Study "Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays 111-165

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Sustainable Development Is the Process That Responds Term Paper

… Sustainable Development is the process that responds to the needs of current population without destroy any of opportunities and needs for future population.

What Sustainable Development is about:

Environment and Sustainable Development

Over the past decade the idiom of sustainable… [read more]


Habitat Connectivity and Matrix Restoration Article Review

… England, Europe. And the United States are currently leading the way for AES, as Donald & Evans (2006) point out. The AES are costly but may ultimately prove cost-effective as they are the equivalent of preventative medicine for ecosystems.

The authors outline two types of AES, one of which is lower cost but has less of an impact; and the other which is more expensive but more effective. Long-term benefits of AES have yet to be fully realized. Yet some participants do report substantial reintroduction of species and increased biodiversity overall. The extensive impact of AES may be significant, especially in areas where biodiversity was hurt the most by agro-business in the first place.

Moreover, the authors point out that AES is effective in different landscapes and ecosystems from coastal wetlands to inland plains. Each ecosystem will require a unique AES to suit its needs. Yet there are some mitigating circumstances and variables that need to be taken into account when developing and implementing an AES. Island biogeography theory, upon which many AES are built, is limited and potentially misleading because of oversimplification. Climate change may add unpredictable variables and consequences. Whether AES can mitigate climate change is up for debate. AES may encourage -- or discourage -- the spread of invasive or alien species, according to the authors. AES often call for the construction of corridors of renewal, which are not yet proven to be effective. Agro-business has wreaked sufficient havoc on the environment to warrant intervention, though, and AES offer some of the most immediately promising and feasible solutions.

References

Donald, P.F. & Evans, A.D. (2006). Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes. Journal of Applied Ecology (2006) 43, 209 --…… [read more]


Scales Are the Topographical Instruments Essay

… Extrapolating from one to another may be confusing and misleading.

On the other hand, the very study and analysis of the different patterns, processes, and organisms necessitate that scales be drawn up for their survey in order that we make distinctions and categorize them into spatial or temporal dimension. We cannot study ecology or environmental science without scales. We must find a way of dealing with the problems, rather than allowing them to cripple out endeavors to understand and gain more of a comprehension of the natural environment. To that end, Levin (1992), in his McArthur award lecture, suggests that a partial solution may lie in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the observed patterns. Being that perception of human necessarily differs from perception of animal and other natural organisms, their mechanism operate at different scales than those perceived by us and we naturally constrain their patterns by imposing scales. Examining and understanding the underlying mechanism of the behavior of the species can, however, enable us to transcend the human-designed scale by understanding that there can be no single scale at which ecosystems could be described, but that simplification is necessary in order to simplify our studies. Scale issues simply have to be dealt with, as best as we may, and ecologists are still developing methods and modifying former methods in order to do so.

References

Levin, S. (1992).The problem of pattern and scale in ecology, Vol. 73, No. 6., pp. 1943-1967

*Turner, M.G., Gardner, R.H. & . O' Neill, R. (2001) Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice Pattern and Process… [read more]


Carbon Cycle Term Paper

… Carbon Cycle is a complex process that allows carbon, one of the basic components of life on Earth, to recycle and rotate through a series of processes designed to utilize the maximum amount of energy present for the environment. All terrestrial life is based on the element carbon -- which is the basic element of organic matter -- all the way from fossil fuels to complex DNA and RNA molecules that control genetic reproduction. Essentially, plants, animals, and soil interact to make up the most basic cycle of nature. In this cycle, plants absorb the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, combined with water and the process of photosynthesis from light, to make the foods needed for growth -- sugars. One stage of animals, herbivores, ingest the plant material and produce both waste that fertilizes the plants and act as a food source for higher level predators, the carnivores. Any carbon-based life that dies -- human, animal or plant, are buried and may turn into fossil fuels made of carbon or disseminate into other basic substances that nurture plants. The cycle continues and organic carbon is released back into the atmosphere through plant and animal respiration. Carbon released into the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, acts as a greenhouse gas and traps heat in the atmosphere, allowing the planet to be warm. However, human activity and specifically the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, etc.) places more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere artificially and changes the cyclic patterns.

The water, or hydrological, cycle, is the continuous movement of water above, on, and below the earth. Like the carbon cycle, it is a natural process in which the amount of available water on the planet remains relatively consistent. Essentially, water moves from one reservoir to another -- and changes states from liquid, vapor, and ice during various places within the cycle. Large bodies of water (rivers, oceans, etc.) act as a catch place for water, and through run off and evaporation, the water is moved into the atmosphere (evaporation, condensation, precipitation) and then flows back to the earth. Some of the water is trapped in ice, acting as a long-term storage vessel. The carbon cycle impacts the water cycle in several ways: the water cycle also involves the exchange of heat energy -- thus temperature.…… [read more]


Benefits of Recycling Research Paper

… ¶ … Recycling

What are the tangible benefits to be achieved when a community becomes involved in a recycling program? The first and most obvious benefit of recycling, as this paper will reflect, is the responsible reclaiming of the materials… [read more]


Agriculture Practices Have Significant Impact Research Paper

… Government should also encourage mariculture and aquaculture. There is also a need of improving current legislation on that matter. Coffee plantations require excessive use of water which is creating negative impacts on the environment. It's the responsibility of government to… [read more]


Ecological Systems Theory and Person-in-Environment Assessment

… ; and, Analyze the overall parallel of morals and ethics that exist. Having all these facts in hand will help us create suitable, quick and sustainable solutions for the problems that communities face.

Use of Podcasts in Social Work

The use of podcasts in social work can be very useful as they can help: Provide a mentor for the children and families inside the comfort of their very homes; tackle different issues like education, health, social structures, feedback, etc. In one publication; The overall impact of a social work strategy can be easily recorded, documented and them marketed for more penetrating influence; The social work improvement structure will break the time and space barrier; Help in communicating loopholes in the education, social and political structures through open discussion form experts; Broadcast interviews from experts that highlight the necessary solutions to the general problems of the households and the communities; take the stress off of the teachers to be the sole source of stability in the families' lives; and, promote certain standards of ethics and morals on a regular basis through motivational speeches, etc.

