Study "Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays 56-109

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Chicago: Planning and Urban Life Term Paper

… Chicago has used technology in order to put up urban farming. With the renovated housing, Chicago's equity will go up because with modernization comes increase in economy. Industries in Chicago are being built every day. This will bring employment, and… [read more]


Environmental Ethics Humans Term Paper

… Ethics

environmental ethics/HUMANS and the ENVIRONMENT

Ethics and Environment

Environmental Ethics: Oil and the Environment

One of the greatest dangers to the environment from human beings is the exploitation of oil reserves and the way that this exploitation upsets the natural balance in nature and is a major cause of environmental pollution. If we accept the view that human beings have an ethical obligation to protect the environment of this planet, then the continuing debate about the environmental impact of the use and search for oil and its negative effects on sensitive ecological systems should be at the top of the list of concerns.

This relates to my view of environmental ethics in the following way. I believe that human beings have an ethical responsibility to care for and protect the natural environment that sustains us. This sense of responsibly is important not only because we should care for other living things in our world but also because without a healthy environment human beings will in fact cease to exist. This is the danger that we face, as has been clearly outlined by scientists in their assessment of the reality of global warming.

Therefore, I feel that issues such as the search for oil in environmentally sensitive areas such as Alaska and the pollution of highly sensitive ocean and coastal ecosystems from oil spills, constitutes a major ethical problem that should be addressed by all human beings.

Oil and the Environment

Many reports and studies note that a central feature of the contemporary oil industry is the problem of environmental pollution. This problem is summarized by the fact that; "Oil is a Fossil fuel. Burnt fossil fuels release Carbon dioxide (CO2) into the Earth's atmosphere and thus contribute to Global warming" (Petroleum industry). If we are not ethically and environmentally responsible in terms of the way that oil is extracted from the earth and how it is transported, then we run the risk of not only increasing global warming and upsetting natural environmental balances but also of polluting the natural resources that we still have left.

The issue of oil pollution has been highlighted by the many recent oil spill disasters, such as the Gulf of Mexico incident and the previous Exxon Valdez spill. . The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 has been generally acknowledged by environmentalists to be one of the most severe ecological disasters in American history. This was preceded by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1998, when the tanker Exxon Valdez collided with an undersea reef and spilled an estimated ten million gallons of oil (Oil Spills and Disasters). In April, 2012, a semi- submersible drilling rig, the Deepwater Horizon, sank after an explosion in the Gulf of Mexico. This accident released more than 60-000 barrels of oil per day and created an environmental and ecological disaster which threatened the coastal ecosystems of the region. It is estimated that between 186 to 227 million gallons of crude were released in to the… [read more]


Water Awareness and Education Business Proposal

… Measuring results in order to evaluate whether the objectives have been reached is one of the most difficult undertakings. On one hand, quantitative measures can be used to evaluate the success of the project. One such measure would be the… [read more]


Geology Office of Governor Rick Scott State Essay

… Geology

Office of Governor Rick Scott

State of Florida

The Capitol

Monroe St.

(850) [HIDDEN] (fax)

Sincerely,

The office of the 45 the Governor of Florida, Rick Scott (4/22/2011): Florida Petitions EPA on clean water standards. http://www.flgov.com/2011/04/22/florida-petitions-epa-on-clean-water-standards/)

Office of Governor Rick Perry

Office of the Governor

Austin, Texas 78711-2428

Dear Governor Rick Perry:

Your struggle against smog and air pollution is noteworthy. In 2004, you created an air pollution early warning system that allows industry officers to take corrective and preemptive action before smog develops. This was a pioneering and innovative program that -- developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) - represented a major technological advance in air quality procedures in Texas. As you stated, this program proved to be aggressive and comprehensive. It was not only smog (and air pollution) that you targeted at the time, but your work also endeavors to target surface water quality and to respond rapidly to pollution and adverse conditions in drinking water. In fact, the TCEQ already operates more than eight continuous monitoring stations in waters around the state.

According to the research that I've conducted on the state of pollution in Texas, your work seems to be ongoing and the EPA seems to be giving you a tough time.

No wonder! Most of your problems seem to stem from the town's businessmen that run their huge factories and corporations that pollute your water with plastic. Businesses are profiting from the products they create but are also damaging the environment in the process. The latest BP oil spill incident is a prime example of the extent of damages that could occur if procedures to mitigate them are not put into effect.

A fact that you may be unaware of is that plastic causes grievous damage to Texas's lakes, streams, rivers and waterways in general in that it not only contaminates the water, but also, potentially, prevents tourists from returning.

Clearing up the plastic, it seems to me, will provide you with three advantages:

The first and most important is the environment damage caused by excess plastic disposal in the ocean; this will be dealt with. The second is the financial implication for Texas and Texan businesses if disposal measures are not enacted immediately. Eventually, as evident by the BP oil spill, negative publicity on the part of businesses can have adverse consequences on both revenue and profit. Also, research has proven that when pricing remains constant, consumers often purchase products from socially conscious and environmentally friendly companies. Dealing with the plastic problem will only help sustain business. Finally, your sense of justice and ethics will come out intact. 'Actions speak louder than words." Constituents willl see that you mean what you say, and say what you mean.

As you stated: "I believe Texans living in the Houston area will see the quality of the air they breathe improve through the new monitoring and response system we are announcing today."

It is not only the quality of the air that needs… [read more]


Environment "The Actions Term Paper

… "The plantation system and the initial overplanting of tobacco caused monocultural husbandry, which emphasized cash crops and depleted the soil. By the eighteenth century Virginia began suffering low yields, as the best lands were exhausted and eroding from overuse" (19). Since the crops were selling, any environmental effects were ignored. The primary concern of the day was money and the acquisition of it. Whatever was destroyed in the process was of little importance.

Settlement of the frontier was encouraged by Jefferson when he signed the Harrison Law Act, making it easier for American citizens to purchase land in the West (America.) After the expansion of the United States through the Louisiana Purchase, even more people ventured out into new territories. Thomas Jefferson sent surveyors Lewis and Clark to map and explore the newly acquired lands. "The immensity of the intervening wilderness appeared overwhelming and the challenge of subduing it daunting. Still, as the United States entered the nineteenth century, its people were fiercely optimistic, determined to conquer the frontier, and sure that its vastness was their new nation's greatest asset" (21). Citizens of the United States, unconcerned with the danger, set out to conquer the new land and laid waste to the natural resources that they encountered. This opened the West for further exploration, exploitation, cultivation, and immigration.

To this day, there are individuals who try to find loopholes in environmental law because the call of their wallets is stronger than the call of their conscience. They see the efforts of conservationists as extreme. So, if one considers that modern industrialists still look at environmental issues with marginal care even though they know the damage that has been done, if any at all, it is hard to judge their older counterparts with the same level of contempt. When the Industrial Revolution occurred, factories went up all over and natural resources were taken in at alarming rates to be turned into consumer products. One such result was the devastation of the wetlands. "The resulting eutrophication, the excessive growth of plant life, often killed wildlife through oxygen loss, and land levels dropped as the waters were drained" (Kline 41). This is only one example of the resulting destruction of the environment because of the actions of greedy executives. Another is the miners and all the fields that make a profit through the excavation of the land. "In the to reach mineral riches, miners peeled away the very crust of the earth, gutted mountains with water cannons, clear-cut woodlands, and destroyed the habitat of wildlife. The waste products of these enterprises were pumped into the atmosphere or piled in remote places" (42). Industrialization may have renovated production and led to massive employment of semi-skilled workers, but it was a savage curse to much of America's natural beauty.

The three most important contributing factors to the destruction of the natural environment by the United States citizens of the 18th and 19th centuries were ignorance, waste, and greed. The environment is still being victimized by… [read more]


Dependence of Man on the Environment Essay

… ¶ … Man on the Environment

Dependence of Man on Environment

The dependence of man on the environment is crucial as the environment provides us with every basic necessity of life such as food, energy, power, shelter as well as… [read more]


Impact of Electronic Goods Beneficial or Hurtful to Health and Environment Term Paper

… Manufacturing Our Demise

Environmental Impact of electronic goods

The number of devices bearing a chip internally has grown exponentially, since the early days of consumer products. These products and our associated behaviors are interwoven into the very fabric of life and culture (Kester, 1993). From state of the art hospital equipment designed to save lives, to musical equipment producing delight, electronics are everywhere. The toxicity and durability of these good compounds the problem. The manufacture and disposal of electronic equipment are a tangible and imminent danger to life, as we know it.

