"Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays

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Environmental Problems Today Are Extremely Serious Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (5,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Environmental problems today are extremely serious, and although the world's focus is on the more severe of these problems and attempts are being made everywhere, all over the world, to solve these problems at least to a certain degree, the issue has not been given the importance that it deserves, and everywhere there are environmental problems that have… [read more]

Waste Management as a Result Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Waste Management as a result of the RCRA


Waste management and the landfill industry in general have emerged in the past few decades as an area of concern for citizens, government officials and policy makers alike. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was designed to govern the handling… [read more]

Phosphogypsum Stack Reclamation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Phosphogypsum Stack Reclamation

Data-gathering Method

Database of the Study

An Analysis of Phosphogypsum Stack Reclamation

The types of contaminants that emanate from anthropogenic sources are extremely varied and range from simple inorganic ions such as the nitrate from septic tanks, feedlot wastes, and the use of fertilizer, chloride from highway deicing salts, saltwater intrusion, and certain industrial processes, heavy metal… [read more]

Preservation of Historical Buildings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, the economic influence in heritage conservation is that it makes historic buildings increase its cultural capital, thereby increasing its economic value in the market. The desirability of these historic buildings encourages other owners or maintainers of historic buildings to preserve their buildings in exchange for economic gain.

Politics and the extant political structure of a capitalist society also play a pivotal role in promoting the program of heritage conservation of historic buildings. Heritage conservation, more than giving remembrance to humanity's historic past, also aims to preserve and promote "a better quality of life for people" by considering conservation as a form of environmental preservation, too (Stipe, 2003:xv). Thus, the politics of heritage conservation makes environmentalism its active ideology towards preserving historic buildings.

The political structure of a society is vital to the promotion of heritage conservation because policy-making and governance are the most effective and legal ways to help implement conservation of historic buildings. Serageldin et. al.'s (2001) discussion on heritage conservation considers the rapidly deteriorating condition of the physical environment, most especially the urban areas, as the primary reason for implementing the conservation of historic buildings. They assert that:

Policies to protect environmental and cultural endowments in a rapidly urbanizing world are inadequate. Population growth, the influx of rural migrants to cities, and an evolving economic base challenge the ability of cities to provide livelihoods. Deteriorating infrastructure, overburdened social services, rampant real estate speculation, and government incapacity put enormous pressure on city cores, which are often places of invaluable architectural and urban design heritage. The degradation of the urban environment limits the abilities of a growing, shifting population to establish communities with adequate and decent housing. Inner-city neighborhoods of large centers worldwide are besieged, with the middle class and economic activities either fleeing the historic core or destroying its fabric by the demolition and reconstruction of older buildings.

Thus, it is inevitable that political structures of the society be directly linked with the economic structures also extant in the society. The detrimental effects of urbanization, particularly rapid population growth, have made it imperative that the government and policy-makers create effective programs that shall promote cultural preservation without compromising the living conditions of society. Thus, the politics of heritage conservation resulted to the conversion of historic buildings to be used as establishments that preserve its original design and structure, as well as make these buildings useful for the people's purpose. The current practice of converting new historic buildings to become commercial establishments or museums highlights the conservation of old and new, modern, and urban heritages. Furthermore, the politics conservation is also influenced by the economic and cultural factors, which shows how politics, economics, and culture are linked together to promote and implement heritage conservation of historic buildings in the 21st century.


Klamer, A. And P. Zuidhof. (1999). "The values of cultural heritage: merging economic and cultural appraisals." CA: The J. Paul Getty Trust.

Klatt, M. (October 2004). "Car culture." Preservation Online. Available at: http://www.nationaltrust.org/Magazine/archives/arch_story/100804.htm.

Serageldin, I., E. Shluger,… [read more]

Environmental Worldview: A Confessional Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I take a long, hot shower, leave the water running as I brush my teeth -- and cut locally grown organic peaches upon my commercially produced corn flakes.

Thus, culturally I love the outdoors and support local social and political efforts to protect and conserve the environment. I spend time and some money to make an environmental contribution, and yet save economically on some products that are neither financially nor environmentally conservative. I support development as a person and I am in search, always, of better and more lucrative job prospects that are rooted in business expansion, but on a level of conservation I wish to have some refuge from my busy life in a better, greener world, and I do my best to practice environmental stewardship.

Such conservation within reason I like to think of as development with a heart. I am unapologetically species-centric yet acknowledge that for humans to flourish, the whole ecosystem must be healthy. But to be environmentally pure, at the depths of my soul I sometimes think that every part of my day should be more preservative and conservative than it is. I can't afford a new Prius. I can't cook from scratch every night. I can't afford organic, cruelty-free products for my body, table, and home in every room, every time I go to the store. Sometimes the quick pace of modern life just causes me to forget. If environmentalism were like a faith, I could make peace between my modern life and the environment by confessing my sins, or by occasionally atoning through fasting. But environmentalism is not a merely moral and personal matter, it is a collective act of a community, and if one person forgets something, one day, eventually such environmental transgressions add up in the landfills of an increasingly overburdened, toxic…… [read more]

To What Extent Is Humanity a Wise Steward of the Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … humanity a wise steward of the environment?

To what extent is humanity a wise steward of environment?

We should assert from the very beginning that such a question implies a thorough discussion, as this is not the type of question that can actually be answered with a simple yes or no. As in many questions of this type,… [read more]

Exchange Occurs Between Magma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(Lovelock, 2000) Despite such attempts, occasional intrusions such as the eruption of magma do occur, but the mineral exchange is often positive for the overall environment. In the author's view, although human beings may view, for instance, volcanic eruptions as monumentally disturbing to human's own special lifestyle needs and desire for personal equilibrium upon the surface, Gaia, the earth her/itself, views humanity's own much more permanent intrusions upon her epidermal level in a far more parasitic fashion than the occasional seeping of magma over the relatively natural process of the movement of the earth's plates.

Earth's atmosphere is an exercise in improbability and accident in its ability to support humans, which Lovelock, in an effort to transform human's anthropocentric view of the environment and the universe, portrays as kind of a parasitic or viral intrusion upon the earth's core. Unlike the incursions of magma, which change the earth's biosphere in natural, unpredictable, but ultimately arbitrary and unselfish ways, the incursions of human life upon the surface have not been nearly as…… [read more]

Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Conditions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,048 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This was seen in the previous century with the impact on the fur trade. With a new intensity to physically carve the environment for improved trade access, the culture of these societies has in turn been affected as the replacement of indigenous goods with exogenous goods considered provisions of "high status" has enabled cultures to redirect their regional customs and hunting practices to allow the incorporation of Western influences.

The geomorphology of the Arctic environment includes mountainous regions, exposed bedrock, frozen sea ice, sedimentary plain, and little to no soil development. The persistence of cold temperatures and permafrost add to the scarcity of usable plant food sources. The primary food is thus animal-based, terrestrial and marine. The early migrations of peoples in Alaska and Arctic Canada and Greenland developed into the Norton tradition, branching into the Thule tradition from which the Inuit people were derived. The Inuits have adapted over time to their harsh environment, with some diversity among the groups, but sharply contrasting other Indian tribes below the tree line. Through necessity they have relied on animal resources rather than plant sources important to foraging populations. Thus, their forms of housing and technological adaptations to hunting for both terrestrial as well as marine sources evolved as a direct result of the environmental conditions in which they exist, impacting their cultural development.

It has long been known that physical and technical adaptations arise from environmental criteria, even as genetically observed by Charles Darwin. It is these adaptations and considerations of environmental factors that likewise influence cultural development. The ability to sustain in a given environment evolves out of adaptation to the regional variables. Hunting and gathering societies thus develop individual methods of attaining food given their environmental conditions. For the tribal societies of the Arctic north where cold weather, geographic barriers, and absence of significant plant food sources are noted, there are significant derivations from their foraging counterparts of the more temperate regions to the south, thus demonstrating that their survival in harsh environmental conditions has developed out of cultural adaptation. These methods are critical to the basis of cultural development. Primitive subsistence societies like the Koyukon, Cree, and Inuits thus provide significant examples of man's harmony with nature to define his attitudes and culture.


Brown, Chris. "Beyond the 'Invented Indian': Acknowledging Original Conservation."

Terralingua. 1997. Partnerships for Linguistic and Biological Diversity. 4 Mar. 2004. http://cougar.ucdavis.edu/nas/terralin/paper006.html

Freimund, Wayne et al. "Principles of Koyukon Worldview." Native American Perspectives on Wilderness Preservation & Management. 1997. Wilderness.net. Chapter 12, 225-235. 4 Mar. 2004. http://www.wilderness.net/wmdep/crookston/Readings/nelson1.pdf

Greider, Brett. "Religion and Region." Religious Studies Web Resources. 20 Jan. 2003.

University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. 4 Mar. 2004. http://www.uwec.edu/greider/Indigenous/Sensing_Sacred/sensing.bioregional.lect.htm

Park, Robert W. "The Sequence of Cultures in the Arctic." Archaeology in Arctic North

America. Mar. 1999. University of Waterloo. 4 Mar. 2004. http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/ANTHRO/rwpark/ArcticArchStuff/Prehistory.html

Reedy-Maschner, Katherine L. "Marauding Middlemen: Western Expansion and Violent

Conflict in the Subarctic." Ethnohistory. 46.4 (Fall 1999): 703-743.… [read more]

Factorial Ecology With Radiocentric Explanations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These factors may not appear to be interrelated, such as an increase in a city's overall female population and poor and urban Hispanic population, for example, but may become, under analysis, more apparently connected because of the fact that, for instance, a greater number of domestic jobs have opened up in the city that are traditionally filled by such workers of a particular ethnicity and gender. Other factorial correlations may be an increase in professional-level single mothers seeking childcare that might also be connected to the growth of other populations not connected by immediate, radial geography.

Thus, the main insights of social area analysis and factorial ecology are the interconnection of apparently disconnected social rather than purely geographic variables, but there are problems in the model in that relationships between factors can be drawn that have no real connection, other than the chance correlation that one population is rising while another is declining. Also, the personal prejudices of the analyst drawing correlations between the different social factors in analyzing the different human factors present in such urban communities can come to play.

Radiocentric models may give a more coherent model as to the presence of urban communities or clustering within cities based upon geography. However, radiocentric models are not without their drawbacks either, as they do not take into consideration the difference between voluntary and involuntary social segregation and clustering in cities. (Pacione, 2001). The inability for radiocentric models to provide much understanding as to the rational and the reasoning behind physical markings for the composition of a landscape is one reason some feminist and activist sociologists suggest that, despite its flaws, urban factorial ecology provides more insight into the social problems that create the rational for the growth and composition of certain areas of cities as opposed to others.


Factorial ecology continues to be of interest to those conducting marketing research, although radiocentric approaches tend to be more 'en vogue' at the moment, especially when considering the development of new, as opposed to existing city populations such as in the American South, or in cities undergoing profound ethnic changes unprecedented in their history such as Toronto. Cities undergoing physical transformations such as New York after September 11th also offer uncharted waters fro radiocentric explanations as well. However, factorial ecology's more coherent, if not always more accurate sociological analysis is not only seductive, but also often instructive for students attempting to make a more coherent theoretical narrative about the ideological reasons for a city's shifting and changing image.

Works Cited

Bunting, T. And Filion, P. (2000). Canadian Cities in Transition: The Twenty-first Century. Second Edition. Toronto, Oxford University Press.

Janson, Carl-Gunnar. "Factorial social ecology: an attempt at summary and evaluation." Annual Review of Sociology. 1980. Vol. 6, pp. 433-456.

Nelson, Doreen. (2002). Transformations: Process and Theory.

Pacione, M. (2001) Urban Geography: A Global Perspective, London: Routledge.

Randall, J.E., and Viaud, G. (1994). A gender-sensitive Urban Factorial Ecology: male, female, grouped…… [read more]

Economics of Forestry Timber Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,871 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Current environmental policy holds that maintaining or liquidating one's capital is widely considered a matter of individual choice. However, it should now be clear that when ecosystems are at risk, such freedom is not absolute but is constrained by real material and limits, by real connections with and obligations to others, and by the need to preserve future possibilities in… [read more]

Recycling: How it Improves Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Successful recycling programs depend on several factors. There must be a general awareness of the problems caused by solid-waste disposal. There also must be an efficient, low-cost method for separating and collecting the recyclable materials. It also must be economically feasible for industries to use and market recycled materials.

Twenty years ago, only one curbside recycling program existed in the United States, which collected numerous materials at the curb. By 1998, 9,000 curbside programs and 12,000 recyclable drop-off centers had been developed. As of 1999, 480 materials recovery facilities had been established to process the collected materials. Recycling and composting activities prevented about 64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and incinerators in 1999. Today, this country recycles 28% of its waste, a rate that has almost doubled during the past 15 years. (USEPA, 1999).

