Study "Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays 386-440

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Water Pollution Term Paper

… Water pollution remains one of the major environmental concerns we face today. Given its effects, there exists an urgent need for all the concerned stakeholders to explore various ways in which the issue of water pollution can be addressed once… [read more]

Dead Zone Consequences on Marine System Term Paper

… Dead Zone Consequences on Marine System

Dead Zone Consequences on Marine Ecosystem

Dead zones have developed in continental seas, such as Baltic, Kattegat, Black Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and East China Sea, all fishery areas (Diaz). Eutrophication, greening of the water column, causes dissolved oxygen (DO) in bottom waters and restricts water exchange that, in turn, causes dead zones. DO as low as 0.1 ml of O2/liter has led to mass mortality and major community structure changes with dead zones.

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Declines of DO were first observed in the 1950s with the 1960s becoming widespread with hypoxia. This was discovered after the increased use of industrially produced nitrogen fertilizer. The number of dead zones has approximately doubled each decade since the 1960s (Diaz). Oxygen depletion of marine systems became a major environmental problem by the end of the 20th century. Improvements that have been made have been related to organic and nutrient loadings, stratification strength, freshwater runoff, and nutrient and carbon input management. As oxygen improves the ecosystem function improves.


Seasonal oxygen depletion, the most common form of eutrophication-induced hypoxia, occurs in summer. Periodic oxygen depletion can occur more often and has been reported…… [read more]

Aquaculture Industry in Canada Term Paper

… Aquaculture industry in Canada is focused on the farming of Atlantic salmon on the coast of British Columbia. While the industry generates stable income flows for the province, these flows come at a cost. Aquaculture on the coast of BC… [read more]

Identifying Superior Insulation Compositions in Assorted Rocks Research Paper

… ¶ … Superior Insulation Compositions in Assorted Rocks

Mining and other industrial activities produce a ton of waste and do a wealth of environmental damage. Aside from these negative byproducts, there's a ton of wasted rock that needs to be dealt with after the mining activities are finished. Harnessing the wasted rock is a wise idea for insulation, as it offers the world a safer, more cost-effective and greener solution for a wealth of insulation needs. This paper discusses the viability of a range of natural and unnatural insulators, ultimately testing and selecting Neo-Block. The advantages of Neo-Block are highlighted, as are a few of its short-comings which are addressed and a solution offered.

Introduction and Overview

What many lay people don't understand about mining activities, is that after they're completed, much of the rock is left over. A common example of this issue, and one which is controversial as well are with mountaintop removal mines: coal companies actually take off the tops of the mountains with dynamite and earth-moving machines known as draglines, in order to uncover the coal seams ( "The waste rock -- the remains of the mountains -- is piled into neighboring hollows in towering earthen dams called valley fills. The largest fills can approach 800 feet in height and swallow more than a mile of streambed" ( In areas of the country like southern West Virginia, the practice is extremely pervasive and some of these massive mines fill an expanse of thousands and thousands of acres and still continue to grow.

The problem here is not simply one of waste and destruction to the environment. It revolves around the process of most industrial mining companies use to obtain the specific rock they need. They cut out about 5m cube and then extract the rock they need from a specific area. Once the most saturated portion of a block has been removed, all the rest are treated as garbage and thrown away or stockpiled as they are in the coal mines. Since these mountains of recyclable rocks take up so much space and resources, it is reasonable to suggest that a viable alternative would be to recycle these potentially beneficial rocks in environmentally responsible ways. The damage to the environment should not be underestimated. Downstream from these mountain mines and valley fill sites, the water quality degrades: streambeds and other bodies of water often reflect concentrations of potentially toxic elements such as nickel, lead, cadmium, iron and selenium ( This negatively impacts the aquatic life, forcing it to decline and compromises the integrity of surrounding forests (

Rocks are still a resource, even if it's not immediately apparent. Based on professional experience in the construction industry and empirical observations concerning insulation practices, the notion occurred to this researcher that these rocks could possibly be used as an insulator.


What petroleum-unrelated material would be able to take the role of the leading industrial insulator, considering the following characteristics?






A single characteristic… [read more]

Water Pollution Essay

… The control can be imposed by two ways: either by the elimination of contaminants from various sources or by adoption of ways that prevent pollution.

Legislative control for addressing the problem of water pollution is being applied on the factories and sewage plants. However, no significant improvement in pollution control has been achieved through this way as the pollution from the streets, farm fields and lawns equalizes the industrial pollution. Control of such wastes is although in infancy yet it is gaining popularity as many cost effective methodologies are present to deal with such wastes.

The U.S. government as well as some other states have proven to be successful in addressing ground water pollution. This is because ground water is the major source of drinking water in most of the regions.

One pollution control strategy is the treatment of the sewage water. In the first phase, larger particles and particulate organic matter is filtered out of the sewage water. The second stage involves the treatment of the sewage water to remove the organic matter that contains significant amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. This treatment involves the use of bacteria or other decomposers. The third and last treatment is ensuring that the sewage water quality is sustained to the level of drinking water (Chiras, 2012). This is accomplished by increasing the Biological Oxygen demand (BOD) and decreasing the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the sewage water.

Recently, a marine biologist Dr. Widder has come up with a technology to fight water pollution through the use of bioluminescent bacteria. These bacteria make use of light for food, predation and finding partners for mating as part of their normal activity. Dr. Widder performed a study in the Indian River Lagoon which according to scientists is valuable and at the same time the most threatened ecosystem of Florida.

In her laboratory, she mixed the sediment samples from the estuary with a bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri. The concentration of toxic pollutants in the sediments was monitored through the use of photometer that measured the light emitted by the bacteria. It revealed that to what extent and in what time the light fades away as the bacteria get killed by the chemicals.

An estimate of the pollutant level in the sediments better indicates the estuary's health status as compared to direct measurement of chemicals in water.

Greater concentration of heavy metals like phosphorus and nitrogen were observed to be present in the sediment samples which stimulate the algal growth. These algae affect the estuary life by depleting oxygen. Dr. Widder has also arranged sensors around the estuary that can provide data in real time which along with the sediment toxicity can trace the path of the pollution source. This method is far more cheap and robust than the traditional practice of taking samples to labs for purpose of analysis (Olsen, 2011).

Other than these measures, there is a need of shift of human activities towards the ones that are eco-friendly. Biodegradable plastic should be produced by… [read more]

Market Activities (Production, Buying, and Selling) Policies Term Paper

… Market Activities (Production, Buying, and Selling)

Policies to reduce the total amount of emissions

The organization will formulate and implement policies geared towards reducing the total amount of emitted gases into the environment. These policies will touch on two main sections of the organization and emission reduction. The first policy should express the need to have a good emission system that works best amidst any challenge to the environment. The production pathways and mechanisms should be directed at preserving the environment other than having a formative ground without laws and regulations. The policy should express that it is wrong to emit emissions without having the directive from the governing authorities. The second policy employs the aftermath of emission where emission should be utilitarian to the environment and the people within this environment. Therefore, the first policy states that all emissions must be legal while the second policy states that emission should be utilitarian by providing provide positive effects on the environment and not negative ones (Lane, 1991).

Why the policies will work

These policies will work because of a number of reasons. Externalities are dangerous and can interfere with a smooth flow in the production lines. The first policy is a rudimentary policy that ensures that all emissions must be authorized. Authorization is subject to the difficulties and negative effects from the emitted substances to the environment. Policies to govern gas emission from the production plant have not been formulated. Therefore, the first policy will provide the fundamental base of managing the difficulties offered to the business. The second policy will ensure that emission does not influence the environment negatively. The effects of the emission should be within the allowable levels in any environment.

Benefits of each action

The two policy actions are beneficial in different ways. The first action forbids unauthorised emission. The power plant has its measures of production in place. The policy will ensure that there is uniformity and coherence of productivity within the power plant together with clients who make use of products from…… [read more]

Legal Issues in Hydraulic Research Paper

… The technique involves pumping of high-pressure fluids into the rocks to be fractured. The fluid pumped contains several chemicals that might be destructive to ground water. This has resulted to contamination concerns of the process. Moreover, the demand for water during the drilling process is exceptionally high. In arid and semi-arid areas, the use of this technique significantly reduces the amount of surface water altering the ecosystem of an area. The detrimental effects of hydraulic fracturing to both ground and surface water have been reviewed through many scholarly works (Tiemann, & Vann, 2011).

Water: From this research, it is evident that the volumes of water used during fracturing without its recycling can result to alteration of the microclimate of an area. Moreover, the chemicals pumped into the ground water find their way to the consumption tanks of the public.

Air pollution: Another environmental concern associated with hydraulic fracturing is air pollution. The emissions from the process have a significant impact to the methane concentrations in the surroundings. Atmospheric emission of methane increases the levels carbon dioxide. This is because methane breaks down into carbon dioxide and water. An increase in the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is a detrimental aspect towards the struggle against global warming (Tiemann & Vann, 2011).


The implications and concerns raised concerning hydraulic fracturing should be addressed using a systematic manner. The legislation processes at the state, and national level should incorporate amendments that seek to solve this issue forever. The regulations should be developed with the cooperation of all stakeholders allowing a smooth sail through the congress.


