"Engineering / Mechanics" Essays

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Management of Health and Safety at Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Management of Health and Safety at Work

Work-related health hazards have been observed from ancient times when the early Egyptians started using veils for respiratory protection while mining for cinnabar or red mercury oxide. The harmful effects of the sun were also observed by Arabian laborers working in King Solomon's mines. In the 18th century, Bernardino Ramazzini, also known as… [read more]

Server Architecture Clients Fat Thin Application Systems Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Server Architectures

Using a Fat Client/Server Architecture in Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Workflows

The continual debate between the inherent value of thin client/server architectures that can be configured relatively quickly to the more intensive levels of planning, implementation and continual maintenance of thick client/server networks need to be delineated by use cases and applications used. Thin client network's speed to configure and ubiquity of support needs to balanced against the bandwidth requirements that more data-intensive applications require over time (Guynes, Windsor, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to illustrate how an engineering consulting and design organization will require a thick client/server architecture given the size, complexity and continual editing necessary to get projects done on time across their global operations. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) files often require intensive levels of cross-integration for support and reference files including symbol libraries as well. These prerequisites for effective CAD system use make a thick client/server architecture ideal for this specific need.

CAD Designers Need Real-Time Data Integration To Complete Tasks

The driving catalyst of having a thick client/server architecture to support teams of CAD designers globally is the intensive level of data integration inherent in their specific design files and supporting imagery, vector data and supporting application designs. A thin client network, predicated on small, relatively easily scaled transactions, is well suited for conversational and quick interchanges as occur in e-mail and low-end collaboration systems (Lee, 2002). A thin client network also requires continual contact with servers to keep applications continually performing as well (Schmerken, 1997). Both of these aspects of a thin client network architecture would be disastrous for a network of CAD designers working for an engineering and design consulting firm.

A network of CAD engineers and designers would require a more intensive level of transaction support and scalability of network performance to support shared visualizations of their models as well. One of the criterion for thick client architecture performance is the need for optimizing multimedia performance (Lai, Nieh, 2006). For the teams of CAD designers located globally, the ability to literally walk through each of their models and show the outcomes of design decisions could save literally thousands of dollars in travel costs per year. Technologies exist today that can accomplish this, and they are predicated on the advantages of a thick client/server architecture.

As CAD designers and developers rely on a highly coordinated, synchronized approach to completing projects called concurrent engineering, thick client networks fit…… [read more]

Business Systems Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In the section on choosing off-the-shelf software, eight criteria are proposed for evaluating alternative packages. Suppose the choice is between alternative custom software developers rather than prewritten packages. What criteria would be appropriate to select and compare among competing bidders for custom development of an application? Define each of these criteria.

The first and most important is ongoing support and service of the source code and application. This refers to the need for keeping the overall source code stable and also updated with the latest updates and maintenance. The second criteria would be the skill and depth of expertise of the programmers in the area(s) the application are being used in. This is critically important to ensure the customer software meets specific customer needs. The third criterion is the use of the latest software tools and techniques, including software reliability, to ensure the software will be stable and usable over time.

How might the project team recommending an ERP design strategy justify its recommendation as compared with other types of design strategies?

The first and most important is justifying an ERP design strategy that can orchestrate the many sources of structured data across an enterprise and make it usable by those that need it most to do their jobs. The second reason to rely on an ERP design strategy is its integrative nature at the system and process level, including the ability to create a single system of record throughout an organization. This is invaluable for managing customer, supplier, distributor and service center relationships over time. A third factor that makes an ERP design strategy critically important is aligning all enterprise systems within an organization to its strategic plans and initiatives. This is critically important in industries known for very rapid product lifecycles, like retailing, where ERP systems are used for planning and executing new product launches every nine to twelve months.… [read more]

Differences Between Heathrow Cargo Tunnel and Piccadilly Tube Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,127 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Channel Tunnel and the Thames Tunnel: Soil Composition and Building Methodology

Subaqueous tunnels present unique engineering challenges, for some obvious and some not-so-obvious reasons. Complications regarding materials, work crews, machinery, soil, and of course water all make tunnel-building beneath rivers, seas, and other bodies of water a major undertaking, even when tunnel length and soil composition might otherwise make an easy go of things. By comparing to subaqueous tunnels that are similar in their revolutionary qualities but hugely different in terms of their execution, some of the common problems that crop up in subaqueous tunnel construction can be better appreciated. The following pages present a brief comparison of the Thames Tunnel, the first known subaqueous tunnel ever constructed, and the Channel Tunnel, a more modern marvel that connects England with continental Europe. Similarities in these two tunnels are highlighted, and the differences in the requirements and approaches to these two very different tunnels is fully discussed.

Thames Tunnel

Initial work began on a tunnel running underneath the Thames in 1825, though it would be almost two years before a satisfactory set of test holes could be drilled and it took nearly two decades for the tunnel to be completed (Skempton & Chrimes, 1994). Given that a project like this had never been attempted and that the worksite lay entirely dormant for seven years while funding was worked out, this timeline is actually more impressive than it first seems, and the fact that the tunnel was successfully completed at all is a testament to the ingenuity and the perseverance of the engineers and work crew that brought this tunnel into being. The soil through which the tunnel was dug was itself not problematic, however the layers of soil above the tunnel were clay and sand, the latter of which posed significant problems to the tunnel's engineering and construction at the outset. In areas where the clay layer between the sand and the tunnel was thick, progress was relatively rapid and easy for the tunnel-makers, but where the clay was thin the sand presented a constant problem of sand runs breaking into the tunnel. On five occasions, this led to the river's intrusion into the tunnel, significantly delaying progress and raising safety concerns (Skempton & Chrimes, 1994).

Fortunately, the solution was found in engineer Sir Marc Isambard Brunei's advent of the tunneling shield, a now-commonplace (and far more complex) tool that allowed the insertion of a tunnel casing, what would now be deemed a lining, while work progressed. (Skempton & Chimes, 1994). This tunnel shield propped up the tunnel along its length as it was being constructed, but was especially useful at the tunnel ends where the sand breaks were ore common due to the thinner clay layers. Here, they propped up the clay that was prone to grow brittle and crack when thinned out, while elsewhere they simply provided an easing of working conditions and greater safety against the less-likely sand breaks and inrushes of water. No significant engineering… [read more]

System Test and Evaluation Plan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,038 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


" () The systems engineering process for DoD is shown in the following illustration.

Figure 3 -- Systems Engineering Process

Source: Defense Acquisition University Press (2011)

III. Discussion of Validation and Verification

It is reported that component and breadboard validation in the laboratory environment: basic technological components are integrated to establish that the pieces will work together. This is relatively 'low fidelity' compared to the eventual system. Examples in clued integration of 'ad hoc' hardware in a laboratory." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011) Component and breadboard validation in relevant environment -- Fidelity of breadboard technology increases significantly. The board validation in relevant basic technological components are integrated with reasonably environment. realistic supporting elements so that the technology can be tested in simulated environment. Examples include "high fidelity" laboratory integration of components. The systems engineering process involves the process input characterized by customer needs and objectives. The System Analysis and Control includes requirements analysis, functional analysis and allocation, and synthesis resulting in process output. Systems analysis and control is reported to be inclusive of "technical management activities required to measure progress, evaluate and select alternatives and document data and decisions." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011) Stated as the purpose of systems analysis and control are the following:

(1) solution alternative decisions are made only following evaluation of the impact on system effectiveness, life cycle resources, risk and customer requirements;

(2) Technical decisions and specification requirements are based on systems engineering outputs,

(3) Traceability from systems engineering process inputs to outputs is maintained,

(4) Schedules for development and delivery are mutually supportive,

(5) Required technical disciplines are integrated into the systems engineering effort,'

(6) Impacts of customer requirements on resulting functional and performance requirements are examined for validity, consistency, desirability, and attainability, and,

(7) Product and process design requirements are directly traceable to the functional and performance requirements they were designed to fulfill, and vice versa.( Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

IV. Illustration of Evaluation Methodology and Certification Techniques

Ensuring the functionality and use of the product involves the following:

(1) Verification -- This is the process of determining that a model implementation accurately represents the developer's conceptual description and specifications that the model was designed to.

(2) Validation -- This is the process of determining the manner and degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model, and of establishing the level of confidence that should be placed on this assessment." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

(3) Accreditation -- this is the formal certification "that a model or simulation is acceptable for use for a specific purpose. Accreditation is conferred by the organization best positioned to make the judgment that the model or simulation in question is acceptable. That organization may be an operational user, the program office, or a contractor, depending upon the purposes intended." (Defense Acquisition University Press, 2011)

These functions are shown in the following illustration labeled Figure .

Figure 4 -- Verification, Validation…… [read more]

Intended Degree Program Educational Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Simply put, engineering is one of the most necessary fields and industries that a person can pursue. In a way, to pursue a graduate study in Engineering and to desire to be an engineer is to apply oneself to be a civil servant. Engineers service the public. They help the public. They contribute to improvements experienced by many all around the world.

In a strange way, I have come to want to study and become an engineer. The desire crystallized as I would watch my Chihuahua. My Chihuahua has a bit of a charmed life. She wraps herself up like a burrito while other people bring her food, water, cater to her whims. It is a life I desire for myself.

Toward the end of my life, I see myself enjoying what life has to offer, relaxing, and with plenty of time of reflection for what I have accomplished in my life as a professional engineer. Therefore, pursuit and acquisition of a graduate degree in Engineering is an earlier step on the path I foresee for myself, as I try to live a life closer aligned with the lifestyle of my pampered puppy.

My graduate studies in Engineering, especially those at the doctoral level, will enable me to be qualified for research and design positions that could lead to a professorship and creations of something that will change the world indefinitely.… [read more]

Glass Structures Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


(Bruce, 2011, p.21)

Characteristics strengths revealed:

Annealed 46N/mm2

Heat-strengthened 70N/mm2

Toughened 120N/mm2

Annealed glass is subject to stress corrosion which is fond to cracking under long duration loads. Annealed glass is also vulnerable to thermal shock that causes cracking due to internal stresses resulting from temperature differences. The modeling of the annealed glass can be done by re-heating the glass the cooling the outer surface. The cooling prestresses the outside skin enhancing the capacity of extreme fibres to be able to resist tensile stress. Residual which is the extend of stress is determined by the rate of cooling. The toughened glass has a minimum residual surface of 100N/mm2 while heat-strengthened have a minimum residual surface stress of between 41-49N/mm2 (Mahesh, 2010, p.9)

The critical area in the design of the glass structure is connection .Connection links the series of elements .The choice of connection type is based on various factors such as:

Adequate tolerance for construction


Method of fabrication and aesthetics

Strength requirement

In connection the high strength capacity of glass is made use of in transferring a load and this in turn minimizes the depth and complexity of the connection. Connections comprises of edge bearing connection, Hole bearing connection and Friction Grip connection.

Glass can be used as a structural material with adequate safety provided suitable attention to detail in both design and construction, more so, use of laminated glass where appropriate to enhance redundancy.


"Administration Building in Saint-German-en-Laye near Paris"

Address: www.brunet-saunier.com [Accessed: January 2007]

"A House in Almere, Netherlands"

Address: www.benthemcrouwel.nl/portal_presentation/housing/hou se-almere [Accessed: January 2007]

"Architectural Glass"

Address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architect ural_glass

[Accessed: November 2006]

"Explore Glass Chemical Composition"

Address: http://www.glassonweb.com/articles/article/41 [Accessed: November 2006]

Bruce W (2011) structural design of glass

Mahesh A., (2010) comprehensive guide for glass structure

Shand E.B, (2010) glass engineering handbook.

