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Redesign Package System for Covergirl Cosmetic Line

Redesign Package System for CoverGirl Cosmetic Line The CoverGirl Packages Pollution and the threat of global warming are less and less perceived as a make believe phenomenon, as more and more people recognize the damages of man made activities onto the natural environment. These hurtful activities include everything from forgetting to turn off the light in the bathroom or driving…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 7


Impact of Economics Development to Environmental in Canada

¶ … Economics Development to Environment in Canada There is no doubt that economic development is vital for both developed as well as developing nations for the general improvement in the standard of living and for their citizens to achieve their complete human potential. Economic development is a dire necessity for the financial well-being and economic stability of Canada. It…

Pages: 10  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 12


Oil Spill

Oil Spills In some form or another, whether it be from seepage, minor accident or outright oil spill, the entrance of oil into the natural environment is extremely problematic. It is a major form of pollution and one that is more common than most people realize. Though major oil spill disasters such as the famous American example of the Exxon Valdez and the more recent disaster in the San Francisco Bay tend to suggest that the oil spill is a terrible but rare occurrence, it is instead fair to say that the violation of our natural habitats by the presence of oil is an all too common reality. One of the biggest considerations on this subject is the relationship between the amount of oil that Americans consume and the heightened danger that is created for some type of accident or an ongoing exposure of the environment to the toxin in question. The fact that it is necessary for our waterways to be constantly consumed by this usage has placed in peril our environment, our wildlife, our primary sources of water and our own health and safety. This is the problem at the basis of the thesis argument of this research, that oil spills are a terrible ecological hazard which justify such dramatic resolutions as the establishment of a global ship safety standard for qualifications to haul oil and, even more aggressively important, to find ways to reduce America's dependency of fossil fuel and foreign oil. The November 2007 tanker spill in the San Francisco Bay will serve as the primary case example in this study given its recent impact and its occurrence in an area marked for its diversity of species, its aesthetic beauty and its popularity for recreation. Here, we are given a perfect example of many of the aspects of the oil shipping industry which are problematic. Particularly, there is evidence in reflection of the disaster that a number of aspects of federal management had failed, even in addition to the preventative steps which should have been taken. In the instance of a major oil spill, the "EPA is the lead federal response agency for oil spills occurring in inland waters, and the U.S. Coast Guard is the lead response agency for spills in coastal waters and deepwater ports." (USEPA, 1) in the case of the San Francisco disaster, the U.S. Coast Guard is said to have initially…

Pages: 3  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Sustainability and Reviews the Implications

Whiteman (1999) describes how human behavior is influenced by a variety of communication media. She notes that companies and policy makers have increasingly turned to the deployment of spin doctors, i.e. propagandists, public relations experts, and marketers, to effectively project their message and market their side of the environmental debate. She voices concern that the messages of scientific experts can become overshadowed or manipulated. Whiteman therefore argues for the mobilization of marketing efforts among environmental scientists and academics. She makes the case for marketing for social and environmental change, which marketing shares the same fundamentals as the marketing of consumer packaged goods. Whiteman suggest the use of guerilla marketing tactics to promote a sustainability agenda. The ability to advance sustainable human development is at least in part dependent on being able to set goals and track progress. The Global Footprint Network (2011) identifies two indicators that are useful for monitoring the human development initiative. The first indicator, ecological footprint data, reveal that given current population and available land area, an ecological footprint of less than 1.8 global hectares per person makes a country's resource demands globally replicable. The other measurement, the United Nations' human development index (HDI) -- which measures a country's average achievements in the areas of health, knowledge, and standard of living -- tells us that an HDI higher than 0.8 is considered "high human development." Combining these two indicators produces clear minimum conditions for sustainable human development, and shows how much more progress needs to take place. In spite of growing commitments to sustainable development, most countries today do not meet both minimum requirements. As individuals, organizations, countries and regions work to advance sustainability and human development, decision makers need data and metrics to be able to set goals and track progress. Measures such as the ecological footprint and the HDI are critical to setting targets and managing development projects (Global Footprint Network, 2011). Our investigation paper, Airlines Strict Policies: Beneficial or Not, also argues in favor of business sustainability. Even though many airlines have policies that frustrate and alienate customers, they cannot escape the very real limitations of customer satisfaction failures. As the competition for airline travel dollars gets fiercer, companies who cannot compete on the basis of providing a quality travel experience may well find themselves in a Darwinian selection quandary. This is an appropriate outcome, their customer-unfriendly service does not meet the requirements for…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Ecological Imperialism and Marx's Capitalism Imperialism Is

