"Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays

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Recycling: How it Improves Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Successful recycling programs depend on several factors. There must be a general awareness of the problems caused by solid-waste disposal. There also must be an efficient, low-cost method for separating and collecting the recyclable materials. It also must be economically feasible for industries to use and market recycled materials.

Twenty years ago, only one curbside recycling program existed in the United States, which collected numerous materials at the curb. By 1998, 9,000 curbside programs and 12,000 recyclable drop-off centers had been developed. As of 1999, 480 materials recovery facilities had been established to process the collected materials. Recycling and composting activities prevented about 64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and incinerators in 1999. Today, this country recycles 28% of its waste, a rate that has almost doubled during the past 15 years. (USEPA, 1999).

Recycling is an important component of today's society. Many items can now be recycled, and in doing so, the community can help the environment, and save our natural resources. From helping to avoid greenhouse gasses to helping other by donating used computer parts, the recycling industry has created a world that is healthier and more cost effective. While there are many recycling programs in the United States, we, as a nation, need to continue to create more recycling centers, and educate the public about the benefits of recycling. As Joan Ward Harris said, "In the long run it is the cumulative effect that matters. One can do much. And one and one can move mountains. "(UST, 2001)

Works Cited

Barbalace, R.C. The History of Municipal Waste. (2001). http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/environmental/wastehistory.html

Compton. "Recycling," Compton's Complete Reference Collection. New York: The Learning Company. 2000.

Los Angeles Smart Business Recycling Program. "Waste reduction Tips," Manufacturing Industry Recycling Newsletter, Vol. 5 (Spring 2001). 3-5. http://ladpw.org/epd/brtap/recyclingsite/pdf/Manufactrg.pdf

Northeast Recycling Council. "Recycling and the Environment: Facts about recycling in Connecticut," NERC Bulletin, August 1999.

Obviously Enterprises. "Commonly Recycled Materials," Consumer Recycling Guide. New York: Obviously Enterprises. 2002. http://www.obviously.com/recycle/guides/common.html

United States Environmental protection Agency (USEPA). "Recycling." 1999. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/factbook/internet/recf/recyc2.htm#wrr

United States Environmental protection Agency (USEPA). Characterization of MSW in the United States. (2000). http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/factbook/internet/recf/recyc2.htm#wrr

University of St. Thomas Recycling.…… [read more]

Economics of Forestry Timber Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,871 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Current environmental policy holds that maintaining or liquidating one's capital is widely considered a matter of individual choice. However, it should now be clear that when ecosystems are at risk, such freedom is not absolute but is constrained by real material and limits, by real connections with and obligations to others, and by the need to preserve future possibilities in… [read more]

Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Conditions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,048 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This was seen in the previous century with the impact on the fur trade. With a new intensity to physically carve the environment for improved trade access, the culture of these societies has in turn been affected as the replacement of indigenous goods with exogenous goods considered provisions of "high status" has enabled cultures to redirect their regional customs and hunting practices to allow the incorporation of Western influences.

The geomorphology of the Arctic environment includes mountainous regions, exposed bedrock, frozen sea ice, sedimentary plain, and little to no soil development. The persistence of cold temperatures and permafrost add to the scarcity of usable plant food sources. The primary food is thus animal-based, terrestrial and marine. The early migrations of peoples in Alaska and Arctic Canada and Greenland developed into the Norton tradition, branching into the Thule tradition from which the Inuit people were derived. The Inuits have adapted over time to their harsh environment, with some diversity among the groups, but sharply contrasting other Indian tribes below the tree line. Through necessity they have relied on animal resources rather than plant sources important to foraging populations. Thus, their forms of housing and technological adaptations to hunting for both terrestrial as well as marine sources evolved as a direct result of the environmental conditions in which they exist, impacting their cultural development.

It has long been known that physical and technical adaptations arise from environmental criteria, even as genetically observed by Charles Darwin. It is these adaptations and considerations of environmental factors that likewise influence cultural development. The ability to sustain in a given environment evolves out of adaptation to the regional variables. Hunting and gathering societies thus develop individual methods of attaining food given their environmental conditions. For the tribal societies of the Arctic north where cold weather, geographic barriers, and absence of significant plant food sources are noted, there are significant derivations from their foraging counterparts of the more temperate regions to the south, thus demonstrating that their survival in harsh environmental conditions has developed out of cultural adaptation. These methods are critical to the basis of cultural development. Primitive subsistence societies like the Koyukon, Cree, and Inuits thus provide significant examples of man's harmony with nature to define his attitudes and culture.


Brown, Chris. "Beyond the 'Invented Indian': Acknowledging Original Conservation."

Terralingua. 1997. Partnerships for Linguistic and Biological Diversity. 4 Mar. 2004. http://cougar.ucdavis.edu/nas/terralin/paper006.html

Freimund, Wayne et al. "Principles of Koyukon Worldview." Native American Perspectives on Wilderness Preservation & Management. 1997. Wilderness.net. Chapter 12, 225-235. 4 Mar. 2004. http://www.wilderness.net/wmdep/crookston/Readings/nelson1.pdf

Greider, Brett. "Religion and Region." Religious Studies Web Resources. 20 Jan. 2003.

University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. 4 Mar. 2004. http://www.uwec.edu/greider/Indigenous/Sensing_Sacred/sensing.bioregional.lect.htm

Park, Robert W. "The Sequence of Cultures in the Arctic." Archaeology in Arctic North

America. Mar. 1999. University of Waterloo. 4 Mar. 2004. http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/ANTHRO/rwpark/ArcticArchStuff/Prehistory.html

Reedy-Maschner, Katherine L. "Marauding Middlemen: Western Expansion and Violent

Conflict in the Subarctic." Ethnohistory. 46.4 (Fall 1999): 703-743.… [read more]

Factorial Ecology With Radiocentric Explanations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These factors may not appear to be interrelated, such as an increase in a city's overall female population and poor and urban Hispanic population, for example, but may become, under analysis, more apparently connected because of the fact that, for instance, a greater number of domestic jobs have opened up in the city that are traditionally filled by such workers of a particular ethnicity and gender. Other factorial correlations may be an increase in professional-level single mothers seeking childcare that might also be connected to the growth of other populations not connected by immediate, radial geography.

Thus, the main insights of social area analysis and factorial ecology are the interconnection of apparently disconnected social rather than purely geographic variables, but there are problems in the model in that relationships between factors can be drawn that have no real connection, other than the chance correlation that one population is rising while another is declining. Also, the personal prejudices of the analyst drawing correlations between the different social factors in analyzing the different human factors present in such urban communities can come to play.

Radiocentric models may give a more coherent model as to the presence of urban communities or clustering within cities based upon geography. However, radiocentric models are not without their drawbacks either, as they do not take into consideration the difference between voluntary and involuntary social segregation and clustering in cities. (Pacione, 2001). The inability for radiocentric models to provide much understanding as to the rational and the reasoning behind physical markings for the composition of a landscape is one reason some feminist and activist sociologists suggest that, despite its flaws, urban factorial ecology provides more insight into the social problems that create the rational for the growth and composition of certain areas of cities as opposed to others.


Factorial ecology continues to be of interest to those conducting marketing research, although radiocentric approaches tend to be more 'en vogue' at the moment, especially when considering the development of new, as opposed to existing city populations such as in the American South, or in cities undergoing profound ethnic changes unprecedented in their history such as Toronto. Cities undergoing physical transformations such as New York after September 11th also offer uncharted waters fro radiocentric explanations as well. However, factorial ecology's more coherent, if not always more accurate sociological analysis is not only seductive, but also often instructive for students attempting to make a more coherent theoretical narrative about the ideological reasons for a city's shifting and changing image.

Works Cited

Bunting, T. And Filion, P. (2000). Canadian Cities in Transition: The Twenty-first Century. Second Edition. Toronto, Oxford University Press.

Janson, Carl-Gunnar. "Factorial social ecology: an attempt at summary and evaluation." Annual Review of Sociology. 1980. Vol. 6, pp. 433-456.

Nelson, Doreen. (2002). Transformations: Process and Theory.

Pacione, M. (2001) Urban Geography: A Global Perspective, London: Routledge.

Randall, J.E., and Viaud, G. (1994). A gender-sensitive Urban Factorial Ecology: male, female, grouped…… [read more]

Exchange Occurs Between Magma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(Lovelock, 2000) Despite such attempts, occasional intrusions such as the eruption of magma do occur, but the mineral exchange is often positive for the overall environment. In the author's view, although human beings may view, for instance, volcanic eruptions as monumentally disturbing to human's own special lifestyle needs and desire for personal equilibrium upon the surface, Gaia, the earth her/itself, views humanity's own much more permanent intrusions upon her epidermal level in a far more parasitic fashion than the occasional seeping of magma over the relatively natural process of the movement of the earth's plates.

Earth's atmosphere is an exercise in improbability and accident in its ability to support humans, which Lovelock, in an effort to transform human's anthropocentric view of the environment and the universe, portrays as kind of a parasitic or viral intrusion upon the earth's core. Unlike the incursions of magma, which change the earth's biosphere in natural, unpredictable, but ultimately arbitrary and unselfish ways, the incursions of human life upon the surface have not been nearly as…… [read more]

Glasgow Will Be Hosting Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,204 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Glasgow will be hosting the Commonwealth Games in thesummer of 2014. It is the first major event that will be held in Glasgow, Scotland, and therefore is entitled to a great deal of significance. It is approximated that around 6500 athletes will be taking part in the event, and almost 1 million spectators will be attending the Commonwealth Games. To… [read more]

Environmental Services: Monetize? Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


From this perspective, monetization of human life and health, or of the existence of other species, is either meaningless or degrading" (2000, p.10). All of these issues have clear consequences for policy, but the inclination to reduce them purely to monetary distinctions is completely skewed and unrealistic; it also violates a sense of integrity about the human condition.

As Ackerman and Gallagher illustrate, the attraction to market-based polices are becoming the go-to recommendation for all the world's environmental problems, resting on the theory that free markets, when adjusted for externalities, can always stimulate certain "efficient" allocations of society's resources, which causes many legislators to push for the rolling back of regulation so that the market can better protect the environment (2000). This particular blueprint can fail because certain public purposes cannot be achieved via prices and markets by themselves; and pricing can often be a meaningless objective in this regard (Ackerman & Gallagher, 2000).

Those in favor of this type of valuation argue that people respond to such tendencies towards monetization: it helps people to understand that value exists and helps them to understand this sense of value in strongly economic terms -- terms which are accessible to all people (Spash, 2008). Monetizing these ecosystems is connected to the notion that if people knew how valuable they were, they would better adapt their behavior to more aggressively helping to preserve them (Spash, 2008). However, such a notion is completely skewed and presents an oversimplified perspective of human behavior and the concepts of monetization. Thus, this paper has attempted to demonstrate that monetization can only be effective with natural resources when it comes to ascribing penalties -- and sometimes not even then. The inclination to monetize and commodify natural resources comes from an imbalanced and skewed place, and is one which violates the integrity of the nation and the human spirit.


Ackerman, F., & Gallagher, K. (2000, October). Getting the Prices Wrong. Retrieved from Global Development: [HIDDEN]

Kinzig, A. (2011, November). Paying for Ecosystem Services -- Promise and Peril. Retrieved from Sciencemag.org: [HIDDEN]

Spash, C. (2008). How Much is that Ecosystem in the Window? Retrieved from Environmental Values: [HIDDEN]

Stavins, R. (2009, April). What Explains the Recent Popularity of Market-Based Envrionmental Solutions? Retrieved from [HIDDEN]

Stavins,…… [read more]

Cultural Geography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,142 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Since 1980s, environmentalists have considered ecotourism as a critical endeavor aimed at ensuring that the aesthetic nature of the environment is maintained so that the coming generations can enjoy and experience destinations that have not been touched by human intervention (Honey 33).