Wilson P. (2008) construction of all-glass structures with external glass frames… [read more]

Innovative Processes Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,194 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


A primer for Metaplanning espoused, "the Metaplan technique is a tool to make group discussions more effective" (Metaplan, 2001, p. 3). The Metaplan technique provides a construct that allows participants to be fully engaged in the designing and innovation process who are "more deeply involved in the group process, in considering all opinions, and in working towards jointly supported results"… [read more]

Factors Leading to Failure Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  12 pages (3,394 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


The programs (QC/QA) are organizational practices that ensure the expectations of the bridge under construction are met. The program assures the quality of the materials being used and ensures the right implementations of the proposed procedures are followed to the latter during the construction. For instance, the designing phase of the project will require the designers to confirm that their… [read more]

Invention by Design, by Henry Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Engineering will never be absolutely perfect, and the goal of any engineer should be to learn from the mistakes, no matter how tragic, and improve on the next model.

In conclusion, Petroski's book is essential for any engineering student, and the book is extremely relevant to the study of Mechanical Engineering in that it describes the design and function of a variety of mechanical objects in relatively simple terms. One way the author creates a book that is relevant to the layperson and an engineering student is to use examples of everyday objects and discuss their design, concept, and engineering. The paper clip is an excellent example of one of these case studies the author uses so effectively. Thus, the book is a good introduction to mechanical engineering, and it also gives a background or history of many of the case studies, which help the reader understand the evolution to current designs and how engineering has evolved over the centuries. This is extremely helpful to students who want to understand the "why" of engineering as well as the "how." If there is anything that can be criticized about the book, it is the lack of a conclusion or wrap up of the material. The final chapter covers skyscrapers and their engineering, and the book simply ends there, and seems to leave the reader hanging. It would have been nice for the book to include a final chapter or conclusion, which wrapped up the ideas and theories in the chapters, and gave a final thought on engineering in the future. However, the author did state his feelings early in the book about the ultimate role of engineering. He said, "Engineering is the art of compromise, and there is always room for improvement in the real world" (Petroski 3). This summation of engineering is clear, succinct, and sums up his feelings well. This book makes engineering, and the study of engineering more interesting, and more real to the reader, and to the student.


Petroski, Henry. Invention…… [read more]

Engineer Engages in a Process Book Report

Book Report  |  10 pages (2,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A terrorist can, and will attempt to take down commercial liners with shoulder mounted surface to air missiles, leaving the passengers and the design engineers without recourse. However the reality of terrorism had opened a new reality for the airline designer. The issue of detecting explosives or designing safer cockpit doors has presented questions which are important for engineers to… [read more]

System Operational Feasibility Great Deal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (782 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The other all-important aspect of a product or system's operational feasibility is maintainability. This consists of the ease, accuracy, safety and economy in the performance of the maintenance functions. If a unit is difficult to repair, the costs of a process can get completely out of hand. While the item is not functioning, interrelated processes stop and labor is at a standstill. If a system works well when it is operational, but causes significant downtime, it is not functioning as expected.

Maintainability is inherent in the product design. It is the ability of an item to be maintained, whereas maintenance is the series of actions that must be taken to restore or retain the product in an effective operational manner. Maintainability can also be defined as a characteristic in design that can be expressed in terms of maintenance frequency factors, maintenance times (or elapsed times and labor hours) and maintenance cost.

It can also be defined as a design and installation aspect expressed as the probability that: an item will be retained in or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time; maintenance will not be required more than x times in a given period, when the system is operated in agreement with prescribed procedures; and the maintenance cost for a system will not exceed y dollars per designated period of time, when the system is operated and maintained as designated.

Maintainability can be measured in terms of a combination of time elapsed, personnel labor hour rates, maintenance frequencies, maintenance cost and related logistic support factors.

In addition, good system design requires that human factors are properly integrated with the hardware, software and data. These include necessary ergonomic, human sensory, physiological and psychological factors. Design for supportability is another factor to consider. System support is defined by Blanchard as the composite of all considerations needed to assure the effective and economic support of a system throughout its programmed life cycle. The elements of support are: maintenance planning, supply support or inventory needed to support equipment, test and support equipment or tools and measurement equipment required to support maintenance, and transportation and handling that support packaging, preservation and safety.

Lastly, but just as important, a system is not feasible unless its cost for construction, operations, use…… [read more]

Hyatt Walkway Collapse the Kansas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, the engineering firm's responsibility in the issue does not end here. The fabricator, as we know, "changed the design from a one-rod to a two-rod system to simplify the assembly task, doubling the load on the connector," which eventually was a direct cause of the collapse. The fabricator sworn under oath in court that it had telephoned the engineering firm and had obtained the approval for the modifications in the design. The engineering firm upheld that it had never received such a call. Hence, we notice here a lack of communication for which both companies are responsible. In theory, these should have worked closely together and should have cooperated on the implementation on the design and on any additional changes it had required. One phone was made from one part to the other and this was deemed not to have been received.

So, enter responsible character number 3: the fabricator. Quoting again from the engineering website at www.engineering.com,"the fabricator changed the design from a one-rod to a two-rod system to simplify the assembly task, doubling the load on the connector, which ultimately resulted in the walkways collapse." In this sentence, we have both the direct cause of the accident and the direct responsible part for it. We see here both incompetence and malevolence: the fabricator chose to modify the design so that it could assemble the structure quicker and get the work done at lesser costs. We are in no doubt about who carried the greatest responsibility of all, since it is clearly stated that this eventual change was the ultimate cause of the collapse.

Additionally, we should mention that "the engineering firm did receive revised drawings during construction and stamped them with their engineering review seal, authorizing construction," so that there is a partially divided responsibility in the end between the engineering firm and the fabricator.

Resuming those mentioned in the lines here above, there were three parts involved and responsible for the misfortune: the owner, the engineering firm and the fabricator. The owner went to all means to reduce his costs and did not accept on-site representation. The engineering firm was responsible both for the original design, which, as we have seen, did not support the minimum standard required, and because it later stamped and approved the change of plans that could only make things worse. The fabricator, finally, was guilty of consciously changing the designs in order to facilitate his work and as a direct cause of the accident.


1. http://www.mech.utah.edu/ergo/educate/safety_modules/KC/


3. http://www.engineering.com/content/ContentDisplay?contentId=41009033

As presented on the Internet at http://www.mech.utah.edu/ergo/educate/safety_modules/KC/


http://www.mech.utah.edu/ergo/educate/safety_modules/KC… [read more]

SOP I Am a Mechanical Engineer Major Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



I am a mechanical engineer major studying at a four-year college and am now pursing a Master of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M. The reason for applying to this specific program is its focus on application rather than theory. I am primarily interested in project design, and envision myself applying my A&M degree in the private sector and potentially in the field of medical technologies.

The most recent project I completed was the design and manufacture of the Stair Lift Walker. With an experienced team consisting of other students, we used Autodesk Inventor for the initial drafts, ran several types of ANSYS analyses to determine stress points and weight requirements, and ultimately assembled the Stair Lift Walker. Assembly helped highlight both the strengths and weaknesses in our design. The strengths included the materials chosen, including lightweight titanium for the legs, as well as advanced polymers for the handlebar grips. However, our measurements were slightly off and I do believe we need to improve on the design by ensuring it is adjustable for different height and weight categories. While at A&M I intend to master knowledge in the physical properties of polymers, including knowledge about the flow and fracture of these versatile materials. Because of the way the Stair Lift Walker brought to my attention the value of understanding stress analysis, this is an area of specialization I intend to pursue while at A&M. As the Stair Lift Walker was the first prototype I have ever designed, I look forward to future projects using the facilities at A&M and collaborating with my colleagues.

One of the reasons I have become interested in applying my mechanical engineering degree to medical technologies in particular is that I have worked in a hospice with seniors, and have also taken care of elders in my family. I have witnessed both the wonders of medical technologies in the ways that they have aided seniors in adapting their bodies to their environments and vice-versa. While at the hospice, I met the regional sales director of a medical supplies company. The sales director informed me of the range of items in their product catalog and this was when I realized that my future was to be as a chief product engineer whose work would directly benefit the population. From designing prostheses to assistive technologies for the disabled, my work as a mechanical engineer will be altruistic in scope, and perfectionistic at the base level of design.

Moreover, effective product design ensures ergonomics for all age groups. Working deeply with the principles of stress and strain analysis during my senior project has opened up a wide range of questions related to how to design equipment that optimizes safety and ergonomics at the same time, while also minimizing expenditures. My input into the product design of…… [read more]

Impact of Scaling Down in CMOS Technology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Problems and Perspectives in Scaling Down CMOS Technology: A Literature Survey Analysis

Complimentary metal-oxide semiconductors, or CMOS, have become a ubiquitous technology in a wide array of electronics-based consumer goods, from the computer interfaces in for which they were first designed to operate to practically every other electronic device that now uses computer technology to increase functionality and/or efficiency -- cameras, cell phones, televisions, cars, etc. An increasing problem, pr more precisely a growing and ever-more-complex set of problems that has accompanied this growth in application and functionality is the ever-present need for scaling down CMOS technologies. Solving this problem has been a main driver of innovation and profitability, and stagnancy could result in transitions to alternative technologies altogether.

Fundamental Issues

The primary issue facing CMOS technology developments is the need to retain or even improve functionality while still reducing the size of the semiconductor chips. This might seem a too-broad and non-specific way of stating the problem, but it is important that more specific issues be contextualized in the terms. The problems facing efforts to scale down CMOS technologies are far more complex than they were a decade or two ago, when phase differentiation was not an issue and voltage levels remained generally constant (El-Hennawy 1992). Now voltage scaling and differentiation, which has long been a fundamental part of scaling down CMOS technologies, cannot keep pace with other physical advancements (Fischer et al. 2007).

A more fundamental issue facing the scaling down of CMOS technologies is the sheer practicality of functionalities at the near-atomic -- or even at the atomic -- level. As the technologies moved towards and even surpassed the hundred nanometer mark in size, readability of conducted charges and thus overall functionality has been an increasingly laborious and less efficient process, requiring new technologies to be developed to make use of ever-smaller CMOS technologies (Manghisoni et al. 2007). Phase-change materials have been utilized to render CMOS technologies effective at lower charges, increasing readability by reducing static and resistance, but these have not been able to surmount the problem entirely, especially as ever smaller sizes are sought (Lankhorst 2005). The use of single atoms as memory cells is theoretically possible, and there has even been some success integrating atomic memory technologies with CMOS technologies, but the operations in chips this size are negligible (Cerfolini & Romano 2008).

That being said, current theories and prognoses in the industry suggest that CMOS technologies can remain practically and pragmatically viable down to the ten nanometer level while retaining a high level of operational abilities and functionality (Skotnicki et al. 2005). Without a doubt, even as CMOS technologies have been growing smaller, the expanded applications and functions of even a single CMOS chip have grown enormously (Leitner 2005). The fact that so much more can be done with so much less is perhaps the greatest cause for hope currently facing the CMOS technology industry, though it does little to help the practical problem of continuing to scale down such technologies.

Another… [read more]

Collaborative New Product Development in Small Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  12 pages (3,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25


Collaborative New Product Development in Small & Medium Businesses

Collaborative New Product Development Tools and Techniques in Small and Medium Businesses

For small and medium businesses (SMB) product introductions are one of the most significant sources of new customer, revenue and profit growth. As a result, the new product development strategies, tools, techniques and processes they rely on of a… [read more]

Mountain Bike Design Suspension Systems and Frame Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,168 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Mountain Bike Rear Suspension PDS

While there have been many different types of rear suspensions in the mountain bike industry over the years, a few specific formats have stood out as most successful. These formats contain either a strut and damper system or a spring shock system, or a combination of both. Given the proven success and reliability of these systems, it would be advisable to begin to take a look at a fairly conventional yet proven design for the rear suspension system to be developed. Over the past decade, as these systems have been developed and become part of the design landscape, the materials chosen for them have changed as well. This is to say that lighter, stringer, and longer-lasting materials have been successfully incorporated into these designs.

