"Engineering / Mechanics" Essays

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Nanomachines the Science of Molecular Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (4,289 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The replication instructions within these hybrid biological/mechanical machines to be designed by engineers will be composed of computer code instead of DNA is one such difference worth mentioning.

However, these machines still look like and perform as existing cell types and this is what Drexler and other engineers and nanobiologists foresee. Viruses are composed of proteins and coding material and… [read more]

Elites in Engineering Dissertation

Dissertation  |  40 pages (11,890 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 100


Elites in Engineering

In the contemporary world, it has increasingly become significant for active engineers to be uniformly skilled in technical and management comprehension. This is in the view of the fact numerous graduates find themselves in significant leadership positions. To assist engineering professionals improve their leadership aptitudes within their profession through a course in Entrepreneurship, Leadership, Innovation and Technology… [read more]

Engineering Ethics and Morality Related Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


It happened soon after the shuttle's conclusion of its 28th mission. According to some reports, the disaster occurred due to a damage which was sustained during the launch when a small part of foam insulation having the size of a little briefcase broke away from the external tank of the space shuttle, this debris struck the left wing's leading edge which damaged the TPS (thermal protection system). When Columbia was still in orbit, this fault was pointed out by some of the engineers but NASA refused to do anything about it. Therefore it can be concluded that if swift action was taken soon after knowing about this incident then all of this loss would have been prevented, although some blame poor engineering as the cause, the main reason is often deemed to be more ethical rather than technical.

Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

It is a series of nuclear meltdowns, equipment failures and the release of harmful radioactive materials from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Although the primary cause of this disaster is technical one but the human error in all of this scenario can not be neglected. It was observed that the main damage to the power plant occurred because of the tsunami that hit the plant site soon after the earthquake. Here, it was the responsibility of the engineers working at the plant to make it safe from every possible known disaster and the factor of tsunami was largely ignored by everyone working at the site. If the engineers would have studied the outcomes of different disaster events in more detailed form from the start then all of this would have been avoided.

Nicoll Highway collapse

This highway collapse occurred on 20th April 2004 at Singapore when an under construction tunnel used by trains collapsed. The investigations regarding the collapse started immediately after the incident. The findings of these investigations concluded that the main cause of collapse was due to the inability of the retaining wall to handle stress. Four workers died because of this incident, on the ethical ground if the engineers would have studied the site in more detail and used more reliable raw material for the construction of the retaining wall then all of this could have been easily avoided.

Willow Island disaster

It is regarded as the biggest construction disaster in American history, the Willow disaster was due to the collapse of an under construction cooling tower at a power station. It resulted in the death of 51 workers. One of the main reason for this disaster was the unusual scaffold construction, others included missing bolts and the availability of only a single access ladder. If the engineers would have given more attention in doing proper scaffold construction then all of this disaster could have been avoided.

Tenerife disaster

It is the most deadly disaster in the history of aviation which resulted in the deaths of 583 individuals. Here two airplanes collided with each other as a result of a series of unfortunate events involving… [read more]

Role of Engineering Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (930 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Aircraft Engineering

Engineering in the Aerospace Industry

There are many areas of endeavor where engineers are a vital and necessary part of success. One of the most exciting fields to emerge over the past century, and which continues to make groundbreaking and truly life-altering advances in the modern era, is aerospace engineering. The making of air and space craft encompasses far more than might be initially thought; in addition to airplanes and space shuttles, the rockets used to deliver communication satellites into orbit and even the satellites themselves are designed by aerospace engineers. In this way, the continued use of current technologies like wireless Internet networks, television signals, and cell phones are hugely dependent on the success of aerospace engineers. The variety of different careers, opportunities, tasks, and skills that are found in the realm of aerospace engineering makes it one of the most exciting industries for prospective engineers looking forward to a rich and expanding career.

One of the most easily imaginable occupations that an aerospace engineer might be involved in is the design of new aircraft. There are a variety of skills needed for a career in aircraft design; in addition to the ability to compute highly complex figures regarding stress, weight, principles of lift, and many other factors while designing the aircraft, strong visual skills and a solid understanding of industry software is also necessary (Raymer 2006). This is important not only for the engineer to have a strong sense of the physical possibilities of a design, but also for the communication of these visualizations to others who lack any engineering expertise. Though it is often of less importance, there is also a necessity for the aircraft engineer to have a good aesthetic sense (Raymer 2006).

There are also less obvious and in some ways more technical engineering needs in the aerospace industry. The separate but related areas of propulsion, fluid mechanics, and structure are just a few of the specializations important in aerospace engineering (Garner 2002). In aerospace engineering, fluid mechanics is more accurately referred to as aerodynamics, which is also a more familiar term to many. Essentially, these engineers must study and understand the way gases -- such as air -- flow around air or space craft, adjusting the body design for stabilization, fuel efficiency, speed, or whatever else the client specifies (Garner 2002). This leads to one of the most essential skills for all engineers, including aerospace engineers -- the ability to effectively communicate with clients and with production teams is a major component of engineering work, and is often given diminished training and respect, especially in the aerospace industry (Sanders & McCormick 2002).

Equally important is the ability to work with computers, and even with computer engineers. Many issues in aerospace engineering can be best handled by computers,…… [read more]

Engineering Career in Aerospace Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Career in Aerospace Engineering

Aerospace engineering as a profession is a career of the future, dealing with anything from missile weapons systems to aircraft and spacecraft. The career depends on education, input of other engineers in other disciplines, and skills that come from on the job knowledge and discovery. A well-paying career, aerospace engineering is an area of employment… [read more]

Social Engineering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,828 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


In terms of actual examples of social engineering, these are numerous and include acts from the smallest of scale to increasingly difficult and with most serious effects that are still ongoing and even spreading (Francophoned case study presented below). As an example, in a day-to-day situation, a social engineering process can be identified in a communication from an individual advising… [read more]

Systems Engineering Expertise the Balkanization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Systems Engineering Expertise

The balkanization of organizations often impedes progress towards complex, highly challenging objectives. The continual adoption of system engineering concepts, frameworks and theories taken together are making it possible for organizations to attain greater results based on closer collaboration [1]. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how systems engineering creates a competitive advantage by selectively combining specific strengths of each functional area of department to create a more agile approach to delivering value to customers.

Analysis of Systems Engineering As A Catalyst Of Greater Innovation

The synchronization of supply chain, sourcing, supplier quality, production and services requires a systemic approach to optimizing the contributions of each. Add to this the need for compliance and quality management, and the critical need for systems engineering as a means to continually improve becomes clear. The greater the level of synchronization across the most constrained resources of any enterprise, the greater the overall performance along the quality and performance dimensions of the systemic processes [2].

The production of medical devices, aerospace and defense components, and other highly regulated products rely on systems engineering to engrain quality into every aspect of sourcing, production and service. The inclusion of quality management standards is an essential cost of doing business in the medical products industry as the Federal Drug Administration can audit a production line at any time. The role of industrial engineering expertise in the synchronization of development, production and marketing is critical for the ongoing operations of any highly regulated business. Systemic insights into the specific departments' contributions to each aspect of quality is also critically important in the production of all medical devices. They are especially critical…… [read more]

Application of Layout and Topology Optimization Using Pattern Gradation for the Conceptual Design of Buildings Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Current Research in Topology Optimization: An Article Review

Current research and practice in engineering and design relies increasingly on computation-driven optimization techniques that result in a more efficient and more effective use of resources, creating stronger and more lasting structures out of less materials. The computational problems that can and do arise in light of the complex tasks that… [read more]

Continuing Education for Engineers Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Education in Engineering

Engineering is a highly technical profession that requires considerable professional training to enter the field. By the time a professional engineer completes his or undergraduate education program and then satisfies the professional certification requirements that are prerequisites to practice in the field, he or she is highly qualified and capable of fulfilling the obligations and responsibilities of professional practice. However, like other sciences, engineering science is a continually evolving field in which a professional cannot rely exclusively on prior training to remain competent in the field. Since so many aspects of applied engineering directly affect human safety, it is essential that all practicing professional engineers continually update their knowledge bases and skills (Harris, Pritchard, & Rabins, 2008).

Generally, the individual engineering licensing agencies and professional associations maintain their own requirements for continuing education in their particular areas (Harris, Pritchard, & Rabins, 2008). However, these requirements represent only the bare minimum by virtue of the tremendous variability in the individual practices of most professional engineers. In principle, it is impossible for a broad set of continuing education requirements of all mechanical engineers or of all civil engineers to adequately ensure the complete continued professional competence of all of the members of those respective professional associations. Therefore, the engineering firm and employing agencies have an ethical responsibility to ensure that the continued education of their engineers meets the actual needs of their specific professional responsibilities beyond the more general minimum requirements set by professional associations of engineers.

Generally, this responsibility would require employers to establish their own in-house training requirements that address specialty areas and sub-specialty areas beyond the depth of knowledge that they can…… [read more]

Engineering Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Engineering Ethics

Ethics in the Study and Practice of Engineering: Pragmatic and Intrinsic Values in Science and Application

As the world becomes increasingly interconnected and interdependent, issues of ethics and ethical missteps have become increasingly common and prominent in the media and in terms of public attention. The worldwide financial crisis is one example of how ethically questionable and/or ethically… [read more]

Engineering Application Is Often a More Complex Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … engineering application is often a more complex feature of an engineering endeavor than might be expected from external observations. There are many different considerations that must be taken into account when selecting materials for use in engineering, including the various strengths of the material, its weight in relation to its strength, its cost, issues involved with its extraction… [read more]

Social Engineering Tactics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Social Engineering Tactics


There is a lot of controversy when it comes to understanding social engineering. Its Mere definition sparks various arguments amongst renowned scholars. "It is basically the act of manipulating a person to do something that may or may not be for the person's best interest "(Social, 2010).It involves making a person to do certain actions, and acquiring information from the person. It might seem like a deceptive way of doing things, but it is what everyone does in their daily lives like an innocent child trying to get candy from their parents, or someone on a campaign trail seeking votes. Its level of complexity and wide scope of use makes it a science. Just like any other type of science, social engineering can be used in almost all kinds of activities and for various reasons (Podgorecki and Alexander, 1996)

This paper will focus on how social engineering is being applied and how individuals and organization can be protected. Due to its wide scope of application key highlights will be on: impersonation, hoaxing, creating confusion, reverse social engineering, spamming and use of fake anti-spyware.

Common social engineering tactics


Impersonation is one of the oldest tricks the engineers persuade their targets to release information or to do something for them through telephones and mails. It usually takes longer than other methods because the engineers need accurate information so as to fully convince their targets. An example, an engineer using this method may pretend to represent your bank, and then give a few details about your account, and then will tell you there is a technical hitch and your account has been disabled so he needs your pin so as to activate your account. This technique requires a lot of effort and research to appear legitimate to the victim.


