Study "Engineering / Mechanics" Essays 1-54

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Nanomachines the Science of Molecular Term Paper

… The replication instructions within these hybrid biological/mechanical machines to be designed by engineers will be composed of computer code instead of DNA is one such difference worth mentioning.

However, these machines still look like and perform as existing cell types… [read more]

Elites in Engineering Dissertation

… Elites in Engineering

In the contemporary world, it has increasingly become significant for active engineers to be uniformly skilled in technical and management comprehension. This is in the view of the fact numerous graduates find themselves in significant leadership positions.… [read more]

Engineering Ethics and Morality Related Research Paper

… It happened soon after the shuttle's conclusion of its 28th mission. According to some reports, the disaster occurred due to a damage which was sustained during the launch when a small part of foam insulation having the size of a little briefcase broke away from the external tank of the space shuttle, this debris struck the left wing's leading edge which damaged the TPS (thermal protection system). When Columbia was still in orbit, this fault was pointed out by some of the engineers but NASA refused to do anything about it. Therefore it can be concluded that if swift action was taken soon after knowing about this incident then all of this loss would have been prevented, although some blame poor engineering as the cause, the main reason is often deemed to be more ethical rather than technical.

Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

It is a series of nuclear meltdowns, equipment failures and the release of harmful radioactive materials from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Although the primary cause of this disaster is technical one but the human error in all of this scenario can not be neglected. It was observed that the main damage to the power plant occurred because of the tsunami that hit the plant site soon after the earthquake. Here, it was the responsibility of the engineers working at the plant to make it safe from every possible known disaster and the factor of tsunami was largely ignored by everyone working at the site. If the engineers would have studied the outcomes of different disaster events in more detailed form from the start then all of this would have been avoided.

Nicoll Highway collapse

This highway collapse occurred on 20th April 2004 at Singapore when an under construction tunnel used by trains collapsed. The investigations regarding the collapse started immediately after the incident. The findings of these investigations concluded that the main cause of collapse was due to the inability of the retaining wall to handle stress. Four workers died because of this incident, on the ethical ground if the engineers would have studied the site in more detail and used more reliable raw material for the construction of the retaining wall then all of this could have been easily avoided.

Willow Island disaster

It is regarded as the biggest construction disaster in American history, the Willow disaster was due to the collapse of an under construction cooling tower at a power station. It resulted in the death of 51 workers. One of the main reason for this disaster was the unusual scaffold construction, others included missing bolts and the availability of only a single access ladder. If the engineers would have given more attention in doing proper scaffold construction then all of this disaster could have been avoided.

Tenerife disaster

It is the most deadly disaster in the history of aviation which resulted in the deaths of 583 individuals. Here two airplanes collided with each other as a result of a series of unfortunate events involving… [read more]

Role of Engineering Thesis

… Aircraft Engineering

Engineering in the Aerospace Industry

There are many areas of endeavor where engineers are a vital and necessary part of success. One of the most exciting fields to emerge over the past century, and which continues to make groundbreaking and truly life-altering advances in the modern era, is aerospace engineering. The making of air and space craft encompasses far more than might be initially thought; in addition to airplanes and space shuttles, the rockets used to deliver communication satellites into orbit and even the satellites themselves are designed by aerospace engineers. In this way, the continued use of current technologies like wireless Internet networks, television signals, and cell phones are hugely dependent on the success of aerospace engineers. The variety of different careers, opportunities, tasks, and skills that are found in the realm of aerospace engineering makes it one of the most exciting industries for prospective engineers looking forward to a rich and expanding career.

One of the most easily imaginable occupations that an aerospace engineer might be involved in is the design of new aircraft. There are a variety of skills needed for a career in aircraft design; in addition to the ability to compute highly complex figures regarding stress, weight, principles of lift, and many other factors while designing the aircraft, strong visual skills and a solid understanding of industry software is also necessary (Raymer 2006). This is important not only for the engineer to have a strong sense of the physical possibilities of a design, but also for the communication of these visualizations to others who lack any engineering expertise. Though it is often of less importance, there is also a necessity for the aircraft engineer to have a good aesthetic sense (Raymer 2006).

There are also less obvious and in some ways more technical engineering needs in the aerospace industry. The separate but related areas of propulsion, fluid mechanics, and structure are just a few of the specializations important in aerospace engineering (Garner 2002). In aerospace engineering, fluid mechanics is more accurately referred to as aerodynamics, which is also a more familiar term to many. Essentially, these engineers must study and understand the way gases -- such as air -- flow around air or space craft, adjusting the body design for stabilization, fuel efficiency, speed, or whatever else the client specifies (Garner 2002). This leads to one of the most essential skills for all engineers, including aerospace engineers -- the ability to effectively communicate with clients and with production teams is a major component of engineering work, and is often given diminished training and respect, especially in the aerospace industry (Sanders & McCormick 2002).

Equally important is the ability to work with computers, and even with computer engineers. Many issues in aerospace engineering can be best handled by computers,… [read more]

Engineering Career in Aerospace Essay

… Engineering

Career in Aerospace Engineering

Aerospace engineering as a profession is a career of the future, dealing with anything from missile weapons systems to aircraft and spacecraft. The career depends on education, input of other engineers in other disciplines, and… [read more]

Social Engineering Research Paper

… In terms of actual examples of social engineering, these are numerous and include acts from the smallest of scale to increasingly difficult and with most serious effects that are still ongoing and even spreading (Francophoned case study presented below). As… [read more]

Systems Engineering Expertise the Balkanization Term Paper

… ¶ … Systems Engineering Expertise

The balkanization of organizations often impedes progress towards complex, highly challenging objectives. The continual adoption of system engineering concepts, frameworks and theories taken together are making it possible for organizations to attain greater results based on closer collaboration [1]. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how systems engineering creates a competitive advantage by selectively combining specific strengths of each functional area of department to create a more agile approach to delivering value to customers.

Analysis of Systems Engineering As A Catalyst Of Greater Innovation

The synchronization of supply chain, sourcing, supplier quality, production and services requires a systemic approach to optimizing the contributions of each. Add to this the need for compliance and quality management, and the critical need for systems engineering as a means to continually improve becomes clear. The greater the level of synchronization across the most constrained resources of any enterprise, the greater the overall performance along the quality and performance dimensions of the systemic processes [2].

