Study "Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays 1-55

123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Sustainability and Reviews the Implications Term Paper

… Whiteman (1999) describes how human behavior is influenced by a variety of communication media. She notes that companies and policy makers have increasingly turned to the deployment of spin doctors, i.e. propagandists, public relations experts, and marketers, to effectively project their message and market their side of the environmental debate. She voices concern that the messages of scientific experts can become overshadowed or manipulated. Whiteman therefore argues for the mobilization of marketing efforts among environmental scientists and academics. She makes the case for marketing for social and environmental change, which marketing shares the same fundamentals as the marketing of consumer packaged goods. Whiteman suggest the use of guerilla marketing tactics to promote a sustainability agenda.

The ability to advance sustainable human development is at least in part dependent on being able to set goals and track progress. The Global Footprint Network (2011) identifies two indicators that are useful for monitoring the human development initiative. The first indicator, ecological footprint data, reveal that given current population and available land area, an ecological footprint of less than 1.8 global hectares per person makes a country's resource demands globally replicable.

The other measurement, the United Nations' human development index (HDI) -- which measures a country's average achievements in the areas of health, knowledge, and standard of living -- tells us that an HDI higher than 0.8 is considered "high human development." Combining these two indicators produces clear minimum conditions for sustainable human development, and shows how much more progress needs to take place. In spite of growing commitments to sustainable development, most countries today do not meet both minimum requirements. As individuals, organizations, countries and regions work to advance sustainability and human development, decision makers need data and metrics to be able to set goals and track progress. Measures such as the ecological footprint and the HDI are critical to setting targets and managing development projects (Global Footprint Network, 2011).

Our investigation paper, Airlines Strict Policies: Beneficial or Not, also argues in favor of business sustainability. Even though many airlines have policies that frustrate and alienate customers, they cannot escape the very real limitations of customer satisfaction failures. As the competition for airline travel dollars gets fiercer, companies who cannot compete on the basis of providing a quality travel experience may well find themselves in a Darwinian selection quandary. This is an appropriate outcome, their customer-unfriendly service does not meet the requirements for a sustainable business model.

As for our outside research project, Putting Out The Fire, that project argues as well building a sustainable workforce. As our paper showed, there exists a considerable amount of data supporting the premise that firefighters who smoke are at higher risk of heart attack while performing the physically demanding duties that their jobs require. A no smoking policy by local fire departments clearly contributes to a sustainable workforce by increasing firefighter longevity. Based on the preponderance of data and readings that we surveyed, one can only conclude that efforts to promote sustainability at all levels are… [read more]

Redesign Package System for Covergirl Cosmetic Line Thesis

… Redesign Package System for CoverGirl Cosmetic Line

The CoverGirl Packages

Pollution and the threat of global warming are less and less perceived as a make believe phenomenon, as more and more people recognize the damages of man made activities onto… [read more]

Impact of Economics Development to Environmental in Canada Thesis

… ¶ … Economics Development to Environment in Canada

There is no doubt that economic development is vital for both developed as well as developing nations for the general improvement in the standard of living and for their citizens to achieve… [read more]

Oil Spill Thesis

… Oil Spills

In some form or another, whether it be from seepage, minor accident or outright oil spill, the entrance of oil into the natural environment is extremely problematic. It is a major form of pollution and one that is… [read more]

Environmental Governance Article Review

… Evans (2011) reflected these visions in his discussion of "adaptive governance" as humanity and environment's way of coping with the inevitable ecological changes happening to Earth and human societies now and will continue to happen in the following years. For Evans, Earth and humans will undergo a transformation reflective of the "complex adaptive systems," which undergo an adaptive cycle when a change happens. Adaptive governance will come in as humans will adapt to ecological changes on Earth, and will have to go through different processes consistent with the four phases of the adaptive cycle: r-phase -- stable systems/growth ( K-phase-close adaptation to the environment/conservation ( ( phase- rapid breakdown of the system/release ( ( phase- renewal/reorganization (184-5).

Levin et al.'s (2010) take on ecological sustainability and environmental governance reflects the institutionalist viewpoint, wherein dealing with the "wicked problem" of ecological sustainability requires the establishment of a higher social order that influences policy and social planning on environmental conservation at an international level (23). Voss and Kemp (2006) described the aspect of higher social order in influencing social planning and policy as an approach called "reflexive governance." This concept requires "symmetry of action" among the actors and players relevant to governance of institutions and systems that will survive or remain despite ecological changes (26).

From this current literature on ecological sustainability and environmental governance, all authors acknowledge that in the years to come, there will come a major change in the world that will affect all of humanity, despite a society or nation's sociopolitical power and cultural influence. What is apparent in the discussions of environmental governance is that humanity must be united in order to deal with this ecological change that will, without a doubt, happen. Humanity's way of coping with this change would be critical in the re-establishment of a new social order, this time significantly governed and influenced by environmental/ecological changes, shifts or movements.


Clapp and Dauvergne. (2011). "Paths to a green world? Four visions of a healthy global environment." (faxed material).

Evans, J.P. (2011). Environmental governance. London: Routledge.

Levine, K., B. Cashore, and S. Bernstein. (2010). "Playing it forward: Path dependency, progressive incrementalism, and the "super wicked" problem of global climate change." Paper presented in Climate change: Global risks, challenges and decisions congress, March 2009.

Voss, J. And R. Kemp.… [read more]

Ecological Imperialism and Marx's Capitalism Thesis


Imperialism is a well-understood concept and the mere mention of the word generates extreme sentiments of resentment and bitterness against certain nations of the world. When imperialism in politics was destroying the colonies, there was… [read more]

Striped Bass Recovery in the Hudson Term Paper

… Striped Bass

The Hudson River is the second largest estuary on the east coast, and is one of the largest spawning grounds for the striped bass. In the past, however, pollution in the Hudson had caused a drastic reduction in… [read more]

Apolitical Ecology Term Paper

… Who will win these scrimmages?

