"Energy / Power" Essays

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Fire Protection Systems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … fire protection systems as required by locally adopted building and fire codes. With this in mind, advantages and disadvantages that the installation of these code required fire protection systems generate will be presented. A narrative will then be presented regarding the different types of fire detection and alarm systems. An explanation of how heath and smoke control systems… [read more]

Financial Report for Southwest Airlines Hedging Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Financial Report for Southwest Airlines

Hedging the price of oil through options contracts including the purchase of call options, defining collar structures and developing swap agreements that are fixed priced in scope are all financial strategies airline companies are using to minimize cost exposure to oil (Carter, Rogers, Simkins, 54). Of American-based airlines, Southwest continues to be a leader in the domestic market in the use of these strategies (Wood, 42). Hedging can alleviate the negative effects of lower prices, less passenger traffic and higher operating expenses as well. In past years, Southwest Airlines used this strategy successfully to stay solvent and attain the distinction of being the only American-based airline to not file bankruptcy (Wood, 42).

From the 2009 Annual Report for Southwest Airlines, the following note explains the reclassification of fuel prices and excise taxes. "The company reclassified fuel prices and excise taxes for the years 2005 through 2007 from "Other operating expenses" to "Fuel and oil expense" in order to conform to the presentation for 2008 and 2009. Average fuel cost per gallon figures, as well as the percent of operating expenses, have also been recalculated based on the reclassified information." The reasons for this is the re-classification of expenses is the fact that for the first time in years, Southwest Airlines had a loss with regard to fuel hedging. By assigning this cost to the "Fuel operating expenses" category the company can now have a clearer reporting of the costs, gains or losses from fuel hedging more accurately over time. In another area of the annual report the point is made that fuel derivative contracts were reduced significantly during their latest fiscal year from $246M in 2008 to $32M in 2009. The difference was a loss on fuel derivates and…… [read more]

Procurement in Transportation the Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Procurement in Transportation

The Role of Procurement in Transportation Planning and Policy

As industries struggle to maintain an edge in the marketplace, often one of the first places they look to find cost cutting measures is in their procurement processes. This is true in the transportation industry as well. As the transportation industry seeks to streamline and economize the procurement of goods and services while maintaining safety standards and service quality, other industries seek to streamline their procurement of transportation services. This paper analyzes the role of goods and services procurement within the transportation industry as well as the role of transportation procurement within the broader marketplace.

Types of Procurement in the Transportation Industry

Procurement plays two roles in the transportation industry: an internal role and an external role. Both of these roles must be taken into account when addressing transportation planning and policy.

Within the transportation industry, procurement of supplies and services is an integral component in the design, construction, implementation, and maintenance of infrastructure and machinery. The procurement of sites, construction services, materials, and engineering services is the most important part of infrastructure establishment in terms of cost. In addition, the procurement of the transport machinery itself is always a concern in the transportation industry, as such a process must weigh cost-benefit, cost-utility, and safety concerns. Especially in a tight economic atmosphere, an efficient and accurate procurement process that is able to collect and process bids, analyze them according to the appropriate variables, and acquire the goods and services within manageable timeframes and monetary constraints is key to ensuring the maximum return for minimum outlay.

For other industries, transportation can be one of the most expensive components of the supply chain and therefore transportation procurement is one of the first places they look when operational expenses need to be streamlined. In the current economic climate, transportation procurement is the "hot topic" of logistics seminars and conferences (Gonzalez, 2009). Internet-based procurement processes and bidding optimization has made retooling transportation costs much more efficient and timely. The current climate has propelled a recent upward trend in the use of internet-enabled logistics networks and exchanges (Kuyzu, 2007). These networks and exchanges facilitate the communication between shippers and carriers and allow for more competitive bidding environments.

Procurement Challenges within the Transportation Industry

In the last forty years, a combination of deregulation, fuel price volatility, and environmental pressure have drastically changed the way the transportation industry engages with the procurement process. Between 1977 and 1980, Congress passed a series of acts designed to increase competition in air, water, motor, and rail shipping transportation. This deregulation was furthered by legislation in the 1990s such as the Transformation Industry Regulation Reform Act of 1994.