One final factor that is important to consider is cost. Not just upfront cost, but the cost of maintaining and possibly remedying a warrantee replacement or repair. Certainly the company should try to keep both up front manufacturing and installation costs down as well as try to keep related and future costs low as well. This also goes for the rider or owner of the bicycle, since the company's reputation could very well hinge on the quality and longevity of their components and bicycles. Depending on the geometry of the bike frame itself and where the weight of the rider and the force of the shock to be absorbed is concentrated, rear suspension systems can have a greater or lesser effect of dampening the shock. Starting with material, certain types of suspension components have to be manufactured from certain materials for reasons of practicality, cost, and functionality.

The types of suspensions can vary, and it is thought that the parameters influencing the performance of the rear suspension system are 1) the length of the side link, 2) the length of the connecting rod, and 3) the pivot position of the absorber and the frame (Xiang, et. al., 2008). These three factors can be taken into consideration when designing a rear suspension system just as much as the geometry of the bike and the rider themselves. This is to say that there are many more variables and influential factors to consider beyond just the design of the system itself when implementing the rear suspension system on a mountain bike.

Company Sales and Marketing Discretion and Rear Suspension Adjustability

From an engineering perspective, as soon as one variable within a system is changed, the performance or outcome of the system's function changes as well. This is to say that the suspension system will function differently in different conditions and with different riders. It is therefore important to take into consideration the fact that the bike company selling these bikes should try to advise their customers as to the best possible solution for them. Each suspension system serves a specific group of riders so it would be beneficial to create an adjustable system that could help to conform to different riding styles and rider… [read more]

Fire at Watts Bar Hydroelectric Plant Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fire at Watts Bar Hydroelectric Plant

In 2002, a fire at a hydroelectric plant in Tennessee caused by damaged electrical wiring could have resulted in the outage of electrical service to numerous businesses and residents in the area. In addition, the real danger could have been the malfunctioning of the dam and spillway resulting in flooding and damage to the surrounding areas.

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the NFPA 550, Guide to the Fire Safety Concepts Tree in helping to prevent future fires and contain the damage of any other fires. Could the NFPA 550 have prevented the Watts Bar Hydroelectric Plant?

On September 27, 2002 at 8:00 AM, the Tennessee Valley Authority's Watts Bar Hydroelectric Plant in Spring City, Tennessee experienced a fire in the cable shaft and control building. Arcing between a cable and a metal grate due to damaged insulation that surrounded an electrical cable caused the insulation to catch on fire. Fortunately, the operational and electrical systems were able to be restored within hours.

According to Gil Francis, Media Contact for the Tennessee Valley Authority, in the January 3, 2003 press release, "TVA is still determining the exact cost of the damage and the repair and replacement of equipment, but the cost is estimated to be between $25 million and $30 million" (Francis, 2003, ¶4). TVA is the largest public power producer in the United States, with self-financed power systems which supplies power to numerous big industries and 158 power distributors that serve 8.3 million consumers.

The NFPA 550, Guide to the Fire Safety Concepts Tree is designed to evaluate the lack…… [read more]

Nuclear Submarine Establish Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,071 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Nuclear Submarine

Establish the need for the process/result

Uncertain political climate

Growing costs of international travel

Explain why this option is the best alternative

Clean burning fuel, cut emissions

Reuse of large machinery that would otherwise be landfilled

Avoid traffic

First Step: Locate design plans and materials

Locating design plans

Internet search for various designs

Selection of fitting design for travel needs/family size

Locating materials

Scouring junkyards for scrap metal

Make friends with metal shops for use of construction equipment

Second Step: Building the Sub


Slice all materials into the pieces required by the design plan


Begin attaching pieces as per the pattern

Third Step: Obtaining Nuclear Fuel

A. Contact friendly governments

Cuba, China, and North Korea are possibilities

Unfriendly nations like Iran if all else fails

B. Other alternatives

Dig, dig, dig

2. Microwave lead repeatedly

V. Fourth Step: The real plan

A. Admit futility of previous plans

1. Your welding job looks like an abstract jungle gym

2. All you have to show for your fuel efforts are several broken microwaves

B. Obtain a sub -- the traditional way

1. Obtain capital: rob Swiss banks, sell sub-plans

2. Contact a former Soviet satellite country

3. Buy nuclear Submarine

VI. Conclusion

A. Review the process

B. Detail the rewards

1. Long travel with great efficiency

2. Plot rights to next Tom Clancy thriller

How to Obtain a Nuclear Submarine

Few modern conveniences are more useful or arguably more necessary today than a nuclear submarine. The uncertainty of the global political climate makes having an offshore and mobile haven a boon to any individual searching for a way to protect his or her family and the smaller of their valuable possessions. In addition, the cost of international travel has increased dramatically in response to fuel prices and other issues; having a nuclear submarine puts you in control of your travel expenses instead of leaving you at the mercy of the airline and cruise ship industries. In addition, a nuclear submarine doesn't use fossil fuels, meaning it is environmentally friendly in reducing emissions. It also removes large amounts of material from landfills if reused materials are incorporated in the submarine's construction. The last major bonus of travel by nuclear submarine is the ability to avoid all traffic on sea or air, and even through land on certain riverways and lake systems.

Now that you're convinced, you can begin taking the necessary steps towards obtaining your nuclear submarine. First, you'll need a set of plans -- a simple Google search yields plenty of results of architectural and engineering plans for nuclear submarines. Based on your specific travel needs, including distances, family size, and desired accommodations, choose a design that provides the size you need with the efficiency and speed to make your travels easy on the budget and the psyche. After that, it's a simple matter to gather the several hundred tons of scrap metal, wiring, and other parts needed through a search of local junkyards. This is… [read more]

Technology in 20th Century Main Focus Military Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Military Tech

The United States Defense Industry and Technological Development in the Twentieth Century

Technology is one of the key features of nay culture and civilization. The limits of a specific group's technology in large part dictate the degree and the manner of their interaction with their environment, with other people, and amongst each other. The technological innovation of the plow allowed for far more rapid rates of growth in agriculture, enabling the establishment of the first large population groups, which in turn led to the development of the first cities. New methods of metalworking enabled a move away from tools made of stone, wood, and other naturally abundant materials to those made of lighter, stronger, and more malleable material. Eras of human civilization are often labeled by their salient technologies -- the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the modern Information Age -- illustrating the importance of technology in every human being's daily life.

One of te major driving forces behind technological progress has been the need, or at least the perceived need, for defensive tools and weapons of aggression. The Iron and Bronze Ages were spurred onwards by a need for lighter, stronger weapons that could do more damage more cheaply; chariots were developed as war machines; even many modern advancements in technology can be seen as the result of military progress, for better or for worse. The growth of the human species has led to increasingly scarce resources, and these resources are but to increasingly sophisticated uses in attempts to secure more resources form other groups of individuals.

In the twentieth century, it was not only the development of specific objects and technologies, but the increased military industrialization and the process of creating and producing technologies itself that in large part contributed to the advancement of society through technology and science. This is not immediately apparent from a cursory examination of the technologies of the twentieth century; Henry Ford revolutionize industry with the assembly line process in a private and civilian endeavor, and other achievements in the technological process were also made outside the realm of the military. An examination of the trends of technology explosions, however, demonstrates the influence that the military had on society in terms of its acquisition of technology, its appreciation of growing technological capabilities, and the overall functioning of society through technology.

The Aftermath of World War

War has many outcomes, some of them far less desirable than others, but the twentieth century has seen some rather interesting and unusual effects in addition to those more commonly expected. Bothe World War I and World War II saw periods of rapid technological innovation and expansion occurring in the years immediately following their close; the 1920s and the 1950s were both times of then-unprecedented prosperity and growth both economically and technologically (Pursell2007, pp. 282-5). The relationship of this fact to the militarization of the decades is somewhate complex, but essentially the nationwide mobilization and common goals of industry and technology during war were allowed… [read more]

Technology and Society Science Fiction Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Technology and Society -- Science Fiction

Literary Analysis of Sleeper, a Film by Woody Allen

The intent of this paper is to complete a literary analysis of the film Sleeper (1973), written and produced by Woody Allen. This film is considered a modern classic due to its extensive use of comedy techniques, from slapstick and vaudevillian routines, to dialogue that… [read more]

Human Relations Explain the Significance Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Human Relations

Explain the significance of the terms yield point, elastic limit, and rupture point as they relate to stress.

While the stress-strain relationship is generally used in technical fields such as mechanical engineering and even medicine, there are significant correlations between this model and what can occur when human beings and human relationships undergo stress and strain (Enoka, 2008; Kardale, 2010; Mechanical Design in Optical Engineering: Stress-Strain Relationships, 2010). In the stress-strain relationship, there are at least three terms that can be used to describe the effects of stress both in technical fields and the human relations arena: elastic limit, yield point, and rupture point.

Materials (and people) have limits to the amount of stress they can tolerate. In technical terms, when a material is put under pressure or "load," it will be flexible enough to adjust and accommodate as long as it's within its "elastic range" (Kardale, 2010). At some point, however, the material will reach its "elastic limit," and enter the "plastic range" (Kardale, 2010). When stress continues into the plastic range, permanent change or "deformity" will occur -- its severity depending on the severity of the strain (Mechanical Design in Optical Engineering: Stress-Strain Relationships, 2010).

The yield point in a stress-strain relationship is the point at which an object (or person) reaches its "upper limit of cohesive structural existence" (Kardale, 2010). In other words, if stress is increased within the plastic range, at some point the permanent changes occurring will become "catastrophic" (Kardale, 2010). This point is known as the yield point.

When a material is strained even beyond the yield point, it will break or crack. This is called the rupture point (Kardale, 2010). Comparisons can be drawn between materials reaching yield points and rupture points, and people or relationships reaching those catastrophic points. For example, people have varying amounts of stress in their daily lives,…… [read more]

Total Design Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,613 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


It means that to in fact utilize the tool throughout the whole process of product development cycle, from the early concept stages through to the end of life. The major areas of use include but are not confined to the following. The process of product costing, the stage of early product costing while it is still in the sub-assembly level, the process of concept selection, the process of competitive benchmarking of the product, the process of assembly instruction, the process of creating the time standards, the process of cost reduction, the process of vendor quote verification and the process of design simplification


Utilization of the FMEA (Failure Modes and Effect Analysis) tool in a certain project assists in the determination of failures in advance and to come up with negative/invalid test scenarios. This important tool must therefore be utilized before the particular project has achieved the design phase, which should really bring benefits in the achievement of good design control.


It is necessary for every product that is to be manufactured to be taken through all the steps of the design process. There are also tools that must be utilized in the process so as to bring out an efficient product that meets the requirements and the need of the customers. It is therefore necessary to attach utmost importance to the theme of Total Design Process.


Figure 1: A sub-system showing the product design

Figure 2.A diagram showing the spiral design of the PDS

Fig 3: Process Design


CROSS, N., (2006). T211 Design and Designing: Block 2,-page 99.