The stereotyping of oil companies as great friends of the environment is not a new effort nor will it be over anytime soon. But what matters is the political ecologist's ability to "trace the contextual forces that constrain and direct more immediate outcomes," and moreover the political ecologist must record fully objective explanations of the outcomes of the war between eco-activists, scholars, biologists and other scientists -- and the energy companies like Shell that plan to drill in the Arctic, where polar bears are making what appears to be their last stand as global warming melts the ice floes that they have relied on for eons.

Robbins doesn't say it, but radical protests like Greenpeace activists have recently pulled off (shutting down 74 Shell gasoline stations in England to protest drilling in the Arctic, which is believed to be harmful to the survival of the endangered polar bear) could be considered political ecology. No, political ecology is not a theory, and yes, it has deep roots in the environmental movement; but moreover, as Robbins writes on page 84, political ecology is "a kind of method, something that people do." What Greenpeace does is bring ecologically controversial issues to public attention, using techniques that are risky and provocative, but they also "defend" (a word Robbins uses on page 86 to describe political ecology) the… [read more]

Ecology it Is Important Essay

… Large hunting animals such as panthers and alligators are both well-known and adopted mascots of the state yet survive in such differing ecological environments. This type of biodiversity both has positive and negative impacts on the quality of the region.

The Human Impact on Florida's Ecosystem

The state of Florida draws many people to visit and lie due to its temperate climate and unique offerings in terms of human developments. The state of Florida grows in population every year and continues to grow larger and produce more of a human footprint on the ecosystem. There is a serious and perhaps mysterious human effect on the ecosystems of Florida.

Global warming is a general term and cannot be qualified as good or bad in many cases, but especially here in Florida. While massive deforestation has affected this state of the years the exact toll on the ecosystem is unknown. Humans have a tendency to destroy natural processes and implement their own version, but is this not nature at some level too?

The incredible and miraculous development of the environment is beyond human recognition and cannot be duplicated in the lab. Florida's ecosystem should be respected for its creative properties and nor viewed as something to be dominated or to compete with.

This region's ecosystem is to be enjoyed and used not protected and fenced off. This dilemma provides a problem for those interested in preserving environmental factors. Nature and ecosystems require death, destruction and change in order to preserve their survival. Humans to be aware of this and focus on how they can constructively contribute to the environment's destruction while promoting its growth simultaneously.

Works Cited

Environment Florida Website. Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from

Landscope America. "Ecosystems and Habitats in Florida." Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from [read more]

Extending Landscape Ecology Principles Essay

… Scientists need to have a larger spatial and temporal perspective in order to generate better solutions to the current high extinction rate of aquatic creatures. Landscape ecology, dealing with large scale and connectivity, is, they argue, beneficial for providing scientists with enhanced insights. Using the model of Isaac Schlosser and colleagues who, integrating landscape theory with aquatic context, suggested that fish movement synchronies physical and biotic systems in streams, Fausch et al. (2002) suggested that employment of this model may be used to propose a new approach for stream fish ecology and preservation. They propose five principles as a result for more effective research and conservation of stream fishes and, in short, show how integration of landscape ecology principles and applications into aquatic environments can help scientists in at least four areas. These are: (1) bettering the habitat for endangered and threatened species, (2) preventing invasions of a different kind (specially hostile) species, (3) managing the ecosystems to monitor pools of fishes for sport or commercial fishing and (4) addressing long-term and more immediate threats of climate change.

To be most effective in conserving fish and in preventing them from disappearing as rapidly as they are, researchers, scientists, biologists, conservation managers and anyone concerned with their maintenance would need to study them as their perspective of their scope and life history in which they function. To do so needs more of the bird's eye view with which we see their appearance. In fact, it needs integrating landscape theory with aquatic in order to address questions and structure and implement management strategies at a larger scope and design than had been done until now. Doing so will ensure that more stream fish, and a greater diversity of stream fish will be sustained for future generations.


Fausch, K., Torgerseon, C., Baxter, C., & Li, H. (2002)., Landscapes to Riverscapes:

Bridging the Gap between Research and Conservation of Stream… [read more]

Social Ecology of Health Term Paper

… As depicted in many developed nations, food production has increased because of the interventions that have been adopted through Green Revolution. In many developed nations, Green Revolution has resulted in increased food production. Together with food production, the environment has… [read more]

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Essay


Books -- For the library, the books should be more reference in focus since many materials become dated so easily. The books chosen should be well respected within the field and contribute to the needs of the organization:

1. Tri-part set: Texas Wildlife, Texas Birds, Texas Trees and Wildflowers -- Nature guides written by James Kavanagh; illustrated and laminated for field use. See:

2. Hodge, L. (2000). Official Guide to Texas Wildlife Management Areas. Austin: Texas Parks and Wildlife Press. Overview of Texas' 51 wildlife management areas including detailed descriptions and locator maps.

3. Kareiva, P. & Marvier, M. (2010). Conservation Science: Balancing the Needs of People and Nature. New York: Roberts and Company. More of a textbook, but an up-to-date reference on conservation science, particularly the role of balancing development with conservation principles.

4. Epstein, M., et al. (2008). Making Sustainability Work: Best Practices in Managing and Measuring Corporate Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts. London and San Francisco: Greenleaf Publishing Company. In recent years it has become obvious that there needs to be a balance between corporate development, environmental conservation, and governmental regulations. This would be an important reference book to help employees understand how managing sustainability requires all stakeholders working together.

5. Depending on budget, a selection of one or more of the Texas Natural History Guides. These include publications devoted to snakes, waterfowl, wildflowers, and more. It would be wise for the organization to stock as many of these as possible for reference materials. [read more]

How Ecology Is Important and Shapes Fashion Research Paper

… Ecology and Fashion

How ecology is important and shapes fashion

Ecology can be defined simply as the study of how people interact with their environment. It has been very important to us and many have considered it as part of… [read more]

Car Pollution and Environment Global Essay

… Moreover, it was also reported that the major contributor of air pollution is vehicles. It has been established by many medical researches that the emissions produced by the vehicles on the roads are responsible for making the heart and lung… [read more]

Environment the Humanity Has Experienced Case Study

… 2.

