"Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays

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Environment and the Two Major Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,061 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Today and the Future:

In 2000, Republicans once again gained control of both the White House and the Congress. Several important environmental pieces of legislation have been put into place during this time. The Environmental Restoration Act of 2003 is one such bill. The purpose of the Environmental Restoration Act is to encourage the development of alternative fuel sources to help meet the increasing energy demand for homeowners and industries ("Environmental Restoration," n.d.).

Republican President George W. Bush has promoted his 'Clear Skies Initiative' that would limit the emissions of mercury, which have been found so dangerously high in fish, that the government has posted warnings on the consumption, as well as reducing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. It is thanks to efforts on both sides of the political fence that "emissions of the six major pollutants that cause smog, soot, acid rain and breathing problems have been cut by 25%" ("Issues," 2004) since 1970.


Clearly, both parties have been important in the preservation and protection of the environment over the past 40 years. Although Democrats may be seen as stereotypically environmentally friendly, Republican too are concerned for the environment that they live in. This paper has shown, environmentalism is truly a bipartisan issue.

Crichton (2004) put it quite eloquently in his article for USA Today,

Environmentalism needs to be rational, flexible, and based in objective and verifiable science. Moreover, it must be apolitical. To mix natural concerns with the frantic fantasies that people have about one political party or another is to miss the truth-that there is very little difference between the parties on this subject, except for pandering rhetoric. The effort to promote effective legislation is not helped by thinking that the Democrats will save us and the Republicans will not. Political history is more complicated than that. Never forget which president started the EPA: archconservative Richard Nixon, a staunch Republican. Also keep in mind which president sold the Federal oil leases, that allowed drilling in Santa Barbara, Calif.: Great Society architect Lyndon Johnson, a prototypical Democrat. So, get politics out of your thinking about the environment.


Blodgett, J. (1994, Dec. 19). Environmental reauthorizations and regulatory reform: Recent developments. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.ncseonline.org/nle/crsreports/legislative/leg-7.cfm?&CFID=16426360&CFTOKEN=10723153.

Brodine, V.W. (1996, Feb. 2). GOP has 'contract' against the environment. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.pww.org/archives96/96-02-17-2.html.

Calavita, N. (1995, June). Legislative history of the environmental goals and policy report. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.csus.edu/calst/government_affairs/reports/es04.pdf.

Crichton, M. (2004, Mar.). Environmentalism as religion run amok. USA Today, 132(2706). Retrieved October 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2004, Oct. 3). Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_Protection_Agency.

Environmental Restoration Act of 2003. (No date). Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.theorator.com/bills108/hr3531.html.

Green is good: Republicans should stand up for environment. (2002, Dec. 10). Knight Ridder Tribune News Service. Retrieved October 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.

Issues out of focus at the Republican convention. (2004, Sept. 2). Gannett News Service. Retrieved October 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.

Kerr, A. (1997, Jan. 2). Environmentalists… [read more]

Waste &amp Environment Management Spelt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,402 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


These types of customers are also subject to unique legislation under RCRA. So the way that this industry is segmented is in part by customer type, in part by legislation and in part by waste type. Some firms will specialize in certain types of waste or certain types of customers, while larger firms might operate in a number of industries.… [read more]

Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 2012 alone, the Act mobilized close to ten million dollars for beach cleanup (Swarup, Mishra, & Jauhari, 1992).

Virginia's Citizen Water Quality Improvement Act

The state sponsored Virginia Water Quality Improvement Act of 1997 (WQIA) was to restore the quality of state waters by protecting them from destruction and impairments. To achieve this, the Water-Quality Improvement Fund (WQIF) was created. This approach attempted to include the public community in beach management activity. For this reason, the act was essential in mobilizing funds to provide for quality assessment and improvement of grants. In particular, the water conservation districts, pollution prevention and reduction control program has been integral in responding to the various needs of the city. As a result, the VWQIA was the impetus in establishing the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). The department has so far established over a thousand locations for detecting pollutants (Belden, 2001).

EPA Investigation

Although there have been no subsequent apprehension of individuals who are caught contaminating the beach, it should be noted that companies caught breaching the BEACH have been forced to pay a penalty for the same. Care A Lot Inc., the owner of a pet supply in Virginia Beach agreed to pay 30,000 in a penalty to settle alleged for violations of EPA law. The company was accused of having violated Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The company was accused alleged for being in production of Unbranded and unregistered products for cat, dogs, and contaminating the beach through uncontrolled waste disposal. EPA investigators further established that the products are on sale on the company's catalogues, store, and website. Some of the company's products wastes have been found on the beach (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009).

The status of any cleanup efforts

The ozone alert days and number of pollutants in the year reported by the EPA at 37% in Virginia Beach compared to air quality, which stands at 82.8. The water quality stands at 61 on a scale of 100 compared to the United States average at 55%. For this reason, the need for cleaning Virginia Beach with the intent of removing all possible bacteria cannot be downplayed. The local authorities have utilized the Memorial Day to encourage the local community to undertake the clean up process.


Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association

Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press

Swarup, R. Mishra, S.N. & Jauhari V.P. (1992). Environmental Pollution Ecology. Washington: Mittal Publications

U.S. Government Printing Office, (2009).…… [read more]

Cultural Geography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,142 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Since 1980s, environmentalists have considered ecotourism as a critical endeavor aimed at ensuring that the aesthetic nature of the environment is maintained so that the coming generations can enjoy and experience destinations that have not been touched by human intervention (Honey 33).

Generally, the concept behind ecotourism seeks to satisfy individuals viewing living organisms (though few) in their natural environments. It focuses on environmental sustainability, socially responsible travel, and personal growth. It involves travel by individuals to destinations where cultural heritage, flora, and fauna are the primary attractions. It is suitable for individuals who care about natural habitats where the effects of human activity on the environment are minimal. Responsible ecotourism entails minimization of the negative effects of popular tourism on the natural environment and enhancing the cultural integrity of the indigenous people.

Another integral part of eco-tourism is the promotion of energy efficiency, recycling, and water conservation. For these reasons, ecotourism requests to advocates of social and environmental responsibility. Tourism depends upon air transportation, thus contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that result from combustion placed into the stratosphere. This eventually leads to climate change and global warming. Many countries are advocating and implementing environmental protection strategies. Campaigns are being carried to create awareness and sensitize people about the importance of environmental conservation and sustainability. Practices related to unsustainable agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization have affected the natural environment negatively. However, ecotourism has not provided substantial benefits in some parts of the world. This has left the economies of these regions worse than before in some cases (Fennell 30).

How the concepts of sustainable development, eco-tourism, and cultural ecology apply to contemporary Middle America

Tourism is a leading economic sector in many Middle American countries (Klak 9). Central America is one of the prime ecotourism destinations. Many of the tour operators and nature lodges around the country are dedicated professionals and pioneers in the sustainable tourism field. Many areas of Central America, including El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Belize, and Nicaragua are popular ecotourism destinations. They offer a wide range of adventure opportunities, community-based tours, cultural experiences and eco-friendly accommodations. The region's diverse landscapes include active volcanoes, tropical rain forests, and abundant fauna and flora. They provide unique wildlife encounters and learning experiences for individuals who visit the parks.

Deforestation is the main threat to Middle America's fragile ecosystem. Farming has virtually wiped out the region's dry tropical rainforests. Logging is another major threat to the rainforest. Deforestation has been devastating to many species as well as human beings. It has affected man in different ways, such as drinking-water shortages, mudslides, displaced indigenous tribes, and flash flooding. El Salvador has the worst environmental record with only 2% of its original forest in existence (Klak 18).

Many countries in Middle America have been engaged in environmental awareness, thus solving the region's huge environmental problems. Not only does it solve deforestation problems, but also industrial pollution and overpopulation. Volunteer travel among individuals has also been on the increase with the aim of learning new… [read more]

Environmental Services: Monetize? Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


From this perspective, monetization of human life and health, or of the existence of other species, is either meaningless or degrading" (2000, p.10). All of these issues have clear consequences for policy, but the inclination to reduce them purely to monetary distinctions is completely skewed and unrealistic; it also violates a sense of integrity about the human condition.

As Ackerman and Gallagher illustrate, the attraction to market-based polices are becoming the go-to recommendation for all the world's environmental problems, resting on the theory that free markets, when adjusted for externalities, can always stimulate certain "efficient" allocations of society's resources, which causes many legislators to push for the rolling back of regulation so that the market can better protect the environment (2000). This particular blueprint can fail because certain public purposes cannot be achieved via prices and markets by themselves; and pricing can often be a meaningless objective in this regard (Ackerman & Gallagher, 2000).

Those in favor of this type of valuation argue that people respond to such tendencies towards monetization: it helps people to understand that value exists and helps them to understand this sense of value in strongly economic terms -- terms which are accessible to all people (Spash, 2008). Monetizing these ecosystems is connected to the notion that if people knew how valuable they were, they would better adapt their behavior to more aggressively helping to preserve them (Spash, 2008). However, such a notion is completely skewed and presents an oversimplified perspective of human behavior and the concepts of monetization. Thus, this paper has attempted to demonstrate that monetization can only be effective with natural resources when it comes to ascribing penalties -- and sometimes not even then. The inclination to monetize and commodify natural resources comes from an imbalanced and skewed place, and is one which violates the integrity of the nation and the human spirit.


Ackerman, F., & Gallagher, K. (2000, October). Getting the Prices Wrong. Retrieved from Global Development: [HIDDEN]

Kinzig, A. (2011, November). Paying for Ecosystem Services -- Promise and Peril. Retrieved from Sciencemag.org: [HIDDEN]

Spash, C. (2008). How Much is that Ecosystem in the Window? Retrieved from Environmental Values: [HIDDEN]

Stavins, R. (2009, April). What Explains the Recent Popularity of Market-Based Envrionmental Solutions? Retrieved from [HIDDEN]

Stavins,…… [read more]

Glasgow Will Be Hosting Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,204 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Glasgow will be hosting the Commonwealth Games in thesummer of 2014. It is the first major event that will be held in Glasgow, Scotland, and therefore is entitled to a great deal of significance. It is approximated that around 6500 athletes will be taking part in the event, and almost 1 million spectators will be attending the Commonwealth Games. To… [read more]

Treatment of Domestic and Industrial Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  10 pages (2,926 words)
Style: IEEE  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


600ml of wastewater collected (after preliminary screening, free of grit and primary sediments) served as a bacteria inoculums and a supplier for nutrients. Then, cultivation of the settle-able algal-bacteria took place under laboratory conditions of around 190 C. The photo-bioreactor (for culture enrichment) comprised of a transparent PVC 40cm deep and 29 cm in diameter [3].

Therefore, in estimation, the… [read more]

Green Technology-Past, Present and Future Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


People are now opting to either donate or recycle them so as to avoid E-waste (Kennedy, 2010).

