the major source of energy for keeping economies running. This has seen very high swings in terms of price when there are shortages or excess supply. This price cycle may last over several years as the… [read more]


Economics of Oil Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,469 words)
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Economics of Oil

Today 90% of the world's energy needs come from oil and this is due to the fact that this is the energy source powering most vehicles and it is also the origin of most industrial chemicals. This has become a very important commodity. Getting oil was the reason for many battles including World War II and the… [read more]


Distribution Transformers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,865 words)
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Distribution Transformers transformer is a static electrical device, which transfers energy from one electrical circuit to another by magnetic coupling. It can be used to convert from high to low voltages and between low and high currents ("Transformer").

Transformers consist of "two or more insulated windings, to carry current" and "a core, in which the mutual magnetic field couples the… [read more]


Impact of Oil Crisis of 1973 on Barbados Term Paper

Term Paper  |  33 pages (9,741 words)
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¶ … Oil Crisis of 1973:

Its Impact on Barbados

The oil crisis of 1973 undoubtedly had a strong impact on many countries and a lot of significance for many people. Unfortunately, there has not been that much written about the impact that this crisis had specifically on Barbados. Overall, this paper will discuss the oil crisis of 1973 in… [read more]


Bureaucracy Can Occur Anywhere Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,017 words)
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"Many of the children of top Chinese politicians and officials are members of the environmental pressure groups," states Leon in the news article.

However, environmental concerns are only one part of the problem with the dam. There have been reports of corruption by the companies contracted to do the work, so an audit would be advisable. In addition, is the displacement of numerous Chinese residents and loss of fertile lands for cultivation. How will this be resolved? Further, there are a number of other interest groups concerned with the dam design, such as archaeologists who say the project will cause the destruction of unique Chinese pre-historical sites. Will anyone address these concerns? In addition, numerous questions still remain regarding whether or not the initial plan and intentions are 1) feasible; 2) effective for energy needs and 3) accurate. There are also many questions regarding shipping, flooding, possible earthquakes, type of energy to be generated, and the overall effect on the economy.

The other side of the issue is not any easier to resolve. A great deal of work has already gone into the project. It is believed that the 6th-stage project of a power station in Yunnan province has already started to generate electricity and the 7th-stage project could start operation soon. The shortage of electricity in rural areas could become worse. Also, some economists are concerned about the financial end: Shutting down the undergoing projects would have an enormous negative effect on the power enterprises and, at the same time, increase the loan risks for banks. This could potentially lead to a financial crisis, they say.

The project's conception many years ago was monumental. It was seen at the beginning as a way to show the advanced nature of Chinese society under socialism and to solve problems regarding flooding, which have existed for thousands of years, and regarding the future energy needs of a rapidly growing and technically expanding country. Chinese officials say the dam could provide as much as one-ninth of the nation's electrical production. Also, parts of China are already experiencing power shortages. This has been a major concern in colder areas during the winter months. However, many things have changed since the dam was conceived and begun. It is surely time for all the separate entities involved with this project to reanalyze and make revisions where needed to respond to the various questions. When trying to accomplish something on this large of a scale, it is essential to make solving the problems a first priority. In the past, China decided to launch the project and solve the problems along the way. This is no longer a viable option if the country wants to do what is best for all interested parties.

References Cited

China View. "Three Gorges Company faces fines." February 2, 2005. Retrieved February 16, 2005. http://www.chinaview.cn

Leon, Geoffrey. "Climate fears prompt energy U-turn in China." Belfast Telegraph Digital. February 14, 2005. Retrieved February 16, 2006. http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/story.jsp?story=610936

Marquand, Robert. Christian Science Monitor. "China enforcing green… [read more]


Statistics of Oil Peak Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,614 words)
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Since the automobile is a status symbol, and also a symbol of the person's success in life; the more successful he is, the better the automobile, and the larger, and the more oil it consumes. An average American will drive about 1,000 miles every month, which makes it about 12,000 miles every year, which in turn is equal to the… [read more]


Gorges Dam in 2009 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,255 words)
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Resettlement moved forward, as did the work on the project. Stories of corruption and shoddy construction did not stop the progress. For example, the Chinese media have reported several incidents in which bad construction has led to disasters, including the collapse of a steel bridge in the city of Chongqing in 1999 that killed 40 people.

Proponents stated that hydroelectric power is cheaper than alternatives. They also asserted that the dam would increase shipping, as well as make it safer to navigate. In addition, the defenders continued to stress that flooding would be decreased. Opponents, on the other hand, said that newer forms of energy such as gas-fueled combined cycle plants and co-generators produced virtually no pollution or greenhouse gases. Additional shipping would only increase siltation and, in the long run, the economy would not be helped significantly. In addition, flooding may be decreased, but earthquakes may grow.

In September of 1994, the International River Network (IRN) that works for the betterment of the river environment, and a coalition of American environment, development and human rights groups, encouraged the U.S. administration to withhold financial support for U.S. companies bidding on the project. Over a year later, the National Security Council concluded that the United States should remain clear of the controversy. In 1996, the U.S. Export -- Import Bank announced it would not guarantee loans to American companies seeking contracts for work on the dam. In addition, the World Bank, traditionally the largest financial supporter of dams in developing countries, refrained from financing the Three Gorges Dam project. However, U.S. bank representatives have not been able to provide copies of such assurances nor have they been able to explain how those assurances are being monitored (IRN website).

Meanwhile, Journalist Dai Qing was jailed for 10 months after criticizing the Three Gorges project, saying it was "the most environmentally and socially destructive project in the world." She also requested a cease and desist to construction and supported the idea of a number of smaller, less disruptive projects on Yangtse tributaries. Another journalist, Jin Hui, wrote in a published book of criticisms called The River Dragon Has Come:: "By severing the mighty river and slowing the flow of its water, the dam will cause pollution from industrial and residential sources to concentrate in the river, rather than be flushed out at sea. The result will be a poisoned river" (Kennedy).

The work on the dam, as well as the debate, continues to this day. Recent news from China reports: On February 3, 2005, a state environmental agency succeeded in halting work on three new projects run by operators of the giant Three Gorges Dam, due to not meeting environmental standards. However, it is uncertain whether the State Environmental Protection Administration could prevail over the government-owned enterprise that runs this huge hydroelectric project. If the construction company did not stop construction at the three sites, it could have faced $24,000 in fines, a small amount for an enterprise whose projects run well into… [read more]


Richard Manson and Tina Kaarsberg Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (334 words)
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SAMPLE TEXT:

This ignorant behavior is leading to more fuel wastages and pollution.

The writers make an extremely strong case by showing data, statistics and figures that the power industry will only advance and spread if the restrictions on competition are lifted, if expenditures on Research and Development are increased and the risk-taking industries are allowed to restructure the power coordination alongside the stock-driven boundaries. Furthermore, the article makes it clear by excellent illustrations that no government policy or revolutionary modernization is going to help. In the end, the writers demonstrate that the effective reformation of this level may require changes in the structure of various official, rigid, and insightful obstacles but the advantages gained will be numerous too.

Article Title: Unleashing Innovation in Electricity Generation. Contributors: Tina Kaarsberg - author, Richard Munson - author. Magazine Title: Issues in Science and Technology. Volume: 14. Issue: 3. Publication Date: Spring 1998. Page Number: 51+. COPYRIGHT 1998 National…… [read more]


Rising Oil and the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,083 words)
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The impact of the current surge in oil prices, though noticeable, is likely to prove less consequential to economic growth and inflation than in the 1970s.

In spite of the recent surge in the price of oil, nearly $55 per barrel based on U.S. benchmark futures, average crude prices adjusted for inflation are only three-fifth of the 1981. (Hoxter 12)

It is this fact that makes the case that although oil prices are extremely high, they are not to the catastrophic levels that investor psychology proclaims them to be.

But the oil price increase is nevertheless significant, especially with the percent of increase for oil prices as high as it has been. It therefore may appear confusing that the economy has been able to resist a major pull downward. Restraint by the Federal Reserve, undaunted consumer confidence and fearless corporate purchasing have all contributed to the economy's ability to weather the oil price storm.

Most surveys show that Corporate America is still upbeat. In particular, new orders for capital goods, excluding aircraft, rose 2.6% in September, the strongest showing in six months. Orders for computers and related products posted an especially strong 9.3% advance, the largest gain in more than four years. Bookings for new equipment are a good indicator of business confidence, since they represent hard financial commitments to future activity, and through September they remain in a clear upward trend. (Cooper and Madigan 37)

One other aspect of the economy that makes it more resistant to increased fuel prices is its gradual move away from businesses that are fuel dependent. As companies have become more technological, the influence that oil prices are able to exert on the economy has been diminished.

Peaked or Transitioning Higher

Experts disagree on the direction oil prices will be heading in the near future. One school of thought insists that "that the age of inexpensive oil is over simply because we've run out of easily accessible reserves" (Pachetti 73) Others insist that the price of oil will begin to decline once the political situation in the Middle East has been settled. It is probably more accurate to say that somewhere in the middle of those two ideas is the likely prediction for oil futures.

Tapping large oil resources in Canada will help decrease the cost of crude oil but the voracious appetite of the Chinese economy for fuel may not yet have peaked. Regardless of the direction of oil prices it is clear that the United States is in the unenviable position of being forced to find an alternative fuel source for the future. As the leader of the global economy, American will bear the bulk of the costs associated with this effort but will hopefully reap the majority of the rewards. Until that time, oil prices will continue to have a significant impact on the U.S. economy.

Works Cited

Cooper, James C. And Madigan, Kathleen "How Costly Oil Will Test the Economy." Business

Week 8 Nov. 2004: 3907

Englund, Michael "Why Oil… [read more]


Reduction of Electricity or Cars Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Previous efforts to persuade American consumers to use electricity have not been successful, and have been enormously expensive. Electrical utility's estimated cost of reducing electricity usage through promoting user efficiency has frequently been near half the cost of new generating capacity (Mayer 1995).

People would likely be more responsive to automobile usage reduction initiatives than they would for electricity.

Consumption patterns of electricity and gasoline in the United States show that Americans are using more than twice as much electricity as they are gasoline as can be clearly seen in Table 1 and Figure 1 below.

Table 1. Personal Consumption Expenditures in Current Dollars, by Type: 1990-1996, in Billions of Dollars (Source: Kaul & Tomaselli-Moschovitis 1999)

Expenditure

1990

1994

1995

1996

Electricity

71.9

84.2

88.0

90.3

Gas

26.8

32.4

31.5

34.9

Figure 1. Personal Consumption Expenditures in Current Dollars, by Type: 1990-1996, in Billions of Dollars (Based on table from Kaul & Tomaselli-Moschovitis 1999).

Works Cited

Kaul, Chandrika and Valerie Tomaselli-Moschovitis (Eds.). Statistical Handbook on Consumption and Wealth in the United States. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.

Mayer, Peter C. (1995). Electricity Conservation: Consumer Rationality vs. Prospect

Theory. Contemporary Economic Policy, 13(2):109.

Schurr, Sam H. Electricity in the…… [read more]


Light Bulb Term Paper

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Although not a particularly attractive prospect for workers, this had this effect of nearly doubling productivity in some industries. Naturally, this did not happen immediately; the first light bulbs were not significantly cheaper or superior to traditional lighting from an economic standpoint. "The problem with Edison's light was that the filament lasted only a short time -- a few days… [read more]


How a Turbine Engine Works Term Paper

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¶ … turbine engine works.