Craddock, H. (2012). Shale gas the facts about chemical additives. Norwich, N.Y.: Knovel

Hall, K.B. (2011). Hydraulic Fracturing: What are the Legal Issues? The Louisiana Bar Journal Vol. 59, No. 4,-page 250-253. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from

Tiemann, M. & Vann, A. (2011). Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Issues. Congressional Research Service, pp 1-37 retrieved on January 19, 2013 from… [read more]

Food Web Essay

… Food Web and Example

In any environment, there is a synergistic relationship between the atmosphere, flora and fauna. A food web is a way to describe the feeding connections -- or what eats what in the ecosystem. Scientists put life forms in this system into two levels: autotrophs and heterotrophs. Autotrophs produce organic material from inorganic substances -- both minerals and gases like carbon dioxide. The chemical reactions need energy, which usually comes from a combination of the sun causing photosynthesis in plants -- depending on the food web. A food web is really a more simplistic way of looking at a particular biome or ecosystem, and does show that there are a number of inter-relationships between flora and fauna; and the potential of negative results if one or more species is eliminated (e.g. man's intentions of reducing predators having negative effects on anything below it in the food chain). Simple models show the relationships between flora and fauna, and more complex food webs show the relationships between the quantity and robustness of each of the creatures or plants in more detail. For instance, in a simple food web, we may have a group of herbivores, but in a more complex food web, that group is further broken down into type, quality, robustness and specific place in the food chain. Also, within each food web, there are even more micro versions of the web - like a soil food web as a macrocosm of a forest food web, which would be a different than a desert or arid soil food web (Pimm,, 1991).

In essence, a basic premise of the food web is that there are four basic occupants into a food web: 1) Energy (Sun, usually); 2) Producers…… [read more]

EPA Process Evaluation Carbon Dioxide Term Paper

… A carcinogen risk assessment is provided for each chemical. For CO2, it was determined that small doses of 10 parts per trillion are safe. Large amounts of 1,000 or more per trillion are harmful and produce human health effects.

EPA has released a new rule that requires soot pollution maximum to be reduced by 20% in efforts to reduce illness and save lives (Press, 2012). The issue of soot pollution has been battled over by environmental and business groups in regards to protecting public health or causing job losses and harming economic growth. The American Petroleum Institute claimed there had been no scientific evidence to warrant the ruling. They also referred to forthcoming environmental regulations.

Soot pollution contains CO2 as well as five other contaminants. It is made up of microscopic materials released from smokestacks, diesel trucks, wood-burning stoves, and other sources that contribute to haze. All U.S. counties are required to be in compliance with the new ruling by 2020 when stronger enforcement of the rule is expected.

There has been an ongoing battle of EPA efforts to reduce the greenhouse effects of CO2 in reducing the effects on atmosphere and human health. Industry claims the high cost to conform to new ruling can hamper economic growth that in turn causes job loss to Americans. The struggle of compromise is causing humans to adjust in CO2 reduction and building economic growth at the same time.


Greenhouse Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Emissions. (n.d.). Retrieved from EPA:

Press, A. (2012, Dec 14). It Begins: EPA imposes controversial new rul on soot pollution. Retrieved from Fox News:

Toxicity Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved from EPA:… [read more]

Air Pollution the Causes and Prevention Term Paper

… ¶ … Air Pollution

Although President Ronald Reagan believed that "trees and plants were the chief causes of air pollution" (Grundmann 141), a growing body of evidence indicates that air pollution is a global public health threat that is caused by particulate matter being discharged through anthropomorphic, or manmade, activities (Woodruff and Parker 787). The research to date also indicates that air pollution continues to worsen in many parts of the world as people in emerging economies flock to cities, creating even more air pollution in the process. An important point made by McDougald (1999) is that air can be polluted indoors as well as outdoors. In this regard, McDouglad reports that, "Air pollution is a major worldwide economic and health problem. Some of the causes of air pollution include automobile emissions, industry, fuel combustion for heating, and the burning of solid wastes. Air pollution can occur both outdoors and indoors" (42). In many urban regions, the major sources of air pollution include internal motor vehicle operation, power generation using coal, various industrial processes, as well as wood burning in fireplaces, especially in regions with colder climates (Hughes 216).

Although all of these sources contribute to air pollution at different levels in different places, transportation and energy generation represent the major sources of the types of air pollution that adversely affects human health at the global level, particularly in densely populated urban settings (Glover 45). Given that the sources of air pollution are known, identifying remedies should therefore be a fairly straightforward matter; however, the global economy remains inextricably dependant on fossil fuels, and any preventive remedies will inevitably involve a subjective cost-benefit analysis as discussed further below.


Philosophical Critique

From both a modern as well as classical Greek philosophical perspectives, identifying remedies to air pollution makes great business sense. On the one hand, the costs that have been involved in formulating effective responses to increasing air pollution levels have cost an enormous amount of taxpayer dollars (Andrews, 2008). In fact, during the period from 1970 to 1990, it is estimated that the country spent around $500 billion controlling air pollution (Andrews 394). On the other hand, though, Andrews also emphasizes that this was money well spent. According to Andrews, "While these costs are considerable, so are the health and welfare effects that they purchase. EPA has estimated that from 1970 to 1990 about $22.2 trillion in benefits flowed to the nation as a result of the environmental regulation of air pollution" (394). These priorities are congruent with Socrates' observation that, "Not life, but good life, is to be chiefly valued."

Unfortunately, despite these ambitious efforts, air pollution remains a significant public health threat in many parts of the country and the studies to date suggest that minorities and low-income families tend to suffer disproportionately from indoor air pollution. In this regard, Tibbetts reports that, "Researchers have gathered increasing evidence that the poor endure a disproportionate share of exposure to air pollutants in the built environment" (671). This trend… [read more]

Computer Disposal Our Organization Research Paper

… We can even consider approaching organizations that run charity in the area and they can asses if the computers can be put into use giving people starter machines to get them into the information age or simply donating the machines to schools or organizations that can put them into use who can take these computers gladly with open arms. Finally trade-in programs have been developed by many manufacturing companies facilitates the donation, trading or selling used computers (Meyer, Young,&Ella,2009).

All these proposed methods of disposing the outdated computers are environmentally friendly, this is due to the fact that the computers and monitors are made up of substances that have toxic levels such as mercury, cadmium, arsenic and beryllium all these substances are considered to be unfriendly to the environment. If these outdated computers are disposed in a method that is not appropriate then some of these substances might end up entering the environment that will cause pollution and the death of plants and animals and at the same time can lead to birth defects. Most of the components of the computers are produced in ways that are unsustainable that will cause even more environmental harm. Since these components can be recovered and recycled it means that throwing away these outdated computers as a method of disposing them is not environmentally friendly and quite questionable, disposing them in this way also takes up landfill space that is valuable (Conjecture corporation,2012).

Recycling is therefore an effective method of prolonging the lifespan of these valuable but outdated computers. If any of these methods of disposal are adopted it will mean that the environment will remain safe from the toxics from the computers and at the same time offering pother people a chance to use the computers which our organization is not using currently. This disposal plan will also ensure that there are environmental benefits it can also help the company financially


Meyer, J.M., Young, M.R., & Ella, E.A. (2009).Disposal of old computer equipment. Retrieved December 17, 2012 from

Conjecture corporation. (2012).How do I dispose of my old computers? Retrieved December 17, 2012 from… [read more]

Storm Water Pollution Protection Plan Term Paper

… Some of the places where storm water discharges from include material handling sites, shipping and receiving areas, and industrial plant yards.

Storm water pollution prevention plan provides a list of the established best management practices (BMPs) to prevent storm water pollution at a site. While the actual details in the best management practices of the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan varies based on the specific conditions of the site, there are some typical BMPs that will always be included in the plan. Some of these typical best management practices in the SWPPP include covered storage, employee training, site maintenance, equipment maintenance, infiltration, and detention pond ("Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan," n.d.).

The covered storage is a standard practice at the plant that includes a map that identifies the covered storage areas. In this case, the chemicals stored outside should be covered in order to prevent rainfall from being contaminated by contact with the chemical containers. On the other hand, equipment maintenance entails the identification of equipment that can leak or spill contaminants. Moreover, the SWPPP should offer an inspection and maintenance schedule for all the identified equipments. Employee training is an important practice because the first line of defense will usually be the individual that is onsite working. Though adequate and proper training, workers can make significant contributions in effective management of storm water. Site maintenance involves grading the site to ensure even infiltration of rain, infiltration is carried out to all parts of the storm water and detention pond is for embracing major storms.


"Best Management Practices for Industrial Storm Water Pollution Control." (n.d.). Sacramento

Stormwater Management Program. Retrieved December 11, 2012, from

"Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan." (n.d.). Department of Ecology. Retrieved from State for Washington website:… [read more]

Recycling Company Which Will Located Essay

… This idea is creative in a number of ways:

1. It helps Apple (and us who model it) measure success of the program.

2. It also helps them measure various variables such as whether there are areas that the program is more successful in than others. Whether there are periods that correlate with greater recycling. Whether certain socio-economic sectors are more attuned to recycling than others; whether private individuals are more interested in recycling e-waste than businesses and so forth. Based on this information, we can fine-tune our system and decide how to modify it if at all. It may be that the rewards need to heightened or diversified in order to attract the targeted diversity of people.

3. The program (with the incentive) also motivates people to recycle their e-waste

4. The program calls publicity to the problem of e-waste.

As regards LCA in connection to this assignment, we would measure the pounds of e-waste and the percentage of recycling material that we receive per district (0r per State). This would also inform us regarding how to direct our activities and information.

2. In addition to the detailed description of metrics, write a few sentences describing the metrics or measureable goals of your team project which are harder to define (less practical, and difficult to quantify), and why.

The metrics that may be harder to define may be which gender is more keenly involved in the recycling; which age tends to be apt to recycle; and other demographics such as these. We may also want to know whether it is the reward that induces people to recycle or the idealistic component as well as what impedes people from recycling.