By increasing competition and eliminating the bureaucratic burden of regulation, the government hoped to make the domestic transportation industry more efficient and more attractive to shippers. While shippers did find many benefits in deregulation, carriers found themselves in a tight squeeze. As Monckza et al. (2007) point out, "these laws took… [read more]

Radon in Michigan Radon Is a Radioactive Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,164 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Radon in Michigan

Radon is a radioactive gas that results from the natural radioactive deterioration of uranium in the Earth's soil, and can cause cancer when exposure (caused by breathing in air with excessively high levels of the gas) is greater than average and acceptable levels (EPA 2010). Uranium is a very radioactive element, and as it loses sub-atomic particles -- the defining characteristic of radioactivity -- it changes chemical properties, and solid-state uranium breaks down into radium and then into the gaseous element radon, which is an inert gas (meaning it does not combine or interact with other elements to make larger molecules in nature). Uranium has existed in the Earth's curst since the planet first began to cool and solidify, and it takes billions of years for uranium to break down, meaning that radon gas had long been and will long continue to be a part of the Earth's atmosphere, and as it is heavier than most other air particles it tends to lower in that atmosphere, where we breathe (MDNRE 2010).

As dangerous as radon is as a carcinogen, it is made even more dangerous by some of the unique features of the gas. It has no color, odor, or taste, and exposure to radon gas does not have any preliminary symptoms that might alert residents to its presence before potentially fatal levels of exposure are reached, making it especially insidious (SGO 2007). The fact that radon has no way of being sensed by standard human perception -- it causes no discoloration of foundations or any other effects that can be sensed -- testing for radon levels has also proven to be something of a problem (MDNRE 2010). Luckily, there are many devices that have been created to solve this problem.

Radon testing inside buildings is important because in many buildings, for a variety of reasons, radon gas can build up to levels that are too high to be healthy. Most buildings can use a short-term testing method which can take form two to ninety days to conduct using any number of commercially available self-test kits, from charcoal canisters to electron ion chambers (EPA 2010). Long-term testing taking place at different times of year can also be conducted, and professionals can be hired to test periodically over a long period to ensure that radon levels remain safe -- below four Pico curies per liter of air, or pCi/L (EPA 2010). If short-term levels or long-term averages are above this number, radon reduction devices will be needed to keep the air safe and breathable -- and fortunately these products are highly affordable and effective (EPA 2010).

Michigan has its share of radon just like all of the other states in the country, with problem counties concentrated in the south-eastern portion of the state. For the western counties of the main area of Michigan, less than 10% of homes are estimated to have unsafe levels of radon build up, though there are two counties in the separate western portion… [read more]

Economic &amp Social Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Today, money can be zipped around the world in seconds. This new found financial freedom may be more of a curse because the global economy now suffers greater periods of boom and high levels of growth followed by drastic collapsing financial bubbles. The problem with that is that future generations are now on the tail end of large global deficits that will eventually come back to hinder their financial capabilities.

A third economic aspect is that now there are more interrelated social ties to each global boom or bust. Economic outcomes like our current economic woes entail more parts of the globe suffering through recessions that feel like more of a depression. The extent of this problem has been so severe that some of the world's oldest and largest financial institutions have literally collapsed under the pressure in the same way that the Soviet Union collapsed trying to outspend the United States during the cold war.

The social aspects of a world that has not taken into consideration to any large extent the importance of sustainable development are obvious as well. In regard to oil and coal, consider the Nigerian nation that is currently producing just less than 10% of the world's oil and yet there are families that live within throwing distance of the oil pipelines that are forced to live in poverty on under $1 a day while the barons of the oil fields can be considered billionaires. Social inequality is direct result of sustainable development.

A second aspect of the sustainable development for social aspects is the fact that man is eventually going to die out if he does not stop the green house gas issues. The… [read more]

British Petroleum Discovery of Oil in Gulf of Mexico Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (756 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Discovery of Oil in the Gulf of Mexico

According to a press release issued on September 2, 2009, British Petroleum (BP) has announced the discovery of a huge oil deposit at its Tiber Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico. This particular well, located in the Keathley Canyon block 102 some 250 miles from the city of Houston, Texas, is some 4,132 feet below the surface with the well itself reaching a depth of 35,055 feet, "making it one of the deepest wells ever drilled by the oil and gas industry" ("BP Announces," 2009, Internet). Exactly how much oil is in this reservoir is not currently known, but BP officials estimate that it holds some three billion barrels. If this estimate turns out to be true, it could make a huge difference in the amount of oil imported by the United States, thus lowering not only the cost of oil in the U.S. But also the costs associated with gasoline for the average American consumer.