Generally, the concept behind ecotourism seeks to satisfy individuals viewing living organisms (though few) in their natural environments. It focuses on environmental sustainability, socially responsible travel, and personal growth. It involves travel by individuals to destinations where cultural heritage, flora, and fauna are the primary attractions. It is suitable for individuals who care about natural habitats where the effects of human activity on the environment are minimal. Responsible ecotourism entails minimization of the negative effects of popular tourism on the natural environment and enhancing the cultural integrity of the indigenous people.

Another integral part of eco-tourism is the promotion of energy efficiency, recycling, and water conservation. For these reasons, ecotourism requests to advocates of social and environmental responsibility. Tourism depends upon air transportation, thus contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that result from combustion placed into the stratosphere. This eventually leads to climate change and global warming. Many countries are advocating and implementing environmental protection strategies. Campaigns are being carried to create awareness and sensitize people about the importance of environmental conservation and sustainability. Practices related to unsustainable agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization have affected the natural environment negatively. However, ecotourism has not provided substantial benefits in some parts of the world. This has left the economies of these regions worse than before in some cases (Fennell 30).

How the concepts of sustainable development, eco-tourism, and cultural ecology apply to contemporary Middle America

Tourism is a leading economic sector in many Middle American countries (Klak 9). Central America is one of the prime ecotourism destinations. Many of the tour operators and nature lodges around the country are dedicated professionals and pioneers in the sustainable tourism field. Many areas of Central America, including El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Belize, and Nicaragua are popular ecotourism destinations. They offer a wide range of adventure opportunities, community-based tours, cultural experiences and eco-friendly accommodations. The region's diverse landscapes include active volcanoes, tropical rain forests, and abundant fauna and flora. They provide unique wildlife encounters and learning experiences for individuals who visit the parks.

Deforestation is the main threat to Middle America's fragile ecosystem. Farming has virtually wiped out the region's dry tropical rainforests. Logging is another major threat to the rainforest. Deforestation has been devastating to many species as well as human beings. It has affected man in different ways, such as drinking-water shortages, mudslides, displaced indigenous tribes, and flash flooding. El Salvador has the worst environmental record with only 2% of its original forest in existence (Klak 18).

Many countries in Middle America have been engaged in environmental awareness, thus solving the region's huge environmental problems. Not only does it solve deforestation problems, but also industrial pollution and overpopulation. Volunteer travel among individuals has also been on the increase with the aim of learning new… [read more]

Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 2012 alone, the Act mobilized close to ten million dollars for beach cleanup (Swarup, Mishra, & Jauhari, 1992).

Virginia's Citizen Water Quality Improvement Act

The state sponsored Virginia Water Quality Improvement Act of 1997 (WQIA) was to restore the quality of state waters by protecting them from destruction and impairments. To achieve this, the Water-Quality Improvement Fund (WQIF) was created. This approach attempted to include the public community in beach management activity. For this reason, the act was essential in mobilizing funds to provide for quality assessment and improvement of grants. In particular, the water conservation districts, pollution prevention and reduction control program has been integral in responding to the various needs of the city. As a result, the VWQIA was the impetus in establishing the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). The department has so far established over a thousand locations for detecting pollutants (Belden, 2001).

EPA Investigation

Although there have been no subsequent apprehension of individuals who are caught contaminating the beach, it should be noted that companies caught breaching the BEACH have been forced to pay a penalty for the same. Care A Lot Inc., the owner of a pet supply in Virginia Beach agreed to pay 30,000 in a penalty to settle alleged for violations of EPA law. The company was accused of having violated Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The company was accused alleged for being in production of Unbranded and unregistered products for cat, dogs, and contaminating the beach through uncontrolled waste disposal. EPA investigators further established that the products are on sale on the company's catalogues, store, and website. Some of the company's products wastes have been found on the beach (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009).

The status of any cleanup efforts

The ozone alert days and number of pollutants in the year reported by the EPA at 37% in Virginia Beach compared to air quality, which stands at 82.8. The water quality stands at 61 on a scale of 100 compared to the United States average at 55%. For this reason, the need for cleaning Virginia Beach with the intent of removing all possible bacteria cannot be downplayed. The local authorities have utilized the Memorial Day to encourage the local community to undertake the clean up process.


Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association

Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press

Swarup, R. Mishra, S.N. & Jauhari V.P. (1992). Environmental Pollution Ecology. Washington: Mittal Publications

U.S. Government Printing Office, (2009).…… [read more]

Waste &amp Environment Management Spelt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,402 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


These types of customers are also subject to unique legislation under RCRA. So the way that this industry is segmented is in part by customer type, in part by legislation and in part by waste type. Some firms will specialize in certain types of waste or certain types of customers, while larger firms might operate in a number of industries.… [read more]

Ecosystem, Which Is a Biological Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Eventually, the younglings grow up to become workers and participate in nest activity. By the late summer, the queen begins to reproduce and the colony population has reached it maximum limit. Once the season ends, this whole cycle of nesting and repopulation starts again.

In terms of controlling wasp nests, for mud daubers, it is important to remove mud nests and to seal off places like garages or buildings. As for paper wasps, aerosol sprays are to be used to control them containing rapid knockdown chemicals like resmethrin and pyrethrins. Nests are to be destroyed at night since wasps are inactive at the time and the majority of the species are situated within this locale. Grantham (2004) noted that "structural nests (e.g., wall voids) are best controlled by an initial application of 5% carbaryl dust with a generator, followed quickly with 1% resmethrinthe entrance should be plugged, preferably with steel wool, and dusted with 5% carbaryl to kill returning wasps."

Bald-faced hornet whose nests are aerial and are constructed of grey paper, they are treated using the aforementioned aerosol products that contain knock down ingredients. They are used to spray at the entrance of the nest, which is located near the lower pinnacle of the nest. Next, the wasps' home is then soaked and the process is repeated until such critters are gone. Unfortunately, the hardest to treat nests are those that are in the holes of walls or cavities in homes since it is hard to locate the location of the home. As a result, ingredients and things used to treat wasps may pollute unnecessary areas. However, it is easy to treat nests that are in the ground because insecticide dust can be applied at the entrance of the wasps' home and covered with moist soil. Moreover, wasps are attracted to human food so sanitation and hygiene is important. Therefore, food should be covered at all times, spills and leaks should be cleaned up, and garbage cans should be tightly sealed.

Charles Darwin once said, "I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars." However, it is the role wasps play in the environment as a form of biological pest control. In addition, such insects, whether solitary or social, build annual nests as a form of shelter whether it is in the ground, on walls, or in cavities. The population of wasps is controlled through the use of aerosol sprays, sealing proper open spaces, and precautionary hygienic measures when it comes to food and odors. Overall, the paper has researched the various aspects of wasps, which include their duty, shelter, and control within the universal habitat.


Bianchi, F., & Wackers, F. (2008). Effects of flower attractiveness and nectar availability in field margins on biological control by parasitoids. Biological Control, 46(3), 400-408.

Grantham, R., & Wright, R. (2004, November 19). Paper Wasps, Yellowjackets, and Other Stinging Wasps. OSU-Oklahoma Cooperative… [read more]

Sustainability the New Paradigm in Economics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The new paradigm in economics is sustainability. Initiated and driven by human and ecological concerns typically ignored in dominant economic models, sustainability has taken on the force of a revolution in recent years. It has altered the way business is set up and run. Its focus is on systematic changes in economics that promote biodiversity, resource preservation, and health. This essay outlines how these sustainable concepts are important for economics.

One important concept in sustainability is the interconnectivity of humans and the natural environment. Sustainability recognizes that business practices can influence the environment in damaging ways that affect the viability of both natural and human environments. For example, water pollution from factories and mines has deleterious effects on woodlands and on human populations nearby which use the water source. This is important for sustainability because it sees environmental vitality as crucial for continuing human existence. As a result, the impact of business must be scrutinized in terms of the environment, and businesses should adopt guidelines for assessing the impact of a company's action on the surrounding community. Such a framework shows that in sustainable values, business must work to decrease contamination of the natural environment, reduce greenhouse gases, decrease synthetic man-made chemicals, respect biodiversity and conservation, use renewable energy efficiently, and manage resources well. In other words, sustainability values good ecological stewardship.

Another important concept is long-term thinking and the de-prioritization of money. Often businesses look only to saving money in the short-term, neglecting the long-term savings associated with high initial investments. There are long-term cost benefits in reducing energy expenditure, eliminating waste, using more energy efficient vehicles, recycling rather than depleting natural resources, and using green designs and buildings. Furthermore, sustainability says that size and monetary wealth are not the best measures of economic health. Profit is sought, but not at the expense of short-cuts that hijack human capital for material capital. Goerner et. al. (2008) states, "Economists, therefore, tend to assume that funneling large amounts of cash to elite players to build factories, dams, stadiums or other material means will automatically produce 'development' and, from there, a healthier society" (p. 161) Sustainability rejects this. The sustainable model suggests that investment in humans is not a burdensome cost for reduction, but a valuable investment in economic viability and longevity.

Hawkens et. al. (1999) argues that the next stage of capitalism will be based on: 'bio-mimicry" (redesigning industrial systems to be like biological systems such as recycling organic waste; resource productivity based on new designs and technologies that reduce use through constructive resource application; service and flow -- not emphasis on goods or purchases but on smooth flow of service; and reinvestment in natural capital (human and natural resources). By adopting these strategies, a business can gain competitive advantage as models change to emphasize sustainability. In other words, sustainability is important for current economic trends.

Another dominant concept…… [read more]

Recycle Containers in Campus Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Recycle Containers in Campus

Recycling involves processing used materials into new and usable products to prevent wastage, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy wastage, and reduce air pollution which conventional incineration would cause water pollution.

Ideally recycling is a process. It's a sequence of activities in a ring, that includes, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "the separation and collection of materials that otherwise would be considered waste, the processing and remanufacturing of these items into new products, and the use of the recycled products to complete the cycle."

Ideally, recycling of a material should result into a fresh supply of the same material, for instance used torn clothes for new clothes. However this has proven to be expensive as compared to using raw material of the same to produce fresh product. Due to this, the alternative recycling method which involves the reuse of the product to produce different material, for instance use of waste office paper to produce cardboard and paperboards.

Another form of recycling would involve salvage of some materials from the used products. This may be due to their intrinsic value for instance lead in car batteries, gold in old computers or due to their hazardous nature like mercury from laboratory equipment and trophies.

In BC, there has been a rise in open yard disposal of used material and rampant littering in the rooms which for long has been an eyesore. It is with these in mind that the necessity of recycle bins comes up. These recycle bins can be applied in institutions in strategic areas like in employee break rooms, near printers, under desks, near vending machines and near any manufacturing processes that generate recyclable materials.

Recycle bins in BC is a concept that is highly valued as it perpetuates the safe environment idea and economic benefits at the higher levels. Public recycle bins will start from the small step bins by the desk of an individual, which enables him or her to keep the office or personal space clean. The next level rises to the trash bins on the walk paths and the lawn. Then the recycle bin concept will rise to the trash collection trucks level. This is in a larger scale which enables BC to get rid of the used material from the whole for a possible recycling in the recycle firms. These enable individuals dispose the used can, packets, papers, paper bags etc. safely to avoid environmental pollution.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates an average recycling rate of 32.5% across different products and industries. The EPA puts a further 12.5% to be burned in incineration facilities, leading to atmospheric pollution, while the remaining 55%, which accounts for over half of the estimated 251 million tons of solid waste America produces in a year, are deposited in the landfills throughout the country.