Ethnicity, district, socio-economic sector, and the time of the day that people commit to recycling may be easier to measure, as well as whether more recycling is done from home territory or form another place. Other intangible aspects, such…… [read more]

Water Pollution the Vast Majority Essay

… Furthermore, it is difficult to clean water once it has been polluted. This is why it is important to prevent water problems before they arise. Human activities, such as oil spills, chemical testing, and incorrect disposal of waste, can be prevented. If the problem is not treated soon, water will become an even scarcer than it is today and can cause major conflicts. The solution now should start with proper treatment of sewage and waste disposal. Proper treatment of sewage waste can make the "gray water" reusable for agricultural purposes. This will reduce water pollution that affects the plants, and eventually lead to healthier humans and animals too. Therefore, by eliminating the contamination in the water that is caused by waste and oil spills, plants, animals and humans will be healthier. Private organizations and government officials need to be more proactive and cautious when testing and/or burying radioactive waste in deserts across the U.S. because those chemicals can leak and threaten the safety of groundwater. In addition, recycling plants instead of dumping them in water banks will also prove to be beneficial to the preservation of life.


Walls-Thuma, D. (n.d). How can water pollution affect animals, homes, and health? National Geographic. Retrieved online: Website:

"Water Pollution and Plants," (2008). Pollution and Plants. Retrieved online:

Wieman, B. (n.d.). How does pollution affect all living things? National Geographic. Retrieved online:… [read more]

Theory When Studying Theory Keep in Mind Essay

… ¶ … Theory

When studying theory keep in mind that there are four distinct definitions discussed in this chapter. These are positive, model, hypotheses, and normative. Positive theory refers to a conceptual pattern believed to describe or explain something (phenomena). Model theory is a way of interpreting reality that places a structure on that reality (it is a philosophical position). Hypothesis is a theory that entails making a prediction about something that will occur in the future based on a specific action. Normative theory is a value stance as it states what the result should be.

Positive Theory: It is important because actions are based on perceived patterns of behavior. Some are resistant in exploring positive theory and its effects on design because they are loath to let go of tried and true methods thus, eliminating the benefits it can offer. The functions of positive theory in design are to make sense of the meaningless (economization of knowledge) and to raise consciousness with regard to behavior in built environments and build to accommodate these behaviors, keeping in mind that behavior is constantly changing. The author feels that positive theory is not value free. Though being value free is the goal, the very act of deciding to address specific design issues is value based (which items are important to that particular designer).

Normative Theory: Can mean different things to different people. Some believe that it concerns something that has been agreed upon while others believe it concerns what should be. The author opts for the latter definition. Normative theories are based on positive theories.

Concepts of Theory in the Design Fields: Basic problem in design theory is that the focus has generally been on the experience people should have rather than what people actually experience. When there is a conflict in the two, it…… [read more]

Crowding Important Points Term Paper

… ¶ … Crowding

Important points to consider regarding crowding include its definition, predisposing attributes, setting conditions, correlation studies, theories, practical effects of crowding, and the author's conclusions.

Three main definitions of crowding. The first is density and is the number of people in a specified unit of space. Density is comprised of social density (number of persons in a confined space) and spatial density (when the space is too small for even a small number of people). The second is that it is also explained as the feeling of too many people in the same place. The same environment can also be experienced as not crowded. The third is physical constraints (a seatbelt is an example).

Predisposing attributes: Everyone has them. They consist of culture, prior experience, and motivation. They all influence the feelings and stress associated with crowding.

Setting Conditions: Comprised of behavior (people moving around vs. not moving around), social density (environments which are perceived as crowded), physical constraints (anything physical that gets in the way of tasks), and organization (unorganized environments feel more crowded than organized environments). Note that Freedman (1975) posited the intensification hypothesis which states that crowding enhances the current mood (good or bad)

Animal Studies: Behavioral sink was posited by John Calhoun (1962). It holds that animals congregate together to their own detriment even when there is ample physical space, thus, causing harm to the group.

Correlational studies: Subject to ecological fallacies. Most of the correlational studies assumed that crowding results in social pathology. However, some would say that it is the loss of traditions in a crowded environment which are the cause of the resulting social pathology from…… [read more]

NO2 Levels in Cork Harbor Assessment

… m3 and 30 ug.m3, respectively.2 Based on the data shown in Table 1, the annual exposure during 2008 would probably have been around 10% of these limits.

However, in terms of health, the best time to visit the harbor is between midnight and 4:00 AM (Fig. 2). After this period the concentrations begin to climb and remain elevated for the rest of the day. This pattern is probably a reflection of shipping traffic in the harbour.


(1) O'Connor, I.P., Allanic, A., Hellebust, S., Kourtchev, I., Healy, R.M., Healy, D.A., Bell, J.M., Wenger, J.C., Sodeau, J.R. Composition and sources of particulate air pollution in a port environment, Cork, Ireland. STRIVE Report Series No. 71. Environmental Protection Agency Programme. / health/STRIVE_71_web.pdf (accessed Nov 19, 2012).

(2) Council of the European Union. Council Directive 1999/30/EC, relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air. 0041:0060:EN:PDF (accessed Nov 19, 2012).

Table 1. Daily Statistics for NO2 Levels (ug/m3).




Std. Dev.















Figure 1. NO2 Levels between 3/8/2008 and 3/10/2008. The X-axis for the top panel is in minutes, the highest data resolution available. The data in the bottom panel represents hourly averages across the 3 day period.…… [read more]

Wearcare the Shirt Case Study

… I am nervous about washing the shirt because it was expensive, and I have lost many shirts to poor washing cycles.

Consulting the machine manual, I select the best options for the cycle. Delicate vs. hand wash is my first question. Hand wash cycle is more of a soak, so I opted for delicate cycle. I set the temperature to cold water only, which is what I would use for my other clothes anyway. My choice of detergent has been lately to use an ecological brand I purchase from Whole Foods called Seventh Sun. They make a detergent for delicate clothes that works well in cold water, and it is liquid. I have never had a problem with the detergent leaving streaks or unevenness, but I doubt its ability to tackle tough stains. Hopefully the pre-treatment does the bulk of the work.

Now that the shirt has undergone its pretreatment, I push start. I do nothing else. I do not use fabric softener as a rule. No bleach was used either. When the cycle is complete, I immediately remove all the clothes from the washing machine. None of these items is slated for the dryer. These are all delicate items that I hang on a line inside my apartment. My only dilemma now is how to hang the Paul Smith: do I use clips or drape it? I opt for clips because it will dry more evenly. The buttons (on the cuffs and all along the front) are closed during wash and dry.

It dries overnight. The cuffs are a little damp and so is the collar. It needs to be ironed. Although it is not 100% cotton, the collar needs to be pressed. The added Lycocell to the fabric blends gives the shirt a nice polished look that avoids heavy crinkles, while retaining a nice texture. I received a lot of complements at work when I wore the shirt, and I do not think it is worse for the…… [read more]

Production of Smog Pollutants Especially in California's Central Valley Essay

… Production of Smog in California

The Production of Smog Pollutants in California

Garrett Hardin and the Tragedy of the Commons

In Hardin's (1968) article the Tragedy of the Commons, the author discusses the problem of overpopulation and how there are… [read more]

Role of Cost Benefit Analysis Essay

… ¶ … Role of Cost Benefit Analysis in Making Security Decisions

Security decisions always reflect cost-benefit analyses, because different jurisdictions and organizations have specific budgets and resources that dictate what programs and equipment are feasible choices. For example, a large and well-funded police department such as the NYPD may be able to invest the resources necessary to develop and implement the most advanced, state-of-the-art technologies and tools (Clifford 2004, 305-307). Meanwhile, much smaller and less well-funded municipalities, such as Union City, CA typically lack the resources necessary to make comparable choices (Clifford 2004, 307). Therefore, those entities must be creative, such as by developing out-of-the-box strategies that contribute to their missions and objectives in ways that are lower cost and that represent high return on resource investments (Clifford 2004, 310). Examples would include maximizing resources such as citizen's groups and approaching crime from a prevention perspective, such as through providing…… [read more]

Basel Convention in 1987 Research Paper

… If this paper trail is not generated, then the shipment is illegal under the Basel Convention. However, if shipping hazardous waste to another country can be shown to be more environmentally sound that treatment in the country of origin, then an exception can be made.

ESM under the Basel Convention encourages member and non-member states to minimize the generation of hazardous waste whenever possible ("Basel Convention" par. 11-12). In line with this philosophy, the Basel Convention has invested in research, training, and technology transfer to help member states meet their treaty obligations. Regional Centres for Training and Technology Transfer have been established in a number of developing countries that are treaty signatories. For example, Vietnam has recently ratified the Basel Convention, despite having no facilities to effectively process hazardous waste (Thai 261-262). Given that Vietnam is becoming more industrialized, the issue of hazardous waste has become a central concern for the country's leaders. Through its ratification of the treaty, Vietnam can now expect to receive significant assistance from the Convention in helping to design effective waste management policies.

The Basel Convention includes several other elements important to managing hazardous waste ("Basel Convention" par. 12-18). The definition of hazardous waste under the Convention includes toxins, poisons, explosives, flammables, corrosives, and infectious; however, specific lists of hazardous and non-hazardous have been generated by member states. Should an accident occur that releases hazardous material into the environment during international transport, the Convention provides a mechanism for determining liability and compensation. In addition, although the treaty contains wording about enforcement, the Basel Convention's policy is to encourage parties to minimize illegal shipments through prevention and other non-confrontational measures.