The production of medical devices, aerospace and defense components, and other highly regulated products rely on systems engineering to engrain quality into every aspect of sourcing, production and service. The inclusion of quality management standards is an essential cost of doing business in the medical products industry as the Federal Drug Administration can audit a production line at any time. The role of industrial engineering expertise in the synchronization of development, production and marketing is critical for the ongoing operations of any highly regulated business. Systemic insights into the specific departments' contributions to each aspect of quality is also critically important in the production of all medical devices. They are especially critical… [read more]

Application of Layout and Topology Optimization Using Pattern Gradation for the Conceptual Design of Buildings Research Paper

… Topology

Current Research in Topology Optimization: An Article Review

Current research and practice in engineering and design relies increasingly on computation-driven optimization techniques that result in a more efficient and more effective use of resources, creating stronger and more lasting… [read more]

Continuing Education for Engineers Essay

… ¶ … Education in Engineering

Engineering is a highly technical profession that requires considerable professional training to enter the field. By the time a professional engineer completes his or undergraduate education program and then satisfies the professional certification requirements that are prerequisites to practice in the field, he or she is highly qualified and capable of fulfilling the obligations and responsibilities of professional practice. However, like other sciences, engineering science is a continually evolving field in which a professional cannot rely exclusively on prior training to remain competent in the field. Since so many aspects of applied engineering directly affect human safety, it is essential that all practicing professional engineers continually update their knowledge bases and skills (Harris, Pritchard, & Rabins, 2008).

Generally, the individual engineering licensing agencies and professional associations maintain their own requirements for continuing education in their particular areas (Harris, Pritchard, & Rabins, 2008). However, these requirements represent only the bare minimum by virtue of the tremendous variability in the individual practices of most professional engineers. In principle, it is impossible for a broad set of continuing education requirements of all mechanical engineers or of all civil engineers to adequately ensure the complete continued professional competence of all of the members of those respective professional associations. Therefore, the engineering firm and employing agencies have an ethical responsibility to ensure that the continued education of their engineers meets the actual needs of their specific professional responsibilities beyond the more general minimum requirements set by professional associations of engineers.

Generally, this responsibility would require employers to establish their own in-house training requirements that address specialty areas and sub-specialty areas beyond the depth of knowledge that they can… [read more]

Engineering Ethics Research Paper

… Engineering Ethics

Ethics in the Study and Practice of Engineering: Pragmatic and Intrinsic Values in Science and Application

As the world becomes increasingly interconnected and interdependent, issues of ethics and ethical missteps have become increasingly common and prominent in the… [read more]

Engineering Application Is Often a More Complex Research Paper

… ¶ … engineering application is often a more complex feature of an engineering endeavor than might be expected from external observations. There are many different considerations that must be taken into account when selecting materials for use in engineering, including… [read more]

Social Engineering Tactics Essay

… Social Engineering Tactics


There is a lot of controversy when it comes to understanding social engineering. Its Mere definition sparks various arguments amongst renowned scholars. "It is basically the act of manipulating a person to do something that may or may not be for the person's best interest "(Social, 2010).It involves making a person to do certain actions, and acquiring information from the person. It might seem like a deceptive way of doing things, but it is what everyone does in their daily lives like an innocent child trying to get candy from their parents, or someone on a campaign trail seeking votes. Its level of complexity and wide scope of use makes it a science. Just like any other type of science, social engineering can be used in almost all kinds of activities and for various reasons (Podgorecki and Alexander, 1996)

This paper will focus on how social engineering is being applied and how individuals and organization can be protected. Due to its wide scope of application key highlights will be on: impersonation, hoaxing, creating confusion, reverse social engineering, spamming and use of fake anti-spyware.

Common social engineering tactics


Impersonation is one of the oldest tricks the engineers persuade their targets to release information or to do something for them through telephones and mails. It usually takes longer than other methods because the engineers need accurate information so as to fully convince their targets. An example, an engineer using this method may pretend to represent your bank, and then give a few details about your account, and then will tell you there is a technical hitch and your account has been disabled so he needs your pin so as to activate your account. This technique requires a lot of effort and research to appear legitimate to the victim.


A technique like hoaxing is much simpler and easier for engineers. This is tricking people to believe that something is real and it is false. It mostly affects individuals because there are more vulnerable to such ploys than corporations (Thapar, 2008). Another technique similar to hoaxing is creating confusion. This is basically creating a situation and taking advantage of it. An example can be a person causing mayhem in an office thus distracting staff while his accomplices get access to information.

Reverse Social Engineering, Spamming and fake antispyware

There are other more complex methods that are emerging from social engineers like reverse social engineering, spamming, and fake antispyware. Reverse social engineering is smart method where one tricks the victim by creating a platform to be asked questions instead of questioning the victims. In this type of social engineering, the engineers create an impression of being in a particular field of expertise or having certain authority, and they use the trust they have won from their victims.

The use of spamming and fake anti-spyware is fully dependent on the internet and… [read more]

Sustainable Engineering Practice a Review Essay

… Sustainable Engineering Practice

A Review of Three News Articles

Gies, Erica. "Solar Waste Recycling: Can the industry stay green?" 9 Aug 2010 Web

Several decades have passed and the use of Solar Technology has increased and changed over time. While it is certainly a green and sustainable resource, there are several components of the technology that reach End of Life (EOL) or otherwise have to be replaced. IN order to follow the initial paradigm of the technology, these "waste" components need to be These outgoing parts need to be reused or recycled in order for Solar energy to remain wholly in the green zone. Traditionally technology has been difficult to reuse, so recycling has usually be the course. Old computers can sometimes be reused to emerging countries, but more than likely the toxic components need to be safely deconstructed and recycled. The same is true of Solar technology and several new companies have sprung up to take advantage of this market.

Solar modules contain some of the same potentially dangerous materials as electronics, including silicon tetrachloride, cadmium, selenium and sulfur hexafluoride, a potent greenhouse gas. So as solar moves from the fringe to the mainstream, insiders and watchdog groups are beginning to talk about producer responsibility and recycling in an attempt to sidestep the pitfalls of electronic waste and retain the industry's green credibility. (Geis)

The Solar panels have an approximate 20-year lifespan, and the non-profit group, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, is attempting to enlist entrepreneurial startups to get their businesses in place now before too many "dead panels pile up." Solar energy use is predicted to rise fifty percent every year creating an eventual exponential recycling problem. However, enough solar energy strikes the earth in one hour to meet the entire populations energy need for one year. Currently we are capturing only the smallest fraction of a percentage and given the need for more energy without environmental catastrophes, sustainability of this resource is a must.