Clearly this gives room for need of more recycling to be done.

Taking into account the statistical figures above, BC will in the long… [read more]

Harvard Business Review). Green Business Strategy Book Report

Book Report  |  10 pages (2,719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Harvard Business Review, (2007). Green Business Strategy. Harvard Business School Press.

Green Business Strategies

Overview- in the international business arena, particularly as a result of globalization, multinational corporations are beginning to understand that being "green" or ecologically minded, is not simply for environmentalists. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since… [read more]

Presentation of Someone Searching for Funding to Support Preservation Programs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Heritage Sites in Danger

The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization maintains a list of its own World Heritage Sites that are in particular danger at any given time. These sites may be cultural or biological; this essay will profile two such natural sites that deserve our immediate and urgent attention: The Galapagos Islands in Ecuador, and… [read more]

Perioperative Procedure Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,204 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Bioharzard Removal within a Perioperative Procedure

What is Medical (Bioharzard)Waste?

According to the Environmental Protection Agency Medical Waste is defined as waste generated at health care facilities such as hospitals, physicians offices, etc. The Medical Waste Tracking Act of 1988 defines medical waste that is generated in the diagnosis, treatment or immunizations of human beings or animals. The Act includes several broad categories. These categories are:

(1) Blood-Soaked Bandages

(2) Culture Dishes and other glassware

(3) Discarded Surgical Instruments

(4) Discarded Surgical Gloves

(5) Discarded Needles

(6) Swabs used to inoculate cultures

(7) Removed Body Organs

(8) Discarded Lancets

How is Medical Waste Handled?

Operating Room Nurses, specifically the Perioperative Nurse is responsible for handling the medical waste. Perioperative Nurses are charged with adequately handling the medical waste in conjunction with the standards initiated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The Perioperative Nurse has several medical waste initiatives they can initiate. These initiatives include arranging for the meticulous segregation of potentially infectious and noninfectious waste; the correct disposal of chemicals, tissues and hazardous materials and engage in recycling of medical waste. The Perioperative Nurse can initiate supply conservation and management practices by opening only the supplies that are needed; medical supply management processes to ensure that only those materials required for operations are used and engage in a practice of proactive maintenance-anticipate problems and create solutions (the Nightingale Institute, 2011).

Literature Review

In 1992, Medical Waste was at the forefront of nursing research when medical waste began to wash up on the shores of New Jersey. In Anderson's article "Medical Waste Management: Implications for Plastic Surgery Offices and Surgicenters," Anderson detailed a study that was instrumental in developing standards for monitoring and managing the storage and disposal of medical waste (Anderson, 1992). Individuals were worried that medical waste washing up on the shoreline of New Jersey posed substantial risks of conveying diseases (Anderson, 1992). The appearance of such waste lead to the public thinking contracting diseases such as HIV or Hepatitis C (Anderson, 1992). In 1994, the government passed the Medical Waste Tracking Act. This created a two-year tracking study that documented the flow of medical waste (Anderson, 1992). The study lead to the Association for Operating Room Nurses (AORN) to develop industry standards that examined the procedures used to monitor medical waste (Anderson, 1992). The Anderson article set the stage for further research in the area of environmental impact of medical waste.

Melamed (2003) in her article "Environmental Accountability in Perioperative Settings," stated that Perioperative nurses have a higher degree of responsibility in monitoring the impact of medical waste on the overall environment (Melamed, 2003). Melamed states that global environmental problems are connected to patient issues-one could argue this is the overall theme of the article. Toxicity of medical waste, according to Melamed, has increased exponentially over the past ten years (Melamed, 2003). Perioperative Nurses must create innovative methods to segregate those toxic waste materials and prevent them from contaminating the patient's environment (Melamed, 2003). This theme of medical waste… [read more]

Water Legislation Origins of Environmental Law Dissertation

Dissertation  |  37 pages (11,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


Water Legislation

Origins of Environmental Law in Canada and the United Kingdom

Humans have been stewards of the earth since at least the era in which they settled down into semi-permanent and then permanent farms. This does not, of course, mean that our species has been always provided good stewardship of the earth; rather it is the case that when… [read more]

Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,404 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

With increasing industrialization, and depleting natural environment, issues pertaining to environmental sustainability have been a major concern for the environmentalists. Dumping of agricultural and industrial waste and emission of hazardous gases have significantly added to land, air and water pollution endangering everything from marine life in the sea to ozone layer up in the atmosphere.… [read more]

Will the Majority of People Be Able to Afford Going Green Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … people be able to afford going green?

Overall Research

The increasing environmental concerns brought on by carbon emissions and other pollutants from human activities have led to a greater consumer awareness of and demand for sustainable products. "Going green," as moving towards products and modes of life that are more sustainable and less environmentally damaging, can present significant… [read more]

Environmental Issues in Europe Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Environmental Science

Environmental Issues in Europe

Strategic environmental issues in European countries are the result of past, centrally planned economic systems and the new political, social, and economic realities that these countries are now facing. The environmental legacy has left a long list of environmental hot issues, but also vast regions of immaculate natural environment. New expansion policies based on private ownership and the use of market forces are trying to attain economic and social goals, and are generating enticements for more proficient use of the environment, as well as for staying away from environmentally associated costs. Huge economic issues are characteristic of all the European countries in transition, and are getting priority notice, often to the disadvantage of the environment. With old environmental issues persevering and new disputes appearing, environmental problems are becoming serious for the European countries due to the harms they pose to human well-being, the countries' natural capital, and sound future economic advances (Strategic Environmental Issues in Central and Eastern Europe, n.d.).

Experts in the European countries normally list the same priority environmental requirements when looking at the state of the physical surroundings. Air quality and water resources are typically ranked as the highest priority problems. Municipal and hazardous waste issues, as well as deforestation, are also reported as significant. An account of environmental problems is often offered as environmental strategy. Decision-makers should understand the clear difference between the two notions. A record of environmental problems is very dissimilar from an environmental strategy which would assist to solve those problems. Solutions to environmental issues are usually multifaceted and necessitate legal and economic thought (Strategic Environmental Issues in Central and Eastern Europe, n.d.).

In Europe, discharge of many air contaminants has decreased significantly since 1990, resulting in better air quality over the area. Nonetheless, since 1997, calculated applications of particulate substance and ozone in the air have not revealed any noteworthy enhancement in spite of the reduction in discharges. A noteworthy amount of Europe's urban residents still…… [read more]

Regulation of Human Population in Developed and Underdeveloped Countries an Ecological Perspective Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Regulation of Human Population in Developed and Underdeveloped Countries: An Ecological Perspective

The population ecology of developed and underdeveloped countries is under the microscope, in modern times, as concerns rise about the consumption of resources everyday and how the growth levels are damaging the structure of organisms in the planet. This paper focuses on and compares the population ecological systems… [read more]

Ethical Case Analysis JOHNSO62 on the 27 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,376 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethical Case Analysis


On the 27 July 2003, the oil tanker Tasman Spirit carrying approximately 67, 535 tons of crude Iranian Light oil ran aground in the channel port of Karachai (Janjua, Kasi & Nawaz, 2006) . In the weeks following the initial grounding of the vessel rough sea conditions as well as weather and structural damage resulted in… [read more]

Influence of Pollutants Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (982 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … globalization on the environment are both empowering and detrimental. Improvements in technology and the resulting increase in lifespan and access to medical care in the developing world place pressure on the environment via pollution, overpopulation, and possible global warming. Drastic mistakes made by First World countries during their period of modernization began a long cycle of environmental problems. As the underdeveloped world searches for its place in global culture, pressures on the environment will, if not mitigated, increase and ultimately may damage the earth to the point of mankind's inability to rectify the situation (Speth, ed, 2003).

Nowhere is this more endemic than the preponderance of chemicals that leech through the environment and collect within plants or species. Shellfish and crustaceans, for instance, are particularly susceptible to this, and zinc ion concentrations are particularly problematical as they interfere with hematological activity. Heavy metal toxicity is nothing new, and has been investigated since the 1970s, however, we now have certain populations that have been exposed to these toxins for over four decades, perhaps more, and considering the life-cycle, this means multiple generations.

One particular study looked specifically at the manner in which zinc levels influenced the immune response of the rather prolific species of Holothuria polii, an ocean invertebrate often inhabiting heavily polluted coastal waters. In this case, the study found that high levels of zinc ions does have a negative effect on immune and regenerative responses. However, the effect seems to be reversible and these particular invertibrates do not necessary store the toxins lifelong (Canicatti and Grasso, 1988).

Literature Review - One significant waste product in modern mining and factory run-off is zinc. In the mid-1970s, these levels were measured from the mine-waste in North Wales and a population study was made on the resident macro-invertebrate communities approximately 60 meters downstream from the input. Results shows a significant decrease in population levels in comparison with like areas, and those species that remained showed signs of stress and disease (Willis, 1985).

Zinc is also a predominant component in batteries of all types, and although a number of strides have occurred that lessen the potential for environmental contamination, the unfortunate chemical action of zinc actually allows it to disperse in a wider pattern when mixed with water, particularly salt water (Laws, 2000, 409). Because the natural environment is unpolluted by zinc, however, it is easy to measure contamination and levels that move towards toxicity. Zinc in the soil also leeches into the aquifer, and thus has the potential for a lengthy and long environmental detriment (Nriagu, 1980, 380-2).

Minute traces of zinc are, in fact, essential for human health, although excessive zinc may be helpful in that it suprpresses copper and iron absorption (Fosmire, 1990). Levels of zinc in excess of 500 ppm in soil likewise interfere with a plant's ability to absorb essential minerals and thus take on symptoms much like anemia (Emsley, 2001, 499-505). In the waterm, invertebrates are…… [read more]

Global Warming the Chief Motive Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Global Warming

The chief motive for the existence of Houston, Texas, is the oil industry present here, given that the business is responsible for the rapid progress experienced by the city. There is much controversy regarding the city's potential to be a welcoming haven for tourists or for people that simply want to become its inhabitants. When hearing about Houston,… [read more]

Environmental Ethical Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,208 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Environmental Ethical Issue.


Environmental ethics Issues

Sentence Outline

Environmental ethics is a philosophical sub-discipline that was developed in the late 1960s to early '70s.

Issues such as seeing all components of the environment as having an intrinsic value rather than some to be having only the instrumental value also surfaced.

History of environmental ethics

At that time, some of the major publications that helped this processes was the Silent Springs by Rachel Carson (1962).

The Population Bomb by Paul Ehrlich in 1968 added on a voice onto the effects of the planet's resources that the increased population was about to cause.

Currents events of environmental ethics

Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming.

b. Non-environmentally friendly behaviors such as the increased acts of war have not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources.

Future anticipations of environmental ethics

a. Poverty is also another factor, that is, the vulnerability of the poor is anticipated to heighten as humanity continues to ignore the environmental ethics.

b. There are remarkably few studies available that examine the impacts of the energy use and availability in the developing states in future.


