"Energy / Power" Essays

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Libor Scandal Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  4 pages (1,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Libor Scandal

The London Interbank Offered Rate, or Libor for short, is a business crime that was perpetrated by many players and over many years. No one seems exactly sure when firms began to collude to manipulate the market rate at the center of this scandal, but some reports show these activities beginning in 2003 or earlier (McBride, Alessi, & Sergie, 2015). The Libor represents a benchmark interest rate that banks lend to each other on the London interbank market which was calculated daily and determined by a panel of banks consisting of eleven and eighteen individual organizations depending on the currency being calculated. The Libor rate was considered to be the most relied upon global benchmark for determining an amount of interest that was used in determining short-term transactions. For example, hundreds of trillions of dollars in securities and loans are based upon the Libor published rate which included everything from government and corporate debt to auto, student, and mortgages (McBride, Alessi, & Sergie, 2015).

The Libor rate was manipulated upwards or downwards for a variety of different reasons. Barclays reportedly first manipulated Libor during the global economic upswing of 2005-2007 so that its traders could make profits on derivatives pegged to the base rate; during this time the rate was based upon the rate that would benefit some swap traders as opposed to representing the rates that the banks would actually pay to borrow money. Traders at Barclays would coordinate with other banks to alter the daily rate. During the global financial crisis the rates were manipulated for different purposes. Barclays manipulated Libor downward by telling Libor calculators that it could borrow money at relatively inexpensive rates to make the bank appear less risky and insulate itself (McBride, Alessi, & Sergie, 2015).

Part II

The fraud triangle is a model that was developed for understanding why fraudulent behaviors can occur in organizations. One of the factors is pressure. This deals with the financial motivation for the fraud to take place. In the Libor scandal, there were different motivations present depending on the type of manipulation being made. For example, the pressure was undoubtedly personal financial-based when individual investors wanted to increase their returns by manipulating the rates. However, during the financial crisis, the individual's want to make their banks appear more stable through this turbulent time. Therefore, different types of pressures were present at different times throughout the duration of this lengthy scandal.

Figure 1 - The Fraud Triangle (ACFE, N.d.)

Another factor is opportunity. There was not one bank alone that really had the opportunity to manipulate the rates since the rates were based on multiple banks. Furthermore, the highest and lowest rates published were left out of the calculations to attempt to exclude any potential outliers in the system. Therefore, many banks representatives had to work together to be able to effectively manipulate the rate. However, since many of these individuals worked together daily a close knit network evolved in which a group of people effectively… [read more]


Analyzing the Discontinuation Prisons as Primary Form of Punishment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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¶ … discontinuing prisons as basic forms of punishing offenders in the U.S.A.

Although getting tougher to solve crime is the currency among politicians and popular press, modern day does not support liberalism and rehabilitation as the choice correctional philosophies. The rhetoric is based on two fallacies, i.e. that we aren't sufficiently tough. This is ironical because the U.S. is… [read more]


Application of Social Cognitive Career Theory on Juveniles in Gangs Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (666 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Social Cognitive Career Theory Use on Juveniles in Gangs

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) is relatively new and focuses on explaining the three inter-related components of career development. In essence, this relatively new theory explains the development of basic educational and career choices, the manner in which academic and career choices are made, and how educational and career success is achieved. This theory entails several concepts like environmental factors, abilities, values, and interests that are in earlier career theories and have proven to be significant in career development. Since its development, the theory has been applied in different settings and systems such as the juvenile justice system given its explanation of career development.

History of SCCT

Social Cognitive Career Theory is a relatively new theory that was developed in 1994 by Steven D. Brown, Robert W. Lent, and Gail Hackett. This theory was developed based on the general social cognitive theory by Albert Bandura, which was an influential theory regarding motivational and cognitive procedures (Leung, 2008, p.126). The theorists developed this concept based on the expansion of the general social cognitive theory to many areas of psychosocial functioning including educational performance. This theory is developed based on three variables that are intricately linked i.e. self-efficacy beliefs, goals, and outcome expectations. These three variables act as the building block of this theory and also play an important role in its model of development of academic and vocational interest, decision making, and achievement of performance. Generally, interest in career-related activities is regarded as a by-product of self-efficacy beliefs, goals, and outcome expectations.