Edward Gismatullin, a reporter for the Bloomsberg News Agency, writes that this discovery has boosted oil output in the region of the Gulf of Mexico "by 50% to 600,000 barrels. . . equivalent a day after 2020" and is about equal to a year's output of oil from Saudi Arabia, the largest member of OPEC, and "close to matching the UK's entire proven reserves" (2009, Internet). As to the oil itself, British Petroleum spokesman Robert Wine has stated this discovery "is a whole new geological play," a reference to the oil being held in what is known in the industry as the Lower Tertiary or Paleogene, a 65 million year-old formation almost as far down in the Gulf of Mexico as Mount Everest is high and a region previously believed by petro-geologists as unreachable (Gismatullin, 2009, Internet).

For some specialists in the oil industry, this discovery by British Petroleum comes as a major surprise, due to the fact that the Gulf of Mexico has long been considered as a "dead sea," a reference to a prior belief that the gulf "had already offered up all of its big discoveries;" however, "it is now again front and center for petroleum explorers" like BP and a number of other major U.S. oil companies (Gold, 2009, Internet).…… [read more]

In Defense of Biofuels Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (374 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Environmental Science: Biofuels

Biofuels: Environmental Science


Gold, Russell (2009) Biofuel Bet Aims to Harvest Fish that Feed on Algae. The Wall Street Journal.

The work of Russell Gold published the 18th day of August 2009 in the Wall Street Journal states that in the search for a new domestic source of fuel marine scientists and entrepreneurs alike seeking "a new domestic source of fuel." (Gold, 2009) p.1 Attention has turned toward a "giant oxygen-deprived "dead zone" where fish cannot survive" due to runoff of fertilizers in the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. Resulting is a "massive algae bloom" that results in depletion of the water regions oxygen supply. The nutrients found in fertilizer create a "buffer zone" for phytoplankton, simple yet quickly reproducing sea organisms. The idea that has been developed is one that will take the algae and turn it into a "bio-based oil to run conventional refineries alongside crude." (Gold, 2009) p.1

A partnership has been announced between Exxon Mobil Corp and Synthetic Genomics Inc. owned and operated by genomic scientist J. Craig Venter, who spent $600 million on development of…… [read more]

Alpha Natural Buying Foundation Coal Course Valuation Project Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (649 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alpha Natural Resources announced earlier this month that they intend to purchase Foundation Coal for $1.4 billion. The deal is to be completed with stock and the acquisition of Foundation's debt and will result in the creation of the nation's third-largest coal producer. The move comes amid speculation of another round of consolidation in the coal industry, due to a number of factors in the external environment (Huber, 2009).

Alpha Natural, located in Appalachian Virginia, is a major coal producer, with sales of $2.5 billion last year. The company operates a total of 61 mines and 11 preparation plants throughout the region. Alpha Natural has nearly 3800 employees scattered throughout this wide range of sites (MSN Moneycentral, 2009). The company has exhibited a steady growth trajectory and earned $200 million last year. Alpha Natural has a strong liquidity position, and has rapidly improved its balance sheet over the past five years, a function of steady profits. The company is currently flush with cash, which has given it the financial strength needed to be a buyer (Ibid).

Foundation Coal is based in Maryland and operates 12 mines, both in Appalachia and in Wyoming. The company earned revenues of $1.7 billion last year. The company is focused almost exclusively on steam coal, and markets coal produced by other companies in addition to its own. The company is significantly less profitable than Alpha Natural, earning just $11.55 million on its revenues last year. While revenue growth has been steady, profit growth has been more erratic, reflecting the relative weakness of steam coal to metallurgic coal. Foundation's balance sheet is weak, with marginal liquidity and a high debt-equity ratio. The company has not improved performance in the past four years and its equity position has eroded as a result (Ibid).