Environmental ethics is a philosophical sub-discipline that was developed in the late 1960s to early '70s. This was after scientists such as Dr. Keeling took measurements of the rise in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In addition Rachel Carson's Silent Spring sparked talks worldwide of which actions are eco-friendly and which ones are not. Issues such as seeing all components of the environment as having an intrinsic value rather than some to be having only the instrumental value also surfaced. Moreover, environmental ethics concerning feminism- viewing the world as a female that is male dominated- and socio-political connections. Environmental ethics is therefore defined as the branch of philosophical studies that deals with the human and nonhuman moral relationship and also there value status (Varner, 1998).

The history of environmental ethics

The increase in awareness catapulted by the environmental effects of the expansions in the industrial sector, technological sector, economic sector plus the increased rates of the population growths that were recognized at that specific time; led to the emergence of environmental ethics in the 1960s. At that time, some of the major publications that helped this processes was the Silent Springs by Rachel Carson (1962). This book campaigned for the reduced use of pesticides due to its widespread effects on the health of the world population and the general destruction of the wildlife and ecosystems.

Similarly, The Population Bomb by Paul Ehrlich in 1968 added on a voice onto the effects of the planet's resources that the increased population was about to cause. Apart from natural resource depletion and the global effects of pollution, other concerns about the environment have been: ecosystems' degradation; reduction in the biodiversity (both animal and plant); and global warming which is part of the overall climate change. This has led to the implantation… [read more]

Environmental Impact of Seaport Development and Modernization Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … Environmental Impact of Seaport Development and Modernization in Dubai, UAE

The United Arab Emirates is a country that has been focused on modernization and growth for over a decade. The nation has been building huge skyscrapers and ports to help promote commerce and move oil and other exports around the globe. While these technological advances have benefited many… [read more]

My Ecological Footprint Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Reducing My Ecological Footprint

Analysis of my Ecological Footprint Quiz Results

According to the results of my ecological footprint results, my overall ecological footprint measures 217.9, which is approximately 88% of the national average of 246.5. More specifically, my carbon footprint is approximately 57% of the national average, and my food, housing, and goods-and-services consumption are approximately 14% higher, 15% lower, and 6% higher than the national average, respectively.

The fact that I do not rely on private automobile transportation or make extensive use of gasoline-powered public transportation is probably the principal reason that my carbon footprint is so much lower than the national average. In principle, "carbon footprint" is the measure of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels (Crittenden & White, 2010). My housing footprint is lower than the national average because people who live with other family members or roommates consume fewer resources and produce less garbage and other inorganic environmental waste material per person than people who live alone (Crittenden & White, 2010).

Unfortunately the fact that I rely substantially on pre-packaged food and fast food probably accounts for the fact that my food footprint is somewhat higher than the national average. Likewise, because I am often pressed for time, I do rely on convenience items such as bottled water and other goods and services that add to the national ecological footprint more than necessary. The byproducts of producing, transporting, and managing the waste disposal of the bottles and other packaging used in that regard on a large scale contribute tremendously to the societal ecological footprint (Matthews, Hendrickson, & Weber, 2008).

Considering Possible Changes to Reduce my Carbon Footprint

Naturally, the main focus of my future efforts to reduce my ecological footprint would be on reducing my food footprint and that portion of my footprint attributable to unnecessary consumption of goods and services. To address my food footprint, I could start by simply making the…… [read more]

Perceptions and Points-Of-View Who Do You See Assessment

Assessment  |  5 pages (1,610 words)
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Perceptions and Points-of-View

Who do you see as the key protagonists/stakeholders?

As with many debates over the use of natural resources, the key protagonists in this issue include the commercial interests that are involved (in this case the logging industry) and ancillary industries that rely on high value species such as red cedar for their existence as well as naturalists… [read more]

Co-Learning for a Sustainable Future: Implications Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  8 pages (3,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Co-Learning for a Sustainable Future: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation

Arambiza, E. & Painter, M. (2006). Biodiversity conservation and the quality of life of indigenous people in the Bolivian Chaco. Human Organization, 65(1), 20-22.

The authors cite the need for partnerships between conservation authorities and indigenous people as part of the biodiversity conservation effort. Such partnerships must overcome significant… [read more]

Environmental Engineering -- Contrails Are an Exhaust Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,144 words)
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Environmental Engineering -- Contrails

Contrails are an exhaust manifestation of chemical waste products emitted from jet engines (Fast, 2002). The impact of contrails has been highly debated and often mired in misinformation. Additionally, the environmental impact of contrails emitted from craft is often overlooked and not investigated in a context relevant to the sustainability of environmental quality and standards associated with such environmental protection standards including the Kyoto Protocol. Among the most notable environmental impact attributed to contrails, include the following: (Fast, 2002; Bearn, 2005; Bollier, 2007; Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)

Rise in local air temperature

Global Warming

UV Ray blockage

Sunlight Reduction to Earth surface

Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Increase in biological extinction rate

Change in migrating patterns of species

The ranking in terms of environmental impact is rather alarming when considering the overall potential in the environmental change capacity over the long run. The most pressing is the increase in the biological extinction rate. Contrail activity linked to increases in core air temperature can lead to an increase in the extinction rate of biological creatures currently inhabiting earth. The bee extinction rate has increased and has not yet been linked to any concrete changes in the earth. However, contrail activity and the increase in air temperature during the critical spring weeks just after winter when pollination is at a critical point.

Potential environmental impact from Contrails emitted by Passenger Airlines

Passenger airlines travel throughout the world on a number of constant routes each day. Contrails emitted from these passenger airplanes are somewhat cloud like in formation, consistency, and appearance. Whether exhaust fumes are the actual contrail emission and that contrails are ostensibly a chemical residual from fuel combustion are linked to environmental deviation is of concern in this case study.

The environmental impact of contrails as observed over the 3 day period after the September 11th attack on the World Trade Centers in New York City was measured as the ability to measure was considered better due to the FDA's grounding of commercial aircraft and a rare measure on the changes to the environment from jet contrails (Fast, 2002). According to Fast (2002), "Contrails alter temperature the same way that natural high clouds do. Without contrails, then, the daytime temperature would be slightly higher and the nighttime temperature would be slightly lower." (Fast, 2002)

The environmental impact of contrails according to Fast is a decrease in air temperature or a type of global cooling effect at the sub-orbital level. Contrails have been further described as being a vapor trail (Bearn, 2005), "trapping warmth in the atmosphere and exacerbating global warming, according to the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (Bearn, 2005). Climate change is implicated as a function of the increase of contrail activity across the globe.

How do contrails form? According to Bearn (2005), "Contrails form when hot, humid air created in a jet engine mixes with low-pressure, cold air. Generally, the higher the altitude, the colder the air and more likely contrail formation becomes."… [read more]

Recycling System of Reusable Cups Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Recycling System of Reusable Cups for Starbucks Corporation in New York City

The "Big Apple" may not be in imminent danger of sinking under a mountain of trash, but New York City is faced with some profound challenges as it seeks to reduce the amount of consumer waste entering the waste stream each day. A major contributor to the waste… [read more]

Environmental Ethical Issues in the Early 21st Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (868 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Environmental Ethical Issues

In the early 21st century, environmental concerns have emerged as some of the most important social policy issues. Environmental ethics issues go back to the earliest era of American history but they became more important as the nation became more industrialized in the 19th and early 20th century. Today, the major environmental ethics concerns include the concept of disproportionate global resource consumption by wealthy nations, the depletion of fossil fuels and the need to develop alternative sources of energy, the outsourcing of negative consequences from industrial processes from wealthier nations to poorer nations, the environmental impact of U.S. military operations on foreign peoples, anthropomorphism in wildlife preservation and conservation, and the relative obligation of current generations to future generations inheriting the planet.

Background and Early American History of Environmental Concerns

Even in the infancy of the United States, environmental ethics issues existed in the form of concern over the different way that the Settlers used the land in comparison to the Native Americans (Poiman & Poiman, 2007). In principle, Native Americans traditionally practiced what we would regard to day as environmentally conscious methods of hunting and of minimizing the impact of human activities on the natural environment. In contrast, the settlers applied laissez-fair business models to the harvesting and exploitation of natural resources without regard for the impact on the natural environment (Poiman & Poiman, 2007).

As the nation became more industrialized in the 19th and early 20th century, new environmental ethics issues emerged, such as those in relation to the effect of factories and other industrial processes on the quality of breathable air in large cities (Nevins & Commager, 2002). At that time, children labored side-by-side with adults working long hours and in hazardous environments until the introduction of the first child labor laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).

In big cities at that time, environmental ethics issues also included the accumulation of garbage and animal waste that made streets and sidewalks unsafe and sometimes impassable for pedestrians (Nevins & Commager, 2002). Many people were sickened, even dying, from unsanitary drinking water; this problem affected the urban poor much more than their better-off counterparts who typically had access to cleaner water sources. Other early environmental ethics issues that arose in that era involved the consequences of major construction projects on local populations. For example, the 1889 bursting of a dam built by companies financed by Andrew Carnegie resulted in the deaths of 2,200 people in Johnston, Pennsylvania (Nevins & Commager, 2002).

The Significance of Contemporary Environmental Issues

Today, environmental ethics issues are much larger, mainly because those attributable to modern industrial…… [read more]

Marcellus Shale Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Marcellus Shale is a black fine-grained laminated formation of sediments. It extends deep underground from Ohio and West Virginia into Pennsylvania and southern New York (Paterson 2011). In some locations, it is exposed at the ground surface. But in some locations, it is as deep as 7,000 feet below the ground surface along the Pennsylvania border in the Delaware River… [read more]

Electronic Electrical Waste Management in the United States Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,825 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … World War II, researchers have introduced an enormous array of electrical devices and, increasingly, electronics of all types including personal computers, televisions, videocassette recorders, cellular telephones and so forth -- all of which contain various types and levels of toxic substances, including lead. The country's landfills quickly became clogged with these devices and the leachate that resulted from… [read more]

Hudson River and PCB Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,465 words)
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¶ … PCB contamination of the Upper Hudson River. The General Electric Company's involvement in the pollution will be discussed, as well as the established clean up plans for the largest Superfund site in the country. In addition, current progress on the remediation of the river will be presented.

The Hudson River and PCBs

In the late 1970s, scientists and… [read more]

Family Coping Skills, Coping Strategies and Problem Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (608 words)
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Coping Skills, Coping Strategies and Problem Solving.

This chapter discusses the importance of good coping skills and therefore it's inclusion in the study of Human Ecology- man's interaction with the environment. It outlines what are good copers, coping strategies and coping patterns. These make up one of the adaptations to stress. Good coping is "associated with defining the problem clearly and applying coping strategies at the right time, at the right place and by the right person." (p.90). Self-instruction is the key quality of good copers. It allows the individual to make good decisions, to adjust when the problem changes and to learn from experience. Good coping strategies involves being able to identify problems that the individual has the knowledge to solve. Everyone learns coping strategies from early in life as we learn to use coping behavior to deal with developmental tasks throughout the life span. Some of the strategies that good copers use include having information, communicating and thinking well and having courage. Coping patterns have been studied in a variety of situations- teenage pregnancy, conflict between parents and teenagers, etc. Three basic dimensions of coping revealed- approach avoidance, channeling energy and diversion. In these challenging situations, especially for low-income families, if the people are given the opportunity to learn life coping skills they will have a better approach to life.

Human Ecology study is therefore important so that people can be taught coping strategies so that they will be able to interact positively with the environment.

Chapter 9. Quality of Life

This chapter explains the 'quality of life' phrase which was born in the 1970s, and relates it to coping skills and why it must be an important aspect of Human Ecology study. Each person and family defines their own quality of life. The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) was…… [read more]

Green Building Construction Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Green Construction

The current trend to "go green" is observable almost everywhere one looks. Cities are considering ordinances that ban the use of plastic shopping bags, consumers are searching for products made from recyclable materials, and many individuals are becoming more conscious of the amount of fossil fuels they use. New innovations for increasing the benefits we can derive from our environment while reducing our impact on it at the same time arrive almost daily, it seems, and this trend only appears to be getting larger.

