"Engineering / Mechanics" Essays

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New Detection Technologies Advanced Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,132 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


It does, however, have difficulty in detecting TNT and similarly is unable to detect liquid explosives that are virtually invisible, and, being intangible and easy to transport can be taken anywhere to arbitrarily wreak insouciant destruction. In terms of the latter, national and international laws have been created, as a result, discouraging mass meetings and allowing possession of maximum 100 ml of liquid at one time on one person in order to impede these instruments of death.

On the plus side, NQR is most helpful in detecting RCX which is the explosive that is the highest threat to aviation security and seems to be also helpful in detecting landmines.

Issues that are under exploration

Since countless public security issues are involved as ramification of these technological detection instruments, scientists have a lot to work on and some of these issues include the following: Issues of shielding. That detection of explosives not unnecessarily harms innocent bystanders, and precisely which combination of technologies should be used at higher levels of airport security. This involves system-engineering issues where the element of substances will have to be carefully assessed and measures most suitable to detecting those specific elements identified and selected. To elaborate, some detection methods have high repetition of success but are more successful with certain elements than with others, totally missing certain substances. Scientific and engineering analysis of this problem needs to be performed and consequent decisions implemented throughout the security system. Environments can also cause challenges to the detection of chemical weapons and explosive due to problems of shielding and noise sources. Physicists, using areas of research that involve signal detention and amplification are investigating these too.

Security policies in place and government measures

Governments and federal requirements such as the Montreal Convention (1991) issued order that detection taggants be placed on explosives in order to make detection easier. The Montreal Convention (1991), for instance, decreed as per international agreement that all manufacturers of explosives clearly and accurately describe the ingredients that went into producing this chemical (Knight, 2006). The UK similarly came out with its Marking of Plastic Explosives for Detection Regulations in 1996 (ibid.). Semtex is one example of a compound that now carries a taggant. It is made with DMNDB as detection taggant.

Ultimately, detection of terror lies not just on the strength and sophistication of the instrument used but also on the motivation, skill, intelligence, and ability of civilians employing that technology. Certain skills should therefore be imparted to security staff and personnel and these include: meticulously following instructions and careful reporting of information; acquiring and identifying documentation and licensing limitations; identification of breaches in site safety and acting on or reporting them and identifying labeling of hazardous materials and amongst a host of other requirements. Only when these are in place and accompanied by technological advancement can we hope to be one step ahead in the chase.


BBC. (2007-09-05) Hot picks: UK tech start-ups. BBC.co.uk.. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6972526.stm.

Coffey, M. Chemical and explosives detection. APS Physics.

www.aps.org/about/governance/task-force/counter-terrorism/coffey.cfm… [read more]

Policy and Science Fiddler Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


p.). The two disciplines must agree to acknowledge the degree of uncertainty and skepticism that is the hallmark of empirical science -- even when it is applied to policymaking. Uncertainty must not be mistaken for discrediting of the scientific process, nor must it be used to justify inaction (William, 2004).

The application of science is not an abandonment of its inherent open-ended nature, wherein hope for an absolute truth lives. Science is never finished, but this fact does not -- and should not -- prevent its application. The arbitrariness of picking some point in the scientific process, and basing policy decisions on that point, can be unnerving. Yet, it is what is absolutely necessary to match a policy problem to contemporary (as in most current) scientific thought in order to develop a best practice policy solution (Pressman & Wildavsky, 1984).

Cleave to one another. Pure empirical science and applied science are not theoretically separated in any other discipline, nor should they be in public affairs or political science. Pure science and science in the service of public policy are not two distinct entities. Applied science, once separated from its empirical parent, ceases to be science. It is all too easy for private interests to co-opt policy, suppress the unembellished or constrained expression of science, over-simplify the implications of scientific research, or distort data in order to skew both the use and the information conveyed (Kingdon, 1984). The same safeguards applied to private special interests must be applied to the scientific community, which holds special interests of its own.


Haller, S.F. And Gerrie, J. (2007). The role of science in pubic policy: Higher reason, or reason for hire. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 20,(2).

Kingdon, J.W. (1984). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.

Pressman, J.L. And Wildavsky, A. (1984). Implementation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Wildavsky, A. (1979). Speaking truth to power: The art and craft of policy analysis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown Publishers.

William, L.A. (2004). Scientific information and uncertainty: Challenges for the use…… [read more]

Warman Project Is the Budding Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (579 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


It offers a chance to take an idea and transform it into reality in a realistic, yet inexpensive method of developing engineering ideas. It also gives many of the students a taste of reality that they might not desire to have; often times designing and building a robotic device to accomplish certain goals and objectives is much more difficult than what is anticipated by many of the students; this is true not only on the university level, but on the national competition level as well.

The students are also asked to chronicle their design/build process, and document their frustrations, triumphs, joys and disappointments for use in future years. Many of these chronicles end up as video testimonies of persistence in the face of defeat (and for a lucky few -- success) and many can be found on YouTube and Facebook. Some of the drawbacks that students face regarding the building of their project include designing a robot that does not meet specifications or does not fulfill the objectives of the overall project, the expense of building the robotic machine and the time and effort it takes to complete the project. Those students who stick it out, usually find that it is a fulfilling and enjoyable experience (especially if they are declared the winners!).

The Warman project has been in existence for a number of years and has been quite effective in meeting many of its initial goals and objectives. Some of those objectives include; linking educational experiences with the reality of real-life design build projects, collaboration among a team of student engineers, learning the art of creation couple with innovation and design, meeting future design/build challenges through engineering while enhancing classroom curriculum with real-world experience.… [read more]

Searching and Understanding a Case Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (2,110 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


That plan might be a BIM unit or some other plan which will be included using the 3-D model. Currently, many of these project management applications as well as the 3-D designs have been created in seclusion. Obligation for the precision as well as co-ordination of price and also time setting information should be contractually resolved (Azhar, Hein and Sketo, 2008).

BIM Potential Issues

The efficiency and financial advantages of BIM towards the AEC business happen to be broadly recognized as well as progressively well grasped. Additionally, the science to apply BIM is easily accessible and quickly developing. However, BIM ownership is a lot sluggish than predicted (Azhar, Hein and Sketo, 2008). There happen to be two major reasons, technical along with managerial.

The technical factors could be extensively categorized into 3 areas (Bernstein and Pittman, 2005):

1. The necessity for well-defined transactional building procedure designs to remove information interoperability problems,

2. The prerequisites that a digitally laid out information be computable, along with

3. The necessity for well-produced functional methods for the intentional trade and implementation of significant data among the many BIM design elements.

The actual management problems group across the execution and usage involving BIM. At this time there isn't any apparent agreement as the best way to execute or make use of BIM. In contrast to a number of other building methods, there is certainly no single record or even treatise about BIM which educates on its usage or practice (AGC, 2005). A number of software companies are making money around the "buzz" involving BIM, and also have programs to deal with specific quantitative elements of it, however they usually do not treat the procedure in its entirety. There exists a demand to standardize this BIM procedure and also to determine the rules with regard to its execution. An additional controversial concern amid the AEC business stakeholders (i.e. proprietors, creative designers and engineers) is who ought to create and control the structure's data designs and in what way should the actual developmental as well as functional expenses be dispersed?

The research scientists as well as professionals need to produce appropriate answers to get over all these issues as well as other related pitfalls. As several researchers, professionals, software distributors and professional agencies happen to be spending so much time to deal with these issues, it really is anticipated that the usage of BIM continues to improve within the AEC marketplace.

In past times facilities administrators had been involved within the building designing procedure in a really constrained way. They executed routine maintenance techniques depending on the as-constructed condition during that time the proprietor takes ownership. BIM patterning might permit facilities administrators to join the project in the foreseeable future much sooner, wherein they could have an impact on the style and engineering. The visual dynamics involving the BIM enables just about all stakeholders to obtain information and facts prior to when the building is finished. This consists of renters, service brokers in addition to routine maintenance… [read more]

Critique of Article: Health Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


1, lines 1-5).
10. This was not experimental research, so except for subgroups within the large sample (Methods, p. 2, par. 1, lines 14-16), there were no control or comparison groups.
11. N/A. This was not experimental research, so there were no treatments.
12. No, there was no replication of this study within the study.
13. No, there was no alpha level specified a priori.
14. Yes and no. The method was described in some detail, but the actual questionnaire was not included in the report. While a questionnaire could be formulated from the answer subsets given in Tables 1 and 2, such a questionnaire would not necessarily be identical to the one used in this study. A researcher would have to procure the exact survey in order to replicate this study.
15. Yes, the sample size was described. In the three subgroups surveyed, fifty-six undergraduate professors were from Group 1, the group that had attended National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health seminars; 51 from Group 2, the group from the same universities and fields but who had not attended the seminars; and 50 from Group 3, professors chosen at random from faculty lists both in the 1992 Directory of Engineering and Engineering Technology Undergraduate Programs and the 1992 Love Joy's College Guide, with faculty names being selected from catalogs on microfiche (Methods, p. 2, par. 1, lines 2-10).
16. N/A. There were no control groups in this study, and the same survey was given to all three groups mentioned.
17. No. Except for the "Discussion" about whether the professors who'd attended the National Institute seminars, there was no mathematical indication of reliability factors.
18. No, no evidence of the validity of the measurement was given, and since the precise survey questions are never mentioned, there is no material given upon which to base a measurement of bias, semantics, or other mitigating factors. Since the sample is relatively small, its validity can also be called into question.
19. Yes, the conclusions mentioned on pp. 4-5 (Discussion) were consistent with the obtained results; the overwhelming motivation of faculty who include safety and health instruction in their classes appears to come primarily from within-their own beliefs and ethics-rather than from any external sources such as governing/accreditation bodies.
20. Yes, the generalizations seemed to be confined to the population from which the author drew the sample. However, it should be stated that including data from student respondents to a Tufts University study in results, rather than in background and/or survey information, seems problematic and may unnecessarily "skew" the recommendations and interpretation of data (Discussion, p. 5, par. 1, lines 3-8).
21. In my opinion, this is not a significant study. It surveys such a…… [read more]

Robotics: How Close Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Underhill, The Bionic Man). By linking himself to computers through wires and radio transmitters he proved that it was possible to pass signals back and forth between a man's nervous system and various electromechanical devices. If Warrick is even half right, it may become possible in the near future for amputees to use brain signals to move their limbs, or brain implants may enable people to communicate with each other without the use of speech. Warrick in his book, "I, Cyborg" predicts that in about 50 years, the world would be dominated by a master race of cyborgs, their brains linked to a global network of with access to super-intelligence. (Ibid.) Many people are not convinced with Warrick's theories, but considering the accelerating pace of growth in new technologies over the past few decades, it may not be long before they become a reality.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is another field of science that could contribute in developing a robot with abilities closely approximating humans. AI is defined as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. 'Intelligence' itself is hard to define but usually refers to the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world and is present in varying degrees in humans, animals and some machines. (McCarthy, "What is AI?" Basic Questions). Some of the present day applications of AI include chess playing machines or programs. There is a limited amount of intelligence in these machines but they are only able to beat chess masters by the use of 'brute force computation.' For example to beat a world champion chess player, a computer needs to look at 200 million positions per second. (Ibid. Applications of AI). Other applications include 'speech recognition' computer programs, computer vision, and 'expert systems' (in which the combined knowledge of experts in a particular field is embodied in a program designed to carry out certain tasks).