Recycling is an important component of today's society. Many items can now be recycled, and in doing so, the community can help the environment, and save our natural resources. From helping to avoid greenhouse gasses to helping other by donating used computer parts, the recycling industry has created a world that is healthier and more cost effective. While there are many recycling programs in the United States, we, as a nation, need to continue to create more recycling centers, and educate the public about the benefits of recycling. As Joan Ward Harris said, "In the long run it is the cumulative effect that matters. One can do much. And one and one can move mountains. "(UST, 2001)

Works Cited

Barbalace, R.C. The History of Municipal Waste. (2001). http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/environmental/wastehistory.html

Compton. "Recycling," Compton's Complete Reference Collection. New York: The Learning Company. 2000.

Los Angeles Smart Business Recycling Program. "Waste reduction Tips," Manufacturing Industry Recycling Newsletter, Vol. 5 (Spring 2001). 3-5. http://ladpw.org/epd/brtap/recyclingsite/pdf/Manufactrg.pdf

Northeast Recycling Council. "Recycling and the Environment: Facts about recycling in Connecticut," NERC Bulletin, August 1999.

Obviously Enterprises. "Commonly Recycled Materials," Consumer Recycling Guide. New York: Obviously Enterprises. 2002. http://www.obviously.com/recycle/guides/common.html

United States Environmental protection Agency (USEPA). "Recycling." 1999. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/factbook/internet/recf/recyc2.htm#wrr

United States Environmental protection Agency (USEPA). Characterization of MSW in the United States. (2000). http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/factbook/internet/recf/recyc2.htm#wrr

University of St. Thomas Recycling.…… [read more]

Precious to Us, We Spend Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,183 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Despite the relatively dense human population in the area and the degree to which the original state of the waterways in these watershed have been changed, the area in many other ways remains surprisingly unspoiled.

The Upper Perkiomen Watershed consists predominantly of gently rolling countryside with relatively undeveloped, non-impacted, forested land. In fact over 55% of the land cover is deciduous and evergreen forest or woody wetland areas. These forested areas are a unique natural treasure especially with the pressures of development beginning to impact the region. Nearly 35% of the remaining land cover is under agricultural use, generally as row crops or pasture lands.

Developed areas within the watershed account for approximately three percent of the watershed. Development is projected for this area in the coming future. Protection of the natural beauty of the region is a goal of the UPWC. Land use issues are crucial in the quality of the watershed.

It is with these land-use issues that the Upper Perkiomen Watershed Coalition (UPWC) is most concerned as it works with the Pennsylvania Environmental Council in creating a comprehension Rivers Conservation Plan for the region in which the many affected towns, cities and counties can come together to create an integrated plan for the use of water in the area -- and for its protection for future use by both people and the other living organisms that share the watershed area as home.

In seeking to create a responsible plan for conservation of the region's water, both the conservancy and the coalition are acting along principles followed by many other similar groups that seek to conserve open space around watersheds, the free-flowing (or relatively free-flowing) status of streams and creeks, and the protection of water quality itself. The waterways in this watershed suffer at least in some measure from the entire range of forms of modern water pollution and especially the conservancy is working on ways to combat these.

When we think about water pollution, we usually think about the contamination of water by obviously introduced and "foreign" contaminants as microorganisms such as bacteria, chemicals, industrial waste, and sewage. All of these obviously reduce (and sometimes significantly reduce) the quality of the water for both the use of humans and of all other animal and plant species.

The conservancy is fighting to maintain what is left of the natural contours of the watershed while also fighting against deterioration of the waters in it by the major pollutants of water, which include 1) sewage; 2) infectious agents; 3) plant nutrients that can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants such as duckweed and other micro-plants that when they die reduce the available dissolved oxygen in the water; 4) "exotic" organic chemicals such as pesticides that never naturally occur in the water; 5) petroleum, especially from oil spills; 6) inorganic minerals and chemical compounds; 7) soil and mineral sediments; and 8) thermal pollution.

For the good of everything that lives in this region, we must hope that the conservancy along with… [read more]

Mexico City and the Problem of Pollution Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Society often determines success of a country by its productivity. Many of the more productive nations have well developed markets that allow for the seamless transfer of capital and goods. This transfer of capital and goods helps to facilitate consumption within the economy. Companies produce products demanded by society, and consumers with wages often earned through labor pay for them. Measured by gross domestic product (GDP) this cycle of incentives helps to improve the lot of society overall. What is often lost however, is the environmental impact of growth and development of economies. Namely, population, affluence, and technology can broadly hinder the growth of environmental sustainability (Chertow, 2000).

Population growth in particular can deeply impact the environment. The generally argument rests on the assumption that larger populations will place greater demand on environmental resources. For example as population's growth, more land, water and food will be needed to support this growth. Land however is a finite source, that is being deteriorated by corporate and population growth. For example, in Mexico City, deforestation has occurred due to company demand for natural resources and overall population growth. This deforestation, although providing living arrangements for millions of individuals, has gravely impacted pollution within the city. In addition, to support this population growth, Mexico City would need to cut more trees to support the overall increase in food demand. About 370,000 hectares of forests are lost each year as a result of expansion of the agricultural frontier and agrarian distribution. More crops must be planted to simply support the growing need for food. About 30% of the city's drinking water is brought from locations that are 79 miles away. This water is and then pumped nearly a mile uphill. To be more efficient with this water distribution, deforestation will continue. About 67% of the city's water comes from underground sources, with about 588 wells in operation (Alcott, 2010).

Why are any of the above examples important? Although each example above seems small in isolation, when put together, severe environmental impacts occur. For example, Mexico City is now one of the highest rates of air pollution in the world. In 1999 nearly 1 million people went to the hospital due to air pollution. As the…… [read more]

Discovering Ways to That Departments in a University Are Going Green Dissertation

Dissertation  |  3 pages (916 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Green Computing in Salahaddin University (Erbil Kurdistan)

Participant's Name: ____ (optional)

Job Title or Position:

RO1: To conduct a critical literature review on green ICT.

RO2: To investigate green ICT strategies/policies in the university.

RO3: Investigate the current green ICT practices within the university.

RO4: Evaluate the environmental impact using the ICT tool of ICT use within Salahaddin University Erbil.

RO5: Investigate the university's management of electronic waste (WEEE).

RO6: Provide possible recommendations with regards to the green ICT in Salahaddin University Erbil.

RO7: Staff support for green ICT strategies/policies.

Each of the research objectives as they relate to the following questions is marked according the above Research Object number.

Objective (2)

Does your organization currently have a Green ICT policy in place?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Has the environmental impact of your department been assessed?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Is there a policy or general management preference for selecting green ICT solutions over conventional?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Does your department implement any ICT policy directed towards achieving any standards outlined by EMS 14001 certification?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Objective (3)

Does your department have access to the Green ICT strategy document?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Does your ICT department regularly inspect the ICT ecosystem within your department?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Does your department have a policy of printing only when necessary?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Is duplex printing encouraged? If so, how?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

How much paper is used per year for printing in your department/group?

Is there a preference in your department for energy efficient hardware?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Is there a policy of switching off ICT equipment that is not in use? Or does your department employ an automatic power management facility?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

Does the ICT work-space have energy efficient lighting?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

[ ] Unknown

How many computers use dual monitors?

How many computers use more than two monitors?

Are there other efficiency measures not listed here advocated by your department? If so, please explain

Objective (4)

Are you aware of the energy source used to produce electricity for your ICT hardware?

[ ] Yes (If yes please specify)

[…… [read more]

Communication and Sociology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Civil rights helped to draw attention to the fact that inequalities exist within society. This has led to a focus on providing more opportunities to minorities, women, lesbians and immigrants. The result is that the government, press and society want to ensure that everyone is treated fairly and given equal opportunities for resources / services. (Light, 2010)

In the case of environmentalism, there was an emphasis on reducing pollution and protecting the ecology. These transformations have led more laws and regulations in order to prevent firms from engaging practices that were harmful to stakeholders. This has changed the way everyone looks at these issues and how different regulations are enforced. The combination of these factors are leading to policies, which will take into account the impact of various practices on variety of stakeholders vs. specific segments. (Light, 2010)

These two social movements had an impact on me by changing my perspectives about equality and the environment. In most cases, I believe that everybody needs to have the chance to change and show what they can do. This is regardless of where they are from or their educational background. These views are supporting my beliefs, that America was founded based upon the premise equal opportunity for all. As they should be capable of showing how they can make a difference using: hard work, determination and having better ideas. Environmentalism has taught me that we all share the same resources. This means that we must be able to work together to protect them for future generations. These views have allowed me to look beyond economics and concentrate on the way various issues are affecting everyone from a longer term perspective. (Light, 2010)


Light, P. (2010). Driving Social Change. Hoboken, NJ:…… [read more]

Bases of Sustainability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


"Sustainability" is "a well-balanced relationship between humans and the environments they inhabit; this involves finding an ideal balance between economic, social, and environmental qualities" (Steg, van den Berg, & de Groot, 2012, p. 108). In other words, humans behave economically, socially and environmentally so that all those interests are fairly served. As humans use, develop and protect our resources with processes and timetables that both serve current needs and protect future generations' ability to serve their needs (Steg, van den Berg, & de Groot, 2012, p. 262). As those interests become more balanced, negative impacts on the environment are decreased and the quality of human life improves. When the relationships between humans and their environments are imbalanced, the environment is negatively impacted and the quality of human life declines. These concerns are about more than a person's local environment; the concern has taken on global importance (Carr, 2012, p. 2).

Classic examples of modified behaviors that support sustainability and reduce negative impacts on the environment are: greater reliance on fuels such as wind-generated power rather than fossil fuels; and recycling. In the past, our reliance on limited fossil fuels has damaged the environment through recovery of those fuels by methods that damage the earth, has polluted the environment through burning those fuels and has endangered the quality of life for ourselves and for future generations by reliance on highly polluting fuels that will eventually run out. Reliance on alternate fuels sources, such as wind-power generators, lessens physical damage to the environment because we are not using old methods to obtain fossil fuels, lessens pollution because we are burning less fossil fuel, and improves the quality of life for ourselves and future generations through environmentally friendly, renewable energy sources (Steg, van den Berg, & de Groot, 2012, p. 224). Recycling of cans, bottles, plastic, paper and other materials lessens wastes in the environment and helps generate definite beliefs about its value that make the tendency to recycle even stronger (McCarty & Shrum, Spring 2001, p. 96). Our modified behaviors regarding the extraction and use of fossil fuels and greater tendency toward recycling are merely two examples of modifications that support sustainability and lessen negative impacts on the environment.

c. How social norms influence behavior and beliefs about the environment.

"Social norms" are informal rules accepted by all of a society or a segment of that society. These informal rules tell individuals how to behave by informing them of which behaviors are proper or improper. (Steg, van den… [read more]

Eesc Analysis / Sustainability Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,206 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The need for more land for disposing of its wastes also raises environmental concern due to the effect of its operations on the quality of the land. Moreover, the transport modes used by the corporation raises many environmental issues. For example, over-relying on the use of road and rail modes of transport translate to its contribution to air and noise pollution. Use of the air and water means of transport also increases the concerns of their influence on water and air pollution. Therefore, the environmental issues brought by the operations of the corporation are varied and requires the adoption of effective strategies against them (Dubbs & Heberle, 2008).

Sheet 1

Single-Server Model

Arrival Rate (?)


Service Rate (?)


Probability of zero customers in the system (P0)


Probability of exactly


Customers in the system


Probability of <=


Customers in the system


Probability of


Customers in the system


Average utilization of the server (?)


Average number of customers in the system (L)


Average number of customers in the line (Lq)


Average time in the system (W)


Average waiting time in the line (Wq)


Average time being served


Sheet 2

Multi-Server Model

(With S <= 4)

Number of Servers (S)


Arrival Rate (?)


Service Rate (?)


Probability of zero customers in the system (P0)


Probability of exactly


Customers in the system


Probability of <=


Customers in the system

See Table

Probability of


Customers in the system

See Table

Average utilization of the server (?)


Average number of customers in the system (L)


Average number of customers in the line (Lq)


Average time in the system (W)


Average waiting time in the line (Wq)


Average time being served


Actions adopted by the corporation in response to the issues

In response to the above, the corporation has adopted various strategies to reduce their impacts. It recycles its wastes prior to releasing them into the environment, thereby, reducing their effects on the environment. The company also reduces the effects of their wastes to the environment using chemical consolidation. Chemical consolidation employs strategies such as the use of multi-task chemicals to use chemicals more than once and eliminating duplication to reduce energy demands. Moreover, the company also performs regular cleanup of the environment to reduce the risks of environmental pollution by its wastes. Other strategies used by the corporation to minimize the above stated environmental issues include adopting clean production strategies, employing external agencies to monitor the effects of its operations on the environmental effects, and adoption of air quality management strategies. Above all, it adheres to the regulations of ensuring environmental safety as stated in the OSHA regulations (Bernus & Fox, 2005).