Environmental economics is the brainchild of the classical economy theory, suggesting that the best solution to everything in the society -- politics, social issues, environmental management -- is the market. Protecting the environment through market mechanisms, according to environmental… [read more]

Law Help Protect the Environment Research Paper

… Ultimately, too many other variables are involved in accomplishing the success of the legal policies and, as this review has shown, compliance with not only the latter of the law but also the spirit of the law, ultimately, rests on… [read more]

Ecology and Ecosystem Essay

… ECOLOGY and ECOSYSTEM -- Virginia Beach

The Hampton Roads area in the state of Virginia is particularly important because of the role it played from the colonization time and until the present day. The location is known to have a series of factors making it rather unique, such as the fact that the natural harbor it holds is ice-free all across the year. The harbor is very important in the larger context involving the country's security and economy. When concerning the ecosystem present in the coastal areas of Virginia, one can observe how it is particularly rich and assorted. There are apparently many endangered species in the territory, with the authorities in Virginia giving their best in order to protect the area.

The Hampton Roads ecosystem provides the world with one of the most important entertaining and profitable fishing-related activities. Standing between waters and coastal lands are beaches, wetlands, and marshes, all of them being responsible for protecting human-inhabited territories from the threat of various weather phenomena. Even with that, most of these natural barriers are endangered and it is essential for authorities to control the situation (Almond).

The harbor is one of the most important areas in Virginia, mainly because of the revenues it generates. This Hampton Roads region stands as an attraction for tourism and for people who want to move to area holding an assorted environment. The natural harbor, the Chesapeake Bay area, and the three important rivers in the territory cooperate in creating a very diverse natural ecology. The Atlantic Ocean's tidewaters have virtually shaped Hampton Beach's economy and have provided people with a great deal of job-opportunities (Koebel).

The Virginia Beach area experienced a rapid growth in population during the last three decades, as people have flowed into the territory attracted by its diversity and generally because they believed this was a good place to live in. Matters have changed in the recent years however, as individuals have expressed lesser interest in wanting to move to Virginia Beach and numerous people have actually moved out of the area. This is most probably because prices have gone up significantly and people can no longer afford to live in Virginia Beach. One could explain this increase in price through analyzing the people that lived in Hampton Beach when its activities were mainly related to defense strategies and shipping (Koebel).

At that time, most individuals in the territory were working for the army or for the port. However, as conditions have changed and a simple worker is unable to afford buying or holding… [read more]

Political Ecology Approach on Water Contamination in China Essay

… China Water

Political Ecology in the Developing World: The Problem of Clean Drinking Water in China

Environmental issues remain highly controversial and receive a lot of attention by today's media and today's politicians, with topics like global warming and the… [read more]

Energy Conservation: Mitigation Strategies and Solutions Thesis

… Energy Conservation: Mitigation Strategies and Solutions

In order to realize a savings in terms of the preservation of matters of the ecological environment then required is things of the nature of 'low impact' in terms of living solutions. One such… [read more]

Human Activity on the Environment in Iran Term Paper

… ¶ … Human Activity on the Environment in Iran

With a population of 71.4 million, the Islamic Republic of Iran is the most populous country in Central and South Asia and the 16th in the world, at the same time… [read more]

Greenbelts in Texas Research Paper

… ¶ … Greenbelts in Texas

Nations around the world have addressed growing concern about the problems associated with expansive development trends by creating a variety of policy tools designed to manage city development and safeguard open land (Khan 18). However,… [read more]

Effective Measures for Water Conservation Term Paper

… Positive consequences such as these use Social Marketing and immediate financial benefits calculated to outweigh the immediate inconveniences of conservation while convincing the population of immediate and future benefits of sustainability through water conservation.

Surveys after implementing those measures indicated that water consumption rose 1% and none of the State's nine water regions attained the 20% cut in water usage. Consequently, the State then also used negative psychology by instituting fines, guilt, shame, fear and the threat of even harsher measures in the future. Negative consequences of financial penalties, along with the emotions of guilt and shame for failing to adequately conserve water and fear of literally running out of water to motivate Californian's to increase their conservation efforts.

Technology has both aided and harmed the environment. Advances such as retrofitting to use recycled water instead of potable water and constant development of new devices for greater efficiency have positively impacted the environment. Meanwhile, fracking to recover natural gas and oil has created wastes that pollute ground water when injected into the ground. Consequently, technology has been both a boon and a bane to sustainability.

Finally, California's environmental policies have mixed results. Solely positive consequences were far less effective than desired when attempting to conserve water. Therefore, California added negative consequences to use the psychological impacts of monetary loss, fear, guilt shame and threats to compel citizens to conserve water. In addition, the policies unwisely gave exemptions to the highly-polluting oil and gas industry, now forcing California to take emergency measures. In sum, environmental policies should ideally be supported by positive consequences, negative consequences and cautiously given exemptions in order to be most effective.

Works Cited

Associated Press. (2014, July 16). California seeks to send message to water-wasters. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from Web site:

Lustgarten, A. (2014, July 18). California halts injection of fracking waste, warning it may be contaminating aquifers. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from Web site:

McCarty, J.A., & Shrum, L.J. (Spring 2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104.

State of California. (2014). California drought. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from Web site:

Steg, L., van den Berg, A.E., & de Groot,… [read more]

Batteries and the Environment Research Paper

… There is no arguing that regulations imposed in the United States have had several benefits to the environment and human health. However, even despite these efforts there are many sources of contamination that remain. One study collect fish from a contaminated wetland in Louisiana and studied the prevalence of eight heavy metals that were present (Tehounwou, Abdelghani, Pramar, Heyer, & Steward, 2011). The results indicate that subsistence fisherman would have the highest risk for systemic effects from the toxicity which greatly exceeded the EPA highest reference dose value. Furthermore, a roughly twenty pound child would also greatly exceed the reference dose value in both mercury and arsenic. There was also a substantially increased cancer risk associated with arsenic for the general population who eat the suggested maximum of 54 grams of fish per day.