Rozgus, Amara and Rhonda McGee. "The 2010 National Engineering Survey --The Roles of Engineers are Changing; But Some Things Never Change." Consulting-Specifying Engineer (CSE). 9 Aug 2010 Web
This article is a summary of the key findings of the 2010 National Engineering Survey that was conducted by Consulting-Specifying Engineer (CSE). IN the past these surveys usually reflected the costs of projects as compared to the overall budget and the constraints under which engineers usually work. Sufficient Capital was generally the highest priority for most engineers to insure that their designs could be adequately carried out. This 2010 surveys shows that there has been a shift in the culture of engineers in general. Of the four categories survey, Energy… [read more]

Sustainable Engineering Practice Role of Engineers (Computer Term Paper

… Sustainable Engineering Practice

Role of Engineers (computer systems engineering) in the manufacturing industry

The discipline of engineering has been considered to involve a process that requires creativity and is meant for the synthesis and implementation of the knowledge acquired by… [read more]

Engineering and Sustainability Consortium Clarifies Goals Thesis

… ¶ … Engineering and Sustainability

Sustainability Consortium clarifies goals, Walmart relationship (Arizona State University): This article details a consortium of scientists, researchers, and engineers from a variety of research institutes that is trying to develop a Sustainable Product Index for a wide variety of common products. The consortium has been working closely with Wal-Mart, but stressed that their efforts are aimed at the retail world at large, and are not simply meant to help this retail giant. Their main goal is to develop scientific methods for measuring the sustainability of products, which could be used (with continual adjustment) well into the future. The creation of an index of many current products would have immediate benefits.

This article relays some important news in he world of sustainability; when consumers know how sustainable the various products they buy are, they can make more informed decisions that will lead to new overall sustainability in industry and commerce. Engineers are a vital part of the consortium's efforts, enabling an understanding the true impact and long-reaching effects of the many manufacturing and distribution processes involved in the index.

Sustainability and Crop Engineering (Jared Flesher, Green Inc.): Genetically modified crops have been touted by the engineers that developed them as the answer to world hunger and other problems, but questions have arisen as to whether these crops are truly sustainable. Though plants can be genetically engineered to resist certain diseases or pesticides, they have not proven as productive or as able to reproduce as non-genetically modified plants. This leads to questions about whether it is really prudent to devote agricultural land to their development, as well as concerns regarding what… [read more]

Civil Engineering Student Admission Essay

… ¶ … civil engineering student, I am attempting to apply for the engineering management program, and although my grades are not as high as they could be, I am convinced that they do not adequately reflect my overall professional abilities and skills. For the longest of time, I have thought that grades are not such an important factor when compared to being able to apply the knowledge obtained at school to real-life experiences, such as one might find as a gainfully-employed professional civil engineer.

I would like to point out that despite the fact that I did not have a really high GPA, something above 3.5 or better, I was selected during my time as a sophomore to participate as an engineering intern at the State of Massachusetts Highway Department. Considering the number of other highly-qualified applicants for this position, I thought of myself as rather fortunate to have been chosen. Therefore, I decided to confidently apply what I had learned at school to this internship; I also… [read more]

Tissue Engineering Term Paper

… Tissue Engineering is an interdisciplinary field which utilizes the principles of life sciences as well as engineering for the creation of biological substitutes or replacements that can heal, improve, maintain or restore the functions of tissues. It involves contributions from… [read more]

Human Factors Cheap Engineering Term Paper

… Accidents / Engineering

Accidents in the workplace or the home are the result of a variety of factors. Only thorough investigation can help the process of future prevention and mitigation measures. Professor M.W. Thring's statement, that all accidents are the result of cheap engineering, holds a certain truth, although other factors also need to be taken into account.

Human factors may for example include the fact that a starting business owner is under considerable financial strain, and hence does not wish to invest too much in engineering. Electrical wiring is for example notoriously expensive. The danger of using cheap engineering, however, is that the materials used is often of a lower grade than those used by companies charging a larger fee. Electrical faults may then lead to life-threatening electrical failures, blackouts at crucial moments, and short circuits that may lead to fires. This kind of failure is especially dangerous when the company stores explosive substances on the premises. In this, a manager's urge to save funding becomes an expensive mistake.

Cheap engineering could also pertain to the building materials used when erecting the business premises. A less experienced building company may for example charge less for its services. Once again, cheaper building materials are used, or unnoticed design flaws may occur. This combination can lead to material breakdown or fatal flaws that may cause the premises to collapse or crumble, in turn leading to accidents in the workplace. This is also a case where cheap engineering is directly responsible for workplace accidents. The problem is again that the drive to save money can become very expensive in terms of insurance fees or compensation to workers and their families.

The same is true in the home, and indeed perhaps more so than in the workplace. A prospective home owner, just after spending an amount of money on his or her new premises, would wish to save as much money as possible on building and engineering costs. This however results in the same hazards as in the workplace. The homeowner and his family are thus in danger of injury or death as a result of using… [read more]

Women with Children in Science / Engineering Fields Term Paper

… ¶ … children is a disadvantage/advantage for women who want to have a career in science or engineering by comparing with the women who have not the children

Having children is a disadvantage/advantage for women who want to have a… [read more]

Engineering Ethics Websites Were Reviewed Term Paper

… The Institution of Engineers, Australia ethics code provides the most detailed information about ethical principles and their methods of implementation. Like the council's code the Australia code is defined by a two-tier system, in which the general cardinal principles are first listed and are next followed by the code's tenets, which provide more specific information about the cardinal principles. In addition to this, however, the Australia code provides general interpretations of the tenets through the use of examples and scenarios. So for example the tenet discussing about relationships between colleagues is interpreted as meaning that members should provide honest and fair criticisms towards the work of others, should give proper credit to colleagues who helped in completing a project, should compete with each other on the basis of merit, should avoid replacing colleagues during the completion of a project without notifying them, and so forth.

Besides providing detailed interpretations of its principles, the Australia code also includes several ethical issues that were noticeably absent from the other codes reviewed here. Such issues include the act of whistle blowing and the act of serving as an expert witness. The code ends with discussing about how the organization handles its members who allegedly breach it, which is another topic of consideration not delved into by the other ethics websites.