Hollins, W & Hollins G.Total Design: Managing the Design Process in the Service Sector

The Open University (UK), (2001). T881 Manufacture Materials Design: Block 1: The…… [read more]

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Research Paper

Research Paper  |  25 pages (6,360 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


Shell and Heat Tube Exchangers: Shell Tube Heat Excanger Double Pass

The objective of this work is to analyze a horizontal conventional double pass shell and tube heat exchanger with a focus on the features as follows: (1) use of distribution pressure not requiring steam regulating valve or steam control valve; (2) Using a higher temperature steam to reduce the… [read more]

Cultural Beliefs and Values: Is Science Making Us More Ignorant? Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (355 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Science and the Public: Is Science Making Us More Ignorant?" Dacey (2004) calls for a systematic integration of science and culture. Dacey points out that the sciences have become segregated from other academic disciplines. Furthermore, the disparity between science and other fields has created a sad disconnection from ourselves and from the world. Science has made us ignorant because science has no cultural context, notes Dacey. Dacey proposes a new academic discipline that explores the "intersections of science and culture," and calls this emerging field Science and the Public.

Dacey is careful to distinguish Science and the Public from Public Science Literacy. Public Science Literacy focuses on communications, and how the mass media conveys scientific knowledge to the lay public. Science and the Public, on the other hand, focuses on cognition, consciousness, and culture. Formal science can and should be used to answer deep philosophical questions including the nature of the self. Dacey claims that applying science to cultural values and beliefs will help dispel ignorance. Scientific literacy depends on making science more meaningful.

Greater…… [read more]

Shift in Supply and Demand: Technology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (327 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … shift in supply and demand: Technology

The creation of a new form of technology, such as the relatively recent explosion in the use of personal computers, can create a sharp upturn in demand for new, highly skilled workers. Several possible scenarios can occur as a result of new technological developments: firstly, workers with highly prized skills may suddenly have extremely marketable job qualifications. Their salaries will go up. Businesses will try to use less expensive, outsourced labor whenever possible to curtail salary growth. More graduates will begin to major in technological fields because of the high levels of demand and high salaries.

Thus, both the demand and the supply of labor will increase. The demand for labor will expand, as employers in the high-tech sector will wish to capitalize upon this new ability to make a profit, and because being a first mover in a technology field bestows such a critical advantage upon the supplier. Furthermore, technology can change at such…… [read more]

World Trade Center Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,983 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


World Trade Center Collapse

The Architecture and Design of the Twin Towers

The September 11, 2001 attacks changed the face of the Manhattan skyline and will remain as one of the worst days of American history in the minds of the American public. That day represented pure hatred and disregard for human life, with thousands of innocent working men and… [read more]

Why Should We Continue the NASA Space Program? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,849 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … NASA Space Program?

Our Nations' Greatest Gains are based on Space Exploration

Our nation's crisis economically today is directly related to the lack of consistent innovation gained from investments in space exploration and the many processes required to make these programs successful. From the most fundamental aspects of project management that today guide the development, testing and commercial… [read more]

Building Construction Collapse Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Collapse of I-35W in Minnesota

How safe are America's older concrete highway bridges? And how long is a concrete bridge expected to remain viable? What are the influences that have a negative effect on the integrity of concrete-steel composite bridge girders? Has there been adequate research into these matters? What are the scholarly journals reporting?

These concerns are not new,… [read more]

Aeronautics Airplane and Other Man-Made Flying Objects Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,645 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Airplane and other man-made flying objects are some of the most advanced machines around. They achieve speeds and altitudes that even a few decades ago were thought to be impossible. Space shuttles have even managed to break through the Earth's atmosphere and come back in again, which required a number of major engineering innovations. In order to achieve all… [read more]

Campbell Soup Company Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (878 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Campbell Soup

Jim Elsner must decide the best course of action for Campbell's Soup with regards to its microwave soup initiatives. He must also evaluate the company's system for product development. At present, the system is insufficient to meet the company's needs. The Plastigon project has been stalled by repeated technical issues and the company's product development system as a whole appears inadequate to address its future needs.

The operating and competitive environment for Campbell's Soup is changing. The packaged food business has not been subject to significant technological or social change in decades. The market has been mature, but existing competitors are making technological changes in order to improve their market share. Campbell's, one of the market leaders, has expanded the company through the development and purchase of other lines. The development of microwaveable soups is a strong strategic response to a new market opportunity. It leverages the strength of the iconic Campbell's brand, but the effectiveness of the strategy has been hampered by several weaknesses.

The Containers and Capital Investments division has two main departments responsible for this project, the packaging group and the engineering systems group. The structure of the engineering systems group is not conducive to rapid pace of technological development. The most important roles for the group are to develop new products and to make efficiency improvements. Engineers typically divide their time between multiple projects. They are also centrally located in New Jersey. One of the issues with regards to the launch of Plastigon is turnover stemming from extensive travel to the North Carolina plant where the Plastigon project is located. In short, the personnel and structures in the engineering systems group are conducive to their traditional role of modest improvements to existing processes; they are not conducive to the development of entirely new processes and technologies.

The second weakness is with regards to communication. With employees scattered over multiple sites, it is difficult to coordinate the flow of information. For example, the red-and-white division is simultaneously developing its own microwaveable container based on DRG technology. There are also difficulties regarding the communication of organizational objectives. The Plastigon project is viewed by some as the personal whim of the CEO rather than a market-driven initiative. The management at the Maxton plant is not contributing their part to the Plastigon project out of fear for a deterioration of operating results. The importance of the project has been poorly communicating within the company, and the personnel responsible are not communicating well with each other.

The third weakness is with regards to finances. At present, neither Plastigon nor DRG technology are viewed as profitable options. Additionally, the…… [read more]

Transatlantic Cable Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,477 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Transatlantic Cable

Big Dreams Across an Ocean

The telegraph was a marvelous invention that allowed people to communicate at speeds never thought possible. When Samuel Morse first invented the telegraph, America was soon blanketed with a network of telegraph lines (Leinhard). One of the first lines laid went under the New York Harbor. This task presented a host of challenging… [read more]

Technology Has Determined the Outcomes of Events Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,379 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … technology has determined the outcomes of events in the twentieth century. Technology has framed events of the twentieth century from the very turn of the twentieth century, and it changed the way people lived, worked, and played throughout the century.

Beginning at the turn of the twentieth century, technology and innovation has changed just about everything in American (and worldwide) life, from how people commute to how people spend their time on the job, at home, and in society. When people think of technology, they often think of computers, which certainly have changed the way people work. However, there has been much more innovation that has truly changed the way we live and work. Think of the invention of the first commercial automobile and the assembly line by Henry Ford in 1908 to the harnessing of air power in 1903 and the resulting growth of rocketry and jet propulsion that led to man's first steps on the moon in 1969.

At the turn of the twentieth century, electricity was still not commonplace, telephones were still an oddity, and automobiles were seen as a threat to horses and the "normal" way of life in America. Today, technologies like these are commonplace, we cannot imagine our lives without them, and countless other innovations that we take for granted, like satellites that run our phones, radios, and iPods, and space travel that seems no longer special but commonplace. Yet, all of these technologies evolved in the twentieth century, and they framed events of the twentieth century, from making travel across country a common occurrence to creating some of the most threatening technologies on earth, such as weapons of mass destruction, the atomic bomb, and weapons that helped win World War I and II. Three scholars write, "Two world wars and countless other military conflicts killed millions around the globe, but the century was also an age of impressive innovation in every field of human endeavor, some of the most far-reaching in medicine, science and computer technology" (Best, Hanhim ki, Maiolo, and Schulze 483). In World War I, the airplane was new technology, and it changed the way the war was fought. By World War II, the airplane was one of the most important elements of the war, from the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 to the ending of the war by dropping the atomic bombs on Japan. Technologies like radar, sonar, rocketry, and jet propulsion helped win the war, as well, and then went on to become more advanced and help create global travel opportunities that were not thought of before the war. Therefore, technology changed the way we fight wars, win wars, and view wars, even as it helped change the way we travel and think about travel. (Travel before the automobile and airplane was a long, tedious affair, now, it is much simpler and available to everyone.)

Technology changed warfare and travel, but it has also impacted work. The computer has changed the way people work, not… [read more]

Excites You About Math/Science Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … excites you about Math/Science and why would you want to spend a month at Cosmos

Do not worry about your difficulties in Mathematics. I can assure you mine are still greater." -- Albert Einstein

This quotation of Albert Einstein illustrates what I love about math and science -- although studying math and science can provide human beings with concrete answers and solutions, studying math and science also provokes human beings to ask more searching and seemingly unanswerable questions. The work that science has done to improve human life is clear and demonstrable, but the process of understanding the world is never done.

Both the theoretical and the practical applications of math and science have always fascinated me. Cosmos would give me a chance to explore how engineering is being used to solve problems of everyday life, but also a greater understanding of the physical principles that guide the discipline.

Although I have enjoyed all of my coursework at my high school, the times when I…… [read more]

Sustainability in the Built Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … radiant heating and cooling written by Interface Engineering.

If the assignment is to deliver comfort to humans in buildings, there are several ways to do so. These are discussed: radiators which depend on hydronic heating, air convection which depend on air velocity and air turbulence and humidity which depends upon the amount of water in the air. All of these are necessary for a human to feel comfortable in a heated or cooled environment.

HVAC systems, depending on building envelope, massing, glazing and internal loads, may be internal (such as a radiator), external and piped in, or, as suggested in this article, may be made part of the building itself, built into the cast concrete of the structure itself to utilize thermal masses and delete interior appliances. The article suggests that this is cost efficient in that the HVAC system of radiant heating and cooling may be placed within the walls and concrete areas of the structure in order to save space and to utilize the masses of concrete to spread and deliver heat to the interior. This is called Integrated Design.

The Integrated Design option for radiant space conditioning may be combined with natural ventilation from windows, skylights, doors and openings. It may be part of the daylighting feature of skylights and windows in that it may be installed in conjunction with heat panels and depend upon daylight to enhance and control energy expenditures. Overhangs and blinds, along with light-colored surfaces may assist the direct solar gain on the thermal mass, so that in winter more sunlight is used to heat and in summer it is shut out.

Thermal mass may be added to floors, walls or ceilings in order to create a long-lasting heat or cooling system, as…… [read more]

Eiffel Tower Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Eiffel Tower

Worksheet Companion: To Architecture

Architect____Gustav Eiffel

____La Tour d'Eiffel

Date of construction ____1887-1889 (SETE)

Location: ____7th Arrondissement, Paris

Dimensions/Size: _312.27m (1889)

Spanning elements: post and lintel____ rounded arch____x____ pointed arch____x____ dome____ truss____x____ wood frame____ steel and reinforced concrete

Material: stone____ wood____ cast iron____x____ steel

Concrete____ other:

What is the purpose of the building?

Religious ____civic ____x____residential ____commercial ____arts and entertainment____ transportation____ education

Who does the building serve?

The building serves the city of Paris as a landmark. Originally built for the 1889 World Exhibition celebrating the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution fair, it was intended as an exposition of what one could do with stee (Barthes)l.

How does the building's function influence its design?

How does the building compare to others that serve the same purpose?

The Eiffel Tower started a copycat movement around the world, from the Tokyo Tower to the Toronto TV tower. It says "we're here, and we're special." Since the Eiffel Tower was the first in the Industrial Age, it has served as the beacon for other such structures in the future. The Eiffel Tower's predecessors reach back to the building of monuments to kings and military victories, and is in the same family as the victory arch (the Place de l'Etoile in Paris, the Victory Arch in Rome) or the Egyptian obelisks and pyramids that announced the power and majesty of the government and the gods. Unlike those earlier monuments, the Eiffel Tower's function is to display technology and innovation as an end in itself.

Consider the building's use of ornamentation and decoration. Which of the following does it employ?

Classical order ____Doric columns____ Ionian columns____ Corinthian columns ____entablature____ pediment____ cornice ____engaged columns____ moldings____ arcade or colonnade____x____ platform towers____x____ decorative portal or doors____ other ornamentation - describe: _fine lacework of steel

Describe the building's facade elevation ____ that is, the vertical design of its front.