Creative Ending Rituals

Creating endings rituals of the social work is as important as the social work itself as they leave a lasting impact and sometimes are the decisive factors that can ensure the sustainability of a social work strategy. My personal strengths of observation, collecting relevant information, analysis and clarification will perhaps be most useful in designing creative ending rituals as they will help in designing customized and motivational ending rituals where the targeted family or group will be tackled as a sole entity and will hence engage them in activities that will provide them with the confidence and the will from within to help in…… [read more]


Sustainable Development in the South Essay

… ( )

It is reported that making these problems worse is that fact that countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and other such regions characterized by poverty is that they are

"controlled by small elite groupings that control a disproportionately large share… [read more]


White Noise Analysis and the Land Ethic Essay

… Land Ethic and White Noise

Don DeLilo's novel White Noise examines the variety of anxieties affecting people in the late-Cold War and contemporary period, with certain portions focused especially on the role mass media plays in the construction of ideas… [read more]


Managing the Human Resource Assessment

… ¶ … ecological approaches provide a strong perspective to understanding complex relationships between humans & the biosphere?

Whether the thesis statement regarding ecological approaches giving rise to a strong understanding of complex relationships between humans and the biosphere is accurate… [read more]


U.S. Military and Environmental Law Research Paper

… 3). Actually, "pollution from aircraft is currently less than 3% of the total environmental pollution" ("online guide," 2006). The Pentagon has been accused of creating five times more toxins that produced by the five major chemical companies in the U.S.… [read more]


Ecosystem, Which Is a Biological Research Paper

… Eventually, the younglings grow up to become workers and participate in nest activity. By the late summer, the queen begins to reproduce and the colony population has reached it maximum limit. Once the season ends, this whole cycle of nesting and repopulation starts again.

In terms of controlling wasp nests, for mud daubers, it is important to remove mud nests and to seal off places like garages or buildings. As for paper wasps, aerosol sprays are to be used to control them containing rapid knockdown chemicals like resmethrin and pyrethrins. Nests are to be destroyed at night since wasps are inactive at the time and the majority of the species are situated within this locale. Grantham (2004) noted that "structural nests (e.g., wall voids) are best controlled by an initial application of 5% carbaryl dust with a generator, followed quickly with 1% resmethrinthe entrance should be plugged, preferably with steel wool, and dusted with 5% carbaryl to kill returning wasps."

Bald-faced hornet whose nests are aerial and are constructed of grey paper, they are treated using the aforementioned aerosol products that contain knock down ingredients. They are used to spray at the entrance of the nest, which is located near the lower pinnacle of the nest. Next, the wasps' home is then soaked and the process is repeated until such critters are gone. Unfortunately, the hardest to treat nests are those that are in the holes of walls or cavities in homes since it is hard to locate the location of the home. As a result, ingredients and things used to treat wasps may pollute unnecessary areas. However, it is easy to treat nests that are in the ground because insecticide dust can be applied at the entrance of the wasps' home and covered with moist soil. Moreover, wasps are attracted to human food so sanitation and hygiene is important. Therefore, food should be covered at all times, spills and leaks should be cleaned up, and garbage cans should be tightly sealed.

Charles Darwin once said, "I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars." However, it is the role wasps play in the environment as a form of biological pest control. In addition, such insects, whether solitary or social, build annual nests as a form of shelter whether it is in the ground, on walls, or in cavities. The population of wasps is controlled through the use of aerosol sprays, sealing proper open spaces, and precautionary hygienic measures when it comes to food and odors. Overall, the paper has researched the various aspects of wasps, which include their duty, shelter, and control within the universal habitat.

References

Bianchi, F., & Wackers, F. (2008). Effects of flower attractiveness and nectar availability in field margins on biological control by parasitoids. Biological Control, 46(3), 400-408.

Grantham, R., & Wright, R. (2004, November 19). Paper Wasps, Yellowjackets, and Other Stinging Wasps. OSU-Oklahoma Cooperative… [read more]


Pollution According to the EPA ) Research Paper

… Pollution

According to the EPA (2011), pollution prevention "is reducing or eliminating waste at the source by modifying production processes, promoting the use of non-toxic or less-toxic substances, implementing conservation techniques, and re-using materials rather than putting them into the… [read more]


European and International Environmental Laws Essay

… RCRA, like CERCLA, has provisions to require cleanup of contaminated sites that occurred in the past.

The E.U. Strategy

According to a paper prepared for the conference on European Management of Globalization (Feb.23, 2007 at Princeton University) by R. Daniel… [read more]


Politics and Ecological Sustainability Article

… Politics & Ecological Sustainability

The relationship between politics and ecological sustainability has involved an inverse power struggle between political leaders whom seek to enable corporate success and the ecologists whom fear the poisoning of the earth and other forms of… [read more]


Pollution and the Gulf of Mexico Essay

… ¶ … environmental impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. In particular, we evaluate its effect on the aquatic life. This paper discusses the various adverse ways in which the oil spill affects aquatic life with the aim of… [read more]


Should the Government Ban Bottled Water? Research Paper

… ¶ … Bottled Water Be Banned?

Why are Americans, Europeans, and other citizens around the globe buying bottled water in such enormous quantities? What is wrong with the water their communities provide? These questions are the essence of the issues… [read more]


Effect of Information and Communication Technologies on Environmental Sustainability Term Paper

… ¶ … sky may not be actually falling, but environmentalists are sounding the clarion call that the earth is in big trouble and action needs to be taken now to avoid potentially disastrous consequences in the future. In fact, global… [read more]


Humans Have Affected the Antarctic Food Web Term Paper

… ¶ … humans have affected the Antarctic food web

Human activities have a generally devastating impact upon the surrounding natural environment. The United States of America is for instance the single consumer of one third of annual natural resources in one year. By keeping up this rate, the planet would only be able to support human life for another estimated five decades (Leonard). The irony consists in the fact that humans do not intend to harm the environment, nor are they always aware of the dangers they create. Relevant examples in this sense are constituted by the melting of the glaciers or by the decay of the food web in the Antarctic Ocean. The populations across the world do not realize that their actions impact regions so far away, but fact is that they do.