Nature of the danger

Electronic devices are manufactured with two major impediments; the first is designed obsolesce but physically durability. The company makes money from new models, but the replacement of the old model increases waste. Secondly, toxic chemicals are used in the production of many of these products (Turn back, 2010). Available environmentally friendly, recyclable materials increase the cost of the product. Consumers are not prepared to pay higher prices for their digital comforts and the company is not prepared to absorb the additional costs (Boyd, 2010).

These two factors driven by economics create a deluge of waste. The produced streams of waste are outstripping the ability of landfills and other waste disposal measures to keep up. Linton, Yeomans, & Yoogalingam (2002) posit that the waste from television sets alone is filling landfills. This has resulted in companies shipping waste to less developed countries resulting in the internationalization of the waste problem (Mason, 2001). Countries are literally facing the threat of being overrun by electronic waste.

The impact on the environment from electronic waste is an insidious problem (Goodwin, 2010). In developed countries most of the waste is hauled off to landfills and is invisible to the public. However, the threat from the waste in the landfill is real and disturbing. The casing of most electronic products is comprised of an enduring combination of glass, plastic and metal. The internal components are even more dangerous as the monitors and circuit boards contain heavy metals like lead and mercury (Linton, Yeomans, & Yoogalingam, 2002). Disposed batteries have a carcinogen called Cadmium. There are also a myriad of other noxious and hazardous chemicals like zinc, arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) all compounds linked to cancer and other illnesses.

Disposal and the environment

These toxic chemical can contaminate the soil, drinking water and the air. This contamination occurs through a myriad of diverse processes that are used for disposal. The burning of electronic waste in furnaces produces carbon dioxide in large quantities as well as toxic ash. The carbon dioxide adds to the problem of excess carbon in the atmosphere. The ash is often contaminated with heavy metals, because the combustion process does not destroy the heavy metals. When the ash is disposed of through dumping, the metals make contact with soil and providing another avenue for the metals to leech into the soil.

The use of landfills is another avenue for the contamination of the environment. The landfill problem… [read more]


Bamboo Industry Research Proposal

… Bamboo Industry

In India, bamboo is considered "the poor man's timber." Over the past 20 years, bamboo has become a significant, sometimes superior substitute for wood. Currently, in some way or another in, the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan… [read more]


Disasters the Environment and Public Health Improving Our Response Essay

… Disasters, The Environment, And Public Health: Improving Our Response

James N. Logue's Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our Response focuses on the 1990 decade as a time of realization of the environmental threat and an intensification of our efforts to resolve this problem. A question on the differences and similarities between today's concerns and those forwarded in 1996 can only be answered through an analysis of the concerns at both points in time. In this order of ideas, Logue highlights the following for 1996:

Natural and man made disasters impact human and environmental health in predictable and unpredictable means

The threat of human pollution and through the emission of greenhouse gases is recognized, but little emphasis is being placed on it

New agencies were established to assess the impact of toxic waste upon human and environmental health

Approaches to hazards changed in the meaning that people strived to prevent and prepare for them, rather than wait for them to happen and then panic

Geographical traits are better considered in the process of disaster management

More emphasis on global warming and the impact of elements such as land use and population growth on pollution and environmental health (Logue, 1996)

In terms of the environmental issues forwarded today (which can be perceived as a continuation of the 1996 concerns), the following elements are of the utmost importance.

At a global level, more efforts are being made towards environmental sustainability; for instance, forests are continually being cut, but the actions are better regulated and the lumber companies are requested to plant new trees;

Stricter legislation has been developed in regulating polluting activities of both individual consumers as well as organizations

Technological advancements have been integrated in products in order to reduce pollution; the most relevant example in this sense is given by vehicles incorporating fuel efficient engines which reduce the levels of waste and consume less fuels (Fuel…… [read more]


Harmful Effects of Plastic on the Environment Essay

… Plastic Bags & the Environment

Plastics in the Environment: Problem and Solutions

Plastic pollution in the oceans and on dry land is a terrible plague that needs to be addressed through responsible environmental management. This is not a new concept,… [read more]


Facilities Management in Dubai Essay

… Facilities Management in Dubai

Facilities Management

This work will discuss the fact that environmental pressures from legislators, consumers, investors, neighbors, and employees have intensified over recent years. The real competitive advantage is possibly held by those who are making environmental… [read more]


Toulmin Argument About the Environment Essay

… Toulmin Argument

An Argument for Christian Environmental Responsibility

Introduction and Claim

Although Christians are tasked with stewardship of God's creation, many believe that it is not their responsibility to care for the environment nor show concern over environmental problems. Many reasons exist for this belief. Some Christians believe that Christ's return will change the world as it is anyway, so caring for the environment is simply a waste of time. Others may be concerned with the attitudes of many environmentalists, attitudes that place creation above the creator. Still others may simply assume that anything "of this earth" should not be prominent in the lives of Christians. These people often assume that Christians should task themselves with the things of heaven, paying little attention to any of the world's concerns. Perhaps this group believes that if non-Christians see Christians paying attention to the things of this earth, the non-Christians will assume that Christians really have nothing to look forward to. This same argument is often used for Christians who stay out of political processes and other topics of community concern. Even though these arguments are prevalent among Christians, however, biblical mandate and responsibility command Christians to care for the environment.

Grounds

Now, more than ever, environmental problems are plaguing the earth. Most of these are problems that could have serious potential consequences if they are not dealt with soon. One of the most often popularized problems is that of global warming. Global warming, also called the greenhouse affect, occurs when gasses are trapped near the surface of the earth, much as heat is trapped in a greenhouse. The fact that global warming is occurring at such an increased rate of speed concerns many scientists. These scientists have developed a variety of models that study the effects of global warming over years. Because global warming increases temperatures, it is dangerous to polar icecaps. The ultimate effect of the greenhouse effect on these icecaps is melting, which would raise sea levels and eventually drown some islands and countries, forcing their inhabitants to relocate and causing congestion in an already overpopulated world ("Global Warming"). Other issues that our environment faces today include air pollution, radiation, acid rain, and toxic chemicals seeping into water and dirt. Although global warming may be the primary focus of environmentalists today, these problems are similarly severe. For instance, air pollution is a serious environmental problem with consequences for humans and animals. One of the most notorious consequences of air pollution is acidity, most often known as acid rain. Air pollution causes chemicals to build up in precipitation, which then makes water polluted. This can be harmful to fish and aquatic plants. Humans who eat the fish and aquatic plants are similarly harmed. Furthermore, buildings can become corroded because of the large amounts of acid in the water. Air pollution also leads to the depletion of the ozone layer, a protective screen against harmful UV rays. Without the ozone layer, humans are more susceptible to skin cancers, and certain types… [read more]


Global Environment Problem Term Paper

… Environment

Confronting International Environmental Issues: Over Fishing

Over fishing of international waters by commercial fisheries places a severe, if often unnoticed, burden on the ecological foundations of the world's oceans. The oceans, which cover roughly 70% of the Earth's service perform vital ecological functions -- not to mention providing 15% of the world's protein supply in the form of seafood. However, to supply that food requires the harvesting of more than 900 million tons of seafood every year, much of which is simply wasted ("Ravaging"). The result of this unchecked harvest has been dwindling supplies of marine fish populations, such as the North Atlantic cod, as well as economic and ecological effects.

Some organizations have taken a particular interest in addressing this international environmental issue. AIDA collaborates with governments and partner organizations to improve the regulatory mechanisms in place for appropriate marine resources management. By assisting and motivate governments to reform and improve marine policies, AIDA hopes to help protect these resources before they are irrevocably damaged ("Ravaging"). For example, AIDA worked…… [read more]


Green Living Term Paper

… ¶ … Green Here to Stay?

The "Green Movement" encompasses the ideology of ecology, conservation, environmental concerns, the feminist movement, and peace movement. If it sounds like the hippies of the 1960s grown up, it is probably at least partially… [read more]


Population Growth and Human Activities on the Environment Term Paper

… Ecology

Population growth is a serious issue facing today's civilization. For example, there are currently over 6.6 billion people living on earth, with one-fifth of the world's total population living on the coast of the Indian Ocean. Further, in the not so distant future, this total earth population is predicted to rise to at least 9 billion.

Population growth is the total change in population over a period of time. It is measured by the formula: Growth rate = {births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration}/population. Thus, in the world, such things as birth and immigration effect the rate of population growth. In the United States currently, population growth is heavily influenced by immigration. Other factors related are the level of health care, as the better a population's healthcare system the lower the rates of death and thus the higher the rate of population growth.

If population growth goes unchecked, eventually overcrowded conditions occur, which leads to a diminishing of necessary resources and thus an eventual decrease in population growth. For example one could say that the carrying capacity of the planet depends on the amount of oil available as it is needed, currently, for heat and other necessary life sustaining activities. Demographic transition describes the moving of a population in accordance to gaining better access to necessary resources. This may be seen as coastal waters rise and the heavily populated coastal regions begin to flood. This being said, the future population and development of our planet will be continued rapid population growth in low-developed areas with an eventual shift of general population location towards the planet's interiors.