The tower is an immense rising column which expands at the base to a length of 126.9 meters, and comes to the top at 18.65 meters. It is designed to be lightweight and present a relatively small face to the wind, hence its lacy steelwork. It was built in four major sections, with the base section relatively massive, vault-shaped, leading to a first-level terrace. The second section leads to a second-level terrace, which has a restaurant and stores. The top has a small walkway which affords views of the city. If the Eiffel Tower were to be placed in a column filled with air, the air would weigh more than the Eiffel Tower's 7,300 tons.

Consider the formal elements and how the…… [read more]

Discontinuous Innovation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,225 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Discontinuous Innovation in a Business Organization




Recently the CEO of a company, an OEM for the light bulb industry, attended a business seminar where everyone agreed that "there is a potential threat of disruption from new Light Emitting Diode (LED) technologies." Moreover, the CEO was told that "Many incumbent firms find it hard to spot or… [read more]

Segway Personal Transportation Device Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,480 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Segway personal transportation device is a significant improvement to other types of devices that attempt to do the same thing, i.e. safely and quickly transport the human body on short distances where a car is simply to much of a bother or unnecessarily harmful to the environment but where simply walking is out of the question for time and energy… [read more]

Mine Safety Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,704 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Safety

Innovations in Mine Safety Technology

The recent string of mine disasters in the United States and China proof-positive that mines are dangerous places to work, and even with the most sophisticated mine safety technologies in place, accidents can and do happen all the time. Therefore, identifying opportunities for improvements in existing techniques in mine safety represents a… [read more]

Compare and Contrast 2 Different Occupations or Jobs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,555 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … objectivity with reference to the selection of the occupation is relevant element, and requires thorough evaluation and consideration prior to selection. The career oriented group and society has tremendous potential to lead and conquer in their respective assignments which require hardships, determination, struggle and genuine expertise in their departments of affiliation. The criticality of the professional life is… [read more]

Ultrasound Is a Supersonic Transmitter That Radiates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,355 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Ultrasound is a supersonic transmitter that radiates high-frequency 3.5 MHz waves not accepted by ear. Waves are come to an object, reflected from it and come to a receiver. These are then interpreted into picture on dislay.

SONAR or Sound Navigation and Ranging. This is where the History of Ultrasound scanners should start. Jean-Daniel Colladon, a Swiss physicist, has successfully… [read more]

Ergonomic Needs of People in UK Local Authority Run Leisure Facilities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,807 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Leisure UK Ergonomics



The objective of this work is to research the methods in which the ergonomic needs of people within the community they serve and the employees of the leisure centre run by a UK Local Authority. Considered are assured in terms of building design, equipment, selection… [read more]

Adoption as Well as Diffusion of Enum Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,795 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … adoption as well as diffusion of ENUM technology, a technological innovation at the center stage of the "one number for all." This is done via a comparative study of ENUM trials in various countries. The rate of adoption of the technology by end users is done using both the theory of reasoned action and diffusion of innovation (Kautz… [read more]

Ohsha on the Job Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In addition, the materials of construction information, the pump capacities/pressure heads, vessel design pressures and temperature compressor horsepower. This is illustrated when necessary for clarity. Also, the major components of the control loops are most usually shown with the key utilities (ibid). This is mostly passive, although it is necessary for the infrastructure to be inspected which is not passive. The information could be compiled from previous data. The disadvantage of this would be that the information is old. The advantages of an inspection at this point is that it is early on in the process management work flow. If it is done now, it does not have to be repeated at another point.

Thirdly piping and instrument diagrams (P&Ids) should have more complete types of diagrams to show more of the details to display the information for the piping designer/engineering staff. The P&IDs should be used to describe relationships between equipment and instruments, including other relevant information. Computer programs do P&Ids or other diagrams are useful in order to fulfill this requirement. The above information pertains to the equipment design and must be documented. Simply, the codes and standards have to elaborated upon to be completely reliable (ibid). These diagrams depend upon active measures taken in step two.

Fourthly, a manual check of the system is necessary (active measure). This is the most costly (disadvantage), however, the most effective in terms of reliability. If for some reason this can not be performed, software simulations can be performed. These have the advantage of putting the system through its paces safely and at low cost, avoiding possible spills of hazardous materials. Drills to deal with potential spills can also be done repeatedly to make sure that safety personnel are competently trained. This has the advantage of low cost and the benefit of repetition for the personnel involved. Of course, a visual check of the systems is necessary to make sure that all seals and valves work properly.

If more is done actively earlier, this step will be less expensive and time consuming.

Works Cited

Compliance guidelines and recommendations for process safety management. (2010). Retrieved

from http://www.ehso.com/ProcSafetyG.htm.… [read more]

Product Life Cycle Apply to Regal Marine Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … product life cycle apply to Regal Marine products?

The entire value chain and business model of Regal Marine is predicated on keeping pace with the product lifecycle the company has across each category of boat or marine craft. As the product lifecycles are between three to five years, there is a constant, urgent need to continually create new product concepts and quickly transform them into prototypes for testing and eventually, new products. Like many manufacturers, Regal Marine must take into account the suppliers that provide the raw materials, subcomponents and assemblies that comprise their new boats while also factoring in the design inputs of customers, consultants and dealers. All of these inputs need to be captured and prioritized in the context of the new boat design.

The new product development and introduction process, which many companies integrate as part of their agile manufacturing strategy (Vinodh, Kuttalingam, 2011) is also being used by Regal to streamline the new product definition and development process. For Regal and their competitors, time-to-market is crucial for their success, as is the focus on creating high quality, reliable boats which their dealers, distributors and end customers trust to perform as promised. All of the factors included in the new product development and introduction process need to be orchestrated in order for the highest quality boat to be produced, at the lowest cost, aligned as closely as possible to customers' needs. If these three needs can be triangulated, any product stands a much greater chance of success. For Regal, their pipeline must be continually fed with new products, concepts and boats in various stages of development if the company is to continually stay competitive and earn a profit over time.

What strategy does Regal use to…… [read more]

Technology in Use in 1910 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,234 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


(UMSL, n. d.)

A web-based architecture must be capable of serving as the connector between subsystems. Nowadays and in future the time factor appears to have shifted from the pace of software execution to the time taken for completion of a dependable working application or project. This aspect is going to drive the future of web-based applications. The same architecture… [read more]

Implementing a Low Cost Design of a Satellite Sub-System That Enhancing Satellite Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (5,027 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Transfer through Satellite Communication Systems

Satellite Subsystems

Development of Satellite Subsystems

Low-cost Satellite Systems

Requirements for Developing Low-Cost Satellite Subsystems

Examples of Low-cost Satellite Subsystems

Implementation of Low-cost Satellite Subsystems

Constraints of Effective Implementation

Guidelines for Effective Implementation of Low-cost Satellite Subsystems

Implementing a Low-cost Satellite Subsystem:

There is an increasing need for the obtaining information from sources… [read more]

Overly Dependent on Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


e. cell phones, tablets etc. being readily available, the ability of individuals to communicate at an interpersonal level has been on a dramatic decline. Interpersonal communication is slowly being replaced with text messages, emails etc. In the opinion of Lowman (2006), "communicating via technology, compared to face-to-face, influences communication behaviors, interpersonal relationships, trust, and so on." It is hard to imagine of what would happen if all the modern devices of communication suddenly broke down. In my opinion, this would wreck havoc across the globe before alternative means of communication are put in place. This clearly demonstrates how overly dependent we have become on technology.

Third, the field of medicine is yet another indicator of our overdependence on technology. As Chan (2003) notes, "modern health care delivery and medicine are increasingly dependent on technology in the diagnosis and mitigation of illnesses…" In the past, the most common ailments used to be treated using natural approaches. However, thanks to advances in technology, these approaches have been replaced with chemical-based drugs developed using specialized procedures. Although this is not necessarily a bad thing, it is a clear indication of the utilization of technology in drug manufacture and production. Further, medical procedures from cosmetic surgeries to complicated organ surgeries are today carried out using specialized equipment. For instance, laser surgery is increasingly being used in place of the more traditional scalpel to carry out less intrusive surgeries. The practice of medicine as we know it would be significantly scared were these automated tools, procedures as well as equipment to be taken away. Further, it can also be noted that the contribution technology has made toward the easement of our daily lives is in some quarters seen as a contributing factor to the increasing rates of obesity. This is more so the case given that cars, escalators etc. have made individuals shun spontaneous exercises.

Education is yet another area that is increasingly becoming heavily reliant on technology. A few examples would go a long way to highlight my assertion in this case. To begin with, most libraries (both public and private) in addition to automating their services also have online versions of books available on the shelves. This means that students can easily access electronic versions of thousands of books from the comfort of their homes. This has also made e-learning easier with scores of students undertaking courses without any need for physical movement to learning centers. Software applications have also been developed in the recent past to assist students check the grammar and spelling of their texts prior to submission. Institutions are also increasingly utilizing anti-plagiarism software applications to check the originality of texts students submit in partial fulfillment of their course requirements. These examples and many more demonstrate just how education has become intertwined with technology. As McCain and Jukes (2001) note, "for education, the central issue is about how technology can be organized around student learning, not how student learning can be organized around technology."


In conclusion, it can be… [read more]

System Development Art or Science Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


System Development, Art or Science believe that systems development is an art. I provide some of the reasons below with the description of the systems development. Systems Development Cycle (SDLC) consists of project identification (selection), project initiation and planning, analysis, logical design, physical design, implementation, and maintenance.

The systems development phase begins with enterprise modeling that analyzes current data processing/business function & data needs and with the justification of needs. However, before an enterprise modeling task is done, the system analysts require an understanding of the information needs of the users. When system analysts initiate systems development phases, the foremost requirement for systems analysts become that they are able to access the information requirements from the users. However, accessing information from users require that system analysts are capable of understanding the business needs, but more important becomes their interpersonal styles so that they can interact with other users cordially. These qualities of systems analysts are closer to an art form than the science.

Again, during the identification phase, often a system is developed on the basis of an organizational problem. Finding problems is not easy however, since again it requires that systems analysts are proficient in judging correctly, what problems are, what opportunities are, and what directives are. Although system analysts alone do not determine the problems, but still system analysts are required to assess the validity of the problem statement so that developed systems can meet the organizational short-term and long-term goals periodically (Nielsen, 1993).

In the design phase, the specification of a detailed computer-based solution which emphasizes the technical or implementation concerns of the system become important.

As logical design consists of the translation of entity relations diagram into normalized data and input-output format, it is always possible to change conceptual schema or view based on the logical view/schemas (external views).

Often how new views are integrated depends more to the way the system analysts look at the conceptual deign. In other words, none of the systems analysts agrees on the same logical design of the systems, because each of analysts takes a specific view of the system and its implementation. This shows that even logical design phase is more like an art than the science.

Though physical design of the system is dependent on the logical design, however, as we noted earlier that logical design is more like an art, so it is no surprising that physical design is often built based on the basis of an art rather than a clear-cut reason that are carried out in the science.

In recent times, a main goal of user-centered…… [read more]

Definition and Difference Between Arch Bridge Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,068 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Exposing the Dynamics of Arch and Beam Bridges

Page 2 Brief Summary of the History of Bridges

Page 3 Arch Bridges

Page 6 Beam Bridges

Page 8 Comparing Arch and Beam Bridges

Comparing, Contrasting, and Exposing the Dynamics of Arch and Beam Bridges

There are certainly major differences between a beam bridge and an arch bridge, and this… [read more]

Prototyping? The Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Using Prototyping in the Product-Driven design of Business Processes)

The evolution of Rapid Prototyping:

When an individual comes up with a revolutionary new idea for any new product and wants it to be tested so that it can be patented under his name, he had to use the time tested traditional method of tie and dye prototyping that not only… [read more]

Establishing Product Vision Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


"Reducing Time Cycle of the New Product." CTR in the New Development Process. Pp.39-53. Retrieved 20 Jan 2004 at http://www.people.memphis.edu/~cscm/ctr2/RedCTinNewProdDev.pdf

Eliciting requirements from users can be a complex task. Conduct a web search on "requirements elicitation." Classify the techniques used for "requirements elicitation.