Benefits of SCCT

One of the major benefits of Social Cognitive Career Theory is its explanation of how people develop career interests, how they establish vocational goals, how they achieve job satisfaction, and how they persist in work environments. Secondly, this theory is beneficial in the sense that it highlights the important role of cognitive, vivid, and self-reflective procedures in change and human adaptation. The other benefits include provision of opportunities to develop…… [read more]


Looking Into Gangs in the U S Prisons Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Gangs in the U.S. Prisons

Who are they?

The definition of 'prison gangs' according to Lyman (1989) is a group that operates in prisons as a self-maintained criminal unit, comprising of a selected bunch of prisoners having a fixed, ordered command chain and regulated by a set standard of conduct. These gangs typically operate covertly. One of its objectives is… [read more]


Occupational Socialization in Criminal Justice Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … criminal justice managers be concerned with the personal aspects of employees' lives?

The patterns and processes of occupational socialization require some degree of awareness about the personal aspects of employees' lives. To a degree, criminal justice managers can be concerned with the personal aspects of employees' lives, but not to the degree to which that concern becomes intrusive or unnecessary. Officers have a right to privacy, and their personal lives are not necessarily going to affect their behavior or performance in the workforce. However, illegal or unethical behavior outside of the workplace environment can reflect on the organization as a whole. In other words, employees do represent their organizations and must do so with integrity even when they are not on the job. For this reason, managers can be concerned with those personal aspects of employees' lives that might have a bearing on officer integrity.

Criminal justice managers also need to be aware of the fact that their employees' personal lives do impact their job performance. Providing a work-life balance for employees can ensure productivity and reduces absenteeism as well as turnover. "People and how they are managed are keys to organizational success," (Veneziano, 2010, p. 38). As the "largest expenditure" in the organization, it becomes more critical than ever before to retain officers that have been put through costly training and prevent the losses linked to absenteeism, low performance due to personal issues interfering with work, and turnover (Veneziano, 2010, p. 38). To the degree to which employees are considered investments directly responsible for the functioning of the organization, managers should be concerned with personal aspects of their employees' lives.

Finally, concern with the personal aspects of employees' lives depends largely on the role of the employee within the organization. High profile employees might be under media scrutiny, which would demand much more interest in maintaining consistency and integrity in personal and professional sectors. Otherwise, employees have a right to expect that their private lives will not have a bearing on how they are perceived or treated by the organization and its leaders. Employees' personal lives might also have a bearing on their ability to carry out specific tasks, and may make some employees uniquely eligible or ineligible for certain key positions. Therefore, it is often important for managers and leaders to pay attention to some aspects of their employees' personal lives.

2. Will this concern necessarily translate into effective leadership in that organization?

Effective leadership does depend on recognizing the value of all employees. Recognizing employee value in turn demands that leaders respect the work-life balance and encourage their employees to flourish in all areas of…… [read more]


Proper Place of Prisons in the Modern U S Criminal Justice System Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (2,380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Criminal Justice -- Prisons -- Discontinuing Prisons

In its simplest sense, a prison is merely a building where people are kept as punishment for a crime. However, in American jurisprudence, a prison is the primary form of punishment with the purpose of deterring criminals from committing future crimes. Experience and studies have shown that the use of prisons as a… [read more]


White Collar Crime and Their Cost Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,195 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … White-Collar Crime