A technique like hoaxing is much simpler and easier for engineers. This is tricking people to believe that something is real and it is false. It mostly affects individuals because there are more vulnerable to such ploys than corporations (Thapar, 2008). Another technique similar to hoaxing is creating confusion. This is basically creating a situation and taking advantage of it. An example can be a person causing mayhem in an office thus distracting staff while his accomplices get access to information.

Reverse Social Engineering, Spamming and fake antispyware

There are other more complex methods that are emerging from social engineers like reverse social engineering, spamming, and fake antispyware. Reverse social engineering is smart method where one tricks the victim by creating a platform to be asked questions instead of questioning the victims. In this type of social engineering, the engineers create an impression of being in a particular field of expertise or having certain authority, and they use the trust they have won from their victims.

The use of spamming and fake anti-spyware is fully dependent on the internet and…… [read more]

Sustainable Engineering Practice a Review Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sustainable Engineering Practice

A Review of Three News Articles

Gies, Erica. "Solar Waste Recycling: Can the industry stay green?" Spot.us. 9 Aug 2010 Web

Several decades have passed and the use of Solar Technology has increased and changed over time. While it is certainly a green and sustainable resource, there are several components of the technology that reach End of Life (EOL) or otherwise have to be replaced. IN order to follow the initial paradigm of the technology, these "waste" components need to be These outgoing parts need to be reused or recycled in order for Solar energy to remain wholly in the green zone. Traditionally technology has been difficult to reuse, so recycling has usually be the course. Old computers can sometimes be reused to emerging countries, but more than likely the toxic components need to be safely deconstructed and recycled. The same is true of Solar technology and several new companies have sprung up to take advantage of this market.

Solar modules contain some of the same potentially dangerous materials as electronics, including silicon tetrachloride, cadmium, selenium and sulfur hexafluoride, a potent greenhouse gas. So as solar moves from the fringe to the mainstream, insiders and watchdog groups are beginning to talk about producer responsibility and recycling in an attempt to sidestep the pitfalls of electronic waste and retain the industry's green credibility. (Geis)

The Solar panels have an approximate 20-year lifespan, and the non-profit group, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, is attempting to enlist entrepreneurial startups to get their businesses in place now before too many "dead panels pile up." Solar energy use is predicted to rise fifty percent every year creating an eventual exponential recycling problem. However, enough solar energy strikes the earth in one hour to meet the entire populations energy need for one year. Currently we are capturing only the smallest fraction of a percentage and given the need for more energy without environmental catastrophes, sustainability of this resource is a must.

Rozgus, Amara and Rhonda McGee. "The 2010 National Engineering Survey --The Roles of Engineers are Changing; But Some Things Never Change." Consulting-Specifying Engineer (CSE). 9 Aug 2010 Web
This article is a summary of the key findings of the 2010 National Engineering Survey that was conducted by Consulting-Specifying Engineer (CSE). IN the past these surveys usually reflected the costs of projects as compared to the overall budget and the constraints under which engineers usually work. Sufficient Capital was generally the highest priority for most engineers to insure that their designs could be adequately carried out. This 2010 surveys shows that there has been a shift in the culture of engineers in general. Of the four categories survey, Energy…… [read more]

Sustainable Engineering Practice Role of Engineers (Computer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,235 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sustainable Engineering Practice

Role of Engineers (computer systems engineering) in the manufacturing industry

The discipline of engineering has been considered to involve a process that requires creativity and is meant for the synthesis and implementation of the knowledge acquired by humanity. This means that the major task that engineers have is that of serving the community by improving their welfare, safety, and health giving the environment due consideration. This responsibility remains for all engineers regardless of the industry in which they work. Thus, engineers must always have the community in mind when developing and applying the science of engineering up to the management level (Code of Ethics 2000).

Generally, the profession of computer systems engineering tries to match the current technology with the needs of a specific industry and to achieve this computer systems engineers evaluate and install software, hardware, and a variety of support equipment which together form a functional network that has the capability of supporting a number of operations within that industry (Tatum 2003). The major target of such an engineer is matching the products of the industry to the clients' needs.

Roles of Computer Systems Engineers and the key characteristics

The manufacturing industry ha several needs with regard to the products involved ranging from the production processes to the distribution processes. For instance, a company may have the need of having a more robust computer system for tracking their sales and a computer systems engineer will address such a need. A part from just addressing such an issue the computer systems engineer may go further to convince the company that including some add-ons to the system will bring an improvement on how the billing process and the sales department relate (Tatum 2003). This shows that for a computer systems engineer to be considered competent he must be able to address the needs that the industry has currently and also find out how to make the system more valuable to the company not only now but also in the future.

There are cases when a company may require carrying out an installation of a new system, or even upgrading a system that already exists, in such a case the computer systems engineer has the duty of formulating ways of accomplishing the task more easily. Such efforts will result into the smooth flow of information within the company and generally lead to the enhancement of the company's internal operations and further build the anticipation for other needs that come with the growth of the company thus necessitating expansion of the system. It is vital that the computer systems engineer be in a position of taking the complete profile of the current and anticipated needs of the company and create a network structure that will last. Computer systems engineers also undertake the planning and implementation of the system verification program, this works towards ensuring that the design and building of the system meets the requirements that have been specified. There are instances when the system engineers may be required… [read more]

Engineering and Sustainability Consortium Clarifies Goals Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Engineering and Sustainability

Sustainability Consortium clarifies goals, Walmart relationship (Arizona State University): This article details a consortium of scientists, researchers, and engineers from a variety of research institutes that is trying to develop a Sustainable Product Index for a wide variety of common products. The consortium has been working closely with Wal-Mart, but stressed that their efforts are aimed at the retail world at large, and are not simply meant to help this retail giant. Their main goal is to develop scientific methods for measuring the sustainability of products, which could be used (with continual adjustment) well into the future. The creation of an index of many current products would have immediate benefits.

This article relays some important news in he world of sustainability; when consumers know how sustainable the various products they buy are, they can make more informed decisions that will lead to new overall sustainability in industry and commerce. Engineers are a vital part of the consortium's efforts, enabling an understanding the true impact and long-reaching effects of the many manufacturing and distribution processes involved in the index.

Sustainability and Crop Engineering (Jared Flesher, Green Inc.): Genetically modified crops have been touted by the engineers that developed them as the answer to world hunger and other problems, but questions have arisen as to whether these crops are truly sustainable. Though plants can be genetically engineered to resist certain diseases or pesticides, they have not proven as productive or as able to reproduce as non-genetically modified plants. This leads to questions about whether it is really prudent to devote agricultural land to their development, as well as concerns regarding what…… [read more]

Civil Engineering Student Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  1 pages (337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … civil engineering student, I am attempting to apply for the engineering management program, and although my grades are not as high as they could be, I am convinced that they do not adequately reflect my overall professional abilities and skills. For the longest of time, I have thought that grades are not such an important factor when compared to being able to apply the knowledge obtained at school to real-life experiences, such as one might find as a gainfully-employed professional civil engineer.

I would like to point out that despite the fact that I did not have a really high GPA, something above 3.5 or better, I was selected during my time as a sophomore to participate as an engineering intern at the State of Massachusetts Highway Department. Considering the number of other highly-qualified applicants for this position, I thought of myself as rather fortunate to have been chosen. Therefore, I decided to confidently apply what I had learned at school to this internship; I also…… [read more]

Tissue Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,965 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Tissue Engineering is an interdisciplinary field which utilizes the principles of life sciences as well as engineering for the creation of biological substitutes or replacements that can heal, improve, maintain or restore the functions of tissues. It involves contributions from doctors, chemical engineers, cell biologists, chemists and material scientists. Since it is comparatively a new field, tissue engineering has to… [read more]

Human Factors Cheap Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Accidents / Engineering

Accidents in the workplace or the home are the result of a variety of factors. Only thorough investigation can help the process of future prevention and mitigation measures. Professor M.W. Thring's statement, that all accidents are the result of cheap engineering, holds a certain truth, although other factors also need to be taken into account.

Human factors may for example include the fact that a starting business owner is under considerable financial strain, and hence does not wish to invest too much in engineering. Electrical wiring is for example notoriously expensive. The danger of using cheap engineering, however, is that the materials used is often of a lower grade than those used by companies charging a larger fee. Electrical faults may then lead to life-threatening electrical failures, blackouts at crucial moments, and short circuits that may lead to fires. This kind of failure is especially dangerous when the company stores explosive substances on the premises. In this, a manager's urge to save funding becomes an expensive mistake.

Cheap engineering could also pertain to the building materials used when erecting the business premises. A less experienced building company may for example charge less for its services. Once again, cheaper building materials are used, or unnoticed design flaws may occur. This combination can lead to material breakdown or fatal flaws that may cause the premises to collapse or crumble, in turn leading to accidents in the workplace. This is also a case where cheap engineering is directly responsible for workplace accidents. The problem is again that the drive to save money can become very expensive in terms of insurance fees or compensation to workers and their families.

The same is true in the home, and indeed perhaps more so than in the workplace. A prospective home owner, just after spending an amount of money on his or her new premises, would wish to save as much money as possible on building and engineering costs. This however results in the same hazards as in the workplace. The homeowner and his family are thus in danger of injury or death as a result of using…… [read more]

Women with Children in Science / Engineering Fields Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … children is a disadvantage/advantage for women who want to have a career in science or engineering by comparing with the women who have not the children

Having children is a disadvantage/advantage for women who want to have a career in science or engineering when compared with women who do not have children

This paper explores the gender differences… [read more]

Engineering Ethics Websites Were Reviewed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Institution of Engineers, Australia ethics code provides the most detailed information about ethical principles and their methods of implementation. Like the council's code the Australia code is defined by a two-tier system, in which the general cardinal principles are first listed and are next followed by the code's tenets, which provide more specific information about the cardinal principles. In addition to this, however, the Australia code provides general interpretations of the tenets through the use of examples and scenarios. So for example the tenet discussing about relationships between colleagues is interpreted as meaning that members should provide honest and fair criticisms towards the work of others, should give proper credit to colleagues who helped in completing a project, should compete with each other on the basis of merit, should avoid replacing colleagues during the completion of a project without notifying them, and so forth.

Besides providing detailed interpretations of its principles, the Australia code also includes several ethical issues that were noticeably absent from the other codes reviewed here. Such issues include the act of whistle blowing and the act of serving as an expert witness. The code ends with discussing about how the organization handles its members who allegedly breach it, which is another topic of consideration not delved into by the other ethics websites.