According to engineering analysts, M. Christel and K. Kang, there are many problems associated with requirements engineering, including problems in defining the system scope, problems in fostering understanding among the different communities affected by the development of a given system, and problems in dealing with the volatile nature of requirements. This lack of definition in system requirements ultimately can lead to the cancellation of system developments, at worst, and, at best, the development of a unsatisfactory system that is overly costly to the client. By improving requirements elicitation, the requirements engineering process can be improved.

Enhanced system requirements processes should include better fact-finding about the organization before the project is undertaken and a commitment to more efficient gathering of the system's specific requirements within the organization, as well as better evaluation and rationalization of the overall plan. Prioritization of goals along a specific timetable and for the overall needs of the project once it is completed is also key during requirements elicitation. The project must also be integrated with the current system; another reason to clearly understand the starting situation and the projected ideal future after the project is completed.

Taken by themselves, according to Christel & Kang existing elicitation techniques are often lacking in one or more of these areas, because engineering has had such a focus on system implementation and design, rather than the elicitation of the requirements before the technical aspects of the work are embarked upon in the first place. However, in cost-strapped times, the preliminary process is key and cannot be ignored. Specification of the plan, as well as a plan for the validation of the result is critical for this element of the design process. Requirements elicitation may involve everything from company interviews and analysis of existing systems, and system budgets, as well as the technical needs of the final system in the design process. For some engineers, it is unglamorous side, often of project design, but it is still a vital part of the process.

Work Cited

Christel, M. & K. Kang. (12 Oct 2004) "Issues in Requirements Elicitation." Software Engineering Institute. (SEI) Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 20 Jan 2004 at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/publications/documents/92.reports/92.tr.012.html… [read more]

Nanotechnology All Manufactured Products Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With a genetic disease, the nanobots would burrow into your DNA and repair the defective gene.

Power Storage: Nanotechnology could help build smaller and more efficient fuel cells to cleanly store energy.

New materials: By bonding a molecule with a nanoparticle, or single atom, scientists could create tubular fibers. When these fibers are threaded together and crystallized, they could act… [read more]

Gender Gap and Science Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,330 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gender Gap and Science

For quite a number of years researchers have delved deep into the gender equity in science, engineering and technology educational programs. These studies have utilized for interalia raise the consciousness of gender discrimination; convey regarding policy decisions; as also as a drive to tackle instances of gender discrimination. At the moment there is paucity at the… [read more]

Assistive Technology What Is the Definition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,146 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Assistive Technology

What is the definition of assistive technology and rehabilitation technology? What are the commonalities and difference between these two types of technology?

For people with incapacities and who are not able to do work that are difficult or not possible to them, a technology is used to help these people. This technology is called Assistive technology. Assistive technology… [read more]

Kenneth K. Humphreys' Book Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Namely, accountability and liability in the designs they make. By linking this discussion to the code of ethics, Humphreys makes a very convincing case for design safety.

Chapter ten discusses compensation in relation to ethics. Humphreys warns against the voucher system because it leaves many low-level engineers entirely in the dark as to the implications of the projects that their… [read more]

Strategy and Management in the International SME Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Strategy and Management in the International SME

From its humble beginnings in the Porirua Harbor, Vega Industries has come to be the world's most reputed navigation lights manufacturer. The state-of-the-art provider of optical and technological lighthouse and beacon solutions have modernized port, harbor and shoreline safety across the world through supply of efficient, dependable and accurate beacons that are capable… [read more]

US Socialized Medicine and Technology Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



The U.S., Socialized Medicine and Technology

The U.S., Socialized medicine, and Technology.

The U.S., Socialized medicine, and Technology.

The U.S., Socialized medicine, and Technology.

In this modern age, where very one wants comfort and automation in the work process, technology is an essential part of the society. It is commonly seen that latest development are constantly coming in the technological area each day. However, besides providing ease and comfort to the society as well as the government, there are a number of drawbacks of this technology for the society. Research has done on this alarming topic of the society and after interpreting the results, many researchers were of the view that technology is proving to be a challenge for the society and government (Chiang, pg. 3-7).

It is a fact that technology has now taken a firm position in many developed countries. However, as far as the government is concerned, the rapid changes in technology are very challenging because it changes the way of communication with the entire society and it affects both, the private and public life of the citizens. The technological change directly affects the hierarchical responsibilities and roles assigned by the government and in addition to this, the most crucial effect of the technological change is the impact on the decision making process of the government.

Beside this, the changes in technology also affect the operational process of the government. These changes are sometimes of no use for the government. Some technological revolutions such genetic management and biology can affect the common concepts of government. Nature of government is also affected by this revolution in the technological world.

A number of researchers are still involved in the study of the impact of technological revolution on the government and the main question for which they are more interested is that either government should adopt these rapid changes of technology in its way of functionality or not, and if so, how will it impact on the nature of government (Teich, pg. 360).

As far as the relationship is concerned between the three significant factors, that is, society, environment and the technology, it can be easily predicted that these three factors will have a firm relation in the upcoming future. This predicion is evident from the present day relationdjip between the society, technology and the enviroment. Today, people are so much addicted toawards technology that they cannot survive even a single minute without it. It is commonly observed that technology is implemented in almost every sector of the society and it seems as if society is bound on technology.

Technolgy has changed the way how people interact with one another, tavel from one place to another, earn money for living and so on. It has entirely changed the production, distribution and selling concepts of goods and services in the society. In addition to this, it has also changed the way people gain knowledge and provided a number of benefits for the youth of the country (Teich, pg. 56).

But,… [read more]

Developing BIM Implementation Strategy for Libyan Construction Sector Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  11 pages (2,811 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Building Information Modeling Strategy for the Libyan Construction Sector

Today, the Libyan construction sector is experiencing an unprecedented building boom, despite the challenges the country faces following a transition in government following the Arab Spring uprisings as well as the recent attack on a U.S. consulate and the death of the American ambassador in Benghazi. Indeed, the responsiveness… [read more]

Effect of Building Shape in the Wind Load Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Wind Load

Rapid urbanization coupled with exponential population growth has seen an exponential increase in high-rise buildings, surpassing even the dramatic wave of construction that followed the Industrial Revolution. Furthermore, where once high-rise buildings were limited to a few major cities, over the last few decades they have begun to appear all over the globe, from Shanghai to Dubai and… [read more]

Cooperation of States Across the Globe Global Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cooperation of States Across the Globe

Global cooperation is what is needed to solve many problems faced by different states globally, among these problems are financial meltdown, climate change, and nuclear proliferation among other problems that are urgent. These challenges no single nation can confront on their own regardless of how powerful they can be. The best chance to solve these problems is if nations act in concert with each other. There are several examples through which nations can cooperate to solve problems this paper will look at some of these ways.

Trade and finance

States across the globe should come together and cooperate so that world trade and global competition to thrive. This ensures that if one country has a surplus in something they produce for instance china has surplus in rice, and another country has less of this then the two can cooperate and trade among each other so that each can benefit and solve their problems in what they lack. Strong trade establishment among states in the globe reduces the vulnerability of the state to some crisis. Countries with larger traded sectors are resilient to shocks and their ability to expand their exports rapidly leads to their quick recovery. An example of international trade cooperation is the World Trade Organization that deals with global rules that govern trade between nations. The main function of WTO is to ensure that that there is smooth flow of trade, it also ensures that the trade is predictable and free as possible.

International Organization, Law & Human Rights

Another form of cooperation among states globally is through international organizations. These organizations have members on an international scope or presence. These organizations can be international nongovernmental or intergovernmental organizations. Supranational processes ring states together in large structures and identities. Organizations such as UN have attracted membership of states in the world including powerful ones each of which have a single vote in the general assembly. It has Security Council and UN peace keeping forces that are deployed in regions where there are conflicts where their role is to monitor compliance with agreements like ceasefires, disbarment plans and fair elections rules. Such organizations like the UN help countries to overcome challenges that they cannot solve on their own. Another important organization is…… [read more]

Design and Manufacturing of High Quality Low Cost Product Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (761 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Fishing Rod

Design and Manufacture of a High-End Bamboo Fishing Rod

The art of angling has in many ways remained unchanged for a century or more, and though the development of graphite, fiberglass, and composite material rods have changed the industry somewhat the highest-end rods used for fly fishing are still made of bamboo, as the best rods have been made for quite a long time. Material selection and the design and manufacturing process are still complex and detailed undertakings, whoever, and require careful consideration at each stage. In the following pages, a brief description of the design and manufacturing for a bamboo fly-fishing rod will be given, with a focus on certain engineering aspects of the design necessary to maximize quality and usability. Cost and sustainability are also important elements of consideration in the following process overview, and efforts are made to explain each design and manufacturing decision from all angles of the project as fully as is possible in the space given.

Materials Selection and Design

Fly-fishing rods present a unique engineering problem in that they need to possess a great deal of tensile strength while also retaining a high degree of flexibility and elasticity. With greater tensile strength than steel and greater compression resistance than concrete, bamboo has long been recognized as the material of choice for these fly-fishing rods, however not all bamboo is made equal and selecting the right bamboo is cost intensive (Newswee, 2008; Penrose, 2008; Carrasco et al., 2009). A specific type of bamboo rod is typically purchased in six foot lengths with the bamboo nodes already mostly flattened; this rod is then split down its length into six large canes which are made into successively smaller strips through a laborious hand process (Penrose, 2008). This element of the operation could most likely be mechanized but this would cost a great deal and would likely lead to quality control problems; though the skilled labor need for the task is high this expense is still preferable to mechanization (Penrose, 2008). The high-grade Tonkin bamboo most typically utilized in this application would have been pre-selected by the supplier for appropriate qualities, yet the individual strips broken down must themselves be examined for flexibility and strength before selecting those that will become fishing rods (Penrose, 2008;…… [read more]

BIM Implementation Strategy Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25


¶ … Building Information Modeling Implementation Strategy for Libyan Construction Sector

The introduction of increasingly sophisticated computer-based three-dimensional modeling applications in the architecture, engineering and construction sectors has created a concomitant need for standardized ways for practitioners to share their building information with others. The trends have created a corresponding need to develop efficient ways to implement these modeling applications… [read more]

Polymer Gels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Polymer Gels

History of the technology and a brief introduction of working principle

Polymer gels are made up of a cross-linked polymer complex which is filled with a solvent like water. (Schreiner, Olding and McAuley, 45) Minor changes of temperature or pH in surrounding may cause Polymer gels to reversibly swell or contract as much as 1000 times in size.… [read more]

Innovation and Entrepreneurship Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,751 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Innovation and Entrepreneurship

The word entrepreneurship has its origins in the French verb entreprendre, meaning "to undertake." In one sense, every business idea starts with a core philosophy of entrepreneurialism, usually expressing itself through innovation and a willingness to risk in order to turn these ideas into economic gain. This is usually expressed either in ideas, small businesses, or in… [read more]

Regal Marine Product Life Cycle Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This is because the boats produced by the company must appeal to the customer segments targeted by Regal Marine. In addition to this, Regal Marine is interested in the opinions of dealers and consultants regarding the design of its boats. Customers feel that their opinion is valued by the company, which can significantly increase customer satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to focus on identifying the changing needs of customers in order to develop products that serve their needs and interests. By identifying these needs of customers, Regal Marine can reduce certain risks determined by customers not being interested in the boats the company develops.