The definition of white-collar crime depends on the context within which the individual places it. This has resulted in the existences of an array of descriptions that attempt to describe this concept. However, there is a universally accepted aspect for it to assume a general definition. According to Sage Publication (2010, p. 38), white color crime is the offense that a respectable or a high social status individual commits in his/her occupation. Consequently, this broad description makes it relatively easier to deduce the definition of the term targeting specific contexts such a health care, computers, and justice among others. White-collar crime is also associated with some other areas where it is dominant. This is due to the data available ranking these key areas as some of the most affected by this kind of crime. For example, there are the public sector, the financial world, health, and environment. Taking a case like the one prevalent in the public sector in relation to white-collar crimes, fraud in departments such as those concerned with tax had a profound impact on the revenue raised by the government. Such crimes affect the resources that would have otherwise been committed to public services such as the improvement of the healthcare, education and the general welfare of the citizens. Issues such as corruption disregard the financial regulations, the citizens' environment, health, and safety in their workplaces, and the consumer affairs, just to mention a few (Croall, 2001, p. 5). Evidently, the consequences of white-collar crimes affect individuals as well as and communities, though, in some cases, indirectly. Among others, communities experience societal economic losses while individual go through physical harm, emotional consequences, and economic losses.

Consequences/Costs Associated with White-collar Crime

Individual Economic Losses

The individual economic losses refer to the costs that one incurs, due to the impact of white-collar crimes. According to Sage Publication (2010, p. 48), studies have identified that they are even more than those that are a result of the conventional crimes. For instance, in a study that the journal reports comparing white-collar crimes and three other categories of crime assert that the impact of white-collar crimes to the individual economic losses is indeed higher than usual crimes. According to the report, embezzlement leads to the loss of approximately $1,000,000, which is several times those that come as a result of the three other categories, convenience store robbery, street/highway robbery, and gas station robbery, combined. The statistics provided for the other crime categories indicate a significant gap that reflects the seriousness of the white-collar crime. The gas station robbery losses amounts to $1, 007, the convenience store $712 and the street/highway robbery $1,032 (Sage Publication, 2010, p. 48). The explanation to this difference is due to the impact a small group of white-collar criminals can cause to the economy of any context. Additionally, most white-collar offenders have an association with the dollar. The study indicates 27-white-collar-criminals as being responsible for a $2,494,309 losses. This translates to a responsibility for… [read more]


Analyzing Criminal Justice Professional Interview

Interview  |  5 pages (1,595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Criminal Justice Professional

How do certain individuals choose to commit a crime? Do they actually take into consideration the advantages as well as the dangers involved? Why do certain individuals commit crimes in spite of the known repercussions? Why are other individuals never involved in crimes, regardless of how desperate their situation is? Criminology refers to the study of crime… [read more]


Elections and Campaign Contributions a Problem of Justice Article Critique

Article Critique  |  4 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … Chief Justice Jefferson explores the reasons for electing judges and for appointing them. He gives pros and cons for each and concludes by suggesting that appointing judges is a worthwhile course but that there are lessons to be learned from elected judges, pertaining to the ways in which they reach out to various entities, represent the community, and work to reform the justice system. From a Christian perspective, both elected and appointed judges can be valued, so long as they work to defend the law and act justly and serve the people. The Old Testament discusses the appointing of judges for the purposes of leading the people of God, but there is no indication that appointment cannot come by way of a voting process. The main issue is that judges not be corrupted by bribes, which is a risk primarily mitigated by establishing judicial appointments.

Reform from Within

The criminal justice issues raised in the article by Chief Justice Wallace Jefferson (2010) pertain to the soliciting of campaign funds by judges themselves and how this can pervert the democratic process and corrupt the judicial system (for example, when a judge calls a lawyer to request financial support for the upcoming election, the lawyer will more than likely commit to funding the judge's campaign to avoid incurring the judge's displeasure). As Chief Justice Jefferson points out, "the public complains that donating money to judges corrupts the integrity of the judicial system" (Jeffereson, 2010, p. 626).

Part of the problem is that in a democratic society, voters want the ability to elect their judges rather than see them appointed. Yet the argument that Jefferson makes is that voters rarely know enough about the judges to be able to make a good, fair and balanced decision. Instead, they are swayed one way or another by campaigning, which is so heavily influenced by money (Gold, Narayanswamy, Cameron, 2016; Johnson, 2016).