The practical limitation of the increase in speed of computers is considered to be a major barrier in the development of AI. This problem could be overcome by the future development in another promising 'new' technology known as nanotechnology, which is evolving from breakthroughs in science and precision engineering at the molecular level. The technology deals with re-arranging of atoms to create new molecular structures and may lead to atom-by-atom manufacturing and surgery on the cellular scale. ("Nanotechnology" Encarta). In a not too distant future "biotech" and "nanotech" could merge making possible the development of biocomputers with the help of nanotech manufacturing techniques. These computers, having the computing power of thousands of times today's computers, may well make the development of AI that parallels that of humans. Other possible applications of nanotech include the development of "nanorobots" which would be able to repair human tissue and remove obstructions in the human circulatory systems. (Ibid.).

Due to the unprecedented development in several technologies discussed above, it is now possible to envision the development of a 'bionic man' in the near future, although it… [read more]

Mlps Qos vs. ATM Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One-way network elements deal with an overflow of traffic is to use a queuing algorithm to manage the traffic, determining how to prioritize it onto an output link.

The QOS service policy maintains the queue depth, marks traffic, and identifies non-critical traffic on a per-VC basis. The QOS service policy aims to achieve the following:

Employ Network-Based Application Recognition to… [read more]

Human Element Computer Systems Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


While most of his colleagues were busy answering the question, "How far can we go," Dijkstra was asking the question, "Why should we go there and what purpose will it serve?" Many early engineers were developing in an atmosphere where computers handled large amounts of data crunching and were used primarily by the government, large banking systems. It was acceptable… [read more]

Freshman Students Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


He would deem this dark prospect to be either an overestimation of machines, or a grave offence against life."

Robots still exist today and are used in the factories of highly industrialized countries like, Japan, America and Germany. Robots are used for scientific research, in military programs and as an educational tool. They are also used to help people walk, who have lost their limbs.

However, they are very different from humans. They can only perform the tasks they are programmed for and do not have a mind of their own. In fact, it's quite difficult to distinguish between robots and other automated devices.

The 20th century brought the most important change in the use of robots. It was the invention of computers. A small component called a transistor made it possible for the invention of the computer. With time it was discovered that the silicon chip could be put in various automated machines. This is how the industrial robots came into existence. By using a computer, a machine could be programmed to perform multiple tasks. This is how they got into the car manufacturing industries and other huge manufacturing industries.

Robots are no longer thought of as evil creatures, but are used in constructive ways in different fields, such as, medicine and manufacturing industries. With time, scientists will find new ways of using this form of technology for the betterment of mankind and the society as a whole.

A robotics - a what is definition, http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,sid9_gci520361,00.html

Robot Institute of America, 1979

The Author of Robots Defends Himself - Karl Capek, Lidove noviny, June 9, 1935, translation: Bean Comrada… [read more]

Art History - Survival Research Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The reverse-side of this technological development, however, is the potential for this technology to fall in to "the wrong hands," so that this technology is subverted for bad. This must be something that occupies the mind of Mike Pauline, but it must be remembered that all artistic (and scientific) trailblazers, throughout history, have battled with this same dilemma: science, technology, and the arts have developed as they have, in part by living alongside dilemmas such as this.


Lucas, A. (1995). "The Art of War." World Art, January: 4-8. Also accessible at http://www.srl.org/interviews/world_art.htm

Mraz, S.J. (1999). "Crashing and burning with class." Machine Design, July 8th: 2-16. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3125/13_71/55294839/p1/article.jhtml

Ridenour, A. (2001). "The Hundred Gears War." Los Angeles Magazine, October: 5-8. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1346/10_46/78790379/p1/article.jhtml

Von Proyen, M. (1998). "Home is Where the Robot is: A Homecoming for Survival Research Laboratories." New Art Examiner, October: 12-15.

Since its inception SRL has operated as an organization of creative technicians dedicated to re-directing the techniques, tools, and tenets of industry, science, and the military away from their typical manifestations in practicality, product or warfare (http://www.srl.org).

Von Proyen (1998).

Pauline was also a freelance designer on Spielberg's A.I.

For example, The Deliberate Evolution of a Warzone: A Parable of Spontaneous Structural Disintegration

Another example is the performance of Rhizome, which through the use of inter-machine and human-machine interactions, offered the audience the opportunity to examine the effects of alternative modes for the integration of machines in our own lives (http://(www.srl.org)… [read more]

Facility Location Decision Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. occurrence. In Britain, for instance, new subsequent-creation research cores have urbanized in Scotland's "Silicon Glen" and in England's East Anglia and the region nearby Cambridge. These "New Towns" of Europe have comparable uniqueness to the U.S. occurrence.

Precisely as the first two generations of high-technology manufacturing growth were energized by the advancement of product and process skill, new expansions… [read more]

Fire Behavior Annotated Bibliography Deng Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (426 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Fire behavior and characteristics. National Wildfire Coordinating Group.

Discusses the "standard terminology" of fire behavior, but only for the wildland fire situation.

Meant for fire behavior practitioners and stud- ents. Good definitions of fire behavioral terms. http://fire.r9.fws.gov/ifcc/monitor/EFGuide/fire_behavior.htm

Morias, Marco. (2001, June). Fire behavior. HFire (Highly Optimized Tolerance Fire Spread Model).

A multi-page Web Site discussing the complexity of fire behaviors, including variables, physical principles, and prediction. Includes a list of additional references. Good basic descriptions and insight into a variety of fire behavior terms. http://www.physics.ucsb.edu/~complex/research/hfire/fbehave/fbehave_home.html

Quintiere, James G. (1997, August). Principles of fire behavior. Delmar Learning.

Includes a short history of fire science, along with information on ignition, heat transfer, combustion, burn rate, flame spread, compartment fires, and fire analysis. Written specifically for the fire practitioner.

Reader must have a working knowledge of algebra.

Staff. (2002) Introduction to fire behavior. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.

Provides an overview of factors that affect the ignition and spread of wildfire. Information is presented with 3-dimensional graphics and animations as well as audio descriptions and commentary provided by a fire behavior expert.

A good description of the different weather patterns affecting fire behavior, for a management and layman audience. http://meted.ucar.edu/fire/fwx… [read more]

Licensing and Certifications Professional Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Naturally, the consuming public is generally completely ignorant of the prevailing situation that allows absolute novices to present themselves as "Certified Personal Trainers" on whom they rely for advice on exercise and nutrition, a very substantial amount of which is inaccurate.

Personal training certification has actually grown into an entire industry in and of itself, ultimately duping the innocent consumer into believing his trainer is much more knowledgeable than he probably is, while simultaneously greatly increasing the difficulty of experienced trainers seeking work within the fitness field unless they pay for unnecessary "credentials" that benefit nobody besides the certifying agency

Ultimately, what is probably required is governmental regulation of all certification" agencies so that consumers are not duped into equating supposed credentials" obtained without any genuine quality assurance with legitimate sub- specialties within highly regulated fields such as Engineering, Law and Medicine.


Certified Flooring Installers [Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www.cfi-installers.org/certification.htm

Federation of State Medical Boards [Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www.fsmb.org/

International Fitness Professionals Association [Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www.ifpa-fitness.com/Fitness-Certifications/fitness_certifications.htm

National Accountancy of State Boards of Accountancy [Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www.nasba.org/NASBAWeb.nsf/CBT-OpenFrameset

National Board of Medical Examiners

Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www.nbme.org/programs/usmle.asp

National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying

Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www.ncees.org/licensure/licensure_for_engineers/

New York State Board of Bar Examiners [Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www.nybarexam.org/frequent.htm#Cost%20and%20Payment%20of%20Required%20Fees

Society of Professional Traffic Operations Engineers [Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www.ite.org/certification/index.asp

Temple University Law School Bar Information [Online Homepage] Accessed at http://www2.law.temple.edu/page.asp?page=barinformation… [read more]

Norman Augustine Norman R Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is headquartered in Austin, Texas and includes such members as IBM, AMD and Hewlett-Packard. (Welcome to International Sematech 2004)

In addition to his success with the Department of Defense he has also been a successful CEO of Lockheed Martin. A book entitled "Defense Addiction: Can America Kick the Habit?," explains that Augustine played an instrumental role in the success… [read more]

Women and the Information Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,998 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They are seen as loners and losers -- two things few women find appealing.

Some feminists argue that lack of female interest in IT is strongly related to issues of education, equity in access, employment barriers and policies (Davey, 1995). Once women have equal access to the knowledge and tools of technology, they will become proficient in their use and… [read more]

Technology: Is it Moving Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


d. Values that are implied by reasoning and evidence. Cooper (1997) emphasizes the enormous value of technological policy in computerization and process innovation as a tool set that can provide this leverage to businesses. It then becomes of substantial importance for businesses to examine the business and technology strategies in order to identify how well both strategies can merge on… [read more]

Mamdani Rule-Based System Defuzzification Genetic Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  22 pages (6,138 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Mamdani Rule-Based System


Genetic Algorithms

Genetic Encoding and Chromosomes

Fitness Calculation




Stopping Criteria

Artificial Neural Network

Perceptron Neurons

Sigmoid Neurons

Multi-Layers Network

Back Propagation Learning

This chapter discusses in detail the various approaches used to collect analyze and interpret data. It elaborates various important variables in relation to research methodology and approach. The various variables discussed… [read more]

Importance of Big Data to Organizations Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Big Data Annotated Bibliography

Bayuk, J. (2010). CyberForensics: Understanding Information Security Investigations. Springer.

Bayuk (2010) in his book presents the computer forensic techniques used to curb cyber insecurity. The author analyzes the security investigations used in the development of counter intelligence system against cybercrime. To support the intelligence systems, the author uses different case studies on cyber crime investigations to… [read more]

Case Studies on Life Cycle Management Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Another scientific study which deftly applies the fundamental aspects of life cycle management theory to the realm of infrastructure design is titled "Life-Cycle Management of Construction Projects Based on Virtual Prototyping Technology," and the jointly authored article which was published in the Journal of Management In Engineering in 2010 provides a clear template for both public and private interests to follow. The authors argue that the traditional model of infrastructure design and implementation is fundamentally flawed based on a lack of life cycle management integration, before making the case that "owing to the different characteristics of projects or industries, the phases of project life cycle are different from each other & #8230; it has been proposed that the available life-cycle phases of conceptual, planning, testing, implementation and closure should be applied to projects" (Guo, Li & Skitmore, 2010). According to literature reviewed by the authors in this article, a foundational aspect of infrastructure design in the modern age must be the application of a life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) during the planning and implementation phase of complex projects. The authors assert that the LCSA now the most productive method of assessing an infrastructure project's likelihood of failure in terms of cost, schedule and effectiveness, a theory which they base on the importance of using scope control to assess a project's functionality.