Works Cited

"American council of engineering companies ethical guidelines." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. October 1980. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/acec1980.html

'IEEE (Institute of electrical and electronic engineers) code of ethics." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. August 1990. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/IEEEcode.html

'The institution of engineers, Australia code of ethics." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/IEAcode.html… [read more]

Reverse Engineering it Is Impossible Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But, for this information to be useful, it is necessary to know what motivated the requirements of the existing system to determine what needs to be retained from the existing system to meet new requirements (Rayson, Garside and Sawyer). Therefore, in addition to reverse engineering, the requirements engineer must use whatever information resources are available to construct conceptual models of the pre-change organization and its business processes and from these derive the requirements of the legacy software. This typically entails an iterative process of inferring stakeholders, roles, tasks and business objects and verifying these against the structure and behavior of legacy ftware.


Biggerstaff, T.J. (1989, July). Design recovery for maintenance and reuse," Computer, pp. 3649.

Muller, H.A., Wong, K. And Tilley, S.R. Understanding software systems using reverse engineering technology. Department of Computer Science, University of Victoria. Retrieved February 15, 2005 from Web site: http://www.utdallas.edu/~yxq014100/group/paper/visual-sw-arch/understanding-software-systems-using-reverse-engineering-technology.pdf

Rayson, P, Garside, R. And Sawyer, P. Recovering legacy requirements. Computing Department, Lancaster University. Retrieved February 15, 2005 from Web site: hl=en… [read more]

Software Engineering Outline Requirements Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In other words, CAT output provides information for formal reduction strategy designs.

These formal reduction strategy designs can be used to eliminate such problems as reducing redundant classes or replacing unnecessary classes or inefficient subclasses with more efficient superclasses. Since the software design process is considered an iterative process, the goal of revising UML class diagrams with a CAT helps a software engineer evaluate and therefore reduce redundant coupling during the software design process and this entails the fact that less refactoring will be required once the software is in a production phase.

A second refactoring example is the use of the Rational Rose which is a UML-based CASE tool. Using a UML-based CASE tool to get the big picture for refactoring helps reduce risk or problems by the fact that each refactoring can be easily diagramed and evaluated so each small alteration visibly displayed can aid in reducing risk. By using a case tool there is an added benefit of the system always remaining fully functional during and after any minute refactorings. This again is an added opportunity to reduce the chances that a system is inadvertently thrown of whack or even seriously broken during a restructuring. CASE tools like Rational Rose tend to add more importance to the design phase and less stress later in the implementation phase. CASE tools permit the engineer to easily produce a diagram that express basic fundamentals and help to show where refactorings could be needed later on.


This section tries to explain what is wrong with the provided diagram above and also to propose a modification that would better solve the concern observed. In this example, a mirror hierarchy is demonstrated that occurs as two or more class hierarchies take on a similar shape because each model functions on a series of related concepts and certain factors standout to make the process better or worse. For example, considering each class hierarchy in isolation the overall process may make perfect sense but when considering the factors or classes as a group they may not work well together and therefore not make sense.

The assessment of this diagram is that equipment in turn defines the purpose of the lab. The problem is that a mirror diagram works on the premise that one should be allowed to substitute subclass occurrences for a superclass. In this diagram you could therefore assume that nuclear equipment could be used when and wherever equipment could be used. But, the problem is in the way the diagram was displayed. As is, one could not utilize the substitute factor or more specifically one could not use nuclear equipment within the nuclear lab for example.

Thus, a better solution would be to allow for the Chain of Responsibility factor to be built in where each subclass a tie to its responsible function. By redrawing the flow (see below) we could if necessary substitute subclass occurrences. Thus, we could allow for both laboratory equipment and nuclear equipment to be used whenever equipment… [read more]

Engineering Registration the Website Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (402 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


One only needs to be a member of an accredited program in engineering at a college or university to be a student member, or a recent graduate of such a program to register with the organization.

Thus, the steps to becoming licensed are to find out the specific requirements of one's state, to decide what field of engineering specialty one wishes to embark upon (if one has not already done so) and prepare to take and pass the exam in this specific field. Then, one must accumulate the necessary experience, if this cannot be waived in one's field or state of practice, to become licensed. If one has past internship experience this requirement may be waived. To register with a professional organization, however, one need not be a licensed engineer merely for a general membership, only for the full membership available only to those engineers who are licensed -- instead, one can obtain a regular, student, or recent graduate membership if these categories are applicable to one's current status.

Works Cited

Texas Society of Professional Engineers. (2002) Official Website. Retrieved 29 November 2004…… [read more]

Budgeting Engineering Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (868 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The manger gives this consideration at each milestone decision point, addressing specific ongoing actions to actively manage (e.g., by implementing cost reduction or cost containment actions) the total life cycle costs of the project. Under CAIV, there is specific recognition that the best time to reduce lifecycle costs is early in the acquisition process because it may make sense for the manager to spend development funds in order to save a greater amount of production costs and/or operations and support costs when the program transitions to later phases.

Both CAIV and DTC are intended to control costs and are implemented during the acquisition of a system, but there are many differences (Criscimagna). The primary focus of DTC is on the projected average unit procurement costs. Projected operations and support cost objectives receive secondary attention. In practice, DTC focuses on controlling near-term costs because there are few incentives to spend development funds to reduce production and operations and support costs. Trades are usually a case of reducing requirements to stay within a unit production cost budget. Unlike DTC, CAIV attempts to manage to a life cycle of budge objectives. CAIV is not intended to force eighty-percent solutions to stay within a budget; it tries to find a way to get to 100% solution within the budget. Relaxing one or more requirements may be the only way to stay within the budget.

In summary, engineering organizations face unique challenges in budgeting because costs aren't always known in advance of the project. CAIV appears to be the optimal approach to budgeting in engineering organizations. It's certainly better than ignoring costs and is more comprehensive life cycle approach than a DTC strategy. However, even with the CAIV method, organizations must make sure that they update all measurable costs-to-date, learn from experience about better cost estimation techniques and improve step task processes to reduce costs (Gilb, 1997).


Criscimagna, N. CAIV. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: hl=en& ie=UTF-8

Crow, K. (2000). Achieving target cost / design-to-cost objectives. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: http://www.npd-solutions.com/dtc.html

Geraldland. J. (1997, March-April. Differences in philosophy - design to cost vs. cost an independent variable. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: hl=en& ie=UTF-8

Gilb, T. (1997, August 21) Evo: the evolutionary project managers handbook. Retrieved March 27, 2004 from Web site: http://www.ida.liu.se/~TDDB02/pkval01vt/EvoBook.pdf… [read more]

Systems Engineering Documentation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


When systems are developed, there is a great deal of data accumulated and paperwork generated. It is not surprising to have hundreds and even thousands of pages of documentation for a system such as a computer-human interface. Different forms of documentation are helpful to different aspects of systems engineering. For example, designers and developers often use operational-need and operational-concept information to get a thorough understanding of the identified need and what purpose it will serve. It helps clarify why certain decisions are made to limit misunderstandings.

Lists of system requirements clarify the exact goals that designs must meet and are used for the final criteria to be tested and evaluated at the end product. It especially helps to determine why one design is used over another one. At the very least, system documentation helps keep everyone on the same page (pun intended), hopefully minimizing inconsistencies and ambiguities between different people working on the same project.

Once the product is developed, the same documentation can be used by managers to determine if the project can be successfully repeated in the future, by operators who will be implementing the design to build the product and by individuals who are responsible for the safety and maintenance of the product.

Naturally, documentation must be continually updated with changes and improvements in the system design. There is nothing more upsetting than finding out in the middle of recreating an operation that the work must be redone because of an alteration -- be it large or small -- that has been made in the process in order to enhance the end result. Such updates in documentation also continue the learning process infinitely, since each time the system is recreated, the individuals involved may find another way to bring about positive change through such aspects as reduced material costs or decreased labor needs.… [read more]

Management Requirements Engineering Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When we have a poor specification it fails the validation in spite of successful verification process. Mistakes in the specification process are translated into the software design ultimately leading to the finished product, which does not cater to the actual user needs. [Steeve Easterbrook]


The implementation of the project as per the scheduled date depends on the proper specification… [read more]

Value Engineering and Reliability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,542 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Federal Acquisition Regulations defines value engineering as an organized effort to analyze the functions of systems, equipment, facilities, services, and supplies for the purpose of achieving essential functions at the lowest life-cycle cost consistent with required performance, quality, and safety (Heller, 1971). Value engineering is quickly gaining recognition as the best way to save money and improve reliability.

The primary focus of value engineering is to improve a project or product through a function oriented, systematic approach that concentrates on improving the performance, and eliminating high cost functions that may not be needed, while improving value and reliability. The end result of this approach is a successful action plan to improve competitiveness, or help make an important project work well.

For this reason, value engineering is considered one of the best problem solving tools for improving quality, value, and reliability in products or projects. However, it is important to remember that reducing a project's scope, compromising its reliability or value, or using cheaper materials that will not function with reliability standards is not value engineering.


Brown, J. (1992). Value Engineering: A Blueprint, Industrial Press Inc.

Heller, E.D. (1971). Value Management: Value Engineering and Cost Reduction, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Johnson, Kelly. (September 28, 2000). Does Value Engineering Live Up to Its Name? PM Engineer.

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB). (May 21, 1993). Value…… [read more]

Hydrology &amp Civil Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Two inches of rushing water from a flood knocks a person off his or her feet. Two feet of water sweeps an automobile downstream. "Flash floods occur with little or no warning and can reach full peak in only a few minutes," FEMA warns. Property damage from flooding in America now totals over a billion dollars a year.

One dramatic disaster reported by FEMA is, on a large scale, what can happen when heavy precipitation occurs in a short period of time: "On July 31, 1976, the Big Thompson River near Denver overflowed after an extremely heavy storm. A wall of water 19 feet high roared down the Big Thompson Canyon where many people were camping. 140 people perished and millions of dollars of property were lost."

Again, to mitigate the issues of flash flooding, cities and states and counties will turn to civil engineers that work with hydrology.

Subsurface Water

Subsurface water is water beneath the surface of the earth. Along with groundwater and soil water, subsurface water makes up approximately.5% of all water in the hydrosphere. There are three zones of subsurface water: 1) the soil water zone, 2) an intermediate zone, and 3) the ground water zone. When heavy rains saturate the soil above and seep down, the pore spaces between soil materials quickly are filled with water, and that is when flooding occurs.