Foundation Coal's performance can be linked to the relatively poor market for steam coal, which 98% of its volume and 89% of its sales (Ibid). The industry has…… [read more]

Moxie" Market Analysis Every Individual Worker Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,833 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Moxie" Market Analysis

Every individual worker has the right to feel safe when they enter the workspace. (OSHA Mission Statement 2007, NP) Many individuals are aware of the dangers they may face when they enter an industry that is traditionally dangerous, with the assumption that if they do everything right they will be kept safe from injury or… [read more]

Theatrical Stage Lighting and the Devices Used Throughout Theater History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,518 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Theatrical Lighting History

History and Discourse on Theatrical Lighting

Lighting has played an important part in stage productions throughout time. It began simply as the light of day from the sun and the diffusing effect of the clouds, which of course were often unpredictable, to the current computerized state of precise timing, intensity and hue. The human eye is often… [read more]

Storage Tanks and Pipes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Underground Storage Tanks and Pipes

When the United States began their Underground Storage Tank program, there were approximately 2.1 million regulated tanks in America. According to the EPA, "an underground storage tank (UST) system is a tank and any underground piping connected to the tank that has at least 10% of its combined volume underground" ("Overview," 2007).

Historically, "pipelines and… [read more]

Lukoil Business in the USA Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Lukoil resulted as a result of a decree from the Council of Ministers of the former Soviet State USSR on November 25, 1991. This decree was titled No.18. Lukoil was incorporated as a state-owned oil concern. The Russian term "LangepasUraiKogalymneft" was abbreviated to Lukoil. In 1992, with the opening and privatization of Russian markets becoming more commonplace, Lukoil became an… [read more]

Peak Oil Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Peak Oil

When M. King Hubbard recognized that oil fields actually peak and then decline in their output, and that global oil production also reached a pinnacle before declining, he coined the term "peak oil," ("Oil Depletion"). Therefore, peak oil does not refer to the end of the supply. At its peak, oil production and supply have reached as high as they will ever get and from that point on, demand will significantly outweigh supply. The peak oil theory is not universally accepted but industry experts indicate that "only about 1 barrel of oil is being discovered for every 5 or 6 extracted," ("Oil Depletion"). Production of oil has also declined. The exact timing of peak oil is unclear but based on available evidence, may arrive any time between now and 2030 ("Oil Depletion").

Because the world has become dependent on petroleum products, peak oil may have significant consequences for the global economic and political systems. In addition to driving the price of oil up significantly and irreversibly due to the supply-demand curve, peak oil would also mean increases in all production costs. Heavy machinery of all types, including agricultural machinery and manufacturing technologies, depends on petroleum-based fuel to run.

Of course, all major modes of transportation depend on fossil fuels too: automobiles and airplanes guzzle gas. Richard Heinberg claims that almost 100% of transportation in America is oil-dependent. If oil prices rise in response to diminished supply, then the cost of commercial goods and services transportation will rise considerably. Higher oil and gas prices therefore mean that ordinary working class citizens will have less money in their pockets. Not only will their goods and services cost more but so will their daily commute and in many cases their heating bills.

Another major consequence of peak oil will be its impact on the petrochemical industry. Almost every plastic product is made with petroleum. Idealists once believed that fossil fuels would supply the world with an endless stream of consumer goods. Overuse and overproduction of petroleum-based products ranging from carpets to computers has contributed to the depletion of the world's oil supplies. In addition to making many…… [read more]

Utilitarian Approach to the Problem of Overuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … utilitarian approach to the problem of overuse and dependence on foreign oil would mean that the first course of action would be to study the various options available. Those options include limiting the use of vehicles by increasing the gasoline taxes used to fuel those vehicles. There are a variety of other options open for consideration as well, however, since this paper's main concern is to address the above listed option, considering the other options is currently of little importance. For the sake of argument, this paper will discuss just the one option, even though under true utilitarian theory, all options would be considered.

Therefore, the question to be considered would be does increased gasoline taxes fit in with a utilitarian theory? The answer is; probably not. The reason it does not fit in with utilitarian theory is because it does not equate to the best possible choice benefiting the greatest amount of people.