Migration also plays an important role in population growth. As people migrate from one place to another for numerous reasons. Most often migration occurs in order to gain access to better economic and political conditions, however other factors include climate, recreation and employment opportunities. Therefore, the push and pull factors of migration depend on the migrating population. For poorer populations, the factors are typically political and economical. For richer populations, the factors are typically for personal betterment.

There are also different types of migration. For example, place utility means the benefit offered by the location being migrated to. The migration field is the total group of all migrants. Step migration refers to a migration shift…… [read more]


Ecological Impact of Population Growth Term Paper

… Ecological Impact of Population Growth

Population Growth, the Environment, and Community Interactions:

In principle, the relationship between population size and the environment is very simple and equally direct. Living organisms consume natural resources to provide for their energy needs. The specific mechanism through which they accomplish this vary substantially: some organisms consume other living organisms; some consume only other organisms' waste products, or scavenge their left-over consumables; still others manufacture their energy by synthesizing energy from sunlight and elements occurring naturally in the gaseous atmosphere.

The unidirectional dependence of organisms that consume other organisms upon the continued availability of the latter is obvious, but what is less sometimes less apparent is the mutual interdependence of the continued health and viability of species who do not necessarily interact directly, such as where each interacts directly only with a third species or affects the state of other natural resources necessary for the survival of the first species (Castilla, 1999).

In the natural world, populations of predator species co-evolve with populations of prey species, with predation and the defenses it necessitates sometimes driving the evolution of traits beneficial to prey species in other respects as well. At the other spectrum of species interdependence are those unrelated except through coincidental circumstances, but whose parallel evolution links their continued viability to each other nevertheless. Consequently, significant changes in the population of one species often has the potential to affect other species, sometimes to the extent that population increases in one can, in only a few generations, completely wipe out one or more other indigenous species (Castilla, 1999).

Community interactions between and among species transcends the one- dimensional relationship between those who consume each other (or each other's wastes and byproducts). Certain species may rely heavily on non-consumable vital resources provided by another for securing suitable shelter, for one example; another species population may depend on the predation of its primary competitors by a third species, for another example (CWAC, 2007).

Human activity and population growth also plays a vital role in shaping ecological niches, and in many respects, to a degree that is completely out of proportion to the nature of non-human species, primarily because human technology often result in ecological changes occurring in the very short-term that far exceed the magnitude of ecological changes that normally take place only in the very long-term without human contribution.

The Effects of Human Activity on the Environment:

By virtue of our intelligence and technological achievements, human beings have the proven capability to alter global resources and other fundamental ecological elements of the biosphere far beyond the ability of any other species. Nevertheless, primarily because…… [read more]


California Ground Squirrel Term Paper

… Monterey Bay

The environment has clearly been impacted by human habitation. We recognize the damaging effects of much of modern life, but there has been a human impact on the environment extending back much further in history. The concentration of… [read more]


Population Growth in Putting Increasing Stress on the Environment Term Paper

… Population Growth Stress on Environment

The world population has increased exponentially over the last 100 years, as technology and development outstrip the ability of the fragile planet to absorb the massive influx of polluting and needy people. To survive people… [read more]


Biology/Ecology the Global Ecological Problem of Invasive Term Paper

… Biology/Ecology

The global ecological problem of invasive species has been widely documented. Indeed, this is the cause of not only ecological, but also economic and other related problems. What struck me most about Susan McGrath's article, "Attack of the Alien Invaders" in the National Geographic of March 2005, is the sheer extent of the problem. While I was aware of the phenomenon, I had no understanding of the widespread and diverse nature of the problem itself. I therefore believe that articles such as Ms. McGrath's are vital in the contemporary human fight against global ecological decay. It is only through awareness that human beings can make the changes needed to ensure the future for their future generations.

The article also seems to focus on both positive and negative aspects of alien species invading native ecosystems. While the ecological and economic effects are generally negative, I found it interesting that some positive aspects are also associated with the problem. One of these positive aspects is the work opportunities created by the invasive species. Individual families can benefit economically from helping with the effort to eradicate harmful alien weeds and plants from their native soil. This provides a valuable service while also providing income for persons who have been unemployed for years. According to the author, this provides not only much-needed income, but also a previously unknown boost in self-esteem: the workers are accomplishing a much-needed task. In effect then, such employment opportunities create a positive impact on the economy in terms of unemployment numbers. This seems to be particularly applicable to third-world countries, where poverty is rampant. Hence one could say that invasive species do have a positive economic impact in certain cases. It must also be mentioned however that some of these "opportunities" are volunteer-based, and the only reward is a sense of assisting with the ecology in an attempt to ensure the earth's and humanity's future.

The negative impacts however appear to far outweigh whatever positive outcomes could be extracted from invading species. Personally, I found the sheer dollar value of eradicating and controlling these species shocking. If the U.S. alone spends $140 billion on the problem, with all the technology and expertise at the country's disposal, surely the crisis must be much worse in less developed countries. An aspect that I never considered with regard to invasive species and the economy is tourism. Ms. Garth for example mentions the case of the coqui frog in Hawaii. The lightning-speed spread and the noise the frog makes have not only irritated natives, but also had a severe impact on tourism. As Hawaii is a very prominent travel destination, this impact is also severely reflected in the economy. The article appears rather gloomy regarding prospects of eradicating the frog.

Another fascinating aspect of the article is the way in which invasive species made their journeys to locations all over the globe. There appears to be two categories: intentional transportation via human assisted means, and unintentional transportation. Ironically, the intentional transport of… [read more]


Environmental Influences Environment and Environment Factors Term Paper

… Environmental Influences

Environment and environment factors are often extremely important influences in an individual's life and development. There are numerous environmental factors that affect both psychological and social aspects of a persons's life. These can include the home and family environment in which one lives; or the social and neighborhood environment that have a profound affect on the way we perceive others and view the world. Other environmental factors can include the school or educational environments and later the working environment that can influence and determine the way we interact and react to others. The central aim of this essay it is show the ways that environment plays an extremely important part in understanding our world and ourselves. This essay will also attempt to show that environmental factors are largely responsible for an individual's development and identity.

The term environment therefore refers to the various factors in a certain place or situation that combine to affect and influence our lives and the way we view the word around us. The word environment refers basically to that which surrounds us. Environment is usually understood as something "outside" the individual that impinges or interacts with the person and in the process influences that person. In essence the individual is to a great extent shaped and motivated by the environment in which he or he grows up, lives, works and plays.

One of the most important and fundamental environments that affects us all is the home and family environment. This is the first environment that we encounter and it has a profound and long lasting effect on the individual in terms of identity and individuality. There are many studies and research reports that show that home and family environment is a crucial factor which influences the developing child.

The influence of this environment can also have an affect on the individual that lasts into later life. For example, there are numerous studies that have shown that many juvenile delinquents come from a home environment that is often characterized by breakdown or tension. This refers to a home or family background that is dysfunctional or extremely unsettled. On the other hand this does not man that all broken home lead to delinquency. Rather the findings point to the fact that a negative or poor home environment can influence a child negatively. For instance it is commonly accepted that in many cases a home or family environment that is filled with conflict and a lack of care can have a negative psychological impact on child development. A negative home environment can lead to problems such as learning dysfunctions and other issues related to child development.

On the other hand there are…… [read more]


Caspian Sea Term Paper

… Ecology/Caspian Sea

Community Concepts

The concept of community is one that has defied definition for centuries, even among individuals in the field of ecology. While all agree that a community involves a group of species together in the same area,… [read more]


International Trade and Environment Term Paper

… ¶ … free trade and whether it is good or bad for the environment. The writer examines the exodus of American companies that are finding it financially advantageous to move their operations overseas. The writer looks at why they are… [read more]


Ecology of a Cracker Childhood Last Five Term Paper

… Ecology of a Cracker Childhood

Last Five Chapters -- Quotation from "The Kindest Cut"

By 2050 they'll be twelve billion people on earth demanding food, water, television sets, whatever people demand," he says, "I am really worried about it. (264)

This quotation, from Leon, demonstrates that the people of the pinelands of East George that are chronicled in the words Janiesse Ray in Ecology of a Cracker Childhood, do not use the woods they depend upon carelessly, and without thought. It does not matter whether they are educated or not. The speaker, Leon, is a man who uses and gardens the natural world, with respect for its power and beauty as well as depends upon it for his life and livelihood. He is a fine tiller of the greenery around him, and Ray commends the beauty of his prize grove. Then, he makes this outburst, despite the fact that he is an older man whose existence predates that of the modern environmentalist movement. These words show that Leon is also able to put the human use of the land in proper political and philosophical perspective. He makes "kind" cuts in the forest, to use the title of the chapter, rather than destructive cuts.