The food web in the Antarctic is suffering severe reductions as a result of three elements, all created by mankind, and all not engaged in with the intent to harm the environment. These three causes refer to the following:

The thinning of the ozone layer

The increase in global temperatures, and The harvesting of krill.

The harvesting of krill is the action of commercial fishermen who seek to create food for their fish and as such to better support their aquaculture businesses. This however endangers the other species which depend on krill, such as the baleen whales. In terms of global warming and the thinning of the ozone layer, these are interconnected in the meaning that global warming generates the thinning of the ozone layer (Naik, 2010). The phenomena are generated by a series of man made activities which cause pollution, greenhouse gases and as such the two devastating outcomes. Some of the causes of global warming and the thinning of the ozone layer include:

The excessive use of fossil fuels

The burn of the fossil fuels to create increased carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases

Massive deforestations which disturb the balance of the eco system, increase temperatures and reduce the planet's ability to fight off pollution

The dumping of industrial waste in waters and the direct result of their contamination.

The scientific assessment of the situation has led to the creation of an objective, documented and real finding, according to which the food web is in danger due to human activities. The approach of the problem is a scientific one, which revolves around an integrated global approach to reduce pollution. At an overall level, it is necessary to reduce the threats of global warming and the thinning of the ozone layer. In order to accomplish this however, it is not sufficient for the populations in the Antarctic region to reduce their own levels of…… [read more]


Sustainability of Forest Logging in Tasmania AUS Essay

… Sustainability of Forest Logging in Tasmania, Australia

This is a case study about the sustainability problems of the ongoing logging actions taking place in Tasmania, Australia. The case study focuses on the current situation of logging in Tasmania and reasons… [read more]


Environment Is an Important Factor Which Needs Essay

… ¶ … environment is an important factor which needs to be considered by companies these days. Customers expect them to adhere to eco-friendly standards in order to serve their part in safeguarding the environment. While this might appear to cut down profits, it helps them in achieving a responsible social image which attracts more customers. There are several ways in which companies have been getting involved in environmentally friendly activities. Small and medium sized enterprises (SME's) are playing their parts by increasing the use of email and phone, reducing paper-based mails. Storing and distributing company information via online storage and discs results in a lesser number of trees being sacrificed to manufacture paper. This approach helps in shrinking the amount of waste generated and cutting down expenses which greatly helps SME's with limited finances.

Larger companies can follow a similar approach along with incorporating renewable sources of energy in their projects. Green building techniques using systems to collect rain water, efficient windows, active and passive solar panels can help in promoting a cleaner environment apart from lowering expenses. Large companies have the potential of spending a lot of money in developing new technologies which can allow effective recycling. Every product developed by a company needs to have their future impacts analyzed before sending them out in the market. There are no set rules which ask these companies to follow recycling practices. However there are numerous advantages which are associated with them. It makes sense to use recycled paper in packaging materials which are usually thrown away. Unwanted electronic parts could be very harmful to the environment if disposed off without proper treatment. Reusing them in manufacturing new products…… [read more]


Green Interior Design Just a Short Few Research Paper

… Green Interior Design

Just a short few years ago "green building," "green living" and "sustainable development" were ideas and concepts known almost exclusively to the environmental and conservation movement. And to perhaps a few progressive builders and custom designers. But… [read more]


Environmental Ethics Term Paper

… Environmental Ethics: From Philosophy to Movement

Prior to the introduction of major legislation concerning the environment, it had been a popularly accepted notion that our utilization of the earth would be subject to no limitations. Our manifold purposes, pertaining to… [read more]


Environmental Psychology Term Paper

… The other similarity between the two designs is that proper and appropriate lighting must be used so as to reduce the level of accidents while at the same time setting the right mood.

The first major differences that exist between residential and commercial design is the purpose of the design itself. Residential design is targeted towards the attainment of good houses and apartments that accommodate persons and households while commercial design is targeted towards the achievement of well protected and stable structures to be used for the purpose of doing business or an enterprise. The other difference is that residential design usually involves the design of small sized structures while commercial design involves the design of both small sized structure and even superstructures such as warehouses.

An evaluation of warehouses which form part of commercial design reveal that commercially designed buildings are have big and sparse empty spaces and high walls. The building must also be fitted with appropriate ventilation devised. Precautionary elements such as the existence of fire escapes and evacuation assembly points are also included in such designs.

An evaluation of residential design reveals a very good management of the available space and a careful manipulation of color and light in order to achieve the right mood. The building built with comfort in mind and therefore properly sized furniture and finish is applied so as to achieve the desired effect

The study of environmental psychology identifies the importance to be problem-oriented. Environmental psychology focuses on environmental bottlenecks such as density of a place and crowding conditions, pollution caused by noise, levels of sub-standard living, and effects of urban decay as postulated by (Proshansky; The Field of Environmental Psychology: p. 1477). High noise levels increases the amount of environmental stress. However, it has been discovered that control and due predictability are the most important factors in the evaluation of stressful effects of pollution caused by noise; the attributes to include the context, the pitch, the source and the degree of habituation which are the most important variables to be considered in the field of environmental design. Therefore, psychologists have concluded that the level of density and effects of crowding can also have bad effects on the mood of persons and can consequently lead to stress-related illnesses. In order to comprehend and tackle environmental problems, the environmental psychologists utilize several concepts and principles that should be applicable directly from the actual physical settings to the problems being solved (Proshansky; The Field of Environmental Psychology: Securing Its Future; p. 1476). Environmental psychology therefore is a great factor in the design, the level of comfort and ambiance of each and every building whether it is commercial or residential.