Aircraft depend upon a number of complicated parts in order to remain aloft. It is interesting to look at how the turbine engine works on the planes of today.

The Turbine's Job gas turbine is spun by using a pressurized gas, and this pressured gas is created when a flammable substance such as jet fuel is burned by the gas turbine engine. When the fuel is burnt, the surrounding air expands and generates heat. As the hot air quickly moves through the engine, it spins the turbine, creating energy.

Parts of the Turbine Engine gas turbine engine concept is simple, and consists of three main parts: the compressor, the combustion area and the turbine.

The compressor is responsible for creating high pressure by compressing the air as it enters the engine. The combustion area creates a high-pressure gas by burning the fuel, and as this gas leaves the combustion chamber, energy is extracted by the turbine.

Compressor

The compressor contains blades which pull air in from the right side of the engine. Helicopters use an axial-flow turbine to drive their rotors, which contains a cone-shaped compressor.

Combustion Area

Fuel injectors continuously inject jet fuel into the combustion area, into which the high-pressure air has been directed. The combustion area contains a perforated can called a flameholder which is instrumental in keeping the flame lit in the constantly moving air. Compressed air is forced and guided into the holes from another cylinder which is wrapped around the can, and exhaust gases are released…… [read more]


Industry Analysis Term Paper

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(See Appendix A)

Opportunities and Threats

As long as the industry steers clear of environmental catastrophes such as the Exxon Valdez and other spills, the opportunities in the short-term look promising for the oil industry giants. Profitability can be realized as long as fluctuating costs arte passed on to the consumer and the companies remain efficient.

Where the threats to the industry occur is what the price of crude is doing to the rest of the economy. "A surge in the price of crude oil to new highs weighed heavily on Wall Street Monday, while bearish broker calls on semiconductors and communications equipment stocks pressured the technology sector." (Lerner)

Conclusion

In conclusion, this report was an industry analysis on the United States oil & gas industry but did not cover the industry related exploration and production pre-refining activities. The report's focus was on companies like Shell, Mobil, Texaco, Gulf and Exxon and how they were affected by the 5-forces model analysis. The report also analyzed the competition structure of the major competitors to see if there was a strategic group mapping noticeable in the industry. And finally, the future trends of the macro-environmental factors such as the economy, technology and governmental regulation were reviewed to see how they influence the industry and the opportunities or threats that presented themselves for future trade. The difficult question of whether or not record oil prices and high world demand equate into industry profitability was addressed because assumptions are that profitability is immanent in the oil industry.

Works Cited

Exxon. Ed. Yahoo. Yahoo Finance. 27 Sept. 04 http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=XOM&d=t.

Foss, Brad. "Oil Prices Close In On $50 A Barrel" Associated Press (2004).

Home Page. Ed. OPEC. OPEC. 24 Sept. 2004 http://www.opec.org/.

Lerner, Susan. "U.S. stocks slide as crude climbs to new high." CBS MarketWatch (2004).

Michael Porter Five Forces Model. Ed. BRS. 26 Sept. 2004 http://www.brs-inc.com/porter.asp.

Oil Industry. Ed. Yahoo Finance. 2004. Yahoo Finance. 25 Sept. 2004 http://biz.yahoo.com/.

Porter's Five Forces Model. Ed. Strategic Management. QuickMBA.com. 25 Sept. 2004 http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml.

Appendix A http://us.i1.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/i/mail/up.gif http://biz.yahoo.com/p/oilintpr1u.html" 1 Day Price

Change

Market

Cap

P/E

ROE %

Div. Yield %

Long-Term Debt to Equity

Price to Book Value

Qtrly Rev

Growth % (YoY)

Qtrly EPS

Growth % (YoY)

Sector:

Energy

1983.9B

Industry: Oil & Gas - Integrated

More Info)

Companies

Amerada Hess Corporation

AHC)

7.9B

BP p.l.c. (ADR)

BP)

ChevronTexaco Corporation

CVX)

China Petroleum & Chemica

SNP)

34.5B

ConocoPhillips

COP)

56.3B

Eni S.p.A. (ADR)

E)

83.7B

Exxon Mobil Corporation

XOM)

Gazprom OAO (ADR)

OGZPF.PK)

62.1B

Imperial Oil Limited (USA

IMO)

17.8B

JED Oil Inc.

JDO)

Petro-Canada (USA)

PCZ)

13.5B

Petrobras Energia Partici

PZE)

2.3B

PetroChina Company Limite

PTR)

91.7B

Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.

PBR)

39.3B

Repsol YPF, S.A. (ADR)

REP)

25.9B

Royal Dutch Petroleum Com

RD)

Shell Transport & Trading

SC)

71.0B

Statoil ASA (ADR)

STO)

30.6B

Suncor Energy Inc. (USA)

SU)

13.8B

TOTAL S.A. (ADR)

TOT)

Whittier Energy Corp.

WHIT.OB)

19.5M

Oil Industry)

Oil And Gas… [read more]


Environmental Hazards as a Consequence Term Paper

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Data gathering and Analysis

Overview of the issues of environmental protection

In recent times, the need to protect and save the environment is growing. Most scientists and climatologists working with data related to the climate and the weather believe that the earth's temperature is rising. This is often attributed to the depletion of the ozone layer and the increase in… [read more]


Fuel Cell Technology Term Paper

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"

This incredible technology has many benefits.

Benefits of Fuel Cells, particularly hydrogen

The most important benefit to hydrogen fuel cell technology is that the only emission, other than a low amount of heat, is pure water.

In addition, they are incredibly efficient, in comparison with gasoline or battery vehicles where the electricity is gotten from a combustion power plant.

Gasoline powered cars have an overall efficiency of just 20%, which means that only 20% of the thermal energy content is turned into mechanical work. ("Gasoline")

Electric cars have only an overall efficiency of 26% when their electricity comes from combustion power plants ("Gasoline")

Fuel cell vehicles, powered by pure hydrogen are up to 80% efficient. ("Efficiency")

Hydrogen is preferable because when a reformer is added to convert other fuel sources, such as propane, to hydrogen, the efficiency drops dramatically to approximately 32%. ("Efficiency")

Despite these benefits, the one challenge is the lack of infrastructure to begin the mass production of fuel cell vehicles.

Where to start with infrastructure

Certainly, if a magic genie waved his wand and turned all the vehicles in the world into hydrogen powered vehicles, our problems would not be immediately solved. Think for a moment about all of the gasoline stations in just this town alone, and you can begin to see what an enormous undertaking switching fuel sources will be.

For this reason we need to start small, but also effectively.

I would propose making the first fuel cell vehicles fleet vehicles.

Taxis

Buses

Delivery vehicles

The owners of these vehicles operate multiple vehicles and a hydrogen fueling station could be installed at each facility

This would not only be an effective beginning to infrastructure creation, but would also serve as a goodwill ambassador for the general public. If the general public were to see UPS vehicles and taxis and the local buses all fueled by hydrogen, it will be easier for them to accept this new technology as it begins to replace their beloved gasoline vehicle.

These small steps are just the beginning of what is sure to be a new and exciting chapter in our automotive and ecological history.

Conclusion

The benefits of pure water being the only emission, along with the incredible efficiency, is undeniable and powerful

Fuel cell technology is now a reality!

This is good news not only for the environment but for consumers as the average cost of gasoline has now skyrocketed over the $2.00 mark!

Works Cited

Cars Emit Carbon Dioxide." 1997. Global Warming Focus on the Future. 27 May 2004. http://globalwarming.enviroweb.org/ishappening/sources/sources_co2_facts3.html.

Efficiency of Fuel Cells." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell4.htm.

Gasoline and Battery Power." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell5.htm.

Proton Exchange Membrane." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell2.htm.… [read more]


Ganges Next Life Term Paper

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Poetic statement

Water is meaningless. Water is meaningless, clear, projecting only the face of the gazer into the river. It is clear and tasteless unless human hands for better or for ill adulterate it. This is why water purifies. It is the emptiest of all the elements yet it is the only element that washes us clean, naked -- when we go clothed within the water it weighs us down.

Perhaps this is why it is so tempting to ignore the life-sustaining power of water. It seems like something to be taken for granted unless it becomes a nuisance in the form of rain. We see what we want to see in water, or curse it.

The throat grows dry, parched. The air becomes still and dry, and our bodies become parched and dry in the absence of the folds and flow of water. We look around at the water, but because of our carelessness, it has become tainted by mud.

Once we saw God in the living reflection of water, once we saw our best selves and faces and faith. Now we see nothing, and moan its absence. We scorned water, and sought science, progress, but now beg these things to lead us back to what we left -- pure water.

Proposition

Poetry is not something that exists outside of nature. By viewing nature in its truth, namely the fact that water has a potentially purifying aspect to it, as well as provides a renewable source of energy, one finds the truest source of poetry.

Works Cited

Dillard, Annie. "The Wreck of Time: Taking Our Century's Measure." The New Humanities Reader. Edited by Richard E. Miller and Kurt Spellmeyer. New York, 2003.

Stille, Alexander. "The Ganges' Next Life." The New Humanities Reader. Edited by Richard E. Miller and Kurt…… [read more]


Non-Ionizating Radiation in Recent Years Term Paper

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As the conversation has to pass two ways the mobile phones and the base stations produce radio frequencies or RF radiation. Since the base station and the mobile units are both only short-range useable, the RF rays emitted from them are also pretty low. Most scientists both in the U.S. And in other nations agree that the radiations emitted form… [read more]


Environmental Safety and Wildlife Protection Essay

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Malhauer National Wildlife Center Occupation

In 1908, the former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt established the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (Langston 15). His aim was to safeguard the populations of water birds killed from the wanton plume trade in the area. The Refuge rests on an approximately 188,000-acre piece of land, representing some of the most crucial bird species on the Pacific Flyway (Littlefield 11). It is regarded as one of the crown jewels of the country's Wildlife Refuge structure owned by Americans. In the wake of 2013, the Refuge embraced a lasting management plan created via an inclusive, cooperative procedure that saw the state and federal agencies, local community, tribes, conservation groups and other stakeholders work together. Since then, the stakeholders have been collaborating to implement the strategy that focuses on one of the largest wetland restoration attempts ever undertaken.

In January 2013, a loosely organized movement of armed anti-government extremists headed by Ammon Bundy seized control of the Oregon-based Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Their action is attributable to the fact that two local ranchers, Steve, and Dwight Hammond had been ordered to report to the government prison for an arson sentence (Littlefield 39). According to the extremists, this punishment was unjust because the Hammonds had already served sentences handed down during a previous sentencing. After the seizure of the headquarters, the group has declined to vacate and instead are using social media platforms intensively to garner support from individuals and other right-wing extremist movements. More so, the mainstream national press has similarly been flocking the scene, interviewing as many of the occupants as possible, about the takeover. The following sections analyze the case of the Mahluer National Wildlife Refuge Occupation from three criminological perspectives: Control, Critical, and Patriarchy.