Corporate world and green technology

Companies that are socially conscious have come to the realization that green is good for their business. Embracing the concept of going green is not just good for public relations but it also leads to operations that are more efficient and sometimes cost saving.in the world today there are many companies that have go green, such as McGraw Hill publishing which is a very high paper consumer. The company is now buying paper that adheres to strict standards and its production is done in a sustainable way.

Staples is a company that relies on solar panels at almost all its locations .the company has also done a great job in the recycling of printer ink cartridges. Intel is also at the forefront of going green through the reduction of green house gas emission by 30% over a period of the last five years. More and more companies are now translating the green ideology to their presence online. Corporate websites are now making consumers aware of the green options that are currently available. The presence of online green companies is a show of effort for the education of consumers and in some instances gives a call to action (nicholeknupp, 2013).

Future of green technology

Going green has extensively helped our environment. This is through the reduction of environmental pollution, provision of products that are generally safe for the environment. Products are now more environmentally friendly. People are now quite aware of the concept f going green and they are embracing it. This means that more and more people are now going green and the trend will more likely than not keep spreading a the positive impacts of green technology will become clearer and manifest to the benefit of the society and the world in general. However, despite this it is still important that the advantages of going green are emphasized to people so that it becomes part and parcel of people's daily lives.


Kennedy, R. (2010). 5 Things You Can Do to Help Make Your School Green. Retrieved September 3, 2013 from http://privateschool.about.com/od/greenschools/qt/greenschools.htm nicholeknupp. (2013). 8 Companies That Have Gone Green. Retrieved September 3, 2013 from http://www.smallbusinesscan.com/8-companies-that-have-gone-green/

Metcalf, E. (2013). 10 Ways to Protect the Environment -- and Your Own Health. Retrieved September 3, 2013 from http://www.everydayhealth.com/green-health-photos/ways-to-protect-the-environment-and-your-health.aspx… [read more]

Environment Ethics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (643 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Environment Ethics

The main idea conveyed in Deborah Bird Rose's essay, "So the Future can Come Forth from the Ground" is that humans have a responsibility to take care of the world. This is not an abstract concept. The author conveys the fact that after spending a significant amount of time with Aborigines in their native environment, they have propagated the notion onto her that literally taking care of the world -- the ground and all that it births -- is akin to taking care of the future. The earth is what will sustain people on this planet; indeed, it always has. The author contrasts this primary idea of humans taking control of the future by not destroying their environment with that of conventional Western society. The latter viewpoint contends that the future is some dim, brimming light that will eventually come into fruition, regardless of what people do in the here and now. There are various forms of religion which seem to reinforce this notion.

However, the Aboriginal concept that the author prefers is a lot less abstract, significantly more pragmatic, and certainly more involved. This viewpoint holds that the future will only arrive and be preserved through the work done to prepare for it in the present. That work revolves around taking care of the country, of the ground and its streams, its mountains, its foliage and all of the wildlife that feeds upon these things in various ecosystems. Without doing such work, there will be no future, because the earth and its ground that birthed everything will no longer exist.

Lastly, one final concept that ties into this main idea is the notion that people have an obligation to effectively steward or take care of the earth. That obligation, of course, was disseminated form their ancestors, who were successful in their caring for the planet so that the planet still exists at the present moment. The Aborigines believe…… [read more]

Goal of Ecology Depends Substantially Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … goal of ecology depends substantially on the perspective of the observer. On one hand, there might be a temptation to ignore the issues of ecology and to say "so what?" simply because most major ecological initiatives will not produce any meaningful effects during the lifetime of any individual involved in those efforts (p.440-441). On the other hand, one can commit to ecological principles because they will benefit future generations of mankind, even if ecological measures only take effect after the lives of those individuals who implement those changes. However, it is still possible to take the "so what?" point-of-view because even the history of all of human life on earth will come to an end because in the largest scale of time, human history is merely a very small blip in the history of the planet (p.442).

According to the first view, human beings have taken excessive advantage of the planet and they have depleted its resources irresponsibly because they have been concerned only with the present and with their short-term benefits. In that context, "so what" means there is no reason to worry beyond today because whatever happens to the planet in the future does not matter to anybody alive today. According to the opposite perspective, people living today have an ethical and moral obligation to act as responsible stewards for future generations.

The version of "so what" that is a reference to the fact that the earth will continue long after the extinction of the human species suggests that whatever damage human beings inflict on the planet is inconsequential because the natural ecological processes described by the Gaia Hypotheses of James Lovelock (p.441) will heal the planet after the last human beings are long gone. However, that perspective ignores all of the human hardship and suffering caused by some human beings that affect others as long as…… [read more]

Short Reflective Statement Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (654 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Environmental sustainability

Throughout the stretch of this period of tackling environmental sustainability and the challenges that come alongside it, much has come to light and my perspective has been significantly shifted from the structured perspective that I had on how to handle environmental challenges. This structured perspective was equally based and founded on reading material on environmental changes and how to handle them, but had missed out on crucial people related aspects as will be highlighted below.

One of the outstanding change as well as a challenge I have got from this study and presentations is the cultural value of environmental sustainability. It is not enough to have the technical know-how on environmental sustainability but it is of help to give it an interdisciplinary approach such that every available angle is taken care of, from the professional to the predominant culture and practices of the people concerned in the environmental conservation effort. This is the only sure way of ensuring sustainable environmental care.

It was also a significant lesson to know that getting to know the environmental challenge is not enough, but knowing the cause of the environmental challenge is more significant in setting up a program that is sustainable and in support of environmental conservation. Here there is need to focus on the people, the production trends, the consumption trend, the balance in the supply and demand, political ecology as well as the geopolitics and how these could be possible reasons for a given environmental challenge (Monash University, 2013).

This section of my interaction with environmental material also opened up my perspective on how food that we eat on a daily basis can be a root cause to our vast environmental challenges. The concept of the 'slow foods' and the complex foodscape as presented by Adeline Tay (2013) significantly illuminated on the negative effects that the fast foods and the changing food culture has on our environment. Initially this was not a clear concept…… [read more]

Overfishing Ever Since the Industrial Revolution Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,091 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



Ever since the Industrial Revolution, human population has increased tremendously. This population increase has been the cause of a rising use and exploitation of a lot of natural resources found in the world. In a similar manner, the overuse of natural resources is reflected in the requirement for fish and fish products (Beckham 1228). The fisheries industry is corresponding… [read more]

Environmental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The court disagreed with the site qualifying under Section 404(a)'s definition of 'navigable waters' because of being a habitat for the migratory birds. The courts disagreement was based on the consideration that it would assume the statute did not have any independent significance. The court explained that, in the aggregate, the substantial effects on the interstate commerce were not clear… [read more]

Worldwide Population Increase Affect Planet Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,502 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


When we consider the effects offered by worldwide population increase and its interaction with the environment, man has never appreciated what he or she gets from the environment. The planet is beneficial to man in many ways. The increased population produces destructive gases to the atmosphere. This is very destructive to the environment. It is a nuisance.

Worldwide population increase… [read more]

Natural World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (906 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … environmentalism-related matters, people are still a long way from being able to have a complex understanding of the relationship between humanity and the natural world and the role that they can play in protecting the environment. What is especially worrying today is that it all comes down to a battle between profits and environmentalism. Many actually feel that they are responsible for the environment and that it would be best for them to adopt environmentalist attitudes. However, some of these people also earn large profits as a result of exploiting the environment and thus have trouble deciding whether it would be in their best interest to refrain from damaging the natural world.

The masses do not only have to think about nature as a concept that has nothing to do with them. They are responsible for damaging, protecting, or saving the environment and it is important for someone to emphasize this. Even with the fact that there is much controversy regarding the global warming process and the degree to which people are responsible for triggering it, it would be absurd for someone to say that society is not responsible for polluting the environment.

The industrial revolution and the recent centuries have played an essential role in performing (in some cases) irreparable damage to the environment. As society experienced rapid development nature came to be harmed to a higher degree and people started to be more and more ignorant as a result of becoming obsessed with profits. It is surely difficult for important international players to refrain from polluting the environment as long as they observe that their actions reflect positively on their wealth.

The cruel reality is that almost everyone, at some point in their lives, played a more or less active role in harming the environment and actually realized that they were doing so. This makes it possible for people to acknowledge that perfection does not exist. Even with this, this does not mean that individuals should express lesser interest in trying to save the environment. People need to leave their past behind and realize that they can be especially helpful in saving the natural world.

While most people perceive the modern world as the perfect place to be, they fail to observe that society tends to be restrictive at times and that people are virtually slaves to their own dreams. Many are not even going to be able to accomplish their dreams because they are too busy trying to set the basis of their dreams. Aldous Huxley's "Time and the Machine" provides important information with regard to concepts like time and industrialization. The text makes it possible for readers to gain a more complete comprehension regarding their role in…… [read more]

Environment and Behavior "An Understanding Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (500 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Environment and Behavior

"an understanding of some phenomenon: why it happens, what causes it, and what limits it" (Bechtel, 1997). A 'good one predicts, summarizes, provides understanding, and is heuristic' (Bechtel, 1997). "Heuristic means tending to provoke discovery" (Bechtel, 1997). 'Four major types are true E&B theories, the person in the environment, social psychological, and environment on the person' )Bechtel, 1997).

GAIA: Lovelock 1979. 'theory is that the atmosphere is maintained at a constant level by a mixture of bacteria, plants, and animals that act together like a living organism' (Bechtel, 1997).

Sociobiology: Wilson, 1975. "the central concept is that it is genes that determine behavior" (Bechtel 1997). Problem is that it doesn't explain altruism (Bechtel, 1997).

Biophilia: Wilson, 1984. 'tendency to preserve the habitat in which they (genes) can grow' (Bechtel, 1997).

Overload: Milgram 1970. Theory is that "we have only a limited capacity to process information, so when we are overloaded there are only so many strategies we can use to decrease the load to a manageable level" (Bechtel, 1997).

Understimulation: AKA sensory deprivation. End result was that ' sensory deprivation began as a method for bringing about mental illness and ended up removing symptoms' (Bechtel, 1979).

Organismic-Holistic: In between sensory deprivation and overload (Bechtel, 1997). Smuts, 1973. "An organism must be seen as a holistic entity, not just the sum of its parts" (Bechtel, 1997). Organism seeks out environment between the two extremes (Bechtel, 1997).