Not every industrialized nation has ratified the Basel Convention, including the biggest economy in the world (EPA par. 6-7). Since the United States has signed the convention, but not ratified it, it is legally bound to act in accordance with the Convention for the purpose of international transport of hazardous waste. However, the U.S. is not obligated to report hazardous shipments annually to the Convention. The U.S. must therefore establish formal agreements with other nations for the transport of hazardous waste to meet its obligations under the Basel Convention. Such agreements have been established with Mexico and Canada, which allows both the import and export of hazardous waste between these parties under limited conditions. In separate agreements, the U.S. has agreed to import waste from Costa Rica, Malaysia, and the Philippines, but cannot export waste to these nations.

Works Cited

"Basel Convention." Archive.Basel.Int. Geneva: Secretariat of the Basel Convention, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). "Chapter V -- Basel Convention." n.p., 2012. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.

"Nigeria Waste Imports from Italy (Nigeria)." Trade and Environment Database, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012

Thai, Nguyen Thi Kim. "Hazardous Industrial Waste Management in Vietnam: Current Status and Future Direction." Journal of Material Cycles Waste Management 11.3 (2009): 358-262.

"The Basel Convention Ban Amendment."…… [read more]

Wasteland in the Documentary Film Term Paper

… Health can be seriously damaged by exposure to toxic chemicals in landfills such as Jardim Gramacho. The trash pickers who work for Muniz are directly exposed to these materials, but environmental concerns are present in every person who lives in a polluted area. There are many hazardous materials which can be found in e-waste. Among the most dangerous are arsenic and chromium, and even Americium which is radioactive. Arsenic is fatally poisonous to humans in large doses and exposure can lead to diseases of the skin and can decrease conduction velocity of the nervous system, and can cause lung cancer. Chromium IV which is often found in electronic products can be absorbed into the body via the skin and can cause damage to the DNA leading to many problems on a chromosomal level. Lastly, Americium is a radioactive material which is found in metal detectors and medical equipment. Contact with this can cause cancers throughout the body.

In order to alleviate the pollution problem both in our own nation and abroad, the consumer can take steps to decrease the amount of waste materials that they produce. One of the easiest ways to decrease pollution is to stop using plastic and paper bags at the store and switch to reusable cloth bags. A second way to decrease pollution and waste production is to make sure to take e-materials as well as traditional recyclable materials to proper recycling centers.

Works Cited:

The Waste Land. Dir. Lucy Walker. Perf. Vik…… [read more]

Importance of Environmental Safety Essay

… ¶ … Environmental Safety

In contemporary society, there are several different types of environmental safety and concern of which one should be mindful. If we accept the broader definition of the environment to be the natural environment of our entire planet -- all living and non-living things that exist on earth and the interaction of all living species, then our responsibility is large. We all live on the planet, and we now know that there are relatively few things that occur that are not somehow interconnected. In this broad sense, then the importance of environmental safety is one that allows us to take responsibility for the place in which we live so that it will continue to be appropriately habitable for future generations.

Humans constantly interact with the environment. This interaction affects the quality of life for all people, and often produces health disparities. The United Nation's World Health Organization (WHO) defines the nature of the environment as "all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all their related behaviors" (Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments, 2006). Looking at the overall view in this manner, we see that environmental health and safety consists of a large number of issues: air quality, water quality and availability, toxins in the environment, building issues, disease and community health, and longevity and quality of life.

Environmental safety is central to maintaining and increasing the quality of life since almost 25% of all global death and disease can be directly attributed to the environment. On every continent, even those with minimal inhabitants, we are seeing more exposure to hazardous substances in the water, soil, air, and foods. There are more technological disasters that impact global society, and more physical hazards in which people are exposed. Much of the world's population does not have potable water and often suffer from abject poverty, hunger and nutritional deficiencies. For those individuals who already have health concerns, the environment poses even more risk (EPA, 2010).

In the 21st century, economic, political and cultural movements that have helped bring the countries of the world closer together. This is called globalism, and refers to…… [read more]

Sustainability Mean? Essay

… Additionally, environmentalists are not human-focused like consumers and businesses. Businesses put people first while environmentalists put the health of the planet first. Driving less, buying fewer products, and consuming fewer products made with chemicals may be better for the environment but this does not mean that these actions will result in benefits for the consumer in a manner that is as appreciably satisfying as saving money. In some instances, like the development of hybrid cars, there are examples in which consumers benefit immediately (saving money on gas) along with the environment. But these examples are few and far between. Organic produce, for example, is better for the environment, but costs more for the consumer and is not necessarily that much better for the consumer's health.

On a personal level, of course, I am pro-sustainability and try to do what I can to lead a green lifestyle. But at work, I am serving an organization and cannot put my personal beliefs ahead of the needs of that organization. This is why it is essential that government regulates behavior that can affect the environment: because businesses cannot afford to self-regulate if their competitors can make money by cutting costs and hurting the environment. If there is regulation put into place, then all businesses are forced to follow the same environmentally-friendly policies.


"Definitions of sustainability." Sustainable measures. [9 Sept 2012]…… [read more]

Schon Dark Secret in Unit Case Study

… This psychological problem would most likely expand to other segments of society as well. Computers and technology would change the landscape of education and politics as well causing more uncertainty and change. This psychological problem is most likely to cause… [read more]

Protection Against Abuse (Deterrence) Essay

… If councils are required to collect wastes that meet a superior quality in regard to standards, then they require powers to implement the changes (Paul & Daniel 2008). Deterrents proposed by the council aims at countering the requirement of enhancing the quality of the materials recycled mainly as councils are gradually likely to ensure their residents separate their waste into suitable receptacles.

On waste management, many other types of council gather recycled material placing them in separate receptacles different from residual waste. In cases of pollution, there is a possible impact related to the rogue material, that either necessitates better sorting. In instances that such a situation is not possible, the waste is disposed. In both scenarios, there are extra costs accumulated by local authorities together with the waste contractors. This calls for an urgent explanation, therefore, the use of deterrence to solve the issue. Reduction in deterrent results to many cases of waste left out on the street and hence leads increased litter that increases the street cleaning costs.

Deterrence is helpful in inhibition, re-use, and retrieval of final disposal in regard to strategic guidelines dealing with waste management (Paul & Daniel 2008).Waste management must concentrate on prevention of waste generation. This makes it easy for the waste material to be recycled. Waste management that incorporates deterrence strategies aims at stopping generation of waste together with reduction of harmfulness. If waste disposals are to be used again then, they have to be sorted out in order to collect one type of refuse together. The council has come up with guidelines to ensure that offenders are punished. Some of the methods are paying fines and sentencing to community work. Where such a situation is not possible, waste materials need to be reused and recycled as the council encourages householders to sort out their waste disposal. This is the only method that makes the entire initiative accomplished.


The council also has come up with plans to provide information on the efficient measures together with combinations of other measures on waste management. This mostly deals with collecting statistics on dumping before and after the implementation of the new rules. At the same time, the council is keen on informing households on the benefits of the new initiative and successful usage of a range of deterrence methods. It is important for the council to give information on the development of direction on the selection of applicable deterrence measures that the council intends to use. This is the reason the council has been consulting with major stakeholders to assist in making informed decisions in regard to waste management. Managing the environment starts with following proper guidelines when disposing waste as reusing of waste conserves resources as well as reducing the rate of pollution.


Paul, J.A.J., & Daniel, T., (January 01, 2008). Standardization of Sampling Method for Physical

Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 5, 1, 95-98.

Wilcox, C. (2009). Earth-friendly waste…… [read more]

Human Population Growth Factors Essay

… S. Population Growth") Added to this, while the rest of the world's "ecological footprint" is 7 acres per person, the average American leaves an "ecological footprint" of about 25 acres. This potential increase in the population of the United States will increase the need for food, and the price for it. In addition to the increase in land usage and food prices, it is estimated that the oil and gas reserves needed to power the United States could run out in the next 50 years, leaving the price of energy to skyrocket. Finally there is the issue of water management and the fact that at present, the groundwater reserves are being depleted faster that they are being recharged. Because groundwater provides almost a third of the water used in agriculture, shortages of water can lead to the growth of arid and semi-arid regions, increased food prices, and shortages of water for individual personal use.

If the United States is to avoid a calamitous future, the growth of population must be severely reduced, and stopped if possible. In order to accomplish this the United States, as well as the rest of the world, must engage in family planning. A conscious effort to lower the global birthrate must become widely accepted across the globe. The United States must also better manage its environment, specifically farmlands, forests, water, and other natural resources in order to provide for the population. Developing renewable technologies to provide power is essential, for instance, the development of solar and wind technologies, greater use of public transportation or electric transportation, and the developing plans for new travel patterns. But mostly Americans must recognize that the world they live in is becoming increasingly crowded with a greater demand for resources than ever before. And since there is a limited amount of resources on the planet, the population must also be limited or face shortages, droughts, famines, as well as economic, social, and political unrest.


Miller, George Tyler. (2008). Sustaining the Earth: An Integrated Approach. Belmont,

CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage.…… [read more]

Urbanization Ecological Problem Grade Course Essay

… This is either improper or absent in several parts of the world. However, concern is not only associated with waste produced at houses, but rather it is the industrial, hospital and other institutional wastes that contains toxic and harmful materials. It needs to be disposed off in an appropriate manner otherwise it results in adding into the dump seen on the streets and other places. If the waste is left open, it is carried away into the water bodies because of rain. This in turn pollutes the ground water and is harmful in places where the water is drawn out of the wells.