Bibliography

Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.

Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future

Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp.…… [read more]


Remote Sensing Satellite Images in Coastal Environments Thesis

… Remote Sensing (satellite Images) in Coastal Environments

Remote sensing in costal environments: Methodology and uses

The methods for using remote sensing in coastal environments

Remote sensing "involves the measurement of electromagnetic radiation reflected from or emitted by the Earth's surface and the relating of these measurements to the types of habitat or the water quality in the coastal area being observed by the sensor" (Edwards 2009). "Remote sensing provides a synoptic portrait of the Earth's surface by recording numerical information on the radiance measured in each pixel in each spectral band of the image being studied. To create a habitat map, the operator must instruct the computer to treat certain reference pixels as belonging to specific habitats. The computer then creates a 'spectral signature' for each habitat and proceeds to code every other pixel in the image accordingly, thus creating a thematic map" (Mumby & Green 2009).

The results of using remote sensing in coastal environments and the role of remote sensing in changing the understanding of coastal environments

The use of remote sensing to assess the damage done to costal environments has become increasingly important, and has been facilitated by the greater ease of use of computer-based self-tutoring packages. Remote sensing is a relatively unobtrusive, zero-impact, yet comprehensive method of assessing an environment's current conditions and future needs. For example, it has recently proved effective in understanding the damage done to the coastal and marine environment of the Gulf States. This is critical "given the important commercial interests" in the region's natural resources combined with the potential that exists for the exploitation of the "fragile" coast (Sudarshana 2009).

The use of airborne and space-borne imaging sensors over the last two decades has also played a role in mapping areas difficult to reach by sea or land, such as the complex landscapes of French Guiana (Polidori, 2009, p. 627). "The permanent evolution of this environment is a concern for decision makers, since the population and the economic activity of this region are concentrated along the coast. Sea defense operations and coastal infrastructure management (polders, harbors), as well as ecosystem preservation programs, require a better understanding and a regular monitoring of the coast line evolution" (Polidori, 2009, p.627). From an environmental perspective, the use of remote sensing does not disturb the local population, or the flora or fauna, yet presents an environmental snapshot of the area that can be analyzed, so recommendations can be made as to how to improve the balance between inhabitants and the natural world.

The benefits and limitations of using remote sensing in coastal environments

The majority of current multispectral sensors have rows of multiple detectors. Each row is able to view one type of light. Each detector can view one pixel. An aircraft or satellite carrying the entire sensor moves and records the amount of light being reflected, which creates a digital image based upon the image presented by the detectors. The advantages of using such a digital image (an image made up of numbers) is… [read more]


Passamaquoddy Tribe and Harbour Porpoise Thesis

… Passamaquoddy Tribe & Harbor Porpoise

Running Page: OPPOSING TRIBAL INSULT AND ENVIRONMENTAL ONSLAUGHT

Passamaquoddy Tribe and Harbor Porpoise

History of the Passamaquoddy Tribe

Historical records say that the Passamaquoddy people were the first inhabitants of the Quoddy area in Maine… [read more]


Environmental Ethics and Morality Thesis

… Environmental Ethics and Morality

What kind of ethical posture does the United States Government put forward with reference to the environment? Is the U.S. considered a nation that protects and nurtures the wildlife and its habitat? Are their policies and… [read more]


Identifying Sustainability Plan Effect Research Proposal

… Princeton Sustainability

Identifying Sustainability Plan Effect

Princeton University's Sustainability Plan: Changing the assumptions of operations and people

Princeton University's Sustainability Plan: Changing the assumptions of operations and people

Overall business strategy: Mission and vision

Culture and values

Princeton University is one of the premier research universities in the world. Its departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Engineering, and Geosciences have all made a significant contribution to the current research being done at a university level to improve the quality of the world's environment. Princeton encourages interdisciplinary research on the environment through its Program in Ecosystems and Biogeochemistry. As a research university with an unparalleled focus on the education of its undergraduates (Princeton, unlike Harvard and Yale, has no schools of medicine or law) it is committed to improving the minds but also the behavior and attitudes of its young students. It is a not-for-profit institution designed to promote knowledge and the advancement of human life all over the world, as well as within its walls. The research conduced by faculty, undergraduates, and graduate students is designed to be world-changing, not merely profitable. Profits come secondary to human improvement.

On February 18, 2008 Princeton University released a long-term sustainability plan. In the plan, Princeton University states that it believes that its greatest potential contribution to the world is through what may derive from the research at its facilities: "As important as it is for Princeton to reduce its own impact on the environment, the most fundamental contribution that the University will make to the future well-being of the planet will come from the research of our faculty and students that creates a path for environmental progress and alternative energy sources." The plan notes that at the very beginning of its history, Princeton's president ordered the planting of trees as a critical component of giving back to the environment. This demonstrates that as Princeton 'takes' from the earth because of the great sprawl of its facilities and the wear and tear put upon the environment by its concentrated population, Princeton has been an environmental leader and tried to give back to the earth.

Organization: Enabling technology and processes

Organizational design

While students and professors in environmentally focused majors concentrate their research on sustainability that will affect the world, Princeton is also trying to ensure that begins to fulfill its mission to improve the planet close to home, namely on campus. Thus, it has made a commitment to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in writing through its 2008 Sustainability Plan, which sets concrete objectives for the university's current and future operations and for its student body.

First and foremost, the 2008 Plan affirms the real, demonstrable impact of global warming in the world today: "The impacts of human…… [read more]


International Environmental Thesis

… International Environmental Law

International law takes multiple different formats. One format is law as determined by the United Nations. Such laws cover all member states, although there are limited enforcement mechanisms. The UN currently has half a dozen bodies that are responsible for the development and codification of international law (United Nations, 2008). These laws have at various times governed environmental issues. For example, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) set up the Convention on Biological Diversity, which among other tasks protects endangered species (CBD, 2009).