Sociopetal and Sociofugal: two "types" of space which either promote…… [read more]

Aging and the Environment Theme Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Aging and the Environment

Theme -- Aging and the Environment

Man and Environment -- a Dichotomy -- Each individual perceives his or her own environment that is connected, but independent, of the larger environment. There is a dichotomous view between man-(self) and the environment, particularly in Western thinking -- a separation instead of a holism. However, Behavior is a product of a complete function of individual variables related to the environment

Differing theories on Man-Environment Equation -- Some claim adaptive behaviors lead theory; others that there is a dual perception of self-environment and larger environment. Perception (cognition) of the environment based on past-knowledge, culture, and taste changes over time as well. There is, thus, a bi-directionality of self and the environment. In other words, how does one move from a creator of an/the environment to one who is a product of that environment?

Man the responder -- is reaction to the environment -- outward stimuli inward.

Man the building -- is the approach of taking charge -- inward towards outward.

Gaps in Theory -- Depending on the point-of-view of the theorist, the importance of linking theory to practice focuses on architecture, construction and the manner in which the dichotomy can be linked together. However, one is not either or at all times, but may be both depending on the circumstances.

Often, this theoretical bias encompasses the very nature of science and technology -- only humans use technology (for better or worse) to drastically change the environment. This use of technology, however, cannot be outside the realm of scientific theory.

Humans, however, do not always know how to accomplish what we want -- how to change the environment even if needed, is not always accomplished correctly or even appropriately and may cause problems at a future juncture.

The issue, in fact, goes far beyond the question of deciding what to do and organizing the priorities to make that happen.

Students of the environment tend to push the limits of theory and behavior, and the conclusions do not always mesh with the political and economic…… [read more]

Dreams, Reality, and the Future Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (779 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


5.3 Spread to Developing Nations

opportunities but limitations can test validity of hypotheses need to avoid projecting western values on non-western cultures

minimal opportunities to study applications abroad

Research issues include: kinship and space usage, space usage in agriculture, attitudes toward geotypes (tundra, lake), oral histories, animistic perceptions

Issue of literacy -- v- nonliteracy

Need to maintain ethics such as informed consent in research

Reform and Revolution, ethnic, class conflict -- opposition to westerners; the researcher might oppose the government that sponsors them

Poverty has led to hostile view of the researcher, who represents oppressor

43.5.4 Diffusion to Socialist Nations

Eastern Europe, Marxism -- dialectical materialism -- theory of social change emphasizing external economic forces as determinants of experience

Predisposition of Marxist ideology to environmental explanations for behavior; citizens expected to play role

Different view of territoriality

Emphasis on workplace conditions, centralized planning

Political obstacles

43.6 Research Agenda for the Twenty-First Century

Addressing Advocacy (can't be detached from human problems, suffering)

Environmental psychologists need to justify their work, show how it impacts daily life

Integrate philosophy, ethics, morals

Define environmental quality

Technological changes, also role of natural disasters

43.6.1 Pollution Effects

toxic waste disposal, air, water pollution one role of environmental psychologist to measure the behavioral effects of pollutants sustainable levels of pollution prevention

43.6.2. Population

Immigration, population migration

Public housing, age, and ethnicity, high cost of land

43.6.3. War and Peace

links to territoriality, crowding -- controlling intergroup hostilities with design theory

how hostile groups use space to avoid conflict

43.6.4 Harmony with Other Species

Human presence damaging to many species

Environmental psychologists can show how people react to non-human elements or show effects of noise, overcrowding

43.6.5 Resource Conservation

directly linked with environmental psychology eg behavior regarding recycling systemwide basis

43.6.6. Space Travel and Settlement

Extreme environments, exotic environment syndrome (decreased alertness, intellectual impairment) bc of monotony

How people adapt to totally new…… [read more]

Environment Will Get You Theme -- Environmental Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Environment Will Get You

Theme -- Environmental Psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the way humans and their surroundings interact. The environment is a broad term in this case, and encompasses nature, social settings, urban environments, learning environments and informational environments.

The environment is everything that surrounds us -- both good and bad

Air-quality -- Outdoor

The Greenhouse Effect is a buildup of carbon dioxide in the environment caused by pollution and an eroding of the ozone layer -- this allows the sun's rays in, but not out, and causes a buildup of heat

Some believe that this is also caused by natural phenomenon like volcanoes, earthquakes and the amount of precipitation that occurs naturally

Pollution into the air is nothing new; but since the Industrial Revolution, CO2 has increased in the atmosphere, at least 15% in the last century.

The so-called Ozone Hole was discovered in 1986 in Antarctica; this changes the way the earth "respirates" and has also been known to cause ozone poisoning to people who travel into high levels of ozone through airline travel

Automobile pollution is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect because when hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxidize in sunlight, they combine to form harmful oxidants. These oxidants are largely responsible for "smog" or the brown haze over many cities.

Lead was a major pollutant in gasoline until it was reduced to the point at which 1% or less is now mandated in U.S. gasoline.

There are a number of pollutants that arise from industry, mostly sulfur from energy plants -- especially coal, which is one of the most serious pollution sources

Natural gas, however, is one of the cleaner forms of energy and requires less volatile production to refine.

Air Quality -- Indoor

The most common indoor pollutants are cigarette smoke, asbestos, radon, and formaldehyde. Natural contaminants are dust mites, fungus, and bacteria.

Smoking is hazardous to health -- whether by ingesting or second-hand. The medical effects of tobacco use are well-documented, and include heart and lung disease, organ failure, and a host of other respiratory maladies.

Asbestos, radon and formaldehyde come from artificial insulation and/or construction materials -- most now banned in new construction. Radon is the most prominent pollutant, widely found in rocks and soils.

Noise pollution is also a serious indoor problem. From music to jets to urban noise, particularly at the volume levels people now use, are hazardous to hearing. This is also problematic in factories and construction sites and should be mitigated by wearing protective gear.

OSHA estimates that…… [read more]

Environmental Assessing Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


An EIA would obviously demonstrate that the Haida Nation and the environment would suffer greatly if the government would allow other organizations to intervene and deforest areas believed to belong to Aboriginals.

4. Post decision follow-ups are an important phase of EIA projects, taking into account that "while weak and non-existent legal requirements and institutional support mechanisms may in part be contributing to the current state of practice, a number of substantive and procedural elements are also required to facilitate effective post-decision EIA follow-up programs" (166-167). It is essential for the EIA to be performed with great care, so as for follow-up and monitoring objectives to be clear from the very first steps of the process. Monitoring data for the biophysical environment is essential, as this would make it possible for analysts to discover indicators concerning how the environment might be negatively affected. Early warning indicators enable individuals to detect potential problems during early stages and to resolve them before they invest a large amount of resources in a project.

"Early warning indicators must be:

directly or indirectly related to the VEC; physically possible to monitor; amenable to quantitative analysis." (168)

Depending on the significance of each problem that may arise, an EIA team has to focus on more important problems in the beginning, as detecting such an issue later is likely to have terrible consequences on the project or, even worse, on the environment. The fact that environmental systems are in most cases problematic makes it difficult for an EIA team to be able to identify stressors and then monitor these respective stressors. "Essential to follow-up and monitoring programs then is a complementary effects-based approach that focuses on the performance of the environmental system and VEC indicators rather than solely on the stressors and individual VEC responses" (171). These effect-based monitoring programs are used very often under the Fisheries Act and are actually an essential factor determining whether the environment has been compromised or not in particular situations.

Control sites are difficult to install, but play an important role in making it possible for analysts to understand whether some environmental changes happen because of natural purposes or because of the project. Post-monitoring decisions need to be made on a constant basis, as only by employing such an attitude are experts ready to determine whether or not a project has negative consequences on the environment, taking into account that some actions might have long-term consequences and would thus be impossible to identify during a project's early phases.

Individuals in charge of an EIA have to be particularly careful and need to collect data at particular intervals of time in order to determine if and when changes take place. Unexpected changes can take place and these people need to be ready to deal with them while collecting data meant to assist them in learning more about the environmental impact. Time limits are also important during post-monitoring stages because analysts need to be able to address potential problems in good time, as… [read more]

Accounting Information for Decision Making Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,585 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


That web site is accompanied with reports for the company's 'environmental management plans'. Without particularly mentioning to water usage and consumption, it mentioned that Inghams website is needed to employ an Environment Management Plan (EMP). The EMP objectives are designed in compliance with: relevant legal structures along with other needs; identification from the environment impacts the company's activities, items and… [read more]

Environment and Social Equality Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Somehow such organizations and societies must be forced to change through one of two different options. It can come from a top down approach in which the governments of the world take action against the degradation of the planet. It could also come from bottom up pressures in which citizens of the world demand that their institutions take action to mitigate environmental disasters.

The most alarming environmental trend is certainly the changes that are altering the Earth's energy balance. Exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels, have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of roughly 395.77 parts per million in the atmosphere (CO2 Now). The current concentrations of CO2 are alarming to many researchers because several scientists have claimed that the earth's highest level of CO2 that the Earth can sustainably support is somewhere around 350 parts per million (Hensen, Sato and Kharecha). As McKibben points out in his book Eaarth, that the planet will look substantially different than the one that we grew up on from here on out (McKibben).

When all of the climate data is put in perspective, a rather bleak picture for the future of the planet emerges. The planet that future generations are to inherit will undoubtedly look substantially different than the one that the previous generations enjoyed. This seems to be already unavoidable even with swift action. Greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere for many centuries and therefore there can be no quick solution to the problem. Furthermore, the continued exponential growths of greenhouse gas emissions are already being felt today as the frequencies of extreme weather events and temperature records have increased substantially.

The current economic models are systems that are built upon growth and consumption seem to be unable to shift direction easily. Each new generation of consumers continue accumulating more and more stuff and it is the increases in the population as well as the resources consumed per person that is causing the most damage. However, this model must change if a livable planet is to be passed down to future generations. It is not only that the abstract "future generations" that must be considered. In fact the generations that are already born will have to deal with the consequences of environmental mismanagement for literally the rest of their lives. Time is running out as the window of opportunity is closing; if it has not already closed.

Works Cited

Burtynsky, E. Photographic Works. 1999. Web. 12 July 2012.

CO2 Now. "Earth's CO2 Home Page." 12 July 2012. CO2 Now. Web. 12 July 2012.

Hensen, J., et al. "Target Atmoshperic CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?" NASA Goddard Intitute for Space Studies (2008): 1-18. Web.

McKibben, B. Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet. New York City: St. Martin's Griffin, 2011. Print.

-- . Enough:…… [read more]

Hidden Life of Garbage Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Los Angeles is a city not only of superstars but also of garbage. Roger's (2002) book, Gone Tomorrow: The Hidden Life of Garbage, makes me see garbage, if not my environment in a different light. In fact, it makes me see my university and the cafes that I eat in, as well as other institutions that I loiter in as smaller landfills within the larger landfill of the State itself.