There are also emerging concerns about batteries in the U.S. And in other industrialized nations. Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have become a popular option in various consumer electronic products because these batteries offer a combination of high energy density and product longevity. However, due to the small size of these batteries as well as the high rate of disposal of consumer products that they are most commonly found in, these too pose environmental risks. With li-ion batteries there is a lack of uniform regulatory policy that covers their appropriate disposal which means that lithium batteries can contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials that are included in them (Kang, Chen, & Ogunseitan, 2013).

Figure 3 - Toxic Metals in Li-ion Batteries (Kang, Chen, & Ogunseitan, 2013)

Conclusion and Recommendation

The disposal of batteries can led to negative consequences for human health. There are various types of batteries and most contain some form of a heavy metal that react with chemical electrolytes to produce the battery's power. When batteries are improperly disposed of they can release these metals into the environment and contaminate the land, air, and water supplies. Developing countries are absorbing very high levels of contamination from batteries because they have developed recycling centers there that do not have to operate under the same regulations that are found in industrialized countries. However, even with strict regulations, there are still many contamination issues to be found as well as emerging risks that have developed with emerging energy sources such as the lithium-ion batteries.

Works Cited

Battery University. (N.d.). What's the Best Battery. Retrieved from Battery University:

Bellis, M. (N.d.). What is a Nickel Cadmium Battery? Retrieved from Inventors:

Brian, M., Bryant, C., & Pumphrey, C. (N.d.). How Batteries Work. Retrieved from How Stuff Works: (N.d.). battery. Retrieved from

EPA. (2002, March). The Battery Act. Retrieved from EPA:

Greenpeace. (2004, November 30). The problem. Retrieved from Greenpeace:

Kang, D., Chen, M., & Ogunseitan, O. (2013). Potential Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries in Electronic Waste. Environmental Science & Technology, 5495-5503.

Malavika, C. (2004, June 24).… [read more]

Social Ecology of Health Term Paper

… For the reason of advanced treatment often goes after the secondary treatment, in some cases it is termed as tertiary treatment (aeration basins for removal of phosphorous or addition of chemicals to the primary sedimentation basins) or substitute for secondary treatment (overland treatment flow of the primary effluent) (Hayden 2009).

Adapting the process of activated sludge is in most cases for removal of phosphorous and nitrogen and a good example is this method is the treatment plan 23Ml/d that was commissioned in the year 1982, in British Columbia, Canada (1987 World Water). Wastewater from primary sedimentation basins flows to the biological reactor that is divided physical into five different zones by weirs and baffles. These zones include:

1. Zone aerobic fermentation (featured by low levels of dissolved oxygen and nitrates absence

2. Zone anoxic (low levels of dissolved oxygen and presence of nitrates)

3. Zone aerobic (aerated)

4. Secondary anoxic zone and

5. Final aeration zone

The purpose of the first zone is conditioning the group of bacteria responsible for the removal of phosphorous by stressing them under conditions of low oxidation-reduction, which gives an outcome of phosphorous release equilibrium in the bacteria's cell. On exposure that is subsequent to enough supply of phosphorous and oxygen in the zones that are aerated, these cells accumulate rapidly phosphorous in a considerable manner in excess for the required metabolic requirements. Phosphorous is evicted from the system together with the waste activated sludge (Hayden 2009).

The concept of synergism and how it impacts environmental health problems

Literature reviews for epidemiologic and toxicology literature on the impacts of synergism depicted some scant evidence of synergisms from being exposed to a variety of chemical agents. Furthermore, the examples in which every constituent made measurable impacts, examples were available which linked exposures caused effects that were measureable which were not on observation when the constituents were observed individually at the same doses. From among the combined exposures of synergism, the impacts were more popular less than additive, instead of greater than additive (Hayden 2009).

The pollution of air leads into similar impacts. For example, there are higher than additive effects to the pulmonary duty of guinea pigs from being exposed to particles of acid-coated zinc oxide sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ozone. On the other hand, additives have minimal impacts on the proliferation of rats' respiratory epithelium exposed to carbon particles, ammonium bi-sulphate, and O3 combined and given singly. It is not clear whether synergy of sulfuric acid and carbon particles on the respiratory duty to humans who are experimentally exposed; nevertheless, the elicit effects combination in some subjects with no response to either acid alone or carbon, which possibly suggested synergy (Stephens 2008).


Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning

Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning… [read more]

Landscapes Are Libraries Whose Information Is Ignored Research Paper

… ¶ … Landscapes are libraries whose information is ignored by most academics


Soil conservation is currently an essential concept in the field of environmentalism and it is important for the masses to gain a more complex understanding concerning the… [read more]

Forest Ecosystem Term Paper

… Forest Ecosystem

Sustainability and conservation of natural resources forest ecosystem

Forest ecosystems are areas dominated by trees and contain various natural resources these resources are important and hence have to be sustained and conserved. There are several management practices that can be applied in this ecosystem for the continued sustenance and conservation of these resources. An example of a management practice is the creation of forest protected areas. Conservation of the natural forest ecosystem is the reason for existence of protected forest areas. Protected forest area comprises of a wide variety of initiates for management of the natural resources that are found in the forest ecosystems. The protected areas have strict legal status meaning that the ecosystems are under the government and hence no one has the ability to exploit the natural resources in the ecosystems and hence they are conserved and sustained. However within the protected areas there is creation of buffer zones that will act as physical barriers to the protected areas which support the protected area and at the same time provide local people with benefits that will ensure that there is no encroachment of the protected areas. Another practice is forest management that incorporates the harvesting of forest products under a framework that ensures there is sustainable management which aims to conserve biodiversity and benefiting local people at the same time.

2) Renewable and non-renewable energy sources in forest ecosystem.