Quite the contrary would probably take place if such an option was chosen for implementation. These effects would likely happen if the choice were made to raise gasoline taxes; the first immediate effect would be on the portion of the mobile public that is the least able to afford paying more for taxes. These are the individuals and families that have the least amount of disposable income. The price hike would have the effect of limiting their options, more than likely they would have to choose to spend more on gas in order to continue generating what little income they have. Their choices could include spending the extra money on…… [read more]

Managing the Budget Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Managing the Budget Process


The 2005 revenue figures have shown a remarkable increase since last year results during the same period. On one hand, these were generated by an increase in the price of crude oil barrel, which has attained levels of over $60 in the last couple of months. On the other hand, the management team has thought out a certain repositioning of the company, which meant that some of the other sectors where the company is operating, such as the chemical industry or the gasoline refining market, although less profitable than the crude oil extracting operations, have begun to show small financial profits.

In 2006, the operating revenues will probably remain subject to the same general coordinates, with most of the company's revenues generated by crude oil extraction. Nevertheless, as the lines below will show, the company has begun to make amendments in its strategy and pay more attention to areas were its presence on the market is still less developed. The budget is thought out so as to increase spending in such areas, especially in terms of research and development or marketing (see below).

In terms of expenses, there are several categories of budgetary activities we need to consider. The three categories I have identified and I will be referring to are research and development expenses, marketing and general and administrative expenses.

The research and development expenses will be evaluated and discussed related to the main areas of activity at EXXON. I will be referring to gasoline refining, chemical production, exploration and drilling and pollution reduction reach activities.

In terms of gasoline refining activities, all analysts were keen to note that these are much less profitable than our crude oil operations. We should consider that this is not a long-term approach to the issue. Indeed, crude oil is most likely to finish in less than a century, which means that researching better ways to refine gasoline, perhaps using fewer resources in this sense and having more profitable returns, is necessary.

We have to diversify our activities and operational hedging is required in this sense. By operational hedging, I am summing up a set of activities that will imply growing the area of expertise and EXXON, gradually building a larger operational base and reducing the company's excessive dependency on its crude oil related activity. Gasoline refining is one of the possible future solutions and a market on which EXXON can successfully compete. In this sense, we need to increase spending in research and development in this area, with the possibility to gain momentum by innovation: discovering more efficient ways of refining oil, commercializing them to companies interested in producing gasoline with less crude oil used.

In terms of chemical production, research and development expenses should remain high in 2006 as well. The reason for this is that the chemical industry is an industry always in need of new products, products that can operate more efficiently, with less costs etc. We can… [read more]

Hazardous Material Operations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Hazardous Material Operations

Chemical Name: Chlorine

Product Identification:

Trade Name:

Liquid Chlorine


Liquefied chlorine gas, chlorine gas, chlor (German), molecular chlorine, diatomic chlorine, dichlorine

Chemical Formula:

Product Labeling:

DOT Hazard Class:

2, 8 (Subsidiary Risk)

DOT Label:

DOT Marking:

Poison, Inhalation Hazard, Corrosive

Physical Properties:


Greenish yellow gas, amber liquid in pressurized container.


Pungent, choking, irritating, bleach-like.

Boiling Point:

°F, -34.05°C

Freezing Point:

150°F, -101°C

Specific Gravity:

Vapor Density:

(air = 1)

Flammable Limits:

Not flammable

Solubility in Water:

g/L @ 20oC, q4.6 g/L @ g/L

Extinguishing Media:

Chlorine is not flammable alone, however if mixed with combustibles, use water only.

Special Procedures for Fire Fighters:

Highly toxic gas: Do not approach without vapor protection and appropriate protective clothing.

Small Spills:

Isolate area 100 ft in all directions.

Protect.2 miles downwind from spill during day,.8 miles downwind during night.

Chlorine maybe absorbed in solution of caustic soda, soda ash or hydrated lime.

Large Spills:

Isolate area 800 ft in all directions.

Protect 1.5 miles downwind from spill during day, 4.6 miles downwind during night.

Chlorine maybe absorbed in solution of caustic soda, soda ash or hydrated lime.

If fire is present:

When possible, remove containers to avoid explosion.

Use water only for smaller fires, do not use chemicals: Control run-off to avoid pollution.

Once fire is extinguished, continue to cool containers: Avoid overcooling, as icing may occur.

In case of large fire, use unmanned hoses or withdraw from the area. Explosion can occur.

Special Equipment:

Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing including splash goggles, vapor respirator, chemical resistant gloves, full protective suit, metatarsal boots.

Health Hazards:


Burning, redness, inflammation, corneal burns, cell death, ulceration.