Civil Engineering / Hydrology Innovations

Not all hydrology-related civil engineering success has to do with floods and fresh water. In fact, among the more practical engineering innovations to come along is "ice blast technology," which combines electrical and mechanical components in a machine that uses tiny ice pellets for pressure cleaning. Ice particles are made in an immersed cold drum to form a pre-stressed ice sheet that then breaks up into small ice particles. What are its uses? The U.S. Navy, Stanford and the Universities of Michigan and Washington use ice blast machines to remove loose lead paint - a process which saves them money and is environmentally safer than using caustic, toxic chemical solutions. By using ice blasting, the Dutch Ministry of Transportation has enjoyed a 55% cost savings over high-pressure water blasting in removing barnacles from giant pumps. The city of Santa Monica uses ice blasting for cleaning beach houses and removing graffiti and chewing gum from school grounds. Ice blasting has even been used in nuclear maintenance to reduce radiation hazards prior to service, thereby achieving significant dose savings.


CNN "Water Solution Remains Pipe Dream" (August 28, 2002) World Summit in Johannesburg, South Africa http://www.cnn.com/2002/fyi/news/08/28/summit.water.glb/.

FEMA (2002) Backgrounder: Floods and Flash Floods: Emergency Information


Environment Protection Agency (2002) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

System (NPDES) http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/.

Association of State…… [read more]

Most Basic Privileges Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
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I will constantly be of assistance to people who need my expertise. I cannot think of anything more fulfilling than that.

In addition, having electrical engineering as my major will also create an avenue for my future. As part of my career path, for example, I would like to start a business of my own. This will allow me to not only offer my passion and expertise as an electrical engineer to my clients, but also to offer employment opportunities to others who are similarly passionate in the field. I will therefore be able to share some of my good fortune with others, which is important in the world today.

Finally, electrical engineering is one of the fields today that offers great opportunities for invention. As an electrical engineer, I will be able to contribute to the development of technology by creating new inventions and solutions for common problems people face today. Like Thomas Edison, who created not only the first durable and practical light bulb, but also other devices like the phonograph and the motion picture camera, I will be able to contribute to the world in a concrete way.

Knowing that I can contribute to the world of technology in these ways will give my life a sense of profound meaning. I love electricity and all the things we can do with it today. Thinking about a future in which I can use this love to contribute to the field as an employee, a business owner, and an inventor fills me with a sense of great excitement.

I believe that my love for electrical engineering and my passion for all its new information and developments will make me an asset as an undergraduate student with this subject as my major. I look forward to furthering my studies on my way to becoming a contributing citizen in the world of technology.… [read more]

Project Management Successes at the Golden Gate Bridge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … narrow Bosphorus Strait or "Golden Horn" in Turkey by John Charles Fremont in 1846, the Golden Gate bay is more than a mile wide but engineers were convinced that a bridge was possible and plans proceeded to this effect during the early 20th century. Originally estimated to cost as much as $100 million to construct, the Golden Gate… [read more]

Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Technologies in Hydraulic Fracturing Technologies Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference: 6-8 February 2012

This trip report provides a summary of the events attended, reports reviewed and other aspects of my attendance at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference conducted 6 -- 8 February 2012 at the Woodlands Waterway Marriott Hotel and Convention Center, the Woodlands,… [read more]

Sustainability Classifications in Engineering Discipline and Approach Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Sustainability classifications in engineering: discipline and approach," the author sifts through the plethora of definitions, theories, and political viewpoints in relation to the concept of sustainability. The engineering sciences play a unique role in sustainability science, and are responsible for at least participating in the discussion about sustainability. In fact, the concept and practical application of sustainability is of the utmost importance to the engineering community. However, engineering departments at universities and individual scientists do not agree on a definition of sustainability -- or on the role of the engineer.

The primary and most formidable issue in sustainable engineering is the mitigation of climate change. Whether the causes for climate change matter to the engineer is one of the issues in sustainability literature. The engineer is ultimately more concerned about solutions to climate change than about causes, which are important only insofar as it affects future trajectories. A comprehensive examination of sustainability discourse can impact the development of public policy.

One issue related to sustainability is what relative or intrinsic…… [read more]

Mechanical Engineering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Role of Defense Industry Engineers Today

The General Role of Engineers for Defense

Types of Work Performed by Engineers in the Defense Industry

Key Attributes and Skills Required

Ethical Issues for Defense Industry Engineers

The Role of Defense Industry Engineers Today

This report outlines the various roles of engineers working in the defense industry today. Some laypersons would likely be able to explain in general terms the role of engineers in industries such as construction because they are able to see the results of this work for themselves. There is likely less known about the role of engineers working in the defense industry, though, because of the secrecy that surrounds this work and its importance to national defense. Although engineers have been relied on to provide the requisite defenses for cities, states and nations throughout history, this role has changed in fundamental ways over the centuries, particularly during the second half of the 20th century. In order to develop a more informed view of the role of engineers working in the defense industry today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly and governmental literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

The General Role of Engineers for Defense

Engineers have been actively engaged in a country's defense for millennia, but it only fairly recently that their role has been defined by standardized job descriptions and performance standards (Silver & Brennan, 1998). The role played by engineers in the defense industry became more complex with a broader scope during the second half of the 20th century as a result. In this regard, Rae and Volti add that, "The military is of course hardly an alien intruder into engineering. What makes the postwar era unique is the great increase in both the scope and the technological complexity of warfare" (142-143). In this increasingly complex environment, the types of work performed by defense industry engineers have also become more complex and these issues are discussed further below.

Types of Work Performed by Engineers in the Defense Industry

The defense industry is comprised of several disciplines, with the types of engineering work involved differing according to the nature of the enterprise. One of the major sectors in the defense industry is the aerospace industry. In this industry, engineers are responsible for designing, testing, and supervising the manufacture of aircraft, missiles and spacecraft (Engineer 2010). In this industry, engineers also develop new technologies that are used in defense systems, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecraft, or missiles and rockets (Engineer 2010). Likewise, nuclear and electronics engineers are employed by the defense industry to conduct defense-related research (Engineer 2010). In addition, marine engineers who are employed in the defense industry are responsible for the "design, construction, and maintenance of ships, boats, and related equipment. They design and supervise the construction of everything from aircraft carriers to submarines and from sailboats to tankers. Marine engineers apply knowledge from a range of fields to the entire process… [read more]

Quality and Innovation in Product Process Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (543 words)
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¶ … Engineering Qs

Concurrent engineering, as the name implies, involves the simultaneous designing of various components of a given product. Essentially, different teams working on different parts of a complex final product -- such as an automobile, for instance -- work in unison on the various parts of their product, ideally reaching completion at approximately the same time. This is in contrasts to sequential engineering, in which the various components of a complex final product are designed separately, one after the other, which can be much more costly and inefficient than concurrent engineering for a variety of direct and indirect reasons.

In concurrent engineering, frequent communication between groups leads to fewer needs to redesign elements as the project moves forward -- all components are designed with an accurate and current awareness of how the whole will fit together. There is also a significant time savings, which of course translates to cost savings, when concurrent engineering is employed; different teams working simultaneously necessarily complete projects faster than independent teams working in sequence. Customer involvement in the design process is also often more possible with concurrent engineering, leading to greater utility in the final product.


One of the many methods that can be utilize to determine why an engineered system might have failed, and what other failures might be caused, is a fault tree analysis, or FTA. The FTA is a tool that graphically maps out the elements in a given system that contributed or might have contributed to a system failure. It essentially maps out the events, whether normal or abnormal, that can or have occurred in a system, and…… [read more]

Role of an Engineer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (766 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Environmental Engineering

Environmental Engineers

Of the many different sectors in which engineers can find employment, one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding areas is that of environmental engineering. This is a rather broad field that can incorporate many different types of engineering knowledge and practices, but is essentially and primarily concerned with the protection and/or rehabilitation of the planet's natural resources -- the water, air, and land -- for the purposes of creating lower-impact and sustainable methods for continuing human activities (Salvato et al. 2003). This can mean finding ways to reduce pollution into waterways and the atmosphere, ways of removing pollutants that have already been released, effective ways of managing not only pollution but other impacts on the environment from industrial and commercial endeavors, and a host of other areas of human activity and endeavor.

Environmental engineers have become of increasing importance in recent years, not only for the elimination of pollution and the minimization of current impacts of human commerce and life on the environment, but also in the creation of new technologies that make for more sustainable living (Reible 1999). This means that many building projects, technology designs, governmental agencies and policy advising groups need input from environmental engineers, and this need is only growing (Reible 1999). This makes environmental engineering an excellent field for anyone who has the essential skills to study engineering, as well as a well established ability to take in a number of complex considerations and has a strong commitment to helping improve humanity's relationship with the environment.

There are several key characteristics that must be possessed by successful environmental engineers. The number of various factors that come into play in most environmental issues will require the understanding and coordination of a large amount of diverse types of data from a number of sources, so an environmental engineer must have a wide array of knowledge and a quick grasp of new and changing circumstances and information (Weiner et al. 2003). An innovative view is also a key characteristic that environmental engineers ought to possess to maximize their success in this field; though many of the problems facing the environment are decades old, they require new solutions for which there is often no real infrastructure or previous experience to build on. Enjoying the collection of knowledge…… [read more]

Role of Engineers in Water Industry Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,007 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Water Engineering

The Role of Engineers in the Water Industry

From the times the Romans built the aqueducts -- indeed, since the time the fields of Mesopotamia were irrigated -- one of the most essential services of engineering to society has been the manipulation of water. As one of the basic necessities of life, the ability to provide water where none can be found is vital to today's agricultural industry and the upkeep of many cities and whole populations of people. Just as essential, though perhaps somewhat less grand in the way it comes across, is the use of water in the removal of wastes, both in the form of sewage and industrial waste. The prevention of disease and environmental degradation depends upon the ability to efficiently and effectively remove waste from areas where it is created, and it is up to engineers to implement the methods for achieving this. Engineers employed in such fields are a subset of civil engineers, most often employed by various governmental agencies and working on behalf of the citizens (DOT 2003). Specifically, engineers in the various water industries possess a specific knowledge base concerning how water can be moved, and harnessing its power in a variety of ways for the maintenance and betterment of society.