Guo, H, Li, H, & Skitmore, M. 2010, "Life-Cycle Management of Construction Projects Based

on Virtual Prototyping Technology." Journal of Management In Engineering, 26, 1

41-47, Scopus®, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 June 2014.

Zou, P, Wang, S, & Fang, D. 2008, "A life-cycle risk management framework for PPP

infrastructure projects." Journal of Financial Management Of Property & Construction,…… [read more]

Human-Machine Interface on the Flight Deck Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  10 pages (3,048 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Scientific evidence from primary and secondary sources will be used to show the value of the addressed area of concern. After the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data regarding accidents before and after changes that have been made to the human-machine interface, the researcher will use scientific concepts to propose recommendations that will enhance this technology and eradicate the… [read more]

Study Is to Read Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Prior to publication, should someone else exploit material that is unpublished it is considered as stealing of intellectual property. However, it is reported that "many scientist are generous in discussing their preliminary theories or results with colleagues, and some even provide copies of raw data to others to public disclosure to facilitate related work." (Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 1995, p.10)

However, scientists are not under any expectation to do so and reported specifically is that "during the initial stages of research, a scientist deserves a period of privacy in which data are not subject to disclosure" ensuring that the individual is able to "advance their work to the point at which they have confidence both in its accuracy and its meaning." (Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 1995, p. 10) Therefore, publication "in a peer-reviewed journal remains the standard of disseminating scientific results." (Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 1995, p. 10)

Data sharing during collaborations between scientists should be in the nature that promotes research in the given area and that pools all available knowledge and resources to further the area of research while ensuring that scientist are able to ensure the soundness of their findings prior to publication.


On Being A Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research (1995) Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4917

Resources for Research Ethics Education (nd) http://research-ethics.net/index/topics/data_management/index.php/… [read more]

Disaster Response Lit Review Technological Transformation Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  9 pages (3,137 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Disaster Response Lit Review

Technological Transformation and their Impact on Disaster Responses

Mobile Technology Use in Disaster Response

Information and Communication Technology in Disaster Response

The Power of Social Media in disaster response and Management

Early Warning Systems and Disaster Response

Role of Early Warning Systems in Disaster Response

David Robson (2010) defines disaster management and response to disaster as… [read more]

Resilience and System Failure Using Case Studies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … System Failure and Resilience using Case Analysis

The concept resilience is the ability to survive, and recover from disruptions and accidents. In other words, resilience is the ability to withstand disturbances and crisis. Typically, resilience has become a keyword in the management and development of SE (system engineering) and is being associated with crisis and risk management. On… [read more]

Companion Robots Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,415 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Companion Robots

A Current Application of the Scientific Method: Experimentation and Progress in Companion Robots

The scientific method can often seem a rather pedantic and esoteric method of investigation, requiring more conscious and explicit divisions and a more plodding pace than innovation might seem to demand. Especially from a consumer standpoint, the rate at which new technologies and scientific investigation… [read more]

Managing Innovation and Nypro, Inc Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



The internal market for innovation in Nypro is highly competitive. The company encourages innovation at both the individual and plant level. At the individual level, the company seeks to encourage top performers to remain with the company by bringing them into an equity plan. The company feels that by giving top performers equity in the company, they will be… [read more]

Business and Technology Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Business and Technology

Can All Our Business and Societal Problems Be Solved by Technology?

For lasting change to occur in any business or society, the coordination of people, processes and technology need to occur. While this triad of elements has been expressed in many different ways, it is the paradigm of how all successful technology integration into daily lives occurs. The pace of innovation for a given product or service, for example the initial launch of smartphones or the first laptop PCs, can hasten or increase the speed of these three elements working together. Yet it is the synchronization of process improvements, technology advances and people's willingness to change that lead to problems being solved.

How Lasting Change Happens

Lasting change all begins with a person's willingness to change and begin to embrace new concepts and processes for how they live and work. The role of technology then is to enable people and enterprises to attain their objectives in the shortest amount of time at the lowest relative costs. Technology is not a panacea to complex organizational and process problems, yet it is a catalyst for successfully navigating difficult and complex change over time. Overcoming resistance to change in highly structured organizations is especially difficult as roles and responsibilities have been in place for decades. Technology's role in these situations is to serve as a foundation for selectively modifying those process areas that need to be made more efficient and responsive to customers' and stakeholder's needs. Technology can be the enabler…… [read more]

Grounded Theory Examining a Specific Emergent Research Dissertation

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Grounded Theory

Examining a Specific Emergent Research Methodology: The History and Current Applications of Grounded Theory

Ever since the dawn of history -- that is, as far back as the thoughts of man can be explicitly known from written records -- mankind has been concerned with discovering and understanding the mechanisms of nature and the "why's" of the world it… [read more]

Corporate Finance as a Manufacturer and Provider Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (628 words)
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Corporate Finance

As a manufacturer and provider of enriched uranium, USUS has placed itself at the forefront of energy technology. This is highly important, particularly at a time where energy crises loom and technological development remains at a crossroads regarding how to remedy this problem. The firm is therefore in a very solid position to determine its strategic position for the future, particularly as there is a current increase in demand for their products and services.

There are two main elements that contribute to USUS's market strength: its sole access to the particular technology required to a filtration process known as flexible fluorine filtration, and the relatively weak position of its nearest competitor.

Currently, USUS is the only firm with an operational knowledge of flexible fluorine filtration. In the market, the main advantage of this process is that it poses fewer environmental risks. By association, this factor catapulted USUS's already strong position in the market even further. There was no need to retrofit their facilities like their competitors did to comply with new environmental laws, as the low risks of their new technology placed them in a position to save the funding and apply it elsewhere.

This is the company's main competitive advantage, and is likely to remain so in the long-term. The technology was internally developed by USUS workers, and most likely to be a closely guarded secret. As long as USUS can maintain its position as the only company using the technology, its advantage over other companies will persist.

The main reason for this is that the company has funding available to use elsewhere, such as strategic development or expansion. If the company applies its internal strengths of focus on innovation and creativity to the use of this funding, it is likely to perpetuate this advantage, and possibly gain a significant amount of the market.

One might argue that the company's competitors…… [read more]

Feedback Loops Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  5 pages (1,504 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Loop below is in regards to technology and updated within the Palm Corporation. This particular loop is a reinforcing loop. New Technology is the constant and therefore does not carry a plus or minus sign. New technology is constantly being feed directly into the loop, adding to the technology and applications for Palm, Inc. being updated. These updates to technology… [read more]

Prediction and Theory Term Paper

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Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


When used in this manner, it is easy to confuse a theory with a hypothesis. There are distinct differences between a theory and a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a preliminary idea that has not been tested. On the other hand, a scientific theory is based upon large amounts of data that were gathered through empirical research, using multiple hypotheses that were tested and were found to be consistent with the theory. After a theory has been examined, tested and retested and evidence has been found that consistently supports it, the theory can be used to explain many observable factors in nature and society (Cozby, 2009).

Theories have two functions. First, they can help to explain and organize "a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior" (Cozby, 20). In other words, after a hypothesis has been tested and has been found valid, it can be used to sort existing knowledge into a framework so that the information can be more easily understood. Secondly, theories can be used to help researchers to formulate new knowledge. A theory can be used to generate a hypothesis about a certain phenomenon or behavior, and if the studies generate scientific evidence that validates the hypothesis, people become more confident that the theory is correct and are more comfortable with using that theory to add to scientific knowledge.


In summary, three components of the scientific method were discussed. First, a hypothesis is a question or an idea that is used to formulate a study. Next, a prediction is a possible outcome of the study that can be validated or invalidated by scientific evidence. Last, a theory is an idea…… [read more]

Accounting Information Systems Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  55 pages (17,839 words)
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XBRL Adoption at HMRC and CH

XRBL and Electronic Government Initiative

The research highlights the importance of e-government and systems to help achieve fully integrated government systems in the near future. E-commerce led to the development of technology capable of revolutionizing the way in which common transactions are handled. These technological developments and the successes of e-commerce led to the… [read more]

Fiber Optic Thesis

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Bibliography Sources: 3


History Of Fiber Optics

The science of fiber optics centers on the transmission of information via light through transparent fibers. This paper explores the history of fiber optics. Included in the discussion is an overview of how fiber optics is used for communication and data transfer. Lastly, the benefits and disadvantages of this technology will be presented.

History of Fiber Optics and its Use for Communication and Data Transfer

Although fiber optics seems to be a wonder of the last few decades, optical communication systems got their start more than two centuries ago. In the 1790s, French engineer Claude Chappe invented the 'optical telegraph'. Chappe's system used a series of semaphores that were mounted on towers, with human operators relaying messages between the towers. However, as Hayes (2005) notes, by the mid-19th century, the electric telegraph had taken over the messaging industry. In 1880, Alexander Graham Bell patented the Photophone, an optical telephone system. The telephone proved to be more practical and the Photophone never became popular.

New technology in the 19th century, based on total internal reflection, would be the technology needed to develop optical transmission of information. Swiss physicist, Daniel Collodon, and French physicist, Jacques Babinet, demonstrated how light could follow jets of water in fountains, in the 1840s. According to Hayes (2005), optical fibers were a critical leap forward in the development of fiber optics. These transparent rods of plastic or glass were patented in the 1920s by Clarence Hansell in the United States and John Logie Baird in England. These were used to transmit television or facsimilie system images. However it wasn't until 1930 that a German medical student, Heinrich Lamm, demonstrated transmitting an image through a bundle of optical fibers inside a body. Jewish, Lamm was forced to move to America as Nazis came into power, and he had to abandon his plans to become a professor of medicine.

The mid 20th century saw continued development in fiber technology. Most development focused on purifying the compound glass that was used for standard optics. In 1970, Corning Glass Works scientists would make a breakthrough for fiber optic technology. They used fused silica for their fibers, resulting in reduced fiber loss. The team of Robert Maurer, Donald Keck and Peter Schultz led to even greater improvements in the technology, including improved manufacturing methods and shifting to longer wavelengths to further improve attenuation (Hayes, 2005)

Today, communication and data transfer is typically conducted with infrared light. The light waves are generated by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) ("Fibre," 2009). To give the least attenuation, wavelengths of 1.3 to 1.6 micrometers are used. If transmission needs to be made more than a few kilometers, semiconductor lasers are employed to boost the…… [read more]

Innovation in General, Innovation Refers to Changes Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 3



In general, innovation refers to changes resulting from conceptual evolution. In some respects, innovation refers to and is primarily a function of changes in knowledge and the application of that knowledge to existing conceptual frameworks. In other respects, innovation refers to and is a function of entirely new conceptual frameworks.