Works Cited

"American council of engineering companies ethical guidelines." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. October 1980. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005:

'IEEE (Institute of electrical and electronic engineers) code of ethics." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. August 1990. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005:

'The institution of engineers, Australia code of ethics." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: [read more]

Reverse Engineering it Is Impossible Term Paper

… But, for this information to be useful, it is necessary to know what motivated the requirements of the existing system to determine what needs to be retained from the existing system to meet new requirements (Rayson, Garside and Sawyer). Therefore, in addition to reverse engineering, the requirements engineer must use whatever information resources are available to construct conceptual models of the pre-change organization and its business processes and from these derive the requirements of the legacy software. This typically entails an iterative process of inferring stakeholders, roles, tasks and business objects and verifying these against the structure and behavior of legacy ftware.


Biggerstaff, T.J. (1989, July). Design recovery for maintenance and reuse," Computer, pp. 3649.

Muller, H.A., Wong, K. And Tilley, S.R. Understanding software systems using reverse engineering technology. Department of Computer Science, University of Victoria. Retrieved February 15, 2005 from Web site:

Rayson, P, Garside, R. And Sawyer, P. Recovering legacy requirements. Computing Department, Lancaster University. Retrieved February 15, 2005 from Web site: hl=en [read more]

Software Engineering Outline Requirements Term Paper

… In other words, CAT output provides information for formal reduction strategy designs.

These formal reduction strategy designs can be used to eliminate such problems as reducing redundant classes or replacing unnecessary classes or inefficient subclasses with more efficient superclasses. Since… [read more]

Engineering Registration the Website Term Paper

… One only needs to be a member of an accredited program in engineering at a college or university to be a student member, or a recent graduate of such a program to register with the organization.

Thus, the steps to becoming licensed are to find out the specific requirements of one's state, to decide what field of engineering specialty one wishes to embark upon (if one has not already done so) and prepare to take and pass the exam in this specific field. Then, one must accumulate the necessary experience, if this cannot be waived in one's field or state of practice, to become licensed. If one has past internship experience this requirement may be waived. To register with a professional organization, however, one need not be a licensed engineer merely for a general membership, only for the full membership available only to those engineers who are licensed -- instead, one can obtain a regular, student, or recent graduate membership if these categories are applicable to one's current status.

Works Cited

Texas Society of Professional Engineers. (2002) Official Website. Retrieved 29 November 2004… [read more]

Budgeting Engineering Organizations Term Paper

… The manger gives this consideration at each milestone decision point, addressing specific ongoing actions to actively manage (e.g., by implementing cost reduction or cost containment actions) the total life cycle costs of the project. Under CAIV, there is specific recognition that the best time to reduce lifecycle costs is early in the acquisition process because it may make sense for the manager to spend development funds in order to save a greater amount of production costs and/or operations and support costs when the program transitions to later phases.

Both CAIV and DTC are intended to control costs and are implemented during the acquisition of a system, but there are many differences (Criscimagna). The primary focus of DTC is on the projected average unit procurement costs. Projected operations and support cost objectives receive secondary attention. In practice, DTC focuses on controlling near-term costs because there are few incentives to spend development funds to reduce production and operations and support costs. Trades are usually a case of reducing requirements to stay within a unit production cost budget. Unlike DTC, CAIV attempts to manage to a life cycle of budge objectives. CAIV is not intended to force eighty-percent solutions to stay within a budget; it tries to find a way to get to 100% solution within the budget. Relaxing one or more requirements may be the only way to stay within the budget.

In summary, engineering organizations face unique challenges in budgeting because costs aren't always known in advance of the project. CAIV appears to be the optimal approach to budgeting in engineering organizations. It's certainly better than ignoring costs and is more comprehensive life cycle approach than a DTC strategy. However, even with the CAIV method, organizations must make sure that they update all measurable costs-to-date, learn from experience about better cost estimation techniques and improve step task processes to reduce costs (Gilb, 1997).


Criscimagna, N. CAIV. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: hl=en& ie=UTF-8

Crow, K. (2000). Achieving target cost / design-to-cost objectives. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site:

Geraldland. J. (1997, March-April. Differences in philosophy - design to cost vs. cost an independent variable. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: hl=en& ie=UTF-8

Gilb, T. (1997, August 21) Evo: the evolutionary project managers handbook. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: [read more]

Systems Engineering Documentation Term Paper

… When systems are developed, there is a great deal of data accumulated and paperwork generated. It is not surprising to have hundreds and even thousands of pages of documentation for a system such as a computer-human interface. Different forms of documentation are helpful to different aspects of systems engineering. For example, designers and developers often use operational-need and operational-concept information to get a thorough understanding of the identified need and what purpose it will serve. It helps clarify why certain decisions are made to limit misunderstandings.

Lists of system requirements clarify the exact goals that designs must meet and are used for the final criteria to be tested and evaluated at the end product. It especially helps to determine why one design is used over another one. At the very least, system documentation helps keep everyone on the same page (pun intended), hopefully minimizing inconsistencies and ambiguities between different people working on the same project.

Once the product is developed, the same documentation can be used by managers to determine if the project can be successfully repeated in the future, by operators who will be implementing the design to build the product and by individuals who are responsible for the safety and maintenance of the product.

Naturally, documentation must be continually updated with changes and improvements in the system design. There is nothing more upsetting than finding out in the middle of recreating an operation that the work must be redone because of an alteration -- be it large or small -- that has been made in the process in order to enhance the end result. Such updates in documentation also continue the learning process infinitely, since each time the system is recreated, the individuals involved may find another way to bring about positive change through such aspects as reduced material costs or decreased labor needs. [read more]

Management Requirements Engineering Process Term Paper

… When we have a poor specification it fails the validation in spite of successful verification process. Mistakes in the specification process are translated into the software design ultimately leading to the finished product, which does not cater to the actual… [read more]

Value Engineering and Reliability Term Paper

… Conclusion

The Federal Acquisition Regulations defines value engineering as an organized effort to analyze the functions of systems, equipment, facilities, services, and supplies for the purpose of achieving essential functions at the lowest life-cycle cost consistent with required performance, quality, and safety (Heller, 1971). Value engineering is quickly gaining recognition as the best way to save money and improve reliability.

The primary focus of value engineering is to improve a project or product through a function oriented, systematic approach that concentrates on improving the performance, and eliminating high cost functions that may not be needed, while improving value and reliability. The end result of this approach is a successful action plan to improve competitiveness, or help make an important project work well.

For this reason, value engineering is considered one of the best problem solving tools for improving quality, value, and reliability in products or projects. However, it is important to remember that reducing a project's scope, compromising its reliability or value, or using cheaper materials that will not function with reliability standards is not value engineering.