Since urbanization poses serious harm and risk for the environment, there are only few cities that are working upon controlling the ecological threat caused by urbanization. For instance, USA has been taking several actions to look after the environment. This is demonstrated through the Mayors Climate Protection Agreement which is pledge to work upon meeting the targets of the Kyoto Protocol. Furthermore, even Europe is focusing on using alternative energy sources to make environmental friendly cars. In addition, such steps have also been incorporated in the developing counties like China who aims at building a carbon-neutral city named as Dongtan. This city would safeguard and protect wildlife through steps such as migratory bird refuges. It will also make use of energy efficient housing and work on recycling and regulating water usage (Jiang L, 2008).

Hence, urbanization is a continuous ongoing process affecting developed as well as developing countries. If measures are not taken then the urbanization of countries would end up being urbanization of poverty. Thus, since the projected trends show that urbanization would continue and grow in the upcoming years, it is essential to control its harmful consequences and instead focus on enhancing the positive side. This can not only be done with the help of having a proper urban planning system by using technology, proper disposal of wastes, inventing environmental friendly vehicles, but the efforts of the government are also essential. It is the human activities, lack of regulation and ignorance which pose danger to the environment which in turn harms the people settled in the urban areas; threatening their health and living standards. Therefore, the problem needs to be resolved or at least work should be done to reduce the harm attached to it, in order to safeguard a healthy environment ensuring a proper lifestyle of the residents.


Jiang, L. (2008). Population, Urbanization, and the Environment: Growing Cities Stress Their Natural Surrounding, but They Can Also Help Protect Them. World Watch.…… [read more]

Chernobyl Forum Research Paper

… IAEA: One thing that this organization does in preparedness of a disaster is researching a lot and keeping in touch with the scientist. The second great thing is that they put a lot of focus on how they would deal with the disaster in case it occurs and especially the unavoidable such as earth quakes. In response to disaster the organization sees to that the environment of the disaster goes back to normal. A good example of this is how they came in during the Japan earth quake

What IAEA should do to promote international cooperation?

IAEA should cooperate more with other international agencies while dealing with disasters occur. This will make its operations more effective (Clark, 2006). The other thing the organization should think of doing is come up with programmes that are tailored to develop the human resource of the organization. This could be done through training of things like waste and security safety, radiation protection and security training.

What UNICEF should do to promote international cooperation?

The stakeholders are supposed to become accustomed to international system so as to cope with this interdependent world (Chykin, 2007). At the same time the organization should consider global redesign with a view of stimulating a strategic thought on ways in which the organization could adapt to present day challenges.


Chykin, M. (2007). Chernobyl spots on the map of France. Komsomol'skaya Pravda (Moscow), March 25: p. 6 (in Russian).

Clark, M.J. (2006).…… [read more]

Apple Corporation Company Compliance Plan Essay

… When there are repeated violations, it states that it will change suppliers. But Apple's factories in China have been under particular media scrutiny and Apple continues its relationship with Foxconn. The independent Fair Labor Association audit of Foxconn, "China's largest private-sector employer" found that more than half of Foxconn employees had worked 11 days or more without rest and "more than 43% of workers reported experiencing or witnessing an accident at the three plants audited" (Garside 2012).

The environmental organization Greenpeace criticizes "Apple's data centers' dependence on coal [which] is estimated to be at 54.5%, followed by Facebook at 53.2%, IBM at 51.6%, HP at 49.4%, and Twitter at 42.5%" (Pelaez 2012). In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, Apple also appears to fall short, in comparison to its competition. "Dell and Hewlett-Packard report buying much more clean energy than Apple; Dell 58 times more, and Hewlett-Packard five time more" and "Hewlett-Packard reduced direct greenhouse gas 25%" during the same period when Apple reduced emissions by 3% (Charny 2008).

Apple's compliance with its own high environmental standards and its proclamation that its MacBooks are the greenest computers in the world is questionable (Charny 2008). There is no doubt that Apple has made great strides in improving its recycling, reusing materials, and reducing the level of toxins in its product. But labor standards are currently a 'work in progress.' Granted, Apple has been transparent about the fact that the companies through which it outsources its labor costs are not always 100% compliance with its ideals. Still, the image of a 'green' Apple still far outpaces the reality.


Apple: A Greener Apple. (2012). Apple. Retrieved:

Charny, Ben. (2008). How green is Apple? The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:

Garside, Juliette. (2012). Apple's factories in China are breaking employment laws, audit finds.


Hyatt, James. (2010). Business Ethics. Retrieved:

Pelaez, Marina Watson. (2011). Apple named least green company. Time. Retrieved:

The story behind Apple's environmental footprint. (2012).…… [read more]

Ultraviolet Radiation Health Effects Essay

… Measures to Reduce Ultraviolet Radiation Effects

Limiting the exposure to sun's UV rays between 10 a.m. And 4 p.m can reduce health hazards associated with radiation. Limiting exposure during these hours when the sun is hottest reduces long-term sun damage and other medical ailments. Thus, reducing the time spent walking, window shopping, performing outdoor chores during the midday in essential in reducing radiation hazards.

Wearing a wide brimmed while walking in the sun offers good protection for the eyes, ears, face, and the nape. In addition, wearing protective sunglasses provide 99 to 100% UV-Alpha and UV-Beta protection thus reducing eye damage from sun exposure. Moreover, cladding tightly woven and loose fitting clothes provide additional protection from the sun.

Using broad spectrum sunscreens reduce harms of UV exposure since they contain active ingredients that absorb approximately 85% of UV radiations. Additionally, applying sunscreens with Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of about 15 filter both UV radiations. The sunscreens should be reapplied every 2 hours after working or exercising outdoors. Sunscreens should be applied to all exposed skin 20 minutes before exposure to the sun to provide greater protection to individuals.

Disseminating Educational Information to the Public

The issuance of informed public education is the key to providing awareness of the danger of ultraviolet radiation. Easily understood and practical educational information of the public help them make informed decisions as far as UV radiation is concerned.

One way to disseminate the educational information to the public is via the issuance of radiation handbooks. The handbooks help in collecting, managing, and distributing relevant environmental information to the public. The handbooks can reach several people and provides them with practical information regarding UV radiations. Furthermore, the handbooks have projects that can help locals build monitoring infrastructures and disseminate environmental information to other people.


Daynes, R.A. (1990). Immune System and Ultraviolet Light. Elsevier.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2011, January 13). Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion. Retrieved July 15, 2012, from

Leaf, A. (1993). Critical Condition: Human Health and Environment. Cambridge: The MIT


World Health Organization. (2012). Health Effects of UV Radiation. Retrieved July 15, 2012, from… [read more]

Yellow River Pollution Term Paper

… " (2005) In a study reported in the work of Lu, ET al (2008) it is stated that a study of the Yellow River Basin including 13228.4 miles of waterway revealed the following pollutants in the waterway: "COD, ammonia nitrogen, permanganate index, BOD5, and volatile." (p.2) According to Lu, et al. (2008) "It is estimated that in China, the supply of drinking water for 70% of the total population and more than 95% of the rural population comes from groundwater. More than 400 cities use groundwater; in fact, in some cities, groundwater becomes an exclusive water supply source. The water quality of shallow and deep groundwater showed an aggravated trend in 21 of 125 cities. This pattern also occurred in 12 of 75 cities involved in the 2006 monitoring." (p.2) Watts (2011) reports that cancer rates have surged in China due to the chemical factories disposing of carcinogens in the water supply. phenol etc." (p.1)

IV. Importance of Clean Water

It is necessary that considerations for clean water be coordinated and balanced between protection of the environment and development of China's economy. This will require an improvement of awareness of environmental protection measures. NPR news reports on the situation and states as follows:

"The word harmony has been used as part of a widespread government propaganda campaign to talk about the balance it is trying to encourage between winners and losers of the economic boom, between the new industrialized cities and the still-undeveloped countryside, and between economic development and environmental sustainability. But places like Wuhai, Baiyin and Lanzhou call into question whether the contradictions facing China, especially the environmental ones, are becoming too great -- and whether the development that is strengthening China is also threatening the country's future." (NPR News, 2007)

Clean water is necessary for healthy living of the people in China and for raising healthy crops and livestock. Clean water is not an option for healthy existence but instead is a requirement.

V. Conclusion

China is faced with the necessity to balance its growth with its capacity to protect the environment and toward this end sustainability of various processes utilized by the manufacturing plants in China should be examined closely and plans made to make the necessary adjustments without wrecking the thriving economy of China. While the government has been attempting to address many of the problems brought on by the industrial revolution in China, it appears that the problem is the close ties that government officials have with the plants and production facilities in China and that politics is getting in the way of environmental protection initiatives. Needed in China are rules and regulations that are enforced by an agency assigned with the particular responsibility for environmental protection and specifically for protection of China's endangered waterways and stream including the Yellow River.


China Invests in Yellow River Tributary Treatment (2012) China Xinhuanet News. Retrieved from:

China's Yellow River Choking On Pollution (2006) China.Org.CN. Retrieved from:

China's Yellow River Plagued by Pollution (2005) Environmental… [read more]

Ecosystem Structure, Function and Change Research Paper

… The legislation that these advocates are working on renewing is well aware of the lake's problems and is targeting the invasive species like the smallmouth bass, minimizing and removing pollution from the water and trying to prevent wildfires as they have a duplicitous effect on the ecosystem at large.

These advocates have assembled a round table of expert environmental scientists who can direct the funds to the most effective methods of better managing the complex ecosystem that Lake Tahoe is a part of. For example, Asian clams are an extremely invasive predator that has invaded the lake, feeding on native species. Scientists have decided that they can resolve this issue by installing, "a very simple black tarp barrier at the bottom of the lake,' researchers have studied a smaller plot and a larger plot in the southeastern part of the lake" (ENS, 2010). One of the scientists from the University of Nevada who resides on the panel of experts have found that they can suffocate the clams within four weeks and thus entirely remove them from particular areas of the lake (ENS, 2010). They're still testing this strategy as though it can effectively kill the clams which prey on native species; it still affects the overall biodiversity of the lake (ENS, 2010). So researchers are still exploring how they can successfully kill the clams while restoring the biodiversity in those areas (ENS, 2010).

