"Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays

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Sustainability and Reviews the Implications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,257 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Whiteman (1999) describes how human behavior is influenced by a variety of communication media. She notes that companies and policy makers have increasingly turned to the deployment of spin doctors, i.e. propagandists, public relations experts, and marketers, to effectively project their message and market their side of the environmental debate. She voices concern that the messages of scientific experts can become overshadowed or manipulated. Whiteman therefore argues for the mobilization of marketing efforts among environmental scientists and academics. She makes the case for marketing for social and environmental change, which marketing shares the same fundamentals as the marketing of consumer packaged goods. Whiteman suggest the use of guerilla marketing tactics to promote a sustainability agenda.

The ability to advance sustainable human development is at least in part dependent on being able to set goals and track progress. The Global Footprint Network (2011) identifies two indicators that are useful for monitoring the human development initiative. The first indicator, ecological footprint data, reveal that given current population and available land area, an ecological footprint of less than 1.8 global hectares per person makes a country's resource demands globally replicable.

The other measurement, the United Nations' human development index (HDI) -- which measures a country's average achievements in the areas of health, knowledge, and standard of living -- tells us that an HDI higher than 0.8 is considered "high human development." Combining these two indicators produces clear minimum conditions for sustainable human development, and shows how much more progress needs to take place. In spite of growing commitments to sustainable development, most countries today do not meet both minimum requirements. As individuals, organizations, countries and regions work to advance sustainability and human development, decision makers need data and metrics to be able to set goals and track progress. Measures such as the ecological footprint and the HDI are critical to setting targets and managing development projects (Global Footprint Network, 2011).

Our investigation paper, Airlines Strict Policies: Beneficial or Not, also argues in favor of business sustainability. Even though many airlines have policies that frustrate and alienate customers, they cannot escape the very real limitations of customer satisfaction failures. As the competition for airline travel dollars gets fiercer, companies who cannot compete on the basis of providing a quality travel experience may well find themselves in a Darwinian selection quandary. This is an appropriate outcome, their customer-unfriendly service does not meet the requirements for a sustainable business model.

As for our outside research project, Putting Out The Fire, that project argues as well building a sustainable workforce. As our paper showed, there exists a considerable amount of data supporting the premise that firefighters who smoke are at higher risk of heart attack while performing the physically demanding duties that their jobs require. A no smoking policy by local fire departments clearly contributes to a sustainable workforce by increasing firefighter longevity. Based on the preponderance of data and readings that we surveyed, one can only conclude that efforts to promote sustainability at all levels are… [read more]

Redesign Package System for Covergirl Cosmetic Line Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,534 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Redesign Package System for CoverGirl Cosmetic Line

The CoverGirl Packages

Pollution and the threat of global warming are less and less perceived as a make believe phenomenon, as more and more people recognize the damages of man made activities onto the natural environment. These hurtful activities include everything from forgetting to turn off the light in the bathroom or driving… [read more]

Impact of Economics Development to Environmental in Canada Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,246 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … Economics Development to Environment in Canada

There is no doubt that economic development is vital for both developed as well as developing nations for the general improvement in the standard of living and for their citizens to achieve their complete human potential. Economic development is a dire necessity for the financial well-being and economic stability of Canada. It… [read more]

Oil Spill Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,007 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Oil Spills

In some form or another, whether it be from seepage, minor accident or outright oil spill, the entrance of oil into the natural environment is extremely problematic. It is a major form of pollution and one that is more common than most people realize. Though major oil spill disasters such as the famous American example of the Exxon Valdez and the more recent disaster in the San Francisco Bay tend to suggest that the oil spill is a terrible but rare occurrence, it is instead fair to say that the violation of our natural habitats by the presence of oil is an all too common reality. One of the biggest considerations on this subject is the relationship between the amount of oil that Americans consume and the heightened danger that is created for some type of accident or an ongoing exposure of the environment to the toxin in question. The fact that it is necessary for our waterways to be constantly consumed by this usage has placed in peril our environment, our wildlife, our primary sources of water and our own health and safety. This is the problem at the basis of the thesis argument of this research, that oil spills are a terrible ecological hazard which justify such dramatic resolutions as the establishment of a global ship safety standard for qualifications to haul oil and, even more aggressively important, to find ways to reduce America's dependency of fossil fuel and foreign oil.

The November 2007 tanker spill in the San Francisco Bay will serve as the primary case example in this study given its recent impact and its occurrence in an area marked for its diversity of species, its aesthetic beauty and its popularity for recreation. Here, we are given a perfect example of many of the aspects of the oil shipping industry which are problematic. Particularly, there is evidence in reflection of the disaster that a number of aspects of federal management had failed, even in addition to the preventative steps which should have been taken. In the instance of a major oil spill, the "EPA is the lead federal response agency for oil spills occurring in inland waters, and the U.S. Coast Guard is the lead response agency for spills in coastal waters and deepwater ports." (USEPA, 1) in the case of the San Francisco disaster, the U.S. Coast Guard is said to have initially reported a 'minor' oil spill of no more than 150 gallons of crude fuel released into the water. (Tanner, 1) When that number was later corrected and said to be over 58,000 gallons, not only had the scope of the incident become clearer, but the degree to which government incompetence and no small degree of elusiveness with regard to the substance of oil, California and San Francisco official spoke with anger about the Coast Guard, noting that this originally grossly underestimated report on the extent of the spill had been intended to disguise the enormity of the ecological crisis which… [read more]

Environmental Governance Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Evans (2011) reflected these visions in his discussion of "adaptive governance" as humanity and environment's way of coping with the inevitable ecological changes happening to Earth and human societies now and will continue to happen in the following years. For Evans, Earth and humans will undergo a transformation reflective of the "complex adaptive systems," which undergo an adaptive cycle when a change happens. Adaptive governance will come in as humans will adapt to ecological changes on Earth, and will have to go through different processes consistent with the four phases of the adaptive cycle: r-phase -- stable systems/growth ( K-phase-close adaptation to the environment/conservation ( ( phase- rapid breakdown of the system/release ( ( phase- renewal/reorganization (184-5).

Levin et al.'s (2010) take on ecological sustainability and environmental governance reflects the institutionalist viewpoint, wherein dealing with the "wicked problem" of ecological sustainability requires the establishment of a higher social order that influences policy and social planning on environmental conservation at an international level (23). Voss and Kemp (2006) described the aspect of higher social order in influencing social planning and policy as an approach called "reflexive governance." This concept requires "symmetry of action" among the actors and players relevant to governance of institutions and systems that will survive or remain despite ecological changes (26).

From this current literature on ecological sustainability and environmental governance, all authors acknowledge that in the years to come, there will come a major change in the world that will affect all of humanity, despite a society or nation's sociopolitical power and cultural influence. What is apparent in the discussions of environmental governance is that humanity must be united in order to deal with this ecological change that will, without a doubt, happen. Humanity's way of coping with this change would be critical in the re-establishment of a new social order, this time significantly governed and influenced by environmental/ecological changes, shifts or movements.


Clapp and Dauvergne. (2011). "Paths to a green world? Four visions of a healthy global environment." (faxed material).

Evans, J.P. (2011). Environmental governance. London: Routledge.

Levine, K., B. Cashore, and S. Bernstein. (2010). "Playing it forward: Path dependency, progressive incrementalism, and the "super wicked" problem of global climate change." Paper presented in Climate change: Global risks, challenges and decisions congress, March 2009.

Voss, J. And R. Kemp.…… [read more]

Ecological Imperialism and Marx's Capitalism Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,157 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Imperialism is a well-understood concept and the mere mention of the word generates extreme sentiments of resentment and bitterness against certain nations of the world. When imperialism in politics was destroying the colonies, there was another phenomenon at work, which had also been working hand in hand. It was called ecological imperialism where entire ecologies of colonies were changed because of imperial influences. Alfred W. Crosby first brought this forward in 1986 in his book Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. In this book, he presented his thesis that imperialism did not only change the political and social structures of colonies but also affected their ecological systems as rest of the world was colonized. These colonies served as main hub of crop exports for Europe and Crosby calls them Neo-Europes. These regions suffered immensely as imperialist rulers gradually destroyed their environment advertently or inadvertently. This resulted in many environmental issues such as Eastern Canada experienced a serious decline in its water tables. Crosby makes a very strong case against imperialism while highlighting its "a biological, an ecological component," saying that 'ecological imperialism' was used as just another means of stamping authority on colonies. This was as critical to the success of European rulers as any political tool. This could allow them a feeling of "superiority in arms, organization, and fanaticism" (Crosby: 7).

While Crosby did not bring in the capitalist view and neither did he try to connect the biological side with the political, the fact remains that ecological imperialism worked in the same way as capitalism did. According to Marx's argument against capitalism, it was a force that treated laborers as machines and did not give them the value they deserved. This degradation of work leads to degradation of environment and ecology. A very good example of this would be the massive physical changes we have witnessed in earth's surface over the years. The ozone layer depletion is the case in point. It is not due to increased population or any other factor but mainly due to capitalism that ecology has suffered seriously. It is not only the large number of workers alone but their concentration in small areas which is the real cause of environmental damage. Marx thus argued, "But with the development of industry the proletariat not only increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength grows, and it feels that strength more" (Manifesto, 480).

Capitalism has always taken great pride in the fact that it allows greater mobility of labor and other resources. However what it fails to understand is that robbing one nation of its resources with this mobility leads to serious ecological damage to that country. When labor and resources move from East to West, does it not affect the Eastern countries in any manner? Of course it does. Their resources are depleting rapidly, brain drain is a serious problem and their concentration in particular areas in foreign countries is also resulting in serious… [read more]

Striped Bass Recovery in the Hudson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,759 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Striped Bass

The Hudson River is the second largest estuary on the east coast, and is one of the largest spawning grounds for the striped bass. In the past, however, pollution in the Hudson had caused a drastic reduction in spawning area, and a severe reduction in the number of striped bass within the river. Recently, the Hudson has experienced… [read more]

Apolitical Ecology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,734 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Who will win these scrimmages?

The stereotyping of oil companies as great friends of the environment is not a new effort nor will it be over anytime soon. But what matters is the political ecologist's ability to "trace the contextual forces that constrain and direct more immediate outcomes," and moreover the political ecologist must record fully objective explanations of the outcomes of the war between eco-activists, scholars, biologists and other scientists -- and the energy companies like Shell that plan to drill in the Arctic, where polar bears are making what appears to be their last stand as global warming melts the ice floes that they have relied on for eons.

Robbins doesn't say it, but radical protests like Greenpeace activists have recently pulled off (shutting down 74 Shell gasoline stations in England to protest drilling in the Arctic, which is believed to be harmful to the survival of the endangered polar bear) could be considered political ecology. No, political ecology is not a theory, and yes, it has deep roots in the environmental movement; but moreover, as Robbins writes on page 84, political ecology is "a kind of method, something that people do." What Greenpeace does is bring ecologically controversial issues to public attention, using techniques that are risky and provocative, but they also "defend" (a word Robbins uses on page 86 to describe political ecology) the…… [read more]

Ecology it Is Important Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Large hunting animals such as panthers and alligators are both well-known and adopted mascots of the state yet survive in such differing ecological environments. This type of biodiversity both has positive and negative impacts on the quality of the region.