Land fills are messy and diverse burden of waste material that are regularly tossed in the earth whilst operating vehicles smooth it over and, from day-to-day, place foam covers on it in order to prevent toxic gas from emanating in the air and in order to provide it with something of an aesthetic appearance. You look at LA -- it seems to have an aesthetic appearance. You go through my university and the other buildings and their externals, on the whole, seem beautiful. They are architecturally impressive, orderly, contemporary, and technologically run. But they remind me of the modern landfill. Underneath that smooth surface is garbage that is bristling with life. And the garbage is there, only partially concealed from the observer's perspective. We see it in passing, yet are unaware of its presence. The aesthetic look only acts as foam cover over its surface.

Go into the classroom, for instance look at all those tossed cans, wrappers, and papers. That is garbage. Enter the cafeterias: the amount of food thrown out per day and paper plates as well as packaging. That's just a bit of the garbage that emanates from there. The cartons and tossed out pens, as well as forsaken books and discarded dorm furniture. And rejected sweaters. As well as torn sneakers, and disused computers. This is just a particle of the garbage that Rogers (2002) tells us constitutes 30% of the garbage that as American nation we regularly produce in the world.

The average American, according to Rogers (2002), tosses 4.5 pounds of garbage daily which culminates in approximately 1,600 pounds per year.

Garbage is destructive. Garbage not only destructs us. It harms creatures that we share our existence with, both animate and inanimate. It throttles the plant life and impedes their growth whilst stagnating the creatures of the sea and preventing them from flourishing. The Pacific Ocean, for instance, is six times more abundant with plastic waste than it is with zooplankton (Rogers, 2002). Plastic, in fact, impacts the marine system by as much as 90-95% in some areas extending the damage to marine life by killing and destructing much of the marine ecosystem.

The problem is that whilst we are becoming prolific garbage-tosses (and increasing in that prolificacy), we are fading in our zeal of recycling and garbage is becoming a concealed aspect of our environment; they're but hidden under the surface or glossed over so that it appears part of contemporary life.

That this is so is a result of some environmental laws that help corporations conceal their garbage as well as the… [read more]

Career Opportunities Exist in This Relatively New Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … career opportunities exist in this relatively new field of Sustainability Management? What are the career job titles, pay ranges, career paths? What information does O*Net provide (http://www.onetonline.org/)?

The website ontonline.org is invaluable in finding a wide variety of positions including those in Sustainability Management. This area is encompasses many engineering, logistics and operations areas within companies and is… [read more]

Environmental Health Website Review Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (910 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Accordingly, most of the information is related to the production, containment, and unintended releases of radioactive compounds related to nuclear power plant construction and operations. However, information concerning pollutants generated by power plants burning coal, cyber security, and the medical screening program for past federal DOE employees or contractors is also provided. The other DOE website provides links and information related to energy conservation (Department of Energy, 2011).

Non-Governmental Organizations

Two non-governmental organizations concerned with environmental health are the Teleosis Institute (2011) and the Center for School Mold Help (2007). The website operated by the Teleosis Institutes provides information for medical professionals who are aware that the medical community can have a significant impact on the environment. Of primary concern is the inverse association between an emphasis on preventative medicine and pharmaceutical environmental contamination. The website maintained by the Center for School Mold Help provides information to parents, government agencies, school administrators, and builders concerning the issue of mold exposure in schools. News links and articles on current legal battles regarding this topic are also presented.

My Eco-Footprint

I received a score of 48 using the eco-footprint calculator available on the Conservation International website, which makes me an 'eco-apprentice' (2011).


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR.cdc.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.atsdr.cdc.gov

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). National report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Workplace safety & health topics: Indoor environmental quality. CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/indoorenv/

Center for School Mold Help. (2007). The Center for School Mold Help: Comprehensive school mold prevention, education, & solutions. SchoolMoldHelp.org. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.schoolmoldhelp.org/

Conservation International. (2011). Measure your eco-footprint. Conservation.org. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.conservation.org/act/live_green/Pages/ecofootprint.aspx

Department of Energy. (2011). ENERGY.GOV. Energy.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.energy.gov.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.epa.gov

National Institute of Environmental Health Services. (2011). Your environment, your health. NIEHS.NIH.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/

National Library of Medicine. (2010). Tox Town: Environmental health concerns and toxic chemicals where you live, work, and play. ToxTown.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/

Office of Health, Safety and Security. (2011). The Office of Health, Safety and Security. HSS.DOE.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.hss.doe.gov/index.html.

Teleosis Institute. (2011). Teleosis Institute: Health professionals in service of the global environment. Teleosis.org. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.teleosis.org.… [read more]

Historic Spill of Hazardous Substance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Exxon Valdex

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

Few environmental disasters are as well-known or conjure as immediate a memory as does the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989. Until the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2010, this was the single largest oil-spill disaster in history. It remains even to this day a significant determinant of the ecological realities that define… [read more]

Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,925 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The concept of feudalism, for instance, segmented the workers (serfs) from the managers (lords) and kept a fairly stable balance in rural areas during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. However, the industrial revolution of the 17th to 19th centuries changed the conception of sustainability by tapping into fossile fuels, increasing urbanization and segementation of labor, causing an unbalanced agricultural system… [read more]

Consumerism the Story Behind Consumerism Many People Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,165 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The Story Behind Consumerism

Many people today are concerned about environmental problems such as global warming, increasing pollution, lack of clean drinking water in many parts of the world, growing inequality between the North and the South, deforestation, overfishing, wastefulness -- to name a few. But people sometimes look for the roots of this problem elsewhere, in the Third World and their growing population or in the lack of free marketeering in developing countries. Analysis of current environmental problems and the facts associated with it, however, show that these views are misleading. The main cause of current problems is, to paraphrase former President Bill Clinton, "it is consumerism, stupid!" It is mass consumption culture, propagated by the governments such as the United States and giant corporations, that is driving current levels of wastefulness, pollution, growing global inequality, and oppression of native peoples around the world.

Annie Leonard, in a presentation about the cycling of material's economy, explains how consumption today causes environmental problems and global inequality. Leonard (2008) explains that the process of material's economy is a linear cycle -- that is, it does not fix on its own -- and starts with extraction. From there, it goes to production, distribution, consumption, and finally disposal. At a first glance, the system looks just fine but a critical examination of it shows that it is in serious crisis. If the system continues in the manner it processes today, then by the end of the century, the planet may become frighteningly unsustainable because material's economy today is fundamentally in conflict with the idea of sustainable development (Speth, 2008).

The facts and statistics involving the material's economy have reached alarming proportions. Consider, for instance, extraction. We use resources today than ever before and the level of extracting resources from the planet is also growing. In the last three decades, humans have extracted one-third of the resources available in our planet. The level of global overfishing today is at 75%. The United States have cut most of its trees, leaving only 4% of what there was a few centuries ago. The population of the United States constitutes 5% of the world population but Americans also consume 30% of the resources in the world. If all people in the world lived like Americans, we would have needed additional 3 to 5 planets but we do not have them (Leonard, 2008; Steffen, 2008). Humans are taking more and more from the planet, without giving back, and this linear destructive process cannot continue forever.

Extraction is just the beginning of the destructive process. It is followed by production which involves, among other things, the use of toxic chemicals on a massive scale. Through production, toxics are exposed to the environment and to the people. Human bodies consume toxics because of the manner of production today. As Leonard explains, toxic chemicals have even contaminated breast milk. In other words, because of the nature of the production system, humans are exposed to toxics as soon as they are… [read more]

Landscape Metrics Today's Ecology Professional Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (945 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


d.). One disadvantage of this metric is that it does not take into account the area that each class covers, or its importance. Nevertheless, in an ecologically sensitive area such as the Idaho Batholith, it is useful to monitor the biodiversity of the area to determine the potential damage of human activity, as well as determining ways to mitigate this.

Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI)

The SHDI is a somewhat more complex method of determining the diversity of a certain area. To calculate this, the number of patch types as well as their proportional area distribution are taken into account (Eiden, Kayadjanian, and Vidal, n.d.). These components are also generally known as richness and evenness. The Index increases with the number of different patch types and also if the proportional distribution among patch types becomes more even. The calculation of this Index allows the ecologist to determine the differences in an area's biodiversity with time. This could be an important component of landscape calculations of an agriculturally important area such as the Willamette Valley. This area originally had a wide range of prairies, oak savannas, coniferous forests, wetlands, and deciduous riparian forests. Today, Oregon's population, industry, commerce, and cropland have caused significant changes in biodiversity. The sustainability of agricultural practices is therefore a significant concern.

Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI)

The IJI is measured by taking into account the spatial configuration of patch types. The neighborhood relations between patches are therefore considered and analyzed. The way in which patch types interact and affect each other is calculated in this way, as well as how the changes in one patch type might affect landcover adjacent to it.


Uuemaa et al. (2009) emphasize the need for landscape metrics and their use in determining the nature not only for the benefit of the natural environment and its sustainability, but also for the ability of human beings to sustain their activities on the earth. One of the most important concerns is that landscape metrics provides a way to learn from history. Historical climate and landscape changes, as well as their effects, can be used to determine probable future changes and their effects on the human ability to survive and thrive on earth. Washington, Oregon, and Idaho all have landscape diversities and features that interact with their human populations. Landscape metrics can provide a platform for sustainability.


Eiden, G., Kayadjanian, M., and Vidal, C. (n.d.). Capturing landscape structures: Tools. Retreived from: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/publi/landscape/ch1.htm

Uuemaa, E., Antrop, M., Roosaare, J., Marja, R., and Mander, U. (2009). Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Their Use in Landscape Research. Living Reviews in Landscape Research. Retrieved from: http://landscaperesearch.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrlr-2009-1/… [read more]

Sustainable Development Is the Process That Responds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,234 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Sustainable Development is the process that responds to the needs of current population without destroy any of opportunities and needs for future population.

What Sustainable Development is about:

Environment and Sustainable Development

Over the past decade the idiom of sustainable development increasingly has come to frame international debates about environment and development policy-making. Catapulted to prominence by the report of… [read more]

Habitat Connectivity and Matrix Restoration Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


England, Europe. And the United States are currently leading the way for AES, as Donald & Evans (2006) point out. The AES are costly but may ultimately prove cost-effective as they are the equivalent of preventative medicine for ecosystems.

The authors outline two types of AES, one of which is lower cost but has less of an impact; and the other which is more expensive but more effective. Long-term benefits of AES have yet to be fully realized. Yet some participants do report substantial reintroduction of species and increased biodiversity overall. The extensive impact of AES may be significant, especially in areas where biodiversity was hurt the most by agro-business in the first place.

Moreover, the authors point out that AES is effective in different landscapes and ecosystems from coastal wetlands to inland plains. Each ecosystem will require a unique AES to suit its needs. Yet there are some mitigating circumstances and variables that need to be taken into account when developing and implementing an AES. Island biogeography theory, upon which many AES are built, is limited and potentially misleading because of oversimplification. Climate change may add unpredictable variables and consequences. Whether AES can mitigate climate change is up for debate. AES may encourage -- or discourage -- the spread of invasive or alien species, according to the authors. AES often call for the construction of corridors of renewal, which are not yet proven to be effective. Agro-business has wreaked sufficient havoc on the environment to warrant intervention, though, and AES offer some of the most immediately promising and feasible solutions.