Energy sources from forest ecosystems can either be renewable or nonrenewable. The use of either energy resources has benefits and risks to the forest ecosystem. The forest ecosystem provides various nonrenewable energy sources. Nonrenewable energy resources will eventually be depleted over neither time, since they are nor renewable there is eventual need for development of sources that will meet the increasing energy demands. These include fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil that are from biological decomposition of organic matter that is dead found in the forest ecosystems. The use of these sources of energy has a disadvantage in that it can lead to pollution of water and air that can be harmful to animals and plants that are found in the forest ecosystem. The use of fossil fuel is… [read more]

Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Model Nursing Term Paper

… Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Model Nursing Theory

Comparing the Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Models

The first theory to be examined in this research is what is known as the Conservation Model, created by Myra Estrin Levine where she lived and practiced in Chicago and surrounding areas in Illinois. The model focuses on the implementation of nursing practices that caution conservation, and the moderate use of environmental resources in care strategies. Conservation is essentially the strategic control and use of resources in a tailored way that keeps the underlying patient in a more balanced state.

Conservation as a primary way to maintain a sense of balance with both practice and patient health. There is a strong underlying focus on influences of what could be causing issues, therefore incorporating an approach which examines all of the systems within the functioning organism as a whole. Adaptation directly stems form conservation and because adaptations are changes that lead to better health and well being, they are sought after within such a theoretical foundation. The environment can provide resources to allow for needs to be met within a holistic approach to nursing practice. This would essentially allow nurses to focus on more holistic approaches that are often not seen as an option for the scientific structure of Western medicine. Conservation facilitates wholeness. The theory presents the idea that there is an organic balance within a state of wholeness which constitutes a harmony between the working systems and facilitating health. The end goal of this nursing strategy is essentially reaching a state of homeostasis, where the external environment helps the body regain balance within the internal functioning of the human system. Conservation can thus be used as a strategy to keep the parts working… [read more]

Environmental Ethics and United States Term Paper

… Ignoring the political influence, EPA has been introducing reforms which have been effective in at least setting up minimum standards for the well-being of human health, animal and plants protection along with ecological balance. It has introduced and enforced various… [read more]

Gender and Environment Article Review

… In Paul Robbins' Chapter 4 material, the author explains that political ecology relates to nature, society and power. Nature is being plundered, society is suffering from that degradation, and the political power is not often on the side of the people. Political ecology is not theoretical but rather it is emerging as a "community of practice." That community is what Robbins calls "a constituency that holds a deep and abiding skepticism…of the institutions that manage the environment," and it is a community of instructors that teach classes on environment and development (Robbins, 85). Hence, it is a community very concerned about the natural world and it is engaged in a power struggle with entrenched political forces. Also, it is a community of committed individuals that "listens and argues," "criticizes and defends," and is determined to partner with others that are deeply concerned about the ongoing degradation of the ecology of the planet.

One appropriate question to ask in reference to this essay is this: Why are negative impacts to the environment dumped onto innocent, powerless communities in many cases? The answer is on page 87; the communities that suffer from negative impacts are often known to have "…inadequate political or financial resources to resist" the hazards foisted upon them. There are ways for communities and organizations to fight back to against oppressive ecological policies by governments and corporations, Robbins explains on page 98. This relates to my own life as well. People can always collect signatures, "…block traffic, start a community garden, test water quality, file lawsuits, boycott, teach, live," and moreover, people can build their own political ecologies by getting organized and making a statement (as I have with many environmental groups) that the media will be… [read more]

Ecology of Commerce Research Paper

… Ecology of Commerce

What is Sustainable Manufacturing?

Sustainable manufacturing is loosely defined as a business practice that takes into account the natural environment as part of its processes with an objective to have a minimal impact on the environment while… [read more]

Ecology of Commerce Journal

… ¶ … Hawkens (1992) tells us that business has generally been seen as the problem to the environment, and whilst that is true, business may also be a part of the solution.

At the moment, our present industrial economy is still in it beginning ecological stages where it is struggling to become something more sophisticated and substantial. In order to become so, Hawkens tell us, businesses will have to deal with and assess what they take (I..e input), what they make (I..e products / services), and what they waste. Chapter 2 deals with what businesses take. A business, like an organism, takes food and energy from the environment, but it consumes other renewable and non-renewable resources. It plunders the ecosystem in various ways. More so despite government regulations and attempts by activists, businesses have refused to face environmental issues and their responsibilities. Economic success is measured by growth and synonymous with that is plundering the environment.

Business, however, is, in reality, "an efficient form of human endeavor with so many positive attributes, that it is difficult to comprehend how it has become so destructive" (57). industry sees environmentalism as slowing down its growth, but the concepts of industrial ecology can help businesses realize that the reverse is the case. Industrial ecology states that industrial processes that harm and waste are generally less economical and more costly in the long run. A cheaper and more economical way for industry is to tailor manufacturing by-products so that the y become the raw material of later processes. In other words, for instance, one recycles waste into useful products.

Many companies indeed are beginning to recognize that "clean, less wasteful, more efficient manufacturing methods result in lower costs, greater savings, and increased productivity whilst enhancing workplace safety." (81).

In this way, competition need not entail destructing the environment in order to 'progress'. On he contrary, destructing the environment may prove economically costly to the industry too, and it may better succeed by practicing greater environmental concern.

Chapter 6 discusses the general Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) whose purpose has been to stimulate international trade by lowering tariffs and trade. Reading the small script of GATT, however, shows us that it does not encourage free trade as some might think and that it also threatens the global environment amongst other ills.

The government and private individuals have time and… [read more]

Keystone Species in Mid-1800's, Telegraphy Essay

… The relation between two individuals or organizations in any way whether professional or personal is all because of sustainment of information ecologies. Any sort of medium that is essential for the populace living today, and that is what makes it keystone ecologies.

This study sees social network tummlers as a kind of contemporary keystone species, updating Nardi and O'Day's figuration of individuals that help shape and diversify information ecologies.

The more diverse are the keystone ecologies the more will there be the chances that in case of extinction of one of the keystone ecology specie might replace it with keystone ecology.


Johnson, S. (2010). Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation. London: Penguins Books Ltd.