3. In its attempt to develop innovative products, Regal Marine uses the Computer Aided Design, CAD, technology. There are several benefits provided by this technology. CAD designs allow the company to reduce the duration of the design stage of its projects. In other words, this technology allows to design boats faster. This means they can be faster produced and commercialized. In addition to this, the technology requires a reduced number of human resources in comparison with traditional drafting techniques that require higher number of employees working on these designs.

The possibility of error can also be reduced in the case of using the CAD technology. This is because the program calculates the variables determined by each design projects. Therefore, the technology allows increased accuracy. It is very important to provide high accuracy in the boats industry. The use of the CAD technology in designing Regal Marine's boats also helps the company establish the performance of the boats it produces. It is important that the company invests in improving the skills of its products.

Reference list:

1. Wu, D. et al. (2005). Managing Short Lifecycle Technology Products for Agere Systems. Retrieved May 3,…… [read more]

Technology Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,131 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Information Technology Plan for a University Library

Creating a state-of-the-art integrated library system (ILS) for a university requires the definition of specific information, knowledge, learning and long-term research goals aligned to the current and anticipated needs of the patrons. The coordinating of these requirements and their fulfillment through a long-term technology plan needs to be strategic in nature with designed-in… [read more]

Underground Construction Tunneling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Channel Tunnel and the Seikan Tunnel

Two of the longest tunnels in the world are the Seikan Tunnel linking Tappi Saki with Fikushima and the Channel Tunnel linking the United Kingdom and France. This paper provides a review of the literature to identify respective ground conditions at these two tunnel sites, and a description of the type of tunnelling techniques that were used. A discussion concerning tunnel displacements and ground movements, the reasons for it and any mitigation measures used is followed by a comparison of the two tunnels. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the paper's discussions and conclusions.

Ground Conditions

Seikan Tunnel. When drilling first started on the Seikan Tunnel in 1961, engineers encountered problems with the unstable volcanic rock under the strait that forced them to resort to less than optimal tunneling methods (Cavendish 2007) which are discussed further below.

Channel Tunnel. The ground conditions on the UK side of the project were deemed generally good enough to allow the use of tunnel boring machines; on the French side, however, engineers were concerned that they would encounter water-bearing fissures that required the use of a more technically complex approach (Harris 2010). In contrast to the tunnel boring machines that were used on the UK side of the Channel Tunnel project, the French approach required the use of tunnel boring machines that could be operated with the workface cutting heads completely sealed in order to create a water-tight operating environment (Harris 2010). These tunnel boring machines were able to "excavate, advance and line a watertight tunnel. In these conditions the tunnel crews need not even see the ground they pass through" (Harris 1996, p. 24).

Tunnelling Technique(s)

Seikan Tunnel. As noted above, the ground conditions and unstable volcanic rock under the strait prevented the use of standard tunnel boring equipment and the construction of the Seikan Tunnel was accomplished through a combination of drilling and blasting (Cavendish 2007). As a result, the tunneling process required a comparatively long time, taking from 1971 to early 1983 for engineers working from both sides to meet in the middle of the strait (Cavendish 2007). Moreover, the first actual test railroad run did not take place until March 1988 (Cavendish 2007).

Channel Tunnel. All told, eleven tunnel boring machine were used to during the excavation (Anderson and Roskow 1999). A narrow-gauge railway was used to keep the supplies moving to the tunnel boring machines as well as to remove spoil from the workface (Anderson and Roskow 1999). In addition, according to Kirkland (2012, p. 48), "Spoil extracted as a slurry via a screw was transported in muck wagons to the bottom of the Sangatte shaft where it was mixed with more water and pumped to the Fond Pignon reservoir."

Tunnel Displacements and Ground Movements (Volume Loss, Monitoring), the reasons for it and any mitigation measures used

Seikan Tunnel. Engineers on the Seikan Tunnel project experienced substantial large water inflows that caused a worsening of the… [read more]

National Infrastructure Vulnerability Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This is perhaps an over-simplification but this report's length does not allow the author to give the subject justice. Suffice it to say that the management (both IT and non-IT) need to have all procedures and technology current and as cutting-edge as possible and employees need to be hired carefully and trained well so that there is no proverbial egg on the fact if/when a mess is created (UMW, 2013).

IT Security Policy Framework

Establishing an IT security policy that is effective, all-encompassing and proper requires several proverbial "legs" to the stool. A nice offering from tech punditry giant ZDNet offered seven components to an effective IT security policy. Those seven components, in the order in which they were mentioned for the story, were security accountability, network service policies, system policies, physical security, incident handling and response, behavior and acceptable use policies and security training. In short, it's a more drawn out explanation and example of the two broader arenas of counteractions mentioned above, those being user training/handling and they security infrastructure they operate in. The conclusion of the article notes that all of the seven steps mentioned above should be reassessed either quarterly (at a maximum) or at any point in which a configuration change occurs in the IT infrastructure of the firm or agency in question (Taylor, 2001).


In short, there has to be a two-pronged approach with all levels of public and private industry so as to prevent completely preventable data disclosures and other intrusions. Both the private and public sectors have their own responsibilities and callings when discussing this as there are some things that only the private sector can and should do for itself and the same is true of the public sector in the sense of what they must do for themselves for the public betterment as well as what only the government can do for themselves and the private industry.


Goodin, D. (2010, September 22). SCADA worm a 'nation state search-and-destroy weapon'. The Register. The Register: Sci/Tech News for the World. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2010/09/22/stuxnet_


Taylor, L. (2001, February 16). Seven elements of highly effective security policies |

ZDNet. ZDNet | Technology News, Analysis, Comments and Product Reviews for IT Professionals. Retrieved May 18, 2013,from http://www.zdnet.com/news / seven-elements-of-highly-effective-security-policies/297286

UMW. (2013, May 18). Infrastructure & Enterprise Architecture. University of Mary

Washington. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from technology.umw.edu/it-policies/infrastructure-and-enterprise-architecture-standard/… [read more]

Nanotechnology, as Its Name Implies Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (871 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nanotechnology can be used in a wide variety of ways. One of the primary commercial uses of nanotechnology is for polymers. Polymers are used in everyday products such as bumpers and luggage, making them durable and lightweight. Nanotechnology is also used in fabric, and can help make fabrics stain or wrinkle resistant. One use of nanotechnology that most people have experienced in their daily life is the use of protective coatings on glass surfaces to make them glare-resistant. Nanotechnology is also used in health and beauty products such as sunscreens and cleansers. One of the more innovative applications of nanotechnology may be in the food industry, where nano-engineered packages can help improve the longevity of food and nano-manufactured sensors may one day be able to detect food-borne illness (National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2013).

Because nanotechnology is developing at such a rapid pace, it is difficult to truly consider all of the modern advancements in nanotechnology. However, it is widely recognized that the 1981 invention of the scanning tunneling microscope by Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer, which allowed scientists to view individual atoms for the first time, was a breakthrough advance in the field (National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2013). Many of the later advances in nanotechnology focused on discoveries about carbon shape and structure, such as the discovery of the buckyball in 1985, and the discovery of the carbon nanotube in 1991 (National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2013). Another significant advance occurred in 1985, when Don Eigler and Erhard Schweizer demonstrated that they could manipulate individual atoms (National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2013).

Many of the emerging new technologies in nanotechnology seem to integrate multiple scientific disciplines and have health implications. In 2003, " Naomi Halas, Jennifer West, Rebekah Drezek, and Renata Pasqualin at Rice University developed gold nanoshells, which when "tuned" in size to absorb near-infrared light, serve as a platform for the integrated discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer without invasive biopsies, surgery, or systemically destructive radiation or chemotherapy" (National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2013). In 2007, scientists used a virus to build a lithium-ion battery (National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2013).

Nanotechnology offers incredible opportunities for science, but could also, like other technologies, have negative applications. In the United States, the use of nanotechnology is governed by the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act (P.L. 108-153). In 2004, Britain's Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering recognized the potential problems that could arise from the misuse of nanotechnology and called for the government to address those issues. However, at this point in time, there is no international consensus and regulation of nanotechnology.


Center for Responsible Nanotechnology. 2002-2008.…… [read more]

Security Balance Control Performance and Risk Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (762 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Security Balance: Control, Performance, And Risk

Describe security principles and objectives and how they relate to the different components of the system-of-systems described in the readings.

System of Systems (SoS) is a concept that "connects the seemingly different parts with the whole to solve large-scale problems" (SoS, 2013, Purdue Engineering). Systems are independent yet are fundamentally connected. A good example of a complex system based upon these principles is that of an airplane. "Many systems…operate various parts of the plane, but the plane flies when all its systems work in tandem and doesn't fly if the systems work independently of each other" (SoS, 2013, Purdue Engineering). From a security perspective, one of the problems with SoS design is that even if the discrete components of the system are secure, when they work in tandem they may not be so and security can become compromised (Waller, Haddock, & Jones 2010:4).

For a system to work optimally there must be a dialogue between the different components. If the whole system or the parts of the interconnecting systems are too secure, conversation between the discrete compartments of the system can be disrupted. Thus, there is always a need to balance security with functionality. Critical components of SoS security include a "boundary check," which means the system has a secure boundary between itself and the outside world; "data flow security" which limits data flow without security measures; "buffer overrun" and "cascade vulnerability," or detecting vulnerabilities when systems are working together (Waller, Haddock, & Jones 2010:14).

Q2. Discuss how the security objectives of confidentiality, integrity, and availability are prioritized in a smart grid environment.

A smart grid is "refers to a class of technology people are using to bring utility electricity delivery systems into the 21st century, using computer-based remote control and automation… smart grid means 'computerizing' the electric utility grid. It includes adding two-way digital communication technology to devices associated with the grid" (Smart grid, 2013, U.S. Department of Energy). This enhances confidentiality because as the network's sensors are continually gathering data, there can be direct two-way communication between the grid and the operating control center, effectively eliminating any 'middleman' in communication and reducing the possibility of impingement by outside sources. Integrity and availability is enhanced because of automation technology as well because the central…… [read more]

Piles the Literature Review Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,135 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


According to the study "The results revealed that infrared thermography can be used as an effective nondestructive evaluation tool for detecting subsurface debonds in structural components wrapped with carbon or glass reinforced composite fabrics" (Halabe, Dutta, GangaRao, 2008, p. 1387). Perhaps, new technology can also assist the researcher during this study in determining exactly what type of pile to create.… [read more]

Healthcare -- Administration and Legal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,118 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Proponents of patenting for genetic tests assert that isolated DNA molecules are products of human ingenuity thereby eligible for the patents that protect not only the product, but also the process used to make the product. The ACLU argues that human DNA is a natural entity and cannot, therefore, belong to any one company anymore than air or water could.

The impact of technology on medical ethics. The phenomenal growth in technological developments and scientific research impacts the health and well-being of individual people and on the ways in which medical and healthcare services are provided. The rapid pace of technological change enables truly "disruptive" breakthroughs that set off cultural, economic, political, and social reactions to innovations (Hogle, et al., 2012). For example, technologies such as MRI brain imaging allow the body interiors to be seen and for the images to be shared among medical and healthcare professionals (Hogle, et al., 2012). Body chemistry can be sensed through technology, such as biomem sensors, that are altering the way that "normal" body function and behavior is characterized and classified (Hogle, et al., 2012). New medical technology allows whole tissues to be grown from cells and used in tissue engineering (Hogle, et al., 2012). Moreover, an entirely new field of telemedicine is showing capacity to invent surgical and therapeutic procedures that will transform how medicine is practiced (Hogle, et al., 2012).