The solution that Jefferson (2010) identifies is that of Justice O'Connor, who holds that "by adopting a system in which the state's governor appoints a judge from an independent commission's list" the problem of campaign financing and judicial corruption can be mitigated (p. 628). Jefferson also points out the difference between an elected judge and an appointed judge when it comes to serving a part in the shaping of legislature by "illuminating inadequacies in the justice system" (Jefferson, 2010, p. 629) via State of the Judiciary Addresses. During such addresses, Chief Justices generally highlight progress made in the court systems and where obstacles remain. An elected judge in this capacity "can significantly advance legitimate aims of the judiciary" by engaging politicians and speaking for the voting public, a characteristic which appointed judges tend to lack (Jefferson, 2010, p. 630). Thus, Jefferson also makes an argument for why electing judges can be a good for the criminal justice system: they can serve to better reform the criminal justice system from the judicial side of the system by representing the will of the people… [read more]


Why People Stay in Abusive Relationships Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,481 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Role of Aggression in Society

Aggressive behavior comes in various forms and there are different causative factors to such behavior and it can be expressed to the people surrounding the individual or to the individual himself. There are various roles that aggression generally plays in the society as discussed herein.

There are various form of aggression, the first being the… [read more]


Defining the Criminal Theorist and Applications Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Criminology

The basic tenets and assumptions of critical criminology may be defined and described as a field in which the scientific method is utilized along with "biological, psychological, sociological, and critical methods" to examine the nature of crime in all its various contexts and consequential forms (Woods, 2014, p. 16). As society changes so too does its perspective and therefore its definitions of things such as crime. What used to be considered criminal or immoral by a previous generation is not quite viewed the same way by a later generation -- and vice versa. There is a fluctuation of perception and this can have an effect on the way that crimes are reported, how they are viewed, how society adopts its legislation, etc. Such a theory suggests the quantitative data showing a decrease in crime rates may have a qualitative explanation that is rooted in the shifting of societal attitudes.

For this reason, critical criminology adopts a conflict perspective, such as Queer Theory or Feminist Theory in order to eradicate mistaken notions about effects in criminological perspectives. Thus, critical criminology is based on the tenet that crime is generated in a nature that is itself defined by inequalities within the larger social framework. Critical criminology sets about understanding these inequalities from the various conflict perspectives that exist. Critical criminology's main assumption is that laws, like crime, are connected to the self-perpetuating system of inequalities that arise as a result of social injustices. Essentially and in its broadest and most general sense, critical criminology focuses on the context of criminal actions, by locating them within the mainstream and underground or sub-cultural contexts that might otherwise go ignored by mainstream theorists. Thus, critical criminology helps to shed an alternate light on the subject of crime.

A public order crime is something that critical criminology focuses on. It is a…… [read more]


Different Types of Criminal Defenses Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Criminal Defenses

There are four main defenses that our legal system recognizes. These are innocence, self-defence, insanity and procedural. They would be used when they are applicable. Innocence is a defense that should be used when the person is innocent. There are instances where a legal team might prefer to plead innocence when it is untrue, for example when there is a lack of evidence. This would place the burden of proof on the prosecution to bring about a conviction on the basis of the evidence that they have.

Self-defence is often used when the person has clearly committed the act in question, and seeks to avoid criminal culpability for the act. Typically, self-defence reflects a situation where the victim is the one who initiated or exacerbated the situation that led to the crime in question. A person, when faced with such provocations, might find that that he or she must defend themselves, and in doing so would bring harm to the other party.…… [read more]


How to Reduce Substance Abuse in Prison Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (725 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Treating Substance Abuse in Prison: How to Decrease Drug Dependency on the Inside

I chose this topic because it concerns me that a large number of crimes are drug-related crimes, and because the vast majority of inmates (85%) are what CASA (2015) calls "substance involved," regardless of the nature of the crimes they had committed. This means that drug use is strongly correlated with criminal behavior, but even more importantly, next to nothing is being done about it. CASA (2010) found that as many as 65% of inmates meet the actual medical criteria for addiction but that only 11% of them receive any treatment at all. Given the high rates of recidivism and the already high rates of crime, it would seem like investing in proper drug treatment programs in prison facilities might be a good idea.