As he looks…… [read more]


Ecology of a Cracker Childhood Clearcut: Chapter Term Paper

… Ecology of a Cracker Childhood

Clearcut: Chapter 10

One of the most potently titled chapters of Janisse Ray's book is the chapter entitled "Clearcut." As is evidenced by the illustration on page 123, the clear cut is a kind of forest cutting. Yet clearcut also has the resonance of something that is clearly cut or denoted. However, Ray makes clear that the moral resonance of "cutting" clear the forest is anything but certain. The only thing that is "clearcut" is God's moral judgment upon the arrogant.

I'd say, pray extra hard; and pray hard when you're hauling them away. God doesn't like a clearcut. It makes his heart turn cold, makes him wince and wonder what went wrong with his creation, and sets him to thinking what spoils the child." (123)

Ray creates a delicate balance between faith and ecology in this quoted passage. She knows that it is necessary, at times, for humanity to clear the forest and to clear forest passages of pine. But it also is an act of human arrogance to shape the forest and to kill God's created leaves and pine.…… [read more]


Ecology of a Cracker Childhood Term Paper

… Ecology of a Cracker Childhood

In south Georgia everything is flat and wide. Not empty. My people live among the mobile homes, junked cars, pine plantations, clearcuts, and fields. They live among the lost forests.

The creation ends in south Georgia, at the very end of the sweet earth."

Even before one opens to the first page of the first chapter of Janisse Ray's Ecology of a Cracker Childhood, a reader is startled by the author's choice of title. "Cracker" is usually used as a negative epithet in the Southern United States to denote someone who is white, but poor and thus low in social status and class, and hence is considered a redneck. But the term ecology implies the book is about the natural and scientific relationship of the earth to humanity. Yet this opening quote about the narrator's life in South Georgia clues the reader as to how the social status of being a poor white 'cracker' in the southern United States can relate to the natural life of the woods. The deep south of Georgia may be "flat and wide," but it is not devoid of interest or "empty" of human and animal life.

My people" -- the author speaks of her own people, poor people who live in much-mocked "mobile homes" amongst fields of "junked" cars, 'piney' people or…… [read more]


Environment and the Two Major Term Paper

… Today and the Future:

In 2000, Republicans once again gained control of both the White House and the Congress. Several important environmental pieces of legislation have been put into place during this time. The Environmental Restoration Act of 2003 is one such bill. The purpose of the Environmental Restoration Act is to encourage the development of alternative fuel sources to help meet the increasing energy demand for homeowners and industries ("Environmental Restoration," n.d.).

Republican President George W. Bush has promoted his 'Clear Skies Initiative' that would limit the emissions of mercury, which have been found so dangerously high in fish, that the government has posted warnings on the consumption, as well as reducing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. It is thanks to efforts on both sides of the political fence that "emissions of the six major pollutants that cause smog, soot, acid rain and breathing problems have been cut by 25%" ("Issues," 2004) since 1970.

Conclusion:

Clearly, both parties have been important in the preservation and protection of the environment over the past 40 years. Although Democrats may be seen as stereotypically environmentally friendly, Republican too are concerned for the environment that they live in. This paper has shown, environmentalism is truly a bipartisan issue.

Crichton (2004) put it quite eloquently in his article for USA Today,

Environmentalism needs to be rational, flexible, and based in objective and verifiable science. Moreover, it must be apolitical. To mix natural concerns with the frantic fantasies that people have about one political party or another is to miss the truth-that there is very little difference between the parties on this subject, except for pandering rhetoric. The effort to promote effective legislation is not helped by thinking that the Democrats will save us and the Republicans will not. Political history is more complicated than that. Never forget which president started the EPA: archconservative Richard Nixon, a staunch Republican. Also keep in mind which president sold the Federal oil leases, that allowed drilling in Santa Barbara, Calif.: Great Society architect Lyndon Johnson, a prototypical Democrat. So, get politics out of your thinking about the environment.

References

Blodgett, J. (1994, Dec. 19). Environmental reauthorizations and regulatory reform: Recent developments. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.ncseonline.org/nle/crsreports/legislative/leg-7.cfm?&CFID=16426360&CFTOKEN=10723153.

Brodine, V.W. (1996, Feb. 2). GOP has 'contract' against the environment. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.pww.org/archives96/96-02-17-2.html.

Calavita, N. (1995, June). Legislative history of the environmental goals and policy report. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.csus.edu/calst/government_affairs/reports/es04.pdf.

Crichton, M. (2004, Mar.). Environmentalism as religion run amok. USA Today, 132(2706). Retrieved October 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2004, Oct. 3). Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_Protection_Agency.

Environmental Restoration Act of 2003. (No date). Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.theorator.com/bills108/hr3531.html.

Green is good: Republicans should stand up for environment. (2002, Dec. 10). Knight Ridder Tribune News Service. Retrieved October 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.

Issues out of focus at the Republican convention. (2004, Sept. 2). Gannett News Service. Retrieved October 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.

Kerr, A. (1997, Jan. 2). Environmentalists… [read more]


Waste and Environment Management Spelt Term Paper

… These types of customers are also subject to unique legislation under RCRA. So the way that this industry is segmented is in part by customer type, in part by legislation and in part by waste type. Some firms will specialize… [read more]


Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation Research Paper

… In 2012 alone, the Act mobilized close to ten million dollars for beach cleanup (Swarup, Mishra, & Jauhari, 1992).

Virginia's Citizen Water Quality Improvement Act

The state sponsored Virginia Water Quality Improvement Act of 1997 (WQIA) was to restore the quality of state waters by protecting them from destruction and impairments. To achieve this, the Water-Quality Improvement Fund (WQIF) was created. This approach attempted to include the public community in beach management activity. For this reason, the act was essential in mobilizing funds to provide for quality assessment and improvement of grants. In particular, the water conservation districts, pollution prevention and reduction control program has been integral in responding to the various needs of the city. As a result, the VWQIA was the impetus in establishing the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). The department has so far established over a thousand locations for detecting pollutants (Belden, 2001).

EPA Investigation

Although there have been no subsequent apprehension of individuals who are caught contaminating the beach, it should be noted that companies caught breaching the BEACH have been forced to pay a penalty for the same. Care A Lot Inc., the owner of a pet supply in Virginia Beach agreed to pay 30,000 in a penalty to settle alleged for violations of EPA law. The company was accused of having violated Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The company was accused alleged for being in production of Unbranded and unregistered products for cat, dogs, and contaminating the beach through uncontrolled waste disposal. EPA investigators further established that the products are on sale on the company's catalogues, store, and website. Some of the company's products wastes have been found on the beach (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009).

The status of any cleanup efforts

The ozone alert days and number of pollutants in the year reported by the EPA at 37% in Virginia Beach compared to air quality, which stands at 82.8. The water quality stands at 61 on a scale of 100 compared to the United States average at 55%. For this reason, the need for cleaning Virginia Beach with the intent of removing all possible bacteria cannot be downplayed. The local authorities have utilized the Memorial Day to encourage the local community to undertake the clean up process.

References

Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association

Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press

Swarup, R. Mishra, S.N. & Jauhari V.P. (1992). Environmental Pollution Ecology. Washington: Mittal Publications

U.S. Government Printing Office, (2009).…… [read more]


Cultural Geography Term Paper

… Since 1980s, environmentalists have considered ecotourism as a critical endeavor aimed at ensuring that the aesthetic nature of the environment is maintained so that the coming generations can enjoy and experience destinations that have not been touched by human intervention (Honey 33).

Generally, the concept behind ecotourism seeks to satisfy individuals viewing living organisms (though few) in their natural environments. It focuses on environmental sustainability, socially responsible travel, and personal growth. It involves travel by individuals to destinations where cultural heritage, flora, and fauna are the primary attractions. It is suitable for individuals who care about natural habitats where the effects of human activity on the environment are minimal. Responsible ecotourism entails minimization of the negative effects of popular tourism on the natural environment and enhancing the cultural integrity of the indigenous people.

Another integral part of eco-tourism is the promotion of energy efficiency, recycling, and water conservation. For these reasons, ecotourism requests to advocates of social and environmental responsibility. Tourism depends upon air transportation, thus contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that result from combustion placed into the stratosphere. This eventually leads to climate change and global warming. Many countries are advocating and implementing environmental protection strategies. Campaigns are being carried to create awareness and sensitize people about the importance of environmental conservation and sustainability. Practices related to unsustainable agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization have affected the natural environment negatively. However, ecotourism has not provided substantial benefits in some parts of the world. This has left the economies of these regions worse than before in some cases (Fennell 30).