Brown, J. (1992). Value Engineering: A Blueprint, Industrial Press Inc.

Heller, E.D. (1971). Value Management: Value Engineering and Cost Reduction, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Johnson, Kelly. (September 28, 2000). Does Value Engineering Live Up to Its Name? PM Engineer.

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB). (May 21, 1993). Value… [read more]

Hydrology and Civil Engineering Term Paper

… Two inches of rushing water from a flood knocks a person off his or her feet. Two feet of water sweeps an automobile downstream. "Flash floods occur with little or no warning and can reach full peak in only a few minutes," FEMA warns. Property damage from flooding in America now totals over a billion dollars a year.

One dramatic disaster reported by FEMA is, on a large scale, what can happen when heavy precipitation occurs in a short period of time: "On July 31, 1976, the Big Thompson River near Denver overflowed after an extremely heavy storm. A wall of water 19 feet high roared down the Big Thompson Canyon where many people were camping. 140 people perished and millions of dollars of property were lost."

Again, to mitigate the issues of flash flooding, cities and states and counties will turn to civil engineers that work with hydrology.

Subsurface Water

Subsurface water is water beneath the surface of the earth. Along with groundwater and soil water, subsurface water makes up approximately.5% of all water in the hydrosphere. There are three zones of subsurface water: 1) the soil water zone, 2) an intermediate zone, and 3) the ground water zone. When heavy rains saturate the soil above and seep down, the pore spaces between soil materials quickly are filled with water, and that is when flooding occurs.

Civil Engineering / Hydrology Innovations

Not all hydrology-related civil engineering success has to do with floods and fresh water. In fact, among the more practical engineering innovations to come along is "ice blast technology," which combines electrical and mechanical components in a machine that uses tiny ice pellets for pressure cleaning. Ice particles are made in an immersed cold drum to form a pre-stressed ice sheet that then breaks up into small ice particles. What are its uses? The U.S. Navy, Stanford and the Universities of Michigan and Washington use ice blast machines to remove loose lead paint - a process which saves them money and is environmentally safer than using caustic, toxic chemical solutions. By using ice blasting, the Dutch Ministry of Transportation has enjoyed a 55% cost savings over high-pressure water blasting in removing barnacles from giant pumps. The city of Santa Monica uses ice blasting for cleaning beach houses and removing graffiti and chewing gum from school grounds. Ice blasting has even been used in nuclear maintenance to reduce radiation hazards prior to service, thereby achieving significant dose savings.


CNN "Water Solution Remains Pipe Dream" (August 28, 2002) World Summit in Johannesburg, South Africa

FEMA (2002) Backgrounder: Floods and Flash Floods: Emergency Information

Environment Protection Agency (2002) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

System (NPDES)

Association of State… [read more]

Most Basic Privileges Admission Essay

… I will constantly be of assistance to people who need my expertise. I cannot think of anything more fulfilling than that.

In addition, having electrical engineering as my major will also create an avenue for my future. As part of my career path, for example, I would like to start a business of my own. This will allow me to not only offer my passion and expertise as an electrical engineer to my clients, but also to offer employment opportunities to others who are similarly passionate in the field. I will therefore be able to share some of my good fortune with others, which is important in the world today.

Finally, electrical engineering is one of the fields today that offers great opportunities for invention. As an electrical engineer, I will be able to contribute to the development of technology by creating new inventions and solutions for common problems people face today. Like Thomas Edison, who created not only the first durable and practical light bulb, but also other devices like the phonograph and the motion picture camera, I will be able to contribute to the world in a concrete way.

Knowing that I can contribute to the world of technology in these ways will give my life a sense of profound meaning. I love electricity and all the things we can do with it today. Thinking about a future in which I can use this love to contribute to the field as an employee, a business owner, and an inventor fills me with a sense of great excitement.

I believe that my love for electrical engineering and my passion for all its new information and developments will make me an asset as an undergraduate student with this subject as my major. I look forward to furthering my studies on my way to becoming a contributing citizen in the world of technology. [read more]

Project Management Successes at the Golden Gate Bridge Term Paper

… ¶ … narrow Bosphorus Strait or "Golden Horn" in Turkey by John Charles Fremont in 1846, the Golden Gate bay is more than a mile wide but engineers were convinced that a bridge was possible and plans proceeded to this… [read more]

Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Term Paper

… ¶ … Technologies in Hydraulic Fracturing Technologies Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference: 6-8 February 2012

This trip report provides a summary of the events attended, reports reviewed and other aspects of my attendance at the SPE Hydraulic… [read more]

Sustainability Classifications in Engineering Discipline and Approach Essay

… ¶ … Sustainability classifications in engineering: discipline and approach," the author sifts through the plethora of definitions, theories, and political viewpoints in relation to the concept of sustainability. The engineering sciences play a unique role in sustainability science, and are responsible for at least participating in the discussion about sustainability. In fact, the concept and practical application of sustainability is of the utmost importance to the engineering community. However, engineering departments at universities and individual scientists do not agree on a definition of sustainability -- or on the role of the engineer.

The primary and most formidable issue in sustainable engineering is the mitigation of climate change. Whether the causes for climate change matter to the engineer is one of the issues in sustainability literature. The engineer is ultimately more concerned about solutions to climate change than about causes, which are important only insofar as it affects future trajectories. A comprehensive examination of sustainability discourse can impact the development of public policy.

One issue related to sustainability is what relative or intrinsic… [read more]

Mechanical Engineering Research Paper

… Role of Defense Industry Engineers Today

The General Role of Engineers for Defense

Types of Work Performed by Engineers in the Defense Industry

Key Attributes and Skills Required

Ethical Issues for Defense Industry Engineers

The Role of Defense Industry Engineers… [read more]

Quality and Innovation in Product Process Design Term Paper

… ¶ … Engineering Qs

Concurrent engineering, as the name implies, involves the simultaneous designing of various components of a given product. Essentially, different teams working on different parts of a complex final product -- such as an automobile, for instance -- work in unison on the various parts of their product, ideally reaching completion at approximately the same time. This is in contrasts to sequential engineering, in which the various components of a complex final product are designed separately, one after the other, which can be much more costly and inefficient than concurrent engineering for a variety of direct and indirect reasons.

In concurrent engineering, frequent communication between groups leads to fewer needs to redesign elements as the project moves forward -- all components are designed with an accurate and current awareness of how the whole will fit together. There is also a significant time savings, which of course translates to cost savings, when concurrent engineering is employed; different teams working simultaneously necessarily complete projects faster than independent teams working in sequence. Customer involvement in the design process is also often more possible with concurrent engineering, leading to greater utility in the final product.