Likewise, innovation can relate primarily to tangible products or to processes or new uses or applications of products; it can also be the result of new combinations of multiple different products and/or processes of existing tangible products and/or processes in different ways that generate new applications or capabilities that exceed of which those individual products or processes were capable independently.

Different theorists and analysts may define the specific elements and interrelated characteristics of innovation differently or in different terminology, but in principle, those descriptions and characterizations refer to the same underlying concepts and relationships. Similarly, different perspectives may emphasize or analyze different aspects of innovations, such as in the manner that Drucker (1985) focuses mainly on innovations themselves and on the manner in which innovations affect their adopters.

Innovation analyses can also involve understanding larger patterns of their adoption, such as in the manner outlined in Types and Patterns of Innovation (date) those reflected through rates of adoption or the specific psychological factors responsible for those patterns and trends. Regardless of the particular focus of analytical attention, the study of innovation can be best understood and described through historical examples and theoretical concepts of the process through which purposeful changes are incorporated into human life.

Examining Innovation through Historical Example -- Weightlifting Equipment

In the early 20th century, weightlifting equipment consisted of cast iron dumbbells and an innovation that allowed exercisers to create different levels of resistance on a single hand-held bar by means of interchangeable weighted plates capable of being easily attached to or detached from the bar. Before this innovation, weightlifters had to have access to a much larger range of prefabricated weights. The innovation of the holed weight plate allowed exercisers to increase the resistance on a single bar incrementally.

In terms used by Drucker (1985) to describe this evolution, the transition from fixed weights to weight sets using holed plates and an adjustable bar would be considered an example of several different elements of innovation attributable to a simple realization made by a single person. This simplicity is a hallmark of Drucker's definition of innovation. More specifically, the evolution of holed weight plate sets was a function of incongruity, because it solved the incongruity between what weight lifter would have preferred to be able to do with weights (i.e. use many different weights for very different exercises) and what the available technology required for them to achieve that objective (i.e. purchase and house a large number of weights of many different sizes).

In the terminology of Types and Patterns of Innovation (date), the transition from fixed weights to holed weight plate sets would be described as an incremental, architectural, competence-enhancing product innovation. That is because… [read more]

What Is Required for a Theory to Be Scientific? Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,513 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Scientific Theory

In scientific investigation, a scientific theory is derived from a combination of scientific law and hypothesis. Scientific law, according to Jerry Wilson, is a "statement of fact." It is a generally accepted explanation of a phenomenon that is held as true and universal. Such statements do not need external proof, as they have been observed over years or… [read more]

Business: National or Regional Innovation System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,520 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Business: National or Regional Innovation System

The subject of this review is the creation and administration of regional and national innovation systems. This paper will assume that the results of such systems, whether formal or informal, are key in determining their effectiveness. Since it is not possible to separate cultural from governmental or natural advantages, the primary focus of this… [read more]

Inter-Firm R&#38D Partnership Term Paper

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¶ … atp.nist.gov/eao/ir-7323/Refer.htm

the Determinants of Success in R&D Alliances

Innovation is an increasingly important dimension of competition in technology intensive industries. In seeking innovation, individual firms often find that external knowledge and research partners are critical to success. Innovation is often the result of synthesizing or "bridging" ideas from different knowledge domains (Hargadon and Sutton, 2000; Burt, 2004). Therefore,… [read more]

National Regional Approach to Innovation Term Paper

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National/Regional Approach to Innovation


In Europe at the end of the 20th century, a trend shifted away from a technology policy based on the remote economic view that there is a direct relationship between scientific advance and economic growth. The former view provided the government with a policy to use but only if there was market failure.

Economists will prove that innovation is a systemic process embedded in national social and institutional traditions, which have influenced a shift towards a new ideal, innovation policy. The innovation standard suggests a wider role for government policy that can address many aspects of systems of innovation. There are three issues which assist in this new standard of innovation: (1) the characteristics of the policy change and how the institutions of various countries have absorbed the new ideal; (2) the forces that have facilitated change, including the role of international organizations in spreading new ideas: and, (3) how policy diffusion and learning occurs. (Senker, Biegelbauer, Borras, 2005)

Innovation policies have several different factors that influence creation and use of knowledge, but their primary focus is to expand the learning abilities of companies and individuals, and promote a national environment supporting innovation. Most innovation policies focus on developing a close cooperation between the individuals involved in innovation, companies and the scientific community, creating intermediary organizations to link together, and improve the availability of their capital. The new 'innovation policies' differ between countries because the National Systems of Innovation (NSI) approach to innovation is not a unified, formal or an established theory. "It is more of a "conceptual framework' for the analysis of the innovative capabilities embedded in a society, with several different interpretations." (Senker, Biegelbauer, Borras, 2005) majority of this innovation has been brought about by legislation, such as the Government's Superannuation legislation which led to the creation of new financial products that have also been technology-enabled. IBM believes a 'technology led' wave of innovation is now starting; this is called the new on-demand era. There have been significant waves of innovation in the past, during these periods we've seen "back-office reform," the abolition of ledger cards, and the introduction of credit cards. The provision of extended (24-hour, 7-day) access to funds through the installation of ATMS in bank branches were also added during this period. After that E. FTPOSmachines were introduced, now things have advanced even further, we have easy Internet access to our banking information. (Fahrer, 2005)

After years of efforts, Europe has made very little progress toward its goal of surpassing the United States in growth, innovation and productivity by the end of the decade. "There is little sign that Europe's economic decline is stopping or turning around, particularly in the large countries of continental Europe," the European Forecasting Network wrote in its fall report. (Report shows...., 2004)

This report was compiled by teams of economists from universities across Europe. This report was more negative than recent comments by European Union officials at the European Commission, which co-finances the research network.… [read more]

Eastman Kodak Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (410 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Eastman Kodak: What factors motivated Kodak to change its organizational architecture?

Unfortunately, finding a formula for corporate success is not like finding the right chemistry formula -- what works in one market environment, may not work if environmental factors shift and change. Because of changes in technology, Eastman Kodak's dominance over its competitors was lost. Fuji's improved product development upset Kodak's previous dominance of its competitors. By decentralizing the company, Kodak's management hoped to make the company more responsive to changing customer demands and market conditions.

What mistakes did Kodak make in changing its architecture?

One mistake Kodak made was reducing base salaries, and replacing these with bonuses, in an attempt to make the company's staff more creative and industrious. However, this did not translate into improved innovation or sales -- the pay cut and vaguely defined standards of improvement-based bonuses only made the affected personnel angry, rather than more loyal.

What might it have done differently?

Since delayed release of new technology was one reason the company lagged behind Fuji, simply making a benchmark regarding product innovation and trying to motivate managers to speed up the release of new products to create a new, first mover advantages in the market might have been…… [read more]

Polaroid RIP Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (332 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Polaroid, R.I.

The story of Edwin Land is typical of many current entrepreneurs: a sudden flash of insight leads to an innovation that changes the way in which people perceive and use technology. Land's success and company lasted for a remarkably long time. One of the reasons for this is the time frame in which the Polaroid company provided the public with instant photography. There simply was no other product that could compete with, as the article states, "magic" of instant photography. This is the core of the company's success during its most successful years until the 1970s. During these years, Land found the perfect balance between creating and capturing value; his product provided people with high perceived value.

In the business world, success is often dependent upon the balance that the entrepreneur can achieve between creating and capturing value. Creating value relates to the product and the value that customers receive from its use. In terms of Land's camera, this means that customers were eager…… [read more]

Verizon Corporation Was Formed in 2000 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,211 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Verizon Corporation was formed in 2000 when Bell Atlantic bought GTE, since that time, Verizon has become the top U.S. telecom services provider for two years running. Its three major divisions have each made substantial gains and profits in the past five years and continue to show tremendous growth. Their three divisions are Telecom, Business, and Wireless. Its telecom operations include over 45 million access lines through 28 different states and Washington D.C. Verizon Wireless is a joint partnership with the Vodafone Group that has over 60 million customers nationwide and is second only to the newly formed at&T Mobility (formerly known as Cingular). Verizon Business was formed in the past year when Verizon bought out the declining MCI to create a globally advanced communications and information technology "powerhouse" that services large businesses and institutional clients. All three of these divisions have prospered primarily because at&T has dedicated itself to the development of new technology that has allowed it to show positive revenue and profit gains over the past six years and continues to fuel its growth. The following analysis will look at the specific technology that Verizon has implemented which has reflected in its revenue and client growth.

Verizon has committed itself to finding strong technology solutions to improve its business operations and create greater revenue. Within its Telecommunications unit, Verizon has made significant improvements upon its infrastructure through technology solutions. Verizon gained a strong user base through their broadband services because it provided fast and efficient service through their Fios connections. Fios, a new fiber network developed by Verizon will outclass current fiber networks by carrying not only telephony services but also television and high speed data transfer. This service is a vast improvement upon traditional fiber-optic mediums and will eventually displace the majority of current fiber-optic networks. Fios is called a "gigabit passive optical network" or G-PON. This technology increases the aggregate broadband speeds of Verizon's FTTP system by four times its current downstream speed and eight times its current upstream speed. This network will fully enable Verizon to provide enhancements to Fios internet services and Fios TV. As the first company to deploy such technology in the United States, Verizon faces several challenges, but the implementation of this technology will be crucial to the future success of Verizon as it will have a significant competitive advantage compared to at&T and other telecommunications companies.

The Fios fiber network has already been integrated in the vast majority of Verizon's network, however it has seen its cost per household soar substantially due to the fact that Fios connections needs to be made to each house individually. Here again, Verizon proved its technology innovation. In 2006, Verizon implemented new technology via the MoCA (Multimedia over Coax Alliance). MoCA will allow Verizon to reduce the cost of Fios installation by using existing cabling via coaxial cable to connect home computers to its broadband network. Previous to these efforts, Verizon spent about 1200 dollars per home to connect customers to… [read more]

Terrorists of Al Qaeda Planned Their Attacks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,118 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … terrorists of Al Qaeda planned their attacks on September 11th, they did not use the traditional mix of secret signals and special couriers. Instead they had a far more powerful and cryptic tool at their hands, the internet. Al Qaeda utilized organization and communication tools such as encrypted emails to carry out the most devastating attacks in United… [read more]

Organizational Impact: Companies Like Apple, Google Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Organizational Impact:

Companies like Apple, Google and Hyundai are among those that are synonymous with innovation since they have outperformed their peers in the industry. These companies have exceeded the median of their industry peer groups while spending less. These companies have developed various models for high-level innovation which has in turn resulted in success at the corporate level. In most cases, these companies have capitalized on new technology to drive substantial new revenue streams through real business innovation. Furthermore, the companies are juggernauts of innovation since they have aligned various innovation strategies with their businesses.