Control theory

The seizure of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge headquarters is a control, land grab with guns. Despite the argument about supporting the Hammond family, the takeover of the property is one of the historical campaigns by a radical movement to dismantle government land ownership in the West (Langston 21). A group of elected officials is fighting via mainstream platforms to have lands transferred to county or state government or to give them equal say over their utility. As such, the Refuge takeover appears to be an effort to spread a tactic of armed federal land takeovers. The extremists are said to be part of a "Patriot organization" that has re-surfaced following the election of Barack Obama as president. This incident has shifted the responsibility of guns away from who holds them. In most cases, the presence of a firearm serves to escalate things. The difference between acquiring control of property by locking the place or people chaining themselves to a fence and how these extremists have taken control of the Refuge is guns. The theory that the two are peaceful demonstrations and that the guns are merely meant for self-defense is nothing but a fallacy. By assuming their occupation might be confronted with violence, these men armed up and… [read more]


Learning the Criminology Viewpoint Essay

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¶ … Criminology

Some of the most eminent perspectives related to criminology include control, labeling, critical, feminist, and white collar perspectives. Although these perspectives are considered distinct from one another, there are various points of similarities between them. Additionally, there are some important differences between them which account for the fact that they are technically considered different viewpoints. In analyzing how these perspectives are related to one another (and how they are not related), one can better understand the departure points from a preexisting theory for crime to the development of a new theoretical paradigm.

The critical perspective of criminology is one of the most notable perspectives. This fact is true partially because it relates to so many different, relevant aspects of crime. This theory analyzes the causes of crime from cultural viewpoints, and indicates that there are certain cultural factors that contribute to crime. The cultural element of this theory also lends itself to a focus on history and politics, as well as to the combination of these three different factors (including culture) and how they relate to crime (Nocella II). It is important to realize that this theory fully emerged at the midway point of the 20th century, which gives it a certain modern or perhaps even post-modern quality. Because this perspective seeks to rationalize crime and its occurrence due to overarching cultural, political and even historical factors, it is less harsh on the criminal offender itself and more so on the cultural and social systems that have produced these people. Thus, the critical perspective of crime is actually criticizing the system, and tends to be more lenient towards those who are trapped in the system and must resort to crime because of cultural factors.

There are some fairly valuable points of similarity between the feminist perspective of crime and the criminal perspective. In some way, the feminist perspective spawned from the latter, since it almost set a precedent for providing a targeted, nuanced perspective on crime related to certain factors (historical, cultural, etc.). The feminist perspective, then, incorporates this degree of specificity but applies to it factors pertaining to women. According to Naffine (1996): "To standpoint feminists, the identity of the inquirer mattered...the best sort of inquiry was conducted by the individual whose behavior was in question" (60). Thus the feminist perspective concerns itself with crimes that are specifically related to women including prostitution, trafficking, female delinquency, and others. Additionally, it is a reaction to the male dominated models that are the basis for the other criminology perspectives. All of the historical, cultural, and political factors in this theory are related to women.

The correlation between the white collar perspective and the other two perspectives discussed so far is fairly clear. Again, the former merely provides a concentrated area of interest for factors relating to crime, much like the other…… [read more]


Broken Windows Theory and Strain Theory Criminology Term Paper

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Preventing Crime

From a crime prevention perspective, the role of Broken Windows Theory plays a considerable part. First advanced by James Wilson and George Kelling (1982), this theory stipulates that by preventing small crimes such as vandalism and petty public disturbances, larger and more serious crimes will be prevented as well. On the other hand, if a community lets itself fall prey to graffiti artists, vandals, and public disturbances, the area will soon become a crime haven simply because of the snowball effect, which holds that small matters will escalate until they are big matters. Thus, broken windows will eventually become broken homes, broken families, and broken cities. This is the essence of the Broken Windows Theory, and it is useful in helping criminologists to understand why it is important to prevent crime on a basic, small level when at all possible, so as to deter crime on a larger scale.

Therefore, communities have a responsibility to take ownership of their crime problem by policing themselves and enforcing neighborhood watches and neighborhood clean-ups. By keeping a community clean and orderly, the risk of theft, violent crime, drug dealing, and public disturbances is kept low: the community is viewed by individuals as one in which this sort of activity will not be tolerated. In a sense, Strain Theory also plays a part in this, because this theory posits that delinquent behavior is the result of a pressurized internal system that, like a volcano, is building and building more and more pressure from the strain of the negative state until it finally erupts in the form of criminal behavior -- which is a kind of lashing out at the rule and law-abiding society around him, which appears to have everything going its way. The offender, according to Strain theory, essentially says to society that nothing is really going its way and demonstrates that by breaking society's rules regarding private property (Agnew, 2008). The offense is a reflection of the offense committed inside the offender as a result of the negative state in which he has subjected to various unwholesome and unhealthy attitudes and situations, whether social, economic, political or spiritual.

But if a community is kept orderly by neighbors and a watch that helps to police the community, the external pressures that prompt some to lash out are avoided. The community is a place where peace and tranquility are more present than not. In such a place, there is more likely to be neighborliness as well -- a sense of taking care of one another and not letting each other develop social problems that require treatment. Lott (2010) builds on this point by asserting that "more guns" in the hands of law-abiding citizens translates into "less crime" on the streets. Lott studies the relationship between gun laws/control and data on crime trends and finds that communities tend to respect the rule of law more when it is known that individuals on the street are armed and willing to defend themselves. This may… [read more]


Malheur Wildlife Reserve Occupation and Fbi Essay

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¶ … 2016, an armed militia group occupied a federally owned and managed wildlife preserve in Eastern Oregon, causing a months-long and ongoing standoff with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The Malheur National Wildlife Refuge has assumed political significance in addition to its already being an important site for Native American history as well as environmental integrity. Although one of the occupiers has been killed, the FBI has shown a remarkable amount of restraint in dealing with the occupation, refraining from excessive force in spite of the militant's staunch refusal to alter their stance. At least eight of the leaders of the militia group have been arrested. The Malheur Wildlife Refuge occupation is only the most recent in a relatively long train of events that stretches back decades, as a small but heavily armed group of anti-government rebels have persistently targeted the federal government. Therefore, the occupation of the wildlife preserve can be viewed from a positivistic point-of-view, as well as from the perspective of social learning theory.

According to Wiles, the occupation of Malheur "is a reaction to the sentencing for arson of Dwight and Steve Hammond, local ranchers who have become symbols of the Sagebrush Rebellion over the last two decades." The anti-government ideologues have attached themselves to causes related to a sense of persecution and the belief that the federal government is inherently malevolent and infringes on the rights of its citizens. In fact, the "the Hammond family has been at odds with the Bureau of Land Management since the early '90s, initially over grazing and water rights and more recently over arson," (Wiles). Linking themselves with the Hammonds, the leaders of the Malheur occupation exhibit a classic case of social learning theory in which belonging to the group and espousing its ideology leads to behavior considered socially deviant. Within the subculture of the militia movement, it is considered normative to rebel against the government using whatever means possible, including violence. In fact, rebelling in this way is considered a sacred duty, which is why the occupiers have been able to withstand tremendous pressure for months while standing their ground. Social learning theory explains how the group remains committed to their cause via shared ideology and the creation of a scapegoat, framed as a common enemy: the government.

Interestingly, Cliven and Ammon Bundy, the leaders of the Malheur occupation, had previously organized peaceful protests in Oregon. Their peaceful protests became expanded into the "sit-in"-style occupation of the Malheur wildlife refuge. Yet the peaceful protesters who had once supported the Bundy cause refused to offer their support for the militia group, due in part to the militia's "incendiary rhetoric," (Wiles). Social learning theory shows how the broader impetus to use peaceful means to protest perceived injustices socially sanctions more radical, potentially violent, and criminal means of drawing attention to the cause. The Bundy family and their supporters who participated in the occupation are being socially ostracized and therefore punished in more ways than just by the law;…… [read more]


Criminal Treatment Based on Social Standing Term Paper

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White Collar Crime

The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief report that summarizes the definition of white collar crime as studied and summarized by Edwin Sutherland. There were two distinct elements that made up the foundation of Sutherland's definition. This definition shall be applied to consumer fraud, environmental crime, religious fraud and corporate fraud. There… [read more]


Some Examples of White Collar Criminal Activity Essay

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White-Collar Crime

The two distinct elements of "white-collar crime," which Edwin Sutherland described as "crimes committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation," are (1) the offender's social status and (2) the occupation/mechanism "by which the offense is committed" (Rosoff, Pontell, Tillman, 2003, p. 3). Essentially, Sutherland viewed white collar criminals as members of a higher class than the "ordinary" blue-collar criminal or street criminal that one normally associated with various crimes, such as murder, rape or theft. Yet the white-collar criminal was capable of these crimes also: it just so happened that when he broke the law, his offense could go undetected because it was, one, less visible, and, two, protected within a world of autonomous functioning (high finance, for example); here, one was only "outed" if a scapegoat was needed or if one's offense offended the wrong people, such as happened with Bernie Madoff, one of only many finance managers whose Ponzi-scheme activities actually went "noticed" (Schultz, Greenberg, 2009) because it lost some very wealthy people a lot of money (like director Steven Spielberg) rather than a lot of common, ordinary people their pension funds.

The case of Bernie Madoff would be an example of consumer fraud, because Madoff had deceived his customer clients of the actual nature of their investment, promising safety and security where there was none. Madoff was capable of deceiving his wealthy clients because of his status in the finance world (high social status) and he was able to commit the offense by way of his occupation, which allowed him to follow the example of the original financial speculator criminal, Charles Ponzi. Madoff's losses to investors was said to have been approximately $18 billion (Safer, 2009). These losses resulted from the high exposure of various clients, including other hedge funds and elites. Madoff's Ponzi scheme was like gambling with the wrong people's money. Another example of consumer fraud would be the case of Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) which engaged in price fixing of lysine with competitors around the world with an estimated cost of $100 million (Eichenwald, 2000).

In terms of environmental crime, white-collar crime could refer to any offense committed in violation of laws designed to protect the environment and the people within a certain environment. In many cases, this is called "green-collar crime" because of its relationship to the earth. One of the strongest cases of white collar crime as environmental crime is that of Monsanto, the cancer-causing, genetically-modified organisms producer of unnatural food stuffs and Round-Up, which California has just labeled as a cancer-causing agent (Durden, 2015). But Monsanto has been the subject of many researchers ire for many years, including independent journalist William Engdahl (2007) in his book Seeds of Destruction, which chronicles the rise of Monsanto due to the protection of other persons in "high society" such as the President of the United States and the "laws" passed which criminalized any study into the negative effects of Monsanto's products rather than… [read more]


Fracking in Kansas Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (746 words)
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Kansas

Fracking is a major source of economic growth in Kansas, but also a source of controversy. This controversy highlights several key themes in business -- growth and opportunity, the role of government, and corporate social responsibility among them. The oil and natural gas industry in Kansas is worth $4.3 billion per year, and employs 118,000 people, making it the second-largest industry in the state. Oil and gas provide hundreds of millions of dollars in tax revenue that are used towards critical public services in the state (Kansas Strong, 2015).

Yet the industry, or at least the fracking side of the industry, has been the source of considerable controversy of late. Geologist reports have pinned an increase in the number of earthquakes in Kansas on the rise of fracking in the state (RT,2015). The claim, not surprisingly, is controversial. First, there is dispute about the correlation, and whether causation can be determined. There are other studies that portray a slightly different picture, including one that pins a large number of earthquakes on a specific fracking site in Oklahoma, indicating the fracking as a whole may not be an environmental threat, just at certain locations. That lack of clarity is common in geology, something the industry understands well, but there is concern on two fronts with respect to such claims.