The Human Impact on Florida's Ecosystem

The state of Florida draws many people to visit and lie due to its temperate climate and unique offerings in terms of human developments. The state of Florida grows in population every year and continues to grow larger and produce more of a human footprint on the ecosystem. There is a serious and perhaps mysterious human effect on the ecosystems of Florida.

Global warming is a general term and cannot be qualified as good or bad in many cases, but especially here in Florida. While massive deforestation has affected this state of the years the exact toll on the ecosystem is unknown. Humans have a tendency to destroy natural processes and implement their own version, but is this not nature at some level too?

The incredible and miraculous development of the environment is beyond human recognition and cannot be duplicated in the lab. Florida's ecosystem should be respected for its creative properties and nor viewed as something to be dominated or to compete with.

This region's ecosystem is to be enjoyed and used not protected and fenced off. This dilemma provides a problem for those interested in preserving environmental factors. Nature and ecosystems require death, destruction and change in order to preserve their survival. Humans to be aware of this and focus on how they can constructively contribute to the environment's destruction while promoting its growth simultaneously.

Works Cited

Environment Florida Website. Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.environmentflorida.org/

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/

Landscope America. "Ecosystems and Habitats in Florida." Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.landscope.org/florida/ecosystems/… [read more]

Extending Landscape Ecology Principles Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Scientists need to have a larger spatial and temporal perspective in order to generate better solutions to the current high extinction rate of aquatic creatures. Landscape ecology, dealing with large scale and connectivity, is, they argue, beneficial for providing scientists with enhanced insights. Using the model of Isaac Schlosser and colleagues who, integrating landscape theory with aquatic context, suggested that fish movement synchronies physical and biotic systems in streams, Fausch et al. (2002) suggested that employment of this model may be used to propose a new approach for stream fish ecology and preservation. They propose five principles as a result for more effective research and conservation of stream fishes and, in short, show how integration of landscape ecology principles and applications into aquatic environments can help scientists in at least four areas. These are: (1) bettering the habitat for endangered and threatened species, (2) preventing invasions of a different kind (specially hostile) species, (3) managing the ecosystems to monitor pools of fishes for sport or commercial fishing and (4) addressing long-term and more immediate threats of climate change.

To be most effective in conserving fish and in preventing them from disappearing as rapidly as they are, researchers, scientists, biologists, conservation managers and anyone concerned with their maintenance would need to study them as their perspective of their scope and life history in which they function. To do so needs more of the bird's eye view with which we see their appearance. In fact, it needs integrating landscape theory with aquatic in order to address questions and structure and implement management strategies at a larger scope and design than had been done until now. Doing so will ensure that more stream fish, and a greater diversity of stream fish will be sustained for future generations.


Fausch, K., Torgerseon, C., Baxter, C., & Li, H. (2002)., Landscapes to Riverscapes:

Bridging the Gap between Research and Conservation of Stream…… [read more]

Social Ecology of Health Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


As depicted in many developed nations, food production has increased because of the interventions that have been adopted through Green Revolution. In many developed nations, Green Revolution has resulted in increased food production. Together with food production, the environment has been sustained except through manufacturing sectors. Food production, being the main intention behind Green Revolution, has been boosted globally food… [read more]

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Books -- For the library, the books should be more reference in focus since many materials become dated so easily. The books chosen should be well respected within the field and contribute to the needs of the organization:

1. Tri-part set: Texas Wildlife, Texas Birds, Texas Trees and Wildflowers -- Nature guides written by James Kavanagh; illustrated and laminated for field use. See: http://www.amazon.com/Texas-Wildlife-Introduction-Familiar-Species/dp/1583552545/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1381005255&sr=1-2&keywords=texas+wildlife

2. Hodge, L. (2000). Official Guide to Texas Wildlife Management Areas. Austin: Texas Parks and Wildlife Press. Overview of Texas' 51 wildlife management areas including detailed descriptions and locator maps.

3. Kareiva, P. & Marvier, M. (2010). Conservation Science: Balancing the Needs of People and Nature. New York: Roberts and Company. More of a textbook, but an up-to-date reference on conservation science, particularly the role of balancing development with conservation principles.

4. Epstein, M., et al. (2008). Making Sustainability Work: Best Practices in Managing and Measuring Corporate Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts. London and San Francisco: Greenleaf Publishing Company. In recent years it has become obvious that there needs to be a balance between corporate development, environmental conservation, and governmental regulations. This would be an important reference book to help employees understand how managing sustainability requires all stakeholders working together.

5. Depending on budget, a selection of one or more of the Texas Natural History Guides. These include publications devoted to snakes, waterfowl, wildflowers, and more. It would be wise for the organization to stock as many of these as possible for reference materials. http://utpress.utexas.edu/index.php/books/series/series/Texas-Natural-History-Guides%E2%84%A2… [read more]

How Ecology Is Important and Shapes Fashion Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,413 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Ecology and Fashion

How ecology is important and shapes fashion

Ecology can be defined simply as the study of how people interact with their environment. It has been very important to us and many have considered it as part of their lives in order to secure their future and provide better life. However, a number of people still do not… [read more]

Car Pollution and Environment Global Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Moreover, it was also reported that the major contributor of air pollution is vehicles. It has been established by many medical researches that the emissions produced by the vehicles on the roads are responsible for making the heart and lung diseases worse for the people. Those who are suffering from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema or any other disease… [read more]

Environment the Humanity Has Experienced Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,120 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Environmental economics is the brainchild of the classical economy theory, suggesting that the best solution to everything in the society -- politics, social issues, environmental management -- is the market. Protecting the environment through market mechanisms, according to environmental economics, is the best way of preserving it. Proponents of environmental economics focus on environmental pollution and depletion of natural resources. Environmental economists try to address these problems by pricing environmental goods, services, and risks with a monetary value. They mostly place a monetary value by surveying the population on how much they are willing to pay for certain environmental goods, services, and risks. Environmental economics also favor taxes rather than other punitive or preventive policies in protecting the environment.

There are fundamental problems with the foundation of environmental economics. There are too many things in the environment that cannot be measured in money. Setting prices for certain environmental goods, services, and risks is ultimately misleading and dangerous. Risks of climate change in the Arctic regions -- or the planet itself, for that matter -- cannot be measured in monetary values. Business activities may inflict irreparable damage to the environment or lead to numerous health problems if not pursued with ecological consciousness. Measuring these items in money only, especially based on how much people are willing to pay, is very problematic. Ultimately, environmental economics is concerned with economics first and the environment second, i.e. environmental economists are willing to sacrifice the environment for good economics.

The better approach to preserving the natural environment therefore is ecological economics. Ecological economics is a more recent development, established in mid-1980s and draws from numerous ecological concepts. It suggests that markets should learn from and emulate the functioning of the natural ecology. An example of an ecological circular functioning the market can learn from is the assimilative capacity of the environment -- its ability to treat and absorb harmlessly a certain level of polluting waste.

The market economy, ecological economists argue, can embrace the law of the thermodynamics -- that is, a circular economy in which waste products become the input into new production processes. The market economy, on the contrary, today operates based on a principle of profit maximization. For example, many people today prefer dumping recyclable products that contain toxic materials into landfills rather than reuse or repair them. And many businesses that produce goods operate in such a manner that recycling is not profitable; so they package products in such a way that they cannot be reused. People buy more, allowing producers to earn more, but this seemingly profitable way of running businesses has hidden costs that may turn out to be too costly for humans and the planet in the long run. Environmental economics in this case would try to measure the costs of profit maximization and the environmental damage in monetary values. And if the balance sheet of their cost comparison favors profit maximization, they would be willing to continue the current economic system, while ecological economists would challenge… [read more]

Law Help Protect the Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,725 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


Ultimately, too many other variables are involved in accomplishing the success of the legal policies and, as this review has shown, compliance with not only the latter of the law but also the spirit of the law, ultimately, rests on motivation of businesses and citizens to cooperate in protecting the environment. How this can be done will be addressed in… [read more]

Ecology and Ecosystem Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (851 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


ECOLOGY and ECOSYSTEM -- Virginia Beach

The Hampton Roads area in the state of Virginia is particularly important because of the role it played from the colonization time and until the present day. The location is known to have a series of factors making it rather unique, such as the fact that the natural harbor it holds is ice-free all across the year. The harbor is very important in the larger context involving the country's security and economy. When concerning the ecosystem present in the coastal areas of Virginia, one can observe how it is particularly rich and assorted. There are apparently many endangered species in the territory, with the authorities in Virginia giving their best in order to protect the area.

The Hampton Roads ecosystem provides the world with one of the most important entertaining and profitable fishing-related activities. Standing between waters and coastal lands are beaches, wetlands, and marshes, all of them being responsible for protecting human-inhabited territories from the threat of various weather phenomena. Even with that, most of these natural barriers are endangered and it is essential for authorities to control the situation (Almond).

The harbor is one of the most important areas in Virginia, mainly because of the revenues it generates. This Hampton Roads region stands as an attraction for tourism and for people who want to move to area holding an assorted environment. The natural harbor, the Chesapeake Bay area, and the three important rivers in the territory cooperate in creating a very diverse natural ecology. The Atlantic Ocean's tidewaters have virtually shaped Hampton Beach's economy and have provided people with a great deal of job-opportunities (Koebel).

The Virginia Beach area experienced a rapid growth in population during the last three decades, as people have flowed into the territory attracted by its diversity and generally because they believed this was a good place to live in. Matters have changed in the recent years however, as individuals have expressed lesser interest in wanting to move to Virginia Beach and numerous people have actually moved out of the area. This is most probably because prices have gone up significantly and people can no longer afford to live in Virginia Beach. One could explain this increase in price through analyzing the people that lived in Hampton Beach when its activities were mainly related to defense strategies and shipping (Koebel).

At that time, most individuals in the territory were working for the army or for the port. However, as conditions have changed and a simple worker is unable to afford buying or holding…… [read more]

Political Ecology Approach on Water Contamination in China Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


China Water

Political Ecology in the Developing World: The Problem of Clean Drinking Water in China

Environmental issues remain highly controversial and receive a lot of attention by today's media and today's politicians, with topics like global warming and the latest corporate environmental disaster -- whether it is oil gushing into the Gulf of Mexico or some toxic cloud spewing… [read more]

Energy Conservation: Mitigation Strategies and Solutions Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,216 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Energy Conservation: Mitigation Strategies and Solutions

In order to realize a savings in terms of the preservation of matters of the ecological environment then required is things of the nature of 'low impact' in terms of living solutions. One such 'low impact' solution is related in an article that relates an initiative of: "Ecological Preservation at the Heart of Dynamic… [read more]

Human Activity on the Environment in Iran Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,487 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Human Activity on the Environment in Iran

With a population of 71.4 million, the Islamic Republic of Iran is the most populous country in Central and South Asia and the 16th in the world, at the same time the second largest economy in the region with a Gross Domestic Product of U.S.$110 billion (UNICEF 2005). Iran is also… [read more]

Greenbelts in Texas Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Greenbelts in Texas

Nations around the world have addressed growing concern about the problems associated with expansive development trends by creating a variety of policy tools designed to manage city development and safeguard open land (Khan 18). However, the potency of these policies is often criticized. Effective and innovative policies will be required to control the trend of… [read more]

Effective Measures for Water Conservation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,909 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Positive consequences such as these use Social Marketing and immediate financial benefits calculated to outweigh the immediate inconveniences of conservation while convincing the population of immediate and future benefits of sustainability through water conservation.