In summary, organizational activities affect environmental sustainability and safety. Environmental effects of organizational activities include noise, water, and land pollution that affects the health of the living organisms in the society. Therefore, adopting responsive… [read more]

Turned Into Other Products Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,632 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


This cannot be done with "new" pulp, so using recycled options keeps chlorine-containing chemicals out of the water and air (Blanco, Miranda, & Monte 2013). Hydrogen peroxide is commonly used as a bleaching agent, and it is much less caustic than the chlorine-based options (Yamashita & Suzuki 2014). However, recycling is not without pollution, as it often creates sludge that… [read more]

Ecological Approach to Management Invasive Species Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,022 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ecosystems / Invasive Species

The Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) follows ten basic principles. The first is hierarchical context, which insists on examining biodiversity at ever level within the ecosystem under management. Next is attention to ecological boundaries, with the awareness that many ecosystems are additionally affected by political boundaries that may hinder the attempt to regard the ecosystem as a whole. The third principle is a kind of corollary to this, emphasizing a regard for ecological integrity, namely to regard any given ecosystem as an extremely complex whole, which is capable of responding in unpredictable ways to external stressors. The fourth principle is arguably the most important for land management, and this is the adaptive approach to management: this means that, given the complexity of ecosystems, any management approach should be regarded as an ongoing experiment that monitors its ongoing data and can flexibly change approach at any point. Fifth, which is crucial for public land management, is actor cooperation, which insists on joint planning with the involvement of all key stakeholders. The sixth principle emphasizes organizational change (so as to increase involvement in the effort) and the seventh regards human beings as fundamentally being part of the natural ecosystem, placed within it, and not an invasive force. The eighth and ninth principles emphasize data collection and consistent monitoring of the ongoing efforts (both of which refer back to the adaptive approach of the fourth principle). And finally the tenth principle involves respecting and incorporating the values of all the competing stakeholders, with an emphasis again on flexibility.

The basic principles of the Ecosystem Approach to Management combine to form the kind of managerial style which is described in the fourth principle: the "adaptive" approach to management, which emphasizes flexibility, experiment, continuous response to stimuli, and non-stop ad hoc solution-seeking. To suggest that this form of management is generally not practiced by government agencies should be apparent to anyone who has ever filled out a tax return for the IRS or waited in line at the DMV: government bureaucracies are fond of fixed regulations, and the notion of a managerial style which is willing to change those regulations in response to ongoing trends in the data being collected is not the most obvious form of management style to be practiced by government employees.

In 2004, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration implemented an Ecosystems Approach to Management for the entire agency. However it was clear that in many ways, the old-style governmental approach might be a hindrance to the full implementation of EAM. For example, the NOAA was responsible for assisting with enforcement of federal legislation called the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Protection Act, which contained specific language regarding the protection of the critically threatened coral species in that region. Yet the Ecosystems approach backs away from the old custodial emphasis on maintaining and nursing specific species to ask the larger questions about the ecosystem that are endangering those species. Ultimately the EAM made greater sense,… [read more]

Common Property Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Seabright 113) People who wish to stop others from violating common property rights or regulations are often thwarted or ignored on a global scale as governments must discuss regulation with other governments while ignoring the individual.

Much like the example used in Seabright's article, Cinner highlights how local communities control their own marine resources as global commons does nothing to help them. "For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations) to limit marine resource use." (Cinner 36) Due to continual overfishing customary marine tenure has been adopted by several local communities in order to enforce stricter rules and regulations.

Not much is known of marine tenure and why it is implemented besides to control and regulate resources. "Customary tenure regimes are the foundation of marine governance in much of the Pacific, but they must be better understood if they are to be effectively incorporated in resource management and development initiatives" (Cinner 36)

Perhaps similar to Seabright's example, people want implementation of things like marine tenure to ensure better maintenance of common property resources since at the local level it is a straightforward process to oversee. Another reason why people adopt something like CMT (Customary Marine Tenure) is due in part to its resiliency amidst changing factors. "Alternatively, results from this study also suggest CMT may be somewhat resilient to other socioeconomic factors such as population growth." (Cinner 40) Although immigration may affect CMT, as Cinner observed it work best in endogenous populations, CMT and local commons works well regardless of population growth and mixture of population.

Hardin in his article highlights the difficulties of preserving common property rights and resources. Some issue he explains are population and pollution. "Here is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in-sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs." (Hardin 1245) Pollution becomes incredibly difficult to manage even with introduction of marine tenure and other local commons. People can't be monitored all the time and are often ignorant of the negative effects of pollution. A fisherman may dump his trash in the water and wonder why there are less and less fish. People must be educated in the negative ramification of pollution to allow for conservation of common property resources. Pollution at the current levels do nothing but destroy the vital resources of the community.

"Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed." (Hardin 1245) Because people believe the resources are not scarce or endangered, they will not care about the consequences of their actions as they believe it will not affect common property resources. As discussed in the… [read more]

Steel Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … steel industry from 1875-1920 in the Great Lakes region

Foundation Course

Steel Production

The Great Lakes Region


The Steel Industry from 1875 to 1920

Expansion of Trade through Canals

Contribution of the Great Lakes Region to the Iron and Steel Industry of… [read more]

Internal and External Challenges in the Waste Management Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  34 pages (8,532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


123). Currently, approximately 10% of municipal solid waste is transferred between states nationwide (Highfill & Mcasey, 2004).

3.1.4. Socio-Cultural Segment. There is a growing movement among American consumers to recycle their municipal solid waste (Herndon, 2012).

3.1.5. Technological Segment. Waste Management's investments are aimed primarily at acquiring new technology and production capacity (Herndon, 2012).

3.1.6. Global Segment. The company competes… [read more]

Biodiversity in the 2014 British Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,015 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Biodiversity in the 2014 British Commonwealth Games in Glasgow's Arena And Velodrome

Approach and uncertainty:

The expectations are high and so are the costs involved with hosting the 2014 British Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, Scotland. The general approach that will be taken to reduce the carbon emissions that will be associated with the 2014 British Commonwealth Games in Glasgow (hereinafter… [read more]

Tennessee Side Effects of Coal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,362 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Side effects of coal mining

Coal mining is one of the practices of mountaintop removal (MTR) employed today, which has serious environmental effects. It commenced way back in the 1970's in Appalachia as an offshoot of the strip mining techniques in which case a whole mountain was blown to smithereens. Subsequent to undergrowth destruction and cutting through the timber, the mining corporations tend to drive piles of soil, rock, waste and soil down the valley in free fall. This hinders the streams pathway. The practice of mountaintop removal mining is still active in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia (Examiner, 2010).

Environmental protection agency (EPA) is an American body which describes mountaintop removal process as: "During the process of valley fill/mountaintop removal, coal extracts are obtained. The process of mountaintop removal can engage 500 feet or even more of the mountain to reach into the hidden coal extracts. The byproduct of the mountaintop is subsequently down the valley below. (Examiner, 2010)"

MTR practices can bring an end to a living community and has huge long-term environmental demerits. The byproduct generated due to MTR can pose harsh threats in terms of safety, health and residential communities involved.

Some of them are outlined below:

Contaminated drinking water

Human life and animal life is perturbed

The risks of floods increases two fold

The wind energy lessens in intensity

The Environmental protection Agency (EPA) in the summer of 2010, legislated a new water quality law. It was to be effective immediately on existing mining operations as well as surface mine permits. The practice of disposing the mining waste in valley far below was deemed illegal.

The Senator Lamar Alexander stated in April that "EPA has enacted new guidelines for putting an end to the illegal practices in Appalachia. Congress has yet to pass Cardin-Alexander legislation which will bring an end to the mountaintop removal mining" (Examiner, 2010).

Is the community of East Tennessee affected by it? The Senator Lamar Alexander further states that "The state of Tennessee has wonderful natural beauty appealing to millions of tourists and it creates new employments as well as fuels the economic value of the state. Exploding the mountain tops as well as drying out the streams with mountaintop byproducts is a serious threat to industry along with environment of Tennessee (Examiner, 2010).

Many states, the coal obtained from mountaintop practice is used in generating electricity, real mining is absent. The customers haven't figured out the connection between bombing world's oldest mountains and electricity powered houses (Examiner, 2010).

The Marcellus shale field is different to Tennessee's Chattanooga field as the latter is quite shallow. Less water is used up in this case. The controversial factor in the new rules implemented is that when mining surpasses 200,000 gallons of pure water, which is not possible in Chattanooga's case because less water is needed. The notice of coal mining operation is needed only for those living within half a mile radius. This excludes the majority effectively (Beans, 2013).

The environmental… [read more]

Safety -- System Safety Failure Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Safety -- System Safety Failure -- Hanford Nuclear Site

The Hanford Nuclear Site's history closely follows the United States' involvement in the Nuclear Age. Charged with rapidly inventing a plutonium bomb during World War II, the Manhattan Project chose an area in southern Washington State due to that area's unique combination of abundance and deficiency. After a massive and troublesome… [read more]

Negative Effects of Degradation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


The rate of consumerism is continuous in regards to national resources such as petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron, wood, etc. Secondly, the industry constantly disposes non-recyclable products such as glass, slag, rubber, etc. that cannot enter natural processes of renewal. Taking into consideration this vast consumption of oxygen resource, the fact that deforestation inhibits removal of air pollution, the scenario… [read more]

Biodiversity: Interdependence of Species Results Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (748 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Experiment 1- Diversity of Plants

Table 2


Pot 1

Pot 2










Morning Glory








Rye Grass




Total Species



Hypothesis: If all seeds are scattered randomly, at the end of the experiment there will be more rye grass.

1. The hypothesis was denied, rye grass was not the most pervasive of the species, and the revised hypothesis reads: If all seeds are scattered randomly, at the end of the experiment there will be more zinnias.

2. There are a total of 5 species in the entire sample; 3 in Pot 1, 4 in Pot 2; Rye Grass was the only species not to sprout in Pot 2.

3. Zinnia germinated the best for a total of 6 germinations in Pots 1 and 2; Marigolds, Morning Glory and Cosmos all had 2 germinations, Rye Grass only 1. Rye Grass germinated only in Pot 1 and was absent in Pot 2.

4. If the Pots were studied as a basis for the health of a bio system we would assume that, in general, the system was healthy because in total all species germinated and there was a fair equilibrium between 4 of the 5 species. It is also possible that Rye Grass takes longer to germinate, or requires a certain temperature or other conditions, leaving us with the notion that if these species could coexist together, there must be equilibrium in the system.

5. Biodiversity contributes to the overall health of the ecosystem in several ways. First with healthy biodiversity there are a larger number of species that have redundant characteristics; that is there are repeated elements that serve similar functions. With redundancy, it is less likely that any particular disturbance in the eco-system would negatively affect, or crash it, because the effects would be absorbed and spread around. Second, a larger diversity of populations also ensures that the gene pool is adequately stated and that negative characteristics are not interbred over time (Cleland, 2012).

Works Cited

Cleland,…… [read more]

Treatment Options Solid Waste Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  10 pages (3,110 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Here in this paper we will be using the term open dump to only refer to the disposal sites that are uncontrolled, and which are also the center of discussion here.

Usually leachate is associated with the open dumps and this is in liquid form. The production of leachate takes place in such as manner that when the percolation of… [read more]

Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,027 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Asthma attacks reportedly result in the deaths of 5,000 individuals each year in the U.S. alone (NRDC, 2005). Those figures have slightly improved, as in 2009 it was reported that nearly 3,500 people died of asthma, which is roughly equal to nine people dying a day from this disease (CDC, 2010). Approximately 1 in every 12 adults has been diagnosed with asthma, while 1 in 11 children is known to have this disease (CDC, 2010).

In terms of health disparities per populations, it is a known fact that individuals living in major metropolises areas are more exposed to bad air quality, and to air pollution which causes asthma. The inner cities of such metropolises are largely populated by historic minority groups -- specifically African-Americans and Latinos. More affluent individuals conventionally commute to such metropolises to work, while living in suburbs. Therefore, one can infer that these environmental factors come into play when assessing the members of the population in America who are adversely affected by asthma due to exacerbating air pollution factors. African-Americans are at greatest risk for incurring maladies related to this condition. They are nearly three times as likely to die from asthma than any other ethnic group, a fact which may reflect the financial realities afflicting these people in which, "more than 1 in 4 black adults can't afford their asthma medicines" (CDC, 2010, p. 4). Other salient factors related to the incidence of African-Americans afflicted with asthma include the fact that children of this group are twice as likely as whites to have asthma, whereas African-American adults are hospitalized more for asthma than whites (CDC, 2010, p. 3).

However, African-Americans are not the only racial minority group that is affected by the relationship between poor air quality/pollution and asthma. Close to 1 in every 7 Latinos cannot afford doctor visits on a routine basis, while approximately 20% of members of this group cannot afford medicine specific to asthmas (CDC, 2010, p. 4). There are also statistics which indicates that individuals of mixed ethnicities are likely to have higher incidences of asthma as well as greater complications from this disease than whites.

Thus, the research examined within this document demonstrates a number of important facts about asthma and air pollution. One of the most significant of these is that air pollution is responsible for asthma and making it worse in individuals who already have it. Also, environmental factors such as that air pollution is worse in major metropolises in which historic minority groups live contributes to these groups being adversely affected in greater numbers by asthma than other groups.


Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf

Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma… [read more]

Speech Writing Going Green Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Companies have now realized that going green is good for their business. Embracing this concept is good for their public relations and at the same time leads to efficient operations .there is the presence of green companies online which shows the effort to educate consumers and give a call for action towards this campaign.