Other forms of international law are treaties and multinational agreements. These are agreements negotiated between different countries. The countries involved are then bound by the terms of these treaties. Enforcement mechanisms for these treaties and multilateral agreements are embedded in the treaty and therefore can vary significantly from one treaty to another. These treaties address issues of mutual or regional interest, including the management of share environmental resources.

Nations are bound by the terms of international law. For example, the CBD has the power to list a species as endangered. This restricts trade in such species, and nations have an obligation to uphold these laws, both in their border security and in internal activities. African nations, for example, must enforce protections afforded to ivory-bearing animals under international law. In many cases, nations augment the protections in international law with their own national laws. National laws typically come with greater enforcement power.

When a nation becomes a signatory to a treaty or multilateral agreement, its rights and obligations are defined by the terms of that agreement. The rights and obligations under such treaties are subject to enforcement by other members of the treaty, typically through quasi-judiciary bodies. For example, the International Whaling Commission must obey the limits on whale hunting and trading or face sanction under the terms of the agreement. As the commission expands its mandate to include all aspects of whale conservation, such as ecological considerations and preventative measures, signatories are obligated to follow through on these initiatives, in addition to their original set of obligations (Currie, 2007). A multilateral agreement or treaty does not contain rights or obligations for non-signatory nations.

There are hundreds of international conferences that cover environmental legal issues. The aforementioned International Whaling Commission is one such agreement. The IWC was the culmination of a conference addressing the issue of the declining whaling industry in Washington DC in 1946. The functional purpose of the IWC is to "provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks" (IWC, 2009). Beyond this, however, the IWC was a…… [read more]


Ethics and Ecology Essay

… Ecological Ethics

Blackstone's Error in His Ethics and Ecology

The topic of environmental ethics is one of the most politically and socially sensitive issues of our modern age, with debates occurring on many levels and from many angels. The issue of whether or not mankind is truly and permanently altering the Earth's environment -- and if so, to what degree -- still leads to heated disagreements between many politicians and scientists. In addition, even among environmental scientists and policy makers that have reached a general consensus on the state of our environment and human responsibility for it, there are many different opinions on what if anything should be done about it. Economic considerations complicate the issue still further; reducing emissions of pollutants and ensuring better environmental practices comes at a higher cost of doing business. Many say that these higher costs are the price we must pay to ensure a safe and livable environment for future generations, while others point to out that such restrictions simply will not be supported by a capitalist system -- no reasonable company would choose to increase its cost of doing business and so reduce their profits and make themselves less competitive than other competing companies.

In his Ethics and Ecology, William T. Blackstone addresses the issue not from a scientific or political viewpoint (though his arguments certainly have implications in both of these arenas), but from a philosophical and ethical one. There are several points to his argument that ultimately lead him to the conclusion that humanity must take responsibility for the environment regardless of the economic and/or political impacts that such shifts in our species' behavior would cause. An examination of his argument reveals the flaw in his conclusions.

First, Blackstone attempts to establish that the right to a livable and healthy environment is an unalienable right, in the same vein as Locke's assertion that freedom, life, and property were natural human rights. In order to prove this, Blackstone establishes the commonalities of human life and what are considered the natural human rights. He asserts, in what is already fairly well established modern liberal political thinking, that "the whole point of the state is to restrict unlicensed freedom and to provide the conditions for equality of rights for all." That is, freedom in a society is not unlimited, nor should it be; this type of lawlessness puts the weak at the mercy of the strong, whereas the laws of a government ensure the greatest amount of freedom for the greatest number of people. As this philosophical viewpoint is the basis for almost all democratic thinking and modern (at least Western) government, it is difficult to disagree with…… [read more]


Environmental Crime the National Environmental Policy Act Essay

… Environmental Crime

The National Environmental Policy Act

The National Environmental Policy Act or NEPA became law on January 1, 1970. The law was intended to create a national policy in the country which was aimed in the first instance at… [read more]


Environmental Justice and Executive Order 12898 Research Proposal

… ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE & EXECUTIVE ORDER 12898

The objective of this work is to examine whether the issuance of Executive Order 12898 in 1994 has made a recognizable difference in assisting the environmental justice movement reach its goal of achieving environmental… [read more]


Environmental Policies Essay

… Environmental Policies

Give an example of an ecosystem and use this example to describe the concepts of "input-output," "source-sink relationship," and feedback.

An ecosystem refers to separate units consisting of groups of nonliving things, plants and animals interacting with each… [read more]


Mangrove Restoration of the Indian River Lagoon in the Face of Global Climate Change Term Paper

… Indian River Lagoon Mangrove Restoration

Global Climate Change and Mangrove Restoration of the Indian River Lagoon

Mangrove forests form an important part of the Florida coastal ecosystem. The Indian River Lagoon is an important global resource, as this area is… [read more]


Invasive Species Term Paper

… Invasive Species: The Cane Toad

Origins

The Cane toad, or also known as the Marine toad (Bufo marinus) is not indigenous to the Florida region. It is also toxic and is especially dangerous to small animals. (Florida Wildlife Extension at UF/IFAS) the Cane toad is an invasive species that was introduced into the region and the country as a form of biological control against insect pests and threats to crops, including sugarcane (100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species).

The Cane toad originality is to be found in the Amazon Basin in South America north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. (Florida Exotics species, Species results) the population of this toad that occurs in the Florida region has its origins in an accidental release of about one hundred toads by an importer at the Miami International Airport in 1955. The spread of these creatures was further facilitated when a canal was constructed in 1958, linking the Blue Lagoon with South Florida's extensive canal system. (Florida Exotics species, Species results)

Impact

The Cane toad has a specific and in some cases extensive impact on the environment in various ways. Bufo marinus has been called, "...one of the 100 worst invasive species worldwide by the Invasive Species Specialist Group" (ADW: Bufo marinus: Information)

One of the most serious aspects of the impact of these toads is on the environment and the ecosystem. Cane toads are extremely voracious and eats almost any other organic life form. This has resulted in a decline of natural predators in the regions, as the indigenous animals of the area have no natural protection against the imported toxin that the toad carries. "As an introduced species, B. marinus can negatively impact native species and predator assemblages through competition, predation, and toxicity of its eggs or metamorphosed individuals" (Bufo marinus - Linnaeus, 1758). This has therefore resulted in an imbalance in the fauna and natural ecosystems of the area.