Donald, P.F. & Evans, A.D. (2006). Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes. Journal of Applied Ecology (2006) 43, 209 --…… [read more]

Scales Are the Topographical Instruments Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Extrapolating from one to another may be confusing and misleading.

On the other hand, the very study and analysis of the different patterns, processes, and organisms necessitate that scales be drawn up for their survey in order that we make distinctions and categorize them into spatial or temporal dimension. We cannot study ecology or environmental science without scales. We must find a way of dealing with the problems, rather than allowing them to cripple out endeavors to understand and gain more of a comprehension of the natural environment. To that end, Levin (1992), in his McArthur award lecture, suggests that a partial solution may lie in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the observed patterns. Being that perception of human necessarily differs from perception of animal and other natural organisms, their mechanism operate at different scales than those perceived by us and we naturally constrain their patterns by imposing scales. Examining and understanding the underlying mechanism of the behavior of the species can, however, enable us to transcend the human-designed scale by understanding that there can be no single scale at which ecosystems could be described, but that simplification is necessary in order to simplify our studies. Scale issues simply have to be dealt with, as best as we may, and ecologists are still developing methods and modifying former methods in order to do so.


Levin, S. (1992).The problem of pattern and scale in ecology, Vol. 73, No. 6., pp. 1943-1967

*Turner, M.G., Gardner, R.H. & . O' Neill, R. (2001) Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice Pattern and Process… [read more]

Carbon Cycle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Carbon Cycle is a complex process that allows carbon, one of the basic components of life on Earth, to recycle and rotate through a series of processes designed to utilize the maximum amount of energy present for the environment. All terrestrial life is based on the element carbon -- which is the basic element of organic matter -- all the way from fossil fuels to complex DNA and RNA molecules that control genetic reproduction. Essentially, plants, animals, and soil interact to make up the most basic cycle of nature. In this cycle, plants absorb the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, combined with water and the process of photosynthesis from light, to make the foods needed for growth -- sugars. One stage of animals, herbivores, ingest the plant material and produce both waste that fertilizes the plants and act as a food source for higher level predators, the carnivores. Any carbon-based life that dies -- human, animal or plant, are buried and may turn into fossil fuels made of carbon or disseminate into other basic substances that nurture plants. The cycle continues and organic carbon is released back into the atmosphere through plant and animal respiration. Carbon released into the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, acts as a greenhouse gas and traps heat in the atmosphere, allowing the planet to be warm. However, human activity and specifically the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, etc.) places more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere artificially and changes the cyclic patterns.

The water, or hydrological, cycle, is the continuous movement of water above, on, and below the earth. Like the carbon cycle, it is a natural process in which the amount of available water on the planet remains relatively consistent. Essentially, water moves from one reservoir to another -- and changes states from liquid, vapor, and ice during various places within the cycle. Large bodies of water (rivers, oceans, etc.) act as a catch place for water, and through run off and evaporation, the water is moved into the atmosphere (evaporation, condensation, precipitation) and then flows back to the earth. Some of the water is trapped in ice, acting as a long-term storage vessel. The carbon cycle impacts the water cycle in several ways: the water cycle also involves the exchange of heat energy -- thus temperature.…… [read more]

Benefits of Recycling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … Recycling

What are the tangible benefits to be achieved when a community becomes involved in a recycling program? The first and most obvious benefit of recycling, as this paper will reflect, is the responsible reclaiming of the materials that can be reused through technology. The watchword here is conservation, because the planet does not have unlimited resources to… [read more]

Agriculture Practices Have Significant Impact Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Government should also encourage mariculture and aquaculture. There is also a need of improving current legislation on that matter. Coffee plantations require excessive use of water which is creating negative impacts on the environment. It's the responsibility of government to take initiatives and support farmers to grow the coffee under canopy shad. Government should also pass regulation regarding treatment of… [read more]

Ecological Systems Theory and Person-in-Environment Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (629 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


; and, Analyze the overall parallel of morals and ethics that exist. Having all these facts in hand will help us create suitable, quick and sustainable solutions for the problems that communities face.

Use of Podcasts in Social Work

The use of podcasts in social work can be very useful as they can help: Provide a mentor for the children and families inside the comfort of their very homes; tackle different issues like education, health, social structures, feedback, etc. In one publication; The overall impact of a social work strategy can be easily recorded, documented and them marketed for more penetrating influence; The social work improvement structure will break the time and space barrier; Help in communicating loopholes in the education, social and political structures through open discussion form experts; Broadcast interviews from experts that highlight the necessary solutions to the general problems of the households and the communities; take the stress off of the teachers to be the sole source of stability in the families' lives; and, promote certain standards of ethics and morals on a regular basis through motivational speeches, etc.

Creative Ending Rituals

Creating endings rituals of the social work is as important as the social work itself as they leave a lasting impact and sometimes are the decisive factors that can ensure the sustainability of a social work strategy. My personal strengths of observation, collecting relevant information, analysis and clarification will perhaps be most useful in designing creative ending rituals as they will help in designing customized and motivational ending rituals where the targeted family or group will be tackled as a sole entity and will hence engage them in activities that will provide them with the confidence and the will from within to help in…… [read more]

Sustainable Development in the South Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,253 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


( )

It is reported that making these problems worse is that fact that countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and other such regions characterized by poverty is that they are

"controlled by small elite groupings that control a disproportionately large share of the national income, and therefore have a disproportionate amount of political power and influence. The poor therefore do not… [read more]

White Noise Analysis and the Land Ethic Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,727 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Land Ethic and White Noise

Don DeLilo's novel White Noise examines the variety of anxieties affecting people in the late-Cold War and contemporary period, with certain portions focused especially on the role mass media plays in the construction of ideas related to ethics and the environment. In fact, one can examine White Noise by applying Aldo Leopold's conception of the… [read more]

Managing the Human Resource Assessment

Assessment  |  8 pages (2,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


¶ … ecological approaches provide a strong perspective to understanding complex relationships between humans & the biosphere?

Whether the thesis statement regarding ecological approaches giving rise to a strong understanding of complex relationships between humans and the biosphere is accurate is a function of the knowledge obtained via archeological studies and digs that have revealed information into the interrelationships between… [read more]

U.S. Military and Environmental Law Research Paper

Research Paper  |  23 pages (6,165 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


3). Actually, "pollution from aircraft is currently less than 3% of the total environmental pollution" ("online guide," 2006). The Pentagon has been accused of creating five times more toxins that produced by the five major chemical companies in the U.S. ("sustainable development," 2002, p.3). The U.S. Military has been described s the largest single source of environmental pollution in the… [read more]

Ecosystem, Which Is a Biological Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Eventually, the younglings grow up to become workers and participate in nest activity. By the late summer, the queen begins to reproduce and the colony population has reached it maximum limit. Once the season ends, this whole cycle of nesting and repopulation starts again.

In terms of controlling wasp nests, for mud daubers, it is important to remove mud nests and to seal off places like garages or buildings. As for paper wasps, aerosol sprays are to be used to control them containing rapid knockdown chemicals like resmethrin and pyrethrins. Nests are to be destroyed at night since wasps are inactive at the time and the majority of the species are situated within this locale. Grantham (2004) noted that "structural nests (e.g., wall voids) are best controlled by an initial application of 5% carbaryl dust with a generator, followed quickly with 1% resmethrinthe entrance should be plugged, preferably with steel wool, and dusted with 5% carbaryl to kill returning wasps."

Bald-faced hornet whose nests are aerial and are constructed of grey paper, they are treated using the aforementioned aerosol products that contain knock down ingredients. They are used to spray at the entrance of the nest, which is located near the lower pinnacle of the nest. Next, the wasps' home is then soaked and the process is repeated until such critters are gone. Unfortunately, the hardest to treat nests are those that are in the holes of walls or cavities in homes since it is hard to locate the location of the home. As a result, ingredients and things used to treat wasps may pollute unnecessary areas. However, it is easy to treat nests that are in the ground because insecticide dust can be applied at the entrance of the wasps' home and covered with moist soil. Moreover, wasps are attracted to human food so sanitation and hygiene is important. Therefore, food should be covered at all times, spills and leaks should be cleaned up, and garbage cans should be tightly sealed.

Charles Darwin once said, "I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars." However, it is the role wasps play in the environment as a form of biological pest control. In addition, such insects, whether solitary or social, build annual nests as a form of shelter whether it is in the ground, on walls, or in cavities. The population of wasps is controlled through the use of aerosol sprays, sealing proper open spaces, and precautionary hygienic measures when it comes to food and odors. Overall, the paper has researched the various aspects of wasps, which include their duty, shelter, and control within the universal habitat.


Bianchi, F., & Wackers, F. (2008). Effects of flower attractiveness and nectar availability in field margins on biological control by parasitoids. Biological Control, 46(3), 400-408.

Grantham, R., & Wright, R. (2004, November 19). Paper Wasps, Yellowjackets, and Other Stinging Wasps. OSU-Oklahoma Cooperative… [read more]

Pollution According to the EPA ) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



According to the EPA (2011), pollution prevention "is reducing or eliminating waste at the source by modifying production processes, promoting the use of non-toxic or less-toxic substances, implementing conservation techniques, and re-using materials rather than putting them into the waste stream." The 1990 Pollution Prevention Act likewise defines pollution prevention primarily in terms of source reduction. The State of… [read more]

European and International Environmental Laws Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,095 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


RCRA, like CERCLA, has provisions to require cleanup of contaminated sites that occurred in the past.

The E.U. Strategy

According to a paper prepared for the conference on European Management of Globalization (Feb.23, 2007 at Princeton University) by R. Daniel Kelemen of Rutgers University, called, Globalizing EU Environmental Regulation, globalization has generated two main threats to environmental policy in Europe.… [read more]

Politics and Ecological Sustainability Article

Article  |  10 pages (2,815 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Politics & Ecological Sustainability

The relationship between politics and ecological sustainability has involved an inverse power struggle between political leaders whom seek to enable corporate success and the ecologists whom fear the poisoning of the earth and other forms of ecological damage. Ostensibly, this relationship is facilitated and watched within the auspices of Greening Environmental Policy, (Litfin, 1996). According to… [read more]

Pollution and the Gulf of Mexico Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … environmental impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. In particular, we evaluate its effect on the aquatic life. This paper discusses the various adverse ways in which the oil spill affects aquatic life with the aim of recommending the best actions to be used to contain the damage as well as to prevent future accidents that might… [read more]

Should the Government Ban Bottled Water? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Bottled Water Be Banned?