Unlikely, due to gaseous state: frost-bite of the lips, mouth, and throat possible.


Nose and throat irritation, coughing, choking, vomiting, narrowing of the airway, fluid in the lungs, breathing difficulty, lung damage, death from suffocation.


Irritation, inflammation, frost bite, blistering, cell death, ulceration, first and second degree burns.

Chemical Name: Phosgene

Product Identification:

Trade Name:



Carbon dichloride oxide, Diphosgene, Compat Gas, CG, Carbon oxychloride, Carbonyl chloride, Chloroformyl chloride, Carbonic dichloride

Chemical Formula:


Product Labeling:

DOT Hazard Class:

2, 8 (Subsidiary risk)

DOT Label:

DOT Marking:

Poison, Inhalation Hazard, Corrosive

Physical Properties:


Gas is colorless above 47°F (8.2°C), but fog like when concentrated. Below 47°F (8.2°C), gas becomes a colorless, fuming liquid.


In low concentrations, odor is sweet and musty; high con., odor is sharp and pungent.

Boiling Point:

47°F, 8.2°C

Freezing Point:

198°F, -127.8°C

Specific Gravity:

Liquid: 1.43 at 32°F (0°C)

Vapor Density:

0.00416 g/ml @ 21.1° C

Flammable Limits:


Solubility in Water:

Slightly soluble; reacts with water

Extinguishing Media:

Phosgene is non-flammable alone, however if mixed with combustibles, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water or foam.

Special Procedures for Fire Fighters:

Highly toxic gas: Do not approach without vapor protection and appropriate protective clothing.

Small Spills:

Isolate area 500 ft in all directions.

Protect.2 miles downwind from spill during day,.8 miles downwind during… [read more]

Rising Gas Prices Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


That rules out the first two suggestions and leaves only the third -- the company must charge more. Consumers are finding that, not only are they paying more at the gasoline pumps, but the rising gas prices are causing them to pay more in almost every other aspect of their lives as well. This has a huge effect on the economy, and especially on areas of the economy that deal with individuals who live paycheck to paycheck already and do not know where they will get any extra money to fight the rising cost of the gasoline prices in this country.

There are bound to be repercussions in the future as well, because many people are losing their jobs or struggling to survive because they can no longer afford everything that they used to buy. They may not be able to put gasoline in their car and still pay their electric bill, or they may not be able to buy enough food for their family if they are going to need to have gasoline to drive to work. Some people can carpool and make other arrangements, but there are many individuals in our society today that are not able to do this and the repercussions for these individuals will likely continue well into the future.

Works Cited

Burrows, Dan. 2004. Rising gas prices may hurt moderate, discount retailers. Home Furnishing Network.

DeWeese, Adrianne. 2005. Supply, demand control gas prices. University Wire.

Joyner, Tammy. 2005. Fill tank, empty wallet Commuters feel the pinch of rising gas prices. The Atlanta…… [read more]

Relationship Among Boyle's, Dalton Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Therefore, the pressure of a gas sample would be the same whether it was the only gas in the container or if it were among other gases. However, lowering the temperature and/or compressing the gas will upset that assumption.

Henry's Law states that the amount of any gas that will dissolve in a liquid at a given temperature is a function of the partial pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid and the solubility coefficient of the gas in that particular liquid. That is, as the pressure of any gas increases, more of that gas will dissolve into any solution with which it is in free contact.

Taken together, Henry's and Dalton's laws predict two very important consequences:

When ambient pressure is lowered as at altitude, the partial pressure of oxygen and nitrogen in the body must fall, and there will be less molecules of each gas dissolved in the blood and tissues (Wagner, 1993). An example of this phenomenon is altitude sickness, which may occur at altitudes above 7000 feet.

When ambient pressure is raised as when diving, the partial pressure of oxygen and nitrogen in the body must rise, and there will be more molecules of each gas dissolved in the blood and tissues (Ewalenko, 2002). An example of this phenomenon is a condition known as the bends. The bends may occur in divers if they ascend to the water surface too quickly.

In summary, Boyle's, Dalton's, and Henry's Laws remain valid assumptions. Each of these Laws have pronounced influence on the physiology and pathophysiology of human respiration.


Ewalenko, M. (2002). [Scuba diving: practical aspects]. Rev Med Brux, 23(4), A218-222.