So much depends on managing this intricate ecosystem effectively, not just because it's a national treasure but because so much of the local economy depends on a health lake ecosystem.


ENS. (2010, August 17). Lake Tahoe Summit Gets It: Healthy Ecosystem Equals Healthy

Economy. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from http://www.ens-

Fimrite, P. (2011, August 17). Lake Tahoe: Smallmouth Bass Threatens Native Fish. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from

bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/08/16/BASK1KNS4A.DTL (n.d.). Ecosystem Brief. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from… [read more]

Malthus Model Thomas Essay

… Limits to Malthusian ideals

There are numerous limitations to Malthus theory. Firstly, Malthus had a pessimistic view on human population growth and he believed that food can contain it in a big way. He did not foresee improvements in technology as a means to overcome the food shortages. Malthus also failed to see the demographic transition among countries as they gained economic progress. The death rate decreased as countries made improvements in technology and provided more food, better sanitation and health care.

Large-scale immigration to advanced countries from under-developed countries is another reason for the boost in population levels. As more and more people could afford better food and health care due to economic prosperity, the death rate decreased and life expectancy increased (Morton, Shaw & Stroup, 1997).

Constraint of carrying capacity

Carrying capacity of human beings and other species is the maximum amount of individuals of that species that can live in an environment. It takes into account the constraints of availability of food, water and space needed to support these numbers for an indefinite period of time. In other words, it is the maximum load that the environment can sustain for a given species. It depends to a large extent on the nature of the species and its requirements such as light, water, food and space. When it comes to human beings, other factors are also taken into account such as sanitation and health care as these are considered to be essential aspects of living. This is because places that have poor sanitation or lack of access to quality health care has a higher death rate.

This theory of carrying capacity has merit only in a closed ecological system where conditions remain constant over an extended period of time. It is not applicable in real-time ecological systems because human activities have a big impact on the ecosystem. The natural ecosystem is stable and they can get back to their state of equilibrium after a brief period of disturbance. However, economic development, technology and human activities release a vast amount of chemicals into the ecosystem and these levels are way more than what the ecosystem can absorb. This, in turn, disturbs the equilibrium of the ecosystem and makes it unlivable for some species (Cyrus Chu & Tai, May 2001). Therefore, the theory of carrying capacity is valid only in a closed ecosystem and is not applicable in the world in which we live in today.


Cyrus Chu, C.Y; Tai, Ching. "Ecosystem resilience, specialized adaptation and population decline: A modern Malthusian theory." Journal of Population Economics. May 2001: 7.

Morton, John; Shaw, Jane; Stroup, Richard. "Overpopulation: Where…… [read more]

Nano Technology and World Research Paper

… Consequently, there have been calls for the regulation of the nano industry including the publishing of safety precautions to help those involved in the industry (Bowman and Hodge 2006). Further suggestions were also made to include nano particles in the European Union chemical policy framework.

The emergency of new technology may passively contribute to unemployment in the industries that produce goods rendered obsolete by the nano technology. The technology is highly efficient and able to address multiple issues now handled by human effort through activities.

The Future Trend and Expectations of Nanotechnology

The nano technology promises a number of radical changes in various sectors. It is predicted that computers will become faster. This will enhance greater development in the information sector. It is possible that the future promises faster than normal communication connectivity. In addition, production within the information technology sector is most likely to increase due to reduction in cost. This might the remedial to the digital divide witnessed in the world today.

Nonetheless, with the advancement in medicine, people will live longer.Nano technology promises unprecedented strides in tackling health issues that have adversely affected human beings such as Cancer and the Human immunodeficiency virus. Consequently, human population will increase beyond the current rate.

Nano technology, with the application of molecular precision, will avail products that are now not possible to make . It will be faster, cheaper and cleaner to produce superior products. This technology is bound to transform costs, resource and economic requirements. There is a high possibility that the technology will result to advancement of lethal and non-lethal weapons, deployed quickly and cheaply, making the world a more dangerous place.


The emergence of nano technology challenges the world with many unknowns. It allows scientists to develop new products by combining same molecules of existing components. The fact that some of these predictions have been scientifically confirmed further complicates the situation. Already many industries are extremely optimistic about the opportunities associated with the technology.Nano technology, promises to revolutionize the manufacture of goods resulting to lighter, stronger, safer and cleaner products, as well as introducing new products able to solve new problems. This technology is beneficial in many ways to human life and survival, it enables nano particles to rebuild atom by atom, leading to production of superior products, strong, light and impervious coatings. The technology also promises to introduce comprehensive diagnostic and curative measures able to tackle health issues considered as terminal. It is environmentally friendly as it inhibits disposal of harmful waste materials into the enviroment. There are several disadvantages associated with this technology including possible dangers to human health as a result of the prospected operation with the nano particles. The technology also provides favourable grounds for development of highly destructive weapons of mass destruction. It is critical that the government works together with scientists and regulatory agencies to find and quantify the risks associated with nanotechnology.


Bonsor, Kevin, and Jonathan Strickland. "How Nanotechnology Works." October 2007. (accessed April Wednesdsy, 2012).… [read more]

Video Tapped. Essay

… Nonetheless, it shows plastic bottles dumped in the Pacific containing toxins causing various neurological disorders.

Effects of Bottled Water Industry

Despite the availability of clean drinking tap water, demand for bottled drinking water in the United States of America is high; it is the highest in the world. According to World Watch the country was the biggest consumer of bottled water in 2011 and the market was expected to grow by 6.7%. More Americans prefer bottled water to tap water regardless of the cost, this situation causes depletion of water resource as well as a host of environmental concerns.

The demand of bottled drinking water has triggered rampant water mining by the bottling companies. The leading water miners in the United States are Pepsi, Coco Cola, Nestle Waters, Groupe Danone and Santory Water groups. These companies are engaged in serious mining activities for the already dwindling water resource. Wenonah Hauter, in a testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works stated that, "when the flows and levels of a region's springs, wetlands, lakes, streams and rivers are materially affected from extraction for bottling, the entire local and even regional environment suffers." (Snyder). These beverage Companies draw millions of gallons regardless of the concerns of the local community.

Furthermore, bottled water Companies have been dogged by allegations of environmental pollution. The plastic bottles they produce are improperly disposed exacerbating the problem of waste management. A report by World Wide Fund for Nature estimates that over 1.5 million tons of plastic are used in the bottled water industry every year (All About Water). The report stated that the energy used in production of the bottles also put a strain on the limited fossil fuels. In addition, these bottles cannot be reused as they compromise quality of the water contained in them.

Works cited

All About Water. "The Effects of Bottled Water on the Environment ." 2004. 22 March 2012 .

Snyder, Shannyn. "Resource Demands of Bottled Water." 2011. 22

March 2012 .

World Watch. "Bottled Water Demand May Be Declining." 2011 . 21

March 2012 .… [read more]

San Francisco Tire Industry Term Paper

… d) Ecological-economic environment

The ecological-economic environment in San Francisco surrounding tire production is balanced. Demand for the tires is exceedingly rising, as the purchase of autos increases. Resources necessary in the utilization of production apart from technology are necessitated, such as staples and labor. Availability of main raw materials, rubber and carbon is steady. Several neighboring states produce large scale carbon that San Francisco plants input at reduced costs as compared to importing the product. Production and cost of the raw materials and other factors such as their transportation is efficient across California. Labor provision to the plants in San Francisco is abundant; from manual personnel, operational staff and the subordinate staff. Economically, the incomes input by the customers are steady, hence stabilizing the economic gain of the industry. However, the industry was challenged by the unbecoming recession in the car industry in 1990 that reduced the gain from the existing inter-industry relationship. The tire industry as well as other industries in San Francisco, encounters economic challenges resulting from the weakening of the dollar.

Internal Analysis

An internal analysis of the tire industry in San Francisco focuses on the how the plants related to their customers as well as to other plants, local and international. It is differentiated along competitive, cost specialty and target consumer aspects. The tire industry in San Francisco enjoys a high level of competitive vantage against other tire manufacturing companies across the U.S. This is due to the centralization of resources and finances around the locality of industrial plants. This has also been attained by balancing the competition with cost specialty. Improvised market mixing models and differentiation of the brands of tires produced in San Francisco has internalized and increased penetration of the industry into the market; it has also offered an equable reception to the customers. The consumers are the most vital aspect as to why an industry should invest. Customers in San Francisco have their own preferences that enable the plants in the area to come up with proper strategies to address their demand.


San Francisco is a great contributor to the manufacture of tires used nationally and internationally. The city's tire plants and stores are opportunistic of the resources and have excelled in proving their competences in the production of the best and high-quality tire brands. Industrial dynamics of tire production in San Francisco is also treading high by show-casing efficient incentives. To the economy improvement, the San Francisco tire industry has also dealt with the unemployment issues and providing affordable brands to all its customers.… [read more]

Domestic Waste Production Research Paper

… The UK ranked 12th among countries in the EU with regard to waste generation in kg per person in 2011, with Denmark, Cyprus, and Luxembourg comprising the top three countries (1). With regard to using recycling as waste management, the UK ranked 10th among EU countries (1). Germany ranked as the country utilizing the most recycling, while Bulgaria ranked last (1). Recycling rates in the UK were demonstrated as slightly less in comparison to the average of European countries (1).