ECOLOGICAL IMPERIALISM and MARX'S CAPITALISM Imperialism is a well-understood concept and the mere mention of the word generates extreme sentiments of resentment and bitterness against certain nations of the world. When imperialism in politics was destroying the colonies, there was another phenomenon at work, which had also been working hand in hand. It was called ecological imperialism where entire ecologies of colonies were changed because of imperial influences. Alfred W. Crosby first brought this forward in 1986 in his book Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. In this book, he presented his thesis that imperialism did not only change the political and social structures of colonies but also affected their ecological systems as rest of the world was colonized. These colonies served as main hub of crop exports for Europe and Crosby calls them Neo-Europes. These regions suffered immensely as imperialist rulers gradually destroyed their environment advertently or inadvertently. This resulted in many environmental issues such as Eastern Canada experienced a serious decline in its water tables. Crosby makes a very strong case against imperialism while highlighting its "a biological, an ecological component," saying that 'ecological imperialism' was used as just another means of stamping authority on colonies. This was as critical to the success of European rulers as any political tool. This could allow them a feeling of "superiority in arms, organization, and fanaticism" (Crosby: 7). While Crosby did not bring in the capitalist view and neither did he try to connect the biological side with the political, the fact remains that ecological imperialism worked in the same way as capitalism did. According to Marx's argument against capitalism, it was a force that treated laborers as machines and did not give them the value they deserved. This degradation of work leads to degradation of environment and ecology. A very good example of this would be the massive physical changes we have witnessed in earth's surface over the years. The ozone layer depletion is the case in point. It is not due to increased population or any other factor but mainly due to capitalism that ecology has suffered seriously. It is not only the large number of workers alone but their concentration in small areas which is the real cause of environmental damage. Marx thus argued, "But with the development of industry the proletariat not only increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength grows,…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 2


Striped Bass Recovery in the Hudson

Striped Bass The Hudson River is the second largest estuary on the east coast, and is one of the largest spawning grounds for the striped bass. In the past, however, pollution in the Hudson had caused a drastic reduction in spawning area, and a severe reduction in the number of striped bass within the river. Recently, the Hudson has experienced…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Turabian  |  Sources: 2


Environmental Governance

Evans (2011) reflected these visions in his discussion of "adaptive governance" as humanity and environment's way of coping with the inevitable ecological changes happening to Earth and human societies now and will continue to happen in the following years. For Evans, Earth and humans will undergo a transformation reflective of the "complex adaptive systems," which undergo an adaptive cycle when a change happens. Adaptive governance will come in as humans will adapt to ecological changes on Earth, and will have to go through different processes consistent with the four phases of the adaptive cycle: r-phase -- stable systems/growth ( K-phase-close adaptation to the environment/conservation ( ( phase- rapid breakdown of the system/release ( ( phase- renewal/reorganization (184-5). Levin et al.'s (2010) take on ecological sustainability and environmental governance reflects the institutionalist viewpoint, wherein dealing with the "wicked problem" of ecological sustainability requires the establishment of a higher social order that influences policy and social planning on environmental conservation at an international level (23). Voss and Kemp (2006) described the aspect of higher social order in influencing social planning and policy as an approach called "reflexive governance." This concept requires "symmetry of action" among the actors and players relevant to governance of institutions and systems that will survive or remain despite ecological changes (26). From this current literature on ecological sustainability and environmental governance, all authors acknowledge that in the years to come, there will come a major change in the world that will affect all of humanity, despite a society or nation's sociopolitical power and cultural influence. What is apparent in the discussions of environmental governance is that humanity must be united in order to deal with this ecological change that will, without a doubt, happen. Humanity's way of coping with this change would be critical in the re-establishment of a new social order, this time significantly governed and influenced by environmental/ecological changes, shifts or movements. References Clapp and Dauvergne. (2011). "Paths to a green world? Four visions of a healthy global environment." (faxed material). Evans, J.P. (2011). Environmental governance. London: Routledge. Levine, K., B. Cashore, and S. Bernstein. (2010). "Playing it forward: Path dependency, progressive incrementalism, and the "super wicked" problem of global climate change." Paper presented in Climate change: Global risks, challenges and decisions congress, March 2009. Voss, J. And R. Kemp.……

Pages: 3  |  Article Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Apolitical Ecology What Is Apolitical

Who will win these scrimmages? The stereotyping of oil companies as great friends of the environment is not a new effort nor will it be over anytime soon. But what matters is the political ecologist's ability to "trace the contextual forces that constrain and direct more immediate outcomes," and moreover the political ecologist must record fully objective explanations of the outcomes of the war between eco-activists, scholars, biologists and other scientists -- and the energy companies like Shell that plan to drill in the Arctic, where polar bears are making what appears to be their last stand as global warming melts the ice floes that they have relied on for eons. Robbins doesn't say it, but radical protests like Greenpeace activists have recently pulled off (shutting down 74 Shell gasoline stations in England to protest drilling in the Arctic, which is believed to be harmful to the survival of the endangered polar bear) could be considered political ecology. No, political ecology is not a theory, and yes, it has deep roots in the environmental movement; but moreover, as Robbins writes on page 84, political ecology is "a kind of method, something that people do." What Greenpeace does is bring ecologically controversial issues to public attention, using techniques that are risky and provocative, but they also "defend" (a word Robbins uses on page 86 to describe political ecology) the……