There are several identifiable areas into which green innovations can be grouped. Many projects touch on several of these aspects, but they can still be assessed independently. Sustainability refers to the use of resources that can be drawn on indefinitely without environmental loss; bamboo products are a good example. General efficiency, both in the use of energy and the reduction of waste, is also an important green concept (BEST 2009).

Nowhere is the green drive more apparent than in the construction industry, where not only can building green save consumers money over the long-term and minimize environmental impact, but it also provides a way for construction companies to set themselves apart in a market saturated with competition (ADPSR 2009). The aim of green building is to minimize the impact that a home has on the environment without sacrificing expectations of comfort and cost to consumers, which can often be a complicated and difficult task (ADPSR 2009). Luckily there are many innovations in building materials, basic utility infrastructure, and other areas of construction that ease the task (BEST 2009).

In the area of…… [read more]

Population Growth Economical Development Environment Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (314 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


opulation Growth, Economic Development and Environmental Regulation
Population growth shares an inversely proportional relationship with
economic development in most instance, though there are exceptions such as
the higher tendency toward longer life expectancy in developed nations.
However, population growth generally occurs at a faster rate in developing
nations, where education or accessibility of contraception is low and where
culture dictates higher birth rate tendencies.
This creates a great strain on many of such nations. This is
foretold in an article by Easterlin (1967) which invoked the concern of
population experts of the time regarding such proliferating trends.
Easterlin denotes that "some theoretical analyses argue that high
population growth creates pressures on limited natural resources, reduces
private and public capital formation, and diverts additions to capital
resources to maintaining rather than increasing the stock of capital per
worker." (Easterlin, 98)
To this perception, there is a distinct threat to already existing
environmental problems in developing nations where low…… [read more]

Paleolithic Art Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,863 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Paleolithic Art: Ecological Interpretations

Mithen's ecological approach

The argument that Steve Mithen puts forward in "Ecological interpretations of Paleolithic Art" ( 1996) is convincing on a number to levels. In essence he extends the definition and understanding of the concept of ecological archeology and suggests a more comprehensive and less limited view of ecological research and methodology.

Mithen posits the… [read more]

Biodiversity Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (609 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Biodiversity: The Situation and What to Do About It

The term "biodiversity" is deceptively simple. Its original and very basic definition can be gleaned from the word itself, which is rather obviously a contraction of "biological" and "diversity," which managed to remain whole in this new word. Biodiversity, then, refers to te diversity of life -- of biological entities -- that exists on this planet (and possibly elsewhere, though the term is not generally used with an extraterrestrial perspective in mind). Far from remaining the simplified way of saying "biological diversity" as was originally intended, however, the term has taken on a significance all its own as the rate of loss in biodiversity has reached alarming highs in the past few decades (Faith 2007). Though the term "biodiversity" still technically refers to the variety of life forms still present on the planet, the word itself now generates a context of human awareness of their actions, and the impact that humanity as a species is having on the environment at large and the survival of other species specifically.

The question of what we are doing about biodiversity is a complicated one. It is believed, and proven in many specific instances, that humans are a major cause of extinction in other species (Shah 2009). Through pollution and deforestation that directly destroy many plant and animal species' environments and ecosystems, leaving them without the necessary conditions -- including shelter and food/prey -- to sustain life, as well as through indirect destruction through global warming brought on by human carbon emissions, humans are doing a lot to decrease the level of biodiversity. At the same time, the growing awareness of the biodiversity issue, and the adaptation of the term, has been accompanied by growing efforts to halt such destructive activities, conserve ecosystems and species populations, and even certain…… [read more]

Mandatory Composting Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Mandatory Composting Issues

In many modern cities, garbage and waste management have become highly controversial issues for municipalities and administrative agencies. This is particularly true in cities such as Toronto, where ongoing strikes among waste disposal workers have renewed attention to the need to change systems that are susceptible to labor conflicts and other possible disruptions. Critics of current systems… [read more]

Corporate Environmental Responsibility in the 21st Century Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,346 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Corporate Environmental Responsibility in the 21st Century

Presently, the financial world is recoiling from a collapse of the public's faith. The global population has been made intimately aware of the ecological consequences of unrestrained human economic expansion. Corporations play a massive role in the creation of carbon emissions and greenhouse gases. Furthermore, these organizations are morally responsible for the tremendous… [read more]

Criminal Justice Clean Air Act Clean Water Act RCRA Enforcement Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,049 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal Justice: Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, RCRA Enforcement

(a) Enforcement of the Clean Air Act:

The Clean Air Act -- CAA received approval in the year 1970 and was subsequently amended in the year 1977 as well as 1990. The Act had been made to safeguard and increase the resources of the nation, with regard to air and… [read more]

Ecological Footprint Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,026 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Ecological Footprint: Lab

When I first learned that my ecological footprint was calculated at 4.7 planets, I was upset. I have been trying to use the resources around me in a responsible manner, but according to this calculation, my lifestyle was nowhere near what would be defined as sustainable, either for myself or much less my children. An ecological footprint is defined according to environmental scientists as "how much land and water area a human population requires to produce the resource it consumes and to absorb its wastes, using prevailing technology"

Footprint Basics - Overview, 2009, Footprint Network). Another way of thinking of this is how much harm an individual life does to the planet that cannot be undone.

The footprint is a product of many factors. Some aspects of the footprint are due to individual choices, such as what type of food you consume or what kind of car you drive. But economic circumstances might limit your choice of certain foodstuffs, such as organic foods, and your job may require you to drive long distances, to areas where there is little or no public transportation. Your occupation may require you to drive frequently. And you may have parents or a spouse who generates a great deal of trash, even though you strive to reuse and recycle. While it might be easy to deny yourself consumer goods, it can be harder to deny a loved one what he or she desires.

There are a number of possible criticisms of the ecological footprint because of the lack of control individuals have over many of its components. Many of us are trapped in Westernized urban or suburban lifestyles that are not of our creation. The most serious the criticisms of the ecological footprint involves its calculations regarding fuel: "the measurement of ecological footprint does not take into account the side effects of trade practices, urbanization, the differences between the ways of energy generation and consumption and other similar factors, which contribute to the shaping of the lifestyle of a populace. The ecological footprint ignores the fact that farmers in the rural areas are bound to consume more resources in transportation and in making up for the insufficiency of other needful resources" while it is very easy for an urban dweller to walk to the store to get a quart of milk or a new container of laundry detergent -- organic and environmentally friendly, of course (Ecological footprint, 2009, Buzzle.com).

People in rural and suburban areas lack adequate access to public transportation, which immediately increases their ecological footprint. But although residents of cities may walk more or take public transport, the amount of electricity it takes to light a city, to air-condition it in the summer, and the amount of fossil fuel it takes to heat a city during the winter is far greater than that of a suburb or rural area. There is also the 'trade off' in terms of certain life choices that are penalized highly by the model. An activist… [read more]

Environmental Sustainability Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,072 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Environmental Sustainability

Reduction of biodiversity, global warming and water and air pollution are the major threats out planet faces today. As long as the human race will depend on the natural resources provided by this planet, the entire world will have to combine efforts to help environment sustainability. Countries fighting poverty that depend on their natural resources to a level that makes them essential for their development, are especially affected by any negative effects on the environment.

As emphasized in the Global Monitoring Report 2008, "Achieving environmental sustainability has both a national and a global character. Some actions, such as reducing particulate matter in urban areas, will have largely local effects. Other actions, such as mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, will affect global sustainability. Other activities, such as reducing deforestation, can have impacts that are both local and global"(Worldbank, 2008). Thus, the targets the United Nations Development Programme is intending to reach through Millennium Development Goal 7 must be focused both on "integrating the principles of environmental sustainability" (UNDP, 2006) at a national level and on international cooperation.

The preoccupation for environmental issues dates as far back as the late nineteenth century. In the United States, the first organism that dealt with the conservation of natural resources was the Sierra Club established in 1892. "In its first conservation campaign, Club leads effort to defeat a proposed reduction in the boundaries of Yosemite National Park" (Sierra Club, 2008).

At the beginning of the twentieth century, there were international conventions aimed at the conservation of the international waters as well as the border waters and the marine life (Long, 200).

The industrialization and economic growth that started in the second half of the twentieth century made the efforts toward the conservation of natural resources and the reduction of pollution mandatory (Long, 2000).

The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) shares a portion of its work with those institutions and organizations specialized in tackling the issues of environment. Air and water pollution were the first and most obvious factors that triggered the alarm in the industrially advanced countries, claiming their toll of deaths and illnesses.

Today's list of participants in the Global Environment Facility counts 177 countries. The Mission of the GEF is to create the conditions for international cooperation to provide the funding necessary "to achieve agreed global environmental benefits in the areas of biological diversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion" (GEF). The organism is also addressing "land degradation issues, primarily desertification and deforestation" (GEF). The projects of GEF are managed by principally by the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. The U.S. Department of State's Fact Sheet from August 2002 indicated the U.S. were "the largest contributor to the GEF" (U.S. Department of State).

The Bureau of Oceans, Environment and Science (OES) in the U.S. Department of State points out that there is a yearly los of forest area of 22 million acres all over the world (U.S. Department of State),… [read more]

Thames Embankment Flood Defences Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (651 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Thames Embankment

Flood Defences on the Thames: Ecological and Sustainable Engineering

The Thames River has a long a challenging history of providing both sustenance and representing peril to the Britons along its banks. London is an effective demonstration to the point, with its flood defence system among the most sophisticated in the world. For our purposes, it is well understood that the resources which are availed to London in the construction of its moveable flood wall are neither present nor appropriate in the case of the narrowing of the river in the proximity of Dartford Creek. However, it is here that the residents, construction and infrastructure in the vicinity are threatened both by the prospects of a decayed embankment and the inherent dangers to haphazard maintenance.

Therefore, as the village proceeds with an absolutely necessary plan for reclamation of its flood defences, civil engineering professionals must intervene to the benefit of the residents who will be most directly effected. Based on the information available to us, it is immediately apparent that the embankments which provide the primary bulwark for the city against the omnipresent threat of breach must be provided with the strength to withstand the pressure of storm surges that evidence suggests are increasing in intensity and frequency. With respect to the activity of the moveable flood wall parallel to London, all indications are that its movement over recent seasons has been gathering in necessity due to patterns attached to a trend of global warming.