Surveys after implementing those measures indicated that water consumption rose 1% and none of the State's nine water regions attained the 20% cut in water usage. Consequently, the State then also used negative psychology by instituting fines, guilt, shame, fear and the threat of even harsher measures in the future. Negative consequences of financial penalties, along with the emotions of guilt and shame for failing to adequately conserve water and fear of literally running out of water to motivate Californian's to increase their conservation efforts.

Technology has both aided and harmed the environment. Advances such as retrofitting to use recycled water instead of potable water and constant development of new devices for greater efficiency have positively impacted the environment. Meanwhile, fracking to recover natural gas and oil has created wastes that pollute ground water when injected into the ground. Consequently, technology has been both a boon and a bane to sustainability.

Finally, California's environmental policies have mixed results. Solely positive consequences were far less effective than desired when attempting to conserve water. Therefore, California added negative consequences to use the psychological impacts of monetary loss, fear, guilt shame and threats to compel citizens to conserve water. In addition, the policies unwisely gave exemptions to the highly-polluting oil and gas industry, now forcing California to take emergency measures. In sum, environmental policies should ideally be supported by positive consequences, negative consequences and cautiously given exemptions in order to be most effective.

Works Cited

Associated Press. (2014, July 16). California seeks to send message to water-wasters. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from sacramento.cbslocal.com Web site: http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2014/07/16/california-seeks-to-send-message-to-water-wasters/

Lustgarten, A. (2014, July 18). California halts injection of fracking waste, warning it may be contaminating aquifers. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from www.propublica.org Web site: http://www.propublica.org/article/ca-halts-injection-fracking-waste-warning-may-be-contaminating-aquifers

McCarty, J.A., & Shrum, L.J. (Spring 2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104.

State of California. (2014). California drought. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from ca.gov Web site: http://ca.gov/drought/

Steg, L., van den Berg, A.E., & de Groot,…… [read more]

Batteries and the Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,156 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


There is no arguing that regulations imposed in the United States have had several benefits to the environment and human health. However, even despite these efforts there are many sources of contamination that remain. One study collect fish from a contaminated wetland in Louisiana and studied the prevalence of eight heavy metals that were present (Tehounwou, Abdelghani, Pramar, Heyer, & Steward, 2011). The results indicate that subsistence fisherman would have the highest risk for systemic effects from the toxicity which greatly exceeded the EPA highest reference dose value. Furthermore, a roughly twenty pound child would also greatly exceed the reference dose value in both mercury and arsenic. There was also a substantially increased cancer risk associated with arsenic for the general population who eat the suggested maximum of 54 grams of fish per day.

There are also emerging concerns about batteries in the U.S. And in other industrialized nations. Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have become a popular option in various consumer electronic products because these batteries offer a combination of high energy density and product longevity. However, due to the small size of these batteries as well as the high rate of disposal of consumer products that they are most commonly found in, these too pose environmental risks. With li-ion batteries there is a lack of uniform regulatory policy that covers their appropriate disposal which means that lithium batteries can contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials that are included in them (Kang, Chen, & Ogunseitan, 2013).

Figure 3 - Toxic Metals in Li-ion Batteries (Kang, Chen, & Ogunseitan, 2013)

Conclusion and Recommendation

The disposal of batteries can led to negative consequences for human health. There are various types of batteries and most contain some form of a heavy metal that react with chemical electrolytes to produce the battery's power. When batteries are improperly disposed of they can release these metals into the environment and contaminate the land, air, and water supplies. Developing countries are absorbing very high levels of contamination from batteries because they have developed recycling centers there that do not have to operate under the same regulations that are found in industrialized countries. However, even with strict regulations, there are still many contamination issues to be found as well as emerging risks that have developed with emerging energy sources such as the lithium-ion batteries.

Works Cited

Battery University. (N.d.). What's the Best Battery. Retrieved from Battery University: http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/whats_the_best_battery

Bellis, M. (N.d.). What is a Nickel Cadmium Battery? Retrieved from Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/od/bstartinventions/ss/How-A-Battery-Works_2.htm

Brian, M., Bryant, C., & Pumphrey, C. (N.d.). How Batteries Work. Retrieved from How Stuff Works: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/everyday-tech/battery3.htm

Dictionary.com. (N.d.). battery. Retrieved from Dictionary.com: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/battery

EPA. (2002, March). The Battery Act. Retrieved from EPA: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/newsletters/civil/enfalert/battery.pdf

Greenpeace. (2004, November 30). The problem. Retrieved from Greenpeace: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/toxics/incineration/the-problem/

Kang, D., Chen, M., & Ogunseitan, O. (2013). Potential Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries in Electronic Waste. Environmental Science & Technology, 5495-5503.

Malavika, C. (2004, June 24).… [read more]

Social Ecology of Health Term Paper

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For the reason of advanced treatment often goes after the secondary treatment, in some cases it is termed as tertiary treatment (aeration basins for removal of phosphorous or addition of chemicals to the primary sedimentation basins) or substitute for secondary treatment (overland treatment flow of the primary effluent) (Hayden 2009).

Adapting the process of activated sludge is in most cases for removal of phosphorous and nitrogen and a good example is this method is the treatment plan 23Ml/d that was commissioned in the year 1982, in British Columbia, Canada (1987 World Water). Wastewater from primary sedimentation basins flows to the biological reactor that is divided physical into five different zones by weirs and baffles. These zones include:

1. Zone aerobic fermentation (featured by low levels of dissolved oxygen and nitrates absence

2. Zone anoxic (low levels of dissolved oxygen and presence of nitrates)

3. Zone aerobic (aerated)

4. Secondary anoxic zone and

5. Final aeration zone

The purpose of the first zone is conditioning the group of bacteria responsible for the removal of phosphorous by stressing them under conditions of low oxidation-reduction, which gives an outcome of phosphorous release equilibrium in the bacteria's cell. On exposure that is subsequent to enough supply of phosphorous and oxygen in the zones that are aerated, these cells accumulate rapidly phosphorous in a considerable manner in excess for the required metabolic requirements. Phosphorous is evicted from the system together with the waste activated sludge (Hayden 2009).

The concept of synergism and how it impacts environmental health problems

Literature reviews for epidemiologic and toxicology literature on the impacts of synergism depicted some scant evidence of synergisms from being exposed to a variety of chemical agents. Furthermore, the examples in which every constituent made measurable impacts, examples were available which linked exposures caused effects that were measureable which were not on observation when the constituents were observed individually at the same doses. From among the combined exposures of synergism, the impacts were more popular less than additive, instead of greater than additive (Hayden 2009).

The pollution of air leads into similar impacts. For example, there are higher than additive effects to the pulmonary duty of guinea pigs from being exposed to particles of acid-coated zinc oxide sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ozone. On the other hand, additives have minimal impacts on the proliferation of rats' respiratory epithelium exposed to carbon particles, ammonium bi-sulphate, and O3 combined and given singly. It is not clear whether synergy of sulfuric acid and carbon particles on the respiratory duty to humans who are experimentally exposed; nevertheless, the elicit effects combination in some subjects with no response to either acid alone or carbon, which possibly suggested synergy (Stephens 2008).


Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning

Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning…… [read more]

Landscapes Are Libraries Whose Information Is Ignored Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,653 words)
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¶ … Landscapes are libraries whose information is ignored by most academics


Soil conservation is currently an essential concept in the field of environmentalism and it is important for the masses to gain a more complex understanding concerning the role they can play in preserving soil. While many tend to believe that environmentalism is a relatively new matter, the… [read more]

Forest Ecosystem Term Paper

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Forest Ecosystem

Sustainability and conservation of natural resources forest ecosystem

Forest ecosystems are areas dominated by trees and contain various natural resources these resources are important and hence have to be sustained and conserved. There are several management practices that can be applied in this ecosystem for the continued sustenance and conservation of these resources. An example of a management practice is the creation of forest protected areas. Conservation of the natural forest ecosystem is the reason for existence of protected forest areas. Protected forest area comprises of a wide variety of initiates for management of the natural resources that are found in the forest ecosystems. The protected areas have strict legal status meaning that the ecosystems are under the government and hence no one has the ability to exploit the natural resources in the ecosystems and hence they are conserved and sustained. However within the protected areas there is creation of buffer zones that will act as physical barriers to the protected areas which support the protected area and at the same time provide local people with benefits that will ensure that there is no encroachment of the protected areas. Another practice is forest management that incorporates the harvesting of forest products under a framework that ensures there is sustainable management which aims to conserve biodiversity and benefiting local people at the same time.

2) Renewable and non-renewable energy sources in forest ecosystem.

Energy sources from forest ecosystems can either be renewable or nonrenewable. The use of either energy resources has benefits and risks to the forest ecosystem. The forest ecosystem provides various nonrenewable energy sources. Nonrenewable energy resources will eventually be depleted over neither time, since they are nor renewable there is eventual need for development of sources that will meet the increasing energy demands. These include fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil that are from biological decomposition of organic matter that is dead found in the forest ecosystems. The use of these sources of energy has a disadvantage in that it can lead to pollution of water and air that can be harmful to animals and plants that are found in the forest ecosystem. The use of fossil fuel is…… [read more]

Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Model Nursing Term Paper

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Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Model Nursing Theory

Comparing the Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Models

The first theory to be examined in this research is what is known as the Conservation Model, created by Myra Estrin Levine where she lived and practiced in Chicago and surrounding areas in Illinois. The model focuses on the implementation of nursing practices that caution conservation, and the moderate use of environmental resources in care strategies. Conservation is essentially the strategic control and use of resources in a tailored way that keeps the underlying patient in a more balanced state.

Conservation as a primary way to maintain a sense of balance with both practice and patient health. There is a strong underlying focus on influences of what could be causing issues, therefore incorporating an approach which examines all of the systems within the functioning organism as a whole. Adaptation directly stems form conservation and because adaptations are changes that lead to better health and well being, they are sought after within such a theoretical foundation. The environment can provide resources to allow for needs to be met within a holistic approach to nursing practice. This would essentially allow nurses to focus on more holistic approaches that are often not seen as an option for the scientific structure of Western medicine. Conservation facilitates wholeness. The theory presents the idea that there is an organic balance within a state of wholeness which constitutes a harmony between the working systems and facilitating health. The end goal of this nursing strategy is essentially reaching a state of homeostasis, where the external environment helps the body regain balance within the internal functioning of the human system. Conservation can thus be used as a strategy to keep the parts working…… [read more]

Environmental Ethics &amp United States Term Paper

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Ignoring the political influence, EPA has been introducing reforms which have been effective in at least setting up minimum standards for the well-being of human health, animal and plants protection along with ecological balance. It has introduced and enforced various acts under Congress's supervision which have been functional in protecting and restoring natural resources. Examples of some of the reforms… [read more]

Gender and Environment Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (599 words)
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In Paul Robbins' Chapter 4 material, the author explains that political ecology relates to nature, society and power. Nature is being plundered, society is suffering from that degradation, and the political power is not often on the side of the people. Political ecology is not theoretical but rather it is emerging as a "community of practice." That community is what Robbins calls "a constituency that holds a deep and abiding skepticism…of the institutions that manage the environment," and it is a community of instructors that teach classes on environment and development (Robbins, 85). Hence, it is a community very concerned about the natural world and it is engaged in a power struggle with entrenched political forces. Also, it is a community of committed individuals that "listens and argues," "criticizes and defends," and is determined to partner with others that are deeply concerned about the ongoing degradation of the ecology of the planet.