One of the many methods that can be utilize to determine why an engineered system might have failed, and what other failures might be caused, is a fault tree analysis, or FTA. The FTA is a tool that graphically maps out the elements in a given system that contributed or might have contributed to a system failure. It essentially maps out the events, whether normal or abnormal, that can or have occurred in a system, and… [read more]

Role of an Engineer Research Paper

… Environmental Engineering

Environmental Engineers

Of the many different sectors in which engineers can find employment, one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding areas is that of environmental engineering. This is a rather broad field that can incorporate many different types of engineering knowledge and practices, but is essentially and primarily concerned with the protection and/or rehabilitation of the planet's natural resources -- the water, air, and land -- for the purposes of creating lower-impact and sustainable methods for continuing human activities (Salvato et al. 2003). This can mean finding ways to reduce pollution into waterways and the atmosphere, ways of removing pollutants that have already been released, effective ways of managing not only pollution but other impacts on the environment from industrial and commercial endeavors, and a host of other areas of human activity and endeavor.

Environmental engineers have become of increasing importance in recent years, not only for the elimination of pollution and the minimization of current impacts of human commerce and life on the environment, but also in the creation of new technologies that make for more sustainable living (Reible 1999). This means that many building projects, technology designs, governmental agencies and policy advising groups need input from environmental engineers, and this need is only growing (Reible 1999). This makes environmental engineering an excellent field for anyone who has the essential skills to study engineering, as well as a well established ability to take in a number of complex considerations and has a strong commitment to helping improve humanity's relationship with the environment.

There are several key characteristics that must be possessed by successful environmental engineers. The number of various factors that come into play in most environmental issues will require the understanding and coordination of a large amount of diverse types of data from a number of sources, so an environmental engineer must have a wide array of knowledge and a quick grasp of new and changing circumstances and information (Weiner et al. 2003). An innovative view is also a key characteristic that environmental engineers ought to possess to maximize their success in this field; though many of the problems facing the environment are decades old, they require new solutions for which there is often no real infrastructure or previous experience to build on. Enjoying the collection of knowledge… [read more]

Role of Engineers in Water Industry Research Proposal

… Water Engineering

The Role of Engineers in the Water Industry

From the times the Romans built the aqueducts -- indeed, since the time the fields of Mesopotamia were irrigated -- one of the most essential services of engineering to society… [read more]

Why Does the I 35w Mississippi River Bridge Failed? Thesis

… ¶ … 35W Mississippi River Bridge failed, and what ethical issues were involved. On August 1, 2007, the I-35W Bridge over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota, collapsed, sending cars, drivers, and construction workers to their deaths. The ethical issue… [read more]

Socialization of Girls in the US Away From Science and Engineering Professions 1950 200 Term Paper



Historically and traditionally women have not entered into educational pursuits or the professions of science and engineering at the same rate as… [read more]

Leonardo Da Vinci the Architect and His Machine Inventions Term Paper

… ¶ … da Vinci's architectural and engineering designs, including his flying, water, and war machines, and his architectural designs such as the Galata Bridge. Leonardo is known as the true "Renaissance Man," because his life embodied the Renaissance thoughts of… [read more]

Genetic Engineering Cloning Term Paper

… Cloning and Human Engineering

The controversy about cloning and human engineering has resulted in heated debate and discussion across a broad spectrum of disciplines and views. While cloning is essentially a scientific and medical discovery, yet the implications and the… [read more]

Process Reengineering and Knowledge Management Initiatives Term Paper

… ¶ … Engineering and Knowledge Management

The purpose of this paper is to identify a process or company that would benefit from implementing Business Process Reengineering (BPR), to describe the process, explain the reasons why it would benefit from re-engineering,… [read more]

Project Management Term Paper

… According to its corporate profile, Keppel Offshore & Marine, integrating the experience and expertise of Keppel FELS, Keppel Shipyard, Keppel Singmarine and Keppel yards overseas, was established in 2002 (About Us 2004). Keppel Shipyard Benoi is a wholly-owned subsidiary of… [read more]

Bridge Design and Engineering Bridges Term Paper

… His 32-meter cable-stayed bridge of 1784 was made entirely out of timber, even using timber stays. In 1817, Redpath and Brown began further development of this bridge type, but later two of their built bridges would collapse, gaining a lot… [read more]

Positive and Negative Engineering Summary Term Paper

… The author calls this a mixed system.

The author proposes a mixed system, which would limit the power of decision-makers to a power of veto. This system would essentially be a combination of parental initiative and central veto, and the author states that this type of system would be the best possible option for the decision-making involved in positive engineering. The mixed system eliminates worries about genetic changes being controlled by a few powerful people with limited scope. However, a general anxiety remains as to the values that would be utilized in making these decisions. Furthermore, the deepest resistance is based in values, and the question of whether parents have the right to create one type of person over another.

The author asks how we can be sure that it is better for one person to be born rather than another?

A lack of foresight is one of the most prominent dangers when it comes to positive engineering, regardless of how decisions are made. The possibility of disaster is a real danger, which is a strong argument against positive engineering. The author stresses the necessity for caution, and that the benefits must outweigh the risks

The author suggests that the resistances discussed toward positive engineering do not justify a complete rejection of the idea. The practice of caution, decentralized decision-making, and the avoidance of positive engineering in authoritarian societies are discussed as critical elements for the use of this gene-altering process. Human nature element underlying the issue, and the author discusses whether or not it is necessary or acceptable to preserve human nature in its current state. [read more]

Biomechanics Is the Application Term Paper

… Biomechanics finds it greatest uses in the studies of athletes and industrial workers. The main aims of studies being increasing performance efficiently without compromising physical health.

Biomechanics as its definition suggests is a cross disciplinary field. It combines the studies of mechanics, physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, medicine, and even statistics. There are few undergraduate degrees in biomechanics available. But as a specialized professional field, masters and doctoral degrees are available. A typical curriculum for a degree in Biomechanics would involve the student taking courses in: statistical methods, in the theory and design and physical activity, factors influencing exercise performance, neural basis for movement, motor control and learning, measuring motor behavior, motor development, cardio-respiratory adaptations to environment and principles of human physiology. Of course, there are specialized branches of Biomechanics. Sports medicine is one. Industrial Biomechanics is another.