The first is that the public perception of fracking remains mixed. While some certainly appreciate the economic benefits of this new resource, as it has revitalized fossil fuel industries in America that were on decline (Brown, 2014) and provided new investment in Kansas, many others perceive that the benefits outweigh the risks. On one hand, fracking has brought to the state almost a gold rush-style economic boom, with speculators, investment, growth and jobs (AP, 2012). This in turn creates gold rush style social issues associated with rapid income growth. Further, if there are environmental risks, then the fracking industry may face sanction from the government. Indeed, earthquake activity has skyrocketed, and has been focused on specific counties where fracking activity is high, evidence that spurred regulations to curtail growth of fracking activities in the affected areas (Pantsios, 2015).

This highlights the interplay between business and government. Kansas is generally supportive of business interests, especially…… [read more]


Marcellus Shale Named for the Town Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Marcellus Shale

Named for the town of Marcellus, New York, the Marcellus Shale is a former Devonian Sea and the oldest and deepest of the Hamilton Group to which it belongs. It straddles eight states and two countries. The Marcellus Shale has received attention in the popular media because it contains a large amount of natural gas reserves that can only be accessed efficiently via hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracing). An analysis of the Marcellus Shale reveals ways humans interact with their environment, and how relationships between people and geology become political issues. The adage "think global, act local" can be applied to the Marcellus Shale.

The Marcellus Shale stretches across eight different states including Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. The Marcellus Shale is named for the town Marcellus, New York. It is a middle Devonian-era deposit formed over millions of years. Its rich sediment is owing to the abundance of marine organisms that slowly decomposed, forming layers of sedimentary material and ultimately, limestone shale. There are several layers comprising the Marcellus Shale, which is sandwiched between two distinct limestone layers. One limestone layer is Tully limestone, which sits atop the shale, and beneath the shale is Onondoga Limestone.[footnoteRef:1] Sedimentation has trapped natural gas in shale pores, joints, and within minerals themselves. Some stakeholders see potential for Marcellus Shale natural gas to supplement American energy resources. [1: The Marcellus Shale Formation Information Site]

The depth of the Marcellus Shale varies from only forty feet in Canada to a mile or more below the surface of the earth in New Jersey. [See Figure A]. In 2002, the United States Geological Survey published the Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Appalachian Basin Province, which estimated the presence of 1.9 trillion cubic feet of gas within the entire shale.[footnoteRef:2] However, initial surveys also indicated that natural gas reserves were too widely dispersed throughout the shale to warrant extraction. Most deposits were believed to be too deep, making extraction unfeasible. Subsequent research conducted by the private sector and with some university support has revealed that certain techniques may make natural gas extraction feasible as well as profitable. Vertical wells are traditional methods of extraction but they can only be used in areas of shallow depth. However, some of these vertical well extraction systems have yielded some usable gas and remain in service.[footnoteRef:3] The most cost-effective method of natural gas extraction, and the one with the highest yield potential, is to drill horizontally and intersect multiple fractures or joints naturally occurring in the shale. Horizontal drilling allows for the maximum gas extraction because it drills into the maximum number of shale joints.[footnoteRef:4] Horizontal drilling still relies on the natural geological features of the Marcellus Shale, whereas hydrolic fracturing creates new fractures via the use of high-pressure water. The process is known as hydrofracing. [2: "Marcellus Shale - Appalachian Basin Natural Gas Play." ] [3: "Marcellus Shale - Appalachian Basin Natural Gas Play." ] [4: "Marcellus Shale - Appalachian… [read more]


Cost Overruns Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Overruns

Australia's UGL Cost Overruns

UGL is a diversified services company that specializes in providing end to end outsourced engineering, asset management, and maintenance services across core sectors of rail, transport & technology systems, power, resources, water and defense (UGS, N.d.). The firm has annual revenues exceeding two billion dollars and year and employs over seven thousand people in Australia, New Zealand, and South East Asia. The company works in the public and private sectors and offers a wide range of different engineering services. The company specializes in project management and thus any news regarding the mishandling of a project can definitely damage its reputation.

Just recently the company has experience a significant hit to its stock price as it fell fifteen percent in a day. The market apparently lost some confidence in UGL after the company released news that it has been subject to a significant cost overrun on one of its key projects. UGL has been building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a joint partnership and has exceeded the budget by roughly one hundred seventy million dollars and has explained the overrun as increased due to "changes and events in the design and procurement phase of the project" and subsequent delays (Smyth, 2014). The project overruns were only partly absorbed by UGL and some of their subcontractors also shared in the expenses.

The damage to the company's reputation is twofold. First of all the company has to take responsibility for the overruns in its LNG project and has undoubtedly lost confidence from many stakeholders in its ability to create an accurate budget. The company blames to overrun on scope changes, scheduling delays, and the inherent complexity in this type of project. "LNG projects are hugely complex and very expensive to build and we are seeing a number of cost blowouts," said John Hirjee, an analyst with…… [read more]


Oil Drilling Technologies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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In Europe and Gulf of Mexico, Offshore oil drilling began gaining influence in 1950s, in Europe and southern Northern Sea in 1967 respectively. In addition, it is good to note that Offshore Oil drilling has attracted immense criticism and substantial research with time, has shown that offshore oil drilling has been responsible in emitting substantial amounts of hydrocarbon.

This technology is relatively inexpensive since it requires installation small-diameter wells. A chisel bit is applied at a drive point fixed on a wall screen (well point) is driven into the ground using a high-velocity stream of water through a well point. However, the method is limited since requires the drilling of a well 200ft deep.

Augur Drilling

This technology was first applied in China 3000 years ago. Augur drilling is a technology that focuses on the sampling and evaluation of soft and loses ground like soil beach sand, mine dump, mill concentrate, and tailings. Augur drills can be mechanically powered or hand driven. The advantages are low mobility and low cost. The hand-operated auger can operate up to 3 meters within a hole whose diameter is between 10 and 15cm. This depends on the softness of the material to be cut. Technically, the equipment is designed with augur cutter heads. The equipment can drill up to 30 m or more depending on the subsoil condition. In fact, augur drilling is useful since it provides grade and other specifications that have been mentioned in the above material quickly at low cost. One of the core inefficiencies of this technology is that it often fails to provide accurate information due to wall collapsing related contamination (Halder, 2012, p 117-120).

Average Process

In order to drill oil using this technology, it becomes necessary to explore the oil field first. Research and Development experts carry out the exploration process and their attempt to establish whether a given oil field is viable to drill. Oil drilling is an expensive process that requires initial strategic plans and to this regard, it becomes necessary to ensure that oil strategy employed is successful and profitable. Secondly, once the oil is discovered, the drilling company sets-up a drilling plant or what is commonly to sea-oil cities. The quality of the infrastructure is a vital consideration in the nature of the plant. For instance, the channel is well cemented to prevent collapse. Thirdly, inside the reservoir rock, it is necessary the team lower the perforating gun to punch holes in the casing. Fourthly, the team runs the tubing to access the gas and re-channels the gas to the top for emptying. The tubing is later applied to channel the oil to the top (Du et al., 2011, p. 466).

Conclusion

This study has attempted to prove that four prevailing oil-drilling technologies are answerable to different topographical problems. In particular, the study has presented four technologies courtesy of direct rotary, cable tool drilling, augur drilling and jet drilling. The four technologies have common similarities substantial differences as well as, benefits and issues.… [read more]


Life Cycle Assessment of Wind Turbine Foundations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (948 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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First, they involve more building materials and are therefore more resource-intensive. Second, the steel foundations cause direct damage to the place in which they are situated due to their being driven deeper into the earth surface. Third, the steel foundations require greater use of fossil fuels (Zygomalas & Baniotopoulos, 2014). However, the concrete foundations are not without their problems. The release of dust, toxins, and possible carcinogens into the air results from the construction of concrete foundations, whether or not those foundations are shallow or deep and combined with steel (Zygomalas & Baniotopoulos, 2014).

Generally, and ironically, it has been found that the shallow foundations are responsible for relatively higher environmental impacts overall (Zygomalas, & Baniotopoulos 2013). This is due to the overall life cycle of the wind turbine and its foundation. Over the course of its life cycle, the shallow foundation may be more detrimental to the environment. These conclusions are based on several simultaneous assessments of steel micropile deep vs. concrete and shallow foundations (Zygomalas, & Baniotopoulos 2013). Issues such as the ability to recycle the materials used, and the cost of transporting materials all have an impact on how environmentally damaging the foundation will be.

Unfortunately, both concrete and steel foundations present particular problems with regards to environmental impact. During the construction phase, steel is more problematic but overall, concrete foundations may have the most impact. There are several different variables, though, and the impacts may certainly be different for different installation environments, sites, and settings. Whether or not the turbines are located on land, whether or not an economy of scale in the business leads to reduced fossil fuels in the transportation of the construction materials, and prevailing winds carrying dust are all mitigating factors that will impact how damaging the wind turbine foundation will be over the course of the life cycle. Finally, the differences with each situation also may differ based on the construction phase environmental damages vs. The overall life cycle environmental impact. Longitudinal studies need to examine the imact of the foundations on things like acidification of ground water (Zygomalas & Baniotopoulos, 2014). In the future, more environmentally sound materials and construction processes may be developed.

References

Drewitt, A.L. & Langston, R.H.W. (2006). Assessing the impacts of wind farms on birds. Ibis 48(1): 29-42.

Fox, A.D., et al. (2006). Information needs to support environmental impact assessment of the effects of European marine offshore wind farms on birds. Ibis 148(1): 129-144.

Razizadeh, S.B. (2014). Life cycle analyses of the foundation of onshore wind energy structures.

Wind Energy EIS (2014). Wind energy development environmental concerns. Retrieved online: http://windeis.anl.gov/guide/concern/

Zygomalas, I. & Baniotopoulos, C. (2013). Life cycle assessment of traditional shallow and steel micropile foundations for wind energy converters. 3rd International Energy, Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability Workshop…… [read more]


Keystone Pipeline Has Some Critics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Keystone Pipeline has some critics saying it could hurt the American economy be limiting potential job growths. Supporters of the Keystone Pipeline say it could help the economy by bringing down oil prices and promoting job growth. Research leans more towards the Keystone Pipeline doing more harm than good. Regardless of whether or not the Pipeline is supported… [read more]


Surge Is Unlikely for Prices Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Gasoline prices have very unique attributes relative to their other commodity counterparts. For one, this commodity, unlike others, is price inelastic. The elasticity of demand is very pertinent to many commodities outside of gasoline. In many instances, a change in the price of gasoline does not correspond to an equal change in the demand or consumption of the commodity. This is due primarily to the overall nature of the gasoline market. Many consumers, particular those who travel long distances to work, rely heavily on gasoline to travel. As such, many consumers are often force to consume higher price gasoline irrespective of the overall price change (New Billions In Oil, 1933). This is indicated by the charts below highlighting the overall consumption of gas relative to its price. Chart 1, taken for the AAA motor club, indicates the overall changes in gasoline prices over the past decade. Although the prices are very volatile since 2005, notice the overall upward trend.

Chart1

Chart 2 below, taken from the Energy Intelligence Agency, indicates the overall level of consumption over the corresponding period. As you will notice, the trend of consumption, much like its pricing counterpart, has steadily increased over time. Thankfully due in part to increase fuel efficiency standards, carbon emission requirements, and the emergence of electric vehicles, consumption has remained tepid.