One appropriate question to ask in reference to this essay is this: Why are negative impacts to the environment dumped onto innocent, powerless communities in many cases? The answer is on page 87; the communities that suffer from negative impacts are often known to have "…inadequate political or financial resources to resist" the hazards foisted upon them. There are ways for communities and organizations to fight back to against oppressive ecological policies by governments and corporations, Robbins explains on page 98. This relates to my own life as well. People can always collect signatures, "…block traffic, start a community garden, test water quality, file lawsuits, boycott, teach, live," and moreover, people can build their own political ecologies by getting organized and making a statement (as I have with many environmental groups) that the media will be…… [read more]

Ecology of Commerce Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 6


Ecology of Commerce

What is Sustainable Manufacturing?

Sustainable manufacturing is loosely defined as a business practice that takes into account the natural environment as part of its processes with an objective to have a minimal impact on the environment while undertaking its economic goals. It also encompasses the technologies that companies develop to transform the raw materials into finished products… [read more]

Ecology of Commerce Journal

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¶ … Hawkens (1992) tells us that business has generally been seen as the problem to the environment, and whilst that is true, business may also be a part of the solution.

At the moment, our present industrial economy is still in it beginning ecological stages where it is struggling to become something more sophisticated and substantial. In order to become so, Hawkens tell us, businesses will have to deal with and assess what they take (I..e input), what they make (I..e products / services), and what they waste. Chapter 2 deals with what businesses take. A business, like an organism, takes food and energy from the environment, but it consumes other renewable and non-renewable resources. It plunders the ecosystem in various ways. More so despite government regulations and attempts by activists, businesses have refused to face environmental issues and their responsibilities. Economic success is measured by growth and synonymous with that is plundering the environment.

Business, however, is, in reality, "an efficient form of human endeavor with so many positive attributes, that it is difficult to comprehend how it has become so destructive" (57). industry sees environmentalism as slowing down its growth, but the concepts of industrial ecology can help businesses realize that the reverse is the case. Industrial ecology states that industrial processes that harm and waste are generally less economical and more costly in the long run. A cheaper and more economical way for industry is to tailor manufacturing by-products so that the y become the raw material of later processes. In other words, for instance, one recycles waste into useful products.

Many companies indeed are beginning to recognize that "clean, less wasteful, more efficient manufacturing methods result in lower costs, greater savings, and increased productivity whilst enhancing workplace safety." (81).

In this way, competition need not entail destructing the environment in order to 'progress'. On he contrary, destructing the environment may prove economically costly to the industry too, and it may better succeed by practicing greater environmental concern.

Chapter 6 discusses the general Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) whose purpose has been to stimulate international trade by lowering tariffs and trade. Reading the small script of GATT, however, shows us that it does not encourage free trade as some might think and that it also threatens the global environment amongst other ills.

The government and private individuals have time and…… [read more]

Keystone Species in Mid-1800's, Telegraphy Essay

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The relation between two individuals or organizations in any way whether professional or personal is all because of sustainment of information ecologies. Any sort of medium that is essential for the populace living today, and that is what makes it keystone ecologies.

This study sees social network tummlers as a kind of contemporary keystone species, updating Nardi and O'Day's figuration of individuals that help shape and diversify information ecologies.

The more diverse are the keystone ecologies the more will there be the chances that in case of extinction of one of the keystone ecology specie might replace it with keystone ecology.


Johnson, S. (2010). Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation. London: Penguins Books Ltd.

Keystone Species Hypothesis. (1996). Retrieved September 24, 2011, from washington.edu: http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1969g.html

McNely, B. (2010) Exploring a Sustainable and Public Information Ecology, S.Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Nardi, B.A. And V.L. O'Day (2004) Information Ecologies. Chapter 4 in Information Ecologies: Using…… [read more]

Phosphorus and Eutrophicaation of Aquatic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (6,331 words)
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To total P. In surface waters, which varied from about 5 to 75. The LOWESS (a locally weighted regression) best fits for chlorophyll a concentrations in the various lakes were different functions for total P. And total N. LOWESS regression slopes and intercepts shifted with changing N/P atomic ratios with slopes maximized and intercepts minimized at an N/P ratio of… [read more]

What Is Better for Environmental Protection Conservation Preservation or Both? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Conservation Preservation

Conservation and Preservation: An Emergent Compatibility

Prior to the introduction of major legislation concerning the environment, it had been a popularly accepted notion that our utilization of the earth would be subject to no limitations. Our manifold purposes, pertaining to the expansion of commercial industries, the procurement of lands for residency, the optimization of geological settings for pedestrian… [read more]

Conservation Biology Essay

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Conservation Biology

The objective of the study is to conduct a quantitative evaluation of the impact of oceanic currents on the migration trajectories of marine animals. This will then be used to project and investigate the consequences of existing tracking analysis.

To accomplish this, the method involved an analysis of the trajectory of an Argos-tracked female leatherback turtle. This trajectory spanned some 11,635 km. A combination of satellite and tracking technology was used to determine the trajectory and obtain results.

The results show a strong compass sense in leatherback turtle, as the observed specimen maintained a steady heading for a considerable part of her trajectory. Significantly, this would not be detectable without current correction. When completing the trajectory, the results show that almost half of the displacement observed was due to the current drift. The results indicate that further study and in-depth knowledge of the currents are required to understand the specific elements of the trajectory.


The study highlights several important issues in terms of conservation. One of these, in a very general sense, is the fact that knowledge should never be assumed to be either absolute or completely accurate. In order to continue the conservation effort from a scientific viewpoint, both qualitative and quantitative results are required.

The tracking of movements across the habitat is important in order to better understand the requirements of conserving such a habitat. Where trajectories are significant in size, like that of the leatherback turtle, the conservation effort should be particularly intensive, ensuring that the entire span of the trajectory is sustainable.

The study also highlights the importance of quantitative track analyses to obtain important and accurate data on conservation issues such as feeding ground locations, migration areas, and the frequency of traveling and foraging for specific species. Understanding the animal's movement…… [read more]

Urban Ecology on the Ground Imitating and Implementing Success Thesis

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Urban Ecology on the Ground: Imitating and Implementing Success

Urban Ecology Advocacy in Miami

Actually implementing advocacy programs can be much harder than one would suppose. There is the question of funding, planning, and executing program details in order to work and provide real results. Typically, advocacy groups are funded with primarily private donations. In many instances, these groups are… [read more]

Environment Background for Guinea Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (401 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Environment Background Guinea

The environment of Guinea has changed dramatically within the past few generations. According to research, "Centuries of slash-and-burn agriculture have caused forested areas to be replaced by savanna woodland, grassland, or brush," (Advameg 2009). Massive recent development of industries, such as mining, has devastated the natural landscape and created a whole new look for the country. Between 1981 and 1985, nearly 89,000 acres of land were cut down annually. Landscape also devastated by mining and the increase of hydroelectric facilities. Lost of average 1.14% of its forest annually in more recent years, between 1990 to 1995. This then presents a huge disadvantage for much of the local population who has relied on agriculture and therefore the land.

Thus, the environment contributes to the conflict in that it creates the context for poverty and dissent within local communities. All areas of the regions natural features has been negatively affected by exploitation; "Human encroachment and hunting have reduced Guinea's wildlife, especially its large mammals, and over fishing represents a threat to the nation's marine life," (Advameg 2009). Such depleted resources means poor local economies along based on lower numbers of the plentiful resource. Despite major profits from oil and…… [read more]

Deep Ecology and Social Justice Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,499 words)
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¶ … Ecology

Source Title: "Historical Consequences of Deforestation: Easter Island"

Pollen analysis on Easter Island has provided a theory regarding the construction of the famous statues on the island that also explains how the society of the island natives first encountered by Europeans was in such a degraded and destitute state. Evidence form the pollen analysis suggests heavy deforestation… [read more]

Environmental Security Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,409 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


Environmental Security

The environment and its preservation for future generations has become one of the most important current issues not only in general society, but also in the political arena. As such, the issue has enjoyed attention from the highest and most powerful entities. It is no longer a question of whether to pay political attention to the environment; it… [read more]

Energy Conservation Process Basically Consists in Achieving Term Paper

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Energy conservation process basically consists in achieving the same results with smaller quantities of energy. Energy conservation has become a matter of extreme importance that is affecting life on Earth at all levels. This matter affects households, industrial consumers, and the state itself, in different ways. However, each of these affected parties tries to diminish energy consumption, for environmental purposes, for profit related purposes, or for energy policy purposes. The energy consumption distribution per sector in the United States is the following: transportation 28%, residential 21%, commercial 17%, and industrial 33%. As households are concerned, energy consumption distribution follows the following pattern: space conditioning 44%, water heating 13%, lighting 12%, refrigeration 8%, home electronics 6%, laundry appliances 5%, kitchen appliances 4%, and other uses 8% (DOE, 2007).

Energy consumption affects the environment and its components, in the first place. Scientists have revealed that the climate is "getting hotter due to people burning fossil fuels like oil, coal, and gas that emit heat-trapping, greenhouse gases into the atmosphere" (Dinsdale, 2007). As a result of temperature rising, ice sheets in the Antarctic will melt, the Gulf Stream current will stop transporting heat across the Atlantic, and other irreversible disasters will produce. This could further lead to soils shrinkage and increased erosion. Also, sea levels will rise, which will cause some land to be lost in favor of the sea. A deteriorated climate will obviously affect plants and animals, therefore, affecting farmers as well. The water cycle is very likely to be affected, increasing the risk of droughts, the risk of flooding, and water consumption. Human health could also be severely affected.

People are directly responsible for energy consumption and, therefore, for energy conservation. The human negative impact manifests through increased, and most of the times, useless energy consumption, which leads to terrible consequences, as mentioned above. This negative human impact can only be lessened by a positive one that is related to energy conservation. Energy conservation must be implemented by each regular individual by including this practice in one's lifestyle, by industrial consumers, and by the state through its energy policies and programs.

Energy conservation strategies are usually developed for each sector that consumes energy. In 1975, in the transportation sector the federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy program was implemented. As a consequence, fuel economy significantly improved. However, the program's benefits were somehow reduced after 1990, due to changes in individuals' auto vehicles preferences. Programs in the residential sector have not been as successful, since sizes of houses built in the United States are continuously increasing, as well as the central air conditioning percentage is. The commercial sector does not present any significant improvements related to energy conservation after the implementation of certain governmental programs. However, these programs have proven to be successful in the industrial sector, where…… [read more]

Biodiversity and Conservation in the Tropics Term Paper

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Biodiversity and Conservation in the Tropics

Biodiversity and conservation have been difficult issues in the ecological field. This is not least so because of issues such as increasingly rapid species extinction and also the increasing human population and influence upon the natural environment. Nonetheless, ecologists are concerned about the conservation of biodiversity, as such conservation holds advantages not only for… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Social Economics and Political Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,932 words)
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Environmental Ethics and Morality

Ethics and Morality in Matters of the Planet and its Peoples

It is an awe-inspiring natural world that humans have evolved into and inherited. In it, through it, and notwithstanding its fragile underpinnings, for better or for worse (more on the "worse" side than the "better") humans have carved out cities, countries, societies and standards of… [read more]

Ecology Can Be Loosed Term Paper

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Ecology can be loosed defined as the study of the distribution and abundance of living organism and such distributions are affected by interactions between organisms and their environment. The implicit reason that is included within environmental science is that ecology looks at the broad overview of how life is organized on this planet and the environments that they occupy.