Another question that arises is why everyone wants s to go green? Ever wondered why there has ben a lot of emphasis on green technology? Going green has numerous benefits one of them is saving the earth. This is the biggest benefit of going green; these collective actions are what will save the planet. Another benefit of going green is saving your health. Common household cleaning supplies and pesticides have numerous dangers that people are unaware of. They have a cumulative effect on our bodies. When we switch to cleaning supplies that are greener and eat organic foods then we are taking a huge step towards impacting our health positively .going green also save on money. This ranges from saving money on the energy cost in our houses to easy ways such as increasing the gas mileage in our cars (Green Technology, 2010). There are numerous ways of saving money while going green and after all who does not want to save money.


Deep down we all know that we ought to be greener. This is just a sensible thing to do because it is good for the earth, your health and for your wallet.do we really want to hand to our children and grandchildren a pile of rubbish for a planet. I bet everyone's answer is no.so why we should avoid the guilt and reap al the benefits of going green. I want you to remember that going green does not only save the earth it also improves the quality of your life alongside other benefits.so the next time one confronts you with the question why you are so concerned about being green you might have a few answers for them up your sleeve."


Green Technology, (2010). Green Technology: What is it? Retrieved September 9, 2013 from http://www.green-technology.org/what.htm… [read more]

Canadian Foreign Policy a Policy Memo on the Arctic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,446 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Canadian Foreign Policy: A policy memo on the Arctic

The relation between the Arctic and Canada over the years has been a mutual one albeit with a few hitches taking into account the dynamic international relations patterns experienced. This prompted Canada to publish a statement on the relation between Canada and the Arctic in 2010. This statement sought to make… [read more]

Water Pollution in Lake Huron Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Pollution renders the lake unsuitable for swimming since it is a health hazard.

Toxic contaminants in consumable fish tissues affect the health of the public. Microbial pollution of the lake waters affects the ecosystem's food chain. Fish feed on contaminated substances on the lake. The low quality of fish from the lake's ecosystem is a serious concern to public health since it causes diseases as cancer.


Pollution of Lake Huron is a great concern that led to the setting up of restoration programs such as the Lake Huron initiative. Restoration of the lake's ecosystem is notably important to address the effects of pollution on fish, wildlife and public health. Nonpoint source, point source and atmospheric pollution are the tree leading sources of the lake's contamination. Restoration programs aim at combating the effects of pollution on the economy and public health.


Bredin, J. (2002). Lake Huron Initiative Action Plan Update: April 2002. Pennsylvania, PA: DIANE Publishing.

Rose, J. & Dreelin, E. (2008). Effective Cross-border Monitoring Systems for Waterborne Microbial Pathogens: A Plan for Action. London, LND: IWA Publishing.

Stephenson, J. (2005). Great Lakes Initiative: EPA Needs to Better Ensure the Complete and Consistent Implementation of Water Quality Standards. Pennsylvania, PA: DIANE Publishing.

U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2012). Great Lakes: Lake Huron. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/greatlakes/huron.html

U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2013). Great Lakes National Program Office, Image collection. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/greatlakes/image/viz_iss2.html… [read more]

Tension Between Businesses Interests Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


This is because it will result in the best legal outcome for the sector and its shareholders. Under this approach, insiders can show how they are following the different environmental guidelines (without having to make dramatic changes to their practices). Instead, they can use the various loopholes to illustrate how they are incompliance with these regulations and have made the… [read more]

Environmental Hazards Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Zebra and Quagga mussels are native to the Ponto-Caspian basin in Eurasia, such as (Aquatic Invasive Species of Pennsylvania, n.d.). Their name comes from the distinct zebra-like striping on their shells. The Quagga shells are more rounded than the Zebra mussel, but otherwise they are "virtually identical both physically and behaviorally," (Aquatic Invasive Species of Pennsylvania, n.d.; National Wildlife Federation, n.d.). Currently, they are classified as invasive species in 29 different states (National Wildlife Federation, n.d.).

Increases and decreases in the populations and prevalence of the invasive species is directly related to boat transportation patterns, as the mussels hitch rides on boat hulls and ballast waters. During the plankton stage, both zebra and quagga mussels are highly mobile, too, greatly assisting their ability to colonize different bodies of water. During the plankton stage, "they can float in the water for up to four weeks before they settle and attach to a solid surface," (Aquatic Invasive Species of Pennsylvania, n.d.). They also reproduce rapidly and prolifically. According to the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Aebra and Quagga mussels "can produce up to one million larvae in a single year. Therefore, season and weather conditions will also have a bearing on local populations of zebra and quagga mussels. Climatic conditions, aquatic conditions, boat transport patterns, and crew cleaning behaviors are all factors linked to the spread of the invasive species throughout fresh water systems in the United States.

It is important to identify environmental hazards like the Zebra and Quagga mussels because of what they can do to local flora, fauna, and water compositions. For example, the National Wildlife Federation (n.d.) notes that while the mussels are clarifying the water in the Great Lakes due to their internal filtration systems, they also inhibit food sources for indigenous fish.

However, there are also other issues that must be taken into consideration such as the impact of zebra and quagga mussels on local human industries. The species "can ruin boat motors and clog water intake structures, such as pipes and screens,…… [read more]

Economic Analysis of an Environmental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources that release carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere that cause global warming. In contrast, nuclear energy is a source of clean, renewable energy. The downside to using nuclear energy is that if appropriate safety controls are not taken (as was seen in Chernobyl) or a natural disaster occurs which interferes with the fail-safe mechanism (as occurred during the Japanese earthquake and tsunami), there can be devastating effects to both humans and the environment from radiation. There is a consensus that a shift in fossil fuel consumption must occur (Chapter 1: 8). However, better alternatives may be wind energy, or other renewable sources, given that they do not pose the same risks to human life and the environment like nuclear energy.

Q3. Compare and contrast the processes of inductive and deductive reasoning, and then carefully explain how both processes can be successfully used by scientists. Use examples to clarify your explanation.

Inductive reasoning is reasoning from empirical evidence. The scientist looks around the world, gathers evidence, and then comes to a conclusion and establishes a general principle, based upon the anecdotal evidence (Chapter 2:2). For example, a scientist might note that when children with a specific medical condition are more likely to be exposed to particular environmental condition in the womb (say, for example, mothers who had mercury dental fillings) and target this potential association for further study. Deductive reasoning proceeds from a general principle and from this generalization, draws conclusions about specific evidence (Chapter 2:2). For example, if scientists are aware that lead paint in the environment leads to a higher rate of birth defects and they are aware that poor children in the developing world are more likely to be exposed to lead paint, they might draw the conclusion that the country would have a higher rate of birth defects.

Q4. What should you do to improve the global environment? What can you do to improve the global environment? What will you do to improve the global environment?

First and foremost, global warming must be taken seriously (Chapter 24:1). Even ordinary citizens can take small steps to reduce its effects. Carpooling, taking public transportation, and driving fuel-efficient cars are all good examples of steps that can be taken to reduce one's consumption of fossil fuels. The raising of animals for meat is extremely hard upon the environment, given the resources of land for grazing, land where livestock food is raised, and water use is expended. Thus, eating less meat can also improve the global environment. I will try to educate myself on global environmental issues, support politicians who prioritize the environment; support companies with my 'voting dollars' who have environmentally-friendly policies; and try to make good decisions about the issues I support. I will encourage my friends to do the same and…… [read more]

Stress: Regulation of Wetlands Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (8,001 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


For regulatory purpose of the Clean Water Act, the term wetlands refers to those areas that are saturated or inundated through ground or surface water at a duration and frequency sufficient to foster and that which under normal circumstances do support a prevalence of vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil status (Spray and McGlothin 102).

According to the U.S.… [read more]

Consumption Sustainability Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,800 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Keeping in mind that everything will one day be consumed should notify everyone that we are all in this together and we are all responsible for making the world a better place to live.

Works Cited

Baumgartner, R.J., & Ebner, D. 2010. Corporate sustainability strategies: sustainability profiles and maturity levels. Sustainable Development, 18(2), 76-89.

Doppelt, B. & Mcdonough, W. 2010. Leading change toward sustainability: a change- management guide for business, government and civil society, (Updated 2nd ed.), Sheffield: Greenleaf, pp57-74.

Friedman, M. 1970/2009. The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Profits. In W. Cragg, M.S. Schwartz and D. Weitzner (Eds.), Corporate social responsibility 31-36. Farnham, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Ihlen, O. & Roper, J. 2011. Corporate Reports on Sustainability and Sustainable Development: We Have Arrived. Sustainable Development, 2 Mar 2011. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1775004/Corporate_reports_on_sustainability_and_sustainable _development_We_have_arrived

IPCC. 2012. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Summary for Policymakers. http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/report/

Kropp, R. 2012. The balancing act of corporate sustainability and consumption. Greenbiz.com 21 May, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2012/05/21/balancing- corporate-sustainability-vs.-consumption

Lammers, L. 2011. Sustainability Named One of ' Jargoniest Jargon' Words of 2010 by Ad Age. Triple Pundit, 5 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://www.triplepundit.com/2011/01/ad-age- names-sustainability-one-jargoniest-jargon-words-2010/

PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2010. Biodiversity and business risk: A Global Risks Network briefing. Cologny/Geneva, World Economic Forum.


Shah, A. 2011. Consumption and Consumerism. Globalissues.org. 6 Mar 2011. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/issue/235/consumption-and-consumerism

Shrivastava, P., & Berger, S. 2010. Sustainability principles: a review and directions. Organization Management Journal, 7(4), 246-261.

Tidwell, B. 2013. Top Corporate Sustainability Trends in 2013. Environmental Leader, 10 Jan 2013. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalleader.com/2013/01/10/top-corporate- sustainability-trends-in-2013/

Tilford, D. 2011. Why Consumption Matters. Sierra Club, 27 June 2011. Retrieved from http://www.sierraclub.org/sustainable_consumption/tilford.asp… [read more]

Environmental Sustainability at This Point Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In other words, they can understand that the depletion of resources for short-term gain can create serious long-term consequences that will not be offset by any positives from the short-term gain. This idea is one that has yet to resound with the American consumer and most American businesspeople. One reason for this may be the relative youth of America; it may be difficult to envision long-term consequences when the vast majority of American land remains wilderness and even dramatic environmental disasters have not yet been shown to have long-term consequences; while Europeans with their lengthy history may have a better innate understanding of long-term consequences.

For example, as Chris Turner revealed in the Nicholson interview, there are two basic reasons that Northern Europe has made such tremendous strides in sustainability (Nicholson, 2012). First, the government made a concerted effort to make theoretical sustainable and renewable energy accessible to the end user (Nicholson, 2012). Next, this model was implemented, despite the fact that the initial cost of implementation would not see immediate financial savings (Nicholson, 2012). Turner described the use of electric cars stored on a grid, and the governmental influence in the process was tremendous, and seemed unlikely in a country where lobbyists for big oil and other non-green resources would oppose allocation of funds for sustainable development practices.


Commission of the European Communities. (2001, May 15). A sustainable Europe for a better world: A European Union strategy for sustainable development. Retrieved January 8, 2013 from Eur-Lex website: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2001/com2001_0264en01.pdf

Council of Europe. (2012). Sustainable development: On top of the agenda. Retrieved January

8, 2013 from Council of Europe website: http://hub.coe.int/what-we-do/culture-and-nature/sustainable-development

European Commission. (2012, February 23). Sustainable development. Retrieved January 8,

2013 from European Commission website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/

European Sustainable Development Network. (2012). Basics of SD strategies. Retrieved January 8, 2013 from European Sustainable Development Network website: http://www.sd-network.eu/?k=basics%20of%20SD%20strategies

Nicholson, C. (2012, April 30). Q&A: Europe's world class innovation in sustainability (and why the U.S. is falling behind). Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Smart Planet website: http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/thinking-tech/q-a-europes-world-class-innovation-in-sustainability-and-why-the-us-is-falling-behind/11455… [read more]

Environmental Risk Analysis Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In other words, an ERA looks at the hazard and the risk of a particular activity. The term hazard refers to "the inherent potential for something to cause harm. Hazards can include substances, machines, energy forms, or the way work is carried out" (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008). The term risk refers to "the likelihood that harm will actually be done by the realisation of the hazard during the work being carried out or by the way something is used" (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008). The risk involves not just the hazard, but takes into account the likelihood of exposure combined with the risk.

There are five basic components in the ERA process. First, the "preliminary problem formulation identifies each contaminant of concern and its concentration, source, and location at the site" (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, 2009). This step looks at how contamination may spread and how exposure might occur. Second, the "ecological effects evaluation involves finding out what amounts of a contaminant cause health problems in the plant and animal species potentially exposed" (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, 2009). The third step is a preliminary risk calculation that looks at the risk of exposure. The fourth step is problem formulation that uses sight-specific information to modify any knowledge of the risk. Finally, the fifth step is risk characterization, which "combines information about exposure to the contaminant and the toxicity of the contaminant to determine the level of risk" (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, 2009).


Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.

Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website: http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf

Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks. (2000, July). Environmental risk assessment (ERA):

An approach for assessing and reporting environmental conditions. Retrieved January 7,

2013 from British Columbia website: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/documents/era.pdf

Royal Society of Chemistry. (2008). Note on environmental risk assessment. Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Royal Society of Chemistry website: http://www.rsc.org/images/Environmental_Risk_Assessment_tcm18-122341.pdf

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012, July 31). Basic information. Retrieved January 7, 2013 from EPA website: http://www.epa.gov/risk_assessment/basicinformation.htm

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2011, August 9). Ecological risk assessment.

Retrieved January 7, 2013 from EPA website: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/nrd/era.htm… [read more]

Waste Sustainability in Coed Darcy Development in Wales United Kingdom Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Waste Sustainability in coed Darcy Development in Wales-United Kingdom

Information on Waste Sustainability

"Waste Sustainability in Coed Darcy Development in Wales - united / kingdom"

This Government in Darcy is really committed to making sure that everything stays green. How the company deals with their waste is vital for a range of broader distresses for example material security, climate change… [read more]

Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes About the Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes About the Environment

Beliefs: Toffler 1980. 'three types of beliefs are preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial' (Bechtel, 1997). 'Some people get caught in one stage and are not able to adjust to the next stage' (Bechtel, 1997).

Attitudes: There is a strong correlation between attitude and behavior and the Fishbein-Ajzen model was the first to show this correlation (Bechtel, 1997). A person's attitude toward a specific behavior strongly predicts if that behavior will occur (Bechtel, 1997).

Attitudes toward the Environment: Gray 1985. He 'developed the most comprehensive model for looking at attitudes toward environment' (Bechtel, 1997). 'The elements of Gray's model are general environmental concern, primitive beliefs, costs/benefits, and locus of responsibility and control' (Bechtel, 1997).

The Environmental Response Inventory: Created by McKechnie, 1974. It 'classifies personal dispositions toward the environment' (Bechtel, 1997). Consists of 'pastoralism, urbanism, environmental adaptation, environmental trust, antiquarian, need for privacy, mechanical orientation, and communality classifications' (Bechtel, 1997).

NIMBY: Refers to the fact that people may believe that something is good for the environment but "not in my backyard" (Bechtel, 1997).

Environmental ethics: 'Hardin 1968 and the "tragedy of the commons" shows that people find it hard to give up present rewards to prevent future negative circumstances' (Bechtel, 1997). Platt, 1973, calls the tragedy a social trap (Bechtel, 1997). 'Platt states traps arise in situations of highly motivating reward or punishment in the short-term, and consequences postponed to the long-term" (Bechtel, 1997). Different types of traps include one person traps, sliding reinforcers,…… [read more]

Individual Summary and Reflection Our Team Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Individual Summary and Reflection

Our team defines electronic waste (eWaste) as discarded office electronic equipment, computer, mobile phones, television sets, and entertainment electronic devices. Integrated in this definition is the used electronics destined to be recycled. However, our project focuses on the collection of e-Waste, which include Apple mobile phones, and Apple computer that will be destined to be recycled… [read more]

Stress of Living in an Environment Skinner Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (449 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Stress of Living in an Environment

Skinner held that all human behavior is caused by the environment. This concept is referred to as environmental determinism. Architects (Richard Neutra) also believe that their designs control behavior. Then there is the transactional view (Barker) that behavior and environment interact with one another (ecological psychology). Some key points to remember involve E&B theories (environment and the person are inseparable), the person in the environment theories (individual responses are consistent across any environment), the social psychological theories (focus on the social context of the organism), and the environment on the person theories (emphasis on what the environment does to any person). In addition, GAIA, sociobiology, biophilia, overload, understimulation, organismic-holistic, sociopetal and sociofugal, theories originating within the person, stress, belief systems, control, and ecological psychology are important.

GAIA: James Lovelock 1979. Bacteria, plants, and animals act together to keep the gas levels stable. Mainly concerned with the ozone level. Problem is that the earth is not a living organism as he suggests.

Sociobiology: (Wilson, 1975). Genes alone determine behavior. Problem is that it cannot explain altruism.

Biophilia: (Wilson, 1984). Innate tendency to preserve the environment. Explains altruism for him.

Overload:( Milgram, 1970). Many behaviors are due to sensory overload (urban environments).

Understimulation: An environment where there is not enough stimuli (like cabin fever). In lab studies, it…… [read more]

Sustainable Design Is Evidence Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (845 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sarofim Research Building, Houston, TX

Designed to be low energy user

Low velocity ducts, low pressure drop cooling, heating coils

Daylight, motion sensor controlled lighting

The Spectrum

Be Prepared!

Use "stealth green" not pushy environmental rhetoric

Talk about the facts

Use "value" terms to show what it can do for client

Discover where client falls on spectrum and use their language

The Eco-Charrette

Vision and brainstorming session

Help client meet goals including energy thresholds

Start with LEED, which is good tool

Create Biophiliac Team

Biophilia = the human love for nature; a biological instinct that makes human beings love nature

Select strategy using evidence or create evidence for future

Get Outside

Team members inspired in nature, visit the area the building will be located

State Your Hypothesis

Building design strategy should have hypothesis that mentions specific goals, eg:

Increased staff retention

Reduced Medical Errors

Improved patient results

HOK Toronto Office

Minimalist design

Site selected carefully

Restorative Design

Intuitive = Scientific = Experiential

Fact-based design = putting it to the test

Biomimicry as Design Tool

Look to nature for ideas!

Outcomes -- publish findings!

Legacy Salmon Creek Hospital

Natural light, reduces anxiety

Influence of specialized knowledge

Successful Outcomes

Design Solution…… [read more]

Conservationists Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (304 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The power granted to them by their status as an environmental organization replaces logic with an innate desire for additional power to make decisions about the lands.

3. Write one question that occurs to you when you read the article (e.g. something that you did not understand or something the author missed).

How many people have been removed because of the conservationists and is the harm that they have done more than the positives of their efforts?

4. How does the article relate to your own life?

Conservation is an important part of life because it is incumbent on each person to do what they can to protect the earth. However, in protecting the environment, we need to be wary of the power we wield and what we may be doing to our fellow men.

Works Cited:

Chapin, Mac. "A Challenge to Conservationists." World Watch. World Watch…… [read more]

Dreaming This Chapter Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  4 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The site will accommodate the participants need for sleep and dreaming purposes and condition that allow their mental, physical and mental functioning. The participants will also be acclimatized to their subsequent site that will allow them to easily adapt to it and respond.

Sample and sampling procedure

Sampling design refers to that part of the research plan that indicates how cases are to be selected for observation Lunenfeld & Laurel, 2003.

Sampling design is aimed at securing a representative sample of a population. A sample is conceived to be representative if the analysis produces similar results that would be obtained had the researcher analyzed the whole population.

To attain the representation, the study uses 20 respondents 10 being young adults aged between 18 years and 35 years and 10 being adults aged 36 years and above. The two set of ages will ensure a gender balance and cater for body functioning related to group. The two sets of participants will also represent the differences between particular ages in dreaming and the patterns. It will be possible to analyze those patterns that are associated with same age group and gender.

The chosen volunteers and participants will be assessed for suitability interim of their ability to bring out the expected information. The participants will also be assessed for ability to participate in the emotional, physical, and mental exercises that will be used to depict overall body functioning. A subjective sampling procedure guided by suitability requirements will be used.

Methodology for gathering data

While gathering quantitative and qualitative data, needs for proper documentation cannot be underestimate Barzun & Graff, 2004.

For this reason, data with an in depth detail considering the pertinent matters to be investigated in the survey will be documented keenly.

The data base will detail each and every aspect on the dream pattern of individual, assess their sleep patterns and impose assessment to judge their body functioning. The secondary data from previous studies will act as a guide as the information that need to checked and how best to obtain them. The secondary data will also act as a measure for comparison.

The information gathered will be logged accurately to the data base and any inconsistencies will be noted, reconciled where possible or explanations given. To carry out the survey with the requisite accuracy once reconciliation of data with inconsistency is done, proper measures will be taken to safe guard further inconsistencies.

Data analysis

The data will also be standardized for purposes of doing the analysis intended. The data collected will be analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. These techniques will be used in order to provide both statistical and interpretive insights. Raw quantitative data is cleaned and coded for easy analysis. The data collected will be analyzed guided by the survey questions and the literature reviewed. In the analysis, comparisons of the type of information observed in the varied circumstances and the individuals will form core parts of the analysis.


Barzun, J., & Graff, H.F. (2004). The… [read more]

Water Quality Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Tragedy of Commons and Clean Water

Anyone who's ever visited a third world country such as India or Bangladesh where the water from the tap isn't potable and can lead to illnesses among other health concerns, knows how satisfying it can be to return to the United States, and take advantage of clean tap water. Tap water in… [read more]

Beluga Whales of St Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Samples of organ tissue and blood will be taken from the beluga and tested for noticeable levels of pesticide poisoning, while water and soil quality are also examined for traces of DDT or Mirex. By comparing the samples taken from St. Lawrence River estuary beluga to samples harvested from nominally healthy beluga whales found elsewhere, it will be possible to identify instances of pollution-based tumors, and other evidence of cancer. Because instances of cancer are "normally rare in wildlife, cancers in California sea lions, North Sea flounder and Great Lakes catfish seem to have been triggered or accelerated by environmental contaminants" (Gammon, 2009), and the heavy agricultural use by humans living in these habitats suggests a connection between the heavy use of pesticides and cancer rates in marine wildlife. This experiment represents a systems-based approach because I intend to index all autopsy findings by the age, sex, and size of the animal, in an effort to determine if sufficient numbers of beluga whales are living to reach breeding age. If cancers caused by pesticide absorption are causing beluga to die before they are able to breed, this phenomenon would further explain the overall population's inability to fully recover.


Gammon, C. (2009, August 27). Cancer in wildlife may signal toxic dangers. Scientific American, Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=cancer- wildlife-environmental-contaminant

Martineau, D., Lemberger, K., Dallaire, A., Labelle, P., Lipscomb, T.P., Michel, P., & Mikaelian, I. (2002). Cancer in wildlife, a case study: Beluga from the st. lawrence estuary, quebec, canada.Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(3), 285-292. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240769/pdf/ehp0110-000285.pdf

Shabecoff, P. (1988, January 12). Pollution is blamed for killing whales in st. lawrence. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1988/01/12/science/pollution-is- blamed-for-killing-whales-in-st-lawrence.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm… [read more]

Recycling in Apartments Date Here Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,474 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Use of Separate Recycling Chutes by Tall buildings

Tall buildings use chutes to convey their garbage down instead of carrying it via stairs or elevators in order to avoid any messy situation or pollution. Thus in such tall buildings recycling is encouraged through making separate chutes for recyclable materials too. Both trash and recyclable chutes are placed side by side… [read more]

Avatar James Cameron, Director Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


But they do not waste, they do not kill indiscriminately, and they that the animals for their sacrifice.

Lacks of morality from earth forces, troops keep order and eventually, the military rule. Because the Na'vi seem more pacifist, they are roundly criticized and seen as a backward people.


The Na'vi own very little, but share quite a lot. They want for nothing, but have no reason to hoard.

Earth wants unobtainium at any cost, and feels that their need outweighs the needs of anyone on Pandora. This is the arrogance of owning, and the ultimate cause of an out of balance paradigm.


Broad spectrum of spiritualism from the Na'vi, the costiveness of some humans and the ability for some humans to make decisions of supreme sacrifice for others.

Religion is capitalism, myth is considered nothing more than stories. Money is God, and profit is King.

Part 5 -- There are actually several conflicts in Avatar. First, the most obvious is the war between the Human and the Na'Vi. We do also get hints that the humans and Na'vi have not gotten alone for years, but it was the attack on the OMaticaya Clan's Hometree that brought their relations o a conflictual head. There is also conflict between the humans- particularly Grace and her cadre of scientists and the military Colonel Quartich. Jake becomes part of this conflict, which is really a model for the conflict between imperialism and socialism.

Part 6 -- Avatar is indeed a fine example of a political ecology text. All the symbols are present: an indigenous tribe, synergism in the society, the Hometree, and biological neural network on the planet, and a rare metal of not much use to the native tribes, but rare and needed on earth. The reason the film is so powerful is that is has action, a love story, is entertaining, but a message as well. It does not force "environmentalism" down anyone's throat, but provides examples of why it is important to think about consequences, to think about holism, and to embrace a theory that there is really one planet we all live on, and to be…… [read more]

Endangered Species Biodiversity: Polar Bear Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Endangered Species


Distribution of the species

Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a maritime bear which is found largely within the Arctic Circle and its surrounding sea and land masses. Polar bears have circumpolar distribution. They are most commonly found in ice-covered waters of the Arctic Ocean, mostly within the Arctic region that surrounds the North… [read more]

Petro-Violence: Community, Extraction and Political Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


That such conveniences hinge upon the evil actions of men and corporation, that they play an extremely negative role in the vitality of the planet itself, is very troubling. I would like to do something about this problem.

The article by Paul Robbins, "Challenges in Social Construction," presents some highly interesting notions about the very nature of ecology and concepts concerning the environment. The primary idea which this article revolves about is the conception that many environmental concerns, processes, categories, and conditions that are prevalent in contemporary times are actually constructed or, in some cases, outright fabricated, in order to serve political purposes. He provides a number of different instances in which there is more than one "reality" or stance about a supposedly pressing environmental concern.