There are ways for smaller villages to use this information to remain ahead of the curve. Here, we will aspire to build embankments engineered with a number of distinct features. Among them, the lesson learned from the success of London's flood prevention methods is that flexibility is a valuable virtue in the face of potentially catastrophic events, with the ability of flood defences to provide a relief through underflow, rather than overflow, in the face of mounting storm surges.…… [read more]

Indoor and Noise Pollution Thesis

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Indoor Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is an endemic part of out modern urban and industrial world. However, indoor noise pollution is often not discussed with the same level of concern and importance as other forms of pollution. The issue of noise pollution has become more important with the growth and development of the modern urban, industrial environment; where the levels… [read more]

Pollution Prevention Term Paper

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Pollution prevention has various meanings and is frequently used. Toxics use/reduction and sources reduction are the most narrow terms, being restricted to raw material or production process changes. Pollution prevention promotes a hierarchy that favors source reduction, but also promotes other minimization techniques or treatment where production changes are infeasible. Explain why the best approach is one that cost-effectively reduces… [read more]

Air Quality Italy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,554 words)
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Air Quality Italy

Globalization is beginning to put its mark on the environment at a global scale. More and more countries and regions in the world are facing increased levels of pollution due to the irresponsible development of industries and areas which represent high sources of pollution. At the global level action is being taken especially through the Kyoto Protocol… [read more]

Controlled Burning in Yellowstone National Park: Literature Term Paper

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Controlled Burning in Yellowstone National Park: Literature Review

Wildland Fire in Yellowstone. (June 28, 2007). Retrieved June 11, 2008 from the National Park Service Web site: http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/wildlandfire.htm

This 2007 article issued by the National Park Service details the history of the Wildland Fire of 1988, one of the largest fires of this century. According to the article, the unseasonably dry weather contributed to the spreading of the fire, which was caused both by controlled burn fires and uncontrolled fires. Although the article provides some reference to scholarship regarding controlled burning, it is primarily a history of the major fire, including a brief history of controlled burns in the area. The article's content is not only relevant to the topic because of the brief history of the controlled burns outlined, but also because it contains a significantly strong rebuttal to one argument those against controlled burning might wage -- that the Wildland fire was caused by controlled burns only. According to this article, only thirty-eight of the fifty fires that burned in the area were allowed to burn. Although the Wildland fire could be used by those against controlled burning to suggest that this type of natural burning is damaging to nature, this article provides factual evidence that controlled burning might not be at fault for the fire. Because the article is a report by a government agency, the National Parks Service, its authority and balance cannot be easily disputed. The article's quality of writing is impeccable and the amount of factual information is desirable. Also, finding an article about a past event with such a current date is no easy task. The recent date ensures that the article's scientific information is in agreement with modern standards.

Greater Yellowstone Clean Air Partnership. (November 2005). Greater Yellowstone

Area Air Quality Assessment Update. Retrieved June 11, 2008 from the National Park Service Website at http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/upload/GYA_AirQuality_Nov_2005.pdf.

In this research report, the National Park Service details the effects of prescribed fire and wildfire smoke. The report provides information relevant to the topic, especially the conclusion that "wildfire smoke is the most dramatic air quality impact and prescribed fire is the predominant Forest Service and Park Service emission producing management activity in the GYA" (9). The contents of the report, however, do not deal solely with controlled burns. Though the report is useful for its recent research on the air born effects of controlled burn, it is not a major source of research on the topic. The writing is understandable and concise and the source is irrefutable.

Turner, Monica G., Hargrove, William W., Gardner Robert H., and Romme,

William H. (1994). Effects of fire on landscape heterogeneity in Yellowstone

National Park, Wyoming. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5 (5), 731-742.

This article is rather scientific in language and report, and though is a bit dense for the non-scientist, contributes relevantly to the topic by describing certain scientific aftereffects of burning in Yellowstone National Park. The researchers used a map of "burn severity" from the great fires of… [read more]

Daily Operations in a Hazardous Waste Treatment and or Disposal Facility Term Paper

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Daily Operations in a Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility

Cliff Berry is an hazardous waste disposal firm based out of Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. They operate several facilities around Florida and Virginia, with a total of 180 full-time employees. They have expanded rapidly over the past couple of decades, and now service a region including the entire Southeast U.S. And the Caribbean.… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina's Impact on America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,137 words)
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¶ … Hurricane Katrina's impact on America. Specifically it will discuss the hurricane's impact on the environment. Hurricane Katrina's impact on New Orleans, the Gulf Coast, and the nation is still being assessed. One of the nation's worst natural disasters, many survivors of Katrina have left the New Orleans area forever, and the environmental impact of the storm will be… [read more]

Landfill Mining Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,223 words)
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Recycling has become a big industry, employing many individuals across many various sectors of materials of recyclables and across a range of various recycling or reclamation efforts. One of these sectors in recyclable or reclamation is the landfill reclamation sector, which recycles various materials including metals, gases, detergents, as well as others. Each… [read more]

Human Impact Term Paper

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Industrial Revolution and Its

Impact On The Natural Environment

Beginning around the early years of the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed virtually every aspect of human life through the introduction of new and innovative methods of manufacturing based on technologies which did not exist prior to the 19th century. This great economic and social revolution began quietly in Great Britain but within a few short years, it had "spread throughout the rest of the world and opened an era of mass production, mass consumption and mass disposal." As a result of this massive expansion, human beings took on new roles as industrial leaders, corporate-based manufacturers and mass consumers, not to mention "the damage caused by society to the natural environment" which increased dramatically as compared to a hundred years earlier when technology was in its infancy ("Pursuing the Ideal Society," 2007, Internet).

Three specific natural environments were hardest hit by the Industrial Revolution, namely, water, air and the climate. With water and air, pollution arose from the burning of coal and other fossil fuels used in "the production of metals and basic chemicals," such as iron, steel and machinery solvents, and since there was no suitable way to dispose of the waste which resulted from burning fossil fuels, "water-borne diseases like cholera and typhoid" and air pollutants like coal smoke became much more prevalent and over time began to affect "working families housed close to the industrial sources," such as living near a factory which belched out black smoke and polluted the air and many drinking water sources, both underground and aboveground. In the cities, the situation was even worse, for after 1830, "two great groups of 19th century urban killers -- air pollution and water pollution," negatively affected the natural environment and with the increasing construction of factories and manufacturing centers in the cities, "the mass migration of populations from the countryside to the fast-growing towns" began which…… [read more]

Toyota's Environmental Impact Term Paper

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Toyota's Environmental Impact

Environmental issues are of cardinal concern today, particularly in the light of the various climatic and other environmental issues facing the world. Global warming has been established as a critical issue that has been engendered by years of pollution and abuse of the environment. This places particular emphasis and responsibility on modern industry and production to curb… [read more]

Biodiversity Is One of the Most Prominent Term Paper

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Biodiversity is one of the most prominent issues in conservation today. It is a generally accepted fact that biodiversity must be preserved not only for the aesthetic inheritance of future generations, but also for the continuation of life on earth. Indeed, the topic has been the focus of many a lecture, seminar and conference on sustainability and economics. The concept… [read more]

Environmentalism Group Term Paper

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Environmentalism Group

Environmentalism is defined as a movement that was begun to protect the quality of life, through the development of conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution and control of land use. Historically the movement began in the U.S. with the works of Thomas Jefferson, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Jefferson, attempted to include legislation in the… [read more]

Human Ecology Term Paper

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¶ … Limits to Growth," and what has happened in the intervening years. The first edition was published by the Club of Rome in 1972. The author of this paper contends that the authors of "Limits to Growth" were correct in predicting increasing industrialization, but that the book's predictions of mass starvation, poverty and environmental degradation ignored evidence that was clear at the time which would indicate that their predictions would not come to pass.

The original "Limits to Growth" focused on five predictions:

accelerating industrialization, rapid population growth, widespread malnutrition, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and deteriorating environment.

In predicting increasing industrialization, the Club of Rome predicted that workers would see a reduction in their negotiating power and purchasing power. In fact, the opposite has taken place. The world has welcomed economic growth since 1972 in two countries that were not foreseen at that time, India and China, accounting for 40% of the world population. In each of those countries, peasant incomes have grown by 60% in the 1980's and 1990's in real (not inflated) terms, and purchasing power has been widely distributed amongst the population. More importantly, a rising middle class in many countries where there was poverty in 1972 has brought billions to improved standards of living. In 1972, Korea and Taiwan had per capita incomes barely higher than many African countries. China was in the midst of a destructive Cultural Revolution, and India was barely able to feed its population. Now, India is the 10th-largest economy in the world, China and India have welcomed 500 million to the middle class, and world wealth has grown by an enormous amount.

The world ecosystem is incontestably better today than it was in 1972. One only need have taken a trip to Lake Erie, to Los Angeles, to Karl-Marx-Stadt (in East Germany) or Katowice (in Poland) to see the effects of carbon monoxide, soot and air pollution on children and adults in 1972. Cars in Los Angeles only had PCV's (pollution control valves) for pollution control -- today's cars produce 1/20th the pollution as cars in 1972.

In the 1970's, the major worry was global cooling, not global warming. Time Magazine published a scary cover story about the "Coming Ice Age," noting that the earth had cooled from the 1940's to the 1970's. Man-made global warming was not even a factor of concern. In 2007, despite the concern about global warming, the earth has only warmed 0.8 degrees F. In one hundred years, which can be explained mostly by factors such as volcanoes.

The World3 model of the Club of Rome anticipated higher pollution, global starvation, poorer workers and depleted world resources. The opposite has happened on all fronts. This paper will review each in turn:

Higher pollution: Pollution is generally related to level of income and energy sources. As income starts to grow, increasing demand for electrical power dictates that countries rely on coal for growth. China is now completing two new coal-fired electrical plants per week, which is… [read more]

Water Geography Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


Water Geography


Celilo Falls: This is an issue that was originally created when the government of the U.S. damned up a portion of the Columbia River - the Bonneville Dam in 1938 - for a source of electric power and for navigation. It created Celilo Falls. The Native Americans living in that region had signed… [read more]

Noise Pollution Thermal and Acoustic Risks Term Paper

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Noise Pollution

Thermal and Acoustic Risks of New Airport Expansion

The Airport Services Limited Company has retained Bradford Environmental Consultants to conduct studies on the impact of thermal and acoustic risks associated with an expansion project at the Yakutsk International Airport. Airport Services Limited is one of the UK's premier freight forwarding and travel management companies (Airport Services Limited, 2007).… [read more]

International Community in Convincing Developing Nations Term Paper

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¶ … international community in convincing developing nations to enter into, implement and enforce treaty obligations.

In recent years there have been numerous signals coming from scientists regarding the aggravating condition our planet is in. In this sense, it is considered that man, through its continuous development and industrial evolution represents a constant strain on the limited natural resources. The… [read more]

Sustainable Development Term Paper

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Sustainable Development

The term 'sustainable development' is one that many people still do not understand the meaning of, and there are arguments as to whether it is even a correct and proper term for what it is intending to describe. Broadly, however, sustainable development involves the balancing act that is required between human needs and the preservation and protection of… [read more]

Environmental Issue in Senegal Term Paper

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Prior to ordering meat or seafood at a restaurant it is advisable to ask the waitperson what cuts are the freshest and where the product comes from. This is good research for three reasons: one, knowledge is power; two, your query lets the staff know you are particular, and that you expect positive results from your experience; and three, fresh is always better and generally safer.

How does this pertain to launching a program to import products from Senegal? The answer is simple: knowledge is power and asking questions or conducting pivotal research is always an intelligent and productive exercise. The first question should be, what about Senegal's reputation as a nation? How stable a country is it, given that African nations have suffered in recent years under some horrendous circumstances (AIDS/HIV; drought; malnutrition; genocide; famine; civil war; malaria; political corruption, among other issues)?

As to Senegal, the CIA's "World Factbook" is recognized as authoritative, reliable information, and on page one of Senegal's section the Factbook states that "Senegal is one of the most stable democracies in Africa." Further, Senegal has a "long history" of participation in "international peacekeeping," the CIA reports. The nation got its independence from its previous colonial occupier, France, in 1960, and it is slightly smaller than South Dakota. An estimated 11,987,121 people live in Senegal, with a median age of 18.9 years; the life expectancy is just over 60 years for females and just under 58 years for males. About 40.2% of the population over 15 years of age can read and write; some 94% of the nation is Muslim and about 5% of the citizens are Christian. Fifty-four percent of the population lives "below the poverty line" (CIA).