Ecology is an inter-disciplinary study because just like environmental science it uses principles from "an array of disciplines." Ecology is specifically important to environmental science because it is the study of the relationships between organisms and their natural environments. This is fundamental to the understanding of environmental science as a whole. In fact, ecology could be said to be the core science that impacts our knowledge of environmentalism.

Through understanding ecology and the practices behind it, one can explore the quantitative understanding of biodiversity and how populations function within environments (barrameda, npg). Since these are the basic tools necessary to understand and measure the most fundamental aspects of the environment, ecology becomes an intrinsic part of most environmental science curriculums

Ecology is especially useful in environmental science because it takes a relationship perspective when scientifically examining the environment. This is especially important in examining the relationships between individuals within certain species as well as the organizational methods and activities of the species within a community setting (barrameda, npg). It is precisely because ecology takes a close examination of a quantitative approach to organisms and their behavior within their environment that it is considered the backbone of environmental science.

The field of ecology has expanded at an exponential pace in the last half of the 20th century, although ecology's roots can be dated back to the time of Greek inquiries into science. It wasn't however until the beginning of the 20th century that major interest within ecology and new technology helped to jumpstart this particular branch of science. Part of the reason for the growth of ecology is the increase in knowledge in many other disciplines such as geology, geography, chemistry, physics, etc. (botany, npg). Since ecology is an interdisciplinary study that transcends biology, its growth and prominence can be attributed to the expansion of human knowledge in many different areas of science. The study of ecology is expanding at a furious pace for several reasons. First, the definition of ecology has been expanded to cover much more territory than it formerly dictated. While in the 18th and 19th centuries, ecology was relegated to the study of marine life and other aspects of nautical application of environmental science, in the current state, ecology is applied to all forms of organisms (botany, npg). This dramatic expansion of its definition and scope is what has fueled the rapid growth within the field and the rich results that it has garnered.

One of the fundamental shifts within ecology in the modern era is the inclusion of human ecology within the discipline. While human ecology itself has been included within the study of ecology for well… [read more]

Animal Dreams: Real Life Reflections Term Paper

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John Chrysostom saying water "represents death and internment, but also life and resurrection. When we plunge our head beneath water and then emerge, our old selves are lost. We are cleansed, we rise anew" (p. 902). The future of our culture and our ability to sustain life depends on mankind's commitment to the natural world (Magnuson, 902).

The first step… [read more]

Pollution in the Environment Term Paper

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(pp: 1, 151)

Several researchers have termed the environment in which we live today as a 'risk society', and the reason for this is, according to them, the fact that we are today living in a world that is full of unseen and unknown risks like nuclear radiation and the harmful effects it may have on today's as well as… [read more]

Globalization and the Environment Term Paper

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Globalization and the Environment

This work in writing will examine and thoroughly analyze the impact that globalization has had on the environment of the world. "Global environmental problems are increasingly important because of their impact on industrial activities, infrastructures, ecosystems, natural resources, biodiversity and human health. These problems can be managed and solved only through international cooperation, policy coordination, and… [read more]

Ecological Study Preservation and Conservation Term Paper

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The National Park Service adopted this idea in 1967. Policies of the National Park Service had allowed fishing but prevented hunting in the parks up until this time. John D. Rockefeller bought ranches border the Yellowstone Park in the 1930's and formed the Teton National Park. Hunting was not allowed on these ranches although hunting this area had been a regular for any hunters in the time preceding Rockefeller's purchases. The Elk rapidly reproduced and the populations of Elk became a problem. The Park Servicemen for lack of any other measures were routinely slaughtering Elk which infuriated the hungers.

IV. Effects of the Practices of Preservation and Conservation:

An Urban Ecosystem Analysis was performed of the New Orleans, Louisiana Metropolitan Area, by the American Forest Association. This study included portions of Jefferson, Orleans, and St. Bernard Parishes, in the building of a "green infrastructure" data layer for utilization in the community planning and development effort. The focus was gathering of reliable data concerning the region's canopy cover.

Findings of the study were that the tree canopy cover in the city was beneficial to the city that was so great that when put in financial terms it equaled $7.1 million dollars a year in benefits from the tree cover. Furthermore, findings were that stormwater management benefited the growth of the trees and all other vegetation in the area to a great extent. This certainly is one instance of man's involvement benefiting nature.


Although one may be able to present a good case for Natural Regulation in the environment the fact is that nature doesn't include within it process of natural regulation the allowances needed for the subsistence of mankind on the surface of the earth. The population of the earth has become of such great proportions that man's assistance to nature is a very necessary component and furthermore it has been proven to be effective in maintaining the biodiversity of the ecological system.

The New Conservationists: The Environmental Movement 1962-1974 [Online] available at: http://www.ti.org/envirosihs.html

National Forest Programme Ecosystem Conservation and Management [Online] available at: http://www.nfp.co.tz/studies_report/ecosystem/ecosystem.htm

Urban Ecosystem Analysis (2001) Analysis of New Orleans, Louisiana Metropolitan Area: Calculating the Value of Nature [Online] available at

National Forest Programme "Ecosystem Conservation and Management"


National Forest Programme "Ecosystem Conservation and Management"


Covering of the Tree Tops

This paper to be used for reference purposes only… [read more]

Illinois Department of Conservation Police Term Paper

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In addition to all the above enforceable duties, the CPO is expected to also carry out various non-enforceable duties like giving voluntary speeches at meetings being held with the aim of preserving wildlife and forests and for their conservation, as well as giving important information through lectures aimed at school and college going students about the various issues concerning conservation,… [read more]

Nature Is That Opposites Attract Term Paper

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When Adam came to know about the consequences of Eve's mistake he didn't trust God and quickly ate the fruit. This couple's behavior is reflected in all relationships among human beings, and between human beings and nature, etc.

Bible and Environmental Crisis

In Christianity, the environment issue is friendly. The Bible states that no one lives or dies to himself (Rom. 14:8), this means that there is interdependence among all living things and we live at the will of God.

The Protestant ethics is responsible for present practices of environmental exploitation. Since they believed that t humans could dominate and control the Earth (Gen. 1:28). Whereas the reality is that humanity can reproduce, with living beings and their environment, the same relations of care and love determined by Him during Creation. By telling Adam about the kind of work he would perform in Eden, God stated the first Environmental Protection Act (Gen. 2:15), which implied that there was to be a friendly relationship between humans and their Creator.

The ecological perception from the Bible's point-of-view is that life does not belong to a person, but to everyone. The basic purpose of Environmental studies and Ecology is to revive the original aspect of a perfect planet.

Jesus' warning about this sort of worldview is revealed in the parable of the disloyal steward, in which his master expects him to take care of the master' house and his servants (Luke 12:42-48). In a more decisive statement, Jesus advises us that there will come the time for Him to "destroy those who destroy the earth" (Rev. 1:18).

Ever since mankind and other living things were created, God laid out a special role for nature. He found the first school in the Garden of Eden, with live lessons before our first parents and was a source of instructions for them. God laid down that as the human family grew it should establish other homes and schools similar to the first founded by Him.

Jesus taught his disciples, within nature, to help them with the responsibilities they had to take up. He taught them next to the mountains, or the sea, in a boat, and even during walks.

Religiously, the best way of effectively handling the environmental issue if through proper integration of faith and studies and in accordance to what has been planned by God in Eden.

We can never handle environmental crisis in isolation from the plan God has made. We should hope for change and nature's salvation.


Laws of Nature [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, available at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/l/lawofnat.htm, accessed on: April 13, 2004

THE ECOLOGICAL CRISIS: Changing the paradigm, available at http://www.aiias.edu/ict/vol_24/24cc_197-215.htm, accessed on: April 13, 2004… [read more]

Technology on the Environment Term Paper

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As Chiras etal argue (viz. 101, 111), wealthy and poor nations face very different choices in designing and implementing environmental policy. The far-seeing leaders of poorer countries understand just as well as the far-seeing leaders of wealthy countries that population growth must be limited, land set aside, pollution controlled. But poorer countries have far fewer choices because of their lesser political and economic power. Brazilian leaders and workers, for example, understand the environmental costs of open pit mines, but Brazil is also saddled with immense national debt. It does not have enough money to build up clean industry, and so its workers must struggle in mines (or in slash-and-burn agriculture) to struggle to make enough money to feed their families. First World citizens debate about whether they should drive SUVs - and then drive them anyway - while poorer nations try to deal with issues of cities with untreated sewage in the streets and citizens so poor that they will gladly kill an endangered animal if it means that their families may eat.

Poorer nations are dealing with the most acute environmental problems - severe water and air pollution, erosion, desertification, massive unplanned urbanization, high rates of population growth. Their governments try to meet these problems, but tend to do so in piecemeal fashion while the First World, with less severe problems (even as First World nations contribute far more to the greenhouse effect and global warming) have the political luxury of trying to create more holistic solutions.

One of the worst consequences of technological change on the planet has been the onset of global warming. Chiras etal's description of what we may have let ourselves in for should certainly make each one of us reconsider our own actions and those of our governments (Chiras etal 506-8).

Among the possible negative effects of global warming are large-scale die-offs of sea life as the oceans warm up to a point where many animals (adopted to cold waters) may die. One way to combat this consequence of global warming is to limit fishing now, which will help bring various marine populations up to a level that they may survive.

Another possible consequence is coastal flooding, which could devastate estuaries and other wetlands. Countries could build offshore walls (such as in hurricane zones) to help buffer these areas.

Famine is a possible outcome of global warming. A shift to a vegetarian diet by most or even all people (backed by governmental pressure) could limit the damage caused by (for example) less grain being produced because vegetarian diets are far more efficient than meat-based ones.

Global warming itself is a negative consequence - as animals and plants will suffer from increased temperatures. A commitment to alternative fuels for vehicles and buildings would help this problem - as would an immediate ban on SUVs.

If human technology has caused terrible damage to the environment, it may also do good. We can genetically modify species that can survive current environmental problems, turn to sources of energy… [read more]

Incentives to Conserve Marine Biodiversity Conservation Within the Framework of Impure Public Goods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,144 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus the problem with goods from which everyone benefits equally means that there is comparatively little incentive for persons who are not particularly passionate about the subject to engage in self-interested actions. This is also true of local communities which may have few resources and who might want to expend resources not on conservation, prevention of poaching, and maintaining homeostasis in the environment but upon improving the local economy. "Local people make the decisions concerning land use and resource exploitation. It is costly to enforce prohibitions against their chosen activities and so prohibitions often increase monitoring cost without conservation benefits" (Bulte, Van Kooten & Swanson 9). This is why environmental regulations often generate hostility. Also, often purely local restrictions do not show significant benefits because the problems are so large in scope, further generating resistance and inaction when there is an attempt to begin to regulate the improper treatment of marine species such as in the form of prohibiting overfishing or protecting endangered species.