How the concepts of sustainable development, eco-tourism, and cultural ecology apply to contemporary Middle America

Tourism is a leading economic sector in many Middle American countries (Klak 9). Central America is one of the prime ecotourism destinations. Many of the tour operators and nature lodges around the country are dedicated professionals and pioneers in the sustainable tourism field. Many areas of Central America, including El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Belize, and Nicaragua are popular ecotourism destinations. They offer a wide range of adventure opportunities, community-based tours, cultural experiences and eco-friendly accommodations. The region's diverse landscapes include active volcanoes, tropical rain forests, and abundant fauna and flora. They provide unique wildlife encounters and learning experiences for individuals who visit the parks.

Deforestation is the main threat to Middle America's fragile ecosystem. Farming has virtually wiped out the region's dry tropical rainforests. Logging is another major threat to the rainforest. Deforestation has been devastating to many species as well as human beings. It has affected man in different ways, such as drinking-water shortages, mudslides, displaced indigenous tribes, and flash flooding. El Salvador has the worst environmental record with only 2% of its original forest in existence (Klak 18).

Many countries in Middle America have been engaged in environmental awareness, thus solving the region's huge environmental problems. Not only does it solve deforestation problems, but also industrial pollution and overpopulation. Volunteer travel among individuals has also been on the increase with the aim of learning new… [read more]


Environmental Services: Monetize? Essay

… From this perspective, monetization of human life and health, or of the existence of other species, is either meaningless or degrading" (2000, p.10). All of these issues have clear consequences for policy, but the inclination to reduce them purely to monetary distinctions is completely skewed and unrealistic; it also violates a sense of integrity about the human condition.

As Ackerman and Gallagher illustrate, the attraction to market-based polices are becoming the go-to recommendation for all the world's environmental problems, resting on the theory that free markets, when adjusted for externalities, can always stimulate certain "efficient" allocations of society's resources, which causes many legislators to push for the rolling back of regulation so that the market can better protect the environment (2000). This particular blueprint can fail because certain public purposes cannot be achieved via prices and markets by themselves; and pricing can often be a meaningless objective in this regard (Ackerman & Gallagher, 2000).

Those in favor of this type of valuation argue that people respond to such tendencies towards monetization: it helps people to understand that value exists and helps them to understand this sense of value in strongly economic terms -- terms which are accessible to all people (Spash, 2008). Monetizing these ecosystems is connected to the notion that if people knew how valuable they were, they would better adapt their behavior to more aggressively helping to preserve them (Spash, 2008). However, such a notion is completely skewed and presents an oversimplified perspective of human behavior and the concepts of monetization. Thus, this paper has attempted to demonstrate that monetization can only be effective with natural resources when it comes to ascribing penalties -- and sometimes not even then. The inclination to monetize and commodify natural resources comes from an imbalanced and skewed place, and is one which violates the integrity of the nation and the human spirit.

References

Ackerman, F., & Gallagher, K. (2000, October). Getting the Prices Wrong. Retrieved from Global Development: [HIDDEN]

Kinzig, A. (2011, November). Paying for Ecosystem Services -- Promise and Peril. Retrieved from Sciencemag.org: [HIDDEN]

Spash, C. (2008). How Much is that Ecosystem in the Window? Retrieved from Environmental Values: [HIDDEN]

Stavins, R. (2009, April). What Explains the Recent Popularity of Market-Based Envrionmental Solutions? Retrieved from [HIDDEN]

Stavins,…… [read more]


Glasgow Will Be Hosting Essay

… Glasgow will be hosting the Commonwealth Games in thesummer of 2014. It is the first major event that will be held in Glasgow, Scotland, and therefore is entitled to a great deal of significance. It is approximated that around 6500… [read more]


Treatment of Domestic and Industrial Peer-Reviewed Journal

… 600ml of wastewater collected (after preliminary screening, free of grit and primary sediments) served as a bacteria inoculums and a supplier for nutrients. Then, cultivation of the settle-able algal-bacteria took place under laboratory conditions of around 190 C. The photo-bioreactor… [read more]


Green Technology-Past, Present and Future Research Paper

… People are now opting to either donate or recycle them so as to avoid E-waste (Kennedy, 2010).

Corporate world and green technology

Companies that are socially conscious have come to the realization that green is good for their business. Embracing the concept of going green is not just good for public relations but it also leads to operations that are more efficient and sometimes cost saving.in the world today there are many companies that have go green, such as McGraw Hill publishing which is a very high paper consumer. The company is now buying paper that adheres to strict standards and its production is done in a sustainable way.

Staples is a company that relies on solar panels at almost all its locations .the company has also done a great job in the recycling of printer ink cartridges. Intel is also at the forefront of going green through the reduction of green house gas emission by 30% over a period of the last five years. More and more companies are now translating the green ideology to their presence online. Corporate websites are now making consumers aware of the green options that are currently available. The presence of online green companies is a show of effort for the education of consumers and in some instances gives a call to action (nicholeknupp, 2013).

Future of green technology

Going green has extensively helped our environment. This is through the reduction of environmental pollution, provision of products that are generally safe for the environment. Products are now more environmentally friendly. People are now quite aware of the concept f going green and they are embracing it. This means that more and more people are now going green and the trend will more likely than not keep spreading a the positive impacts of green technology will become clearer and manifest to the benefit of the society and the world in general. However, despite this it is still important that the advantages of going green are emphasized to people so that it becomes part and parcel of people's daily lives.

References

Kennedy, R. (2010). 5 Things You Can Do to Help Make Your School Green. Retrieved September 3, 2013 from http://privateschool.about.com/od/greenschools/qt/greenschools.htm nicholeknupp. (2013). 8 Companies That Have Gone Green. Retrieved September 3, 2013 from http://www.smallbusinesscan.com/8-companies-that-have-gone-green/

Metcalf, E. (2013). 10 Ways to Protect the Environment -- and Your Own Health. Retrieved September 3, 2013 from http://www.everydayhealth.com/green-health-photos/ways-to-protect-the-environment-and-your-health.aspx… [read more]


Environment Ethics Essay

… Environment Ethics

The main idea conveyed in Deborah Bird Rose's essay, "So the Future can Come Forth from the Ground" is that humans have a responsibility to take care of the world. This is not an abstract concept. The author conveys the fact that after spending a significant amount of time with Aborigines in their native environment, they have propagated the notion onto her that literally taking care of the world -- the ground and all that it births -- is akin to taking care of the future. The earth is what will sustain people on this planet; indeed, it always has. The author contrasts this primary idea of humans taking control of the future by not destroying their environment with that of conventional Western society. The latter viewpoint contends that the future is some dim, brimming light that will eventually come into fruition, regardless of what people do in the here and now. There are various forms of religion which seem to reinforce this notion.

However, the Aboriginal concept that the author prefers is a lot less abstract, significantly more pragmatic, and certainly more involved. This viewpoint holds that the future will only arrive and be preserved through the work done to prepare for it in the present. That work revolves around taking care of the country, of the ground and its streams, its mountains, its foliage and all of the wildlife that feeds upon these things in various ecosystems. Without doing such work, there will be no future, because the earth and its ground that birthed everything will no longer exist.

Lastly, one final concept that ties into this main idea is the notion that people have an obligation to effectively steward or take care of the earth. That obligation, of course, was disseminated form their ancestors, who were successful in their caring for the planet so that the planet still exists at the present moment. The Aborigines believe…… [read more]


Goal of Ecology Depends Substantially Essay

… ¶ … goal of ecology depends substantially on the perspective of the observer. On one hand, there might be a temptation to ignore the issues of ecology and to say "so what?" simply because most major ecological initiatives will not produce any meaningful effects during the lifetime of any individual involved in those efforts (p.440-441). On the other hand, one can commit to ecological principles because they will benefit future generations of mankind, even if ecological measures only take effect after the lives of those individuals who implement those changes. However, it is still possible to take the "so what?" point-of-view because even the history of all of human life on earth will come to an end because in the largest scale of time, human history is merely a very small blip in the history of the planet (p.442).

According to the first view, human beings have taken excessive advantage of the planet and they have depleted its resources irresponsibly because they have been concerned only with the present and with their short-term benefits. In that context, "so what" means there is no reason to worry beyond today because whatever happens to the planet in the future does not matter to anybody alive today. According to the opposite perspective, people living today have an ethical and moral obligation to act as responsible stewards for future generations.