Robbins also presents some very compelling facets regarding power and its nature in relation to the environmental movement. The point of constructed environmental concerns, he states, is to enforce the political objectives and motives of an elite group. The terms and ideas these groups have about the environment are less true or longstanding than they are simply the means to empower themselves, and to control society through what may very well be mistaken beliefs.

My main question associated with this article has to do to the reference of Michael Foucault. I need more clarifications about his ideas related to constructivism and power.

This article affects my life via a change in perspective with which it brings. It suggests that many environmental concerns, such as the hole in the ozone layer and global warming, may not necessarily be true. If this is accurate, some of my actions to conserve such resources may…… [read more]

Environmental Stewardship Can Be Simply Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Most of the companies all over the world have turned their branding around for reflecting a commitment to the environment. New technologies have been explored which have helped these companies to operate in a cleaner and greener manner. They have donated and are still providing land for open space, supporting local charities etc. To cut a long story short, the companies and investors are "basing more of their business decisions on environmental and social considerations, realizing that these, too, impact the bottom line" (Manning, 2004).

Similarly, communities are practicing smart growth for the improvement of the standard of living. Moreover, government agencies around the world, especially in the developed countries, are offering incentives for leading citizens and associations to willingly make environmentally-sound choices. Such trends advocate the idea that it is the high time to commit to environmental stewardship on age scale (Johnson, 2005).

Thus, it is really important to develop sustainable and practical programs for the environmental systems' protection, regeneration and replenishment. Every one of us must consider it a responsibility to protect the Creator's gifted natural resources. This would not only improve our quality of life but also of those belonging to the future world.


Environmental Stewardship Strategy: Overview and Resource for Corporate Leaders. (2010). Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/Environmental_Stewardship_Strategy.pdf

Johnson, S.L. (2005). Everyday Choices: Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/osem/pdf/rpt2admin.pdf

Manning, D.J. (2004). Benefits of Environmental Stewardship. Review of Business, 25 (2), Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-119108637/benefits-of-environmental-stewardship… [read more]

Innovation and Sustainability Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Innovations and Sustainability

Innovation and Sustainability

Innovations and sustainability of ways of production and consumption

Numerous meetings starting with the 1992 Rio Declaration have targeted to create greater awareness to the fact that production and consumption need to incorporate aspect of sustenance Tukker a., 2005.

These conventions are not successful to some extent owing to the dynamics of demand and the greed among producers and consumers who seek short-term gains at the expanse of the future. In the other case, substantial grounds have been covered to alleviate the troubled depletion of resources. This paper discus the positive step observed in production and consumption as innovative measures for resource sustainability.

Sustainable production

In production, there have been changes in use of resource for energy and shift to using the renewable sources of energy. This shift targets to reduce the strain put on the environment by introducing hazardous emissions. The use of renewable energy has the advantage of reducing the level of carbon emission and increasing the efficiency of utilizing naturally available gases Tukker a., 2005.

The use of the renewable energy also ensures that emissions from their use are environmental and, they will not strain the environment further. Purposeful use of naturally available energy has also allowed corporations to change their perspective in production towards more sustainable future, as opposed to higher revenues in the short run.

Production among world major corporations not only considers cost of production but also costs of cleaning the environment following their production activities. These innovations have been made possible through Pigovian taxes and such like taxes Fischer F., 1995.

These Taxes and suctions have forced corporations to consider the impact of their production activities in the environment. The corporations with this in mind look for ways to reduce the amount of Toxic wastes they release in the environment. Considerations of reducing the toxic wastes have led to the idea of creating by-products that…… [read more]

Improving the City of St Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Improving City of Saint John's_

VI .Conclusion

Allocation of land for building nature or wildlife reserves in cities that are still developing gives children in such neighborhoods an opportunity to become more conscious about their environment. They in the process appreciate the need for environmental conservation. Nature and wildlife reserves have both social and economic benefits to the residents of… [read more]

Dam Break Excutive Summary Analytical Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  11 pages (3,109 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


During actual application, he calculated the height of the break by assuming that the break gegins from the top of the dam to the natural ground elevationbeing at the centreline of the break point unlike MacDonald and Langridge -- Monopolis (Froehlich, 1995)

Von Thun and Gillette (Von Thun, 1990)

He used a total of 57 dams from both the MacDonald… [read more]

Sony Sustainability Sony Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sony has not simply issued CSR reports in praise of its activities, but has also received awards and accolades from outside sources, regarding its sustainability practices. "ChemSem and Clean Production Action, identified the seven companies" that had shown the most impressive gains in sustainability, including Sony which was lauded for "removing substances of concern from their products, but also taking on the complicated task of establishing full chemical inventories for all their product lines. The company's products are now 99.9% BFR-free and will have no PVC components" (Apple and Sony lead green electronics charge, 2012, Sustainable Brands).

Sony has also been praised for encouraging the recycling of its electronics. Given that electronics have a shorter shelf life than in previous decades, thanks to the swift pace of changes in technology, more people are throwing out their computers and cellphones, but townships often make it difficult to recycle. "Sony took a giant leap forward...in making recycling easier with its GreenFill in-store recycling service. It's as easy as can be: just bring any portable electronic device (brand is unimportant) to one of 81 participating Sony stores and the company will recycle it for free" (Schwartz 2012).

Sony's ultimate goal, however, is far more ambitious than merely recycling or lessening its impact. It calls its ultimate goal a 'Road to Zero' -- that is, it desires to have a zero carbon footprint. Throughout its history, Sony has been on the leading edge of technology, and it wishes to continue this in its approach to sustainability efforts. "Sony's definition of zero environmental footprint is not only limited to the neutralization of carbon emissions, but also extends to waste and use of finite materials such as oil-derived virgin plastics. Targets are based on four environmental perspectives -- climate change, resource conservation, control of chemical substances and biodiversity -- across all product lifecycle stages, from research and development to recycling" (Sony launches "Road to Zero" environmental plan and sets 2015 mid-term target, 2010, Sony). As well as the ambitious long-term goal of zero Sony has also set mid-range goals for itself to reduce its carbon footprint in all of these areas. By setting measurable goals, Sony demonstrates its commitment to a more sustainable future in concrete terms that are not merely airy words.


About CSR report. (2012). Sony. Retrieved:


Apple and Sony lead green electronics charge. (2012). Sustainable Brands. Retrieved:


Footprint basics. (2012). Footprint Network. Retrieved:


Phillips, Lisa. (2012). What is sustainability? About.com. Retrieved:


Schwartz, Ariel. (2012). Sony stores make electronics recycling easy. Fast Company. Retrieved:


Sony launches "Road to Zero" environmental plan and sets 2015 mid-term targets. (2010). Sony.

Retrieved: http://www.sony.com/SCA/press/100407.shtml… [read more]

Joseph Tainter, Sustainability Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As Tainter notes, "a society or other institution can be destroyed by the cost of sustaining itself" (Tainter 99).

Tainter's most persuasive point is his insistence that sustainability itself must proceed from a sense of history: after all, many societies have collapsed before now, and we have at least the advantage of their examples to understand how societies can fail to meet problems. Indeed, the commitment to sustainability over resiliency may be one reason for such prior societal collapses, although Tainter is keen also to emphasize that complexity as the basic technique of problem-solving may, in many cases, have added to the collapse. This is where a sense of historical awareness becomes all-important: the same strategy that can sustain a society can also play a role in bringing it down, so therefore the question of "success" (as Tainter calls it) in sustainability must consist in constantly employing different strategies. Although Tainter uses an athletic metaphor, we might also consider this in terms of evolution -- there is no point at which this natural process ever stops or ends, and however much human beings might consider themselves to be the jewel in the crown of natural selection, human existence has not ended the process of natural selection altogether. In some sense, then, sustainability consists in being able to adapt to new changes, and being aware of the role that complexity has played in previous scenarios of societal collapse. When the only tool that you have is a hammer, everything starts to look like a nail. Tainter's point is that the primary human tool is complexity, but that we should at least have a sense of historical awareness of the double-edged nature of this…… [read more]

Sustainable Development Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Most discussion assumes it is not ok to run down environmental assets because there is uncertainty, irreversibility, life-support, and loss aversion. People feel a natural right to existing natural assets. Sustainable development has a poverty issue that makes an ethical argument. The argument is that future generations have the right to expect the capacity to generate the same level of welfare that current generations have. The ethical consistency demands the right to maintain and improve the well-being of each generation.

Meeting human needs, especially of the poor, recognizing limitations of technology and social organizations, and requiring the integration of economic and ecological considerations in decision making are reasons sustainable development is being promoted as a primary solution to protecting the environment. (Sustainable Development) While developed nations focus on integrating environmental and economic considerations into decisions based on positive effects for future generations, undeveloped countries focus on meeting basic needs of present generations, giving priority to the achieving of economic development. Some view sustainability as unclear and doubtful. They claim it leads to definitions based on self-interest, either economic or environmental. Some argue the emphasis on balance between economic and environmental overlooks the importance of social and cultural aspects. Still, others argue it imposes values of western capitalism and reject it on ideological grounds. The importance of protecting the environment is viewed as essential to counterbalance a pattern of decision making that often gets overridden for economic benefits without the regard to environmental and social costs.

Sustainable development has become a powerful concept in debates and decisions about its implications of developmental decisions and has led to more attention about an appropriate balance between economic and environmental concerns. Conditions for sustainable development should be determined for each country first. Basic human needs should be met first and then concentration on the development of economic concerns. At the same time, education becomes a huge factor to teach people about economic and environmental concerns in order to preserve natural resources and allow nature to build its ability to purify the ecosystem. Decision making needs to have a balance between economic benefits, environmental protection, social costs, and cultural aspects.


Living Beyond Our Means. (n.d.). Retrieved from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: http://news.bbc.us/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/30_03_05_boardstatement.pdf

Shah, A. (2009, Nov 18). Sustainable Development Introduction. Retrieved from Global Issues: http://www.globalissues.org/article/408/sustainable-development-introduction

Sustainable Development. (n.d.). Retrieved from Water Enclyclopedia: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/St.-Ts/Sustainable-Development.html

Turner, R.K. (n.d.). Sustainable Development: Ethics and Economics. Retrieved from CSERGE: http://www.cserge.ac.uk/sites/default/files/pa_1992_09.pdf… [read more]

Pollution Control With Growing Population Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Emissions that are over the level could fall into the legislated area of receiving a fine for stronger encouragement. Funds from the fines will also help to finance this program.

Encouraging alternative transportation, such as walking, using bicycles, and carpooling would cost approximately $0.4 million. Billboards placed at key points around the city, such as government buildings, vacant lots on busy roads, highways, and public parking lots, with messages pertaining to use of alternative methods of transportation, would create more public awareness to change habits, cut personal costs, and build individual health at the same time. Public awareness is an important issue to encourage citizens change habits, not only for personal issues, but for the reduction of pollution as well. Encouraging alternative transportation measures will reduce the amount of emissions and air pollution in the long run.

Establishing green spaces and urban forestry will cost approximately $0.2 million. Setting building zones that put people outside the forestry is an effort to protect the urban forest areas. Encouraging a city composting will can help recycling, replenish, and fertilize the forest areas. Building public awareness and encouraging recycling helps to preserve the lands and reduces pollution at the same time. Designating composting areas and encouraging citizens to deliver certain table scraps, such as vegetable peelings, cardboard, paper, and other composting ingredients, can bring about more natural ways to preserve the forest areas.

The total cost of this plan is approximately $1.5 million. The City Council provides a budget of one million for tackling the environment issues. The funds that come from fines of the emission violations can help cover the extra cost. Once the billboards are put in place, they would only have to be replaced as they weather, which puts the majority of costs in placing them in the beginning. Encouraging the composting would cut the fertilizer costs of the maintenance of the forest areas.

Making decisions about environmental issues will bring necessary maintenance of a fine balance between the effectiveness of measures and public reaction towards them. The public reaction to the decisions will affect the effectiveness of the decisions. There has to be a balance between the pollution control measures and what the public will accept. By concentrating on strengthening present law, building public awareness, encouraging measures to reduce pollution, such as alternative transportation, the result will be less air pollution is the long run. By encouraging recycling efforts and city composting, it can replenish and preserve the natural forest areas. These pollution control measures can set better habits of reducing pollution in the long run.


The Economics of Pollution Controls at the Local and Global Levels. (2006, Jan 4). Retrieved from University of Michigan: http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/polution_control/polution_control.html

Free vehicle emissions testing. (n.d.). Retrieved from Queensland Government: http://www.tmr.gld.gov.au/Community-and-environment/Environmental-management/How-you-can-make-a-difference/Free-vehicle-emissions-testing.aspx… [read more]

BP Oil Spill Strategy Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,368 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


It is estimated that more than 8,000 birds and other forms of marine life including sea turtles and other marine mammals were found either injured or dead during the first six months after the oil spill occurred. In addition to the effects of the toxic hydrocarbons in the crude oil, the chemicals and dispersants used by BP to restrict the… [read more]

Oceans &amp Waters Surface Runoff Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,744 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


It should also be recognized that this type of intervention can have numerous other impacts on sea and water life. Bulkheads can shut of nature's supply of sand and sentiment to the area. Installing them can destroy beach and water plant growths, removing shade and shelter for shallow water fish, insects, etc. Noted a Pugent Sound guide on this issue:

Bulkheads and other armoring devices can degrade the nearshore habitats that provide food for many benthic feeding fish, including salmon. In addition, spawning areas for surf smelt, sand lance, and herring may be lost due to removal of fine sediments from the intertidal zone (Puget Sound).


Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .

California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf>.

LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/>.

Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .

The Guides Network. Water pollution guide. 2012. < http://www.water-pollution.org.uk/oilpollution.html>.

US EPA. Aquatic Biodiversity. Environmental Protection Agency. Updated 2010. .… [read more]

Eia Report the Project Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,386 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The water and air quality are issues with the report because of the recent reports of the Map Ta Phut crisis. The area has been undergoing a lot of scrutiny over the past three years, and vague language is not going to provide leaders the secure feeling that they will need when evaluating the project. The report does discuss how… [read more]

Proposed Rulemaking by the Environmental Protection Agency Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Rule making by the EPA

Docket ID EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-1000-0001

Thank you for giving me the opportunity to give my opinion on EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-1000-0001 and issues pertaining to nonconformance penalty for nitrogen oxides standards.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the flagship authority for regulating emission levels in the environment and ensuring that the air, water and land are free of pollutants. To make its role more effective, the Clean Air Act of 1970 and its subsequent amendments give EPA the statutory authority to come up with regulations that will reduce the emissions of heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

The EPA has to monitor the emission levels of these vehicles and when they go beyond the established federal limits, the EPA has the right to intervene. As long as the vehicles are below the upper limit, they have to pay a certain amount of money as penalty called the nonconformance penalty (NCP). However, if the emission levels go beyond the upper limit, then no certificate is issued and the company becomes reliable for the vehicles.

The idea behind NCP is to give the lagging manufacturers some time to work on the engines so that their emission levels fall within the federal limit. This is one way to ensure that the manufacturers do not get kicked out of the marketplace without a chance to make the necessary changes. NCP was first established in 1985 and it has been modified subsequently to make it more comprehensive.

There are three basic criteria for establishing eligibility for the NCPs. According to the first criterion, the standard should be difficult to meet by being more stringent by itself or by its interaction with another existing standard. The second criterion states that extensive work should be done to meet the new standards and the third states that there should at least one manufacturer who is unable to meet these standards due to technological reasons.

The current standards for NOX was formulated on January 18th, 2001 and was first applied to models in the year 2007. The phase-in provisions and the emission credits given to manufacturers to meet these standards end after 2009 and this is why they are also known as 2010 NOX standards. According to these standards, the emission level of Nitrogen oxides (NOX) should be less than 0.20 g / hp-hr and the upper limit is 0.50g / hp-hr. These limtis are applicable only to heavy-duty engines and medium heavy-duty engines.

The proposed penalty charges are $1,561 for COC50, $1,919 for COC90, $5,203 per gram per horse-power for MC50, 1.23 for the F. factor and 0.50 g/hp-hr as the UL for the heavy-duty engines. The values for…… [read more]

Reducing Pollution in Any Neighborhood or Workplace Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (739 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Reducing pollution in any neighborhood or workplace is always a good idea both in terms of public health and the integrity of the environment. This paper suggests ways in which pollution can be reduced in your community.

Many thoughtful acts that involve respect for the environment begin at home. Pollution is a very broad concept but starting with one's household and yard, there are things a person can do to reduce pollution. Washing a car in the driveway is not always a smart idea, because the detergents and other cleaning materials will flow from the car into the gutter and eventual down a drain and into an ocean, a bay, a river or a lake, depending on where one lives. Adding chemicals to fresh water or salt water supplies is a bad idea, so it is better environmentally smart to take care when washing the automobile. Using herbicides on the lawn is also creating another kind of pollution. When it rains, the herbicides run off and down the drain as well. Organizing a neighborhood "watch" in a campaign to reduce the amount of virulent materials heading down the drain is a very smart way to help your community. Also, using a stencil to write warning messages on flat curbs at the point of storm drains is a good way to remind neighbors not to dump toxic materials down the drain.

One good way to get the neighborhood working together in a community is to organize a trash pickup day, perhaps on Earth Day (April 22nd in 2012). There are always plastic bags, aluminum cans, fast-food packaging and other ugly items cast along roadways in all corners of America. Neighbors could get together and perhaps join with a local ecology club from a nearby college or high school and plan a clean-up day. Putting flyers and brochures in Laundromats, grocery stores, convenience stores and elsewhere in high-traffic places is an important way to organize people so a group of perhaps 20 or 30 people can lend a hand in the effort. All it takes is a pick-up truck driving along a busy highway with helpers fanning out to pick up trash, and that can develop into perhaps a regular movement…… [read more]

Toxicology Report: Abandoned Industrial Site Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Acrylamide. Pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, the Maximum Contaminant Level Goals for acrylamide has been established as zero because the "EPA believes this level of protection would not cause any of the potential health problems" (Consumer factsheet on acrylamide, 2012, p. 2). At present, though, there are no methods of detecting acrylamide in drinking water that… [read more]

Environmental Justice Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,206 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


" (U.S. Library of Congress, Country Studies -- Russia, nd) It is reported that of major concern is the shortage in drinking water in Russia since 75% of the surface water in Russia is polluted with 50% of all water in Russia reported as "not potable according to quality standards" in addition to 30% of available groundwater being highly polluted. (U.S. Library of Congress, Country Studies -- Russia, nd, paraphrased) In addition, it is reported that approximately 7.4 million hectares of agricultural land are contaminated due to industrial toxic agents, pesticides, and agricultural chemicals. (U.S. Library of Congress, Country Studies -- Russia, nd, paraphrased) The indigenous minorities of Arctic Russia are the Dolgan, Nganasan, Nenets, Saami, Khanty, Chukchi, Evenk, Even, Enets, Eskimo, and Yakagir. There are other groups as well living close to the arctic region. The Russian north is reported to contain natural resources in large amounts and to include such as "timber, oil, gas, coal, and minerals." (Points North Baptist Mission, nd) These resources have been exploited for many centuries and comprise 1/5 of the gross national product for Russia. The resource exploitation is reported to have taken place in the traditional homelands of northern Russia, home to the indigenous people and to have taken place with severe consequences. The land is reported to be damaged by industrialization. Additionally reported is "reorganization of collectives and state farms along with depletion of fish stocks, closure of forest plots and reduced investments have led to increased unemployment among indigenous people, reversing a previous upward trend in employment." (Points North Baptist Mission, nd) It is reported that there are widespread respiratory diseases among these indigenous people of arctic Russia as well as chronic ear infections, a heightened incidence of tuberculosis as well as high incidence of gastrointestinal disorders. Of serious concern is the problem of environmental contaminants.

Project Outline

The organization of the proposed research will include Chapter 1, which will be comprised by an introduction to the study, Chapter 2 that will contain the research on international environment justice and the environmental rights of indigenous people. Chapter 3 will be comprised by an explanation and exploration of environmental justice theory and information in international environmental justice institutions, the background information on environmental justice on the international level along with the background and legislation of international environmental justice. Chapter 4 will be comprised by examination of the Russian environmental justice mechanisms while Chapter 5 will be comprised by a case study of the Russian peoples of the arctic north. Chapter 6 will be comprised by an analysis of the evidence obtained in the study while Chapter 7 will contain the study conclusions.


Environmental Problems (nd) U.S. Embassy -- Country Studies -- Russian. Retrieved from: http://countrystudies.us/russia/25.htm

Gross, Z. (1995) Native and Environmental Movements: Linking the Native Moment for Sovereignty and the Environmental Movement. Z Magazine 8(11):52-50 (November 1995). Retrieved from: http://www.cnie.org/NAE/docs/grossman.html

Hoogensen, G. And Bazely, D. (2011) Environmental Change & Human Security in the Arctic. University of the West of England,… [read more]

Open Systems ISA, Inc Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Feedback from these interactions shapes the functionality of the organization as it grows and responds to changing needs and circumstances.

Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance & Change (1992) -- The end result of the experiences of the past, this approach is seen as introducing a broad-based assessment of the best of the above. It introduces new or more refined constructs and anticipates the differences between an operational climate (which may be time or location specific) and culture in similar ways to how transactional and transformative considerations come into play. Invested with a strong theoretical foundation, this approach is deemed measurable and is nearly fully encircled with feedback loops that are now thought to be measurable because of their inclusion in the theories that support the complexity.


As previously noted, ISA is well appreciated because it deems itself responsive to both the patient and the circumstances (including costs) for prescribing and implementing a cure to what ails the many communities/clients that have waste disposal issues. It has learned how to maximize and resell what it reclaims and has survived into a market where the repurposing of recycled materials is now as cost-effective as finding the raw resources themselves. The company has experienced some quarterly profit fluxuations, but overall is has continued to grow in response to the needs and expectations of its mission, or perhaps more importantly, the varying levels and spectrums of its many missions that are thought to be highly responsive to the needs of its many clients. It is this variability in the company that has allowed it to be successful in the emerging environmental market and thus enable reviewers to diagnose its organizational functionality. However, because the conditions for environmental understanding and complexity are somewhat decentralized and tied to the needs of particular locations, it is best diagnosed using not the final, most interactive of models (Burke-Litwin), but instead the DIGB model. In diagnosing individual and group behavior that is specific to its various clients' conditions, it is possible to get a greater understanding of the dynamics of what is brought to each condition and enables them to adapt as needed to local requirements and expectations. The feedback they receive in being able to provide everything from basic transportation to appropriate uses of "each pound" of their reclamations allows for the kind of responsiveness that is tied to the actions and reactions of particular players. While it might generally be said that any environmental entity of this sort must be conceived of as being effectively without boundaries -- because of the diversity of expectations of their clients -- in reality, they appear to be operating within measurable expectations that exist at the time of their activity. In so doing, however, they appear to allow for growth and change that comes as communities or political forces…… [read more]

Environmental Issues and Risk Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  31 pages (7,894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Environmental Issues and Risk Management

Can the construction of hazardous material/waste Contamination storage facilities survive tornadoes at their current protection levels?

Definition of Construction Waste

Construction Waste Generation

Composition of Construction Waste


Development of the Research Project

Brief Description of the Research Methodology


Sustainable Development and Construction Waste Management


Sustainable Construction

Construction Waste Management

Waste Management Hierarchy… [read more]

Agricultural Assessment Economics of Production Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,932 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Environmental Protection Agency Report, 1997)

The EPA held a stakeholder meeting on hazardous waste derived fertilizer and stated was that there is a need for better consistency in regulations on fertilizers and that there is a need for new standards for containments in hazardous waste derived fertilizers.

IT has been suggested that the EPA should ensue upon the development of standards for fertilizers based on risk-assessment. The EPA reports that there is simply not enough information available on wastes used in producing fertilizers. As well the studies on fertilizer conducted by the DPA are limited in terms of their:

(1) Lack of sufficient data on organic contaminants;

(2) lack of data on certain heavy metals such as vanadium;

(3) Only risks from individual fertilizer products are being assessed;

(5) Risks are being assessed only for individual pathways, and do not consider additivity effects (e.g., fertilizer exposure risks combined with risks from occupational and indoor exposures. (EPA, 1988)

Summary and Conclusion

This study stated the objective of the conduction of an assessment of the impact of human waste fertilizer upon the environmental and in terms of agricultural production. Literature reviewed in this area demonstrates that there are safety requirements and procedures required in the processing aspect of human waste for fertilizer and included are such requirements are proper storage and proper maintenance of human waste for one year's duration prior to the excreta being used on crops. The human excreta fertilizer is such that the limitations and dangers of the use of human waste fertilizer are reported as being "eclipsed by the social and economic gains of poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food. (Eichenseher, 2008) The EPA however, reports that findings are inconclusive and that further study must be conducted in this area of inquiry.


Eichenseher, Tasha (2008) Human Waste Used by 200 Million Farmers, Study Says. 21 Aug 2008. National Geographic News. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/08/080821-human-waste.html

Environmental Fact Sheet (1998) Waste-Derived Fertilizers. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from:

Franceys, Pickford & Reed (1992) Franceys, R., Pickford, J. And Reed, R., A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation, WHO, Geneva, 1992. Pickford, John., Low-cost Sanitation: A survey of practical experience, IT Publications, London, 1995. WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AT LONDON…… [read more]

Green Roofs and Living Wall Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,216 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Green Roofs Living Walls

Green Roofs and Living Walls

Societal Attitudes

Taking a look at the definition of Environmentalism to open this discussion will support the title by explaining a but of what "Green Roofs and Living Walls "is not. The term is described as "persons or groups that have come together to advocate the sustainability of natural resources along with the essential stewardship environments by encouraging changes of public policies and individualistic behaviors" (Webecoist, 2008).