According to Arrigada & Perrings (2011), a compounding problem regarding conservation efforts is called the technology of supply or how such goods and services are regulated. Rather than focusing on the demand for such goods alone, Arrigada and Perrings point out that the tools available to regulate such impure public goods may likewise inhibit conservation efforts that strive to maintain marine biodiversity. For example, additive technologies such as when habitats are being protected are dependent upon the characteristics of the environment -- the ability to protect the resource depends upon its inherent nature and the ability and willingness of the protective agency or government to expend those resources to do it (for example, creating seawalls to prevent beach erosion or refusing to allow wetlands to be uprooted in the name of development) (Arrigada & Perrings 799). In contrast, in the case of 'best shot' technologies, there is a need and an ability to shift the protective responsibilities to the provider who can most effectively regulate the issue (which may be country in greatest proximity to the habitat in question, in the case of the wetlands example). Finally, at times only the 'weakest link' provider is capable of providing protection, such as in the case of a developing world nation that is uniquely poised to engage in protective actions (Arrigada & Perrings 799). Obviously, this is the worst possible case scenario given that the weakest link provider has fewer resources and the lowest economic incentive to engage prioritize long-term environmental benefits and to ignore possible short-term economic gains.

Both positive and negative incentives exist to encourage compliance with environmental policies. Negative incentives include fines and even jail time for violating environmental dictates; positive incentives include tax credits and other financial and public relations rewards for individuals and organizations who comply with beneficial policies. On the international level, such positive incentives can also be provided in the form of loans and assistance to ensure that even weakest link nations have the resources to support policies that all environmentalists… [read more]

Central Park Reservoir Restoration Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Restoration of Central Park Reservoir

The Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir is a 106-acres body of water located in the middle of Central Park and was completed in 1862. The reservoir holds one billion gallons of water and formerly distributed fresh water to Manhattan residents. The reservoir has stopped serving this function and its future is perpetually under discussion. The task of this study is to create a restoration vision for the reservoir area and draft an outline plan for implementation of the restoration through defining a clearly supported restoration goal and taking into account the various stakeholders and continued uses of the area. Ecological restoration is reported to refer to "the renewal of a degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystem through active human intervention." (Humboldt State University, 2014, p. 1) it is reported that the Society for Ecological Restoration defines ecological restoration as "intentional activity that initiates or accelerates the recovery of an ecosystem with respect to its health, integrity and sustainability." The practice of ecological restoration includes a wide scope of projects including, but not limited to: erosion control, reforestation, removal of non-native species and weeds, revegetation of disturbed areas, daylighting streams, reintroduction of native species, and habitat and range improvement for targeted species." (Humboldt University, 2014, p. 1) the work of Vaughn, Porensky, Wilkerson, Balachowski, Peffer, Riginos, and Young (2010) report that there are various types of restoration including the following stated kinds of restorations:

(1) Revegetation- the establishment of vegetation on sites where it has been previously lost, often with erosion control as the primary goal. For example, vegetated buffers are strips of vegetation that protect water quality in riparian ecosystems from urban or agricultural runoff.

(2) Habitat enhancement- the process of increasing the suitability of a site as habitat for some desired species.

(3) Remediation: improving an existing ecosystem or creating a new one with the aim of replacing another that has deteriorated or been destroyed.

(4) Mitigation: legally mandated remediation for loss of protected species or ecosystems. (Vaughn, Porensky, Wilkerson, Balachowski, Peffer, Riginos, and Young, 2010, p. 1)

I. Need for Restoration

The Jackie Onassis Kennedy Reservoir was completed as reported in 1862. This reservoir has been the site of a great deal of human visitation since it is located in the middle of Central Park. Concepts that underpin restoration include: (1) disturbance; (2) genetics; (3) succession; (4) community assembly theory; and (5) landscape ecology. (Vaughn, Porensky, Wilkerson, Balachowski, Peffer, Riginos, and Young, 2010, p. 1)

II. Goals and Objectives of Restoration

It is reported that applied restoration includes the following stated steps: (1) site assessment which includes "A thorough appraisal of the current conditions at the restoration site is essential for determining what kind of actions will be necessary. In this step, the causes of ecosystem disturbance and methods for stopping or reversing them are identified." (Vaughn, Porensky, Wilkerson, Balachowski, Peffer, Riginos, and Young, 2010, p. 1); (2) Formulation of the goals of the project. It is reported that in order to determine the targets… [read more]

Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,538 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


In addition, it entails the assessment the alternatives available for preventing and reducing incidences of the emergence of contaminants. Epidemiological studies facilitate the success of the assessment process (Pruden et al. 2006).

Treatment and Removal Methods of the Emerging Contaminants of the Drinking water and Wastewater

There are different methods of treating drinking water and wastewater alongside removing the emerging… [read more]

Sustainable Infrastructure in 2007 Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,704 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Sustainable Infrastructure

In 2007, Glasgow was selected to be the host to the 2014 Commonwealth Games. This is the largest sporting event ever to be held in Scotland and it is the opportunity for the city to showcase its unique culture, diversity and sustainable practices. These areas are demonstrating how it is a world class destination. That is capable of… [read more]

Urban Drainage System Book Report

Book Report  |  10 pages (3,018 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Urban Drainage System


Human activity is the major cause of the surge in green house gas releases (IPCC 2007). These gases are a contributing factor to the climate change that has different implications in different regions. For instance, hot dry summers and colder wetter winters are more likely than before. In the United Kingdom, there is… [read more]

Chicago: Planning and Urban Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,245 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Chicago has used technology in order to put up urban farming. With the renovated housing, Chicago's equity will go up because with modernization comes increase in economy. Industries in Chicago are being built every day. This will bring employment, and the returns will be increased too. When it comes to taxation, the Chicago local government has been particular and this… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Humans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,386 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



environmental ethics/HUMANS and the ENVIRONMENT

Ethics and Environment

Environmental Ethics: Oil and the Environment

One of the greatest dangers to the environment from human beings is the exploitation of oil reserves and the way that this exploitation upsets the natural balance in nature and is a major cause of environmental pollution. If we accept the view that human beings have an ethical obligation to protect the environment of this planet, then the continuing debate about the environmental impact of the use and search for oil and its negative effects on sensitive ecological systems should be at the top of the list of concerns.

This relates to my view of environmental ethics in the following way. I believe that human beings have an ethical responsibility to care for and protect the natural environment that sustains us. This sense of responsibly is important not only because we should care for other living things in our world but also because without a healthy environment human beings will in fact cease to exist. This is the danger that we face, as has been clearly outlined by scientists in their assessment of the reality of global warming.

Therefore, I feel that issues such as the search for oil in environmentally sensitive areas such as Alaska and the pollution of highly sensitive ocean and coastal ecosystems from oil spills, constitutes a major ethical problem that should be addressed by all human beings.

Oil and the Environment

Many reports and studies note that a central feature of the contemporary oil industry is the problem of environmental pollution. This problem is summarized by the fact that; "Oil is a Fossil fuel. Burnt fossil fuels release Carbon dioxide (CO2) into the Earth's atmosphere and thus contribute to Global warming" (Petroleum industry). If we are not ethically and environmentally responsible in terms of the way that oil is extracted from the earth and how it is transported, then we run the risk of not only increasing global warming and upsetting natural environmental balances but also of polluting the natural resources that we still have left.

The issue of oil pollution has been highlighted by the many recent oil spill disasters, such as the Gulf of Mexico incident and the previous Exxon Valdez spill. . The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 has been generally acknowledged by environmentalists to be one of the most severe ecological disasters in American history. This was preceded by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1998, when the tanker Exxon Valdez collided with an undersea reef and spilled an estimated ten million gallons of oil (Oil Spills and Disasters). In April, 2012, a semi- submersible drilling rig, the Deepwater Horizon, sank after an explosion in the Gulf of Mexico. This accident released more than 60-000 barrels of oil per day and created an environmental and ecological disaster which threatened the coastal ecosystems of the region. It is estimated that between 186 to 227 million gallons of crude were released in to the… [read more]

Water Awareness and Education Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  11 pages (2,917 words)
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Measuring results in order to evaluate whether the objectives have been reached is one of the most difficult undertakings. On one hand, quantitative measures can be used to evaluate the success of the project. One such measure would be the volume of water that has been saved in the country after the introduction of the educational workshops. Concretely, this would… [read more]

Geology Office of Governor Rick Scott State Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,188 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Office of Governor Rick Scott

State of Florida

The Capitol

Monroe St.

(850) [HIDDEN] (fax)


The office of the 45 the Governor of Florida, Rick Scott (4/22/2011): Florida Petitions EPA on clean water standards. http://www.flgov.com/2011/04/22/florida-petitions-epa-on-clean-water-standards/)

Office of Governor Rick Perry

Office of the Governor

Austin, Texas 78711-2428

Dear Governor Rick Perry:

Your struggle against smog and air pollution is noteworthy. In 2004, you created an air pollution early warning system that allows industry officers to take corrective and preemptive action before smog develops. This was a pioneering and innovative program that -- developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) - represented a major technological advance in air quality procedures in Texas. As you stated, this program proved to be aggressive and comprehensive. It was not only smog (and air pollution) that you targeted at the time, but your work also endeavors to target surface water quality and to respond rapidly to pollution and adverse conditions in drinking water. In fact, the TCEQ already operates more than eight continuous monitoring stations in waters around the state.

According to the research that I've conducted on the state of pollution in Texas, your work seems to be ongoing and the EPA seems to be giving you a tough time.

No wonder! Most of your problems seem to stem from the town's businessmen that run their huge factories and corporations that pollute your water with plastic. Businesses are profiting from the products they create but are also damaging the environment in the process. The latest BP oil spill incident is a prime example of the extent of damages that could occur if procedures to mitigate them are not put into effect.

A fact that you may be unaware of is that plastic causes grievous damage to Texas's lakes, streams, rivers and waterways in general in that it not only contaminates the water, but also, potentially, prevents tourists from returning.

Clearing up the plastic, it seems to me, will provide you with three advantages:

The first and most important is the environment damage caused by excess plastic disposal in the ocean; this will be dealt with. The second is the financial implication for Texas and Texan businesses if disposal measures are not enacted immediately. Eventually, as evident by the BP oil spill, negative publicity on the part of businesses can have adverse consequences on both revenue and profit. Also, research has proven that when pricing remains constant, consumers often purchase products from socially conscious and environmentally friendly companies. Dealing with the plastic problem will only help sustain business. Finally, your sense of justice and ethics will come out intact. 'Actions speak louder than words." Constituents willl see that you mean what you say, and say what you mean.

As you stated: "I believe Texans living in the Houston area will see the quality of the air they breathe improve through the new monitoring and response system we are announcing today."

It is not only the quality of the air that needs… [read more]

Environment "The Actions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,222 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


"The plantation system and the initial overplanting of tobacco caused monocultural husbandry, which emphasized cash crops and depleted the soil. By the eighteenth century Virginia began suffering low yields, as the best lands were exhausted and eroding from overuse" (19). Since the crops were selling, any environmental effects were ignored. The primary concern of the day was money and the acquisition of it. Whatever was destroyed in the process was of little importance.

Settlement of the frontier was encouraged by Jefferson when he signed the Harrison Law Act, making it easier for American citizens to purchase land in the West (America.) After the expansion of the United States through the Louisiana Purchase, even more people ventured out into new territories. Thomas Jefferson sent surveyors Lewis and Clark to map and explore the newly acquired lands. "The immensity of the intervening wilderness appeared overwhelming and the challenge of subduing it daunting. Still, as the United States entered the nineteenth century, its people were fiercely optimistic, determined to conquer the frontier, and sure that its vastness was their new nation's greatest asset" (21). Citizens of the United States, unconcerned with the danger, set out to conquer the new land and laid waste to the natural resources that they encountered. This opened the West for further exploration, exploitation, cultivation, and immigration.