Chart 2

In conclusion, I agree with the author's assertion regarding rising gasoline prices. I believe rising prices will not prevail due to many of the factors mentioned above. First, the rapid adoption of alternative energy solution has made petroleum-based products cheaper, primarily due to weaker demand. Although the trend has increased over the past decade, the overall growth rate has declined substantially for oil and gas products. Demand for summer gasoline has dropped from 9.2 million barrels a day in 2009, to 8.8 million barrels a day. As such, as consumers become more acquainted to alternative energy solutions, and as gasoline prices continue to rise, the demand for these products will subsequently drop. What once was a price inelastic commodity is now become a price elastic commodity due to new technology, regulations, and consumer demand. As such, the future continues to look bright for alternative energy solutions irrespective of the macroeconomic trends prevailing during the moment.

References:

1) Kay, Jane Holtz, Asphalt nation: how the automobile took over America, an how we can take it back, New York, Crown, 1997. ISBN 0-517-58702-5

2) Krass, Clifford. "Major Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas." New York Times. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

3) Seale, Patrick (1987). The Struggle for Syria. ISBN 978-0-300-03944-3

4) "New Billions…… [read more]


Political Backgrounder: Nova Scotia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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It is intriguing to observe how the NDP does not attempt to promote its strategies as being perfect. Instead, it simply claims that any action is good as long as it is meant to save the environment, regardless of its level of success. The NDP has a mind of its own and it does not attempt to persuade other communities in thinking that it would only be natural for them to act in accordance with the party's principles. The party's members are actually concerned in having people learn more about the environment than about the party -- they simply want the masses to accept that they too can play an important role in saving the natural world and that it is essential for them to act as rapidly as possible.

Both Darrell and the NDP put across a form of sincerity that succeeds in expressing the message they are concerned about. They obviously want to experience progress from a personal point-of-view, they want to assist the province of Nova Scotia, and they want to save the environment. They prefer to have a general perspective concerning the province's needs, as while they obviously care for the environment, they also care about implementing strategies that are going to benefit both the environment and locals.

Works cited:

"New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website: http://novascotia.ca/news/smr/2010-04-23-wind.asp

"Renewable Electricity Plan," retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website: http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/renewable-electricity-plan.pdf

"Sable Island National Park Reserve," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Megan Leslie New Democratic Party Website: http://meganleslie.ndp.ca/… [read more]


Diesel Fuel Pricing Effects on Trucking Enterprise Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,897 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Diesel Fuel Pricing Effects on Trucking Enterprise

The Frame of Reference

Diesel Fuel Consumption for Transport as a ratio of overall Oil consumption

Cost of Fuel consumption in trucking enterprises

Impact of Diesel price increase on trucking enterprises

Planning and control of fuel costs for attaining competitiveness

SWOT Matrix

The capitalism and market systems have evolved over the years and… [read more]


Role of Thomas Edison in Electricity Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Role of Thomas Edison in Electricity:

In the past century, many individuals and groups have been engaged in electric lighting technology and made significant contributions in the field of electricity. The collective initiatives of these individuals and groups have transformed the marvel of electric lighting and electricity into a routine part of the society's technical infrastructure, which has in turn changed people's lives. One of the major people who have made significant contributions in electricity is Thomas Alva Edison. Edison is considered as one of the most prominent and creative inventor of all time because of his remarkable impact on modern life. He is accredited for contributing inventions like the incandescent light bulb, motion picture camera, and phonograph as well as enhancing telephone and the telegraph ("The Life of Thomas a. Edison," n.d.).

Since the beginning of the 1870s, experiments in generation of electricity had been conducted for several decades. One of the major inventions during this period was in 1878 when the Avenue de I'Opera in Paris was lit through the use of electric arc lamps. However, many inventors attempted to develop a more pleasing and durable light because arc lamps produced a harsh light. These numerous attempts did not achieve much success until Thomas Edison gave the problem a thorough and methodical attention. As part of his initiatives, Edison developed the Edison Electric Light Company, which was supported by financiers like the Vanderbilt family and J.P. Morgan in order to own and license his patents in this field.

In his initial attempts, Edison and Francis Upton, his young assistant, eventually created a carbon filament that would flame in a vacuum in a glass bulb for 40 hours. This invention was demonstrated to their supporters in December 1879 and later to the public by end of the month. He then focused on creating a complete system of generating and distributing electricity that would transform the light bulb into a commercially economical and efficient business.

Edison's work continued through 1879 as…… [read more]


Structure O The Global Oil Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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While technical change continues to reveal new sources of oil and gas, prices have demonstrated more volatility than ever, and governments have sought more control over resource information and access than ever. The OICs, therefore, live in a bubble of constant flux and unpredictability. Given their huge expense in exploring, finding, gaining rights over, and distributing as well as maintaining these resources, oil and gas companies are compelled to expand into large sprawling enterprises that are made up of many acquisitions and mergers which can share the expense and to stretch.

The decline in source of oil and gas has caused them to extend and constantly move to new markets since their discovery of oil and gas resources is becoming increasingly harder and their technological investments and expense increasingly larger.

Their recent competitor too has been search for replacements of traditional gas and oil which has caused them to invest all the more wildly in technological advances to father their search for resources.

Their unpredictability, battle against competition, battle for survival, need to band together to match expense, and instability of their field has led to them forming a tight-knit, secure, and rigid vertical structure.

3. Why are so many of the firms vertically integrated?

The vertical structure enables the organization to better manage a complex value chain that is comprised of upstream, midstream and downstream tiers of activity.

Upstream activities include exploration, development, and production. Oil and gas are discovered during exploration; these resources are then developed, and production involves drilling and extracting oil and gas. All of this involves numerous details including adhering to relevant policies and bidding for oil / gas rights as well as maintaining reservoir profitability.

Midstream activities include activities of storing, trading, and transporting crude oil and natural gas. This includes dealing with distributors as well as with many other players including refiners, speculators, commodities exchanges, shipping companies, IOCs, NOCs, independents, and OPEC. Terrorism and certain conditions in certain countries can complicate these activities.

Downstream is occupied with oil refining and marketing. These are set by supply and demand for the product as well as by current prices.

Competition too is intense in the gasoline retail sector and, in fact, for all the IOCs, returns on capital employed are much lower in retail than in other business areas.

To ensure that all of this is managed faultlessly and effectively, specialists are bundled together and communication is taught with rigid direction, constant surveillance, and strict compliance expected with directives of management. There is little time for the flexible approach and democratic communication of a horizontal structure. This functional horizontal structure too provides the predictability and stability that is much needed in this type of organization, particularly since it works in an unpredictable environment (Charon Advantages & Disadvantages of the Vertical Functional Organizational Structure)

Sources

Charon Advantages & Disadvantages of the Vertical Functional Organizational Structure…… [read more]


Does Yuan's Appreciation Affect U.S. Export and Import? Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (761 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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U.S. export and imports

Firstly, some goods have an inelastic and lower price in China, therefore, Yuan's appreciation cannot significant affect U.S. export and import. A product that is price inelastic is one that the change in price does not necessarily mean there will be a change in the demand. Here the price of the product does not have any bearing on the demand and supply of that particular item. Such goods will have the prices change but there will be no significant reduction or increase in the demand levels (Don Hofstrand, 2007). An appropriate example is the price of gasoline. When there is an increase in the price of gasoline it does not necessarily mean that consumers will stop using the commodity, in the same breath a drop in the prices does not mean that there will be more people using gasoline on the roads in a particular day. One salient example in the case of export and imports between the U.S.A. And China is the U.S.A. importing electrical machinery and equipment. If there is an increase in the market value of the Chinese Yuan or a drop in the same, there will be little change in the demand level of the machinery since the need to install an electric machinery will still remain ad will not be reduce due to increase in price. The same remains true with most of the items that USA imports from China like the power generating equipment, toys and sports equipment, furniture, footwear, apparel, plastics, iron steel and vehicles. The same will stand for the items that the U.S.A. exports to china since they are items whose demand is not easily influenced by the change in the prices for instance the export of the optics and medical equipment will not be affected in terms of the demands with the strengthening of the Yuan against the dollar or otherwise. The same remains true for the other major items that China buys from the U.S. like organic chemicals, oil seeds, vehicles, aircraft, copper and such like (The U.S.-China Business Council, 2013). In a nutshell, the inability of the import/export influence with the appreciating/depreciating Yuan against the Dollar is informed by the kind of goods that is traded between the two countries.

U.S. And China do…… [read more]


Pennsylvania Act 13? Compare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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In this executive order, the president emphasizes the need to identify improved ways of administering existing oil resources in the interests of the country, and calls for the creation of an Interagency Working Group to Support Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources (Working Group); the president also states that the working group will be chaired by the Director of the Domestic Policy Council, or another representative to be designated.

The list of participating federal organizations is exhaustive, and it is clear the president seeks to achieve a broad-based solution to a complex administrative problem. In this regard, President Obama states that the working group is mandated to "facilitate coordinated Administration policy efforts to support safe and responsible unconventional domestic natural gas development." In this regard, unconventional domestic natural gas development will require the use of hydraulic fracking technologies, although these are not specifically mentioned in the executive order.

Provide links or citations to at least two other sources you have found that will be useful in writing about the above points.

1.

Obama Administration Announces New Partnership on Unconventional Natural Gas and Oil Research

Release Date: 04/13/2012

Contact Information: EPA: -- and [HIDDEN] ; DOE: [HIDDEN] ; DOI: [HIDDEN]

http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/d0cf6618525a9efb85257359003fb69d/d671629e248cfa08852579df006a97fc!OpenDocument

2.

Obama appoints Soros-linked immigration advisor to lead natural gas council

Author - Institute for Energy Research (Bio and Archives) Friday, April 13, 201

http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/45980

References

Patel, T. (2012, August 29). France to keep shale ban until fracking alternative emerges.

Bloomberg News. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-08-

29/france-to-keep-shale-ban-until-fracking-alternative-emerges.… [read more]


Oil and the Silk Road Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (718 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Importantly, the availability of oil -- and, in concert, the price of oil, impacts the global food supply ("Annual Energy Review," 2012).

For decades, Saudi Arabia has been able to control the supply -- and the price of oil -- functioning as a high level governor over demand for oil. As the enormous Arabian oil supply buffer shrinks, the unpredictability and vulnerability of the oil market supply and demand equation increases ("Annual Energy Review," 2012). Global population is a key driver of demand for oil. Global consumption of oil is currently at about 85 million barrels of oil each day, or 40,000 gallons per second ("Annual Energy Review," 2012). If the current rate of global oil consumption were to be maintained, 55 Mbl of accessible oil would need to be added to the world's supply every day ("Annual Energy Review," 2012). Oil consumption now exceeds new oil discoveries by 4 to 1 ("Annual Energy Review," 2012).

The technologies associated with alternative energy sources must be strengthened so that efficacious substitutes for oil can be established. No single best substitute for oil exists in absolute terms. Solving this complex problem must involve engineering, scientific research, economics, and international cooperation ("Annual Energy Review," 2012). A fundamental issue is that of Jevon's Paradox wherein efficiency gains foster population growth, which increases the consumption -- the increased consumption cannibalizes any efficiencies that were achieved ("Annual Energy Review," 2012). This scientific framework makes population growth concerns once more a salient global matter. The population pressure of the developed world is already quite high. It has been estimated that 30 to 40% of the biosphere is already exploited by the human species leaving the rest for all other species ("Annual Energy Review," 2012). An expanded ecological approach to addressing the global fossil fuel problem is necessary in order to make changes in absolute terms and in a manner that results in enduring improvements.

References

Waugh, D.C. (2009). The Silk Road in history. Penn Museum Expedition, 52(3), 9-22.