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 0


Ecology it Is Important for

Large hunting animals such as panthers and alligators are both well-known and adopted mascots of the state yet survive in such differing ecological environments. This type of biodiversity both has positive and negative impacts on the quality of the region. The Human Impact on Florida's Ecosystem The state of Florida draws many people to visit and lie due to its temperate climate and unique offerings in terms of human developments. The state of Florida grows in population every year and continues to grow larger and produce more of a human footprint on the ecosystem. There is a serious and perhaps mysterious human effect on the ecosystems of Florida. Global warming is a general term and cannot be qualified as good or bad in many cases, but especially here in Florida. While massive deforestation has affected this state of the years the exact toll on the ecosystem is unknown. Humans have a tendency to destroy natural processes and implement their own version, but is this not nature at some level too? The incredible and miraculous development of the environment is beyond human recognition and cannot be duplicated in the lab. Florida's ecosystem should be respected for its creative properties and nor viewed as something to be dominated or to compete with. This region's ecosystem is to be enjoyed and used not protected and fenced off. This dilemma provides a problem for those interested in preserving environmental factors. Nature and ecosystems require death, destruction and change in order to preserve their survival. Humans to be aware of this and focus on how they can constructively contribute to the environment's destruction while promoting its growth simultaneously. Works Cited Environment Florida Website. Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.environmentflorida.org/ Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/ Landscope America. "Ecosystems and Habitats in Florida." Viewed on 5 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://www.landscope.org/florida/ecosystems/…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Extending Landscape Ecology Principles and

Scientists need to have a larger spatial and temporal perspective in order to generate better solutions to the current high extinction rate of aquatic creatures. Landscape ecology, dealing with large scale and connectivity, is, they argue, beneficial for providing scientists with enhanced insights. Using the model of Isaac Schlosser and colleagues who, integrating landscape theory with aquatic context, suggested that fish movement synchronies physical and biotic systems in streams, Fausch et al. (2002) suggested that employment of this model may be used to propose a new approach for stream fish ecology and preservation. They propose five principles as a result for more effective research and conservation of stream fishes and, in short, show how integration of landscape ecology principles and applications into aquatic environments can help scientists in at least four areas. These are: (1) bettering the habitat for endangered and threatened species, (2) preventing invasions of a different kind (specially hostile) species, (3) managing the ecosystems to monitor pools of fishes for sport or commercial fishing and (4) addressing long-term and more immediate threats of climate change. To be most effective in conserving fish and in preventing them from disappearing as rapidly as they are, researchers, scientists, biologists, conservation managers and anyone concerned with their maintenance would need to study them as their perspective of their scope and life history in which they function. To do so needs more of the bird's eye view with which we see their appearance. In fact, it needs integrating landscape theory with aquatic in order to address questions and structure and implement management strategies at a larger scope and design than had been done until now. Doing so will ensure that more stream fish, and a greater diversity of stream fish will be sustained for future generations. References Fausch, K., Torgerseon, C., Baxter, C., & Li, H. (2002)., Landscapes to Riverscapes: Bridging the Gap between Research and Conservation of Stream……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Social Ecology of Health

As depicted in many developed nations, food production has increased because of the interventions that have been adopted through Green Revolution. In many developed nations, Green Revolution has resulted in increased food production. Together with food production, the environment has been sustained except through manufacturing sectors. Food production, being the main intention behind Green Revolution, has been boosted globally food…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 9


Ecology and Ecosystem

ECOLOGY and ECOSYSTEM -- Virginia Beach The Hampton Roads area in the state of Virginia is particularly important because of the role it played from the colonization time and until the present day. The location is known to have a series of factors making it rather unique, such as the fact that the natural harbor it holds is ice-free all across the year. The harbor is very important in the larger context involving the country's security and economy. When concerning the ecosystem present in the coastal areas of Virginia, one can observe how it is particularly rich and assorted. There are apparently many endangered species in the territory, with the authorities in Virginia giving their best in order to protect the area. The Hampton Roads ecosystem provides the world with one of the most important entertaining and profitable fishing-related activities. Standing between waters and coastal lands are beaches, wetlands, and marshes, all of them being responsible for protecting human-inhabited territories from the threat of various weather phenomena. Even with that, most of these natural barriers are endangered and it is essential for authorities to control the situation (Almond). The harbor is one of the most important areas in Virginia, mainly because of the revenues it generates. This Hampton Roads region stands as an attraction for tourism and for people who want to move to area holding an assorted environment. The natural harbor, the Chesapeake Bay area, and the three important rivers in the territory cooperate in creating a very diverse natural ecology. The Atlantic Ocean's tidewaters have virtually shaped Hampton Beach's economy and have provided people with a great deal of job-opportunities (Koebel). The Virginia Beach area experienced a rapid growth in population during the last three decades, as people have flowed into the territory attracted by its diversity and generally because they believed this was a good place to live in. Matters have changed in the recent years however, as individuals have expressed lesser interest in wanting to move to Virginia Beach and numerous people have actually moved out of the area. This is most probably because prices have gone up significantly and people can no longer afford to live in Virginia Beach. One could explain this increase in price through analyzing the people that lived in Hampton Beach when its activities were mainly related to defense strategies and shipping (Koebel). At that time, most individuals in the territory…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Political Ecology Approach on Water Contamination in China