Google and Innovation:

As a sovereign company in the cyberspace industry, Google has become a successful model of a firm, which has discovered a formula to continually innovate. Throughout its history, the company has recognized that its competitive advantage is because of the continual range of web innovations such as Google Chrome, a new web browser introduced in September 2008. In addition to the need for an evolving competitive advantage that will grow over time, Google's main objective is to develop technology that match the development of the Web itself.

The company changed its traditional management strategy to ensure that it develops technology as fast as the Web evolved. Consequently, Google employed workers with the best and brightest talent across the globe and challenged them to innovate their own ideas. As the company's employees are encouraged to innovate, the company's management strategy and process has changed. The company's workers are allowed to incorporate a considerable amount of their time in experimentation (Farren, n.d.). As employees are permitted to test-drive their ideas rapidly and reasonably, Google delivers services that are ahead of the curve.

Innovation at Apple Inc.:

Apple Inc. has grown to become an iconic company from being a firm that appeared doomed more than 10 years ago through innovation, which is a critical factor in the company's re-invention. The…… [read more]

Science in Daily Life Scientific Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Yet, at the same time it created a situation where there was an increase in dependency on various kinds of substances. While, it is causing a number of different side effects in those people who are taking this kind of medication. (Telang, 2010)

These different elements are important, because they are showing how science has made a positive impact. However, it has also added to the overall problems in society and among select groups of individuals. The reason why, is because science is used as a tool to understand the truth of what is happening. In the search for this objective, any kind of breakthrough will have both adverse and positive impacts. As a result, understanding these different issues will have an effect on a host of different individuals and their lives. (Telang, 2010)

How has this course impacted the way you view science?

This course had both a positive and negative impact about the way that I am looking at science. Where, I understand the overall benefits of science and how it is an important part of everyone's lives. Yet, I also know that with any kind of breakthroughs there are also going to be adverse consequences. The reason why, is because science is objectively looking at the underlying causes of a particular situation and the impact that it is having. This means that with any kind of breakthroughs there will be both: positive and negative outcomes. The key is being able to use science to improve our understanding of the world and the possible aftereffects associated with a variety of situations.

At the same time, science is a part of my daily life by helping me to objectively evaluate a variety of challenges that I am facing. Where, I can step back and objectively analyze the underlying problems. At which point, I can use this information to separate any kind of emotions that are tied to the issue. I can then test the different ideas that I may have, to see what approach will work most effectively in dealing with these challenges. In this aspect, science has been having a positive impact on my life by: allowing me to focus on how to see what kind of tactics will work the best when dealing with a number of issues.

As a result, this has changed the way that I am viewing science by: looking at specific issues that can help me to objectively analyze the situation. This is different from many of the common misconceptions that you will hear about science in the press. Where, they are only focused on the negative effects of what is taking place and the impact that it is having. During this course, I was able to understand how science is a part of everyone's lives and the different ways it can be an important tool in helping us to more effectively troubleshoot. Once this took place, I began to look at the world more objectively vs. going from one emotional event to… [read more]

Abbott Laboratories and Organizational Alliances Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Abbot Laboratories and Organizational Alliances

Abbott Laboratories and Organizational Alliances

Over the last several years, Abbott Labs has entered into a number of different partnerships to increase their ability to stay at the forefront for innovations that are occurring in medicine. However, a shift has happened during this time, as many problems are quickly emerging with these kinds of arrangements. A few of the most notable include: barriers to entering certain fields, limited control over proprietary compounds, varying expectations and a decrease in funding to some of the different programs. This is problematic, because if these issues continue into the future it could hurt the company's ability to deliver a wide variety of cutting edge drugs to the markets. As a result, a change needs to take place in their underlying strategy to deal with these issues. To fully understand what is occurring requires: examining solutions that can be utilized to address these underlying challenges. Once this occurs, it will provide specific insights about how the company can adapt to these shifts.

Due to the overall scope of the problems that have been identified; many of them are interconnected with each other. The most effective way to deal with them is to identify various tactics that can be utilized in conjunction with the consistent sources of funding. This will give Abbott Labs the ability to control the research. At the same time, they need a partner that will have the same kind of ideas about how these various compounds should be used in the future. The most logical approach that should be taken is to form a long-term alliance with foundations that are not tied to any kind of government funding. Instead, their focus is on giving researchers the ability to be able to have the freedom to conduct their projects without having to worry about these issues.

The best organization that can help the company to achieve these different goals is to form an alliance with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This is a private foundation that was created by: the reclusive billionaire Howard Hughes. After his death, they became the heir to his entire estate and distribute over $14 billion every year…… [read more]

Diffusion of Innovations Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Diffusion of Innovation

In 1962, sociologist Everett Rogers, popularized the theory of diffusion of innovations which seeks to explain the how's and why's and rates that new ideas and technology spreads through culture. Rogers believed that diffusion is the process in which innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a culture. Depending on that culture, diffusion of different innovations are varied and may span across multiple disciplines. There are three types of innovations-decisions that help spread diffusion: 1) Optional Innovation-Decision -- made by an individual that is distinguished within a social system;

Collective Innovation-Decision -- made by all individuals within that system; and, 3) Authority Innovation-Decision -- made for the entire system by individuals in power. Once the decision and innovation is made, Rogers finds that there is a five-step process in which the new innovation or technology may take to become adopted by members of society:

Knowledge -- Individuals are exposed to innovations but lack information; there is building interest, but no real inspiration to adopt.

Persuasion -- Individuals become more intrigued about innovation and actively seek more details and information about the innovation.

Decision -- Individuals weight the pluses and minuses of the innovation and decide whether to adopt or reject.

Implementation -- Individuals use the innovation in varying degrees depending on the situation; they communicate with one another and weigh the overall usefulness of the innovation.

Confirmation -- Individuals finalize the decision and either continue to use the innovation or reject it completely and the process starts anew (Rogers, 2003).

Diffusion and Innovation in the 20th Century Literature/Article Review

Part 1 - URL: http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa364.pdf

The Greatest Century That Ever Was (Moore and Simon)

Tags: progress, diffusion, social systems, technology, 20th century, change over time

Certainly, the 20th century has brought thousands of trends to the population that have literally transformed the world. From a life expectancy of 47 to 77; 8 precent to 99 precent electrification of U.S. households; 0 to 98 precent television ownership; vast changes in computer ownership, quadrupling of high school graduates, over 1/2 bachelor degrees given to women, the progress of the 20th century and the resultant diffusion of technology is not a mere historical blip, but a long-term trend that is improving life on earth to such a degree it is actually the first time in human history that globalization has brought so much to so many. The elements of diffusion for these grand technologies varied, but all started out with minor technologies that were often designed for ease of use and the improvement of life, extension of leisure time and like a domino effect, sometimes chained together (e.g. Univac, Apple, IBM, Macintosh, chips, etc.). Likewise, channels of communication were varied but often promised a social change and consideration that was vast and comprehensive. And just like the chart of adopters, it took a number of people trying with relative cumbersome technology (e.g. early electrification) to then gradually hone the technology until it is no longer something people… [read more]

Diffusion of Innovation #2 in 1962 Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Diffusion of Innovation #2

In 1962, sociologist Everett Rogers, popularized the theory of diffusion of innovations which seeks to explain the how's and why's and rates that new ideas and technology spreads through culture. Rogers believed that diffusion is the process in which innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a culture. Depending on that culture, diffusion of different innovations are varied and may span across multiple disciplines. There are three types of innovations-decisions that help spread diffusion: 1) Optional Innovation-Decision -- made by an individual that is distinguished within a social system;

Collective Innovation-Decision -- made by all individuals within that system; and, 3) Authority Innovation-Decision -- made for the entire system by individuals in power. Once the decision and innovation is made, Rogers finds that there is a five-step process in which the new innovation or technology may take to become adopted by members of society:

Knowledge -- Individuals are exposed to innovations but lack information; there is building interest, but no real inspiration to adopt.

Persuasion -- Individuals become more intrigued about innovation and actively seek more details and information about the innovation.

Decision -- Individuals weight the pluses and minuses of the innovation and decide whether to adopt or reject.

Implementation -- Individuals use the innovation in varying degrees depending on the situation; they communicate with one another and weigh the overall usefulness of the innovation.

Confirmation -- Individuals finalize the decision and either continue to use the innovation or reject it completely and the process starts anew (Rogers, 2003).

Article Reviews

European Shopping Models in Asia

Carrefour Quietly Launches Online Shopping Service in China. (December 19, 2006).

China Tech News. Cited in: http://www.chinatechnews.com/2006/12/19/4751-carrefour-quietly-launches-online-shopping-service-in-china

Tags: globalism, Chinese markets, European Union, Carrefour, online shopping, marketing in asia

Carrefour is an international hypermarket chain store located in France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world, and the second largest global retail group in terms of revenue, third largest after Wal-Mart. In operates mainly in Europe, some South American and Central American countries, but most recently moved into China and Asia based on the development of those markets. Carrefour is interesting because it innately uses a six tiered approach within its European Market. This approach believes in maximizing service through: 1) low prices, 2) self-service when possible, 3) one-stop shopping, 4) high-quality products, 5) freshness, and 6) free parking. Each of these concepts is very Euro-centric, and not always translatable to an Asian culture, however. Diffusion to Asia remains challenging and is a superb example of hesitancy in a new market.

Supersonic Transport Fails to Connect with Consumers - Concord Retires. (2003). Cited in: http://www.concordesst.com/retire/faq_r.html

Tags: Aviation, supersonic transport, Concorde, British Airways, FAA, airline regulation

Technology, even some that is diffused and seems to be adopted by some of society is not always a long-term success. Such was the result of an aircraft that can transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound, the SST. This technology operated profitably… [read more]

International Joint Ventures and Alliance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,004 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


International Joint Ventures and Alliances

Building Strategic Advantages Using International Joint Ventures and Alliances:

Assessing the Potential and Risk for Chinese Firms

Firms in emerging markets face several significant challenges in growing their businesses beyond their regional and national borders. The learning curve that Chinese firms face in penetrating global markets is steep, as is the investment in branding, marketing, research and development (R&D) and services strategies Many turn to International Joint Ventures (IJV) to gain a foothold in global markets, acquire expertise and knowledge through the joint ventures. In the study Dual-edged tools of trade: How international joint ventures help and hinder capability building of Chinese firms (Li, Zhou, 2008) the researchers have completed a longitudinal study of 474 industry sectors active in China, for the years 1998 to 2002 to determine the risks and rewards to indigenous Chinese firms' participation in IJVs. Looking to refute the misconception that IJVs only deliver positive results, complete a quantification of factors that contribute to positive and negative outcomes for indigenous Chinese firms participating in IJVs, and determine if technology gaps between Chinese firms and their IJV partners made a difference in long-term innovation were all analyzed. Using data from the Chinese government over 5 years that encompassed 474 industries, a series of correlation analyses and data regressions where used to determine the industry, indigenous Chinese firms and IJV attributes. fixed- and random-effect research design ensured orthogonality of the industries and eliminated the potential for autocorrelation and statistical sampling errors. Variables included in the study included the following: absorptive capacity (or capacity to innovate) of an industry; dependency of the industry on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); level of present IJV activity by industry; technology gap of industry to IJV partners; relative levels of dominance financially and from an FDI perspective of multi-national-based IJV alliance partners; presence of wholly owned subsidiaries (WOSs) of foreign firms; capital labor intensity; firm size; and labor quality.