Retrieved http://faculty.washington.edu/dwaugh/waughexpeditionfinal.pdf…… [read more]


Statistics Oil and Gas Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Cuevas-Cubria & Beaini (2010) discuss the fluctuations in oil and gas prices and the national and international events that are correlated to the price fluctuations. There was an increase in the average price of West Texas Intermediate crude; this increase pushed the price 17% higher than it was in early December 2009. The higher prices for crude oil were linked to the macroeconomic changes taking place in the Asian and Middle Eastern economies. The higher oil prices run counter to the decline in consumption taking place in the United States.

The growth in oil demand is fueled by the oil consumption in non-OECD countries. The growing middle class and the desire for consumption goods, in particular vehicles has increased the demand for fuel in China and India. This combined with the enforced shutdown of coal-fired power stations promises to again increase the demand.

The OECD countries have a differential position as it relates to consumption of fossil fuels. While consumption is declining in Europe the increased consumption in America and Canada pushes the rates of consumption higher. So that while European consumption is projected to decline by 1%; in America and Canada it will increase by 1. 4%. The decline in consumption is linked to the slowdown in the global economy.

Another aspect of the puzzle is related to the question of oil output itself. OPEC plans to increase output thus stabilizing the price of oil. Additionally political stability in Nigeria has created increases in the output from those fields. While production appears to be slowing and plateauing in some countries; in Australia crude oil and other products will increase by 14%. Fluctuations and previous losses in the Australian gas industry have been offset by recent increases. Generally the picture for the price of oil appears to be that oil price will continue to increase as demand outstrips supply.

A normal distribution describes a specific type of distribution where the density of the curve in the tails is less than in the middle. When data are normally distributed there are specific expectations and predictions as to the percentage of the population that would be with a number of standard deviations from the mean. The curve is described as bell shaped; the mean, median and mode are all in the center of the distribution. The data described in this study were not normally distributed. The measures of central tendency presented for the price of oil, described an average price of $79 per barrel. This average price represented the central point for oil based on summing all of the gas prices and dividing by the number of prices collected. The main reason the price for oil could not be normally distributed could be the number of samples selected. While the study did not identify the size of the sample, it the sample size was large enough the price would have been normally distributed.

Additionally oil prices are linked to political events…… [read more]


Mikisew Cree First Nation Live Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Furthermore, the water supply itself is being used up in the extraction process because so much of it is used to generate steam. Therefore, the tar sand oil extraction is certainly not an equitable affair for many of the local communities. Therefore natural resources are being utilized without their consent. Although the workers at the oil plant are paid seemingly well, the money is not distributed to all stakeholders.

Not only is the pollution is affecting the local community, but it also is impacted the entire planet through the emission of greenhouse gases. Climate change has been referred to as the issue that will define this generation and the effects of this phenomenon are already apparent in many areas of the world. The have been record droughts in some regions and food security is increasingly becoming a salient issue. Extreme weather events are becoming more common as the planets mean temperature rises and the effects are also visible in the arctic region in which sea ice has reached record low levels.

Therefore the extraction of the tar sands is not only inequitable for the Mikisew Cree First Nation, but it is also inequitable for all future generations of people who will have to suffer the consequences of an extreme climate. One NASA scientist has described the Canadian oil sands as a ticking time bomb given the fact that there may be enough carbon emissions stored in the tar sands to push the climate past a tipping point in which the effects will become much worse. There are even plans to run a pipeline through the United States all the way to Texas which only make the environmental concerns even worse.… [read more]


Environmental (Alberta's Oil Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Exploitation of water endangers the animals or creatures enjoying the resource. This leads to destruction of natural resources hence harm to the ecology.

Production of oil sands enhances the threats to the planet in relation to climatic change. This is because of the transmission of greenhouse gases. The development of the oil sands production in Alberta proves to be a threat to the globe because of effects relative to global warming thus endangers the existence of the human race. Lack or minimal involvement of the government in reducing and controlling the development of the oil sands leads to political conflicts in the region (Pasqualetti 249-267). This might prove harmful to the sovereignty of Canada in current and future interactions with other international entities. The environmental situation in Alberta has led to the development of serious sanctions from international business partners relative to Alberta. For instance, the United States of America enforces extensive sanctions to the government of Alberta in order to control the production of oil sands. This indicates the extent of harm to ecology by the production of oil sands in Alberta. The keys issues and impact of oil sands relative to human existence require the determination of applicable solution to the puzzle.

Possible Solutions to Alberta's Oil Sands Problems

In order to help solve the puzzle, the government of Alberta should focus on different resource conservation. The first approach should emphasize on land through the creation of protected areas. The protected areas should be 50% of the total land coverage to allow enough chances for survival of the human race and other creatures. The government should also set maximum categories or levels for development of the oil sands in Alberta. This would help in controlling the pace and the overall harm to ecology. The authority should adopt reclamation process aiming towards achievement of liability management. This approach would reduce the social, economic, political, and environmental effects of the production of oil sands. The last approach in relation to land conservation should consider reclamation of the woodland caribou. This reflects gigantic step towards conservation of the natural resources against the negative influence of the production and development of oil sands (Brown 7-16).

The government of Alberta should also work towards conservation of water resources. This includes protection of the rivers and streams against withdrawals during the low flow periods, reduction or elimination of end pit lakes, minimization of the production of wet tailings, and protection of non-saline groundwater resources. The relevant authorities should adopt the use of high quality air standards to enhance the existence of the human race and other creatures. There should be targets for the reduction of the production of greenhouse gases hence managing negative effects on the global climate. There should be development of extensive penalty in the event of pollution to the environment (Brown 7-16). This would lead to development of preventive measures hence limitation of the pollution levels relevant to production of oil sands. Producers of the oil sands should invest in facilities… [read more]


Rising Lowering of Gas Prices Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Rising and Falling of Gasoline Prices

Since the American economy is dependent upon transportation -- and transportation, including the personal need to have automobiles, depends on fossil fuel / gasoline -- a great deal of attention is paid to the cost of gasoline to the business and the consumer. In times when gasoline prices spike to previously unheard of levels -- taking money out of the hands of consumers that they would normally use to purchase important goods and services their families need -- a great deal of discussion (including loud protests) is set in motion as to why the price of gasoline is so unpredictable and in many cases so unfair. This paper raises questions about the rise and fall of gasoline and presents answers from the literature without editorial comment. This paper also explains that there are global dynamics that impact gasoline prices, it explains why gasoline prices can change consumer behaviors regarding their grocery shopping habits, and it explains the link between gasoline prices and obesity.

Why do gas prices rise and fall so dramatically?

An article in the peer-reviewed publication, the Energy Journal (Kilian, 2010, p. 87) points out that important components to the complete understanding of why gasoline prices move up and down sometimes quickly have been ignored and hence are misunderstood by the public. First of all, there are solid reasons as to why gasoline prices can rise so quickly; these explanations have nothing to do with the cost of producing crude oil in Saudi Arabia or in the United States. When there is a refinery fire, a change in the "regulatory environment," or there are electrical outages caused by hurricanes or other natural disasters, refinery production can be shut down, which raise gasoline prices (Kilian, 88).

The author refers to the fact that when it comes to crude oil "…each demand and supply shock" has a "distinct dynamic" effect on both the price of crude oil and the price of gasoline (88). In 80% of the instances of gasoline price fluctuations worldwide "refining shocks" are the cause; and the other 20% of instances where gasoline prices increase dramatically is due to "oil-market specific demand shocks" (Kilian, 89). In the U.S. specifically, 54% of the "variation in the real price of gasoline" is caused by "demand shocks" in the crude oil markets. But what does that really mean?

When there is a reduction in global demand for crude oil, gasoline prices drop in the United States; and when there is a strong, urgent global demand for crude oil, and the oil-producing countries cannot meet the demand, prices of gasoline at the pump go up, sometimes to outrageously high prices (Kilian, 92).

What do gasoline prices have to do with grocery shopping?

There are good reasons why consumers should know not just why gasoline prices go higher but also they should know how family budgets can make adjustments to those higher gasoline prices. A peer-reviewed research piece in the Journal of Marketing (Ma, et al.,… [read more]


Chemistry &amp Pharmaceutical-Based Cancer Treatment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Chemistry

Pharmaceutical-based Cancer Treatment

Cancer treatment is extremely costly, frequently physically taxing and never guaranteed to work. However, as drug companies strive to improve conditions with regard to the latter two characteristics, we must face a worsening set of conditions with respect to the first characteristic. The focus of the present research proposal is on using newly focused ways of fighting cancer cells without attacking their healthy host cells, particularly with an emphasis on the genetic characteristics of breast cancer treatment. We proceed with the hypothesis that there is great opportunity for the improvement of treatment outcomes and financial growth potential for the drug company which successfully develops a breast-cancer cell-specific drug therapy.

As the research endeavor would demonstrate, there is today an ongoing discussion on addressing cancer through more refined and targeted approaches that has ultimately lead to the decision to explore genomic opportunities to address breast cancer. According to Singer (2011), "the growing understanding of cancer genetics has enabled researchers to develop an increasing number of drugs designed to zero in on cancer cells. Varma says Blueprint will use genomics and novel chemistry to develop such drugs in a more systematic way, targeting a broader range of molecular mistakes." (Singer, p. 1)

Today, there is an increasingly imperative to develop the kinds of cancer treatment drugs which either supplant or at least supplement the use of more aggressive radiation treatment strategies. According to the Economist (2011), the FDA has accelerated the pace by which cancer drug patents expire in order to make these costly treatment processes both more accessible and more affordable. As a result, the Economist reports, many drug companies have turned their attention to the development of more targeted and specific treatments for various types of cancer. This denotes a topic that is ripe for research and rife with opportunities for new discovery.

Topic 2: Corn Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel Source

The world's consumption of fossil fuels is leading us collectively to a point of critical mass. The combination of its negative impact on the natural environment and its finite availability have led us to collectively investigate a number of ways in which alternative fuel sources might be produced and distributed in its place. The emphasis on petroleum in supporting our way of life and the need to supplant this with a more sustainable, clean-burning and more accessible fuel source mutually drive the research proposal here. This asserts that though there is a need, beyond any reasonable doubt, for us to produce an efficient and sustainable alternative fuel method. However, the focus in this discussion on the alternative source known as corn ethanol will…… [read more]


BP Oil Disaster Impact Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

, On the Edge).

Tourism is the largest non-governmental sector of the Gulf Coast economy in Mississippi (National Commission 101). Many resorts, hotels and casinos saw canceled conventions and beach vacations which hurt business. The New Orleans Convention & Visitors Bureau received $5 million of $15 million in tourism-marketing money BP gave Louisiana to respond to the negative publicity from… [read more]


Business Economics - GM545 Academic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,040 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Therefore, further price of ethanol increases and so does the price of food.

Coming towards acute shortage of oranges in 2006, the result of this shortfall was disastrous. Florida is the nation's major source of domestically-produced orange juice, with about 95% of the state's crop squeezed. Domestic orange juice production has surpassed consumption only once in the past six years, according to the U.S.D.A (Sterk, 2010). When the orange sustained extreme damage in 2006, the demand and supply forces were already imbalanced, resulting in price increase. Secondly, the suppliers also held on to their stock which caused forced price hike. Therefore, in order to meet national demand, oranges were imported from Brazil. The cost of imported ones was higher than the domestically grown ones; therefore, an increase in price was obvious. All these factors lead to a tremendous price hike. This price increase didn't limited to the raw oranges only but was also transmitted into products using citrus, which is obtained mainly from orange.