China Water Political Ecology in the Developing World: The Problem of Clean Drinking Water in China Environmental issues remain highly controversial and receive a lot of attention by today's media and today's politicians, with topics like global warming and the latest corporate environmental disaster -- whether it is oil gushing into the Gulf of Mexico or some toxic cloud spewing…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Energy Conservation: Mitigation Strategies and Solutions in

Energy Conservation: Mitigation Strategies and Solutions In order to realize a savings in terms of the preservation of matters of the ecological environment then required is things of the nature of 'low impact' in terms of living solutions. One such 'low impact' solution is related in an article that relates an initiative of: "Ecological Preservation at the Heart of Dynamic…

Pages: 6  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Law Help Protect the Environment

Ultimately, too many other variables are involved in accomplishing the success of the legal policies and, as this review has shown, compliance with not only the latter of the law but also the spirit of the law, ultimately, rests on motivation of businesses and citizens to cooperate in protecting the environment. How this can be done will be addressed in…

Pages: 10  |  Research Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 11


Environment the Humanity Has Experienced

2. Environmental economics is the brainchild of the classical economy theory, suggesting that the best solution to everything in the society -- politics, social issues, environmental management -- is the market. Protecting the environment through market mechanisms, according to environmental economics, is the best way of preserving it. Proponents of environmental economics focus on environmental pollution and depletion of natural resources. Environmental economists try to address these problems by pricing environmental goods, services, and risks with a monetary value. They mostly place a monetary value by surveying the population on how much they are willing to pay for certain environmental goods, services, and risks. Environmental economics also favor taxes rather than other punitive or preventive policies in protecting the environment. There are fundamental problems with the foundation of environmental economics. There are too many things in the environment that cannot be measured in money. Setting prices for certain environmental goods, services, and risks is ultimately misleading and dangerous. Risks of climate change in the Arctic regions -- or the planet itself, for that matter -- cannot be measured in monetary values. Business activities may inflict irreparable damage to the environment or lead to numerous health problems if not pursued with ecological consciousness. Measuring these items in money only, especially based on how much people are willing to pay, is very problematic. Ultimately, environmental economics is concerned with economics first and the environment second, i.e. environmental economists are willing to sacrifice the environment for good economics. The better approach to preserving the natural environment therefore is ecological economics. Ecological economics is a more recent development, established in mid-1980s and draws from numerous ecological concepts. It suggests that markets should learn from and emulate the functioning of the natural ecology. An example of an ecological circular functioning the market can learn from is the assimilative capacity of the environment -- its ability to treat and absorb harmlessly a certain level of polluting waste. The market economy, ecological economists argue, can embrace the law of the thermodynamics -- that is, a circular economy in which waste products become the input into new production processes. The market economy, on the contrary, today operates based on a principle of profit maximization. For example, many people today prefer dumping recyclable products that contain toxic materials into landfills rather than reuse or repair them. And many businesses that produce goods operate in such a manner that recycling…

Pages: 4  |  Case Study  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Human Activity on the Environment in Iran

¶ … Human Activity on the Environment in Iran With a population of 71.4 million, the Islamic Republic of Iran is the most populous country in Central and South Asia and the 16th in the world, at the same time the second largest economy in the region with a Gross Domestic Product of U.S.$110 billion (UNICEF 2005). Iran is also…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


How Ecology Is Important and Shapes Fashion

Ecology and Fashion How ecology is important and shapes fashion Ecology can be defined simply as the study of how people interact with their environment. It has been very important to us and many have considered it as part of their lives in order to secure their future and provide better life. However, a number of people still do not…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Car Pollution and Environment Global

Moreover, it was also reported that the major contributor of air pollution is vehicles. It has been established by many medical researches that the emissions produced by the vehicles on the roads are responsible for making the heart and lung diseases worse for the people. Those who are suffering from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema or any other disease…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Wildlife Ecology and Conservation There

http://www.scientificamerican.com/ Books -- For the library, the books should be more reference in focus since many materials become dated so easily. The books chosen should be well respected within the field and contribute to the needs of the organization: 1. Tri-part set: Texas Wildlife, Texas Birds, Texas Trees and Wildflowers -- Nature guides written by James Kavanagh; illustrated and laminated for field use. See: http://www.amazon.com/Texas-Wildlife-Introduction-Familiar-Species/dp/1583552545/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1381005255&sr=1-2&keywords=texas+wildlife 2. Hodge, L. (2000). Official Guide to Texas Wildlife Management Areas. Austin: Texas Parks and Wildlife Press. Overview of Texas' 51 wildlife management areas including detailed descriptions and locator maps. 3. Kareiva, P. & Marvier, M. (2010). Conservation Science: Balancing the Needs of People and Nature. New York: Roberts and Company. More of a textbook, but an up-to-date reference on conservation science, particularly the role of balancing development with conservation principles. 4. Epstein, M., et al. (2008). Making Sustainability Work: Best Practices in Managing and Measuring Corporate Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts. London and San Francisco: Greenleaf Publishing Company. In recent years it has become obvious that there needs to be a balance between corporate development, environmental conservation, and governmental regulations. This would be an important reference book to help employees understand how managing sustainability requires all stakeholders working together. 5. Depending on budget, a selection of one or more of the Texas Natural History Guides. These include publications devoted to snakes, waterfowl, wildflowers, and more. It would be wise for the organization to stock as many of these as possible for reference materials. http://utpress.utexas.edu/index.php/books/series/series/Texas-Natural-History-Guides%E2%84%A2…