Examples of indigenous firms in emerging markets including China losing the intensity to be innovative in their core markets include First Auto Works, who despite having a IJV with Volkswagen for over a decade, has yet to produce their own vehicle.

Contrary to these examples are those of Chinese auto manufacturers Chery and Geely who rarely engage in IJVs and alliances yet have continually launched new vehicle models ever year and as of 2011, Chery is recruiting American auto industry executives to launch their dealer channel in North America.

Indigenous firms to China that are selective about what aspects of an IJV they participate in show greater capability to rely on the alliance to compensate just for their weaknesses, not becoming entirely dependent. The longitudinal analysis of five years of 474 industries show that the more dominant the IJV is on the emerging firms' nation, the higher the potential for firms to rely too much on the alliance and not challenge themselves more to innovate and gain their own market position. The lower the dominance of the IJV in the… [read more]

Business Enterprise and Innovation Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,699 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Business Enterprise and Innovation in China

The 21st century has been called "The Century of Asia" with China clearly leading the pack. One of the driving forces behind China's economic success to date has been the country's ability to respond to an increasingly globalized and competitive marketplace through innovation and hard work. Although a hard work ethic has been a… [read more]

Technology Implementation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The school made major purchases of computers (over 200 computers, and networked them, using state reimbursement for new funding. The implementation of the new technology would have been much more difficult if the state had not provided funding. The improved computer availability and networking has dramatically changed instructional delivery, and it can be said that, in this case, improved funding made the implementation of technology successful.

In summary technology implementation is a complex process. Technology implementation can be defined as the introduction of new technologies to either an existing organization, or to a larger community, such as a type of business. The processes that underlie technology implementation can be complex, and require several stages. Further, there are a wide variety of potential problems that can occur during the processes of technology implementation within an organization.

Works Cited

Bradley, K.R. Slavery and Rebellion in the Roman World. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana

University Press, 1989.

Drucker, P.F. The Discipline of Innovation, in Harvard Business Review, May-June 1985,

Revised November-December, 1998.

Glaser, E.M. et al. (1983). Putting knowledge to use: Facilitating the diffusion of knowledge and the implementation of planned change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983.

Marcus, A.I. And Segal, H.P. Technology in America: A brief history. San Diego California:

Harcort Bruce Jovanovich, 1989.

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th edition, 1993.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Technology/Economy Program.

Technology in a changing world.

Purcell, C.W., Jr. Technology in America: A history of individuals and ideas. 2nd ed.

Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.

Sahal, D. The transfer and utilization of technical knowledge. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books,


Samli, A.C. Technology transfer: geographic, economic, cultural, and technical dimensions.

Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 1985.

The Switched-On Classroomtm. Massachusetts Software Council, Inc. Copyright 1994 by the Massachusetts Software Council, Inc. 24 February 2002.…… [read more]

Scientific Method Is the Collection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


I will ask him directly for his lawn maintenance schedule, and also monitor his actions to ensure that they coincide with the information he gives. There are several areas that could be attributed to his superior looking lawn.

Although our lawns receive the same amount of natural rainfall, it is possible that his lawn is getting more water than mine. I do not supplement the watering of my lawn and perhaps he is watering his lawn in addition to rainfall. If so, the amount of water, and the timing of the water application will need to be noted.

Also, noting the length difference of the two lawns, perhaps he is not cutting his lawn as often, or is maintaining it at a longer length then I maintain mine at. His mowing schedule will be notated, as will the length of the grass after it is cut.

The one last obvious area of difference may be in fertilization of the lawns. Currently, I do not fertilize my lawn at all. Perhaps my green thumbed neighbor has been using some mix of fertilizer that has been very effective in growing his lush, green lawn.

Once this data is collected, I will experiment utilizing his methods to see which works best. Various combinations of extra watering, frequency of mowing and length of lawn, as well as fertilization will be tested in specified sectors of my lawn. In addition, one sector, the control sector, will be treated as I normally treat my lawn, and one sector will be treated exactly as my neighbor treats his lawn, utilizing all three variables.

I will monitor the sectors and determine which are positively responding. It is anticipated that some sectors will respond less favorably then my neighbor's lawn, the sector following his exact regimen should respond equally as favorably, and some sectors may respond better than my neighbors. If the sectors respond positively to the enhanced maintenance, then my hypothesis will be proven true, however, if there is little to no change, than there must be another underlying cause to the lawn differences that I did not anticipate.


Schafersman, S.D. (Jan 1994). Scientific thinking and the scientific method. Retrieved November 10, 2004, from http://www.freeinquiry.com/intro-to-sci.html.

Scientific method. (9 Nov 2004). Retrieved November 10, 2004, from…… [read more]

Technological Progress Ever Overcome Scarcity? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,016 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … technological progress ever overcome scarcity?

While some hope that eventually, technology will be so advanced, it will be able to provide everyone on earth with everything needed, it is unlikely that will happen. There has always been technology, and it has always advanced. The horse-drawn plow, for example, was an advance over the technology of the hand-held tiller;… [read more]

Technology, Technique, and the Body Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Although some critics of technology assume that technology can be unhealthy for the human body or for human society, Tanner believes that technology involves creativity and innovation and that technology results in positive changes. Technology can even change the ways we use our bodies: technology alters technique. For example, Tanner points to two sports to show how the human body and our techniques change in response to new technology. Baseball pitching has changed dramatically over the years, as has bowling.

Human beings learn to use their bodies differently to respond to technology. If a person wants to become good at sports or at playing a musical instrument, he or she must practice. Practice demands forcing the body into uncomfortable positions and even enduring pain. Techniques improve with practice, and therefore human cultures evolve in response to their technologies. Technology also improves with practice, as engineers will design better products to respond to the needs of the…… [read more]

Scientific Method Tyson, Neil Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (440 words)
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"When making multiple measurements, scientists occasionally discard values that deviate strongly from their expectations." (Tyson, 1998, p.1) In the social sciences, public opinion polls are accompanied by "margins of error." (Tyson, 1998, p.1) But in science experiments as well, "some measurements will come out above the true value, while some will come out below. These are ordinary fluctuations: a chart of all the data points would look like the statistician's beloved bell curve. The history of science has shown that if an experiment is well designed, then most of the data will cluster around some value, presumably the right one." (Tyson, 1998, p.1)

But the bias of the scientist in question in favor of his or her original hypothesis can also skew the perceptions of the final results.Does this mean that all scientfic finds according to the scientific method are potentially biased? Not necessarily, only that scientists are human beings, however objective the scientific method may seem. "In courts of law, yes/no questions and multiple-choice questions are common. But science does not lend itself to such responses without incurring major misrepresentations of reality," thus scientists must be particularly rigorous in their own self-scrutiny about their biases in favor of one hypothesis over another. (Tyson, 1998, p.2)… [read more]

Alexander Graham Bell in 1847 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (394 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Watson, come here. I want you." Watson, in another part of the house, heard his voice come over the transmitter! Bell was so excited that his transmitter had worked, he forgot all about the acid that had ruined his clothes. The next year, in 1877, came the first Bell Telephone Company.

After he invented the telephone, Bell continued to invent things. He invented the photo-phone where sound was carried on a beam of light (forerunner of fiber optics). He improved the phonograph. He invented the hearing aid and ways for teaching deaf people to speak. When an assassin shot President Garfield with a gun, doctors needed to find the bullet quickly so they could take it out of his body. Alexander Graham Bell quickly invented a metal detector to find the bullet. He also worked on airplanes and hydrofoil boats and helped found the magazine Science. Bell died in 1922 in Nova Scotia.


Answers.com "Alexander Graham Bell: Biography and Much More":


Wikipedia "Alexander Graham Bell": http://www.answers.com/Alexander%20Graham%20Bell

'Alexander Graham Bell -- Scottish Inventor":

http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96mar/bell.html… [read more]

Inventions of Modern Times Alexander Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (325 words)
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Two individuals, out of earshot of each other, could speak as though they were standing next to one other.

As Alexander Graham Bell's telephone became widely available it brought about many unforeseen changes in the world in which we live. The telephone made it possible for a company to conduct business without all its employees beyond concentrated in one place. As well, the telephone eliminated the long delays previously demanded by the sending and receiving of written messages. Perhaps even more importantly, families and friends could keep in touch even though they might live in different parts of the country or the world. In the case of an emergency, individuals could instantly get in touch with distant authorities. A storeowner could call the police if he had been robbed. A mother could call a doctor if her child was sick. Alexander Graham Bell's invention made the world a smaller place -- the telephone brought humanity together as…… [read more]

Technology Forecasting and Business Model Assessment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,249 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Technology Forecasting and Business Model Assessment

What is technology forecasting?

The entire subject of technology forecasting consists of predictions about the technological capabilities, attributes and parameters that will come up in the future. It is a method of looking through the glass and consists of what may be called intelligent "guesses." (Characteristics, History, and Importance of Technological Forecasting) Since they are only guesses and are not based on any direct scientific reasons, there are often changes in forecasts that are made, as will be seen in an example given at the end of the article. The forecast does not try to explain the methods of doing things, or even trying to determine the methods of doing thing that will lead to profits. On the other hand, the prediction may be that some technological capability will be available at some time in the future, though that does not mean that the society will make use of that possibility or even want it.

How does technology change?

One of the main reasons of technology development is the interests of the government in some technology change. The decisions or requirements of others do not have so much of an effect. One of the decisions of the government was to support the space program and that led to development of a lot of technology in that area including miniaturization of many electronics components. The effects also spread to the garments industry where new materials began to be used and even affected the commercials on television. The identical effect on the opposite side takes place as the government decided not to support SST and that changed the entire technology of air transport in United States. Thus in terms of technological forecasting, it is important to consider the views of the government. (Characteristics, History, and Importance of Technological Forecasting)

Another important point to consider is the limit of change that can take place in a particular technology and the pace at which changes will take place. This has happened in many industries and some grew very fast, till they reached some limits due to natural laws. Examples of these are in the case of aircraft speed, computer memory size and computer access speeds, horsepower made available per liter of internal combustion engines and similar situations. This limit takes place as new technology has to develop on older, existing technology and the developments have to be synergic. At the same time, there are effects of one technology on another and this may result in a very high and sudden development of some technologies. An example of this can be seen in the development of microcomputers which happened due to the development of technologies of electronic computer circuitry, miniaturization of electronic circuits, improvement in computer programming and development of storage of information. Such growths are difficult to be imagined. (Characteristics, History, and Importance of Technological Forecasting)

How are forecasts made?