To this day, there are individuals who try to find loopholes in environmental law because the call of their wallets is stronger than the call of their conscience. They see the efforts of conservationists as extreme. So, if one considers that modern industrialists still look at environmental issues with marginal care even though they know the damage that has been done, if any at all, it is hard to judge their older counterparts with the same level of contempt. When the Industrial Revolution occurred, factories went up all over and natural resources were taken in at alarming rates to be turned into consumer products. One such result was the devastation of the wetlands. "The resulting eutrophication, the excessive growth of plant life, often killed wildlife through oxygen loss, and land levels dropped as the waters were drained" (Kline 41). This is only one example of the resulting destruction of the environment because of the actions of greedy executives. Another is the miners and all the fields that make a profit through the excavation of the land. "In the to reach mineral riches, miners peeled away the very crust of the earth, gutted mountains with water cannons, clear-cut woodlands, and destroyed the habitat of wildlife. The waste products of these enterprises were pumped into the atmosphere or piled in remote places" (42). Industrialization may have renovated production and led to massive employment of semi-skilled workers, but it was a savage curse to much of America's natural beauty.

The three most important contributing factors to the destruction of the natural environment by the United States citizens of the 18th and 19th centuries were ignorance, waste, and greed. The environment is still being victimized by… [read more]

Dependence of Man on the Environment Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Man on the Environment

Dependence of Man on Environment

The dependence of man on the environment is crucial as the environment provides us with every basic necessity of life such as food, energy, power, shelter as well as relative climactic constancy (WHO 2005). Ecosystems are the planet's -- and man's -- life support system (2005). A clean, safe,… [read more]

Impact of Electronic Goods Beneficial or Hurtful to Health and Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Manufacturing Our Demise

Environmental Impact of electronic goods

The number of devices bearing a chip internally has grown exponentially, since the early days of consumer products. These products and our associated behaviors are interwoven into the very fabric of life and culture (Kester, 1993). From state of the art hospital equipment designed to save lives, to musical equipment producing delight, electronics are everywhere. The toxicity and durability of these good compounds the problem. The manufacture and disposal of electronic equipment are a tangible and imminent danger to life, as we know it.

Nature of the danger

Electronic devices are manufactured with two major impediments; the first is designed obsolesce but physically durability. The company makes money from new models, but the replacement of the old model increases waste. Secondly, toxic chemicals are used in the production of many of these products (Turn back, 2010). Available environmentally friendly, recyclable materials increase the cost of the product. Consumers are not prepared to pay higher prices for their digital comforts and the company is not prepared to absorb the additional costs (Boyd, 2010).

These two factors driven by economics create a deluge of waste. The produced streams of waste are outstripping the ability of landfills and other waste disposal measures to keep up. Linton, Yeomans, & Yoogalingam (2002) posit that the waste from television sets alone is filling landfills. This has resulted in companies shipping waste to less developed countries resulting in the internationalization of the waste problem (Mason, 2001). Countries are literally facing the threat of being overrun by electronic waste.

The impact on the environment from electronic waste is an insidious problem (Goodwin, 2010). In developed countries most of the waste is hauled off to landfills and is invisible to the public. However, the threat from the waste in the landfill is real and disturbing. The casing of most electronic products is comprised of an enduring combination of glass, plastic and metal. The internal components are even more dangerous as the monitors and circuit boards contain heavy metals like lead and mercury (Linton, Yeomans, & Yoogalingam, 2002). Disposed batteries have a carcinogen called Cadmium. There are also a myriad of other noxious and hazardous chemicals like zinc, arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) all compounds linked to cancer and other illnesses.

Disposal and the environment

These toxic chemical can contaminate the soil, drinking water and the air. This contamination occurs through a myriad of diverse processes that are used for disposal. The burning of electronic waste in furnaces produces carbon dioxide in large quantities as well as toxic ash. The carbon dioxide adds to the problem of excess carbon in the atmosphere. The ash is often contaminated with heavy metals, because the combustion process does not destroy the heavy metals. When the ash is disposed of through dumping, the metals make contact with soil and providing another avenue for the metals to leech into the soil.

The use of landfills is another avenue for the contamination of the environment. The landfill problem… [read more]

Bamboo Industry Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  22 pages (6,798 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


Bamboo Industry

In India, bamboo is considered "the poor man's timber." Over the past 20 years, bamboo has become a significant, sometimes superior substitute for wood. Currently, in some way or another in, the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan reports, approximately 1.5 billion people depend on bamboo products. In light of the significances of the bamboo industry, this thesis… [read more]

Disasters the Environment and Public Health Improving Our Response Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (635 words)
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Disasters, The Environment, And Public Health: Improving Our Response

James N. Logue's Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our Response focuses on the 1990 decade as a time of realization of the environmental threat and an intensification of our efforts to resolve this problem. A question on the differences and similarities between today's concerns and those forwarded in 1996 can only be answered through an analysis of the concerns at both points in time. In this order of ideas, Logue highlights the following for 1996:

Natural and man made disasters impact human and environmental health in predictable and unpredictable means

The threat of human pollution and through the emission of greenhouse gases is recognized, but little emphasis is being placed on it

New agencies were established to assess the impact of toxic waste upon human and environmental health

Approaches to hazards changed in the meaning that people strived to prevent and prepare for them, rather than wait for them to happen and then panic

Geographical traits are better considered in the process of disaster management

More emphasis on global warming and the impact of elements such as land use and population growth on pollution and environmental health (Logue, 1996)

In terms of the environmental issues forwarded today (which can be perceived as a continuation of the 1996 concerns), the following elements are of the utmost importance.

At a global level, more efforts are being made towards environmental sustainability; for instance, forests are continually being cut, but the actions are better regulated and the lumber companies are requested to plant new trees;

Stricter legislation has been developed in regulating polluting activities of both individual consumers as well as organizations

Technological advancements have been integrated in products in order to reduce pollution; the most relevant example in this sense is given by vehicles incorporating fuel efficient engines which reduce the levels of waste and consume less fuels (Fuel…… [read more]

Harmful Effects of Plastic on the Environment Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,242 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Plastic Bags & the Environment

Plastics in the Environment: Problem and Solutions

Plastic pollution in the oceans and on dry land is a terrible plague that needs to be addressed through responsible environmental management. This is not a new concept, as plastic has been an eyesore and an ecological miscreant for many years. This paper delves into the ongoing problem… [read more]

Facilities Management in Dubai Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,786 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Facilities Management in Dubai

Facilities Management

This work will discuss the fact that environmental pressures from legislators, consumers, investors, neighbors, and employees have intensified over recent years. The real competitive advantage is possibly held by those who are making environmental responsibility integral to their overall corporate strategy, both in management of existing operations and in the planning of new developments.… [read more]

Toulmin Argument About the Environment Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,192 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Toulmin Argument

An Argument for Christian Environmental Responsibility

Introduction and Claim

Although Christians are tasked with stewardship of God's creation, many believe that it is not their responsibility to care for the environment nor show concern over environmental problems. Many reasons exist for this belief. Some Christians believe that Christ's return will change the world as it is anyway, so caring for the environment is simply a waste of time. Others may be concerned with the attitudes of many environmentalists, attitudes that place creation above the creator. Still others may simply assume that anything "of this earth" should not be prominent in the lives of Christians. These people often assume that Christians should task themselves with the things of heaven, paying little attention to any of the world's concerns. Perhaps this group believes that if non-Christians see Christians paying attention to the things of this earth, the non-Christians will assume that Christians really have nothing to look forward to. This same argument is often used for Christians who stay out of political processes and other topics of community concern. Even though these arguments are prevalent among Christians, however, biblical mandate and responsibility command Christians to care for the environment.


Now, more than ever, environmental problems are plaguing the earth. Most of these are problems that could have serious potential consequences if they are not dealt with soon. One of the most often popularized problems is that of global warming. Global warming, also called the greenhouse affect, occurs when gasses are trapped near the surface of the earth, much as heat is trapped in a greenhouse. The fact that global warming is occurring at such an increased rate of speed concerns many scientists. These scientists have developed a variety of models that study the effects of global warming over years. Because global warming increases temperatures, it is dangerous to polar icecaps. The ultimate effect of the greenhouse effect on these icecaps is melting, which would raise sea levels and eventually drown some islands and countries, forcing their inhabitants to relocate and causing congestion in an already overpopulated world ("Global Warming"). Other issues that our environment faces today include air pollution, radiation, acid rain, and toxic chemicals seeping into water and dirt. Although global warming may be the primary focus of environmentalists today, these problems are similarly severe. For instance, air pollution is a serious environmental problem with consequences for humans and animals. One of the most notorious consequences of air pollution is acidity, most often known as acid rain. Air pollution causes chemicals to build up in precipitation, which then makes water polluted. This can be harmful to fish and aquatic plants. Humans who eat the fish and aquatic plants are similarly harmed. Furthermore, buildings can become corroded because of the large amounts of acid in the water. Air pollution also leads to the depletion of the ozone layer, a protective screen against harmful UV rays. Without the ozone layer, humans are more susceptible to skin cancers, and certain types… [read more]

Global Environment Problem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (344 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Confronting International Environmental Issues: Over Fishing

Over fishing of international waters by commercial fisheries places a severe, if often unnoticed, burden on the ecological foundations of the world's oceans. The oceans, which cover roughly 70% of the Earth's service perform vital ecological functions -- not to mention providing 15% of the world's protein supply in the form of seafood. However, to supply that food requires the harvesting of more than 900 million tons of seafood every year, much of which is simply wasted ("Ravaging"). The result of this unchecked harvest has been dwindling supplies of marine fish populations, such as the North Atlantic cod, as well as economic and ecological effects.

Some organizations have taken a particular interest in addressing this international environmental issue. AIDA collaborates with governments and partner organizations to improve the regulatory mechanisms in place for appropriate marine resources management. By assisting and motivate governments to reform and improve marine policies, AIDA hopes to help protect these resources before they are irrevocably damaged ("Ravaging"). For example, AIDA worked…… [read more]

Green Living Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,701 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Green Here to Stay?

The "Green Movement" encompasses the ideology of ecology, conservation, environmental concerns, the feminist movement, and peace movement. If it sounds like the hippies of the 1960s grown up, it is probably at least partially true. Everything is going "green" from building materials to political parties. The "green" ticket is the rallying cry for those… [read more]

Population Growth and Human Activities on the Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (766 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Population growth is a serious issue facing today's civilization. For example, there are currently over 6.6 billion people living on earth, with one-fifth of the world's total population living on the coast of the Indian Ocean. Further, in the not so distant future, this total earth population is predicted to rise to at least 9 billion.

Population growth is the total change in population over a period of time. It is measured by the formula: Growth rate = {births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration}/population. Thus, in the world, such things as birth and immigration effect the rate of population growth. In the United States currently, population growth is heavily influenced by immigration. Other factors related are the level of health care, as the better a population's healthcare system the lower the rates of death and thus the higher the rate of population growth.