A lag typically exists between the entry of a technological innovation and the establishment of policies and regulations that govern its use. Invariably, the contexts in which technological innovations are employed influence whether use and application of new technology is constrained or promoted (Hogle, et al., 2012). Research in technology is inexorably tied to the funding and endorsement of major medical research centers. Moreover, consumer groups and patient advocacy organizations have substantive influence over adoption of innovations in medicine and healthcare. Technology in any field can generate controversial debates and socio-political action. When innovations in medicine run head-to-head with established cultural beliefs and social values, the resultant conflict can have a profound impact on future research and dissemination of innovation (Hogle, et al., 2012).


New technologies have enabled the development of an entire knowledge base in genetics. This body of knowledge influences the way that medical practitioners and patients think about medical treatment and, de facto, bio-medical research (Hogle, et al., 2012). Ideas about aging, illness, and kinship are changing as possibilities and actual practices are identified in which science and medicine can intervene in biological processes -- even to the extent that physical characteristics are altered (Hogle, et al., 2012).


Cho, M. (2010, November 1). Patently unpatentable: implications of the Myriad court decision on genetic diagnostics. Trends in Biotechnology, 28(11), 548-551. Retrieved http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology//retrieve / pii/S0167779910001411?_returnURL=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167779910001411?showall=true

Hogle, L., Tobin, S., Gaba, D. And Yock, P. (2012). Web-Based Research Integrity Training for Biomedical Engineers and Medical Device Researchers (Public Health Service). Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford School of Medicine. Retreived http://bioethics.stanford.edu/research / programs/science_and_society.html

Morrison, E. (2011).… [read more]

Social Construction of Technology &#8230 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


SCOT is more than a supposition, it is a theory grounded in specific methodologies and techniques. Farlano explains:

The social construction of technology (SCOT) is a particular way of conceptualizing and understanding the social shaping of technology as well as, in turn, the technological shaping of society. This perspective can be understood to include the interplay between socio-economic, political, cultural… [read more]

Human Factors and Interior Space Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (895 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


" (p.4) Noted are the following in regards to understanding the human workspace: (1) understanding neural strategies, which enables the "positioning and orientation of the hand or foot during voluntary reaching movements; (2) quantification of the full functional potential of a joint; and (3) study of ergonomic postures and path trajectories. (p.5) Three methods are noted to be involved in determining human workspace: (1) experimental-based methods; (2) voxel-based method; and (3) closed room solution or swept volumes. ( p.5)

A fourth case study notes that engineers need to try to "maintain a technology watch on future and anticipated development" and to "ensure Ergonomics involvement at the beginning of research and development lifecycles" as well as "attempt to reduce the gap between innovation and exploitation." (p.6) Case study five notes that neglecting ergonomics results in increased costs in workers' compensation as well as losses in productivity due to injury and fatigue and greater levels of absenteeism. Case study six involves a review of the enhancement of the impact of ergonomics interventions.

Questions that ergonomists must address are reported to include those asking what factors are key in the design of a successful ergonomics project and which project effects are important success factors to convince stakeholders. Found to be the most important factors for deigning successful ergonomics intervention projects are those of: (1) brief inventory; (2) direct participation of workers or users; (3) strong management commitment; (4) step-by-step approach; (5) broader focus than health problems; (6) a responsible workgroup; (7) evaluation of effects; and (8) cost-benefit ratio planned. (p.8) Findings of the study include that there are differences in offices in regards to the creativity potential. A good interior design including more plants, bright lighting conditions, plenty of windows, along with cooler colors and a computer facility serve to enhance creativity and organizational innovation. Cross-cultural studies demonstrate differences in creativity based on the working environment. This difference is reported to have "implications for today's office design." (p.12) It is reported that over the past twenty to thirty years, that companies have "changed their approaches toward workplace design, partly because of changing trends and partly because of changing needs." (p.12) In the past, the focus of companies on workplace design was on cost reductions and employee efficiency with employee creativity being "an indirect or implicit goal of the company approaches for office design." (p.12) However, today's companies understand the need for innovation and for creativity among employees and the generation of "novel ideas…… [read more]

Future of CNC Machines (Computer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


The reasons stated for this development include that "the total cost of a machining robot is 30% less compared with an equivalent CNC machine." (COMET, nd) In addition the robot can make the handling of the product, something that in CNC machines is done by an operator." (COMET, nd) Also stated is that the robot "has at least 6 degrees of freedom providing reach ability in difficult spots and can be mounted on a base or in front of a positioned expanding its working envelope thus giving the opportunity to enter new application in the machining process." (COMET, nd) However, the report states that there are still challenges to overcome if the robots are to be used in place of the CNC machine. The work of Koenig (1994) states that the rationale for using robots "…is the same as that for using CNC machines. Robots produce higher levels of quality and work faster than novices and journey. They can be programmed to do the work of skilled operators…" Koenig (1994) states that the result will be "flexible automated factories where robots to the human work of loading and unloading CNC machines and moving material from workstation to workstation."

Summary and Conclusion

Advances in CNC machining have resulted in highly automated processes that are and will continue to be used in the future and which result in machining capacities that are more diverse and that show promise for more environmentally friendly machining processes. CNC machines in the future will be characterized by a higher level of precision, will be more economical to use, will be in some cases more expensive and in some cases less expensive. Machine operators of the future will be more than likely robots due to the higher potential of precision and software developments are making the CNC machining process more streamlined and easier to inspect and the to correct errors in machining.


Anderberg, S. And Kara, S. (nd) Energy and cost efficiency in CNC machining. Life Cycle Engineering & Management Research Group, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia The 7th CIRP Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing.

Anderberg, S., Beno, T. And Pejryd (nd) Energy and Cost Efficiency in CNC Machining from a Process Planning Perspective. The 9th Global Conference on sustainable Manufacturing. Retrieved from: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:445222/FULLTEXT01

CNC Machine will be the future way to go green (2011) Machinery China. 17 May 2011. Retrieved from http://machinerychina.wordpress.com/2011/05/17/cnc-machine-will-be-the-future-way-to-go-green/

CNC Machining Companies (2009) Retrieved from: http://www.cncmachiningcompanies.net/144/applications-of-precision-cnc-machining-in-the-world-today/

Computer Numerically Controlled Machines Short History (2011) Superior CNC Machines. Retrieved from: http://superiormachinery.wordpress.com/2011/06/23/computer-numerically-controlled-machines-short-history/

Koenig, Daniel T. (1994) Manufacturing Engineering: Principle for Optimization. Taylor & Francis.

Modular Desktop CNC Machine (2009) Kickstarter. Retrieved from: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/ajquick/modular-desktop-cnc-machine

NC (Numerical Control) (2011) RP World Net. Retrieved from: http://rpworld.net/cms/index.php/additive-manufacturing/nc-numerical-control.html

New Era in CNC Control and Maintenance (nd) Automation.com. Retrieved from: http://www.automation.com/resources-tools/articles-white-papers/cnc-control-maintenance/new-era-in-cnc-control-and-maintenance

Robots Change the Industrial Future Replacing the CNC Machines (nd) Seventh Framework Programme. COMET. Retrieved from: http://www.cometproject.eu/publications/gizelis-robots-replace-cnc-machines.pdf

Rosso, R., Allen RD and Newman, ST (nd) Future Issues for CAD/CAM and Intelligent CNC Manufacture.… [read more]

Virtual Reality &amp Its Applications Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Examples of uses

As time goes on, the ways in which virtual reality technology is used expands constantly. There are many scientific and professional uses for virtual technology. Pilots of various kinds of aircraft and spacecraft use virtual reality technology to engage in simulations. In the fields of medicine, physicians and surgeons explore aspects of the human body. They can magnify or diminish body parts, tumors, organs, etc. so as to research and improve treatment of disease, injury, and infection. There are obvious uses for virtual reality technology in science and in gaming. Virtual reality is an expression of science and engineering; therefore, it is logical that there are scientific applications to virtual reality technology such as exploring the ocean, the sun, space, and layers of the Earth. Virtual reality has another obvious application in the leisure industries such as gaming. Users can play sports, go back to various historical periods, and more using virtual reality technology.


User of virtual reality technology could become hooked to the virtual world and end up preferring virtual reality to actual reality. In some industries, some professionals may accept virtual reality practice in exchange for actual experiential learning. This could be a liability especially in transportation, aviation, law enforcement, and the military.


As with all technology, virtual reality technology is neutral. Human beings are responsible as to whether the technology is used for good or is used for bad. When exciting and powerful technology is invented, it means that it is a moment for humans to demonstrate responsibility and maturing in its development, use, and distribution, or suffer devastating consequences, as the science fiction genre dramatically shows audiences repeatedly through the decades.


Brooks, Jr., F.P. (2009) What's Real About Virtual Reality? IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications: Special Report, November/December, 16 -- 27.

Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009) Virtual Reality: A Survival Guide for Social Scientist. Journal of Media…… [read more]

Science Biomimicry in Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


(Biomimicry Institute, 2012, biomimicryinstitute.org)

Sharks' skin is fundamental to their survival, success and reputation for being exceptional predators. Researchers chose wisely to emulate sharkskin to help solve some of humanity's dilemmas.

What is it specifically about the sharkskin that researchers focus upon? What information about sharkskin proves most useful to scientists, physicians, technicians, and designers? All these groups are paying specific and meticulous attention to the structure, texture, and function of sharkskin. Scientists aim to design products that essentially work the same way sharkskin does. Research and biomimicry of sharkskin could prove especially useful to designers of submarines and products designed for underwater transportation or data collection. The Biomimicry Institute explicates:

…a shark's coarse shape is famously hydrodynamic, shark skin is anything but smooth. The very small individual scales of shark skin, called dermal denticles ("little skin teeth"), are ribbed with longitudinal grooves which result in water moving more efficiently over their surface than it would were shark scales completely featureless. Over smooth surfaces, fast-moving water begins to break up into turbulent vortices, or eddies, in part because the water flowing at the surface of an object moves slower than water flowing further away from the object. This difference in water speed causes the faster water to get "tripped up" by the adjacent layer of slower water flowing around an object, just as upstream swirls form along riverbanks. (Biomimicry Institute, 2012, biomimicryinstitute.org)

Some examples of products inspired by sharkskin are swimsuits by Speedo. The sharkskin type swimsuits by Speedo have been used by Olympic athletes in the iterations of the summer Olympics. The suits are lightweight and form-fitting. The swimmers are already as hairless as possible and with the addition of the sharkskin type swimsuits; they are even more aerodynamic and have better maneuverability in the water. The suits additionally keep the areas of the body covered by the suit fairly dry, as the suits are very skintight. Though the suits cannot breathe and adapt on the spot as real sharkskin, they definitely provide swimmers a noticeable edge, so much so that these kinds of suits are becoming more widely used and mainstream. There are also companies such as BioPower that exclusively design products derived from biomimicry; therefore, there is a lot of potential for business opportunities in the field of biomimicry.

Nature has been all around us since the beginning of our existence (and before). It is a wonder humanity has, as a species, taken so long to turn to nature for solutions and design ideas on such a grand scale as that occurs in the 21st century. Perhaps the digital technology that has revolutionized how we experience the world, communicate, socialize, and share, can also help us collaborate to create more products from biomimicry to design for generosity and sustainability.


Benyus, Janine. "Janine Benyus shares nature designs." Web, lecture, Ted.com, April 2005. Available from: http://www.ted.com/talks/janine_benyus_shares_nature_s_designs.html. 2012 March 08.

Biomimicry Institute. "Biomimicking Sharks." Web, 2012. Available from http://biomimicryinstitute.org/home-page-content/home-page-content/biomimicking-sharks.html. 2012 March 10.

Purt, Jenny. "Live Discussion: What is Biomimicry?"… [read more]

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