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Conservation Biology

Conservation Biology The objective of the study is to conduct a quantitative evaluation of the impact of oceanic currents on the migration trajectories of marine animals. This will then be used to project and investigate the consequences of existing tracking analysis. To accomplish this, the method involved an analysis of the trajectory of an Argos-tracked female leatherback turtle. This trajectory spanned some 11,635 km. A combination of satellite and tracking technology was used to determine the trajectory and obtain results. The results show a strong compass sense in leatherback turtle, as the observed specimen maintained a steady heading for a considerable part of her trajectory. Significantly, this would not be detectable without current correction. When completing the trajectory, the results show that almost half of the displacement observed was due to the current drift. The results indicate that further study and in-depth knowledge of the currents are required to understand the specific elements of the trajectory. 2) The study highlights several important issues in terms of conservation. One of these, in a very general sense, is the fact that knowledge should never be assumed to be either absolute or completely accurate. In order to continue the conservation effort from a scientific viewpoint, both qualitative and quantitative results are required. The tracking of movements across the habitat is important in order to better understand the requirements of conserving such a habitat. Where trajectories are significant in size, like that of the leatherback turtle, the conservation effort should be particularly intensive, ensuring that the entire span of the trajectory is sustainable. The study also highlights the importance of quantitative track analyses to obtain important and accurate data on conservation issues such as feeding ground locations, migration areas, and the frequency of traveling and foraging for specific species. Understanding the animal's movement……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


What Is Better for Environmental Protection Conservation Preservation or Both?

Conservation Preservation Conservation and Preservation: An Emergent Compatibility Prior to the introduction of major legislation concerning the environment, it had been a popularly accepted notion that our utilization of the earth would be subject to no limitations. Our manifold purposes, pertaining to the expansion of commercial industries, the procurement of lands for residency, the optimization of geological settings for pedestrian…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Urban Ecology on the Ground Imitating and Implementing Success

Urban Ecology on the Ground: Imitating and Implementing Success Urban Ecology Advocacy in Miami Actually implementing advocacy programs can be much harder than one would suppose. There is the question of funding, planning, and executing program details in order to work and provide real results. Typically, advocacy groups are funded with primarily private donations. In many instances, these groups are…

Pages: 8  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 8


Environment Background for Guinea

Environment Background Guinea The environment of Guinea has changed dramatically within the past few generations. According to research, "Centuries of slash-and-burn agriculture have caused forested areas to be replaced by savanna woodland, grassland, or brush," (Advameg 2009). Massive recent development of industries, such as mining, has devastated the natural landscape and created a whole new look for the country. Between 1981 and 1985, nearly 89,000 acres of land were cut down annually. Landscape also devastated by mining and the increase of hydroelectric facilities. Lost of average 1.14% of its forest annually in more recent years, between 1990 to 1995. This then presents a huge disadvantage for much of the local population who has relied on agriculture and therefore the land. Thus, the environment contributes to the conflict in that it creates the context for poverty and dissent within local communities. All areas of the regions natural features has been negatively affected by exploitation; "Human encroachment and hunting have reduced Guinea's wildlife, especially its large mammals, and over fishing represents a threat to the nation's marine life," (Advameg 2009). Such depleted resources means poor local economies along based on lower numbers of the plentiful resource. Despite major profits from oil and……

Pages: 1  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Deep Ecology and Social Justice

¶ … Ecology Source Title: "Historical Consequences of Deforestation: Easter Island" Pollen analysis on Easter Island has provided a theory regarding the construction of the famous statues on the island that also explains how the society of the island natives first encountered by Europeans was in such a degraded and destitute state. Evidence form the pollen analysis suggests heavy deforestation…

Pages: 5  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Environmental Security

Environmental Security The environment and its preservation for future generations has become one of the most important current issues not only in general society, but also in the political arena. As such, the issue has enjoyed attention from the highest and most powerful entities. It is no longer a question of whether to pay political attention to the environment; it…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 25