If population growth goes unchecked, eventually overcrowded conditions occur, which leads to a diminishing of necessary resources and thus an eventual decrease in population growth. For example one could say that the carrying capacity of the planet depends on the amount of oil available as it is needed, currently, for heat and other necessary life sustaining activities. Demographic transition describes the moving of a population in accordance to gaining better access to necessary resources. This may be seen as coastal waters rise and the heavily populated coastal regions begin to flood. This being said, the future population and development of our planet will be continued rapid population growth in low-developed areas with an eventual shift of general population location towards the planet's interiors.

Migration also plays an important role in population growth. As people migrate from one place to another for numerous reasons. Most often migration occurs in order to gain access to better economic and political conditions, however other factors include climate, recreation and employment opportunities. Therefore, the push and pull factors of migration depend on the migrating population. For poorer populations, the factors are typically political and economical. For richer populations, the factors are typically for personal betterment.

There are also different types of migration. For example, place utility means the benefit offered by the location being migrated to. The migration field is the total group of all migrants. Step migration refers to a migration shift…… [read more]

Ecological Impact of Population Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (874 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Ecological Impact of Population Growth

Population Growth, the Environment, and Community Interactions:

In principle, the relationship between population size and the environment is very simple and equally direct. Living organisms consume natural resources to provide for their energy needs. The specific mechanism through which they accomplish this vary substantially: some organisms consume other living organisms; some consume only other organisms' waste products, or scavenge their left-over consumables; still others manufacture their energy by synthesizing energy from sunlight and elements occurring naturally in the gaseous atmosphere.

The unidirectional dependence of organisms that consume other organisms upon the continued availability of the latter is obvious, but what is less sometimes less apparent is the mutual interdependence of the continued health and viability of species who do not necessarily interact directly, such as where each interacts directly only with a third species or affects the state of other natural resources necessary for the survival of the first species (Castilla, 1999).

In the natural world, populations of predator species co-evolve with populations of prey species, with predation and the defenses it necessitates sometimes driving the evolution of traits beneficial to prey species in other respects as well. At the other spectrum of species interdependence are those unrelated except through coincidental circumstances, but whose parallel evolution links their continued viability to each other nevertheless. Consequently, significant changes in the population of one species often has the potential to affect other species, sometimes to the extent that population increases in one can, in only a few generations, completely wipe out one or more other indigenous species (Castilla, 1999).

Community interactions between and among species transcends the one- dimensional relationship between those who consume each other (or each other's wastes and byproducts). Certain species may rely heavily on non-consumable vital resources provided by another for securing suitable shelter, for one example; another species population may depend on the predation of its primary competitors by a third species, for another example (CWAC, 2007).

Human activity and population growth also plays a vital role in shaping ecological niches, and in many respects, to a degree that is completely out of proportion to the nature of non-human species, primarily because human technology often result in ecological changes occurring in the very short-term that far exceed the magnitude of ecological changes that normally take place only in the very long-term without human contribution.

The Effects of Human Activity on the Environment:

By virtue of our intelligence and technological achievements, human beings have the proven capability to alter global resources and other fundamental ecological elements of the biosphere far beyond the ability of any other species. Nevertheless, primarily because…… [read more]

California Ground Squirrel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,298 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Monterey Bay

The environment has clearly been impacted by human habitation. We recognize the damaging effects of much of modern life, but there has been a human impact on the environment extending back much further in history. The concentration of the human population into certain areas had an effect on the ecology of those areas on several levels, from the… [read more]

Population Growth in Putting Increasing Stress on the Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,916 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Population Growth Stress on Environment

The world population has increased exponentially over the last 100 years, as technology and development outstrip the ability of the fragile planet to absorb the massive influx of polluting and needy people. To survive people must have land, water and fuel and yet, upon the earth such elements are finite, unless technology meets the demand… [read more]

Biology/Ecology the Global Ecological Problem of Invasive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,289 words)
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The global ecological problem of invasive species has been widely documented. Indeed, this is the cause of not only ecological, but also economic and other related problems. What struck me most about Susan McGrath's article, "Attack of the Alien Invaders" in the National Geographic of March 2005, is the sheer extent of the problem. While I was aware of the phenomenon, I had no understanding of the widespread and diverse nature of the problem itself. I therefore believe that articles such as Ms. McGrath's are vital in the contemporary human fight against global ecological decay. It is only through awareness that human beings can make the changes needed to ensure the future for their future generations.

The article also seems to focus on both positive and negative aspects of alien species invading native ecosystems. While the ecological and economic effects are generally negative, I found it interesting that some positive aspects are also associated with the problem. One of these positive aspects is the work opportunities created by the invasive species. Individual families can benefit economically from helping with the effort to eradicate harmful alien weeds and plants from their native soil. This provides a valuable service while also providing income for persons who have been unemployed for years. According to the author, this provides not only much-needed income, but also a previously unknown boost in self-esteem: the workers are accomplishing a much-needed task. In effect then, such employment opportunities create a positive impact on the economy in terms of unemployment numbers. This seems to be particularly applicable to third-world countries, where poverty is rampant. Hence one could say that invasive species do have a positive economic impact in certain cases. It must also be mentioned however that some of these "opportunities" are volunteer-based, and the only reward is a sense of assisting with the ecology in an attempt to ensure the earth's and humanity's future.

The negative impacts however appear to far outweigh whatever positive outcomes could be extracted from invading species. Personally, I found the sheer dollar value of eradicating and controlling these species shocking. If the U.S. alone spends $140 billion on the problem, with all the technology and expertise at the country's disposal, surely the crisis must be much worse in less developed countries. An aspect that I never considered with regard to invasive species and the economy is tourism. Ms. Garth for example mentions the case of the coqui frog in Hawaii. The lightning-speed spread and the noise the frog makes have not only irritated natives, but also had a severe impact on tourism. As Hawaii is a very prominent travel destination, this impact is also severely reflected in the economy. The article appears rather gloomy regarding prospects of eradicating the frog.

Another fascinating aspect of the article is the way in which invasive species made their journeys to locations all over the globe. There appears to be two categories: intentional transportation via human assisted means, and unintentional transportation. Ironically, the intentional transport of… [read more]

Environmental Influences Environment and Environment Factors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (892 words)
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Environmental Influences

Environment and environment factors are often extremely important influences in an individual's life and development. There are numerous environmental factors that affect both psychological and social aspects of a persons's life. These can include the home and family environment in which one lives; or the social and neighborhood environment that have a profound affect on the way we perceive others and view the world. Other environmental factors can include the school or educational environments and later the working environment that can influence and determine the way we interact and react to others. The central aim of this essay it is show the ways that environment plays an extremely important part in understanding our world and ourselves. This essay will also attempt to show that environmental factors are largely responsible for an individual's development and identity.

The term environment therefore refers to the various factors in a certain place or situation that combine to affect and influence our lives and the way we view the word around us. The word environment refers basically to that which surrounds us. Environment is usually understood as something "outside" the individual that impinges or interacts with the person and in the process influences that person. In essence the individual is to a great extent shaped and motivated by the environment in which he or he grows up, lives, works and plays.

One of the most important and fundamental environments that affects us all is the home and family environment. This is the first environment that we encounter and it has a profound and long lasting effect on the individual in terms of identity and individuality. There are many studies and research reports that show that home and family environment is a crucial factor which influences the developing child.

The influence of this environment can also have an affect on the individual that lasts into later life. For example, there are numerous studies that have shown that many juvenile delinquents come from a home environment that is often characterized by breakdown or tension. This refers to a home or family background that is dysfunctional or extremely unsettled. On the other hand this does not man that all broken home lead to delinquency. Rather the findings point to the fact that a negative or poor home environment can influence a child negatively. For instance it is commonly accepted that in many cases a home or family environment that is filled with conflict and a lack of care can have a negative psychological impact on child development. A negative home environment can lead to problems such as learning dysfunctions and other issues related to child development.

On the other hand there are…… [read more]

Caspian Sea Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,178 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ecology/Caspian Sea

Community Concepts

The concept of community is one that has defied definition for centuries, even among individuals in the field of ecology. While all agree that a community involves a group of species together in the same area, and that those species must co-exist and interact competitively for resources, the actual definition of a community concept is varied… [read more]

International Trade and Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,473 words)
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¶ … free trade and whether it is good or bad for the environment. The writer examines the exodus of American companies that are finding it financially advantageous to move their operations overseas. The writer looks at why they are doing it, what the advantages and disadvantages are and how it will ultimately impact the environment. The writer also looks… [read more]

Ecology of a Cracker Childhood Last Five Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (412 words)
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Ecology of a Cracker Childhood

Last Five Chapters -- Quotation from "The Kindest Cut"

By 2050 they'll be twelve billion people on earth demanding food, water, television sets, whatever people demand," he says, "I am really worried about it. (264)

This quotation, from Leon, demonstrates that the people of the pinelands of East George that are chronicled in the words Janiesse Ray in Ecology of a Cracker Childhood, do not use the woods they depend upon carelessly, and without thought. It does not matter whether they are educated or not. The speaker, Leon, is a man who uses and gardens the natural world, with respect for its power and beauty as well as depends upon it for his life and livelihood. He is a fine tiller of the greenery around him, and Ray commends the beauty of his prize grove. Then, he makes this outburst, despite the fact that he is an older man whose existence predates that of the modern environmentalist movement. These words show that Leon is also able to put the human use of the land in proper political and philosophical perspective. He makes "kind" cuts in the forest, to use the title of the chapter, rather than destructive cuts.

As he looks…… [read more]

Ecology of a Cracker Childhood Clearcut: Chapter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (372 words)
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Ecology of a Cracker Childhood

Clearcut: Chapter 10

One of the most potently titled chapters of Janisse Ray's book is the chapter entitled "Clearcut." As is evidenced by the illustration on page 123, the clear cut is a kind of forest cutting. Yet clearcut also has the resonance of something that is clearly cut or denoted. However, Ray makes clear that the moral resonance of "cutting" clear the forest is anything but certain. The only thing that is "clearcut" is God's moral judgment upon the arrogant.

I'd say, pray extra hard; and pray hard when you're hauling them away. God doesn't like a clearcut. It makes his heart turn cold, makes him wince and wonder what went wrong with his creation, and sets him to thinking what spoils the child." (123)

Ray creates a delicate balance between faith and ecology in this quoted passage. She knows that it is necessary, at times, for humanity to clear the forest and to clear forest passages of pine. But it also is an act of human arrogance to shape the forest and to kill God's created leaves and pine.…… [read more]

Ecology of a Cracker Childhood Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (446 words)
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Ecology of a Cracker Childhood

In south Georgia everything is flat and wide. Not empty. My people live among the mobile homes, junked cars, pine plantations, clearcuts, and fields. They live among the lost forests.

The creation ends in south Georgia, at the very end of the sweet earth."

Even before one opens to the first page of the first chapter of Janisse Ray's Ecology of a Cracker Childhood, a reader is startled by the author's choice of title. "Cracker" is usually used as a negative epithet in the Southern United States to denote someone who is white, but poor and thus low in social status and class, and hence is considered a redneck. But the term ecology implies the book is about the natural and scientific relationship of the earth to humanity. Yet this opening quote about the narrator's life in South Georgia clues the reader as to how the social status of being a poor white 'cracker' in the southern United States can relate to the natural life of the woods. The deep south of Georgia may be "flat and wide," but it is not devoid of interest or "empty" of human and animal life.

My people" -- the author speaks of her own people, poor people who live in much-mocked "mobile homes" amongst fields of "junked" cars, 'piney' people or…… [read more]

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