Chapter 8, Question 14

In the long-run, a perfectly competitive firm can adjust the amount it uses of all factor inputs, including those that are fixed in the short-run. For example, in the long-run, the firm can adjust the size of its factory. In making these adjustments, the firm will seek to minimize its long-run average total cost. If, in the short-run, the firm is operating below its minimum efficient scale and experiencing economies of scale, in the long-run it can adjust its use of factor inputs so as to increase its output to the minimum efficient scale level (Sowell, 2000).

When the firm is at equilibrium in a normal competitive market and is earning normal profits in long-run. The firm will have its marginal costs equals to its marginal revenues and will be earning no profits in the long-run (the marginal revenue, marginal cost and average cost curve in the long-run, will be intercepting each other at a common point indicating no profits). Where the cost of the firm decreases by 5 units due to technology, the firm will enjoy profits in the short-run. This profit is equals to the difference between marginal revenue (which is a straight line in the long -- run) and long-run average total costs curve.

Where the firm enjoys profits in the short-run, it will increase its supply by the difference in order to enjoy economies of scale. In the long-run, the marginal cost per unit will decrease but so will the marginal revenue per unit as well. Hence, the firm will acquire new equilibrium with reduced average costs, marginal cost and marginal revenues.

References

Goettemoeller, J.A. (2007). Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and Sustainable Farming for Energy Independence (Brief and comprehensive account of the history, evolution and future of ethanol). Prairie Oak Publishing, Maryville, Missouri. ISBN 978-0-9786293-0-4.

Sowell, T. (2000). Basic Economics: A Citizen's Guide to the Economy

Sterk, R. (2010). Cold weather wreaks havoc on orange crop, markets

Orange juice futures volatile but large stocks… [read more]


1955 Edition of Oil and Gas Journal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (462 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … 1955 edition of Oil and Gas Journal, Reservoir Engineering is the "art of developing and producing oil and gas fluids in such a manner as to obtain a high economic recovery." However, in 1955 the world was very different in terms of sustainability, pollution, globalism, and most certainly, energy usage.

Essentially, the branch is concerned with using as much science as possible (geology, applied math, physics and chemistry) to figure out how to produce as much crude oil and natural gas from the environment. Of particular interest to this field, particularly in the 21st century, is producing accurate records and forecasts for use in reporting to regulatory bodies and production and mining companies. This is most important because globalization has increased the world's need for fuel, thus making it important to model reservoirs, forecast production and wells, and do economic modeling of financially viable resources.

Key points of Reservoir Engineering:

Determining Oil Volume -- through seismic testing, rock properties, water in area

Issues of Oil in Place vs. Recoverable Oil -- must be cost-effective to get oil out using current technology

Optimization of recovery vs. investment -- depends on soil type and what is necessary to do to extract usable product

Predicting recovery over time -- interesting to note, different mathematical techniques yield divergent answers

We see that one of the key issues surrounding reservoir engineering is how to…… [read more]


Production Engineering -- Summary the Petroleum Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (471 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Production Engineering -- Summary

The Petroleum Production System

In general, the petroleum production system must provider the means to fully exploit valuable energy reserves in widely variable natural environments in which they occur and to extract and transport their yield from the reservoir to the surface and thereafter, to production and refinement facilities. Three of the essential functions in that regard pertain to Inflow Performance, Well Stimulation, and Artificial Lift processes.

Inflow Performance

Inflow performance is typically represented by steady-state and radical flow reservoir schematics. The main objective of production engineering inflow performance is optimizing well productivity. Typically, variables such as temperature, depth, and the linear temperature profile are crucial. Calculations must account for various movement patterns, including bubble flow, chum flow, and slug flow rates.

Well Stimulation

The objective of well stimulation, in principle, is to maximize flow rate by reducing wellbore pressure. The Matrix Acidizing process is used to dissolve rock material, create new flow paths, maximize permeability in the wellbore area, and to remove mud and clay generated by drilling operations. Hydraulic Fracturing is useful in tight rock formations. It increases flow conduit by promoting permeability, increases wellbore area flow, and it provides the opportunity to employ what is known as the frac-pack control technique.

The pressures attributable to hydraulic fracturing cause tensile failure within the rock formation, producing fractures of a lineal nature. Those fractures are subsequently filled with…… [read more]


British Petroleum Brief Summary of Marketing Issues Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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British Petroleum

Brief Summary of Marketing Issues and Strategies

BP's many latent strengths, from being able to successfully explore and discover vast oil reserves to their ability to refine, sell and even speculate on other natural resources often is forgotten in light of their many ethical and environmental disasters and mistakes. During its initial founding the country was on the right track ethically, creating the first medical center in Iran to serve its pipeline workers, and many other acts of humanitarianism in the region. BP was also chosen by Winston Churchill to supply the Royal Navy with much of their fuels and oil during the second World War. As the company expanded into the Forties Field of Scotland, to Alaska, Algiers and throughout the Middle East, its lapses in ethics, exacerbated by nationalization of oil reserves in Middle East nations, led to an ethical meltdown. Bad decisions became commonplace. The Alaskan oil field disasters led to a total of over $500M in fines, and the residual effects in the environment still aren't cleaned up. The company is most known for the massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, where the $50M fine for violating the Clean Air Act was miniscule compared to the billions of dollars required to clean up the massive spill throughout the region. BP has a reputation for disregarding the needs and requirements of the shareholders while flaunting the rules they define in the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives as well.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

Excellent project management control and the ability to bring complex engineering tasks in under budget and on time

Excellent cost controls over complex engineering, exploration and drilling operations in the world's most remote countries. This is seen in the discovery of the…… [read more]


Green Chemistry Lab Report

Lab Report  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Green Chemistry Lesson Plan

Grade Level -- 8-10; some science background necessary in dealing with cellular respiration, acid, base, etc. (Note: can be extrapolated to higher grades)

"Biofuels" are transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel that are made from biomass materials. These fuels are usually blended with the petroleum fuels -- gasoline and diesel fuel, but they can also be used on their own. Using ethanol or biodiesel means we don't burn quite as much fossil fuel. Ethanol and biodiesel are usually more expensive than the fossil fuels that they replace, but they are also cleaner-burning fuels, producing fewer air pollutants. Unlike gasoline, pure ethanol is nontoxic and biodegradable; it quickly breaks down into harmless substances if spilled. However, chemical denaturants are added to fuel ethanol (in relatively small quantities) to make it undrinkable. Many of the denaturants that are used are toxic. Similar to gasoline, ethanol is a highly flammable liquid and must be transported carefully. Biodiesel is nontoxic and biodegradable. Compared to diesel fuel made from petroleum, biodiesel produces fewer air pollutants like particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, and air toxics. However, it does slightly increase emissions of nitrogen oxides. Biodiesel does not smell as bad as regular diesel fuel when it burns; sometimes biodiesel exhaust smells like French fries! Students will enjoy learning about environmentally safe energy, and gain a better understanding of the use of "green chemistry" in daily life (U.S. Energy Information Systems, 2009).

Who wrote this lesson -- name of all the people in your group?

Teacher Background Information: Students should have used the scientific method in previous student-created experiments. In addition, they should know lab safety rules. Students need also be familiar with photosynthesis and using either the Vernier Labpro or TI CBL equipment with either a computer or TI calculator. Equivalent products are acceptable.

Safety information: Preview experiment before beginning, never eat or drink in lab, never use mouth suction to extract chemicals, do not touch face, wear glasses/goggles, pull back long hair, wear aprons and gloves when required, wipe surfaces when done. (See: (Gerber, 2010).

Educational Goal: To understand: The environmental and economic benefits of ethanol as a fuel and to synthesize prior knowledge to a) maintain an experiment using the scientific method, b) understand the complex reactions between chemicals, and c) understand that green chemistry is an important tool in global sustainability.

Student Objectives: Students will:

Identify ethanol as a product of sugar fermentation

Know that photosynthesis produces complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)

Understand that hydrolysis is a technique used by chemists to break apart polysaccharides into saccharides that can be fermented

Demonstrate that starch can be hydrolyzed by salivary amylase

Demonstrate appropriate safe laboratory behavior and technique while mixing chemicals

Follow correct procedures for using a colorimeter

Document observations and data in an organized appropriate laboratory format

Analyze and interpret the results of the colorimetric data and observations

Communicate their results orally

Materials: (per lab group -3 students): Protective eye wear, vinyl gloves, lab apron, graduated cylinder, 250 ml beaker,… [read more]


Disasters Three Mile Island Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,239 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

The first memo is a rather straightforward description of the problem and while it states that "Engineers have not yet determined the cause of the problem," (Cook) it does go on to describe possible causes for the O-ring failures. These include the putty used to seal the O-rings, the secondary O-ring itself, or "unidentified, assembly procedures." (Cook) But this memo clearly states that "flight safety has been and is still being compromised by potential failure of the seals." (Cook)

Indicating the focus of the directors of the program, the memo then delves into the potential impact on the program's budget and flight rate. Without even discovering the cause of the problem, the directors are discussing their budget and the effect of this problem on it. One incriminating quote in the memo states "the impact on the FY 1987-8 budget could be immense." (Cook) It is absolutely clear that the most important aspect of the problem of O-ring seal leakage was the potential financial problems associated with it and the impact of the number of flights scheduled.

The second memo responds to the first by describing 12 instances of in-flight O-ring erosion, and gives the "prime suspect" for the cause: the new type of putty used to seal the O-ring. The memo also blames the EPA for the lack of proper putty as the company that made the original putty went out of business due to EPA regulation on the use of asbestos. The memo then indicates that the directors decided that the cheapest solution was the best way to identify the problem. In other words they chose to blame the failure of the O-rings on the problem that had the least expensive and relatively easiest way to fix; new putty. (Davids)

Even though the program directors had decided that the putty was the main cause of the problems, the writer of the memo, Irv Davids, expresses his doubts about it. He states that a decision as to what will be done "is planned to be made this week. I have reservations about doing it…" (Davids) He also went on to note that there are some personnel do not believe that the putty is the source of the holes in the O-ring seals, but that "hot gasses may be leaking through the seal and causing a hole track in the putty." (Davids) In a final warning, Davids states that since the putty has yet to be definitively proven to be the cause of the O-ring seal leakage, "I would certainly question the wisdom of removing it..." (Davids)

Whether the Challenger disaster was caused by the failure of the O-ring, or the putty that was supposed to seal it, the Challenger should never have been launched until a definitive answer was discovered. Irv Davids admits in "Memo 2" that he has reservations about making the decision; this is because he does not know the exact cause of the problem. But "Memo 1" clearly demonstrates that the program directors were mostly concerned with… [read more]


Radioactive Waste Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

(Rechard, 1999, pp. 737 -- 807) (Helton, 1993, pp. 327 -- 367)

Low Level -- Low level waste is considered to be those bi products from: power plants, research, academic and medical facilities that have low traces of radiation. In general, this type of rubbish has containments that have: a low after life or smaller concentrations of other materials. (Rechard, 1999, pp. 737 -- 807) (Helton, 1993, pp. 327 -- 367)

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material -- This kind of waste is considered to be those nuclear materials that are found naturally throughout nature. There is no influence on the levels of radiation from the activities of humans. (Rechard, 1999, pp. 737 -- 807) (Helton, 1993, pp. 327 -- 367)

Reactor -- This is considered to be high level waste that was exposed to the nuclear fuel rods. That is used during the production of electricity. In general, the removal of this kind of waste involves: using specials remote control tools and devices to prevent exposure to high levels of radiation. (Rechard, 1999, pp. 737 -- 807) (Helton, 1993, pp. 327 -- 367)

Clearly, there are a wide variety of classifications that are used in determining the levels of radioactivity in nuclear waste. The different areas that were summarized include: high level, transuarnic, by product, low level, naturally occurring and reactor waste. These classifications are important, because they are highlighting the challenges that a number of organizations will face when trying to dispose of radioactive waste. As, they are forced to follow the different safety procedures during: the removal…… [read more]


Shell Global Shell's Global Positioning Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Changes in demand are caused by consumers travelling more, such as holiday season. Consumers are purchasing bigger vehicles that are utilizing more gasoline.