Energy Conservation Process Basically Consists in Achieving

Energy conservation process basically consists in achieving the same results with smaller quantities of energy. Energy conservation has become a matter of extreme importance that is affecting life on Earth at all levels. This matter affects households, industrial consumers, and the state itself, in different ways. However, each of these affected parties tries to diminish energy consumption, for environmental purposes, for profit related purposes, or for energy policy purposes. The energy consumption distribution per sector in the United States is the following: transportation 28%, residential 21%, commercial 17%, and industrial 33%. As households are concerned, energy consumption distribution follows the following pattern: space conditioning 44%, water heating 13%, lighting 12%, refrigeration 8%, home electronics 6%, laundry appliances 5%, kitchen appliances 4%, and other uses 8% (DOE, 2007). Energy consumption affects the environment and its components, in the first place. Scientists have revealed that the climate is "getting hotter due to people burning fossil fuels like oil, coal, and gas that emit heat-trapping, greenhouse gases into the atmosphere" (Dinsdale, 2007). As a result of temperature rising, ice sheets in the Antarctic will melt, the Gulf Stream current will stop transporting heat across the Atlantic, and other irreversible disasters will produce. This could further lead to soils shrinkage and increased erosion. Also, sea levels will rise, which will cause some land to be lost in favor of the sea. A deteriorated climate will obviously affect plants and animals, therefore, affecting farmers as well. The water cycle is very likely to be affected, increasing the risk of droughts, the risk of flooding, and water consumption. Human health could also be severely affected. People are directly responsible for energy consumption and, therefore, for energy conservation. The human negative impact manifests through increased, and most of the times, useless energy consumption, which leads to terrible consequences, as mentioned above. This negative human impact can only be lessened by a positive one that is related to energy conservation. Energy conservation must be implemented by each regular individual by including this practice in one's lifestyle, by industrial consumers, and by the state through its energy policies and programs. Energy conservation strategies are usually developed for each sector that consumes energy. In 1975, in the transportation sector the federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy program was implemented. As a consequence, fuel economy significantly improved. However, the program's benefits were somehow reduced after 1990, due to changes in individuals' auto…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Biodiversity and Conservation in the Tropics

Biodiversity and Conservation in the Tropics Biodiversity and conservation have been difficult issues in the ecological field. This is not least so because of issues such as increasingly rapid species extinction and also the increasing human population and influence upon the natural environment. Nonetheless, ecologists are concerned about the conservation of biodiversity, as such conservation holds advantages not only for…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 10


Environmental Ethics Social Economics and Political Aspects

Environmental Ethics and Morality Ethics and Morality in Matters of the Planet and its Peoples It is an awe-inspiring natural world that humans have evolved into and inherited. In it, through it, and notwithstanding its fragile underpinnings, for better or for worse (more on the "worse" side than the "better") humans have carved out cities, countries, societies and standards of…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 0


Ecology Can Be Loosed Defined as the

Ecology can be loosed defined as the study of the distribution and abundance of living organism and such distributions are affected by interactions between organisms and their environment. The implicit reason that is included within environmental science is that ecology looks at the broad overview of how life is organized on this planet and the environments that they occupy. Ecology is an inter-disciplinary study because just like environmental science it uses principles from "an array of disciplines." Ecology is specifically important to environmental science because it is the study of the relationships between organisms and their natural environments. This is fundamental to the understanding of environmental science as a whole. In fact, ecology could be said to be the core science that impacts our knowledge of environmentalism. Through understanding ecology and the practices behind it, one can explore the quantitative understanding of biodiversity and how populations function within environments (barrameda, npg). Since these are the basic tools necessary to understand and measure the most fundamental aspects of the environment, ecology becomes an intrinsic part of most environmental science curriculums Ecology is especially useful in environmental science because it takes a relationship perspective when scientifically examining the environment. This is especially important in examining the relationships between individuals within certain species as well as the organizational methods and activities of the species within a community setting (barrameda, npg). It is precisely because ecology takes a close examination of a quantitative approach to organisms and their behavior within their environment that it is considered the backbone of environmental science. The field of ecology has expanded at an exponential pace in the last half of the 20th century, although ecology's roots can be dated back to the time of Greek inquiries into science. It wasn't however until the beginning of the 20th century that major interest within ecology and new technology helped to jumpstart this particular branch of science. Part of the reason for the growth of ecology is the increase in knowledge in many other disciplines such as geology, geography, chemistry, physics, etc. (botany, npg). Since ecology is an interdisciplinary study that transcends biology, its growth and prominence can be attributed to the expansion of human knowledge in many different areas of science. The study of ecology is expanding at a furious pace for several reasons. First, the definition of ecology has been expanded to cover much more territory than it formerly…

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Ecology of Commerce

¶ … Hawkens (1992) tells us that business has generally been seen as the problem to the environment, and whilst that is true, business may also be a part of the solution. At the moment, our present industrial economy is still in it beginning ecological stages where it is struggling to become something more sophisticated and substantial. In order to become so, Hawkens tell us, businesses will have to deal with and assess what they take (I..e input), what they make (I..e products / services), and what they waste. Chapter 2 deals with what businesses take. A business, like an organism, takes food and energy from the environment, but it consumes other renewable and non-renewable resources. It plunders the ecosystem in various ways. More so despite government regulations and attempts by activists, businesses have refused to face environmental issues and their responsibilities. Economic success is measured by growth and synonymous with that is plundering the environment. Business, however, is, in reality, "an efficient form of human endeavor with so many positive attributes, that it is difficult to comprehend how it has become so destructive" (57). industry sees environmentalism as slowing down its growth, but the concepts of industrial ecology can help businesses realize that the reverse is the case. Industrial ecology states that industrial processes that harm and waste are generally less economical and more costly in the long run. A cheaper and more economical way for industry is to tailor manufacturing by-products so that the y become the raw material of later processes. In other words, for instance, one recycles waste into useful products. Many companies indeed are beginning to recognize that "clean, less wasteful, more efficient manufacturing methods result in lower costs, greater savings, and increased productivity whilst enhancing workplace safety." (81). In this way, competition need not entail destructing the environment in order to 'progress'. On he contrary, destructing the environment may prove economically costly to the industry too, and it may better succeed by practicing greater environmental concern. Chapter 6 discusses the general Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) whose purpose has been to stimulate international trade by lowering tariffs and trade. Reading the small script of GATT, however, shows us that it does not encourage free trade as some might think and that it also threatens the global environment amongst other ills. The government and private individuals have time and……