As I embark on this research I will narrow my focus to include data from specific prisons. I would like to know if there are any model prisons providing inmates with quality treatment interventions. I would also like to know if there are any communities in the United States using drug treatment as an alternative to incarceration, because many drug-related crimes are nonviolent in nature and do not necessarily warrant incarceration at all. I believe that keeping people at home or in their communities will facilitate rehabilitation and reduce rates of recidivism. Therefore, community drug prevention programs and drug rehabilitation programs might help to reduce overall rates of incarceration while also making communities stronger and healthier.

As exploratory research, I would like to first discover whether there are any community-based substance abuse programs that have effectively reduced rates of incarceration in that community. I would also like to discover whether there are any prison-based substance abuse programs that have successfully reduced recidivism and relapse rates. Given the dearth of effective programs that are being implemented either inside penal institutions or in the community, I would also like to make some suggestions as to (a) why it would be cost-effective to design both community-based and prison-based treatment programs that are integrated and comprehensive; and (b) what these programs might look like, the services they will provide,…… [read more]


Four Questions About Public Policy Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,375 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Distinguish between unplanned and planned change and then discuss the 7 stage model for planned change.

Change is inevitable, and organizations can either change in a planned or unplanned way. Planned change is deliberate: as when senior management decides on a shift in core values or goals and alters the structure of the organization in order to achieve those goals. Unplanned change occurs when an external stimulus such as a sudden boon or crisis upsets the status quo. Criminal justice organizations ideally plan for change, and a seven-stage model provides an ideal method for visualizing goals and implementing a change-oriented solution.

The seven stages of change that can suit a criminal justice organization include analysis, goal setting, program design, action plan development, implementation plan, evaluation of outcomes, and ultimately, initiating the proposed new design or program (Welsh & Harris, 1999). Analysis of the situation allows the second stage to naturally emerge, as goals need to reflect the need to tackle an identified problem or concern. Goals should be clearly outlined to avoid problems later with implementation of the change.

To effectively plan for change, the criminal justice organization should identify the underlying reasons for the policy change and then develop an action plan based on evidence. The plan for monitoring the program or policy ensures that adequate steps are taken to measure outcomes and ensure that the proposed changes are working.

All elements of the seven stage model can be applied to unplanned change as well as planned change. When responding to a crisis, the criminal justice organization can analyze the problem, set goals, and develop and implement an action plan. However, it is better to focus on incremental changes that reflect current public policy than to be taken unawares by external crises.

Both planned and unplanned changes are necessary for organizational growth. In both cases, change is challenging but can be ultimately beneficial for any organization. Criminal justice organizations can apply the seven stage model to mitigate problems of surprise change or effectively meet future goals.

References

Welsh, W.N. & Harris, P.W. (1999). Criminal Justice Policy and Planning. Anderson.

2. Discuss the levels of analysis used when looking for a cause to a problem. Apply these levels to the crimes of gang violence.

In criminal justice and other social sciences, three levels of analysis can be used to better understand an issue or problem. Those three levels of analysis include the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels. Applied to crimes of gang violence, each of these levels can reveal different potential causes and solutions.

The micro level of analysis frames a criminal justice problem more in terms of psychological variables than sociological variables. Applied to a case of gang violence, the micro level of analysis would help show why some adolescents join gangs while other members of the same family do not. The cognitive factors underlying decisions to commit crimes would be the focus.