Costs and the impact on native species.

The costs of this invasive species in the region are hard to calculate in a definitive sense. The most obvious cost is to the environment and to the imbalance in the natural ecosystems of the area. This has resulted in additional costs because of the necessity of restoring this balance. It is estimated that the cost that the Cane toad has inflicted on property…… [read more]


Aquatic Buffers Term Paper

… Environmental Aquatic Buffers

Maintaining environmental aquatic buffers is essential in the structure and concept of the design. Without proper maintenance, any of these buffers would cease to provide the valuable protection so needed in both urban and rural areas. Urban areas with buffer zones especially need to be well kept, for much run off from these areas is exactly what engineers and environmental activists were hoping to exclude with their designs, harmful toxins and sediment. Specific zones of urban areas need special attention as to not disturb the natural spring water and wetland areas (Stormwatercenter.net). The excessive amounts of harmful chemicals makes the efficiency of the aquatic buffers so important in more urban environments,

Both individuals and local government agencies have been known to completely miss the boundaries of the buffer zones, and therefore forsaking them to the detrimental toxins associated with urban development towards delicate wetland areas. After several cases of individuals unknowingly ignoring boundary lines, government ordinances were set in place which restrict development in certain areas and ensure the protection of the buffer zones from the encroachment of business or residential development. Recent management of buffer zones requires clearly visible signs of buffer areas and more specific restrictions of the usages of the three different core zones. Modern ordinances require restricted usages of the middle and inner core zones in order to further protect buffer areas. The inner core is highly restricted, development s restricted to flood water ways, foot paths, and utility paths. The middle core is also restricted, but has more flexibility in development. The outer core zone is unrestricted, and can include the development of residential usages such as lawns, (Article #41: Invisibility of Stream and Wetland Buffers in the Field).

With the right design and proper maintenance of the buffer areas, they can be efficient in removing pollution from natural water streams and wetlands. By…… [read more]


Florida's Water Source Term Paper

… Florida's Water

Developing Water Issues in Florida

The Hydrologic Cycle

The hydrologic cycle is the process by which water moves through the environment. Surface water evaporates or transpires from surface collections and plants to condense in the atmosphere as clouds.… [read more]


Environmental Toxicology Nitrogen Dioxide Term Paper

… Nitrogen Dioxide

KILLING U.S. SOFTLY?

Chemical and Physical Data

Nitrogen Dioxide or NO2 is a red-brown or yellow liquid, which becomes a colorless solid at a specific temperature (EPA 2007). It is a non-combustible component of automotive exhaust fumes. It… [read more]


Environmental Determinism and Environmental Probabilism Term Paper

… DETERMINISM and. PROBABILISM

ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM and. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBABILISM

In expert opinion, human beings are stated to possess the innate ability to respond to the environment in which they live, and thereafter, consciously alter it. At the same time, feel experts,… [read more]


Environmental Concerns Term Paper

… Environmental Concerns

In 1900, the beginning of the 20th century, the world population was 1,650,000. In July, 2007, the world's population had reached over 6.6 billion. Such an impressive population boom has brought about extreme usage of resources which has… [read more]


Environmental Problems Term Paper

… Environmental Problems: The Caspian Region

There has been a considerable growth in the interest and concern about the global environment during the past decade. Governments, policy makers and environmental bodies are becoming more involved in the way that problems such… [read more]


Environmental Degradation and Poverty Term Paper

… Environmental Degradation and Poverty

There is a deep-rooted relationship between environmental degradation and poverty although the link is often poorly understood by policy makers at the international and local levels, as well as the poor people themselves. As a result, efforts to fight poverty in recent decades have shown decidedly slow progress, and even today, almost half of the world's people live on less than $2 a day and more than 1 billion live on $1 or less a day ("Assessing Environment's..." 2005, p.10). This paper examines the ways in which environmental degradation causes poverty by looking at both sides of the issue, and discusses some possible solutions to the problem.

The poor are particularly vulnerable to environmental degradation because most of world's poorest population lives in rural areas and is critically dependant for their livelihoods and well-being on environmental factors such as fertile soil, clean water and healthy ecosystems. This has been conclusively shown in recent reports prepared for Poverty-Environment Partnership -- a network of bilateral aid agencies -- by international agencies such as UNDP, UNEP, IIED, IUCN and WRI. One of these reports, "Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty..." (2005), drawing on various well-documented UN studies, show that a majority of poor people in rural areas draw much of their incomes directly from forests, pastures, fisheries or farming with nearly 1.1 billion people worldwide depending on forests alone for their livelihood (p. 10). In certain parts of the world, the poor people's dependence on "environment income" is particularly pronounced: in Cambodia, for instance, fuel-wood, fishing and mangroves contributes as much as 58% of the household income of the low-income groups. The importance of 'environmental wealth' to the economies of poorer countries can be gauged from the estimate that such wealth accounts for 26% of the total wealth of low-income countries, versus only 2% of wealth in OECD countries. (Word Bank Study quoted in "Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty..." 2005, p. 5)

Apart from providing a substantial part of household incomes of the poor, ecosystems also provide essential services for sustenance of key areas such as food production, water quality and availability, disease management and climate regulation. Unfortunately, most Ecosystem Assessment studies indicate that a majority of these services are being "used unsustainably and the capacity for continued delivery of these services is being persistently eroded." (Ibid., p. 6) to make matters worse, poverty mapping studies have confirmed that the poor tend to live in areas with stressed and/or low-quality environmental resources, such as land of naturally low soil fertility, polluted air, contaminated water and water shortages. This makes them more vulnerable to degradation of the fragile ecosystem such as the fertility of land and the quality of water resources, which is occurring at an alarming rate due to their over-exploitation (Ibid.)