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Ecology of Commerce

Ecology of Commerce What is Sustainable Manufacturing? Sustainable manufacturing is loosely defined as a business practice that takes into account the natural environment as part of its processes with an objective to have a minimal impact on the environment while undertaking its economic goals. It also encompasses the technologies that companies develop to transform the raw materials into finished products…

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Ecological Study Preservation and Conservation

The National Park Service adopted this idea in 1967. Policies of the National Park Service had allowed fishing but prevented hunting in the parks up until this time. John D. Rockefeller bought ranches border the Yellowstone Park in the 1930's and formed the Teton National Park. Hunting was not allowed on these ranches although hunting this area had been a regular for any hunters in the time preceding Rockefeller's purchases. The Elk rapidly reproduced and the populations of Elk became a problem. The Park Servicemen for lack of any other measures were routinely slaughtering Elk which infuriated the hungers. IV. Effects of the Practices of Preservation and Conservation: An Urban Ecosystem Analysis was performed of the New Orleans, Louisiana Metropolitan Area, by the American Forest Association. This study included portions of Jefferson, Orleans, and St. Bernard Parishes, in the building of a "green infrastructure" data layer for utilization in the community planning and development effort. The focus was gathering of reliable data concerning the region's canopy cover. Findings of the study were that the tree canopy cover in the city was beneficial to the city that was so great that when put in financial terms it equaled $7.1 million dollars a year in benefits from the tree cover. Furthermore, findings were that stormwater management benefited the growth of the trees and all other vegetation in the area to a great extent. This certainly is one instance of man's involvement benefiting nature. Conclusion: Although one may be able to present a good case for Natural Regulation in the environment the fact is that nature doesn't include within it process of natural regulation the allowances needed for the subsistence of mankind on the surface of the earth. The population of the earth has become of such great proportions that man's assistance to nature is a very necessary component and furthermore it has been proven to be effective in maintaining the biodiversity of the ecological system. The New Conservationists: The Environmental Movement 1962-1974 [Online] available at: http://www.ti.org/envirosihs.html National Forest Programme Ecosystem Conservation and Management [Online] available at: http://www.nfp.co.tz/studies_report/ecosystem/ecosystem.htm Urban Ecosystem Analysis (2001) Analysis of New Orleans, Louisiana Metropolitan Area: Calculating the Value of Nature [Online] available at http://64.233.161.104/search?1=cache.a0TVaG-mD61J.www.americanforests.org/downloa National Forest Programme "Ecosystem Conservation and Management" http://www.nfp.co.tz/studies_report/ecosystem/ecosystem.htm National Forest Programme "Ecosystem Conservation and Management" http://www.nfp.co.tz/studies_report/ecosystem/ecosystem.htm Covering of the Tree Tops This paper to be used for reference purposes only…

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Globalization and the Environment

Globalization and the Environment This work in writing will examine and thoroughly analyze the impact that globalization has had on the environment of the world. "Global environmental problems are increasingly important because of their impact on industrial activities, infrastructures, ecosystems, natural resources, biodiversity and human health. These problems can be managed and solved only through international cooperation, policy coordination, and…

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Pollution in the Environment Has

(pp: 1, 151) Several researchers have termed the environment in which we live today as a 'risk society', and the reason for this is, according to them, the fact that we are today living in a world that is full of unseen and unknown risks like nuclear radiation and the harmful effects it may have on today's as well as…

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Animal Dreams: Real Life Reflections

John Chrysostom saying water "represents death and internment, but also life and resurrection. When we plunge our head beneath water and then emerge, our old selves are lost. We are cleansed, we rise anew" (p. 902). The future of our culture and our ability to sustain life depends on mankind's commitment to the natural world (Magnuson, 902). The first step…

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Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Model Nursing

Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Model Nursing Theory Comparing the Conservation and Unitary Human Beings Models The first theory to be examined in this research is what is known as the Conservation Model, created by Myra Estrin Levine where she lived and practiced in Chicago and surrounding areas in Illinois. The model focuses on the implementation of nursing practices that caution conservation, and the moderate use of environmental resources in care strategies. Conservation is essentially the strategic control and use of resources in a tailored way that keeps the underlying patient in a more balanced state. Conservation as a primary way to maintain a sense of balance with both practice and patient health. There is a strong underlying focus on influences of what could be causing issues, therefore incorporating an approach which examines all of the systems within the functioning organism as a whole. Adaptation directly stems form conservation and because adaptations are changes that lead to better health and well being, they are sought after within such a theoretical foundation. The environment can provide resources to allow for needs to be met within a holistic approach to nursing practice. This would essentially allow nurses to focus on more holistic approaches that are often not seen as an option for the scientific structure of Western medicine. Conservation facilitates wholeness. The theory presents the idea that there is an organic balance within a state of wholeness which constitutes a harmony between the working systems and facilitating health. The end goal of this nursing strategy is essentially reaching a state of homeostasis, where the external environment helps the body regain balance within the internal functioning of the human system. Conservation can thus be used as a strategy to keep the parts working……

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Forest Ecosystem

Forest Ecosystem Sustainability and conservation of natural resources forest ecosystem Forest ecosystems are areas dominated by trees and contain various natural resources these resources are important and hence have to be sustained and conserved. There are several management practices that can be applied in this ecosystem for the continued sustenance and conservation of these resources. An example of a management practice is the creation of forest protected areas. Conservation of the natural forest ecosystem is the reason for existence of protected forest areas. Protected forest area comprises of a wide variety of initiates for management of the natural resources that are found in the forest ecosystems. The protected areas have strict legal status meaning that the ecosystems are under the government and hence no one has the ability to exploit the natural resources in the ecosystems and hence they are conserved and sustained. However within the protected areas there is creation of buffer zones that will act as physical barriers to the protected areas which support the protected area and at the same time provide local people with benefits that will ensure that there is no encroachment of the protected areas. Another practice is forest management that incorporates the harvesting of forest products under a framework that ensures there is sustainable management which aims to conserve biodiversity and benefiting local people at the same time. 2) Renewable and non-renewable energy sources in forest ecosystem. Energy sources from forest ecosystems can either be renewable or nonrenewable. The use of either energy resources has benefits and risks to the forest ecosystem. The forest ecosystem provides various nonrenewable energy sources. Nonrenewable energy resources will eventually be depleted over neither time, since they are nor renewable there is eventual need for development of sources that will meet the increasing energy demands. These include fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil that are from biological decomposition of organic matter that is dead found in the forest ecosystems. The use of these sources of energy has a disadvantage in that it can lead to pollution of water and air that can be harmful to animals and plants that are found in the forest ecosystem. The use of fossil fuel is……

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Landscapes Are Libraries Whose Information Is Ignored

¶ … Landscapes are libraries whose information is ignored by most academics (Showers) Soil conservation is currently an essential concept in the field of environmentalism and it is important for the masses to gain a more complex understanding concerning the role they can play in preserving soil. While many tend to believe that environmentalism is a relatively new matter, the…

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Social Ecology of Health

For the reason of advanced treatment often goes after the secondary treatment, in some cases it is termed as tertiary treatment (aeration basins for removal of phosphorous or addition of chemicals to the primary sedimentation basins) or substitute for secondary treatment (overland treatment flow of the primary effluent) (Hayden 2009). Adapting the process of activated sludge is in most cases for removal of phosphorous and nitrogen and a good example is this method is the treatment plan 23Ml/d that was commissioned in the year 1982, in British Columbia, Canada (1987 World Water). Wastewater from primary sedimentation basins flows to the biological reactor that is divided physical into five different zones by weirs and baffles. These zones include: 1. Zone aerobic fermentation (featured by low levels of dissolved oxygen and nitrates absence 2. Zone anoxic (low levels of dissolved oxygen and presence of nitrates) 3. Zone aerobic (aerated) 4. Secondary anoxic zone and 5. Final aeration zone The purpose of the first zone is conditioning the group of bacteria responsible for the removal of phosphorous by stressing them under conditions of low oxidation-reduction, which gives an outcome of phosphorous release equilibrium in the bacteria's cell. On exposure that is subsequent to enough supply of phosphorous and oxygen in the zones that are aerated, these cells accumulate rapidly phosphorous in a considerable manner in excess for the required metabolic requirements. Phosphorous is evicted from the system together with the waste activated sludge (Hayden 2009). The concept of synergism and how it impacts environmental health problems Literature reviews for epidemiologic and toxicology literature on the impacts of synergism depicted some scant evidence of synergisms from being exposed to a variety of chemical agents. Furthermore, the examples in which every constituent made measurable impacts, examples were available which linked exposures caused effects that were measureable which were not on observation when the constituents were observed individually at the same doses. From among the combined exposures of synergism, the impacts were more popular less than additive, instead of greater than additive (Hayden 2009). The pollution of air leads into similar impacts. For example, there are higher than additive effects to the pulmonary duty of guinea pigs from being exposed to particles of acid-coated zinc oxide sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ozone. On the other hand, additives have minimal impacts on the proliferation of rats' respiratory epithelium exposed to carbon particles, ammonium bi-sulphate, and O3 combined and…

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