Keystone Species Hypothesis. (1996). Retrieved September 24, 2011, from

McNely, B. (2010) Exploring a Sustainable and Public Information Ecology, S.Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Nardi, B.A. And V.L. O'Day (2004) Information Ecologies. Chapter 4 in Information Ecologies: Using… [read more]

Phosphorus and Eutrophicaation of Aquatic Term Paper

… To total P. In surface waters, which varied from about 5 to 75. The LOWESS (a locally weighted regression) best fits for chlorophyll a concentrations in the various lakes were different functions for total P. And total N. LOWESS regression… [read more]

What Is Better for Environmental Protection Conservation Preservation or Both? Research Paper

… Conservation Preservation

Conservation and Preservation: An Emergent Compatibility

Prior to the introduction of major legislation concerning the environment, it had been a popularly accepted notion that our utilization of the earth would be subject to no limitations. Our manifold purposes,… [read more]

Conservation Biology Essay

… Conservation Biology

The objective of the study is to conduct a quantitative evaluation of the impact of oceanic currents on the migration trajectories of marine animals. This will then be used to project and investigate the consequences of existing tracking analysis.

To accomplish this, the method involved an analysis of the trajectory of an Argos-tracked female leatherback turtle. This trajectory spanned some 11,635 km. A combination of satellite and tracking technology was used to determine the trajectory and obtain results.

The results show a strong compass sense in leatherback turtle, as the observed specimen maintained a steady heading for a considerable part of her trajectory. Significantly, this would not be detectable without current correction. When completing the trajectory, the results show that almost half of the displacement observed was due to the current drift. The results indicate that further study and in-depth knowledge of the currents are required to understand the specific elements of the trajectory.


The study highlights several important issues in terms of conservation. One of these, in a very general sense, is the fact that knowledge should never be assumed to be either absolute or completely accurate. In order to continue the conservation effort from a scientific viewpoint, both qualitative and quantitative results are required.

The tracking of movements across the habitat is important in order to better understand the requirements of conserving such a habitat. Where trajectories are significant in size, like that of the leatherback turtle, the conservation effort should be particularly intensive, ensuring that the entire span of the trajectory is sustainable.

The study also highlights the importance of quantitative track analyses to obtain important and accurate data on conservation issues such as feeding ground locations, migration areas, and the frequency of traveling and foraging for specific species. Understanding the animal's movement… [read more]

Urban Ecology on the Ground Imitating and Implementing Success Thesis

… Urban Ecology on the Ground: Imitating and Implementing Success

Urban Ecology Advocacy in Miami

Actually implementing advocacy programs can be much harder than one would suppose. There is the question of funding, planning, and executing program details in order to… [read more]

Environment Background for Guinea Research Proposal

… Environment Background Guinea

The environment of Guinea has changed dramatically within the past few generations. According to research, "Centuries of slash-and-burn agriculture have caused forested areas to be replaced by savanna woodland, grassland, or brush," (Advameg 2009). Massive recent development of industries, such as mining, has devastated the natural landscape and created a whole new look for the country. Between 1981 and 1985, nearly 89,000 acres of land were cut down annually. Landscape also devastated by mining and the increase of hydroelectric facilities. Lost of average 1.14% of its forest annually in more recent years, between 1990 to 1995. This then presents a huge disadvantage for much of the local population who has relied on agriculture and therefore the land.

Thus, the environment contributes to the conflict in that it creates the context for poverty and dissent within local communities. All areas of the regions natural features has been negatively affected by exploitation; "Human encroachment and hunting have reduced Guinea's wildlife, especially its large mammals, and over fishing represents a threat to the nation's marine life," (Advameg 2009). Such depleted resources means poor local economies along based on lower numbers of the plentiful resource. Despite major profits from oil and… [read more]

Deep Ecology and Social Justice Research Proposal

… ¶ … Ecology

Source Title: "Historical Consequences of Deforestation: Easter Island"

Pollen analysis on Easter Island has provided a theory regarding the construction of the famous statues on the island that also explains how the society of the island natives… [read more]

Environmental Security Term Paper

… Environmental Security

The environment and its preservation for future generations has become one of the most important current issues not only in general society, but also in the political arena. As such, the issue has enjoyed attention from the highest… [read more]

Energy Conservation Process Basically Consists in Achieving Term Paper

… Energy conservation process basically consists in achieving the same results with smaller quantities of energy. Energy conservation has become a matter of extreme importance that is affecting life on Earth at all levels. This matter affects households, industrial consumers, and the state itself, in different ways. However, each of these affected parties tries to diminish energy consumption, for environmental purposes, for profit related purposes, or for energy policy purposes. The energy consumption distribution per sector in the United States is the following: transportation 28%, residential 21%, commercial 17%, and industrial 33%. As households are concerned, energy consumption distribution follows the following pattern: space conditioning 44%, water heating 13%, lighting 12%, refrigeration 8%, home electronics 6%, laundry appliances 5%, kitchen appliances 4%, and other uses 8% (DOE, 2007).

Energy consumption affects the environment and its components, in the first place. Scientists have revealed that the climate is "getting hotter due to people burning fossil fuels like oil, coal, and gas that emit heat-trapping, greenhouse gases into the atmosphere" (Dinsdale, 2007). As a result of temperature rising, ice sheets in the Antarctic will melt, the Gulf Stream current will stop transporting heat across the Atlantic, and other irreversible disasters will produce. This could further lead to soils shrinkage and increased erosion. Also, sea levels will rise, which will cause some land to be lost in favor of the sea. A deteriorated climate will obviously affect plants and animals, therefore, affecting farmers as well. The water cycle is very likely to be affected, increasing the risk of droughts, the risk of flooding, and water consumption. Human health could also be severely affected.

People are directly responsible for energy consumption and, therefore, for energy conservation. The human negative impact manifests through increased, and most of the times, useless energy consumption, which leads to terrible consequences, as mentioned above. This negative human impact can only be lessened by a positive one that is related to energy conservation. Energy conservation must be implemented by each regular individual by including this practice in one's lifestyle, by industrial consumers, and by the state through its energy policies and programs.