Wagner, P.D. (1993). Algebraic analysis of the determinants of VO2,max. Respir Physiol, 93(2), 221-237.

West, J.B. (1999). The…… [read more]

Marketing: Canadian Oil Are Canadian Oil Companies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Marketing: Canadian Oil

Are Canadian oil companies price gouging or do they have a case for the prices they charge? Explain your answer.

Although the Canadian oil companies themselves would point to the rising price of crude oil in the world market, and the fact that such a stratospheric increase in oil prices is endemic to the entire industrialized world, including the United States as well as Canada, Guy Cramer's article "Evidence of Price Fixing by Oil Companies?" In August 25, 2004 (http://www.yfiles.com/gasprices2.html) notes that although "the percentage rise in the price of crude oil" was passed on to the Canadian consumer with an equal percentage rise in the price of gas at the pump, this appears fair only until one considers that that crude oil costs consists of only 37% of the price paid at the pump.

What is the pricing strategy employed by Canadian gasoline retailers?

Thus, the percentage increase in the amount of money the consumer pays should not be fully commensurate with the price increase of gas overall, according to Cramer, "as taxes make up 43%," of the price, "refining and marketing costs consist of 17% and only 3% is profit for the oil company." (Cramer, 2004) but, taking advantage of consumer confusion, the "oil companies had been adding the same percentage increase of the crude oil costs to the taxes, refining and marketing and the profit." (Cramer, 2004) Cramer adds that although adding to these figures leaves the percentages intact the consumer is still paying more than he or she should, in terms of the percentage required by the pricing breakdown of gas prices, as consumer prices are only 43% of the overall total.

What influence does the market structure have on pricing strategy? You must determine the type of market structure the oil industry in Canada and the U.S. is and explain your answer.

Theoretically, the Canadian oil industry is competitive, although one of the largest Canadian…… [read more]

Oil Prices and the Stock Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (956 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Simply put, profits will decrease if expenses increase significantly, barring other factors. As profits decrease, stock markets will decrease as well as investor confidence declines.

Higher oil prices also result in a decline in spending on consumer goods. Wal-Mart has noted that its customers will spend about $7 each week more on fuel as a result of recent increases. This may lead directly to reduced spending on consumer goods, prompting Wal-Mart to remark that sales may decrease as a result (Evans).

Importantly, spiking oil prices introduce an element of uncertainly into the stock market (McMahon). As noted earlier, there is a well-known historical connection between rising oil prices and declining stock prices. This connection alone can worry investors in times of increasing oil prices, spurring a loss of investor confidence that can lead to market.

The link between oil prices and stock market performance is likely to remain strong as long as our economy retains its dependence on oil. Currently, the world is moving toward a shortage of oil that is economically viable to extract, making existing reserves in countries like Iraq and Saudi Arabia especially important. Today's economy depends on ensuring these reserves are available, while potentially working toward alternatives to oil as a long-term solution (Leeb and Leeb, 2004).

One important factor in controlling oil prices is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Oil can be released from the reserve in order to force oil prices to decline, thus potentially staving off any associated decreases in the stock market. The reserve is currently at about 660 million barrels (Evans).

It is important to consider that while oil is at an all-time high of close to $50 per barrel, this does not take into account the impact of inflation. When inflation is taken into account, oil prices today are only about 6% above 1971-2003 averages. However, uncertainty in the Middle East, extra demand from China and India will likely result in further increases, and political uncertainty may fuel further increases (Evans).


In conclusion, stock market declines have been strongly associated with sharp rises in oil prices. Such prices fuel uncertainty on the stock market, increase the cost of doing business, and decrease consumer spending. Taken together, these factors can cause stock markets to fall. Today's climate of high oil prices, potential oil shortages, increased demand, and political uncertainty all suggest that the near future may see stock markets fall in association with increasing oil prices.


E-Commerce Times. Record High Oil Prices Send Markets Lower, Financial News, 09/27/04 1:54 PM PT. 27 September 2004. http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/36932.html

Evans, Stephen. Rising oil prices threaten U.S. economy. BBC News, May 19, 2004. 27 September 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3724357.stm

Leeb, Stephen and Leeb, Donna. (2004). The Oil Factor: How Oil Controls the Economy and Your Financial Future. Warner Business Books.…… [read more]