Biomechanics is a specialized field and is finding its niche in almost every walk of life from home furnishings, to apparel (especially shoes), the work place and sports. Most of the associated employment opportunities would therefore be in the areas of (besides pure research and teaching) sports medicine, biomechanics of dentistry, design of prosthetics, ergonomics, orthopedics, combined with a computer science degree and biomechanics -- computer simulation of biomechanics, orthopedics and muscle studies, trauma and reconstruction, physical therapy, motion analysis and locomotion, bio-robotics and rehabilitation. (, 2003)

In conclusion, we can return to Socrates' belief that one must understand one's own body before changing the surroundings. In this endeavor, Biomechanics goes a long way.

Bibliography American Society of Biomechanics. 2003. Available:, 7 2003.

Huff, S.J. Electromyography. 2002. Available: October 7, 2003.

Imrhan, S.N. "Equipment Design for Maintenance: Part I - Guidelines for the Practitioner." International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 10 (1992): 35-43.

Kallen, L.A., and Polin, H.S. "A Physiological Stroboscope." Science 80 (1934): 592.

Lauder, G.V., Leroi, A.M., and Rose, M.R. "Adaptations and History." TREE 8.8 (1993): 294-97. [read more]

Aerospace Engineering Plethora of Purposes Term Paper

… " (Renshaw) design of this magnitude would be essential to the reduction of environmental pollutants. In addition a vehicle that could change shape while flying would be unprecedented. High speed transportation is just one of the many products that are… [read more]

SOP I Am a Mechanical Engineer Major Admission Essay


I am a mechanical engineer major studying at a four-year college and am now pursing a Master of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M. The reason for applying to this specific program is its focus on application rather than theory. I am primarily interested in project design, and envision myself applying my A&M degree in the private sector and potentially in the field of medical technologies.

The most recent project I completed was the design and manufacture of the Stair Lift Walker. With an experienced team consisting of other students, we used Autodesk Inventor for the initial drafts, ran several types of ANSYS analyses to determine stress points and weight requirements, and ultimately assembled the Stair Lift Walker. Assembly helped highlight both the strengths and weaknesses in our design. The strengths included the materials chosen, including lightweight titanium for the legs, as well as advanced polymers for the handlebar grips. However, our measurements were slightly off and I do believe we need to improve on the design by ensuring it is adjustable for different height and weight categories. While at A&M I intend to master knowledge in the physical properties of polymers, including knowledge about the flow and fracture of these versatile materials. Because of the way the Stair Lift Walker brought to my attention the value of understanding stress analysis, this is an area of specialization I intend to pursue while at A&M. As the Stair Lift Walker was the first prototype I have ever designed, I look forward to future projects using the facilities at A&M and collaborating with my colleagues.

One of the reasons I have become interested in applying my mechanical engineering degree to medical technologies in particular is that I have worked in a hospice with seniors, and have also taken care of elders in my family. I have witnessed both the wonders of medical technologies in the ways that they have aided seniors in adapting their bodies to their environments and vice-versa. While at the hospice, I met the regional sales director of a medical supplies company. The sales director informed me of the range of items in their product catalog and this was when I realized that my future was to be as a chief product engineer whose work would directly benefit the population. From designing prostheses to assistive technologies for the disabled, my work as a mechanical engineer will be altruistic in scope, and perfectionistic at the base level of design.

Moreover, effective product design ensures ergonomics for all age groups. Working deeply with the principles of stress and strain analysis during my senior project has opened up a wide range of questions related to how to design equipment that optimizes safety and ergonomics at the same time, while also minimizing expenditures. My input into the product design of… [read more]

Business Systems Essay

… In the section on choosing off-the-shelf software, eight criteria are proposed for evaluating alternative packages. Suppose the choice is between alternative custom software developers rather than prewritten packages. What criteria would be appropriate to select and compare among competing bidders for custom development of an application? Define each of these criteria.

The first and most important is ongoing support and service of the source code and application. This refers to the need for keeping the overall source code stable and also updated with the latest updates and maintenance. The second criteria would be the skill and depth of expertise of the programmers in the area(s) the application are being used in. This is critically important to ensure the customer software meets specific customer needs. The third criterion is the use of the latest software tools and techniques, including software reliability, to ensure the software will be stable and usable over time.

How might the project team recommending an ERP design strategy justify its recommendation as compared with other types of design strategies?

The first and most important is justifying an ERP design strategy that can orchestrate the many sources of structured data across an enterprise and make it usable by those that need it most to do their jobs. The second reason to rely on an ERP design strategy is its integrative nature at the system and process level, including the ability to create a single system of record throughout an organization. This is invaluable for managing customer, supplier, distributor and service center relationships over time. A third factor that makes an ERP design strategy critically important is aligning all enterprise systems within an organization to its strategic plans and initiatives. This is critically important in industries known for very rapid product lifecycles, like retailing, where ERP systems are used for planning and executing new product launches every nine to twelve months. [read more]

Differences Between Heathrow Cargo Tunnel and Piccadilly Tube Research Paper

… ¶ … Channel Tunnel and the Thames Tunnel: Soil Composition and Building Methodology

Subaqueous tunnels present unique engineering challenges, for some obvious and some not-so-obvious reasons. Complications regarding materials, work crews, machinery, soil, and of course water all make tunnel-building… [read more]

Server Architecture Clients Fat Thin Application Systems Assessment

… Server Architectures

Using a Fat Client/Server Architecture in Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Workflows

The continual debate between the inherent value of thin client/server architectures that can be configured relatively quickly to the more intensive levels of planning, implementation and continual maintenance of thick client/server networks need to be delineated by use cases and applications used. Thin client network's speed to configure and ubiquity of support needs to balanced against the bandwidth requirements that more data-intensive applications require over time (Guynes, Windsor, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to illustrate how an engineering consulting and design organization will require a thick client/server architecture given the size, complexity and continual editing necessary to get projects done on time across their global operations. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) files often require intensive levels of cross-integration for support and reference files including symbol libraries as well. These prerequisites for effective CAD system use make a thick client/server architecture ideal for this specific need.

CAD Designers Need Real-Time Data Integration To Complete Tasks

The driving catalyst of having a thick client/server architecture to support teams of CAD designers globally is the intensive level of data integration inherent in their specific design files and supporting imagery, vector data and supporting application designs. A thin client network, predicated on small, relatively easily scaled transactions, is well suited for conversational and quick interchanges as occur in e-mail and low-end collaboration systems (Lee, 2002). A thin client network also requires continual contact with servers to keep applications continually performing as well (Schmerken, 1997). Both of these aspects of a thin client network architecture would be disastrous for a network of CAD designers working for an engineering and design consulting firm.