Aims and objective

The amount and types of waste generated within a household are influenced by drivers and behaviors within the household. Attitudes and consciousness toward the environment and the impact our behaviors have on the world around us may be influential with regard to these factors affecting waste generation and recycling behaviors. The Waste Framework Directive established a specific target with regard to household waste, which aims at a 50% increase in recycling of household waste materials by the year 2020 (3).

The aim of the present study is to identify drivers or behaviors influencing recycling behavior within households, and projecting how these drivers will impact waste generation and recycling in the year 2050. DEFRA has identified 4 main recycling behaviors practiced within households including recycling rather than throwing away items, using one's own, recyclable shopping bags, reusing bottles, jars, envelopes, etc. rather than throwing them away, and composting food and garden waste rather than throwing it out (1). It may be hypothesized that these behaviors will result in changes in attitudes and perspectives that will further promote these recycling behaviors.

It may be suggested that recycling items rather than throwing them away creates an increase in perceived value of items, in the way that items are seen as being useful across contexts and for a longer span of time than the immediate moment. An appreciation of simplicity and utility may be fostered through the re-use of shopping bags, and an understanding of unnecessary landfill waste may be conceptualized and promoted. Reusing items within the household instead of throwing them away may contribute to thriftiness within the household, and different choices may be made in purchasing items with packaging that can be reused. Moreover, composting behavior may affect food choices made within households, with healthier diets including more fruits and vegetables adopted more readily.


1. Department of Environmental Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 2011, Waste data overview (June 2011), viewed 11 March, 2012,

2. Department of Environmental Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 2012. Local authority collected waste for England -- annual statistics (2011), viewed 11 March, 2012,

3. Eurostat 2012, Environmental data centre on waste (2012), viewed 11 March 2012,

4. UK National Statistics 2012, Waste and recycling (2012), viewed 11 March, 2012,

Department…… [read more]

Polymers and Absorbency Lab Report

… Thirsty Polymer That Lives in Diapers

Polymers are a class of chemical compound materials made up of a chain of repeating structures (commonly referred to as monomers). These repeating structures occur both in nature and can be prepared synthetically. (Strobl, 2007) Common natural polymers are DNA molecules and cellulose, the basic building block of any tree or plant. One particularly interesting category of synthetic polymers is called polyacrylate. This material is commonly used now in disposable diapers and is known for its ability to hold up to 30 times its own weight in water. The particular type used in diapers is formed by mixing sodium salts with polyacrylic acid to form sodium polyacrylate. (Buchholz, 1994) as it is used in close proximity with humans, this material is considered non-toxic. The water molecules get trapped within the polymer and the material changes from a powder to a gel. The utility of this compound and synthetic polymers that have other properties such as extreme insulation and high impact resistance are constantly being incorporated into new inventions

Works Cited

Buchholz, Fredric L., and Peppas, Nicholas a., eds. (1994). Superabsorbent Polymers, Science and Technology. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.

Strobl, G. (2007). The Physics of Polymers. New York, NY: Springer.


The purpose of this experiment is to observe the absorbency properties of various materials compared to the polyacrylate polymer used in disposable diapers. Observations will also be made about how the material interacts with different types of dilute solutions that might commonly be found in a home.

Pre-lab Assignment

With a wide variety of uses for polymers has brought about its utility in applications that are not readily apparent. One of these uses is beads that are mixed in soil that improves aeration by providing water to the plants as they need it. (Soilmoist) Another are heart valve replacements and blood vessels, which behave well in the human body (no rejection) and can last a very long time (Turley). While some synthetic polymers may last a very long time, there is an urban legend that disposable diapers will still be in the landfill 100 years after being put there. This is not entirely true, since there exist some organisms in nature that will break down this material, sometimes within 2 months under the right conditions. This organism is a certain species of mushroom, "Pleurotus ostreatus (better known as oyster mushrooms)" can break down 90% of diaper materials by eating the cellulose (a natural polymer) and the polyacrylate much as it would when it is attached to a tree and feeds off of the tree (Richard, 2011). The article claims that all of the materials in the diaper are broken down within four months. Some of these diapers however, may include materials that are not biodegradable to improve the performance of the fit (i.e. elastic) and also to provide comfort. Researchers and manufacturers are working on improving the biodegrading capability of diapers in order to help the environment (thus getting a selling point) and… [read more]

Unethical Behavior Capstone Project

… Gabel alleged that the executives that supervised the chamber fostered a culture of intoxication which led to a sexually hostile environment. This environment, in turn, led to specific incidents of unwanted sexual advances. For example, her supervisor asked her about her breast cup size one drunken colleague called her asked her to come to his hotel suite and dance on a piano, the governor ogled her breasts and, at another time, asked her on a date (Baxter 2011). More significantly, when Gabel complained to her supervisors, they did not intervene in the harassment. Instead, one of her supervisors allegedly threatened to fire her and referred to her as a "minnow swimming with sharks" (Baxter 2011). She was told that was simply part of working with male lobbyists.

Clearly, if Gabel's allegations are true, then she was expected to function in a sexually hostile environment. It is important to note that Gabel does not appear to have ever been the target of quid-pro-quo sexual harassment. For example, she was not told that she would be fired for failing to comply with any of the sexual requests that she received, nor does it seem that she was ever punished for failing to comply with those requests. Therefore, to some people, the behavior may not seem unethical because she did not suffer adverse work scenarios as a direct result of the behavior. Instead, the adverse work treatment came as a result of her complaining about the harassment. She was chastised for not understanding that a hypersexualized, sexually hostile work environment was the norm in lobbying, and she believes that she was fired as a result of her complaints. Understanding that expecting someone to work in this type of environment is a violation of ethical norms is a very critical component to the evolution of the modern workplace.


Baxter, Christopher. "Ex-N.J. Chamber of Commerce Official was Sexually Harassed on the Job, Lawsuit Alleges." N.P., 21 Oct. 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2012.

Gordon, Gary and Bruce McBride.…… [read more]

People Without Plants Biology Essay

… For many centuries, cultures around the world have used plants as medicines. In fact, many modern medicines are directly derived from plants, and some medicines, even pharmaceuticals have plant ingredients. Raskin et al. agree as they write:

"For centuries people have used plants for healing. Plant products -- as part of foods or botanical potions and powders -- have been used with varying success to cure and prevent diseases throughout history. Written records of medicinal plants date back at least 5000 years to the Sumerians, and archeological records suggest even earlier use of medicinal plants." (Raskin et al., 2002,-Page 522)

Humans depend on plants for breath. Humans depend on plants for food and for medicine. There exists concrete evidence to support these claims. Plants give humans life, and from the above quotation, we see that plants also sustain human life. Humans can use plants to make their lives last longer by helping their bodies' function improve. Plants are certainly a part of the human environment. Plants can also maintain the health of the environment. Pimental et al. explain: "For instance, some plants and microbes help to degrade chemical pollutants and organic wastes and recycle nutrients throughout the ecosystem." (Pimental et al., 1997,-Page 747) Plants can even help alleviate the effects of human manufacturing.

Plants need water, sunlight, carbon dioxide, and other plants to survive. Plants also respond to positive emotions and energy from humans or animals around them. There have been scientific studies to prove and/or demonstrate such theories. Therefore, just a like a person who lives in an isolated room with all the necessities, a plant could not survive or grow to be fully healthy if it were locked in an air tight box with all it needed. Plants and humans need each other as proven by scientific study.


Pimental, P., Wilson, C., McCullum, C., Huang, R., Dwen, P., Flack, J., Saltman, T., & Cliff, B. (1997) "Economic and Environmental Benefits of Biodiversity."BioScience, 47(11), 747 -- 757.

Raskin, I., Ribnicky, D.M., Komarnytsky, S., Ilic, N., Poulev, A., Borisjuk, N., Brinker, A., Moreno, D.A., Ripoli, C., Yakoby, N., O'Neal, J.M., Cornwell, T., Pastor, I., & Fridlender, B. (2002) "Plants & Human Health in the 21st…… [read more]

Provide Research Paper

… Coal Production in Philadelphia:

Similar to other cities in Pennsylvania State, coal-production is one of the major activities in Philadelphia. Actually, the city is among leading coal-producing cities in the United States and is the only region that mines anthracite coal. In addition to this, Philadelphia also manufactures natural products, sand, petroleum, gas, and limestone, which is used for roadbeds and cement. The process of mining coal produces coal ash that is more radioactive as compared with nuclear waste and coal combustion waste such as bottom ash, flue gas desulfurization sludge, fly ash, and boiler slag.

Coal Combustion Waste:

Coal production in Philadelphia produces coal combustion waste, which is regarded as the second largest industrial waste flow in the country. The waste is generated when power plants are engaged in the burning of coal and the use of some processes to clean air emissions based on the requirements of the Clean Air Act ("EPA Considers Rules," 2009). This kind of waste is mainly stored in dry or wet impoundments and utilized as fill in deserted surface or disposed in landfills. Coal combustion wastes are used beneficially in building materials and construction and development of roads and highways. Additionally, fly ash can be found in ceiling tiles, cultured stone, concrete foundations, masonry blocks, and mortars.

While coal production generates coal combustion wastes, it accounts for 53% of the electricity-generation needs of the state. Coal-production in Philadelphia is hugely threatened by federal legislations that focus on lessening pollution and global warming. Rather than promote investment in upgrades to comply with the strict standards, these regulations could result in the closure of some shutter coal-fired power plants (Mastrull, 2011). The need to reduce pollution and global warming has resulted in the emergence and use of alternate resources.