There will also be a gap between invention and conversion of the invention into usable technology and this… [read more]

Disruptive Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (310 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Disruptive Technology

Focus on how a company might use the knowledge that there is a disruptive technology out there.

If a company knew of the existence of a potentially disruptive technology to their current market position, the company could attempt to circumvent the potential encroachment by addressing the needs the new technology focused upon, but with the aim of making their existing technology cheaper, faster, or better, yet still addressing the same needs targeted by the disruptive technology. Also, as disruptive technologies tend to be initially inferior in quality, such as the early, inefficient automobiles that replaced horses and buggies, a company could attempt to focus on improving the quality of its existing product so the disruptive technology would appear even more inferior in relation to the existing product.

How would a company organize so that they would have a good chance of knowing about the technology?

Often, it does not 'pay' in the short-term…… [read more]

Technology in Innovation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Technology in Innovation

The Role of Technology in Innovation

Enabling innovation through the use of technology continues to be a major priority for many enterprises globally as the pace of new product development continues to accelerate and industries become more turbulent. Of the many priorities that Chief Information Officers (CIOs) have in supporting their organizations, defining and implementing strategies to bring innovation into their firms is consistently ranked as one of the highest (Kleis, Chwelos, Ramirez, Cockburn, 2012). With so much attention on making innovation a core part of the Information Technologies (IT) platform of a company, there are many technology vendors orienting their products and services to this priority that CIOs have.

Analysis of Technologies That Enable Innovation

Among the many technologies available for facilitating innovation throughout an enterprise, two most promising are the use of cloud computing and mobile technologies. Cloud computing is a pervasive set of technologies that can enable collaboration platforms to be securely, reliably deployed over the Internet

(Arinze, Anandarajan, 2010). Cloud computing's stack of technologies including Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) also are replacing many of the legacy mainframe systems that companies had been reliant on for decades, getting successively less value from them over time (Kleis, Chwelos, Ramirez, Cockburn, 2012). Cloud computing has also served as a strong catalyst for the growth of disruptive innovations in the area of enterprise software, delivering entirely new functionality, ease of use, and cost reductions for customers in the process (Arinze, Anandarajan, 2010). SaaS is such a powerful disruptive force in enterprise software it will eventually lead to the re-ordering of enterprise software economics. It is also a very strong catalyst for internal innovation and re-defining of business processes within an organization. As an application platform it is permeable enough to give CIOs the flexibility they need in defining…… [read more]

Cumulative Profit Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The reason for the discontinuation of the product was that sales and market share had decreased dramatically. At the same time, there were no longer funds allocated for the research and development of product X5. This decision had been made in the previous year with the purpose of decreasing some of the costs that the company was incurring and to shift some of the research and development efforts towards the other two products.

Market review

Tablet X5 started at the beginning of the period for simulation with the highest market share, while X7, as a new product, had the lowest. The strategy was aimed towards increasing the market share for X6 and X7, while retaining, for a couple of years, an important market share for X5. The market share for X5 plunged after the first two years, reflecting a different phase in the product cycle and decreasing investments in resource and development.


The profitability mirrors, in part, the observations made about the market. X5 remained the most profitable table during the first two years, as the product was in its growth period. Profitability for X5 gradually decreased after the second year and X6 became the main contributor to the overall revenues of the company. X7 gradually increased its profitability as well, but at a much slower pace than X6. One of the reasons for this could be the more complex nature of the product and, as a consequence, of the targeted consumer as well, who prefers X7 as a table that is both price and performance competitive.

Conclusions, recommendations and alternative strategy

The strategy applied in this simulation was based on a shift in research and development spending from tablet X5, in its growth phase, to tablets X6 and X7. The strategy reflected the idea that, while tablet X5 was in its growth phase, tablets X6 and X7 provided more potential opportunities, because of the more complex customers and, potentially, higher revenues.

This meant that tablet X5 was discontinued towards the end of the simulation period, since it had already become less performing on the market. Revenues from X6 and X7 grew, but the pace at which this was done was not sufficiently accelerated. A notable example is tablet X7, which, despite a penetration strategy during the first years, remained with a low market share towards the end of the simulation.

An alternative strategy would have implied applying a more balanced approach in terms of research and development and focusing similar funding on X5 as well. This would have likely prolonged the life of the product for another 1-2 years, with higher revenues during this period of time. However, one of the issues/questions that could be raised with this strategy is whether the costs that it would imply would be sufficiently balanced by the revenues. At the same time, such a balanced approach could have meant that tablets X6 and X7, the products of the future for the company, would have had less chances to create their own market… [read more]

Impact of Globalization and Import Competition on Technical Change Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Globalization and Technological Change

Globalization and Trade Competition Spurs Technological Innovation

This paper investigates the connection between high trade competition in an increasingly globalized marketplace with the presence of increased levels of innovation within technology. The primary research question asks whether or not there is a strong enough relationship between the two factors in order to be able to use… [read more]

Scientific Method Is a Plan of Investigation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Scientific method is a plan of investigation that uses testing an idea or hypothesis, working through the experiment in either a quantitative or qualitative manner (e.g. As long as it is measurable), testing those results, observing and using empirical data to make informed conclusions, and then either proving or disproving the original hypothesis. Thus, the basic research method accepted by scholars is: 1) form a valid hypothesis that is appropriate for the subject matter; 2) design a method of experimentation that will help uncover unknowns; 3) use data appropriately and analyze that data using accepted means, and; 4) formulate a result and/or need for further research (Cary, 2003).

Observation- During the winter, salt was spread on the driveway as an aid in melting snow and ice. In the spring when the lawn begins to grow, we notice there is no grass growing for about 3" from the driveway and grass is growing more slowly up to 12" from the driveway. We wonder if salt inhibits grass growth?

Introduction- Salt not only helps snow and ice melt, it changes the concentration of water molecules in substances. If cells are surrounded by water that contains a high concentration of salt, water moves between the outside and inside of the cell wall to equalize the concentration. A high concentration of salt outside the cell wall causes the water in the cell to be eliminated and thus causes the cell wall to collapse and die. The literature tells us that it depends on the concentration of salt as to how much damage it has the potential to do for cells -- the higher the concentration, the more potential damage; the lower the concentration, the more minor the damage (Swift and Koski, 2007).

Hypothesis- Higher concentrations of salt (NaCl) in soil will negatively affect grass growth.

Prediction- the higher the concentration of salt in soil will result in less grass growth.

Experiment- in this experiment, we will measure four concentrations of salt in a water solution and use those solutions to water small pots of grass.

Materials -- Grass seed, potting soil, 3-4" pots, salt (kosher or pickling so no iodine added), eye dropper, plastic reservoir for pots, lab notebook, camera if possible, ph soil meter (optimal), table spoon, ruler, distilled water.

Preparation -- in four identical containers, plant grass seed in identical amounts of soil, use 1 equal tablespoon of seed per…… [read more]

Technology, a Very Familiar Phenomenon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,357 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Nanotechnology and genomics are devised and used by humans and there would be certain constraints and limits for their usage. Everyone is not free to use them, not even superpowers.

Although the above mentioned two debates have a gap of forty years between them, but the concerns and criticism is almost the same. The two debates are highly comparable; only excluding the terms of artificial intelligence, robotics and genetics which were not devised in 1960's. The role of Mesthene in the former is performed by Brown and Duguid in the latter one, who said that social reforms and technological advancements go along, while Bill Joy takes the role of McDermott in the latter, who is opposed to too much advancement in technology as it may become destructive for the mankind.

There is another scientist named James Burke, who supports the view of technological advancements by social reforms and requirements. He appeared in a series of documentary program "Connections" in the year 1978, whose main focus was the history of science and technology. Burke provided facts and evidences about the development of scientific techniques, from traditional and historical approaches to the use of modern techniques in the field of science. Burke was of the view that social reforms need the technologies to be developed and these two are interconnected to each other. In this way, the history takes its shape so as to describe it incident by incident and step-by-step advancement in the corresponding technology. He argued that any particular invention is not isolated from other previously invented techniques; rather humans are motivated towards its invention by their needs. By doing so, humans are unaware of the consequences of the technologies to be invented. To explain this view, he considered a particular invention from the history and describes about its advancement with the passage of time. In first episode, "The Trigger Effect," he described the technological advancements in the field of agriculture by starting from the invention of plough in Egypt. This invention triggered the field of agriculture and the entire world of that time began to harvest and the list of such invention goes on till today's modern techniques of agriculture. He also gave the example of Kuwait which used modern technologies to extract oil and made a huge leap in improving the economy of the country. If they rely on traditional techniques for this procedure, then it will take hundreds of years for such miracle to happen. And now when once Kuwait has used modern technology, it is impossible for it to revert back to traditional techniques or else, it would become a desert again (Burke 2012).

Hence to conclude, Mesthene, Brown/Duguid and Burke are more convincing than the other ones. No doubt that the advancement in technology has gone too far, but it is not invented for the purpose of fun or destruction only. It is a need of today's society and the research and inventions cannot be halted by simply saying that we do not know the… [read more]

Business Innovation and Enterprise Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,027 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


3. Industries with innovative potential

As it has been mentioned throughout the previous section, the Chinese economy and business sector are characterized by a wide array of elements which both promote as well as stifle innovation and research and development. Some of the shortages, such as the protection of property rights, are being addressed and would be gradually transformed into… [read more]

New Ways of Workplace Development Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,466 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


" (Holman, 2003)

According to Holman, in evaluation studies "it is not unlikely that a small effect that is relevant in practical terms is not detected because of a small sample size. Researchers should take sample size issues seriously. Qualitative methods are stated to be "very helpful" when the organization is large enough and allows for an adequate sample size."… [read more]

Innovation, Design, and Creativity Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


d.). A good designer can weed through a host of creative ideas and see which are feasible and how they can be achieve. They act as an intermediary between the possible and impossible for an organization. Once they have a vision for what idea works, they create a model of how it will work and what needs to be done to make the idea a reality.

Innovation is that last step; it is "taking a creative idea and bringing it to fruition" (McLean, 2005). This is often the most nebulous concept, because it relies on remaining idealistic about a product while also taking into account practical concerns. There are also challenges that stand in it's way: "To bring an idea from concept to market, it must be recognized for its potential; it must receive funding in an environment of scarce or at least competing resources; and it must overcome potential obstacles such as technology challenges, competitive pressures, and a variety of other obstacles" (McLean, 2005). So innovation is most often where the process falls apart.

While strides in innovation, creativity, and design are all admirable goals for an organization to have, arriving at all three is a difficult pursuit. Companies would be wise to make sure that they hire creative employees with an eye for design who are willing to innovate. If they find innovation flagging against the competition, they should encourage a model that promotes innovative ideas and trains employees to think in innovative ways. This combination of strengths will serve them best in a competitive environment.