Water engineers do not simply assist their own societies, however, but also export their talents to the developing world -- helping it, in fact, to develop. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, for instance, is involved in many international projects to help certain countries and communities develop better water systems and infrastructures to provide clean water and adequate sewage systems to their citizens (USACE 2009). This affords the water engineers working on these projects opportunities to travel and see cultures and parts of the world, and to do some real good for the people living there. The fact that water engineering is so closely tied to the quality of life and of health for a given community is one of the aspects of this field of engineering that makes it such a compelling career option; the services provided by water engineers are essential to a healthy, happy, and functioning society. This is also likely one of the reasons that engineering jobs, especially for civil engineering projects such as most water engineering endeavors, are expected to remain stable or even rise in the coming years, despite the possibility of a continued economic slowdown (U.S. BLS 2009). The projects in which water engineers are engaged are truly indispensable, meaning that those who are willing to push themselves and achieve truly great things in what they strive to do will never need to worry either about job security or job satisfaction -- there will always be newer and bigger projects and prospects on the horizon. When the work itself would be so engaging and imperative -- designing systems to deliver water efficiently to many locations in sufficient quantities, for instance, or establishing a sewage treatment system that occupies less space and takes… [read more]

Why Does the I 35w Mississippi River Bridge Failed? Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,040 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … 35W Mississippi River Bridge failed, and what ethical issues were involved. On August 1, 2007, the I-35W Bridge over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota, collapsed, sending cars, drivers, and construction workers to their deaths. The ethical issue in question with this bridge is that it was on a list of known bridges that had flaws, there are many other such bridges in the country's infrastructure, and yet, the bridge was not repaired in time to keep it from collapsing and killing 13 people and injuring 145 people. It is a miracle that more people did not die in the collapse, as it happened during rush hour, and the bridge was historically one of the busiest in the state.

The I-35 West Bridge was constructed in 1967, and inspected regularly thereafter by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The last time it was inspected was in May 2007, where the Department inspectors noted some "weld details," and noted they would continue to inspect the bridge. They did not deem it unsafe. The bridge was rated a 4 out of 9, and the U.S. Department of Transportation website notes, "The 4 rating means that the state can continue to operate the bridge without load restrictions (0= shut down, 9 = perfect)" (Editors). An engineering expert notes, "Until it plunged into the Mississippi River, it served as a transportation lifeline for the growing Twin Cities population, carrying across its 14 spans many of the SUVs, cars and trucks that accounted for the 42% rise in Minnesota's vehicle traffic from 1990 to 2003" (Flynn). Thus, it came under increasingly heavy use, it was showing signs of stress and wear, (such as the weakened welds), and it was known it was not a 9 or "perfect" bridge.

This is an extremely dangerous situation, because it is not limited to the bridge that collapsed in Minnesota, it is a condition that affects bridges all over the country. Expert Flynn continues, "According to a report card released in 2005 by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 160,570 bridges, or just over one-quarter of the nation's 590,750-bridge inventory, were rated structurally deficient or functionally obsolete" (Flynn). The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is investigating the collapse and its cause, but a preliminary finding has been leaked to the press, indicating there was a design flaw in the original bridge design that was never found, and this contributed to the collapse. It also implicates many other bridges with the same design for collapse or failure (Condon). Clearly, there are ethical and moral issues here, from the continued inspection of the bridge that did not turn up anything, to the design firm that first designed the bridge and obviously did not test their design effectively enough, (which is underscored by the leaked results, which point to insufficient design and testing). The results could have been dramatically different had the firm adequately tested their designs, and the real possibility that other bridges like this one could collapse due… [read more]

Socialization of Girls in the US Away From Science and Engineering Professions 1950 200 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,525 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6




Historically and traditionally women have not entered into educational pursuits or the professions of science and engineering at the same rate as have men and in fact women who do enter these programs of study or profession, are known to leave this… [read more]

Leonardo Da Vinci the Architect and His Machine Inventions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,706 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … da Vinci's architectural and engineering designs, including his flying, water, and war machines, and his architectural designs such as the Galata Bridge. Leonardo is known as the true "Renaissance Man," because his life embodied the Renaissance thoughts of education, the arts, and innovation. An inventor, artist, writer, and engineer, Leonardo's interests led him to create a vast array… [read more]

Genetic Engineering Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,177 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Cloning and Human Engineering

The controversy about cloning and human engineering has resulted in heated debate and discussion across a broad spectrum of disciplines and views. While cloning is essentially a scientific and medical discovery, yet the implications and the affects of cloning as a means of human engineering have wide ramifications and implications for society as a whole. The… [read more]

Process Reengineering and Knowledge Management Initiatives Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Engineering and Knowledge Management

The purpose of this paper is to identify a process or company that would benefit from implementing Business Process Reengineering (BPR), to describe the process, explain the reasons why it would benefit from re-engineering, and identify the key changes as well as the difficulties in the process and the suggestions for overcoming them. Secondly… [read more]

Project Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  55 pages (14,774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to its corporate profile, Keppel Offshore & Marine, integrating the experience and expertise of Keppel FELS, Keppel Shipyard, Keppel Singmarine and Keppel yards overseas, was established in 2002 (About Us 2004). Keppel Shipyard Benoi is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Keppel Corporation, one of the largest offshore and marine groups in the world. The company enjoys a strategic network of… [read more]

Bridge Design and Engineering Bridges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,956 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


His 32-meter cable-stayed bridge of 1784 was made entirely out of timber, even using timber stays. In 1817, Redpath and Brown began further development of this bridge type, but later two of their built bridges would collapse, gaining a lot of bad press for this type of bridge. In the United States, some small cable-stayed bridges were constructed during the… [read more]

Positive and Negative Engineering Summary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (613 words)
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The author calls this a mixed system.

The author proposes a mixed system, which would limit the power of decision-makers to a power of veto. This system would essentially be a combination of parental initiative and central veto, and the author states that this type of system would be the best possible option for the decision-making involved in positive engineering. The mixed system eliminates worries about genetic changes being controlled by a few powerful people with limited scope. However, a general anxiety remains as to the values that would be utilized in making these decisions. Furthermore, the deepest resistance is based in values, and the question of whether parents have the right to create one type of person over another.

The author asks how we can be sure that it is better for one person to be born rather than another?

A lack of foresight is one of the most prominent dangers when it comes to positive engineering, regardless of how decisions are made. The possibility of disaster is a real danger, which is a strong argument against positive engineering. The author stresses the necessity for caution, and that the benefits must outweigh the risks

The author suggests that the resistances discussed toward positive engineering do not justify a complete rejection of the idea. The practice of caution, decentralized decision-making, and the avoidance of positive engineering in authoritarian societies are discussed as critical elements for the use of this gene-altering process. Human nature element underlying the issue, and the author discusses whether or not it is necessary or acceptable to preserve human nature in its current state.… [read more]

Biomechanics Is the Application Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Biomechanics finds it greatest uses in the studies of athletes and industrial workers. The main aims of studies being increasing performance efficiently without compromising physical health.

Biomechanics as its definition suggests is a cross disciplinary field. It combines the studies of mechanics, physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, medicine, and even statistics. There are few undergraduate degrees in biomechanics available. But as a specialized professional field, masters and doctoral degrees are available. A typical curriculum for a degree in Biomechanics would involve the student taking courses in: statistical methods, in the theory and design and physical activity, factors influencing exercise performance, neural basis for movement, motor control and learning, measuring motor behavior, motor development, cardio-respiratory adaptations to environment and principles of human physiology. Of course, there are specialized branches of Biomechanics. Sports medicine is one. Industrial Biomechanics is another.

Biomechanics is a specialized field and is finding its niche in almost every walk of life from home furnishings, to apparel (especially shoes), the work place and sports. Most of the associated employment opportunities would therefore be in the areas of (besides pure research and teaching) sports medicine, biomechanics of dentistry, design of prosthetics, ergonomics, orthopedics, combined with a computer science degree and biomechanics -- computer simulation of biomechanics, orthopedics and muscle studies, trauma and reconstruction, physical therapy, motion analysis and locomotion, bio-robotics and rehabilitation. (ASB-Biomech.org, 2003)

In conclusion, we can return to Socrates' belief that one must understand one's own body before changing the surroundings. In this endeavor, Biomechanics goes a long way.


ASB-Biomech.org. American Society of Biomechanics. 2003. ASB-Biomech.org. Available:

http://asb-biomech.org/.October, 7 2003.

Huff, S.J. Electromyography. 2002. Emedicine.com. Available:

http://www.emedicine.com/aaem/topic179.htm. October 7, 2003.

Imrhan, S.N. "Equipment Design for Maintenance: Part I - Guidelines for the Practitioner." International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 10 (1992): 35-43.

Kallen, L.A., and Polin, H.S. "A Physiological Stroboscope." Science 80 (1934): 592.

Lauder, G.V., Leroi, A.M., and Rose, M.R. "Adaptations and History." TREE 8.8 (1993): 294-97.… [read more]

Aerospace Engineering Plethora of Purposes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Renshaw) design of this magnitude would be essential to the reduction of environmental pollutants. In addition a vehicle that could change shape while flying would be unprecedented. High speed transportation is just one of the many products that are being designed and will be produced in the near future by aerospace engineers.

Challenges to Aerospace Engineering in the United… [read more]

SOP I Am a Mechanical Engineer Major Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



I am a mechanical engineer major studying at a four-year college and am now pursing a Master of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M. The reason for applying to this specific program is its focus on application rather than theory. I am primarily interested in project design, and envision myself applying my A&M degree in the private sector and potentially in the field of medical technologies.

The most recent project I completed was the design and manufacture of the Stair Lift Walker. With an experienced team consisting of other students, we used Autodesk Inventor for the initial drafts, ran several types of ANSYS analyses to determine stress points and weight requirements, and ultimately assembled the Stair Lift Walker. Assembly helped highlight both the strengths and weaknesses in our design. The strengths included the materials chosen, including lightweight titanium for the legs, as well as advanced polymers for the handlebar grips. However, our measurements were slightly off and I do believe we need to improve on the design by ensuring it is adjustable for different height and weight categories. While at A&M I intend to master knowledge in the physical properties of polymers, including knowledge about the flow and fracture of these versatile materials. Because of the way the Stair Lift Walker brought to my attention the value of understanding stress analysis, this is an area of specialization I intend to pursue while at A&M. As the Stair Lift Walker was the first prototype I have ever designed, I look forward to future projects using the facilities at A&M and collaborating with my colleagues.

One of the reasons I have become interested in applying my mechanical engineering degree to medical technologies in particular is that I have worked in a hospice with seniors, and have also taken care of elders in my family. I have witnessed both the wonders of medical technologies in the ways that they have aided seniors in adapting their bodies to their environments and vice-versa. While at the hospice, I met the regional sales director of a medical supplies company. The sales director informed me of the range of items in their product catalog and this was when I realized that my future was to be as a chief product engineer whose work would directly benefit the population. From designing prostheses to assistive technologies for the disabled, my work as a mechanical engineer will be altruistic in scope, and perfectionistic at the base level of design.

Moreover, effective product design ensures ergonomics for all age groups. Working deeply with the principles of stress and strain analysis during my senior project has opened up a wide range of questions related to how to design equipment that optimizes safety and ergonomics at the same time, while also minimizing expenditures. My input into the product design of…… [read more]

Business Systems Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (645 words)
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In the section on choosing off-the-shelf software, eight criteria are proposed for evaluating alternative packages. Suppose the choice is between alternative custom software developers rather than prewritten packages. What criteria would be appropriate to select and compare among competing bidders for custom development of an application? Define each of these criteria.