As of 2003 estimates, 44,000 people in Senegal have AIDS or HIV, and the "degree of risk" from major infectious disease is "very high," the CIA report continues. Indeed, some of the diseases that are food borne, vectorborne and waterborne include: hepatitis a, typhoid fever, yellow fever, malaria, meningitis, schistosomiasis, and bacterial and protozoal diarrhea.

Only about 12.51% of Senegal's land is arable, the CIA Factbook explains, and the country does experience "periodic droughts."

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: The lowlands are flooded during wet seasons, and presently there are numerous "...wildlife populations threatened by…… [read more]

Exxon's Oil Tanker Valdez Ran Aground Term Paper

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¶ … Exxon's oil tanker Valdez ran aground in the Alaskan region of Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound. The accident caused an unprecedented oil spill, causing more than 11 million of the crude go wasted on the surface. The accident was largest of the oil tanker spill in the history of United States. The impact of the spill was… [read more]

Stratospheric Ozone Study Indicates Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Stratospheric Ozone Study Indicates: More is Needed for Full Recovery Report Released on the UN International Day to Protect the Ozone Layer (Business Wire)

The article concerns a report by the Global Environment & Technology Foundation, which is aimed at informing government officials, business leaders and the public on the stratospheric ozone issue. The report focuses on solutions… [read more]

Greenhouse Effect Solution Over a Century Term Paper

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Greenhouse Effect Solution

Over a century has passed since Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist, theorized that the unchecked burning of fossil fuels would act to trap heat within the earth's atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" that Arrhenius has warned us has indeed happened, as seen in the unprecedented rise in global temperatures and the corresponding harmful effect both on human health and on the global environment as a whole.

This deductive essay argues that the world needs to act to curb, if not reverse, the greenhouse effect and the resulting global warming. If nothing is done, these gases will continue to trap heat within the planet's atmosphere, resulting in a continued and significant rise in global temperatures.

The first part of this paper examines how human activity related to industrialization has upset the natural balance of greenhouse gases that have kept this planet habitable. In the second part, this paper examines how people have tried to address the problem of global warming, both through technology and through legislation, and argues that a balanced and global approach must be adopted to bring the greenhouse effect back to its original levels.

Upsetting the balance

The planet's natural ability to trap heat at necessary has kept if habitable for over four billion years, and maintaining this delicate balance is important for the planet's survival. The thermal blanket of heating gases has kept the earth warm and habitable. If not for these gases, the earth's temperature would plunge to an estimated 59 degrees Fahrenheit, making it uninhabitable for most of the living organisms on earth today (EPA).

However, as Arrhenius noted, this natural balance has been upset by many human-made factors. The drive towards industrialization has caused humans to engage in practices that exacerbate the effect of these natural greenhouse gases, making them thousands of times more efficient in trapping gases.

Human activity, for example, has significantly raised the levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Part of the increase is due to respiration, as the population increase generates more carbon dioxide. Many other human activities contribute indirectly to the increase in carbon dioxide levels. Deforestation, for example, serves to both release the carbon stored in trees and to reduce the number of trees that absorb carbon dioxide.

Industrialization has also caused a significant increase in levels of other greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and flourinated compounds. Methane and nitrous oxide are both products of the Industrial Revolution, released into the atmosphere by burning fuels like coal and oil (EPA).

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a popular form of fluorinated compounds, were first synthesized in 1928 and were widely used in aerosol sprays as well as a variety of industrial applications. It was not until decades later that atmospheric scientists Ralph Cicerone and F. Sherwood Rowland recognized that these CFCs were damaging the ozone layer. Both scientists were later honored with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery (Robbins).

In addition to the ozone layer, fluorinated compounds are an extremely efficient greenhouse… [read more]

Lobbying Waste Management in the European Union Research Paper

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Public Relations

Lobbying Waste Management in the European Union

As European civilization has increased in wealth it has produced more and more trash. Each year in the European Union alone they dispose of three billion tonnes of waste including some ninety million tonnes of hazardous waste. This makes up about six tonnes of solid waste for person. It is obvious… [read more]

Sustainable Growth in China Environmental Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Policy Options

Formulation of Laws and Implementing Rules and Regulations: Already there are laws in place that protect the environment in China; however, this is not enough and the existing ones do not have enough "teeth" to really bring home the point of the criticality of protecting the environment without hampering economic growth. Hence, new legislations are needed that will emphasize required contributions from each sector of the Chinese society in contributing to environmental protection. A starting point thereto is the development of clean and alternative energy sources including the use of environmentally-friendly vehicles. China can thus start developing stringent policies on the development of new energy sources such as nuclear, wind, solar and geothermal energy. In addition, policies should also prescribe energy conservation efforts via energy reduction targets. (KPMG Advisory China, 2011) While the key objectives suggest continuation of the policies of the previous plan, new features include innovation-driven industrial policy and more determined steps toward the setup of a low-carbon economy (Lommen, 2011) If China will be success in achieving a balance between continued economic development and sustainable environmental protection with its various policies, the country will then serve as a model in how to achieve to competing factors and make them complement each other.

Policy Recommendation

To ensure that the policies developed will be judiciously followed, China should also form a task force or implementation body that will monitor compliance. But the first act of this body though is not monitoring and execution of policies but rather the body should be charged with developing an education and awareness campaign that will ensure maximum cascading of the policies all over China. The policy implementation should be in stages over a period of time and the end result would be the awareness of Chinese and people within China of the criticality of the environmental protection sustainability laws. Part of the campaign should be enjoining people across the country on how they can contribute -- even in their small ways -- to achieving the overall environmental sustainability of the country. The overall result then should not only be strict implementation and compliance to the established policies but making sure that environmental protection becomes part of the Chinese culture for this generation and succeeding generations.


KPMG Advisory China. (2011, March). China's 12th five-year plan: Overview. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.kpmg.com/cn/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/China-12th-Five-Year-Plan-Overview-201104.pdf

Lommen, Y.F. (2011, May). "Toward sustainable growth in the People's Republic of China: The 12th five-year plan." ADB Briefs No. 7. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.adb.org/documents/briefs/ADB-Briefs-2011-7-PRC-5Year-Plan.pdf

Wong, C. (2010, November 17). "Is China's growth sustainable?" China Hush: Stories of China. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.chinahush.com/2010/11/17/is-chinas-growth-sustainable/… [read more]

Domestic Climate Policy Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (768 words)
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Climate Policy

The late 20th and early 21st brought a significant change to global political and economic policy which directly affected any political or social policy towards ecology and climate issues. The concept of globalization in economic and cultural development is a reality for the 21st century. The Internet and advances in telecommunication has made it easy to do business with any country in the world, to increase cultural and social contact, and to extend more timely communication between individuals. Similarly, the end of the Cold War signaled a different type of realignment of nations -- rather than East West philosophically dividing the world, global cultures are now looking to trade and economic growth to change the pattern of their own structures. The developing world, able to see and hear news and entertainment from the developed world, wants to change. Europe has evolved into a union of concerned states; even the United States, Canada, and Mexico are cooperating on a trade agreement to benefit the Americas. As with any period of growth, there is also strife and disagreement. Rapid development has ecological consequences, and more and more scientists are becoming concerned about the carbon footprint of individual nations, as well as the vast amounts of pollutants being pumped into the air and waters of the world. Humans have come to understand that no one lives in isolation when it comes to ecology -- the world is tied together. Rampant pollution in China does have an effect on other countries of the world, as does the high consumption rate of fossil fuel in the United States (Levin, n.d.; Speth, 2003).

In terms of Domestic Climate Policy framework the United States faces growing pressures to adopt a number of mandatory policies that will impact global climate change. Unfortunately the United States is one of the heaviest users of fossil fuel, resources (electricity, water, natural gas), and high carbon footprints. Great strides have taken place largely due to EPA regulation and political education since the 1960s that are not in place in the developed world, however, domestic climate policy examples that need to be emphasized are:

Mandatory greenhouse gas reduction -- following Kyoto and Copenhagen, Congress has mounting pressure to establish a federal mandatory reduction program that will robustly address the problem and risks associated with global…… [read more]

International Failure on Agreement to Cut in Greenhouse Gases Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (578 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


International Failure on Agreement to Cut in Greenhouse Gases

There is presently much controversy regarding environmental protection and the efforts that each country is willing to make in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Although one might consider that it is not actually difficult for the international public to reach an agreement regarding emission reductions, conditions are critical. One of the reasons for which some countries hesitate to get actively involved in saving the environment is the fact the costs related to doing so are great. World powers such as China and India are perfectly aware that they can benefit from a healthy global environment resulted from an international effort to reduce emissions without actually getting engaged in the process. This acts as a demotivator for countries that are willing to cut greenhouse gas emissions in order to protect the environment.

Harmony is surely not the best word to describe the UN Climate Summit held on Dec 18, 2009, in Copenhagen. A meeting that was expected to generate a series of positive changes regarding environmental protection demonstrated that society is yet to experience progress in the sphere of affairs. Instead of reaching the projected results, the Summit made it clear that some of the most powerful nations on the planet are reluctant to reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly.

Being likely to become world leaders when considering their economy, the Chinese would be seriously affected as a result of participating in reducing emissions. China's emerging industrial economy is supported by fossil fuels, thus meaning that its current evolution would be slowed down because of its involvement in saving the environment. The struggle for power and wealth eventually appears to be perceived as being more important than the struggle to stop…… [read more]

Deforestation Should Be Banned in the United States Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Deforestation Should Be Banned in the United States


As a brief description to the study, deforestation pertains to the removal or eradicating forest in a particular area and then coverts the place into an urbanized community for settlement or for economical value. As a background, deforestation is likely to be the cause of changing our climate over a period… [read more]

Landscape Modeling Xi, Weimin Coulson Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


harvesting timber (Xi et al. 2009: 192). In the case of the Appalachians, computer modeling depicted how different combinations of the impacts of fire and the presence of the southern pine beetle resulted in different environmental responses: "When acting alone, fire leads to conditions favoring pine presence, while SPB disturbance acting alone resulted in the removal of yellow pines" (Xi et al. 2009: 194). Modeling also showed that landscape structure and outbreaks of the beetle were correlated: yellow pines proved to be the likely source of infestation, given that the greater the concentration of the yellow pines. Previous research supports the notion that the more 'pure' the cluster of host plants, the greater the infestation, perhaps because of "low host availability, chemical or physical interference with location of hosts by the insects, and a larger number of parasites and predators" (Xi et al. 2009: 195). Land managers had previously noted that when pines were removed from areas of the forest, there was a drop in infestations. Computer modeling supported this, suggesting a sharp initial drop followed by a steady decline over the next hundred years if yellow pines were thinned out.

Proper conservation efforts must be forward-thinking, and project into the long-term future. Previously, this was almost impossible, other than using existing historical data that might have been subject to uncontrolled variables. With computer modeling, true future projections are possible, and can help give insight into the often-contentious debates that are generated when making decisions about the land that can affect many people's lives and livelihoods. Tampering with the forest environment even to improve it is a weighty responsibility and programs like LANDIS help ensure that better decisions are made, and that the results are more predictable than they would be if the technology had…… [read more]

History of Landscape Patterns Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


, 1999).