British Design Council. (n.d.). A short film about design. Design Council. Retrieved July 15,

2011, from http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/about-us/Prince-Philip-Designers-Prize/A-


Jana, R. (2007, February 12). The innovation backlash. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved July

15, 2011, from http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/feb2007 / id20070212_728732.htm?chan=innovation_innovation+%2B+design_innovation+and+design+lead

McLean, L.D. (2005). Organizational culture's influence on creativity and innovation: A review of the literature and implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(2), 226-246. Retrieved July 15, 2011, from http://mcleanglobal.com/public/MGC/publications/Org%20Culture%20and%20Innovation.pdf… [read more]

Diffusion of Innovation Theory Consists Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Diffusion theory pays much attention to the earliest adopters, less to later adopters, and very little at all to non-adopters. From an institutional perspective, however, non-adoption is of considerable interest.

There is a distinction between the last of the followers and the non-adopters that is at least as substantial as that between the innovative adopters and the followers, perhaps more substantial. The later followers are in conformity with the mainstream of society but non-adopters, at some point in time, are increasingly set apart from the majority.

The instances of non-adoption can be involuntary as well as voluntary. For example, the poor are less well positioned to adopt innovations, which might benefit them economically and socially. Concerns about the "digital divide" are not about a temporary falling behind but about a permanent and possibly widening disparity along income and ethnic lines. Voluntary non-adopters are those people who must essentially have reflected on the broader meanings and ramifications of individual adoption. Continued resistance to an innovation that has gained wide acceptance because people feel that its use will destroy important values. Since members of the social body do not simultaneously embrace change, because individuals differ with respect to perceived risk/reward of adoption, the timing of individual adoption decisions. A relatively small proportion of the population is innovative adopters who act independently of others. The majority are followers, who wait until observation of previous adopters has lessened the uncertainties, which have delayed their adoption. A minority are voluntary non-adopters whose resistance to the innovation is based on values.


Bell, Daniel (1968). Toward the Year 2000: Work in Progress. Boston: Beacon Press.

Brown, Laurence (1981). Innovation Diffusion: A New; Perspective. London: Methven.

Rogers,…… [read more]

Science Communication Concepts Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Before something is published, it must stand up to the opinions of peers that are working in the same field to verify its worthiness.

3. Stages of publications

The first stage of publication deals with the researcher who researchers a particular interest and tries to create an original hypothesis or possibly test someone else's. The scientist or researcher will then type up their paper and submit them for publication to a scientific journal. The scientific journal will generally send the first draft out to several leading scientists in the same field (peer-review). If the article is deemed of sufficient quality and relevance, then it stands the potential for publication in the journal. However, if the paper does not meet the standards that are expected then it is returned to the author with either a possibility of revision or a denial.

4. Changes in Publications systems

The traditional publication system has broken down some in the digital world. Since communication can be shared so easily, many authors will skip steps or publish their work in a non-peer-reviewed system online. Furthermore, there are more instances of open review for some publications and the work is often disseminated quickly; in some cases much quicker than it actually should.

5. Models of Science communication system today

The model of scientific communication today is far more complex than previous generations. In many cases the peer review process is bypassed altogether. Although this expedites the entry of the work into the field, at the same time it allows for more errors and more cases of fraud. Thus the public can be made aware of the scientific findings at any point in the process rather than after they have been published in a peer-review journal as in previous generations.

Works Cited

Knapp, S. (n.d.). What, Where, and When?…… [read more]

Digital Knowledge, New Horizons for the Human Art of Thinking, and Creating Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,026 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


However, most digital media are real-time media that do not give time for reflection, research, or creativity -- real-time media such as television or video games do not develop those. Technologies are not a remedy in education and learning, because of the skills that are being lost. Research has shown that reading produces creativity, induction, critical thinking and reflection, as well as vocabulary. Pleasure-based reading is the key to creating these abilities. Students today have more digital knowledge and less print knowledge. Many learners do not read for pleasure and have not for many years.

Alienation concerns the significance and impact of today's digital technology on the entity of human coexistence. Man may not be covered up in or over-identify himself with society because individual independence is located in the range between man and societal entities. However, neither may he turn away from society and its entities because man is always a social creature. One of the most popular concepts about alienation as social alienation arises from the literature of Marx. One of the repercussions of a naturalist production program is alienation from the others and colleagues (Goertzel & Wang, 2007). This means that Marx recognizes the cause of alienation in capitalist property interaction. However, there are interpretations, which identify these causes in the imperatives of technology and digital media. According to Marx, man is culturally separated by the efficiency of his work if he interacts with no one. This can also happen only in a detached, impersonal, and antagonistic manner if the connection with other colleagues has a mechanistic trait.


Today's technological innovation is changing the experience of students. It is a source of good and bad things for the students. At its best, technological innovation can achieve deep discovery and incorporation of information, high-level thinking, and powerful involvement by allowing learners to design, experiment, explore and access information. High-level involvement in social networking causes learners to get off track on educational projects and adversely influences their educational results. Using media as both a source of knowledge and means of interaction are a fundamental element of curricula in many developing countries. Competency in technology utilization is, therefore, a key to students' educational accomplishment in schools. With ever-expanding technological innovation, there is an unmatched need to understand the formula for success, which includes the student, the instructor, the content and the environment in which technological innovation is used.


Kurzweil, R. (2006). The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Princeton, N.J: Duckworth

Goertzel, B. & Wang, P. (2007). Advances in Artificial General Intelligence: Concepts, Architectures and Algorithms: Proceedings of the AGI Workshop 2006. Volume 157 of Frontiers in artificial intelligence and applications, ISSN 0922-6389. Washington, DC: IOS Press.

Honavar, V. (2004). Artificial intelligence and neural networks: steps toward principled integration. Neural networks, foundations to applications. University of Michigan: Academic Press.

Minsky, M. (2007). The Emotion Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of the Human Mind. White River Junction, Vt: Simon and Schuster

Rabinow, P. & Dan-Cohen,… [read more]

Measuring Innovation in Pepsico Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,240 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


The BRIC basically stands for Russia, India, Brazil, Russia and China has huge potential in terms of economic and scientific growth.


Humans are not exactly versatile at predicting the future trends. According to Ray Kurzweil, technological change is noteworthy in this regard, as human mind predicts trends linearly (Kurzweil 2005). Hence, humans seemingly are taken aback by small/trivial trends… [read more]

Behavioral Analysis the Main Topic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The main topic being studied in the paper by Baer et al., "Some dimensions of applied behavior analysis" is applied behavior analysis and the different characteristics that are germane to it. This behavioral analysis is specifically considered in the context of analytic behavioral application. The confluence of these concepts is identified as applying what is known to relevant areas within a society, and examining what aspects of that application produced any particular changes (Baer et al., 1968, p. 91).

The background and rationale for this paper is similar to that of the preceding paper. Essentially, it considers the two traditional modes of behavioral analysis -- basic and applied. However, it also denotes the shortcomings of each -- that the one is based on clinical studies while the other largely occurs within different, life like environments that are not conducive towards typical qualitative research. Although there are no explicit research questions because this paper does not include original research, analytic behavioral application is propagated as a means of synthesizing the best elements of each of these two approaches to lessen their respective shortcomings.

The overall purpose of this paper is to explicate the various ways in which applied behavior analysis functions and helps to inform studies of the sort. To that end, the author has identified a number of key characteristics of this type of research. He then spends a fair amount of time delving into exactly what those characteristics entail for a research study of this nature. Those characteristics are highlighted in the subsequent quotation: "…the study must be applied, behavioral and analytic, in addition, it should be technological, conceptually systematic, and effective, and it should display some generality" (Baer et al., 1968, p. 92). For each of these various dimensions of an applied research analysis, the author provides details about how they impact such a research study.

There are no results of this paper since there is no original research. Moreover, unlike the last paper in which there was no original research, there is no case study that the author employs in lieu of original research. Instead, he merely explains how each of the aforementioned characteristics are necessary in an applied research analysis -- which is compared to basic behavioral analysis.

The main conclusions are that each of the seven dimensions the author explicates are vital to applied research analysis. Those who read this article should acknowledge that these characteristics are necessary for this type of research. The author's conclusion is self-evident via his title.


Baer, D.M., Wolff, M.M., Risley, T.R. (1968). "Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 1, 91-97.

McIlvane, W.J. (2009). Translational behavioral analysis: from laboratory science in stimulus control to interventions…… [read more]

Morris, Smith and Altus ) Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The work of Johnston (1996) entitled "Distinguishing Between Applied Research and Practice" published in the Journal of The Behavior Analyst" reports that applied behavior analysis became a formal field of inquiry in the 1960s and that there were only a few researchers that made this contribution in determining is the "basic principles of operant conditioning could be used to solve behavioral problems in everyday situations." (p. 35) While such attempts are reported to have been practical in terms of their focus, "the style of analysis was often experimental, perhaps in part because many of the researchers were experienced in basic animal research." (Johnston, 1996, p. 35)

If applied behavior analysis was ever officially introduced it is reported to have been in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis by the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior established in 1957 for the purpose of publishing the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Johnston (1996) reports that it is indicated that applied behavior analysis has "operated under certain constraints" although there is a question of whether these constraints were "imposed by early traditions or by the contingencies under which applied researchers work." (p. 38) Johnston (1996) additionally reports that which is still not fully developed in behavior-analytic research "is what in other natural sciences is categorized as applied science." (p. 38)

Applied science is reported by Johnston (1996) to be defined as "experimental research that is connected to basic research through its experimental style and a basis in fundamental principles, directly driven by applied issues and problems, but not compromised by the practical imitations or the immediate service interests." (p. 38) According to Johnston (1996) the traditional idea of applied behavioral research appears to be undermining the greater agenda of behavior analysis research "by failing to adequately encourage this type of experimentation." (p. 38)

Reported as a strength of the conception of applied behavior-analytic research is the contribution it makes in the resolution of one of the longest and most complex dilemmas in the view and practice of applied behavior analysis. This problem is reported to have been identified by Birnbrauer (1979) as being the fact that applied research has been overly mixed with "research and service delivery interests in our applied literature, to the detriment of each." (Johnston, 1996, p. 42) In other words, there are ingrained conflicts that exist between what is required in applied research and how the findings of research are applied in the practical use of these findings.

Stated is that research makes a requirement of some "degree of experimental control" at least enough that lends a view on the link between the independent and dependent variables and the "price of control" is reported to be the "degree of artificiality in the experimental circumstances that would be required to investigate an applied issue." (Johnston, 1996, p. 43) However, the tradition view of applied behavior analysis is reported to…… [read more]

Review and Critique of the Dorito Effect Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dorito Effect

Mark Schatzker's The Dorito Effect: The Surprising Truth about Food and Flavor, published by Simon & Shuster in 2015, is described by the publisher as " A lively and important argument from an award-winning journalist proving that the key to reversing America's health crisis lies in the overlooked link between nutrition and flavor." The book posits that "we… [read more]

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