Energy conservation strategies are usually developed for each sector that consumes energy. In 1975, in the transportation sector the federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy program was implemented. As a consequence, fuel economy significantly improved. However, the program's benefits were somehow reduced after 1990, due to changes in individuals' auto vehicles preferences. Programs in the residential sector have not been as successful, since sizes of houses built in the United States are continuously increasing, as well as the central air conditioning percentage is. The commercial sector does not present any significant improvements related to energy conservation after the implementation of certain governmental programs. However, these programs have proven to be successful in the industrial sector, where… [read more]

Biodiversity and Conservation in the Tropics Term Paper

… Biodiversity and Conservation in the Tropics

Biodiversity and conservation have been difficult issues in the ecological field. This is not least so because of issues such as increasingly rapid species extinction and also the increasing human population and influence upon… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Social Economics and Political Term Paper

… Environmental Ethics and Morality

Ethics and Morality in Matters of the Planet and its Peoples

It is an awe-inspiring natural world that humans have evolved into and inherited. In it, through it, and notwithstanding its fragile underpinnings, for better or… [read more]

Ecology Can Be Loosed Term Paper

… Ecology can be loosed defined as the study of the distribution and abundance of living organism and such distributions are affected by interactions between organisms and their environment. The implicit reason that is included within environmental science is that ecology… [read more]

Animal Dreams: Real Life Reflections Term Paper

… John Chrysostom saying water "represents death and internment, but also life and resurrection. When we plunge our head beneath water and then emerge, our old selves are lost. We are cleansed, we rise anew" (p. 902). The future of our… [read more]

Pollution in the Environment Term Paper

… (pp: 1, 151)

Several researchers have termed the environment in which we live today as a 'risk society', and the reason for this is, according to them, the fact that we are today living in a world that is full… [read more]

Globalization and the Environment Term Paper

… Globalization and the Environment

This work in writing will examine and thoroughly analyze the impact that globalization has had on the environment of the world. "Global environmental problems are increasingly important because of their impact on industrial activities, infrastructures, ecosystems,… [read more]

Ecological Study Preservation and Conservation Term Paper

… The National Park Service adopted this idea in 1967. Policies of the National Park Service had allowed fishing but prevented hunting in the parks up until this time. John D. Rockefeller bought ranches border the Yellowstone Park in the 1930's and formed the Teton National Park. Hunting was not allowed on these ranches although hunting this area had been a regular for any hunters in the time preceding Rockefeller's purchases. The Elk rapidly reproduced and the populations of Elk became a problem. The Park Servicemen for lack of any other measures were routinely slaughtering Elk which infuriated the hungers.

IV. Effects of the Practices of Preservation and Conservation:

An Urban Ecosystem Analysis was performed of the New Orleans, Louisiana Metropolitan Area, by the American Forest Association. This study included portions of Jefferson, Orleans, and St. Bernard Parishes, in the building of a "green infrastructure" data layer for utilization in the community planning and development effort. The focus was gathering of reliable data concerning the region's canopy cover.

Findings of the study were that the tree canopy cover in the city was beneficial to the city that was so great that when put in financial terms it equaled $7.1 million dollars a year in benefits from the tree cover. Furthermore, findings were that stormwater management benefited the growth of the trees and all other vegetation in the area to a great extent. This certainly is one instance of man's involvement benefiting nature.


Although one may be able to present a good case for Natural Regulation in the environment the fact is that nature doesn't include within it process of natural regulation the allowances needed for the subsistence of mankind on the surface of the earth. The population of the earth has become of such great proportions that man's assistance to nature is a very necessary component and furthermore it has been proven to be effective in maintaining the biodiversity of the ecological system.

The New Conservationists: The Environmental Movement 1962-1974 [Online] available at:

National Forest Programme Ecosystem Conservation and Management [Online] available at:

Urban Ecosystem Analysis (2001) Analysis of New Orleans, Louisiana Metropolitan Area: Calculating the Value of Nature [Online] available at

National Forest Programme "Ecosystem Conservation and Management"

National Forest Programme "Ecosystem Conservation and Management"

Covering of the Tree Tops

This paper to be used for reference purposes only [read more]

Illinois Department of Conservation Police Term Paper

… In addition to all the above enforceable duties, the CPO is expected to also carry out various non-enforceable duties like giving voluntary speeches at meetings being held with the aim of preserving wildlife and forests and for their conservation, as… [read more]

Nature Is That Opposites Attract Term Paper

… When Adam came to know about the consequences of Eve's mistake he didn't trust God and quickly ate the fruit. This couple's behavior is reflected in all relationships among human beings, and between human beings and nature, etc.

Bible and Environmental Crisis

In Christianity, the environment issue is friendly. The Bible states that no one lives or dies to himself (Rom. 14:8), this means that there is interdependence among all living things and we live at the will of God.

The Protestant ethics is responsible for present practices of environmental exploitation. Since they believed that t humans could dominate and control the Earth (Gen. 1:28). Whereas the reality is that humanity can reproduce, with living beings and their environment, the same relations of care and love determined by Him during Creation. By telling Adam about the kind of work he would perform in Eden, God stated the first Environmental Protection Act (Gen. 2:15), which implied that there was to be a friendly relationship between humans and their Creator.

The ecological perception from the Bible's point-of-view is that life does not belong to a person, but to everyone. The basic purpose of Environmental studies and Ecology is to revive the original aspect of a perfect planet.

Jesus' warning about this sort of worldview is revealed in the parable of the disloyal steward, in which his master expects him to take care of the master' house and his servants (Luke 12:42-48). In a more decisive statement, Jesus advises us that there will come the time for Him to "destroy those who destroy the earth" (Rev. 1:18).

Ever since mankind and other living things were created, God laid out a special role for nature. He found the first school in the Garden of Eden, with live lessons before our first parents and was a source of instructions for them. God laid down that as the human family grew it should establish other homes and schools similar to the first founded by Him.

Jesus taught his disciples, within nature, to help them with the responsibilities they had to take up. He taught them next to the mountains, or the sea, in a boat, and even during walks.

Religiously, the best way of effectively handling the environmental issue if through proper integration of faith and studies and in accordance to what has been planned by God in Eden.