If applying meso-level analysis to gang related violence, the researcher would look more to community and family… [read more]


Pros and Cons of Capital Punishment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (3,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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¶ … Capital Punishment Should Be Abolished in the United States

You have heard the law that says the punishment must match the injury: 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' -- Matthew 5:38

Thou shalt not kill. -- Exodus 20:13

The epigraphs above make it clear that even the Holy Bible has vastly different things… [read more]


Critique of Justice System Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … criminal justice system" is actually comprised of several sometimes conflicting components. On the ground, you have the law enforcement, the officers who are responsible for making arrests and bringing the law directly to the people. You also have the courts, and both the defense and the prosecution. The courts involve the judges, who preside over each of the cases, and the juries, who are selected randomly from the population. The purpose of the defense is to argue for the innocence of the suspect while protecting his or her rights. The purpose of the prosecution is to prove the subject's guilt and ensure that they are then punished for any crimes they might have committed. And finally, you have the correctional facilities which manage the rehabilitation of offenders. Each of these components ideally works with the others in order to ensure that society runs smoothly and criminal offenses are dealt with effectively.

One obvious conflict is that between the defense and the prosecution. There are those whose job is specifically to protect the rights and demonstrate the innocence of a suspect, while there are those whose purpose is specifically to prove their guilt and have them punished. The courts mediate these two perspectives, with the judge and jury taking an impartial stance and considering the evidence offered. In this way, the opposition between defense and prosecution is sublated through the judicial system.

While the United States represents less than 5% of the world's population, it contains over 20% of its prison population. Nearly one percent of America's population is in prison. If the purpose of the criminal justice system is to…… [read more]


Short Essays Criminal Justice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … criminal justice system involves in each case several stages. After the initial crime is committed, you have the investigation, booking, hearing, arraignment, trial, sentencing, appeal, corrections, and release. Each of these stages is necessary to ensure that in as many cases as possible, the innocent are not punished while the guilty are. Two perspectives complement one another in the stages of the criminal justice system: the due process perspective and the crime control perspective. The former ensures that nobody has their rights violated and that no innocent person is unduly punished, while the latter is focused on ensuring that the guilty are punished and on deterring people from committing crimes. It might also be said that the due process perspective is focused on individuals and their rights, while the crime control perspective is focused on the greater good and the running smoothly of society.

The trial and appeal are particularly important from the due process perspective. One problem with this system is that many poor people who are accused of crimes don't have the resources to deal effectively with a trial. As a result, they are likely to take a plea bargain, thereby admitting their guilt, whether or not they actually committed a crime. Those who accept a plea bargain also give up their right to an appeal. Appeals allow people the chance to demonstrate that a court violated proper procedure during their trial, leading them to be unjustly found guilty. Because poorer people are statistically more likely to be accused of committing a crime, this is obviously a major problem. But a larger problem is the gulf between constitutional mandate and actual result with trials. Langbein (2000) uses strong language to critique the reality: "All' is not a word that constitution-makers use lightly. The drafters of the Sixth Amendment used it and meant it." Article III of the Constitution says the same thing: "The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury." Today in the United States, "[i]n place of 'all,' a more accurate term to describe…… [read more]


Guide for Implementing Body Cameras for Police Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,205 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … police officers using body cameras. It focuses on ethical issues regarding their implementation, including a comprehensive Code of Ethics based on recommendations of the ACLU as well as considerations of cost, civilian rights, citizens' concerns, police officer benefits, issues of accountability, storage, maintenance, and access rights. It provides guidance regarding the proper storage time, the likely cost of… [read more]


Monster Reaction & Analysis Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,854 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Monster: The Autobiography of an LA Gang Member" as authored by Sanyika Shakur. The book tells the rather bloody story of the author's life in the infamous gang known as the Crips. The book is very much an autobiographical record of how his life in the gang starts at the very young age of eleven and then culminates… [read more]


Human Sex Trafficking Analysis Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  5 pages (1,639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … lens into human sex trafficking and offer a deeper understanding of the growing problem on several levels. Human sex trafficking has grown both domestically and internationally with medical professionals and law enforcement often lacking training to properly identify sex trafficking victims. Raising awareness is key and agenda-setting theory explains that increase coverage of the issue leads to increase… [read more]