Moreover, the poor are particularly vulnerable to both natural as well as man-made environmental hazards, e.g., storms, floods and droughts (natural hazards) and air and water pollution (man-made hazards). Their vulnerability to these hazards is enhanced… [read more]


Environmental Protection Term Paper

… ¶ … Environmental protection [...] what environmental protection is, and why it is vital in today's global culture. Environmental protection can be classified as anything done to help protect the environment in any way possible, from buying a fuel-efficient vehicle… [read more]


Sustainability Movement Term Paper

… Sustainability

For the planet and her people to survive, the world's people must embrace the sustainability movement, for modern man is using up the Earth's resources at an alarming, and perhaps catastrophic rate.

Define Sustainability

Use national and international definitions.… [read more]


Global Warming and International Relations the Environment Term Paper

… Global Warming and International Relations

The environment and its cleanliness are vitally important for the survival of the human race. This is true in the United States, and in other countries all over the world. Because it is such an… [read more]


Enviroprop Business Proposal

… Enviroprop

The following project is proposed in order to promote awareness by citizens towards the environment; on-going field trips and summer camps conducted by concerned environmentalists, scientists and instructors. These excursions will be offered to students from Baltimore schools that will be grouped by ages and interests. These groups will then spend the bulk of each day of the camp exploring forests, swamps, the ocean and lakes as well as spending time in a camp laboratory and classrooms.

Educational materials will be provided for each student, as well as hands-on experiences including; water testing for salinity, pH., turbidity, water temperature and tides, as well as crab tagging, investigating plankton, fish feeding behavior, humidity, acid rain, hot and cold convection, currents, under pressure, salinity in soil, indoor CO2, noise pollution, evaporation, plot sampling, composts, soil composition, respiration in plants and animals, bird tagging, soil microorganism feeding behaviors and much, much more.

Such a project is needed on a very large scale and could be implemented in the Baltimore area in a cost effective and efficient manner that could provide society with a method and model for future environmental camps strategically held throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

Plans for the indoctrination of environmental guidelines and beliefs on these young impressionable minds could not only prove to be very effective but are likely to lead to long-term benefits for the environment as well as the environmental movement.

The outdoor experiences supplied by these camps for these young individuals could lead to life-long understanding and a solid empathy of the environment and its effects on society by those who do not understand those effects.

Evaluating the results…… [read more]


Exponential Population Growth Term Paper

… Exponential Population Growth & its Effects

Today, the human population of the world is over six billion. There are fears that it might double in this century. This rapid growth in population means little to most people living in this world but it's a phenomenon that should be a cause of concern of all and sundry. It is however strange that among the people living in different parts of the world very few know the population of the world, of their nation, or of the state where they reside. They don't know why they should. No authority has ever told them it was important to know those numbers, except to say that, in general, the more people the better. No one has ever told them that, unless people only replace themselves, unless couples on average have no more than two children, population will grow ever faster, compounding like money in the bank to unimaginably large numbers, a phenomenon called exponential population growth. The human population reached a figure of about 2,000,000,000 and it took from the start of the human history to industrial revolution around 1945 for the human species to reach to this figure. If we then look at the figures after 1945 then we would realize that this figure has more than doubled and even tripled. There is a fear that if left uncontrolled and if this figure keeps on growing exponentially then this could reach a total of 9,000,000,000 during the rest of our lifetimes.

Environmental Effects

Rapid increase in population worldwide had a greater geological impact visible to all. The worst impact of population explosion has shown itself through global warming, which is already having harmful effects. The harmful effects of changes in environment are creating problems in areas where there might not be an issue of over population. For example, in Arctic regions, structures built atop permafrost are collapsing. Polar ice is melting, releasing freshwater flows that may alter the great ocean circulations, changing climates, temperatures, and agricultural production over vast areas. Also, high mountain glaciers and snowfields are no longer reliable sources of spring river flows, so that water for agriculture does not arrive at the time and in the quantities most needed. Environmental problems have always been man made, but never before on such a scale. Forest encroachment, deforestation, fuel-wood depletion, soil erosion, declining fish and animal stocks, inadequate and unsafe water and air pollution are some of the problems that environment is facing due to over population. There is a constant debate about the relationship between population and environmental degradation. "The population continues to grow until the available resources are consumed. After that point in time a die-off occurs. The magnitude of the die-off and the amount of habitat damage (affecting the resource base for survivors of the future) reflects in part the degree of excess population above capacity prior to the die-off. For example, small group of 25 reindeer were released on the 41 square-mile Saint Paul Island off the coast… [read more]


Environmental History Distinguishing Characteristics of Preservationism Term Paper

… Preservationism

289 of The Idea of Wilderness, Max Oelschlaeger presents an abbreviated outline of the preservationist philosophy and practice. Preservationism stands nearly diametrically opposed to the resource-based theory underlying current environmental policy and legislation. The resourcist picks nature apart in order to harvest its components for economic gain; the preservationist on the other hand, honors the integrity of the whole as well as the inherent value of its parts. Thus, the preservationist views wilderness not as a collection of resources to be harvested for cash but as an ecosystem with nearly sacred wholeness and integrity. The difference between resourcism and preservationism parallels the rift between Modernism and holism.

In table 5 on p. 289, Oelschlaeger lists five main features of preservationism. First, preservationism proposes a "self-creating" ecosystem that should be viewed in terms of "evolutionary wholes with synergetic characteristics that preclude complete reduction and analysis." The idea of self-creation stems from philosophers like Whitehead, who draws attention to the "creative advance of nature into novelty," (p. 290). In other words, nature evolves continually and creatively. Moreover, the creative evolution of nature evolves toward greater order and stability. Prigogine described self-creation as the "emergence of order out of chaos," (p. 290). Oelschlaeger also claims that natural evolution denotes a "purposeless purpose," (p. 290). Increasing order emerges out of chaos, but not because of some "extrasystemic purpose" such as a religious viewpoint would propose (p. 290). The "synergetic characteristics" cannot be reduced in a mechanistic framework; they "preclude complete reduction and analysis" because the ecosystem must be viewed not as a collection of independent parts, but as a cohesive whole whose parts work in tandem and synergetically like cells in an organism. Furthermore, the preservationist denies the possibility of reversible action and instead sees continuality and irreversibility.