We can never handle environmental crisis in isolation from the plan God has made. We should hope for change and nature's salvation.


Laws of Nature [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, available at, accessed on: April 13, 2004

THE ECOLOGICAL CRISIS: Changing the paradigm, available at, accessed on: April 13, 2004 [read more]

Technology on the Environment Term Paper

… As Chiras etal argue (viz. 101, 111), wealthy and poor nations face very different choices in designing and implementing environmental policy. The far-seeing leaders of poorer countries understand just as well as the far-seeing leaders of wealthy countries that population growth must be limited, land set aside, pollution controlled. But poorer countries have far fewer choices because of their lesser political and economic power. Brazilian leaders and workers, for example, understand the environmental costs of open pit mines, but Brazil is also saddled with immense national debt. It does not have enough money to build up clean industry, and so its workers must struggle in mines (or in slash-and-burn agriculture) to struggle to make enough money to feed their families. First World citizens debate about whether they should drive SUVs - and then drive them anyway - while poorer nations try to deal with issues of cities with untreated sewage in the streets and citizens so poor that they will gladly kill an endangered animal if it means that their families may eat.

Poorer nations are dealing with the most acute environmental problems - severe water and air pollution, erosion, desertification, massive unplanned urbanization, high rates of population growth. Their governments try to meet these problems, but tend to do so in piecemeal fashion while the First World, with less severe problems (even as First World nations contribute far more to the greenhouse effect and global warming) have the political luxury of trying to create more holistic solutions.

One of the worst consequences of technological change on the planet has been the onset of global warming. Chiras etal's description of what we may have let ourselves in for should certainly make each one of us reconsider our own actions and those of our governments (Chiras etal 506-8).

Among the possible negative effects of global warming are large-scale die-offs of sea life as the oceans warm up to a point where many animals (adopted to cold waters) may die. One way to combat this consequence of global warming is to limit fishing now, which will help bring various marine populations up to a level that they may survive.

Another possible consequence is coastal flooding, which could devastate estuaries and other wetlands. Countries could build offshore walls (such as in hurricane zones) to help buffer these areas.

Famine is a possible outcome of global warming. A shift to a vegetarian diet by most or even all people (backed by governmental pressure) could limit the damage caused by (for example) less grain being produced because vegetarian diets are far more efficient than meat-based ones.

Global warming itself is a negative consequence - as animals and plants will suffer from increased temperatures. A commitment to alternative fuels for vehicles and buildings would help this problem - as would an immediate ban on SUVs.

If human technology has caused terrible damage to the environment, it may also do good. We can genetically modify species that can survive current environmental problems, turn to sources of energy… [read more]

Incentives to Conserve Marine Biodiversity Conservation Within the Framework of Impure Public Goods Term Paper

… Thus the problem with goods from which everyone benefits equally means that there is comparatively little incentive for persons who are not particularly passionate about the subject to engage in self-interested actions. This is also true of local communities which may have few resources and who might want to expend resources not on conservation, prevention of poaching, and maintaining homeostasis in the environment but upon improving the local economy. "Local people make the decisions concerning land use and resource exploitation. It is costly to enforce prohibitions against their chosen activities and so prohibitions often increase monitoring cost without conservation benefits" (Bulte, Van Kooten & Swanson 9). This is why environmental regulations often generate hostility. Also, often purely local restrictions do not show significant benefits because the problems are so large in scope, further generating resistance and inaction when there is an attempt to begin to regulate the improper treatment of marine species such as in the form of prohibiting overfishing or protecting endangered species.

According to Arrigada & Perrings (2011), a compounding problem regarding conservation efforts is called the technology of supply or how such goods and services are regulated. Rather than focusing on the demand for such goods alone, Arrigada and Perrings point out that the tools available to regulate such impure public goods may likewise inhibit conservation efforts that strive to maintain marine biodiversity. For example, additive technologies such as when habitats are being protected are dependent upon the characteristics of the environment -- the ability to protect the resource depends upon its inherent nature and the ability and willingness of the protective agency or government to expend those resources to do it (for example, creating seawalls to prevent beach erosion or refusing to allow wetlands to be uprooted in the name of development) (Arrigada & Perrings 799). In contrast, in the case of 'best shot' technologies, there is a need and an ability to shift the protective responsibilities to the provider who can most effectively regulate the issue (which may be country in greatest proximity to the habitat in question, in the case of the wetlands example). Finally, at times only the 'weakest link' provider is capable of providing protection, such as in the case of a developing world nation that is uniquely poised to engage in protective actions (Arrigada & Perrings 799). Obviously, this is the worst possible case scenario given that the weakest link provider has fewer resources and the lowest economic incentive to engage prioritize long-term environmental benefits and to ignore possible short-term economic gains.

Both positive and negative incentives exist to encourage compliance with environmental policies. Negative incentives include fines and even jail time for violating environmental dictates; positive incentives include tax credits and other financial and public relations rewards for individuals and organizations who comply with beneficial policies. On the international level, such positive incentives can also be provided in the form of loans and assistance to ensure that even weakest link nations have the resources to support policies that all environmentalists… [read more]

Central Park Reservoir Restoration Research Paper

… Restoration of Central Park Reservoir

The Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir is a 106-acres body of water located in the middle of Central Park and was completed in 1862. The reservoir holds one billion gallons of water and formerly distributed fresh… [read more]

Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment Research Paper

… In addition, it entails the assessment the alternatives available for preventing and reducing incidences of the emergence of contaminants. Epidemiological studies facilitate the success of the assessment process (Pruden et al. 2006).

Treatment and Removal Methods of the Emerging Contaminants… [read more]

Sustainable Infrastructure in 2007 Essay

… Sustainable Infrastructure

In 2007, Glasgow was selected to be the host to the 2014 Commonwealth Games. This is the largest sporting event ever to be held in Scotland and it is the opportunity for the city to showcase its unique… [read more]

Urban Drainage System Book Report

… Urban Drainage System


Human activity is the major cause of the surge in green house gas releases (IPCC 2007). These gases are a contributing factor to the climate change that has different implications in different regions.… [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.