Why are Americans, Europeans, and other citizens around the globe buying bottled water in such enormous quantities? What is wrong with the water their communities provide? These questions are the essence of the issues addressed in this paper and these are the salient questions that need to be answered in order to understand why… [read more]

Effect of Information and Communication Technologies on Environmental Sustainability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


¶ … sky may not be actually falling, but environmentalists are sounding the clarion call that the earth is in big trouble and action needs to be taken now to avoid potentially disastrous consequences in the future. In fact, global warming, air and water pollution as well as a host of toxic emission are threatening the environment in ways that… [read more]

Humans Have Affected the Antarctic Food Web Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … humans have affected the Antarctic food web

Human activities have a generally devastating impact upon the surrounding natural environment. The United States of America is for instance the single consumer of one third of annual natural resources in one year. By keeping up this rate, the planet would only be able to support human life for another estimated five decades (Leonard). The irony consists in the fact that humans do not intend to harm the environment, nor are they always aware of the dangers they create. Relevant examples in this sense are constituted by the melting of the glaciers or by the decay of the food web in the Antarctic Ocean. The populations across the world do not realize that their actions impact regions so far away, but fact is that they do.

The food web in the Antarctic is suffering severe reductions as a result of three elements, all created by mankind, and all not engaged in with the intent to harm the environment. These three causes refer to the following:

The thinning of the ozone layer

The increase in global temperatures, and The harvesting of krill.

The harvesting of krill is the action of commercial fishermen who seek to create food for their fish and as such to better support their aquaculture businesses. This however endangers the other species which depend on krill, such as the baleen whales. In terms of global warming and the thinning of the ozone layer, these are interconnected in the meaning that global warming generates the thinning of the ozone layer (Naik, 2010). The phenomena are generated by a series of man made activities which cause pollution, greenhouse gases and as such the two devastating outcomes. Some of the causes of global warming and the thinning of the ozone layer include:

The excessive use of fossil fuels

The burn of the fossil fuels to create increased carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases

Massive deforestations which disturb the balance of the eco system, increase temperatures and reduce the planet's ability to fight off pollution

The dumping of industrial waste in waters and the direct result of their contamination.

The scientific assessment of the situation has led to the creation of an objective, documented and real finding, according to which the food web is in danger due to human activities. The approach of the problem is a scientific one, which revolves around an integrated global approach to reduce pollution. At an overall level, it is necessary to reduce the threats of global warming and the thinning of the ozone layer. In order to accomplish this however, it is not sufficient for the populations in the Antarctic region to reduce their own levels of…… [read more]

Sustainability of Forest Logging in Tasmania AUS Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Sustainability of Forest Logging in Tasmania, Australia

This is a case study about the sustainability problems of the ongoing logging actions taking place in Tasmania, Australia. The case study focuses on the current situation of logging in Tasmania and reasons why it is becoming more and more of an urgent sustainability issue. The major players in the industry are identified… [read more]

Environment Is an Important Factor Which Needs Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … environment is an important factor which needs to be considered by companies these days. Customers expect them to adhere to eco-friendly standards in order to serve their part in safeguarding the environment. While this might appear to cut down profits, it helps them in achieving a responsible social image which attracts more customers. There are several ways in which companies have been getting involved in environmentally friendly activities. Small and medium sized enterprises (SME's) are playing their parts by increasing the use of email and phone, reducing paper-based mails. Storing and distributing company information via online storage and discs results in a lesser number of trees being sacrificed to manufacture paper. This approach helps in shrinking the amount of waste generated and cutting down expenses which greatly helps SME's with limited finances.

Larger companies can follow a similar approach along with incorporating renewable sources of energy in their projects. Green building techniques using systems to collect rain water, efficient windows, active and passive solar panels can help in promoting a cleaner environment apart from lowering expenses. Large companies have the potential of spending a lot of money in developing new technologies which can allow effective recycling. Every product developed by a company needs to have their future impacts analyzed before sending them out in the market. There are no set rules which ask these companies to follow recycling practices. However there are numerous advantages which are associated with them. It makes sense to use recycled paper in packaging materials which are usually thrown away. Unwanted electronic parts could be very harmful to the environment if disposed off without proper treatment. Reusing them in manufacturing new products…… [read more]

Green Interior Design Just a Short Few Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Green Interior Design

Just a short few years ago "green building," "green living" and "sustainable development" were ideas and concepts known almost exclusively to the environmental and conservation movement. And to perhaps a few progressive builders and custom designers. But today the green movement and sustainable living concept are the dominant themes across the board. This paper delves into the… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Environmental Ethics: From Philosophy to Movement

Prior to the introduction of major legislation concerning the environment, it had been a popularly accepted notion that our utilization of the earth would be subject to no limitations. Our manifold purposes, pertaining to the expansion of commercial industries, the procurement of lands for residency, the optimization of geological settings for pedestrian needs and… [read more]

Environmental Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (986 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The other similarity between the two designs is that proper and appropriate lighting must be used so as to reduce the level of accidents while at the same time setting the right mood.

The first major differences that exist between residential and commercial design is the purpose of the design itself. Residential design is targeted towards the attainment of good houses and apartments that accommodate persons and households while commercial design is targeted towards the achievement of well protected and stable structures to be used for the purpose of doing business or an enterprise. The other difference is that residential design usually involves the design of small sized structures while commercial design involves the design of both small sized structure and even superstructures such as warehouses.

An evaluation of warehouses which form part of commercial design reveal that commercially designed buildings are have big and sparse empty spaces and high walls. The building must also be fitted with appropriate ventilation devised. Precautionary elements such as the existence of fire escapes and evacuation assembly points are also included in such designs.

An evaluation of residential design reveals a very good management of the available space and a careful manipulation of color and light in order to achieve the right mood. The building built with comfort in mind and therefore properly sized furniture and finish is applied so as to achieve the desired effect

The study of environmental psychology identifies the importance to be problem-oriented. Environmental psychology focuses on environmental bottlenecks such as density of a place and crowding conditions, pollution caused by noise, levels of sub-standard living, and effects of urban decay as postulated by (Proshansky; The Field of Environmental Psychology: p. 1477). High noise levels increases the amount of environmental stress. However, it has been discovered that control and due predictability are the most important factors in the evaluation of stressful effects of pollution caused by noise; the attributes to include the context, the pitch, the source and the degree of habituation which are the most important variables to be considered in the field of environmental design. Therefore, psychologists have concluded that the level of density and effects of crowding can also have bad effects on the mood of persons and can consequently lead to stress-related illnesses. In order to comprehend and tackle environmental problems, the environmental psychologists utilize several concepts and principles that should be applicable directly from the actual physical settings to the problems being solved (Proshansky; The Field of Environmental Psychology: Securing Its Future; p. 1476). Environmental psychology therefore is a great factor in the design, the level of comfort and ambiance of each and every building whether it is commercial or residential.


Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.

Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future

Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp.…… [read more]

Remote Sensing Satellite Images in Coastal Environments Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Remote Sensing (satellite Images) in Coastal Environments

Remote sensing in costal environments: Methodology and uses

The methods for using remote sensing in coastal environments

Remote sensing "involves the measurement of electromagnetic radiation reflected from or emitted by the Earth's surface and the relating of these measurements to the types of habitat or the water quality in the coastal area being observed by the sensor" (Edwards 2009). "Remote sensing provides a synoptic portrait of the Earth's surface by recording numerical information on the radiance measured in each pixel in each spectral band of the image being studied. To create a habitat map, the operator must instruct the computer to treat certain reference pixels as belonging to specific habitats. The computer then creates a 'spectral signature' for each habitat and proceeds to code every other pixel in the image accordingly, thus creating a thematic map" (Mumby & Green 2009).

The results of using remote sensing in coastal environments and the role of remote sensing in changing the understanding of coastal environments

The use of remote sensing to assess the damage done to costal environments has become increasingly important, and has been facilitated by the greater ease of use of computer-based self-tutoring packages. Remote sensing is a relatively unobtrusive, zero-impact, yet comprehensive method of assessing an environment's current conditions and future needs. For example, it has recently proved effective in understanding the damage done to the coastal and marine environment of the Gulf States. This is critical "given the important commercial interests" in the region's natural resources combined with the potential that exists for the exploitation of the "fragile" coast (Sudarshana 2009).

The use of airborne and space-borne imaging sensors over the last two decades has also played a role in mapping areas difficult to reach by sea or land, such as the complex landscapes of French Guiana (Polidori, 2009, p. 627). "The permanent evolution of this environment is a concern for decision makers, since the population and the economic activity of this region are concentrated along the coast. Sea defense operations and coastal infrastructure management (polders, harbors), as well as ecosystem preservation programs, require a better understanding and a regular monitoring of the coast line evolution" (Polidori, 2009, p.627). From an environmental perspective, the use of remote sensing does not disturb the local population, or the flora or fauna, yet presents an environmental snapshot of the area that can be analyzed, so recommendations can be made as to how to improve the balance between inhabitants and the natural world.

The benefits and limitations of using remote sensing in coastal environments

The majority of current multispectral sensors have rows of multiple detectors. Each row is able to view one type of light. Each detector can view one pixel. An aircraft or satellite carrying the entire sensor moves and records the amount of light being reflected, which creates a digital image based upon the image presented by the detectors. The advantages of using such a digital image (an image made up of numbers) is… [read more]

Passamaquoddy Tribe and Harbour Porpoise Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,256 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Passamaquoddy Tribe & Harbor Porpoise


Passamaquoddy Tribe and Harbor Porpoise

History of the Passamaquoddy Tribe

Historical records say that the Passamaquoddy people were the first inhabitants of the Quoddy area in Maine and New Brunswick, Canada (St. Croix Heritage, 2009). They consisted of small and mobile groups who were primarily hunters and… [read more]

Environmental Ethics and Morality Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Environmental Ethics and Morality

What kind of ethical posture does the United States Government put forward with reference to the environment? Is the U.S. considered a nation that protects and nurtures the wildlife and its habitat? Are their policies and mission statements in the federal government that reflect a deep moral concern for protecting the planet? These are all excellent… [read more]

Identifying Sustainability Plan Effect Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (914 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Princeton Sustainability

Identifying Sustainability Plan Effect

Princeton University's Sustainability Plan: Changing the assumptions of operations and people

Princeton University's Sustainability Plan: Changing the assumptions of operations and people

Overall business strategy: Mission and vision

Culture and values

Princeton University is one of the premier research universities in the world. Its departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Engineering, and Geosciences have all made a significant contribution to the current research being done at a university level to improve the quality of the world's environment. Princeton encourages interdisciplinary research on the environment through its Program in Ecosystems and Biogeochemistry. As a research university with an unparalleled focus on the education of its undergraduates (Princeton, unlike Harvard and Yale, has no schools of medicine or law) it is committed to improving the minds but also the behavior and attitudes of its young students. It is a not-for-profit institution designed to promote knowledge and the advancement of human life all over the world, as well as within its walls. The research conduced by faculty, undergraduates, and graduate students is designed to be world-changing, not merely profitable. Profits come secondary to human improvement.