The version of "so what" that is a reference to the fact that the earth will continue long after the extinction of the human species suggests that whatever damage human beings inflict on the planet is inconsequential because the natural ecological processes described by the Gaia Hypotheses of James Lovelock (p.441) will heal the planet after the last human beings are long gone. However, that perspective ignores all of the human hardship and suffering caused by some human beings that affect others as long as…… [read more]


Short Reflective Statement Essay

… ¶ … Environmental sustainability

Throughout the stretch of this period of tackling environmental sustainability and the challenges that come alongside it, much has come to light and my perspective has been significantly shifted from the structured perspective that I had on how to handle environmental challenges. This structured perspective was equally based and founded on reading material on environmental changes and how to handle them, but had missed out on crucial people related aspects as will be highlighted below.

One of the outstanding change as well as a challenge I have got from this study and presentations is the cultural value of environmental sustainability. It is not enough to have the technical know-how on environmental sustainability but it is of help to give it an interdisciplinary approach such that every available angle is taken care of, from the professional to the predominant culture and practices of the people concerned in the environmental conservation effort. This is the only sure way of ensuring sustainable environmental care.

It was also a significant lesson to know that getting to know the environmental challenge is not enough, but knowing the cause of the environmental challenge is more significant in setting up a program that is sustainable and in support of environmental conservation. Here there is need to focus on the people, the production trends, the consumption trend, the balance in the supply and demand, political ecology as well as the geopolitics and how these could be possible reasons for a given environmental challenge (Monash University, 2013).

This section of my interaction with environmental material also opened up my perspective on how food that we eat on a daily basis can be a root cause to our vast environmental challenges. The concept of the 'slow foods' and the complex foodscape as presented by Adeline Tay (2013) significantly illuminated on the negative effects that the fast foods and the changing food culture has on our environment. Initially this was not a clear concept…… [read more]


Overfishing Ever Since the Industrial Revolution Research Paper

… Overfishing

Ever since the Industrial Revolution, human population has increased tremendously. This population increase has been the cause of a rising use and exploitation of a lot of natural resources found in the world. In a similar manner, the overuse… [read more]


Environmental Term Paper

… The court disagreed with the site qualifying under Section 404(a)'s definition of 'navigable waters' because of being a habitat for the migratory birds. The courts disagreement was based on the consideration that it would assume the statute did not have… [read more]


Worldwide Population Increase Affect Planet Essay

… When we consider the effects offered by worldwide population increase and its interaction with the environment, man has never appreciated what he or she gets from the environment. The planet is beneficial to man in many ways. The increased population… [read more]


Natural World Term Paper

… ¶ … environmentalism-related matters, people are still a long way from being able to have a complex understanding of the relationship between humanity and the natural world and the role that they can play in protecting the environment. What is especially worrying today is that it all comes down to a battle between profits and environmentalism. Many actually feel that they are responsible for the environment and that it would be best for them to adopt environmentalist attitudes. However, some of these people also earn large profits as a result of exploiting the environment and thus have trouble deciding whether it would be in their best interest to refrain from damaging the natural world.

The masses do not only have to think about nature as a concept that has nothing to do with them. They are responsible for damaging, protecting, or saving the environment and it is important for someone to emphasize this. Even with the fact that there is much controversy regarding the global warming process and the degree to which people are responsible for triggering it, it would be absurd for someone to say that society is not responsible for polluting the environment.

The industrial revolution and the recent centuries have played an essential role in performing (in some cases) irreparable damage to the environment. As society experienced rapid development nature came to be harmed to a higher degree and people started to be more and more ignorant as a result of becoming obsessed with profits. It is surely difficult for important international players to refrain from polluting the environment as long as they observe that their actions reflect positively on their wealth.

The cruel reality is that almost everyone, at some point in their lives, played a more or less active role in harming the environment and actually realized that they were doing so. This makes it possible for people to acknowledge that perfection does not exist. Even with this, this does not mean that individuals should express lesser interest in trying to save the environment. People need to leave their past behind and realize that they can be especially helpful in saving the natural world.

While most people perceive the modern world as the perfect place to be, they fail to observe that society tends to be restrictive at times and that people are virtually slaves to their own dreams. Many are not even going to be able to accomplish their dreams because they are too busy trying to set the basis of their dreams. Aldous Huxley's "Time and the Machine" provides important information with regard to concepts like time and industrialization. The text makes it possible for readers to gain a more complete comprehension regarding their role in…… [read more]


Environment and Behavior "An Understanding Essay

… ¶ … Environment and Behavior

"an understanding of some phenomenon: why it happens, what causes it, and what limits it" (Bechtel, 1997). A 'good one predicts, summarizes, provides understanding, and is heuristic' (Bechtel, 1997). "Heuristic means tending to provoke discovery" (Bechtel, 1997). 'Four major types are true E&B theories, the person in the environment, social psychological, and environment on the person' )Bechtel, 1997).

GAIA: Lovelock 1979. 'theory is that the atmosphere is maintained at a constant level by a mixture of bacteria, plants, and animals that act together like a living organism' (Bechtel, 1997).

Sociobiology: Wilson, 1975. "the central concept is that it is genes that determine behavior" (Bechtel 1997). Problem is that it doesn't explain altruism (Bechtel, 1997).

Biophilia: Wilson, 1984. 'tendency to preserve the habitat in which they (genes) can grow' (Bechtel, 1997).

Overload: Milgram 1970. Theory is that "we have only a limited capacity to process information, so when we are overloaded there are only so many strategies we can use to decrease the load to a manageable level" (Bechtel, 1997).

Understimulation: AKA sensory deprivation. End result was that ' sensory deprivation began as a method for bringing about mental illness and ended up removing symptoms' (Bechtel, 1979).

Organismic-Holistic: In between sensory deprivation and overload (Bechtel, 1997). Smuts, 1973. "An organism must be seen as a holistic entity, not just the sum of its parts" (Bechtel, 1997). Organism seeks out environment between the two extremes (Bechtel, 1997).

Sociopetal and Sociofugal: two "types" of space which either promote…… [read more]


Aging and the Environment Theme Essay

… Aging and the Environment

Theme -- Aging and the Environment

Man and Environment -- a Dichotomy -- Each individual perceives his or her own environment that is connected, but independent, of the larger environment. There is a dichotomous view between man-(self) and the environment, particularly in Western thinking -- a separation instead of a holism. However, Behavior is a product of a complete function of individual variables related to the environment

Differing theories on Man-Environment Equation -- Some claim adaptive behaviors lead theory; others that there is a dual perception of self-environment and larger environment. Perception (cognition) of the environment based on past-knowledge, culture, and taste changes over time as well. There is, thus, a bi-directionality of self and the environment. In other words, how does one move from a creator of an/the environment to one who is a product of that environment?

Man the responder -- is reaction to the environment -- outward stimuli inward.

Man the building -- is the approach of taking charge -- inward towards outward.

Gaps in Theory -- Depending on the point-of-view of the theorist, the importance of linking theory to practice focuses on architecture, construction and the manner in which the dichotomy can be linked together. However, one is not either or at all times, but may be both depending on the circumstances.

Often, this theoretical bias encompasses the very nature of science and technology -- only humans use technology (for better or worse) to drastically change the environment. This use of technology, however, cannot be outside the realm of scientific theory.

Humans, however, do not always know how to accomplish what we want -- how to change the environment even if needed, is not always accomplished correctly or even appropriately and may cause problems at a future juncture.

The issue, in fact, goes far beyond the question of deciding what to do and organizing the priorities to make that happen.

Students of the environment tend to push the limits of theory and behavior, and the conclusions do not always mesh with the political and economic…… [read more]


Dreams, Reality, and the Future Essay

… 5.3 Spread to Developing Nations

opportunities but limitations can test validity of hypotheses need to avoid projecting western values on non-western cultures

minimal opportunities to study applications abroad

Research issues include: kinship and space usage, space usage in agriculture, attitudes toward geotypes (tundra, lake), oral histories, animistic perceptions

Issue of literacy -- v- nonliteracy

Need to maintain ethics such as informed consent in research

Reform and Revolution, ethnic, class conflict -- opposition to westerners; the researcher might oppose the government that sponsors them

Poverty has led to hostile view of the researcher, who represents oppressor

43.5.4 Diffusion to Socialist Nations

Eastern Europe, Marxism -- dialectical materialism -- theory of social change emphasizing external economic forces as determinants of experience

Predisposition of Marxist ideology to environmental explanations for behavior; citizens expected to play role

Different view of territoriality

Emphasis on workplace conditions, centralized planning

Political obstacles

43.6 Research Agenda for the Twenty-First Century

Addressing Advocacy (can't be detached from human problems, suffering)

Environmental psychologists need to justify their work, show how it impacts daily life

Integrate philosophy, ethics, morals

Define environmental quality

Technological changes, also role of natural disasters

43.6.1 Pollution Effects

toxic waste disposal, air, water pollution one role of environmental psychologist to measure the behavioral effects of pollutants sustainable levels of pollution prevention

43.6.2. Population

Immigration, population migration

Public housing, age, and ethnicity, high cost of land

43.6.3. War and Peace

links to territoriality, crowding -- controlling intergroup hostilities with design theory

how hostile groups use space to avoid conflict

43.6.4 Harmony with Other Species

Human presence damaging to many species

Environmental psychologists can show how people react to non-human elements or show effects of noise, overcrowding

43.6.5 Resource Conservation

directly linked with environmental psychology eg behavior regarding recycling systemwide basis

43.6.6. Space Travel and Settlement

Extreme environments, exotic environment syndrome (decreased alertness, intellectual impairment) bc of monotony

How people adapt to totally new…… [read more]


Environment Will Get You Theme -- Environmental Essay

… Environment Will Get You

Theme -- Environmental Psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the way humans and their surroundings interact. The environment is a broad term in this case, and encompasses nature, social settings, urban environments, learning environments and informational environments.