One of the major weaknesses of the applied historical ecological approach also relates to its primary strength, which both relate to the quality of the data that is available for incorporation into the analytical model. The adage, "garbage in, garbage out" is certainly applicable here, and Swetnam and his colleagues emphasize the need to carefully interpolate historical data to ensure that potentially misleading or erroneous data is not allowed to skew the interpretation of the findings that emerge from such analyses. In addition, Swetnam et al. cite what they describe as the "no analogue" problem wherein there are no corresponding historic analogs for modern conditions of historic applications of landscapes and vice versa. Notwithstanding these limitations, though, Swetnam et al. conclude that, "Although direct or simple extrapolation of historical patterns or trends into the future is usually erroneous, history can be useful for guiding the development and testing of predictive models" (p. 1200).

This assertion is supported by the findings of a study by Rebertus, Kitzberger, Veblen and Roovers (1997) who investigated historical blowdown patterns of southern Beech stand development over several centuries to determine how periodic large-scale wind disturbance affected landscape pattern in this relatively simple system. According to Rebertus et al., some sections of the study area in the Sierra de las Pinturas section of the Andes in Argentine Tierra del Fuego were affected far more severely than others, but damage patterns during the 20th century discerned from aerial photographs indicate that "few landscape positions escaped being hit by repeated storms" (1997, p. 692).


Balee, W. (1999). Advances in historical ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Rebertus, A.J., Kitzberger, T., Veglen, T.T. & Roovers, L.M. (1997). Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology, 78(3), 678-692.

In Mendeley. Retrieved from http://www.mendeley.com/research/blowdown-history-and-landscape-patterns-in-the-andes-of-tierra-del-fuego-argentina-1/.

Swetnam, T.W., Allen, C.D. & Betancourt, J.L. (1999). Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage…… [read more]

2010 BP Oil Spill Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Tourism and commercial fishing are two of the most affected sectors in Florida's economy. Numerous visitors are likely to have changed their travel plans as a result of observing the effect that the oil spill has on Florida's coasts. Florida's image is based on beautiful beaches, unspoiled marches, and many species of species and wildlife. However, with crude oil invading a series of places in Florida, it is more and more difficult for the tourism industry to attract visitors as it did before the disaster. People living in Florida are also likely to suffer economic loss because the price of real estate located in the proximity of water experiences a constant drop. Many companies in Florida are experiencing financial loss because employees are no longer willing to come to the state. Many were previously accustomed to relocating in Florida despite the fact that wages were low, as they were mainly interested in the scenery that they had access to while living in the area (Harper, p. 2).

From the very first days of the catastrophe the authorities had trouble repairing the leaking well because they were not aware of the amount of oil getting out of the site. BP officials reported that they sealed the well on July 13, 2010, but highlighted that this cap was not permanent and that it was very possible for oil to continue to leak out of the well. It was not until September 19, 2010, that the well was officially sealed ("The Black Gulf: As").

Present day efforts are related to keeping oil on the surface of the water, so as for collecting vessels to be able to control it and in order for deep-sea ecosystems to survive. The authorities are also struggling to take oil away from vulnerable areas to areas that less sensitive. The response from volunteers and from the U.S. military gradually grew as conditions became critical. BP is actively involved in restoring the environment in affected areas and has become a part of the Marine Well Containment Company, which, alongside of ExxonMobil, Shell, ConocoPhilips, and Chevron are working on a system meant to intervene effectively if a underwater blowout takes place. There are presently many techniques that the authorities use in order to remove oil from the Gulf of Mexico. Chemical dispersants have been effectively used on the surface and under water, but they are believed to have several serious side-effects, meaning that those in charge of controlling the disaster are simply prolonging it.

Overall, the BP oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon well can be considered one of the severest man-made disasters that nature has ever experienced. Considering that they frequently occur in the area, a hurricane or a tropical storm would be devastating for people and ecology near the Gulf of Mexico. Some of the most terrible effects of the catastrophe have not surfaced yet and scientists can only estimate the actual damage of the oil spill, especially given that it provokes harm to local economies and ecosystems… [read more]

Landscape Ecology Conventionally Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (581 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The second paper that the author used in the report showed how storms can affect sea grass landscape structure and seed dispersion in a subtropical deep water background. They inspected the spatial changing aspects of an offshore landscape comprised of the sea grass Halophila decipiens following the route of a hurricane and found generation of the original landscape patches when chaos was immense and strong. It was fascinating to learn that in addition, large-scale conflicts can arise in the local relocation of sediment and the seed bank so molding the spatial signature of the developing sea grass land in a midshelf area (Elizabeth K. Hinchey, 2007). This sense of physical disturbance differs from that previously reported for factors influencing spatial arrangements of sea grass in shallow water settings. The article did a remarkable job when it stated how they found a possibly ecologically significant differences amid broken and the infinite landscapes with these results strongly dependent on conducts of prey and harmful organisms and how these behaviors change with landscape construction.

In conclusion, it is clear that the article succeed in highlighting their general impression of the condition of the purpose of landscape approaches to marine and coastal methods in depicting that it is a fast - developing field that holds immense promise. Even though the papers in this exceptional issue of this article described landscape ecology functions in a various of the sea and coastal habitats, several notable habitats incorporating, oyster reefs, salt marshes and the deep sea are not reflected here but have been studied using landscape tactics by others.

Works Cited

Elizabeth K. Hinchey, M.C. (2007, July). Preface: Marine and coastal applications…… [read more]

Nlms Landscape Ecology: Neutral Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



In addition to this description, the purpose of NLMs is stated to be to provide hypothesis, as mentioned above, of models of landscape in order to have a baseline for comparison. Both studies referenced above, and in the footnotes below, are stating the same thing about NLMs, which leads one to believe that truly these processes are useful, especially when tested against real world observations.

The latter study also states that "neutral models are used to:

(1) determine the extent to which structural properties of landscapes deviate from a theoretical spatial distribution;

(2) predict how ecological processes associated with movement are affected by known spatial structure."

This latter definition finally strengthens the definitions and the descriptions presented above, and cements NLMs as processes that can be utilized in real world situations in order to measure important patterns.

Applied Landscape Ecology. (2008). Neutral Landscape Models. NRES 475/675 retrieved from .

Applied Landscape Ecology. (2008). Neutral Landscape Models. NRES 475/675 retrieved from .

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .

Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .… [read more]

Edf Social Change the Environmental Defense Fund Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


EDF Social Change

The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) as a Driver of Social and Political Change

The environmental movement is historically imposed upon the challenge of reconciling the need for greater conservation, sustainability and protection of resources with the thrust for greater industrial development, profitability and consumption. Thus, there is a distinct value in the formation of agencies or organizations with the objective of improving environmental regulations through compromise between these competing interests. This is the premise underlying the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), which was established in 1967 as a way of bringing constructive moderation to the environmental movement.

Effectiveness in Social and Political Change:

More so than many of the environmentally conscious groups that were formed during the burst of conservationist activities in the 1960s, the EDF would be distinguished by the practicality of its objectives. According to the EDF, its primary mission revolves on the achievement of market driven changes that can bring about environmental improvements. As a result, its effectiveness in achieving political change is uniquely effective. Because it proposes inherent compromise in furthering the challenges inherent to sustainability, its orientation is considered far more amicable to businesses and government groups considering meaningful partnerships with moderate and respectable groups. Thus, as the EDF reports of its approach to change, "our solutions take a multidisciplinary approach. We work in concert with other organizations -- as well as with business, government and communities -- and avoid duplicating work already being done effectively by others" (EDF, p. 1)

Its willingness to work closely with members of industry to find solutions that work for all parties has made EDF a successful instigator of progressive change not just by inclining legislative change but also by finding ways to involve corporate players that might otherwise stand as political and ideological enemies. As its own history details, the EDF would be central in advancing approaches to environmental change that are today considered standard. Among them would be partnership with legal teams, economists and corporations in the achievement of their various objectives relating to the use of pesticides, industrial emission standards, regulatory oversight of polluters and efforts aimed at reducing the rapid pace of global climate change. Accordingly, the EDF reports that from the early outset, the agency "began hiring economists, which led to our international prominence in designing market-based solutions. In the 1990s, we pioneered corporate partnerships and some of the first interactive uses of online communications." (EDF, p. 3)

In these regards, the EDF has remained at the forefront of changes not just in environmental law but in how the pursuit of these changes is implemented. The result has been a particular effectiveness not just in establishing political partnerships but also in channeling these partnerships toward meaningful social change. The article by B.F. (1979) would underscore this innovative position in the field by endorsing the view that changes in market tactics should be central to bringing about changes in environmental practice. On this point, B.F. argues that "a reduced rate of energy consumption… [read more]

Green Roofs and Living Wall Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,216 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Green Roofs Living Walls

Green Roofs and Living Walls

Societal Attitudes

Taking a look at the definition of Environmentalism to open this discussion will support the title by explaining a but of what "Green Roofs and Living Walls "is not. The term is described as "persons or groups that have come together to advocate the sustainability of natural resources along with the essential stewardship environments by encouraging changes of public policies and individualistic behaviors" (Webecoist, 2008).

Furthermore, it is "recognizing that our humanity is not an enemy of ecosystems" but a partner. Environmentalism is a movement that has its roots in health, human rights, and ecology (Webecoist, 2008). This is an adequate opening to support the pattern of interest in Green living presented by the WebEcoist (2008). The source WebEcoist came about while seeking an understanding of the subject of environmentalism which is necessary in order to appreciate a practical look at modern day roofing and wall construction. Illuminating how natural roofing can improve the health of individuals, while providing an ecosystem whereby anyone can contribute to the longevity through their habitat.

With issues such as global warming and pollution looming in the headlines, it is wise to consider how to change societal attitudes toward environmentalism. Not by demanding everyone through out their modern day possessions or behaviors, but by introducing new ways to include Green friendly alternatives. When exploring causes of global warming or pollution, authors present a viable argument in re-evaluating building materials used in the many high rise buildings in the big cities such as New York and Chicago, in Chicago Green Roofs (Artic.edu, 2011). Incorporating a partnership between natural living and big city dwelling is to introduce "Green Roofs and Living Wall" concepts as a 'way of life' as mentioned in Enviroscapes Northwest (2009).

History and Culture

Now that an introduction has been given of what Environmentalism is, it's simpler to translate why and the history behind the movement. Amazingly, the movement started in the early 19th century by American authors such as Henry David Thoreau and even President's such as Teddy Roosevelt (Webecoist, 2008). Henry David Thoreau was one of many transcendentalists that showed and wrote about an appreciation of nature in his book "Maine Woods" (Webecoist, 2011). Teddy Roosevelt first approved the setting apart of lands such as Yosemite and establishment of national parks in 1916 (Webecoist, 2008). Ancient civilizations have incorporated Green living as early as the times of Babylon as mentioned by Chicago Green Roofs where the 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon' incorporated natural roofing and gardens (2011).

What are "Green Roofs"

In describing 'Green Roofs' specifically, advocate building roofs of sod and natural materials that grow green plants, even gardens to conserve heat with insulation during winter. In the same manner saving energy and costs associated with cooling homes, through natural means in warmer seasons and climates according to Chicago Green Roofs (2011). In fact this article also provides evidence from actual building projects by architects such as Ricardo Bofill and Gunnar… [read more]

Environmental Issues and Risk Management Research Paper

Research Paper  |  31 pages (7,894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Environmental Issues and Risk Management

Can the construction of hazardous material/waste Contamination storage facilities survive tornadoes at their current protection levels?

Definition of Construction Waste

Construction Waste Generation

Composition of Construction Waste


Development of the Research Project

Brief Description of the Research Methodology


Sustainable Development and Construction Waste Management


Sustainable Construction

Construction Waste Management

Waste Management Hierarchy… [read more]

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