The first and most important is ongoing support and service of the source code and application. This refers to the need for keeping the overall source code stable and also updated with the latest updates and maintenance. The second criteria would be the skill and depth of expertise of the programmers in the area(s) the application are being used in. This is critically important to ensure the customer software meets specific customer needs. The third criterion is the use of the latest software tools and techniques, including software reliability, to ensure the software will be stable and usable over time.

How might the project team recommending an ERP design strategy justify its recommendation as compared with other types of design strategies?

The first and most important is justifying an ERP design strategy that can orchestrate the many sources of structured data across an enterprise and make it usable by those that need it most to do their jobs. The second reason to rely on an ERP design strategy is its integrative nature at the system and process level, including the ability to create a single system of record throughout an organization. This is invaluable for managing customer, supplier, distributor and service center relationships over time. A third factor that makes an ERP design strategy critically important is aligning all enterprise systems within an organization to its strategic plans and initiatives. This is critically important in industries known for very rapid product lifecycles, like retailing, where ERP systems are used for planning and executing new product launches every nine to twelve months.… [read more]

Differences Between Heathrow Cargo Tunnel and Piccadilly Tube Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,127 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Channel Tunnel and the Thames Tunnel: Soil Composition and Building Methodology

Subaqueous tunnels present unique engineering challenges, for some obvious and some not-so-obvious reasons. Complications regarding materials, work crews, machinery, soil, and of course water all make tunnel-building beneath rivers, seas, and other bodies of water a major undertaking, even when tunnel length and soil composition might otherwise make an easy go of things. By comparing to subaqueous tunnels that are similar in their revolutionary qualities but hugely different in terms of their execution, some of the common problems that crop up in subaqueous tunnel construction can be better appreciated. The following pages present a brief comparison of the Thames Tunnel, the first known subaqueous tunnel ever constructed, and the Channel Tunnel, a more modern marvel that connects England with continental Europe. Similarities in these two tunnels are highlighted, and the differences in the requirements and approaches to these two very different tunnels is fully discussed.

Thames Tunnel

Initial work began on a tunnel running underneath the Thames in 1825, though it would be almost two years before a satisfactory set of test holes could be drilled and it took nearly two decades for the tunnel to be completed (Skempton & Chrimes, 1994). Given that a project like this had never been attempted and that the worksite lay entirely dormant for seven years while funding was worked out, this timeline is actually more impressive than it first seems, and the fact that the tunnel was successfully completed at all is a testament to the ingenuity and the perseverance of the engineers and work crew that brought this tunnel into being. The soil through which the tunnel was dug was itself not problematic, however the layers of soil above the tunnel were clay and sand, the latter of which posed significant problems to the tunnel's engineering and construction at the outset. In areas where the clay layer between the sand and the tunnel was thick, progress was relatively rapid and easy for the tunnel-makers, but where the clay was thin the sand presented a constant problem of sand runs breaking into the tunnel. On five occasions, this led to the river's intrusion into the tunnel, significantly delaying progress and raising safety concerns (Skempton & Chrimes, 1994).

Fortunately, the solution was found in engineer Sir Marc Isambard Brunei's advent of the tunneling shield, a now-commonplace (and far more complex) tool that allowed the insertion of a tunnel casing, what would now be deemed a lining, while work progressed. (Skempton & Chimes, 1994). This tunnel shield propped up the tunnel along its length as it was being constructed, but was especially useful at the tunnel ends where the sand breaks were ore common due to the thinner clay layers. Here, they propped up the clay that was prone to grow brittle and crack when thinned out, while elsewhere they simply provided an easing of working conditions and greater safety against the less-likely sand breaks and inrushes of water. No significant engineering… [read more]

Server Architecture Clients Fat Thin Application Systems Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Server Architectures

Using a Fat Client/Server Architecture in Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Workflows

The continual debate between the inherent value of thin client/server architectures that can be configured relatively quickly to the more intensive levels of planning, implementation and continual maintenance of thick client/server networks need to be delineated by use cases and applications used. Thin client network's speed to configure and ubiquity of support needs to balanced against the bandwidth requirements that more data-intensive applications require over time (Guynes, Windsor, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to illustrate how an engineering consulting and design organization will require a thick client/server architecture given the size, complexity and continual editing necessary to get projects done on time across their global operations. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) files often require intensive levels of cross-integration for support and reference files including symbol libraries as well. These prerequisites for effective CAD system use make a thick client/server architecture ideal for this specific need.

CAD Designers Need Real-Time Data Integration To Complete Tasks

The driving catalyst of having a thick client/server architecture to support teams of CAD designers globally is the intensive level of data integration inherent in their specific design files and supporting imagery, vector data and supporting application designs. A thin client network, predicated on small, relatively easily scaled transactions, is well suited for conversational and quick interchanges as occur in e-mail and low-end collaboration systems (Lee, 2002). A thin client network also requires continual contact with servers to keep applications continually performing as well (Schmerken, 1997). Both of these aspects of a thin client network architecture would be disastrous for a network of CAD designers working for an engineering and design consulting firm.

A network of CAD engineers and designers would require a more intensive level of transaction support and scalability of network performance to support shared visualizations of their models as well. One of the criterion for thick client architecture performance is the need for optimizing multimedia performance (Lai, Nieh, 2006). For the teams of CAD designers located globally, the ability to literally walk through each of their models and show the outcomes of design decisions could save literally thousands of dollars in travel costs per year. Technologies exist today that can accomplish this, and they are predicated on the advantages of a thick client/server architecture.

As CAD designers and developers rely on a highly coordinated, synchronized approach to completing projects called concurrent engineering, thick client networks fit…… [read more]

System Test and Evaluation Plan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,038 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


" () The systems engineering process for DoD is shown in the following illustration.

Figure 3 -- Systems Engineering Process

Source: Defense Acquisition University Press (2011)

III. Discussion of Validation and Verification

It is reported that component and breadboard validation in the laboratory environment: basic technological components are integrated to establish that the pieces will work together. This is relatively 'low fidelity' compared to the eventual system. Examples in clued integration of 'ad hoc' hardware in a laboratory." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011) Component and breadboard validation in relevant environment -- Fidelity of breadboard technology increases significantly. The board validation in relevant basic technological components are integrated with reasonably environment. realistic supporting elements so that the technology can be tested in simulated environment. Examples include "high fidelity" laboratory integration of components. The systems engineering process involves the process input characterized by customer needs and objectives. The System Analysis and Control includes requirements analysis, functional analysis and allocation, and synthesis resulting in process output. Systems analysis and control is reported to be inclusive of "technical management activities required to measure progress, evaluate and select alternatives and document data and decisions." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011) Stated as the purpose of systems analysis and control are the following:

(1) solution alternative decisions are made only following evaluation of the impact on system effectiveness, life cycle resources, risk and customer requirements;

(2) Technical decisions and specification requirements are based on systems engineering outputs,

(3) Traceability from systems engineering process inputs to outputs is maintained,

(4) Schedules for development and delivery are mutually supportive,

(5) Required technical disciplines are integrated into the systems engineering effort,'

(6) Impacts of customer requirements on resulting functional and performance requirements are examined for validity, consistency, desirability, and attainability, and,

(7) Product and process design requirements are directly traceable to the functional and performance requirements they were designed to fulfill, and vice versa.( Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

IV. Illustration of Evaluation Methodology and Certification Techniques

Ensuring the functionality and use of the product involves the following:

(1) Verification -- This is the process of determining that a model implementation accurately represents the developer's conceptual description and specifications that the model was designed to.

(2) Validation -- This is the process of determining the manner and degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model, and of establishing the level of confidence that should be placed on this assessment." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

(3) Accreditation -- this is the formal certification "that a model or simulation is acceptable for use for a specific purpose. Accreditation is conferred by the organization best positioned to make the judgment that the model or simulation in question is acceptable. That organization may be an operational user, the program office, or a contractor, depending upon the purposes intended." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

These functions are shown in the following illustration labeled Figure .

Figure 4 -- Verification, Validation…… [read more]

Intended Degree Program Educational Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Simply put, engineering is one of the most necessary fields and industries that a person can pursue. In a way, to pursue a graduate study in Engineering and to desire to be an engineer is to apply oneself to be a civil servant. Engineers service the public. They help the public. They contribute to improvements experienced by many all around the world.

In a strange way, I have come to want to study and become an engineer. The desire crystallized as I would watch my Chihuahua. My Chihuahua has a bit of a charmed life. She wraps herself up like a burrito while other people bring her food, water, cater to her whims. It is a life I desire for myself.

Toward the end of my life, I see myself enjoying what life has to offer, relaxing, and with plenty of time of reflection for what I have accomplished in my life as a professional engineer. Therefore, pursuit and acquisition of a graduate degree in Engineering is an earlier step on the path I foresee for myself, as I try to live a life closer aligned with the lifestyle of my pampered puppy.

My graduate studies in Engineering, especially those at the doctoral level, will enable me to be qualified for research and design positions that could lead to a professorship and creations of something that will change the world indefinitely.… [read more]

Glass Structures Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


(Bruce, 2011, p.21)

Characteristics strengths revealed:

Annealed 46N/mm2

Heat-strengthened 70N/mm2

Toughened 120N/mm2

Annealed glass is subject to stress corrosion which is fond to cracking under long duration loads. Annealed glass is also vulnerable to thermal shock that causes cracking due to internal stresses resulting from temperature differences. The modeling of the annealed glass can be done by re-heating the glass the cooling the outer surface. The cooling prestresses the outside skin enhancing the capacity of extreme fibres to be able to resist tensile stress. Residual which is the extend of stress is determined by the rate of cooling. The toughened glass has a minimum residual surface of 100N/mm2 while heat-strengthened have a minimum residual surface stress of between 41-49N/mm2 (Mahesh, 2010, p.9)

The critical area in the design of the glass structure is connection .Connection links the series of elements .The choice of connection type is based on various factors such as:

Adequate tolerance for construction


Method of fabrication and aesthetics

Strength requirement

In connection the high strength capacity of glass is made use of in transferring a load and this in turn minimizes the depth and complexity of the connection. Connections comprises of edge bearing connection, Hole bearing connection and Friction Grip connection.

Glass can be used as a structural material with adequate safety provided suitable attention to detail in both design and construction, more so, use of laminated glass where appropriate to enhance redundancy.


"Administration Building in Saint-German-en-Laye near Paris"

Address: www.brunet-saunier.com [Accessed: January 2007]

"A House in Almere, Netherlands"

Address: www.benthemcrouwel.nl/portal_presentation/housing/hou se-almere [Accessed: January 2007]

"Architectural Glass"

Address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architect ural_glass

[Accessed: November 2006]

"Explore Glass Chemical Composition"

Address: http://www.glassonweb.com/articles/article/41 [Accessed: November 2006]

Bruce W (2011) structural design of glass

Mahesh A., (2010) comprehensive guide for glass structure

Shand E.B, (2010) glass engineering handbook.