The second essential element of preservationism refers to "coordinating interfaces in natural hierarchies where all elements are internally related." The parts organize themselves into "coordinating interfaces in natural hierarchies." Coordination refers…… [read more]


Recycling and Proposes That for the Good Term Paper

… ¶ … recycling and proposes that for the good of the environment it is something that should be implemented world wide. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.

For as long as history remembers man has used the… [read more]


Utilitarianism Ethics Term Paper

… With an abundance of artificial reefs, this problem needs special regulations for negotiating the predictable clash of interests. A similar regulatory program has been developed and applied in the U.S.A. In Gulf of Mexico on the shelf of Louisiana. (Decommissioning,… [read more]


Environmental Problems Today Are Extremely Serious Term Paper

… ¶ … Environmental problems today are extremely serious, and although the world's focus is on the more severe of these problems and attempts are being made everywhere, all over the world, to solve these problems at least to a certain… [read more]


Waste Management as a Result Term Paper

… Waste Management as a result of the RCRA

WASTE Management as a RESULT of the RESOURCE and RECOVERY ACT

Waste management and the landfill industry in general have emerged in the past few decades as an area of concern for… [read more]


Phosphogypsum Stack Reclamation Term Paper

… Phosphogypsum Stack Reclamation

Data-gathering Method

Database of the Study

An Analysis of Phosphogypsum Stack Reclamation

The types of contaminants that emanate from anthropogenic sources are extremely varied and range from simple inorganic ions such as the nitrate from septic tanks,… [read more]


Preservation of Historical Buildings Term Paper

… Thus, the economic influence in heritage conservation is that it makes historic buildings increase its cultural capital, thereby increasing its economic value in the market. The desirability of these historic buildings encourages other owners or maintainers of historic buildings to preserve their buildings in exchange for economic gain.

Politics and the extant political structure of a capitalist society also play a pivotal role in promoting the program of heritage conservation of historic buildings. Heritage conservation, more than giving remembrance to humanity's historic past, also aims to preserve and promote "a better quality of life for people" by considering conservation as a form of environmental preservation, too (Stipe, 2003:xv). Thus, the politics of heritage conservation makes environmentalism its active ideology towards preserving historic buildings.

The political structure of a society is vital to the promotion of heritage conservation because policy-making and governance are the most effective and legal ways to help implement conservation of historic buildings. Serageldin et. al.'s (2001) discussion on heritage conservation considers the rapidly deteriorating condition of the physical environment, most especially the urban areas, as the primary reason for implementing the conservation of historic buildings. They assert that:

Policies to protect environmental and cultural endowments in a rapidly urbanizing world are inadequate. Population growth, the influx of rural migrants to cities, and an evolving economic base challenge the ability of cities to provide livelihoods. Deteriorating infrastructure, overburdened social services, rampant real estate speculation, and government incapacity put enormous pressure on city cores, which are often places of invaluable architectural and urban design heritage. The degradation of the urban environment limits the abilities of a growing, shifting population to establish communities with adequate and decent housing. Inner-city neighborhoods of large centers worldwide are besieged, with the middle class and economic activities either fleeing the historic core or destroying its fabric by the demolition and reconstruction of older buildings.

Thus, it is inevitable that political structures of the society be directly linked with the economic structures also extant in the society. The detrimental effects of urbanization, particularly rapid population growth, have made it imperative that the government and policy-makers create effective programs that shall promote cultural preservation without compromising the living conditions of society. Thus, the politics of heritage conservation resulted to the conversion of historic buildings to be used as establishments that preserve its original design and structure, as well as make these buildings useful for the people's purpose. The current practice of converting new historic buildings to become commercial establishments or museums highlights the conservation of old and new, modern, and urban heritages. Furthermore, the politics conservation is also influenced by the economic and cultural factors, which shows how politics, economics, and culture are linked together to promote and implement heritage conservation of historic buildings in the 21st century.

Bibliography

Klamer, A. And P. Zuidhof. (1999). "The values of cultural heritage: merging economic and cultural appraisals." CA: The J. Paul Getty Trust.

Klatt, M. (October 2004). "Car culture." Preservation Online. Available at: http://www.nationaltrust.org/Magazine/archives/arch_story/100804.htm.

Serageldin, I., E. Shluger,… [read more]


Environmental Worldview: A Confessional Term Paper

… I take a long, hot shower, leave the water running as I brush my teeth -- and cut locally grown organic peaches upon my commercially produced corn flakes.

Thus, culturally I love the outdoors and support local social and political efforts to protect and conserve the environment. I spend time and some money to make an environmental contribution, and yet save economically on some products that are neither financially nor environmentally conservative. I support development as a person and I am in search, always, of better and more lucrative job prospects that are rooted in business expansion, but on a level of conservation I wish to have some refuge from my busy life in a better, greener world, and I do my best to practice environmental stewardship.

Such conservation within reason I like to think of as development with a heart. I am unapologetically species-centric yet acknowledge that for humans to flourish, the whole ecosystem must be healthy. But to be environmentally pure, at the depths of my soul I sometimes think that every part of my day should be more preservative and conservative than it is. I can't afford a new Prius. I can't cook from scratch every night. I can't afford organic, cruelty-free products for my body, table, and home in every room, every time I go to the store. Sometimes the quick pace of modern life just causes me to forget. If environmentalism were like a faith, I could make peace between my modern life and the environment by confessing my sins, or by occasionally atoning through fasting. But environmentalism is not a merely moral and personal matter, it is a collective act of a community, and if one person forgets something, one day, eventually such environmental transgressions add up in the landfills of an increasingly overburdened, toxic…… [read more]

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