The environment is everything that surrounds us -- both good and bad

Air-quality -- Outdoor

The Greenhouse Effect is a buildup of carbon dioxide in the environment caused by pollution and an eroding of the ozone layer -- this allows the sun's rays in, but not out, and causes a buildup of heat

Some believe that this is also caused by natural phenomenon like volcanoes, earthquakes and the amount of precipitation that occurs naturally

Pollution into the air is nothing new; but since the Industrial Revolution, CO2 has increased in the atmosphere, at least 15% in the last century.

The so-called Ozone Hole was discovered in 1986 in Antarctica; this changes the way the earth "respirates" and has also been known to cause ozone poisoning to people who travel into high levels of ozone through airline travel

Automobile pollution is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect because when hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxidize in sunlight, they combine to form harmful oxidants. These oxidants are largely responsible for "smog" or the brown haze over many cities.

Lead was a major pollutant in gasoline until it was reduced to the point at which 1% or less is now mandated in U.S. gasoline.

There are a number of pollutants that arise from industry, mostly sulfur from energy plants -- especially coal, which is one of the most serious pollution sources

Natural gas, however, is one of the cleaner forms of energy and requires less volatile production to refine.

Air Quality -- Indoor

The most common indoor pollutants are cigarette smoke, asbestos, radon, and formaldehyde. Natural contaminants are dust mites, fungus, and bacteria.

Smoking is hazardous to health -- whether by ingesting or second-hand. The medical effects of tobacco use are well-documented, and include heart and lung disease, organ failure, and a host of other respiratory maladies.

Asbestos, radon and formaldehyde come from artificial insulation and/or construction materials -- most now banned in new construction. Radon is the most prominent pollutant, widely found in rocks and soils.

Noise pollution is also a serious indoor problem. From music to jets to urban noise, particularly at the volume levels people now use, are hazardous to hearing. This is also problematic in factories and construction sites and should be mitigated by wearing protective gear.

OSHA estimates that…… [read more]


Environmental Assessing Canada Term Paper

… An EIA would obviously demonstrate that the Haida Nation and the environment would suffer greatly if the government would allow other organizations to intervene and deforest areas believed to belong to Aboriginals.

4. Post decision follow-ups are an important phase of EIA projects, taking into account that "while weak and non-existent legal requirements and institutional support mechanisms may in part be contributing to the current state of practice, a number of substantive and procedural elements are also required to facilitate effective post-decision EIA follow-up programs" (166-167). It is essential for the EIA to be performed with great care, so as for follow-up and monitoring objectives to be clear from the very first steps of the process. Monitoring data for the biophysical environment is essential, as this would make it possible for analysts to discover indicators concerning how the environment might be negatively affected. Early warning indicators enable individuals to detect potential problems during early stages and to resolve them before they invest a large amount of resources in a project.

"Early warning indicators must be:

directly or indirectly related to the VEC; physically possible to monitor; amenable to quantitative analysis." (168)

Depending on the significance of each problem that may arise, an EIA team has to focus on more important problems in the beginning, as detecting such an issue later is likely to have terrible consequences on the project or, even worse, on the environment. The fact that environmental systems are in most cases problematic makes it difficult for an EIA team to be able to identify stressors and then monitor these respective stressors. "Essential to follow-up and monitoring programs then is a complementary effects-based approach that focuses on the performance of the environmental system and VEC indicators rather than solely on the stressors and individual VEC responses" (171). These effect-based monitoring programs are used very often under the Fisheries Act and are actually an essential factor determining whether the environment has been compromised or not in particular situations.

Control sites are difficult to install, but play an important role in making it possible for analysts to understand whether some environmental changes happen because of natural purposes or because of the project. Post-monitoring decisions need to be made on a constant basis, as only by employing such an attitude are experts ready to determine whether or not a project has negative consequences on the environment, taking into account that some actions might have long-term consequences and would thus be impossible to identify during a project's early phases.

Individuals in charge of an EIA have to be particularly careful and need to collect data at particular intervals of time in order to determine if and when changes take place. Unexpected changes can take place and these people need to be ready to deal with them while collecting data meant to assist them in learning more about the environmental impact. Time limits are also important during post-monitoring stages because analysts need to be able to address potential problems in good time, as… [read more]


Accounting Information for Decision Making Essay

… That web site is accompanied with reports for the company's 'environmental management plans'. Without particularly mentioning to water usage and consumption, it mentioned that Inghams website is needed to employ an Environment Management Plan (EMP). The EMP objectives are designed… [read more]


Environment and Social Equality Essay

… Somehow such organizations and societies must be forced to change through one of two different options. It can come from a top down approach in which the governments of the world take action against the degradation of the planet. It could also come from bottom up pressures in which citizens of the world demand that their institutions take action to mitigate environmental disasters.

The most alarming environmental trend is certainly the changes that are altering the Earth's energy balance. Exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels, have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of roughly 395.77 parts per million in the atmosphere (CO2 Now). The current concentrations of CO2 are alarming to many researchers because several scientists have claimed that the earth's highest level of CO2 that the Earth can sustainably support is somewhere around 350 parts per million (Hensen, Sato and Kharecha). As McKibben points out in his book Eaarth, that the planet will look substantially different than the one that we grew up on from here on out (McKibben).

When all of the climate data is put in perspective, a rather bleak picture for the future of the planet emerges. The planet that future generations are to inherit will undoubtedly look substantially different than the one that the previous generations enjoyed. This seems to be already unavoidable even with swift action. Greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere for many centuries and therefore there can be no quick solution to the problem. Furthermore, the continued exponential growths of greenhouse gas emissions are already being felt today as the frequencies of extreme weather events and temperature records have increased substantially.

The current economic models are systems that are built upon growth and consumption seem to be unable to shift direction easily. Each new generation of consumers continue accumulating more and more stuff and it is the increases in the population as well as the resources consumed per person that is causing the most damage. However, this model must change if a livable planet is to be passed down to future generations. It is not only that the abstract "future generations" that must be considered. In fact the generations that are already born will have to deal with the consequences of environmental mismanagement for literally the rest of their lives. Time is running out as the window of opportunity is closing; if it has not already closed.

Works Cited

Burtynsky, E. Photographic Works. 1999. Web. 12 July 2012.

CO2 Now. "Earth's CO2 Home Page." 12 July 2012. CO2 Now. Web. 12 July 2012.

Hensen, J., et al. "Target Atmoshperic CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?" NASA Goddard Intitute for Space Studies (2008): 1-18. Web.

McKibben, B. Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet. New York City: St. Martin's Griffin, 2011. Print.

-- . Enough:…… [read more]


Hidden Life of Garbage Term Paper

… Los Angeles is a city not only of superstars but also of garbage. Roger's (2002) book, Gone Tomorrow: The Hidden Life of Garbage, makes me see garbage, if not my environment in a different light. In fact, it makes me see my university and the cafes that I eat in, as well as other institutions that I loiter in as smaller landfills within the larger landfill of the State itself.

Land fills are messy and diverse burden of waste material that are regularly tossed in the earth whilst operating vehicles smooth it over and, from day-to-day, place foam covers on it in order to prevent toxic gas from emanating in the air and in order to provide it with something of an aesthetic appearance. You look at LA -- it seems to have an aesthetic appearance. You go through my university and the other buildings and their externals, on the whole, seem beautiful. They are architecturally impressive, orderly, contemporary, and technologically run. But they remind me of the modern landfill. Underneath that smooth surface is garbage that is bristling with life. And the garbage is there, only partially concealed from the observer's perspective. We see it in passing, yet are unaware of its presence. The aesthetic look only acts as foam cover over its surface.