Elasticity and Inelasticity of Shell Global

Gasoline in itself is an inelastic product. There are currently no substitutes available for gasoline. Shell Global the organization is elastic in most part of the world since there are other providers of gasoline available to consumers. Consumers can choose to utilize other gasoline companies; however they may not be able to choose an alternative product. Gasoline is a necessity for most people, oil is an essential part of our daily lives and that is why it is inelastic.

Competitive Structure

Shell Global and the other leading companies that operate in the gasoline industry operate under an oligopoly market structure. These handfuls of companies are able to influence the price of gas, and therefore can directly affect the position of the competitors (Wang, 2009). Shell's main competitors are Exxon Mobil and BP. These oligopolies had high barriers for entry, they have strong control over pricing, and they spend a significant amount of money on advertising to eliminate competitors. Since there is an oligopoly in the gasoline industry and there are a handful of companies involved in this competitive market structure, each company is aware of what the competitor is doing. These companies do not lower prices in fear of a price war with the competitors. Increasing prices would not work either, since other companies will not follow upward pricing strategies. These oil companies will typically follow the market pattern for oil prices.

References

Shell (2010). About Shell. Retrieved from http://www.shell.com/home/content/aboutshell/

Wang, Z. (2009). Strategy in Oligopoly Pricing: Evidence from Gasoline Price Cycles before and under a Timing Regulation. Journal of Political…… [read more]


Production and Operations Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Third, as the presentation from Marathon indicates, there are additional oil reserves throughout Alaska and non-OPEC nations as well. The oil companies need to continue building out exploration efforts in these regions to further gain a hedge against the pricing OPEC typically uses as a means to control their cartel. The long-term goal needs to be independence from OPEC and self-sufficiency for the U.S. including support in the form of tax breaks for R&D and exploration investing. The geo-political implications of oil production are too great for the U.S. government to ignore, and the inclusion of tax incentives is critical for keeping the country free from complete control of OPEC. The oil companies, rather than pushing the government to open up domestic deep water drilling, need to instead concentrate on finding new reserves and technologies.

References

Burak Kazaz. (2004). Production Planning Under Yield and Demand Uncertainty with Yield-Dependent Cost and Price. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 6(3), 209-224.

Maethee Mekaroonreung, & Andrew L. Johnson. (2010). Estimating the efficiency of American petroleum refineries under varying assumptions of the disposability of bad outputs. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 4(3), 356-398.

Jawad Raza, & Jayantha P. Liyanage. (2009). Application of intelligent technique to identify hidden abnormalities in a system: A case study from oil export pumps from an offshore oil production facility. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 15(2), 221-235.

Varma, S., & Deshmukh, S.. (2009). Evaluating Petroleum…… [read more]


Persian Gulf War Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,297 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. economy greater extent than a stochastic growth model (which assumes a perfectly competitive product market).

Finn (2000) shows that perfectly competitive model can also explain the effect of oil price shocks. He uses the concept of utilization rates for productive capital. The main idea of his model comes from the relationship between energy usage and capital services. Specifically, energy… [read more]


Marathon Oil's Product Process Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,234 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Prohibiting competition from entering the market has served the oil industry well in past generations and this trend will most likely be followed if the market reacts in this seemingly paradoxical manner.

Question 3

In order to protect its profits during a production decrease of 10%, Marathon Oil should investigate and explore new opportunities to sustaining competitive advantage within this global industry. Production decreases are often hard to predict due to the varying conditions of the surfacing of oil. Besides the complexities in political and social organizations, oil tends to pop up all around the globe and disappear simultaneously in other sections. New oil discoveries around the North Pole and in different other areas in South America tend to shake and unnerve traditional oil supplies and their accompanying systems as seen in the Middle East and in America.

If oil production slips and Marathon oil falls in jeopardy of losing a competitive edge, I would recommend becoming more flexible in its approach. Eliminating human error, and human labor when possible seems to lessen the risk and responsibility of providing back into the community. The cost of human resources is large and dominating to companies wishing to exploit profits to their best abilities. Mechanically or robotically automating all systems within Marathon Oil would serve to protect against such unpredictable behavior that is evident in running a large corporation. While some tasks will never be able to be conducted other than by humans, it is important to continually look for new ways to efficiently reduce unpredictable behavior and risk within any system or way of thinking.

Question 4

Almost one year ago in June, President Obama imposed a six-month deep water drilling moratorium around his responsible territories. The impact of deep water drilling and it's relationship to gas prices is currently being understood in the present. Gas prices today are extremely high and threatened to exceed previous records with inflation added examination of the numbers. Is this a cause of or a result of where we attain our oil? America does in fact receive most of its oil from domestic shores and land. Our dependence on foreign oil is relatively small compared to Europe and other parts of the world. Europe tends to pay more for its oil and gasoline as well signifying a relationship to the advantages of not having to import large amounts of oil. Therefore, putting a moratorium on accumulating a resource in the cheapest and most efficient manner will definitely have a negative impact on the market at least from a consumer of oil's point-of-view.

High oil prices serve Marathon Oil and competitors only to a point. It is very possible that the price of oil becomes so high that it becomes impossible to afford and not worth the cost to extract it out of the earth. It is important to remember to keep the game going and not to eliminate what keeps it going. Politicizing the oil industry does not serve its best interests all the time.… [read more]


International Business Strategy Critically Analyze the Macro Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

International Business Strategy

Critically analyze the macro environmental and competitive conditions of the oil and gas industry

Oil and gas industry is one of the most important industries in the world today because of the huge impact it has on people, their governments, economy and the growth and development of the entire world at large. Though this is a powerful… [read more]


Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  29 pages (12,170 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 19

SAMPLE TEXT:

Oil

To what extent would the Nigerian local content law improve capacity building in the oil and gas sector?

Nigeria local content

To what extent would the Nigerian local content law improves capacity build in the oil and gas sector?

A rather simple definition of the term local content is; "…the use of local skills and materials in constructing and/or… [read more]


Gasoline Prices on the Rise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Gasoline Prices on the Rise

The modern day society grows more and more dependent on gas and gas-based products. And despite the evolutions which have marked the research community, fact remains that alternative sources of fuel remain unsustainable at a large scale. The need to assess the price evolution of the gasoline is as such linked to the life quality of individuals across the globe.

At a more specific level, the demand for oil is known as being inelastic. This particularly means that a change in the demand or supply of oil -- be it as small a change as possible -- would generate a tremendous change in the price. For instance, it is possible for an increase in the demand for oil by 5 per cent to generate a 10 per cent -- or even higher -- increase in the price of oil.

The demand for a study focused on the historic evolution of gasoline prices is as such necessary in order to assess its potential impacts on the quality of human life. Additionally, such a study is even more so relevant and intriguing today, when the revolutions and civil wars in Egypt, Libya and other countries in the region impact the international price of oil.

2. Technical approach

The scope of the current study is that of assessing the evolution of gasoline prices. In order to attain this objective, the statistical method would be applied as follows:

Data would be collected from various sources

The information collected would be integrated in excel tables

The information collected would be used to create charts to explain the evolution of gasoline prices

Data from other sources would be collected and used to explain the past evolution of the gasoline prices.

3. Results and conclusion

The Results and conclusion section is constructed onto four specific subsections, each detailing specific issues of the research conducted. These four subsections refer to the following:

The computer output

The charts

The P-value analysis

The study limitations

3.1. The computer output

The computer output is represented by the excel table annexed to the project. It represents information collected on the gasoline prices practiced within the United States starting with the 3rd of January 2011 and ending with the 21st of February 2011. The information is structured on the four categories of gasoline, namely all grades, midgrade, premium and regular. The data is also structured on the vast regions of the North American country. For purposes of computation simplicity, the data to be processed refers to the entire United States, without consideration to region. This compromise does not raise problems since trends and prices are similar across the entire country and no major differences are observable state wide.

In this order of ideas, the second component of the computer output is represented by the charts which are created to reveal the evolution of the gasoline prices across the United States from the 3rd of January 2011 through the 21st of February 2011. These charts are revealed below:

As… [read more]


Mackenzie Valley Region the River Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,029 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13

SAMPLE TEXT:

During December 2004, the 21-page long list of flaws in the MGP EIS was released by the Joint Review Panel (Canadian Dimension, 2004).

Drivers of change in the Mackenzie Valley Region

It was in the 1970s when the first gas pipeline project was proposed for the Mackenzie Valley. It succeeded the exploration of considerable amount of gas and oil in… [read more]


Science Heat Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Science

Heat

How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter?

Heat transfer is a course by which internal energy from one matter transfers to another matter. Thermodynamics is the study of heat transfer and the alterations that come from it. Under the kinetic theory, the internal energy of a material is created from the movement of individual atoms or molecules. Heat energy is the type of energy which transmits this energy from one body or system to another. This heat transfer can happen in a variety of ways:

Conduction takes place when heat flows through a heated solid.

Convection is when heated particles transfer heat to another substance, such as cooking something in boiling water.

Radiation is when heat is transferred through electromagnetic waves, like from the sun. Radiation can transfer heat through empty space, while the other two ways necessitate some form of matter-on-matter contact for the transfer (Jones, 2011).

What is heat?

Heat is energy transferred from one body or thermodynamic system to another due to thermal contact when the systems are at dissimilar temperatures. It is also frequently described as the procedure of transfer of energy amid physical entities. In this account, it is an energy transfer to the body in any other way than due to work carried out on the body (Heat, n.d.).

What is temperature?

Temperature is a gauge of the average heat or thermal energy of the particles in a matter. Since it is an average amount, it does not rely on the amount of particles in an object. In that notion, it does not depend on the dimension of it (What is Temperature, n.d.).

What is the relationship between heat and temperature?

Temperature is the property of a structure, which establishes whether or not heat is moved to or from an object. In a qualitative way, temperature can be categorized as the resolve of the object's sense of warmth or coldness (Sullivan and Edmondson, 2008).

How are they different?

Temperature is measured in Kelvin degrees, and is a rate that is directly comparative to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a matter. Temperature is not energy; it is a figure comparative to a type of energy. Heat, conversely, is real energy measured in Joules or other energy divisions. Heat is a measurement of a quantity of the energy in a matter. When one adds heat to a matter, they are adding energy to the matter. This added heat or energy is typically articulated as an augment in the kinetic energies of the molecules of the matter. If the heat energy is utilized to alter the state of the matter, like by melting it, then the extra energy is utilized to break the bonds amid the molecules rather than altering their kinetic energy (Heat and Temperature, n.d).

What are the various properties of a substance that determine its heat capacity?

A material's heat capability is a measure of how much energy must be traded among…… [read more]

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