Wilson P. (2008) construction of all-glass structures with external glass frames… [read more]

Innovative Processes Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,194 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


A primer for Metaplanning espoused, "the Metaplan technique is a tool to make group discussions more effective" (Metaplan, 2001, p. 3). The Metaplan technique provides a construct that allows participants to be fully engaged in the designing and innovation process who are "more deeply involved in the group process, in considering all opinions, and in working towards jointly supported results"… [read more]

Factors Leading to Failure Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  12 pages (3,394 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


The programs (QC/QA) are organizational practices that ensure the expectations of the bridge under construction are met. The program assures the quality of the materials being used and ensures the right implementations of the proposed procedures are followed to the latter during the construction. For instance, the designing phase of the project will require the designers to confirm that their… [read more]

History of CNC Computer Numerical Control Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,340 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


History of CNC (Computer Numerical Control)

CNC Machines and How They Work

Computer-Aided Design

Future of CNC Machines

Spider-like CNC Machine

Laser Technology-based Micromachining

SSD technologies

Robotics Applications

This research paper will trace the history of Computer Controlled Machines from their inception to current sophistication levels. We shall also delve into their usage and benefits in various industries. The paper… [read more]

Introductory Delivery Speech Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Speech -- My Introduction

I'm a sophomore majoring in engineering, and while that field may not sound very interesting or fascinating to all you future movie stars, hip hop stars, future millionaires, United States Senators and cable TV talk show hosts, let me quickly remind you what some of my engineering predecessors have accomplished in America.

For example, in the 20th Century engineers are responsible for the following achievements: spaceflight, the Internet, numerous useful household appliances (dishwashers, microwaves, vacuum cleaners, and many more), the automobile, the airplane, electrification, television and radios, computers, the telephone, air conditioning and nuclear technologies.

Let's see a show of hands here, how many think that the airplane is the greatest engineering achievement of the 20th Century? You can put your hands down now, you're wrong. How about those who think spaceflight was the greatest engineering achievement? Wrong again. Okay how about computers? Hands? Anyone? Sorry, you have it wrong too. I'll give you one more. How about the invention of the automobile? Who thinks the auto was the top innovation in engineering in the 20th century? Sorry, I'll end this quiz and tell you what the National Academy of Engineering voted as the top engineering invention of the 20th Century.

It was ELECTRIFICATION. Right, the top development of the 20th century allowed electricity from a central station (fired by coal, gas, oil or nuclear) to flow outward through the country on high-tension wires, over the mountains, the fruited plains, the rivers and lakes, into the villages and cities in order to power the factories, schools, stores, hospitals and homes. Without electrification, the nation's economy would stall and children would be reading Tom Sawyer by candlelight, which isn't such a bad idea come to think of it. Save energy, light a candle and read a book.

Seriously though, speaking of the Tom Sawyer -- Huckleberry Finn…… [read more]

Hierarchy of Controls Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hierarchy of Controls

Cringeworthy Cutting

In the first case, Mike is shown cutting a piece of wood with a saw that he draws towards him. What is interesting about this clip is that the workers do not at first tell him about the hazards of knot or "processors" in the wood. These are hard edges or protrusions that could cause the sword to jump or jerk suddenly, potentially injuring the worker.

The fact that the workers choose to only let Mike in on this hazard after he started working is an administrative hazard. Those who have knowledge of the risks should advise workers or professionals beforehand, so that the risk can be mitigated right away. Workers should also be thoroughly trained before engaging in the hazardous work. Mike has clearly not received any training at all, as the information is disseminated to him only after he begins to work.

An engineering hazard is the cutter that Mike is using. There are no safety measures built into the equipment. The fact that one worker implies that he had been injured before implies that the equipment is inherently dangerous to use. The combination of the knots in the wood and the simple but dangerous design of the saw itself creates a significant risk of injury for the workers, and especially for a person who is inexperienced, as Mike is.

Finally, the risk factor that is probably easiest to control, especially in Mike's case, is personal protection. Neither the workers themselves nor Mike have received any personal protective gear. Mike is only wearing a t-shirt and jeans; his usual outfit for his Dirty Jobs ventures. This creates a significant hazard of injury, not only for Mike, but also for workers entering the profession for the first time, as well as for the more experienced workers, as they indicated with the story about the injury.

In all three cases, it is possible to create protective measures for Mike, where the risk of injury would be less severe.

The administrative hazard, for example, can be mitigated by informing Mike of the hazard before he starts working. While this does not constitute formal training, being informed also means being empowered to protect oneself properly. Before he started working, Mike should therefore have been informed about issues such as processors and knots, how to identify these, and what to do when one is encountered.

The engineering hazard is a more expensive and complicated hazard to control, and is probably not viable in Mike's case. According to the clip, it is apparent that the open saw is the standard equipment used by workers to perform the job assigned. Hence, if the engineering hazard were to be controlled, either a new method of work or a less hazardous type of saw would need to be implemented. This process can be both expensive and time consuming, although it would create greater safety for the workers.

In terms of personal protection equipment, the advantages of this is both that workers would… [read more]

HCI Human Computer Interaction Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Human Computer Interface (HCI)

Measurement of human performance

Affective Engineering

Evaluation survey

The least valuable lessons I learnt in this course

What my take-away messages on this subject topic of HCI are.

Reflection paper on Human Computer Interface (HCI)

The objective of this report is to show why I enrolled for the Human Computer Interface (HCI) this course… [read more]

Nikola Tesla Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,223 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Nikola Tesla, His Work and Impact on Society


This paper discusses the history of Nikola Tesla, from his roots in modern-day Croatia to his work as a naturalized citizen in the United States. Integral to the examination of Tesla will be his relationship with other scientists who worked in his field of inquiry, from Edison to Roentgen… [read more]

Competency Demonstration Report for Migration Skills Assessment Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,086 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Competency Demonstration Report

Career Episode No.

Dates and Duration of Career Episode: This career episode took place during the period from August 2004 to November 2006.

Geographic Location: The geographic location of this career episode was Yutang County, in the Peoples Republic of China.

Title of Position: Telecommunications Engineer

Nature of the Overall Engineering Project: Telecommunications Network Update

The overarching… [read more]

Hardening and Tempering of Steel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Steel Tempering: Section 8

Increase Hardness

Strength will decrease slightly at temperatures below 400, then increase. Hardness and ductility are largely unaffected by heating at temperatures below 400, but also increase after this temperature is reached. Toughness is imparted at lower levels of heating, and can be diminished by higher heating.

The actual effects of hardening followed by quenching on steel microstructures can vary greatly depending on the specific alloy of steel being tempered, but essentially the heating allows crystalline structures to form in the steel which greatly increase the hardness of the steel, while the tempering and quenching act on these crystals to reduce fracture points and thus decrease brittleness and cracking.

Low tempering temperatures are used to increase toughness, while higher tempering is needed to increase the strength and hardness of steel. Ductility is also affected by higher heats, though to a lesser degree.


Tempering time can greatly affect the strength and toughness of the steel, with faster times (especially faster quenching) creating much more brittle steels in many instances (though this s actually reversed in certain steels). Overall, however, the temperature of the tempering process appears to have a greater effect on the mechanical properties of the steel produced.

7) There appeared to be greater change in mechanical properties at some times than would be expected based on the published literature. This variance is probably the result of a lack of true precision (and accuracy, possibly) in many measurements as well as the lack of conditions actually controlled to a point that the results of this research would be empirically valid.

8) Impact testing.

9) i. Less than 400/toughness is more important than hardness; high temperatures would cause greater brittleness, and the direction of force applied to the tool during its use could cause it to snap

ii. Temperatures of 400 and greater/the force experienced by the die is compression, and the hardness of the crystal structures formed at these temperatures is required for prolonged use

10) a. Applications: structural elements, making of intricate shapes (cutting dies) Mechanical property: ductility

b. Applications: deep-draw dies, jack-hammers

Mechanical…… [read more]

Use of Nanoparticles in Treatment of Heart Patients Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Nano Artery

The Use of Nanoparticles as Plaque-Reducing Agents in Human Arteries

Summary of Current Approaches

Common methods for preventing the buildup of plaque in arteries, which restricts blood flow and has the potential to cause a variety of health problems based on the location of the buildup, include the use of standard stents and newer degradable stents that also employ a controlled release of pharmaceutical compounds that themselves restrict the formation and buildup of plaque in the area of the stent (Chan et al. 2010; Chorny et al. 2010; Kohn & Zeltinger 2005). The fabrication of these stents has improved to the degree that they can be made safely degradable without limitations to functionality, and this has allowed for the controlled release of pharmaceutical compounds that has greatly improved the efficacy of such treatments in the prevention of atherosclerosis and the correction of plaque build up without requiring more invasive and riskier procedures (Kohn & Zeltinger 2005). These stents actually represent two relatively recent engineering advancements in their safe degradability as well as the level of control with which the pharmaceutical-releasing action of these stents can be accomplished (Kohn & Zeltinger 2005).

Major advancements in assessment methods that lead to a determination of the need for intervention and the type of intervention recommended have also taken place in the past decade. Lesions and areas of plaque buildup that could have been repaired with stents often go unnoticed and can lead to sudden cardiac death, as the relatively invasive procedure of intravascular ultrasound was needed for detection (Schoenhagen & Nissen 2003). Newer methods of magnetic resonance imaging MRI) and computed tomography (CT) have been developed that are entirely non-invasive, however, allowing for more accurate and comprehensive assessment that in turn leads to less invasive corrections (Schoenhagen & Nissen 2003).

II. Critique of Current Approaches

Though these approaches are less invasive and more effective at both diagnosing and treating plaque buildup in arteries, and work as preventative methods that are thus more effective at reducing risks from plaque buildup than purely curative methods, there is still a fair degree of invasiveness involved in all stent procedures (Chan et al. 2010; Chorny et al. 2010; Kohn & Zeltinger 2005). In addition, though the ability for control in the rate of release of pharmaceuticals has been greatly increased with the newly-developed stents, there is still a limited window of operational capabilities in terms of timeline and in absolute amounts of drugs delivered through these stents (Kohn & Zeltinger 2005). Both of these aspects of these procedures limit their efficacy and make them undesirable in light of developing technologies (Chan et al. 2010; Chorny et al. 2010).