Furthermore, it is "recognizing that our humanity is not an enemy of ecosystems" but a partner. Environmentalism is a movement that has its roots in health, human rights, and ecology (Webecoist, 2008). This is an adequate opening to support the pattern of interest in Green living presented by the WebEcoist (2008). The source WebEcoist came about while seeking an understanding of the subject of environmentalism which is necessary in order to appreciate a practical look at modern day roofing and wall construction. Illuminating how natural roofing can improve the health of individuals, while providing an ecosystem whereby anyone can contribute to the longevity through their habitat.

With issues such as global warming and pollution looming in the headlines, it is wise to consider how to change societal attitudes toward environmentalism. Not by demanding everyone through out their modern day possessions or behaviors, but by introducing new ways to include Green friendly alternatives. When exploring causes of global warming or pollution, authors present a viable argument in re-evaluating building materials used in the many high rise buildings in the big cities such as New York and Chicago, in Chicago Green Roofs (Artic.edu, 2011). Incorporating a partnership between natural living and big city dwelling is to introduce "Green Roofs and Living Wall" concepts as a 'way of life' as mentioned in Enviroscapes Northwest (2009).

History and Culture

Now that an introduction has been given of what Environmentalism is, it's simpler to translate why and the history behind the movement. Amazingly, the movement started in the early 19th century by American authors such as Henry David Thoreau and even President's such as Teddy Roosevelt (Webecoist, 2008). Henry David Thoreau was one of many transcendentalists that showed and wrote about an appreciation of nature in his book "Maine Woods" (Webecoist, 2011). Teddy Roosevelt first approved the setting apart of lands such as Yosemite and establishment of national parks in 1916 (Webecoist, 2008). Ancient civilizations have incorporated Green living as early as the times of Babylon as mentioned by Chicago Green Roofs where the 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon' incorporated natural roofing and gardens (2011).

What are "Green Roofs"

In describing 'Green Roofs' specifically, advocate building roofs of sod and natural materials that grow green plants, even gardens to conserve heat with insulation during winter. In the same manner saving energy and costs associated with cooling homes, through natural means in warmer seasons and climates according to Chicago Green Roofs (2011). In fact this article also provides evidence from actual building projects by architects such as Ricardo Bofill and Gunnar… [read more]

Environmental Laws vs. Economic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


..caution against implementing policy that may do more harm than good." (Freedom 21 Coalition, 2007) Additionally stated in the response to the UN initiative is "Sustainable development as outlined in the United Nations compromises people's most basic human rights in furtherance of a narrow political agenda. In doing so, it is highly probable that such governance will cause deterioration in the condition of both mankind and the environment." (Freedom 21 Coalition, 2007) Environmental legislation has been introduced to recognize environmental problems and to respond to local problems associated with pollution resulting in regulations that cast a heavy burden on organizations and which are costly including clean air acts, clean water acts and legislation that established regulatory agencies charged with controlling pollution and management of waste. (Beder, 2006) Problems associated with regulation and competition in the privatization of electrical providers is noted in the work of Carlsson and Lundstrom (2001) which questions the actual existence of economic freedom under such heavy regulations and the heavy hand of legislative controls especially as it pertains to a competitive market as is perceived to exist in a democracy.

Summary and Conclusion

Various views uphold various principles relating to environmentalism and economic freedom and there tends to be advocates for either too much or too little governance. It is certain that the debate will continue for some time to come and just as certain is population growth and the forces of nature which are beyond the control of humankind.


Beder, Sharon (2006) The Changing Face of Conservation, Commodification, Privatization and the Free Market. In Lavingne, DM (ed), Gaining Ground: In Pursuit of Ecological Sustainability, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Guelph, Canada & University of Limerick, Ireland, 2006, 83-97.

Block, Walter (1998) Environmentalism and the Economic Freedom: The Case for Private Property Rights. Journal of Business Ethics 17: 1887-1889. 1998. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/etexts/environfreedom.pdf

Carlsson, F. And Lundstrom, S. (2001) Political and Economic Freedom and the Environment: The Case of CO2 Emissions. Working Papers in Economics no 29. Second version August 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.efdinitiative.org/research/publications/publications-repository/political-and-economic-freedom-and-the-environment-the-case-of-co2-emissions/files/New%20Swopec%2029.pdf

Lee, HH, Chung, RK, Koo, CM (nd) On the Relationship Between Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability. Retrieved from: http://www.unescap.org/esd/environment/mced/documents/materials/EG_ES.pdf

Response to the United Nations: The Freedom 21 Agenda for Prosperity (2007) Freedom 21 Coalition. September 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.epi-us.com/Freedom21.pdf… [read more]

Edf Social Change the Environmental Defense Fund Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


EDF Social Change

The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) as a Driver of Social and Political Change

The environmental movement is historically imposed upon the challenge of reconciling the need for greater conservation, sustainability and protection of resources with the thrust for greater industrial development, profitability and consumption. Thus, there is a distinct value in the formation of agencies or organizations with the objective of improving environmental regulations through compromise between these competing interests. This is the premise underlying the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), which was established in 1967 as a way of bringing constructive moderation to the environmental movement.

Effectiveness in Social and Political Change:

More so than many of the environmentally conscious groups that were formed during the burst of conservationist activities in the 1960s, the EDF would be distinguished by the practicality of its objectives. According to the EDF, its primary mission revolves on the achievement of market driven changes that can bring about environmental improvements. As a result, its effectiveness in achieving political change is uniquely effective. Because it proposes inherent compromise in furthering the challenges inherent to sustainability, its orientation is considered far more amicable to businesses and government groups considering meaningful partnerships with moderate and respectable groups. Thus, as the EDF reports of its approach to change, "our solutions take a multidisciplinary approach. We work in concert with other organizations -- as well as with business, government and communities -- and avoid duplicating work already being done effectively by others" (EDF, p. 1)

Its willingness to work closely with members of industry to find solutions that work for all parties has made EDF a successful instigator of progressive change not just by inclining legislative change but also by finding ways to involve corporate players that might otherwise stand as political and ideological enemies. As its own history details, the EDF would be central in advancing approaches to environmental change that are today considered standard. Among them would be partnership with legal teams, economists and corporations in the achievement of their various objectives relating to the use of pesticides, industrial emission standards, regulatory oversight of polluters and efforts aimed at reducing the rapid pace of global climate change. Accordingly, the EDF reports that from the early outset, the agency "began hiring economists, which led to our international prominence in designing market-based solutions. In the 1990s, we pioneered corporate partnerships and some of the first interactive uses of online communications." (EDF, p. 3)

In these regards, the EDF has remained at the forefront of changes not just in environmental law but in how the pursuit of these changes is implemented. The result has been a particular effectiveness not just in establishing political partnerships but also in channeling these partnerships toward meaningful social change. The article by B.F. (1979) would underscore this innovative position in the field by endorsing the view that changes in market tactics should be central to bringing about changes in environmental practice. On this point, B.F. argues that "a reduced rate of energy consumption… [read more]

Nlms Landscape Ecology: Neutral Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



In addition to this description, the purpose of NLMs is stated to be to provide hypothesis, as mentioned above, of models of landscape in order to have a baseline for comparison. Both studies referenced above, and in the footnotes below, are stating the same thing about NLMs, which leads one to believe that truly these processes are useful, especially when tested against real world observations.

The latter study also states that "neutral models are used to:

(1) determine the extent to which structural properties of landscapes deviate from a theoretical spatial distribution;

(2) predict how ecological processes associated with movement are affected by known spatial structure."

This latter definition finally strengthens the definitions and the descriptions presented above, and cements NLMs as processes that can be utilized in real world situations in order to measure important patterns.

Applied Landscape Ecology. (2008). Neutral Landscape Models. NRES 475/675 retrieved from .

Applied Landscape Ecology. (2008). Neutral Landscape Models. NRES 475/675 retrieved from .

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .… [read more]

Landscape Ecology Conventionally Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (581 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The second paper that the author used in the report showed how storms can affect sea grass landscape structure and seed dispersion in a subtropical deep water background. They inspected the spatial changing aspects of an offshore landscape comprised of the sea grass Halophila decipiens following the route of a hurricane and found generation of the original landscape patches when chaos was immense and strong. It was fascinating to learn that in addition, large-scale conflicts can arise in the local relocation of sediment and the seed bank so molding the spatial signature of the developing sea grass land in a midshelf area (Elizabeth K. Hinchey, 2007). This sense of physical disturbance differs from that previously reported for factors influencing spatial arrangements of sea grass in shallow water settings. The article did a remarkable job when it stated how they found a possibly ecologically significant differences amid broken and the infinite landscapes with these results strongly dependent on conducts of prey and harmful organisms and how these behaviors change with landscape construction.

In conclusion, it is clear that the article succeed in highlighting their general impression of the condition of the purpose of landscape approaches to marine and coastal methods in depicting that it is a fast - developing field that holds immense promise. Even though the papers in this exceptional issue of this article described landscape ecology functions in a various of the sea and coastal habitats, several notable habitats incorporating, oyster reefs, salt marshes and the deep sea are not reflected here but have been studied using landscape tactics by others.

Works Cited

Elizabeth K. Hinchey, M.C. (2007, July). Preface: Marine and coastal applications…… [read more]

2010 BP Oil Spill Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Tourism and commercial fishing are two of the most affected sectors in Florida's economy. Numerous visitors are likely to have changed their travel plans as a result of observing the effect that the oil spill has on Florida's coasts. Florida's image is based on beautiful beaches, unspoiled marches, and many species of species and wildlife. However, with crude oil invading a series of places in Florida, it is more and more difficult for the tourism industry to attract visitors as it did before the disaster. People living in Florida are also likely to suffer economic loss because the price of real estate located in the proximity of water experiences a constant drop. Many companies in Florida are experiencing financial loss because employees are no longer willing to come to the state. Many were previously accustomed to relocating in Florida despite the fact that wages were low, as they were mainly interested in the scenery that they had access to while living in the area (Harper, p. 2).

From the very first days of the catastrophe the authorities had trouble repairing the leaking well because they were not aware of the amount of oil getting out of the site. BP officials reported that they sealed the well on July 13, 2010, but highlighted that this cap was not permanent and that it was very possible for oil to continue to leak out of the well. It was not until September 19, 2010, that the well was officially sealed ("The Black Gulf: As").

Present day efforts are related to keeping oil on the surface of the water, so as for collecting vessels to be able to control it and in order for deep-sea ecosystems to survive. The authorities are also struggling to take oil away from vulnerable areas to areas that less sensitive. The response from volunteers and from the U.S. military gradually grew as conditions became critical. BP is actively involved in restoring the environment in affected areas and has become a part of the Marine Well Containment Company, which, alongside of ExxonMobil, Shell, ConocoPhilips, and Chevron are working on a system meant to intervene effectively if a underwater blowout takes place. There are presently many techniques that the authorities use in order to remove oil from the Gulf of Mexico. Chemical dispersants have been effectively used on the surface and under water, but they are believed to have several serious side-effects, meaning that those in charge of controlling the disaster are simply prolonging it.

Overall, the BP oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon well can be considered one of the severest man-made disasters that nature has ever experienced. Considering that they frequently occur in the area, a hurricane or a tropical storm would be devastating for people and ecology near the Gulf of Mexico. Some of the most terrible effects of the catastrophe have not surfaced yet and scientists can only estimate the actual damage of the oil spill, especially given that it provokes harm to local economies and ecosystems… [read more]

History of Landscape Patterns Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


, 1999).

One of the major weaknesses of the applied historical ecological approach also relates to its primary strength, which both relate to the quality of the data that is available for incorporation into the analytical model. The adage, "garbage in, garbage out" is certainly applicable here, and Swetnam and his colleagues emphasize the need to carefully interpolate historical data to ensure that potentially misleading or erroneous data is not allowed to skew the interpretation of the findings that emerge from such analyses. In addition, Swetnam et al. cite what they describe as the "no analogue" problem wherein there are no corresponding historic analogs for modern conditions of historic applications of landscapes and vice versa. Notwithstanding these limitations, though, Swetnam et al. conclude that, "Although direct or simple extrapolation of historical patterns or trends into the future is usually erroneous, history can be useful for guiding the development and testing of predictive models" (p. 1200).

This assertion is supported by the findings of a study by Rebertus, Kitzberger, Veblen and Roovers (1997) who investigated historical blowdown patterns of southern Beech stand development over several centuries to determine how periodic large-scale wind disturbance affected landscape pattern in this relatively simple system. According to Rebertus et al., some sections of the study area in the Sierra de las Pinturas section of the Andes in Argentine Tierra del Fuego were affected far more severely than others, but damage patterns during the 20th century discerned from aerial photographs indicate that "few landscape positions escaped being hit by repeated storms" (1997, p. 692).


Balee, W. (1999). Advances in historical ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Rebertus, A.J., Kitzberger, T., Veglen, T.T. & Roovers, L.M. (1997). Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology, 78(3), 678-692.

In Mendeley. Retrieved from http://www.mendeley.com/research/blowdown-history-and-landscape-patterns-in-the-andes-of-tierra-del-fuego-argentina-1/.

Swetnam, T.W., Allen, C.D. & Betancourt, J.L. (1999). Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage…… [read more]

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