A network of CAD engineers and designers would require a more intensive level of transaction support and scalability of network performance to support shared visualizations of their models as well. One of the criterion for thick client architecture performance is the need for optimizing multimedia performance (Lai, Nieh, 2006). For the teams of CAD designers located globally, the ability to literally walk through each of their models and show the outcomes of design decisions could save literally thousands of dollars in travel costs per year. Technologies exist today that can accomplish this, and they are predicated on the advantages of a thick client/server architecture.

As CAD designers and developers rely on a highly coordinated, synchronized approach to completing projects called concurrent engineering, thick client networks fit… [read more]

System Test and Evaluation Plan Research Paper

… " () The systems engineering process for DoD is shown in the following illustration.

Figure 3 -- Systems Engineering Process

Source: Defense Acquisition University Press (2011)

III. Discussion of Validation and Verification

It is reported that component and breadboard validation in the laboratory environment: basic technological components are integrated to establish that the pieces will work together. This is relatively 'low fidelity' compared to the eventual system. Examples in clued integration of 'ad hoc' hardware in a laboratory." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011) Component and breadboard validation in relevant environment -- Fidelity of breadboard technology increases significantly. The board validation in relevant basic technological components are integrated with reasonably environment. realistic supporting elements so that the technology can be tested in simulated environment. Examples include "high fidelity" laboratory integration of components. The systems engineering process involves the process input characterized by customer needs and objectives. The System Analysis and Control includes requirements analysis, functional analysis and allocation, and synthesis resulting in process output. Systems analysis and control is reported to be inclusive of "technical management activities required to measure progress, evaluate and select alternatives and document data and decisions." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011) Stated as the purpose of systems analysis and control are the following:

(1) solution alternative decisions are made only following evaluation of the impact on system effectiveness, life cycle resources, risk and customer requirements;

(2) Technical decisions and specification requirements are based on systems engineering outputs,

(3) Traceability from systems engineering process inputs to outputs is maintained,

(4) Schedules for development and delivery are mutually supportive,

(5) Required technical disciplines are integrated into the systems engineering effort,'

(6) Impacts of customer requirements on resulting functional and performance requirements are examined for validity, consistency, desirability, and attainability, and,

(7) Product and process design requirements are directly traceable to the functional and performance requirements they were designed to fulfill, and vice versa.( Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

IV. Illustration of Evaluation Methodology and Certification Techniques

Ensuring the functionality and use of the product involves the following:

(1) Verification -- This is the process of determining that a model implementation accurately represents the developer's conceptual description and specifications that the model was designed to.

(2) Validation -- This is the process of determining the manner and degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model, and of establishing the level of confidence that should be placed on this assessment." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

(3) Accreditation -- this is the formal certification "that a model or simulation is acceptable for use for a specific purpose. Accreditation is conferred by the organization best positioned to make the judgment that the model or simulation in question is acceptable. That organization may be an operational user, the program office, or a contractor, depending upon the purposes intended." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

These functions are shown in the following illustration labeled Figure .

Figure 4 -- Verification, Validation… [read more]

Intended Degree Program Educational Essay

… Simply put, engineering is one of the most necessary fields and industries that a person can pursue. In a way, to pursue a graduate study in Engineering and to desire to be an engineer is to apply oneself to be a civil servant. Engineers service the public. They help the public. They contribute to improvements experienced by many all around the world.

In a strange way, I have come to want to study and become an engineer. The desire crystallized as I would watch my Chihuahua. My Chihuahua has a bit of a charmed life. She wraps herself up like a burrito while other people bring her food, water, cater to her whims. It is a life I desire for myself.

Toward the end of my life, I see myself enjoying what life has to offer, relaxing, and with plenty of time of reflection for what I have accomplished in my life as a professional engineer. Therefore, pursuit and acquisition of a graduate degree in Engineering is an earlier step on the path I foresee for myself, as I try to live a life closer aligned with the lifestyle of my pampered puppy.

My graduate studies in Engineering, especially those at the doctoral level, will enable me to be qualified for research and design positions that could lead to a professorship and creations of something that will change the world indefinitely. [read more]

Glass Structures Research Proposal

… (Bruce, 2011, p.21)

Characteristics strengths revealed:

Annealed 46N/mm2

Heat-strengthened 70N/mm2

Toughened 120N/mm2

Annealed glass is subject to stress corrosion which is fond to cracking under long duration loads. Annealed glass is also vulnerable to thermal shock that causes cracking due to internal stresses resulting from temperature differences. The modeling of the annealed glass can be done by re-heating the glass the cooling the outer surface. The cooling prestresses the outside skin enhancing the capacity of extreme fibres to be able to resist tensile stress. Residual which is the extend of stress is determined by the rate of cooling. The toughened glass has a minimum residual surface of 100N/mm2 while heat-strengthened have a minimum residual surface stress of between 41-49N/mm2 (Mahesh, 2010, p.9)

The critical area in the design of the glass structure is connection .Connection links the series of elements .The choice of connection type is based on various factors such as:

Adequate tolerance for construction


Method of fabrication and aesthetics

Strength requirement

In connection the high strength capacity of glass is made use of in transferring a load and this in turn minimizes the depth and complexity of the connection. Connections comprises of edge bearing connection, Hole bearing connection and Friction Grip connection.

Glass can be used as a structural material with adequate safety provided suitable attention to detail in both design and construction, more so, use of laminated glass where appropriate to enhance redundancy.


"Administration Building in Saint-German-en-Laye near Paris"

Address: [Accessed: January 2007]

"A House in Almere, Netherlands"

Address: se-almere [Accessed: January 2007]

"Architectural Glass"

Address: ural_glass

[Accessed: November 2006]

"Explore Glass Chemical Composition"

Address: [Accessed: November 2006]

Bruce W (2011) structural design of glass

Mahesh A., (2010) comprehensive guide for glass structure

Shand E.B, (2010) glass engineering handbook.

Wilson P. (2008) construction of all-glass structures with external glass frames [read more]

Innovative Processes Essay

… A primer for Metaplanning espoused, "the Metaplan technique is a tool to make group discussions more effective" (Metaplan, 2001, p. 3). The Metaplan technique provides a construct that allows participants to be fully engaged in the designing and innovation process… [read more]

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