Go into the classroom, for instance look at all those tossed cans, wrappers, and papers. That is garbage. Enter the cafeterias: the amount of food thrown out per day and paper plates as well as packaging. That's just a bit of the garbage that emanates from there. The cartons and tossed out pens, as well as forsaken books and discarded dorm furniture. And rejected sweaters. As well as torn sneakers, and disused computers. This is just a particle of the garbage that Rogers (2002) tells us constitutes 30% of the garbage that as American nation we regularly produce in the world.

The average American, according to Rogers (2002), tosses 4.5 pounds of garbage daily which culminates in approximately 1,600 pounds per year.

Garbage is destructive. Garbage not only destructs us. It harms creatures that we share our existence with, both animate and inanimate. It throttles the plant life and impedes their growth whilst stagnating the creatures of the sea and preventing them from flourishing. The Pacific Ocean, for instance, is six times more abundant with plastic waste than it is with zooplankton (Rogers, 2002). Plastic, in fact, impacts the marine system by as much as 90-95% in some areas extending the damage to marine life by killing and destructing much of the marine ecosystem.

The problem is that whilst we are becoming prolific garbage-tosses (and increasing in that prolificacy), we are fading in our zeal of recycling and garbage is becoming a concealed aspect of our environment; they're but hidden under the surface or glossed over so that it appears part of contemporary life.

That this is so is a result of some environmental laws that help corporations conceal their garbage as well as the… [read more]


Career Opportunities Exist in This Relatively New Essay

… ¶ … career opportunities exist in this relatively new field of Sustainability Management? What are the career job titles, pay ranges, career paths? What information does O*Net provide (http://www.onetonline.org/)?

The website ontonline.org is invaluable in finding a wide variety of… [read more]


Environmental Health Website Review Essay

… Accordingly, most of the information is related to the production, containment, and unintended releases of radioactive compounds related to nuclear power plant construction and operations. However, information concerning pollutants generated by power plants burning coal, cyber security, and the medical screening program for past federal DOE employees or contractors is also provided. The other DOE website provides links and information related to energy conservation (Department of Energy, 2011).

Non-Governmental Organizations

Two non-governmental organizations concerned with environmental health are the Teleosis Institute (2011) and the Center for School Mold Help (2007). The website operated by the Teleosis Institutes provides information for medical professionals who are aware that the medical community can have a significant impact on the environment. Of primary concern is the inverse association between an emphasis on preventative medicine and pharmaceutical environmental contamination. The website maintained by the Center for School Mold Help provides information to parents, government agencies, school administrators, and builders concerning the issue of mold exposure in schools. News links and articles on current legal battles regarding this topic are also presented.

My Eco-Footprint

I received a score of 48 using the eco-footprint calculator available on the Conservation International website, which makes me an 'eco-apprentice' (2011).

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR.cdc.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.atsdr.cdc.gov

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). National report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Workplace safety & health topics: Indoor environmental quality. CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/indoorenv/

Center for School Mold Help. (2007). The Center for School Mold Help: Comprehensive school mold prevention, education, & solutions. SchoolMoldHelp.org. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.schoolmoldhelp.org/

Conservation International. (2011). Measure your eco-footprint. Conservation.org. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.conservation.org/act/live_green/Pages/ecofootprint.aspx

Department of Energy. (2011). ENERGY.GOV. Energy.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.energy.gov.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.epa.gov

National Institute of Environmental Health Services. (2011). Your environment, your health. NIEHS.NIH.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/

National Library of Medicine. (2010). Tox Town: Environmental health concerns and toxic chemicals where you live, work, and play. ToxTown.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/

Office of Health, Safety and Security. (2011). The Office of Health, Safety and Security. HSS.DOE.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.hss.doe.gov/index.html.

Teleosis Institute. (2011). Teleosis Institute: Health professionals in service of the global environment. Teleosis.org. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.teleosis.org.… [read more]


Historic Spill of Hazardous Substance Research Paper

… Exxon Valdex

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

Few environmental disasters are as well-known or conjure as immediate a memory as does the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989. Until the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2010, this was the single… [read more]


Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Research Paper

… The concept of feudalism, for instance, segmented the workers (serfs) from the managers (lords) and kept a fairly stable balance in rural areas during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. However, the industrial revolution of the 17th to 19th centuries changed… [read more]


Consumerism the Story Behind Consumerism Many People Essay

… Consumerism

The Story Behind Consumerism

Many people today are concerned about environmental problems such as global warming, increasing pollution, lack of clean drinking water in many parts of the world, growing inequality between the North and the South, deforestation, overfishing, wastefulness -- to name a few. But people sometimes look for the roots of this problem elsewhere, in the Third World and their growing population or in the lack of free marketeering in developing countries. Analysis of current environmental problems and the facts associated with it, however, show that these views are misleading. The main cause of current problems is, to paraphrase former President Bill Clinton, "it is consumerism, stupid!" It is mass consumption culture, propagated by the governments such as the United States and giant corporations, that is driving current levels of wastefulness, pollution, growing global inequality, and oppression of native peoples around the world.

Annie Leonard, in a presentation about the cycling of material's economy, explains how consumption today causes environmental problems and global inequality. Leonard (2008) explains that the process of material's economy is a linear cycle -- that is, it does not fix on its own -- and starts with extraction. From there, it goes to production, distribution, consumption, and finally disposal. At a first glance, the system looks just fine but a critical examination of it shows that it is in serious crisis. If the system continues in the manner it processes today, then by the end of the century, the planet may become frighteningly unsustainable because material's economy today is fundamentally in conflict with the idea of sustainable development (Speth, 2008).

The facts and statistics involving the material's economy have reached alarming proportions. Consider, for instance, extraction. We use resources today than ever before and the level of extracting resources from the planet is also growing. In the last three decades, humans have extracted one-third of the resources available in our planet. The level of global overfishing today is at 75%. The United States have cut most of its trees, leaving only 4% of what there was a few centuries ago. The population of the United States constitutes 5% of the world population but Americans also consume 30% of the resources in the world. If all people in the world lived like Americans, we would have needed additional 3 to 5 planets but we do not have them (Leonard, 2008; Steffen, 2008). Humans are taking more and more from the planet, without giving back, and this linear destructive process cannot continue forever.

Extraction is just the beginning of the destructive process. It is followed by production which involves, among other things, the use of toxic chemicals on a massive scale. Through production, toxics are exposed to the environment and to the people. Human bodies consume toxics because of the manner of production today. As Leonard explains, toxic chemicals have even contaminated breast milk. In other words, because of the nature of the production system, humans are exposed to toxics as soon as they are… [read more]


Landscape Metrics Today's Ecology Professional Essay

… d.). One disadvantage of this metric is that it does not take into account the area that each class covers, or its importance. Nevertheless, in an ecologically sensitive area such as the Idaho Batholith, it is useful to monitor the biodiversity of the area to determine the potential damage of human activity, as well as determining ways to mitigate this.

Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI)

The SHDI is a somewhat more complex method of determining the diversity of a certain area. To calculate this, the number of patch types as well as their proportional area distribution are taken into account (Eiden, Kayadjanian, and Vidal, n.d.). These components are also generally known as richness and evenness. The Index increases with the number of different patch types and also if the proportional distribution among patch types becomes more even. The calculation of this Index allows the ecologist to determine the differences in an area's biodiversity with time. This could be an important component of landscape calculations of an agriculturally important area such as the Willamette Valley. This area originally had a wide range of prairies, oak savannas, coniferous forests, wetlands, and deciduous riparian forests. Today, Oregon's population, industry, commerce, and cropland have caused significant changes in biodiversity. The sustainability of agricultural practices is therefore a significant concern.

Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI)

The IJI is measured by taking into account the spatial configuration of patch types. The neighborhood relations between patches are therefore considered and analyzed. The way in which patch types interact and affect each other is calculated in this way, as well as how the changes in one patch type might affect landcover adjacent to it.

Conclusion

Uuemaa et al. (2009) emphasize the need for landscape metrics and their use in determining the nature not only for the benefit of the natural environment and its sustainability, but also for the ability of human beings to sustain their activities on the earth. One of the most important concerns is that landscape metrics provides a way to learn from history. Historical climate and landscape changes, as well as their effects, can be used to determine probable future changes and their effects on the human ability to survive and thrive on earth. Washington, Oregon, and Idaho all have landscape diversities and features that interact with their human populations. Landscape metrics can provide a platform for sustainability.

References

Eiden, G., Kayadjanian, M., and Vidal, C. (n.d.). Capturing landscape structures: Tools. Retreived from: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/publi/landscape/ch1.htm

Uuemaa, E., Antrop, M., Roosaare, J., Marja, R., and Mander, U. (2009). Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Their Use in Landscape Research. Living Reviews in Landscape Research. Retrieved from: http://landscaperesearch.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrlr-2009-1/… [read more]

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