On February 18, 2008 Princeton University released a long-term sustainability plan. In the plan, Princeton University states that it believes that its greatest potential contribution to the world is through what may derive from the research at its facilities: "As important as it is for Princeton to reduce its own impact on the environment, the most fundamental contribution that the University will make to the future well-being of the planet will come from the research of our faculty and students that creates a path for environmental progress and alternative energy sources." The plan notes that at the very beginning of its history, Princeton's president ordered the planting of trees as a critical component of giving back to the environment. This demonstrates that as Princeton 'takes' from the earth because of the great sprawl of its facilities and the wear and tear put upon the environment by its concentrated population, Princeton has been an environmental leader and tried to give back to the earth.

Organization: Enabling technology and processes

Organizational design

While students and professors in environmentally focused majors concentrate their research on sustainability that will affect the world, Princeton is also trying to ensure that begins to fulfill its mission to improve the planet close to home, namely on campus. Thus, it has made a commitment to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in writing through its 2008 Sustainability Plan, which sets concrete objectives for the university's current and future operations and for its student body.

First and foremost, the 2008 Plan affirms the real, demonstrable impact of global warming in the world today: "The impacts of human…… [read more]

International Environmental Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (850 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


International Environmental Law

International law takes multiple different formats. One format is law as determined by the United Nations. Such laws cover all member states, although there are limited enforcement mechanisms. The UN currently has half a dozen bodies that are responsible for the development and codification of international law (United Nations, 2008). These laws have at various times governed environmental issues. For example, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) set up the Convention on Biological Diversity, which among other tasks protects endangered species (CBD, 2009).

Other forms of international law are treaties and multinational agreements. These are agreements negotiated between different countries. The countries involved are then bound by the terms of these treaties. Enforcement mechanisms for these treaties and multilateral agreements are embedded in the treaty and therefore can vary significantly from one treaty to another. These treaties address issues of mutual or regional interest, including the management of share environmental resources.

Nations are bound by the terms of international law. For example, the CBD has the power to list a species as endangered. This restricts trade in such species, and nations have an obligation to uphold these laws, both in their border security and in internal activities. African nations, for example, must enforce protections afforded to ivory-bearing animals under international law. In many cases, nations augment the protections in international law with their own national laws. National laws typically come with greater enforcement power.

When a nation becomes a signatory to a treaty or multilateral agreement, its rights and obligations are defined by the terms of that agreement. The rights and obligations under such treaties are subject to enforcement by other members of the treaty, typically through quasi-judiciary bodies. For example, the International Whaling Commission must obey the limits on whale hunting and trading or face sanction under the terms of the agreement. As the commission expands its mandate to include all aspects of whale conservation, such as ecological considerations and preventative measures, signatories are obligated to follow through on these initiatives, in addition to their original set of obligations (Currie, 2007). A multilateral agreement or treaty does not contain rights or obligations for non-signatory nations.

There are hundreds of international conferences that cover environmental legal issues. The aforementioned International Whaling Commission is one such agreement. The IWC was the culmination of a conference addressing the issue of the declining whaling industry in Washington DC in 1946. The functional purpose of the IWC is to "provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks" (IWC, 2009). Beyond this, however, the IWC was a…… [read more]

Ethics and Ecology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Ecological Ethics

Blackstone's Error in His Ethics and Ecology

The topic of environmental ethics is one of the most politically and socially sensitive issues of our modern age, with debates occurring on many levels and from many angels. The issue of whether or not mankind is truly and permanently altering the Earth's environment -- and if so, to what degree -- still leads to heated disagreements between many politicians and scientists. In addition, even among environmental scientists and policy makers that have reached a general consensus on the state of our environment and human responsibility for it, there are many different opinions on what if anything should be done about it. Economic considerations complicate the issue still further; reducing emissions of pollutants and ensuring better environmental practices comes at a higher cost of doing business. Many say that these higher costs are the price we must pay to ensure a safe and livable environment for future generations, while others point to out that such restrictions simply will not be supported by a capitalist system -- no reasonable company would choose to increase its cost of doing business and so reduce their profits and make themselves less competitive than other competing companies.

In his Ethics and Ecology, William T. Blackstone addresses the issue not from a scientific or political viewpoint (though his arguments certainly have implications in both of these arenas), but from a philosophical and ethical one. There are several points to his argument that ultimately lead him to the conclusion that humanity must take responsibility for the environment regardless of the economic and/or political impacts that such shifts in our species' behavior would cause. An examination of his argument reveals the flaw in his conclusions.

First, Blackstone attempts to establish that the right to a livable and healthy environment is an unalienable right, in the same vein as Locke's assertion that freedom, life, and property were natural human rights. In order to prove this, Blackstone establishes the commonalities of human life and what are considered the natural human rights. He asserts, in what is already fairly well established modern liberal political thinking, that "the whole point of the state is to restrict unlicensed freedom and to provide the conditions for equality of rights for all." That is, freedom in a society is not unlimited, nor should it be; this type of lawlessness puts the weak at the mercy of the strong, whereas the laws of a government ensure the greatest amount of freedom for the greatest number of people. As this philosophical viewpoint is the basis for almost all democratic thinking and modern (at least Western) government, it is difficult to disagree with…… [read more]

Environmental Crime the National Environmental Policy Act Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,696 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Environmental Crime

The National Environmental Policy Act

The National Environmental Policy Act or NEPA became law on January 1, 1970. The law was intended to create a national policy in the country which was aimed in the first instance at promoting aspects of environmental control and enhancement. While this act was also instrumental in establishing environmental policy and control bodies… [read more]

Environmental Justice &amp Executive Order 12898 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  35 pages (9,648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20



The objective of this work is to examine whether the issuance of Executive Order 12898 in 1994 has made a recognizable difference in assisting the environmental justice movement reach its goal of achieving environmental protection for all communities.

On February 11, 1994, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12898 on Environmental Justice: Federal Actions… [read more]

Environmental Policies Essay

Essay  |  18 pages (7,072 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Environmental Policies

Give an example of an ecosystem and use this example to describe the concepts of "input-output," "source-sink relationship," and feedback.

An ecosystem refers to separate units consisting of groups of nonliving things, plants and animals interacting with each other and the external environment. A desert can be regarded as an ecosystem and so can the rainforests. In fact,… [read more]

Mangrove Restoration of the Indian River Lagoon in the Face of Global Climate Change Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Indian River Lagoon Mangrove Restoration

Global Climate Change and Mangrove Restoration of the Indian River Lagoon

Mangrove forests form an important part of the Florida coastal ecosystem. The Indian River Lagoon is an important global resource, as this area is the only place in North America where tropical waters meet temperate waters. Mangrove forests protect coastal areas in the event… [read more]

Invasive Species Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (788 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Invasive Species: The Cane Toad


The Cane toad, or also known as the Marine toad (Bufo marinus) is not indigenous to the Florida region. It is also toxic and is especially dangerous to small animals. (Florida Wildlife Extension at UF/IFAS) the Cane toad is an invasive species that was introduced into the region and the country as a form of biological control against insect pests and threats to crops, including sugarcane (100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species).

The Cane toad originality is to be found in the Amazon Basin in South America north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. (Florida Exotics species, Species results) the population of this toad that occurs in the Florida region has its origins in an accidental release of about one hundred toads by an importer at the Miami International Airport in 1955. The spread of these creatures was further facilitated when a canal was constructed in 1958, linking the Blue Lagoon with South Florida's extensive canal system. (Florida Exotics species, Species results)


The Cane toad has a specific and in some cases extensive impact on the environment in various ways. Bufo marinus has been called, "...one of the 100 worst invasive species worldwide by the Invasive Species Specialist Group" (ADW: Bufo marinus: Information)

One of the most serious aspects of the impact of these toads is on the environment and the ecosystem. Cane toads are extremely voracious and eats almost any other organic life form. This has resulted in a decline of natural predators in the regions, as the indigenous animals of the area have no natural protection against the imported toxin that the toad carries. "As an introduced species, B. marinus can negatively impact native species and predator assemblages through competition, predation, and toxicity of its eggs or metamorphosed individuals" (Bufo marinus - Linnaeus, 1758). This has therefore resulted in an imbalance in the fauna and natural ecosystems of the area.

Costs and the impact on native species.

The costs of this invasive species in the region are hard to calculate in a definitive sense. The most obvious cost is to the environment and to the imbalance in the natural ecosystems of the area. This has resulted in additional costs because of the necessity of restoring this balance. It is estimated that the cost that the Cane toad has inflicted on property…… [read more]

Aquatic Buffers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Environmental Aquatic Buffers

Maintaining environmental aquatic buffers is essential in the structure and concept of the design. Without proper maintenance, any of these buffers would cease to provide the valuable protection so needed in both urban and rural areas. Urban areas with buffer zones especially need to be well kept, for much run off from these areas is exactly what engineers and environmental activists were hoping to exclude with their designs, harmful toxins and sediment. Specific zones of urban areas need special attention as to not disturb the natural spring water and wetland areas (Stormwatercenter.net). The excessive amounts of harmful chemicals makes the efficiency of the aquatic buffers so important in more urban environments,

Both individuals and local government agencies have been known to completely miss the boundaries of the buffer zones, and therefore forsaking them to the detrimental toxins associated with urban development towards delicate wetland areas. After several cases of individuals unknowingly ignoring boundary lines, government ordinances were set in place which restrict development in certain areas and ensure the protection of the buffer zones from the encroachment of business or residential development. Recent management of buffer zones requires clearly visible signs of buffer areas and more specific restrictions of the usages of the three different core zones. Modern ordinances require restricted usages of the middle and inner core zones in order to further protect buffer areas. The inner core is highly restricted, development s restricted to flood water ways, foot paths, and utility paths. The middle core is also restricted, but has more flexibility in development. The outer core zone is unrestricted, and can include the development of residential usages such as lawns, (Article #41: Invisibility of Stream and Wetland Buffers in the Field).