III. Use of Nanoparticles

Specifically, the use of manufactured nanoparticles to target areas of plaque buildup and delivery pharmaceutical compounds to these areas either as an enhancement to stent use…… [read more]

Interaction of Characters in by Capek and the Film AI by Spielberg Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


RUR and AI: More Human than Human

In both RUR by Karl Capek and, the film AI by Steven Spielberg, the strange dichotomy between creator and created is explored in both works. For both works, technology turns out to be a path not to paradise but to hell not just for humans, but also for machines who turn out to… [read more]

Left Scissor Lift Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Innovative Lifting Device for Use in the Challenging Environmental Conditions of Gondwana

Diploma of Engineering and Technology:

Engineering Design & Innovation

The focus of this project was to satisfy the unique and challenging design requirements that were needed to provide an important life-saving lifting device for use on another plant. The restrictions on power sources and dimensions required… [read more]

Solar Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Solar Still

Sustainable development and Ethical Responsibilities.

The issue of sustainable development is one that is particularly pertinent to the modern world and to the issue of global warming. As such, it is also intimately linked to the debate about contemporary scientific and engineering ethics. Solar distillation has a long history and is noted as a technology that 'works' and… [read more]

Role of Engineers Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Role of Professional Engineers

This project consists of an outline of the professional roles and responsibilities of modern engineers in society. In general, engineers are responsible for the efficient application of scientific principles to benefit human societies. More particularly, engineers perform essential operational roles in many industries that could not function without their expertise. Unlike ancient engineers who trained by apprenticeships, modern engineers receive rigorous academic instruction that includes differential calculus in numerous applications. As recent events in the Gulf of Mexico and in Chile illustrate, engineers also have a profound ethical responsibility to make sure that they adhere to acceptable safety principles.


Generally, the primary role of modern engineers is to develop methods of improving human society by contributing methods for making work easier and more productive (Harris, Pritchard, & Rabins, 2008; Johnston, Gostelow, & Jones, 1999). The myriad ways that engineers contribute to society include developing transportation systems and the construction of homes, buildings, and other physical structures. Many industries are completely dependent on engineers with specialized training and experience within those particular industries. Two industries that are currently in the news illustrate the importance of engineers: (1) deep water oil drilling, and (2) underground mining. The nation is still coping with the aftermath of BP's Deep Water Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Currently, 33 miners are currently trapped under a collapsed mine in Chile, awaiting rescue. Within underwater oil drilling and underground mining, engineers are responsible for the design and manufacture of drilling equipment. They are also responsible for policy and procedure development, and for many aspects of administration and operational supervision of projects (Johnston, Gostelow, & Jones, 1999).

Generally, engineers share a similar formal educational background that consists of traditional core courses within modern engineering: calculus, differential equations, mechanics, fluid dynamics, and strength of materials, among others (Johnston, Gostelow, & Jones, 1999). However, engineers receive more specialized training in particular fields of interest, just as physicians all study the same core medical courses and then specialize in training in different areas of medicine. All engineers require an aptitude for understanding symbolic logic (i.e. mathematics), spatial awareness, and the ability to think critically (Johnston, Gostelow, & Jones, 1999). The particular skills required of engineers are determined by the type of work they do or the nature of the industry in which they are involved.

For example, engineers working in the deep water oil drilling industry specialize in areas such as fluid mechanics, the properties of various materials under high osmotic pressure, oil composition, and other very specific aspects of engineering science that pertains to deep water drilling. Even more particularly, some engineers in that field may focus on drafting skills (such as in connection with equipment design) while others…… [read more]

Mousetrap Car Report Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Engineering Design Project -- Mousetrap Car

This project involves the development of a self-propelled vehicle from a standard mousetrap. To meet that objective, the experimenter must convert a tool designed for a specific use unrelated to locomotion (i.e. trapping mice) into a self-propelled vehicle capable of traveling 10 meters without external propulsion assistance. That process requires a practical design phase and the conceptual consideration of several conceivable approaches to the task. The selected design will be constructed and tested to determine whether the project objective has been achievable.

In general, the design process consists of conceptualizing the expected viability of all of the identifiable ways to achieve the objective. After identifying the design engineering task, the experimenter must eliminate those approaches that are valid in principle but impractical to achieve with the materials provided. Then, the remaining approaches will be considered in terms of relative likelihood of success, cost, and ease of implementation. Usually, that process will also include drawings and the construction and testing of scale prototypes to estimate effectiveness, but the most important phase is testing of the completed design.

Identifying the Engineering Task

In this case, the engineering task consists of two principal issues: (1) eliminating as much resistance (mainly friction) to efficient propulsion as possible, and (2) applying the mechanical energy potential of the mousetrap frame to produce mechanical energy that propels the device forward.

Conceptualizing and Evaluating Different Engineering Solutions

The two methods of generating mechanical propulsion were: (1) altering the trapping bar to exert backwards force against the surface of the floor to produce forward momentum, and (2) altering the trapping bar to propel a weight backwards to generate forward momentum through Newton's Second Law of Motion. In either configuration, two sets of wheels would be mounted on rotating axles. During the conceptualization phase, it was determined that the first approach was impractical because the amount of…… [read more]

Synthetic Biology Most Eminent Mr. Darwin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Synthetic Biology

Most Eminent Mr. Darwin-

You would be most surprised, I would hazard to guess, at the many advances the science of biology has been able to take thanks to your contribution of the theory of evolution, especially when combined with technologies and discoveries in other fields. Computer technologies make tasks that would otherwise be prohibitively complicated or time consuming relatively simple and amazingly quick, and other technologies allow scientists to see ever-smaller mechanisms at work in the creation and perpetuation of life. The combination of all of these various scientific pursuits and advances is far greater than the sum of its constituent parts, and is perhaps greater than ever thought possible -- or even advisable.

You see, Charles, one of the many things that these new technologies and discoveries have led to is the establishment of a new branch of science, synthetic biology. This is the application of biological and engineering principles and techniques to the creation of synthetic life-forms, or synthetically-altered life-forms, usually for some direct and explicit practical purpose such as the secretion of a specific chemical or molecule, or performing any number of complex functions. Much of what synthetic biology attempts to do is largely harmless and without ethical issue -- the altering of E. coli bacteria to blink on and off in unison does not carry heavy ethical implications with it, and is even of relatively limited practical use (Science 2004). Other alterations could help find cures for diseases and have many other practical applications.

Other possibilities using the techniques of synthetic biology are not so certain. AMny fear that such…… [read more]

Diffusion of Product Innovation Through Identifying Communities of Practice Networks in UAE Healthcare Organizations Dissertation

Dissertation  |  55 pages (16,573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 55


Diffusion of Product Innovation through Identifying Communities of Practice Networks in UAE Healthcare Organizations

Innovations in technology and healthcare have revolutionized the manner in which clinicians collaborate within social networks of various types, including so-called communities of practice. Communities of practice have been shown to provide their members with a group of peers whom they can contact quickly and easily… [read more]

Water Landing Is Relevant for Understanding Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Water Landing" is relevant for understanding ethics in several ways. The Darley and Latane experiments that tested the reason why people help or do not help others in distress were done in conditions where there was no directing authority for the group or individual. This mimics the environment that an engineer works in, where they must make ethical… [read more]

Pumps for All: High Profile and Top Secret Water Movement Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Pumps for All: High-Profile and Top Secret Water Movement Engineer Recruitment: A Case Study

In order to remain a leader of water movement technologies, Pumps for All must maintain the highest standards of excellence and innovation in the engineers it hires. Its newest project makes use of proprietary technology still in development that has the potential to revolutionize the… [read more]

Systems Analyst Engineer at the System Level Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Systems Engineering Roles

Evaluating Systems and Subsystems Engineering Roles:

A Comparative Analysis

The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the roles of system engineers including systems analysts relative to subsystem engineers, who are often segmented by their area of expertise. The most common areas of expertise for subsystem engineers are hardware and software. In addition in electronics… [read more]

Management of Health and Safety at Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Management of Health and Safety at Work

Work-related health hazards have been observed from ancient times when the early Egyptians started using veils for respiratory protection while mining for cinnabar or red mercury oxide. The harmful effects of the sun were also observed by Arabian laborers working in King Solomon's mines. In the 18th century, Bernardino Ramazzini, also known as… [read more]

Personal Statement When Asked Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Statement

When asked where I would like to pursue my PhD in engineering management, I can never come up with an answer other than the University of Denver. This is not solely because of my positive experiences with the University of Denver during graduate school; instead, I want a PhD from a university that understands the nature of the field of engineering, a university that understands the importance of integration, invention, and progression within the engineering field. No other university has such an understanding of these variables, with special regard to the importance of cross-disciplinary knowledge in engineering. Having obtained Master's Degrees in both engineering and real estate & construction, my dream is to integrate these pursuits in a way that will allow me to pursue progressive technology in a changing world.

Throughout my educational career, I have always believed that the key to success in the field of engineering lies within the ability of the modern engineer to make connections across the disciplines. Indeed, this is what technological progress has been about since the earliest days of humans. At the University of Denver, I feel confident that I can use both my background in engineering, as well as my experience in real estate and construction to make those connections that will allow me to become an asset to this university. Working in a managerial capacity has allowed me to understand how many of these connections can be made. In the past, much of my experience has been in a managerial role, performing tasks such as achieving optimum utilization of resources, interacting with others related to the current task, and achieving communication related goals. In performing these tasks, I came to realize that many of the facets of the construction and real estate world were closely related to the field of engineering. In both…… [read more]

Animal Drawn Cart Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Animal-Drawn Cart

The purpose of this study is to study and analyze the historical development of the animal draw cart to the current day, examine the various types of carts that have been used throughout the world and provide possible suggestion for improvement in the current development of the device.

While this study began as an initial historical development of… [read more]

Contract Law Legal Ethical and Social Issues in Computing Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,193 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Contract Law (Legal, Ethical & Social Issues in Computing)

Contract Law

The contemporaneous society is evolving at a rapid pace and most of the emergent changes are derived from the technological background. The hi-tech innovations play a pivotal part in the way we now live our lives and the domain is subjected to numerous modifications. One particular change affecting the… [read more]

Information Technology and Its Uses in the Nano Thesis

Thesis  |  22 pages (5,994 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Information Technology and Its Uses in Nano Technology


Information Technology and Nanotechnology

The future of modem society is often referred to in terms of technology and particularly new and innovative technological discoveries. While from one perspective science and technology has been blamed for many of the ills of modern society, such as the threat of climate change, on the… [read more]

Steel Girder/Concrete Slab Bridge Repair Methods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,088 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Steel Girder/Concrete Slab Bridge

Repair Methods

Steel Girder / Concrete Slab Bridge Repair Methods

America's roads, highways and freeways invariably require bridges to cross over canyons, rivers and other uneven terrain, and as strong as the bridges may seem to be at the time of their construction, the best of engineers have not yet been able to build corrosion-proof bridges.… [read more]

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