With the right design and proper maintenance of the buffer areas, they can be efficient in removing pollution from natural water streams and wetlands. By…… [read more]

Florida's Water Source Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,865 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Florida's Water

Developing Water Issues in Florida

The Hydrologic Cycle

The hydrologic cycle is the process by which water moves through the environment. Surface water evaporates or transpires from surface collections and plants to condense in the atmosphere as clouds. Those clouds release precipitation that falls back to the Earth. Some of that water percolates through the surface and charges… [read more]

Environmental Toxicology Nitrogen Dioxide Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,609 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Nitrogen Dioxide


Chemical and Physical Data

Nitrogen Dioxide or NO2 is a red-brown or yellow liquid, which becomes a colorless solid at a specific temperature (EPA 2007). It is a non-combustible component of automotive exhaust fumes. It can be derived during the intermediate stage in the oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid. It is highly poisonous and… [read more]

Environmental Determinism and Environmental Probabilism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,601 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4




In expert opinion, human beings are stated to possess the innate ability to respond to the environment in which they live, and thereafter, consciously alter it. At the same time, feel experts, the environment in which one lives may in fact subtly 'condition' him or her. However, these phenomenon do not occur… [read more]

Environmental Concerns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,656 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Environmental Concerns

In 1900, the beginning of the 20th century, the world population was 1,650,000. In July, 2007, the world's population had reached over 6.6 billion. Such an impressive population boom has brought about extreme usage of resources which has led to a threat on the possibility of renewal of these resources. Climate change, threats to biodiversity, genetically engineered food,… [read more]

Environmental Problems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,854 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Environmental Problems: The Caspian Region

There has been a considerable growth in the interest and concern about the global environment during the past decade. Governments, policy makers and environmental bodies are becoming more involved in the way that problems such as pollution and unmanaged ecosystems affect the environment in the world. This concern has been recently increased by the acceptance… [read more]

Environmental Degradation and Poverty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,043 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Environmental Degradation and Poverty

There is a deep-rooted relationship between environmental degradation and poverty although the link is often poorly understood by policy makers at the international and local levels, as well as the poor people themselves. As a result, efforts to fight poverty in recent decades have shown decidedly slow progress, and even today, almost half of the world's people live on less than $2 a day and more than 1 billion live on $1 or less a day ("Assessing Environment's..." 2005, p.10). This paper examines the ways in which environmental degradation causes poverty by looking at both sides of the issue, and discusses some possible solutions to the problem.

The poor are particularly vulnerable to environmental degradation because most of world's poorest population lives in rural areas and is critically dependant for their livelihoods and well-being on environmental factors such as fertile soil, clean water and healthy ecosystems. This has been conclusively shown in recent reports prepared for Poverty-Environment Partnership -- a network of bilateral aid agencies -- by international agencies such as UNDP, UNEP, IIED, IUCN and WRI. One of these reports, "Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty..." (2005), drawing on various well-documented UN studies, show that a majority of poor people in rural areas draw much of their incomes directly from forests, pastures, fisheries or farming with nearly 1.1 billion people worldwide depending on forests alone for their livelihood (p. 10). In certain parts of the world, the poor people's dependence on "environment income" is particularly pronounced: in Cambodia, for instance, fuel-wood, fishing and mangroves contributes as much as 58% of the household income of the low-income groups. The importance of 'environmental wealth' to the economies of poorer countries can be gauged from the estimate that such wealth accounts for 26% of the total wealth of low-income countries, versus only 2% of wealth in OECD countries. (Word Bank Study quoted in "Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty..." 2005, p. 5)

Apart from providing a substantial part of household incomes of the poor, ecosystems also provide essential services for sustenance of key areas such as food production, water quality and availability, disease management and climate regulation. Unfortunately, most Ecosystem Assessment studies indicate that a majority of these services are being "used unsustainably and the capacity for continued delivery of these services is being persistently eroded." (Ibid., p. 6) to make matters worse, poverty mapping studies have confirmed that the poor tend to live in areas with stressed and/or low-quality environmental resources, such as land of naturally low soil fertility, polluted air, contaminated water and water shortages. This makes them more vulnerable to degradation of the fragile ecosystem such as the fertility of land and the quality of water resources, which is occurring at an alarming rate due to their over-exploitation (Ibid.)

Moreover, the poor are particularly vulnerable to both natural as well as man-made environmental hazards, e.g., storms, floods and droughts (natural hazards) and air and water pollution (man-made hazards). Their vulnerability to these hazards is enhanced… [read more]

Environmental Protection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,646 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Environmental protection [...] what environmental protection is, and why it is vital in today's global culture. Environmental protection can be classified as anything done to help protect the environment in any way possible, from buying a fuel-efficient vehicle to protesting the bulldozing of old-growth timber. It can be small, local measures, or vast, global measures all created to… [read more]

Sustainability Movement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,827 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12



For the planet and her people to survive, the world's people must embrace the sustainability movement, for modern man is using up the Earth's resources at an alarming, and perhaps catastrophic rate.

Define Sustainability

Use national and international definitions.

Also define sustainability and natural resources.

Describe the sustainability movement, and use some specific examples





Natural… [read more]

Global Warming and International Relations the Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Global Warming and International Relations

The environment and its cleanliness are vitally important for the survival of the human race. This is true in the United States, and in other countries all over the world. Because it is such an important concern, one would think that the main goal of the current administration would be to take care of the… [read more]

Enviroprop Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  2 pages (557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The following project is proposed in order to promote awareness by citizens towards the environment; on-going field trips and summer camps conducted by concerned environmentalists, scientists and instructors. These excursions will be offered to students from Baltimore schools that will be grouped by ages and interests. These groups will then spend the bulk of each day of the camp exploring forests, swamps, the ocean and lakes as well as spending time in a camp laboratory and classrooms.

Educational materials will be provided for each student, as well as hands-on experiences including; water testing for salinity, pH., turbidity, water temperature and tides, as well as crab tagging, investigating plankton, fish feeding behavior, humidity, acid rain, hot and cold convection, currents, under pressure, salinity in soil, indoor CO2, noise pollution, evaporation, plot sampling, composts, soil composition, respiration in plants and animals, bird tagging, soil microorganism feeding behaviors and much, much more.

Such a project is needed on a very large scale and could be implemented in the Baltimore area in a cost effective and efficient manner that could provide society with a method and model for future environmental camps strategically held throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

Plans for the indoctrination of environmental guidelines and beliefs on these young impressionable minds could not only prove to be very effective but are likely to lead to long-term benefits for the environment as well as the environmental movement.

The outdoor experiences supplied by these camps for these young individuals could lead to life-long understanding and a solid empathy of the environment and its effects on society by those who do not understand those effects.

Evaluating the results…… [read more]

Exponential Population Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Exponential Population Growth & its Effects

Today, the human population of the world is over six billion. There are fears that it might double in this century. This rapid growth in population means little to most people living in this world but it's a phenomenon that should be a cause of concern of all and sundry. It is however strange that among the people living in different parts of the world very few know the population of the world, of their nation, or of the state where they reside. They don't know why they should. No authority has ever told them it was important to know those numbers, except to say that, in general, the more people the better. No one has ever told them that, unless people only replace themselves, unless couples on average have no more than two children, population will grow ever faster, compounding like money in the bank to unimaginably large numbers, a phenomenon called exponential population growth. The human population reached a figure of about 2,000,000,000 and it took from the start of the human history to industrial revolution around 1945 for the human species to reach to this figure. If we then look at the figures after 1945 then we would realize that this figure has more than doubled and even tripled. There is a fear that if left uncontrolled and if this figure keeps on growing exponentially then this could reach a total of 9,000,000,000 during the rest of our lifetimes.

Environmental Effects

Rapid increase in population worldwide had a greater geological impact visible to all. The worst impact of population explosion has shown itself through global warming, which is already having harmful effects. The harmful effects of changes in environment are creating problems in areas where there might not be an issue of over population. For example, in Arctic regions, structures built atop permafrost are collapsing. Polar ice is melting, releasing freshwater flows that may alter the great ocean circulations, changing climates, temperatures, and agricultural production over vast areas. Also, high mountain glaciers and snowfields are no longer reliable sources of spring river flows, so that water for agriculture does not arrive at the time and in the quantities most needed. Environmental problems have always been man made, but never before on such a scale. Forest encroachment, deforestation, fuel-wood depletion, soil erosion, declining fish and animal stocks, inadequate and unsafe water and air pollution are some of the problems that environment is facing due to over population. There is a constant debate about the relationship between population and environmental degradation. "The population continues to grow until the available resources are consumed. After that point in time a die-off occurs. The magnitude of the die-off and the amount of habitat damage (affecting the resource base for survivors of the future) reflects in part the degree of excess population above capacity prior to the die-off. For example, small group of 25 reindeer were released on the 41 square-mile Saint Paul Island off the coast… [read more]

Environmental History Distinguishing Characteristics of Preservationism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



289 of The Idea of Wilderness, Max Oelschlaeger presents an abbreviated outline of the preservationist philosophy and practice. Preservationism stands nearly diametrically opposed to the resource-based theory underlying current environmental policy and legislation. The resourcist picks nature apart in order to harvest its components for economic gain; the preservationist on the other hand, honors the integrity of the whole as well as the inherent value of its parts. Thus, the preservationist views wilderness not as a collection of resources to be harvested for cash but as an ecosystem with nearly sacred wholeness and integrity. The difference between resourcism and preservationism parallels the rift between Modernism and holism.

In table 5 on p. 289, Oelschlaeger lists five main features of preservationism. First, preservationism proposes a "self-creating" ecosystem that should be viewed in terms of "evolutionary wholes with synergetic characteristics that preclude complete reduction and analysis." The idea of self-creation stems from philosophers like Whitehead, who draws attention to the "creative advance of nature into novelty," (p. 290). In other words, nature evolves continually and creatively. Moreover, the creative evolution of nature evolves toward greater order and stability. Prigogine described self-creation as the "emergence of order out of chaos," (p. 290). Oelschlaeger also claims that natural evolution denotes a "purposeless purpose," (p. 290). Increasing order emerges out of chaos, but not because of some "extrasystemic purpose" such as a religious viewpoint would propose (p. 290). The "synergetic characteristics" cannot be reduced in a mechanistic framework; they "preclude complete reduction and analysis" because the ecosystem must be viewed not as a collection of independent parts, but as a cohesive whole whose parts work in tandem and synergetically like cells in an organism. Furthermore, the preservationist denies the possibility of reversible action and instead sees continuality and irreversibility.

The second essential element of preservationism refers to "coordinating interfaces in natural hierarchies where all elements are internally related." The parts organize themselves into "coordinating interfaces in natural hierarchies." Coordination refers…… [read more]

Recycling and Proposes That for the Good Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … recycling and proposes that for the good of the environment it is something that should be implemented world wide. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.

For as long as history remembers man has used the earth's natural resources to provide what it needed for survival. As man continued to evolve members of society began to… [read more]

Utilitarianism Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With an abundance of artificial reefs, this problem needs special regulations for negotiating the predictable clash of interests. A similar regulatory program has been developed and applied in the U.S.A. In Gulf of Mexico on the shelf of Louisiana. (Decommissioning, abandonment and removal of obsolete offshore installations)

(f) What difference does it make whether we have fisheries or not as… [read more]

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