The advantages of using such resources include the lessening of pollution and global warming, which will help in saving the ecosystem and human life. Secondly, the alternate resources…… [read more]

Bioleaching Technique for Extracting Precious Metals Article Critique

… ¶ … bioleaching technique for extracting precious metals from the earth. More specifically, bioleaching consists of the use of bacteria to consume the unusable portions of material in which naturally-occurring deposits of precious metals typically exist in nature. Those metals are valuable because of their usefulness in the components of mobile cellular telephones, computers, and other modern digital and communications technology. Previously, precious metal extraction has been limited to the use of other industrial techniques and processes such as smelting large quantities of deposits in which those metals occur naturally.

What is the author's position regarding the issue?

The author strongly suggests that the increasing industrial reliance on bioleaching is a good thing for various reasons. First, it permits mining for precious metals in materials that were previously considered nothing more than industrial waste material. The natural occurrence of precious metal resources are rapidly being depleted so the ability to extract them from industrial waste greatly extends the life of naturally-occurring precious metals resources. Second, the author emphasizes the comparative ecological cleanliness and environmental benefits of using bioleaching instead of traditional methods of precious-metal extraction. In particular, smelting is associated with significant environmental contamination and bioleaching eliminates that source of pollution of the global environment and biosphere.

3. What evidence/reason does the author present to support their position?

The principle evidence presented by the author consists of a brief outline of the scientific principle behind bioleaching, a retrospective account of the manner…… [read more]

Anderson's Determination to Forge Essay

… These countries would rather focus on expanding economic growth and then 'ask questions later' regarding the potential impact upon the environment. Unless environmental reforms are enacted globally, the actions of a single American company will mean little, and merely function as good advertising.


Goffman, Ethan. (2007). China and the path to environmental sustainability.

Discovery Guides. Retrieved:

Third student

I was curious and did some more research into Interface. According to Fast Company's profile on Anderson's organization, Interface's initiatives include using recycled fabrics to stitch carpets, using renewable sources of energy to power factories and offices, and using its old products as raw materials for new textiles. "And Interface would pull its suppliers and customers into its sustainability orbit, insisting that the products it bought be recyclable and nontoxic, pushing clients to think differently about carpeting - and about their own businesses" (Fishman 2010). When the company grew from $800 million to $1 billion in sales annually, the amount of raw materials used by the company still dropped to an unheard-of 20% per dollar (Fishman 2010).

Anderson even has plans in the future to 'lease' carpet -- companies would lease the carpet, have it installed, and when it was worn out the customer would be able to have it reconstituted into new carpet and lease it again. Anderson envisions a 'lease' economy, rather than a commodity economy as a way of generating growth. This is an intriguing idea, and seems an ideal way to satisfy the American appetite for new things, while not harming the environment.


Fishman, Charles. (2010). Interface: Sustainable Growth. Fast Company. Retrieved:

Fourth Student

I wonder if companies in all industries would be able to be as successful as Anderson's in generating growth. Anderson, because of his technological knowledge of what can succeed in his industry seemed to be uniquely gifted in exploiting the capabilities of the carpet industry. However, other industries seem to be innately driven by creating disposable products that are used quickly and have a high carbon footprint. Also, less environmentally-friendly products tend to be cheaper, and if the economy continues to sour, people are likely to remain price-driven. "According to new consumer research from Mintel, the number of Americans who say they almost always or regularly buy green products remains unchanged since last year, at 36%. This comes after tripling the previous year (from 12% in 2007 to 36% in 2008" (Mintel finds fewer Americans interested in going "green" during recession, 2009, Mintel.). Nearly 78% said that they would buy greener products (such as organic food) if the items were not more expensive than conventional products. Green products must be affordable and meet consumer needs as well as have a green 'stamp of approval.


Mintel finds fewer Americans interested in going "green" during recession. (2009). Mintel.

Retrieved:… [read more]

Personal Letter Professional Writing

… Personal Letter

Dear Ms.,

This is the second time I have taken your class and learned so much about writing, critical thinking, and much more. While reflecting about this class, it is really hard for me to pinpoint one thing I learned most about because this class definitely taught me more than just writing skills. I think, I have significantly improved my research skills, learned about sustainability of the earth, and critically reflected on my business major although I understand that the knowledge and skills I possess now constitute the miniscule of what I need for my future career and my life as a human being.

To speak about specific issues, the class helped me change some of my writing practices for better. I now work on several drafts before I submit my final paper. The comments I received from you in response to my papers as well as in class -- and the comments I received from my peers -- helped me produce significantly better papers than I would otherwise have. This experience helped me realize that getting a second and third opinion on my drafts is very important when I work on my papers. An outsider reviewing my drafts may notice things I have overlooked.

Thanks to this experience, I am also more appreciative of constructive criticism I receive from others than I was in the past. I used to be wary of receiving a lot of criticism because, frankly, it annoyed me a bit. Unconstructive criticism still does. But due to your professionalism and the manner you organized the class, I have always received helpful criticisms. The comments I received from you and my peers did not attack my draft- or finished works but made me reflect upon the weaknesses of my papers and thinking. The red markings I received from you after submitting my paper on issues with food supply, for example, showed me the errors I had…… [read more]

Against Bottled Water Essay

… Bottled Water

Safe? Environmentally Friendly? Well-Regulated?

The questions in the title above expose an issue about something of a craze in the United States in the past few years: bottled water. It seems that everybody carries around a bottle, and… [read more]

Oil Spills in Nigeria Essay

… ¶ … Niger Delta Oil Disaster: A Case of Government Greed and Ignorance

The Niger Delta is one of the most polluted regions in the world, with more oil spilled in the area each year than the total amount of oil spilled in the recent BP Gulf of Mexico disaster. However, despite the growing issue and incalculable damage being made to the Nigerian environment on an annual basis, companies continue to allow these spills to fly under the radar -- receiving little public attention throughout the world and no cleanup. While the Niger Delta oil spills remain one of the world's most relevant environmental atrocities to date, the Nigerian government has done little to alleviate the issue at hand. Nigeria's negligence can largely be attributed to its floundering economy and economic standing on the world stage. As Nigeria has made an international pledge to achieve a position as one of the world's top 20 economies, Nigerian corporations receive little regulation as long as these respective companies continue to turn a profit. However, Nigeria's blindness on the path to economic success is being significantly hindered by their ignorance to a problem that can ultimately destroy future prospects for the country in areas far greater than the world economy.

As petroleum has largely been considered one of Nigeria's top products for economic stimulus in the country, the goal of economic domination that can be gained with such a resource has jaded many of Nigeria's tactics for handling this area of its economy, particularly environmentally. Over the past five decades, devastating oil spills in the Niger Delta by companies as world-renowned as Shell have significantly impacted the environment and continues to pose disastrous consequences. A recent UN Environment Program (UNEP) report has announced that Shell and other oil firms have systematically contaminated a 1,000 sq. km./386 sq. mile area of the Niger Delta that has had tremendously negative consequences for human health and wildlife (Vidal 1).

A three-year study by the UN has found that the clean-up itself will likely take over 30 years, and this type of figure is based on a scenario in which the Nigerian government would take a significant and proactive role in the clean-up rather than its current passivity. The study found that heavy contamination of the land and underground water sourced in the delta continues to: contaminate community drinking water with dangerous concentrations of benzene and other pollutants, contaminated soil more than five meters deep, aided to the increase in hydrocarbons present in water to a level more than 1,000 times the standard, and adversely affected the wildlife population and other natural resources found in the area (Akpomuvie 201).

Such disastrous consequences for the environment do not even begin to describe the comparative devastation that has been seen in the economy in terms of rural farming, which has long been a staple of Nigeria's own internal economy. While greedily working toward economic progress on an international stage, Nigerian higher-ups have largely forgotten the people whose livelihoods in…… [read more]

Hurricane Aftermath, Returning Case Study

… Environmental specialist with mechanical engineers working in this area.

Appliances and machinery. When appliances and machinery are found wet, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. Then, unplug appliances and let them dry out. Make a board or a sign that alert people not to touch any appliances or machinery or any electrical items. This cautionary measure can help inspector as well as people around to take care of them. Technical specialist are fixing all the broken appliances and making new ones.

Water and sewage systems. It is likely that pipes would have been damaged due to the disaster. Turning off the main water valve will be right option to do at that moment. Also water should immediately be checked to make sure it is not poisonous with gasses and liquids. In case of contamination of water, the main water supply to be cleared with local authority and water pipelines to be permanently changes to avoid any king of risk that can affect person's life. Architectures with environmental specialist are working on it.

Food and other supplies. The entire food item in the area would have been contaminated. Therefore it has to be removed or dumped. Basements of food storage would also have been badly affected therefore items from there should also be thrown away. It is quite a lot waste of resources and money but when compared to saving human life its nothing. Agricultural land should first be intoxicated by using anti-bacterial fertilizers and medicines so that the future vegetation should not be insect affected. Training programs should be conducted for people living and working in the affected site on how they can life a healthy life and take care of their food and drinking. These training programs should not be focused on educated working class but it's evenly important for uneducated middle class people who are depended on agriculture and supply of food items as small retailers. Help of medical professionals, doctors and specialist in this case would be highly recommended. School should run programs of cleanliness to maintain health and hygiene of the community. Psychiatrists, health and hygiene specialist are collectively looking after it.

Environmental Analysis and Recommendations

The natural disaster like floods, earth quake, volcano and hurricane all lead to pollution of the environment. Poisonous gasses and minerals erupting from these disasters contaminate the environment that adversely affect the health and well being of people living and working in those areas. All the factories and manufacturing concerns in the affected areas have to be rebuilt. In rebuilding the site, insurance amount have to be used to fund the reconstruction of all these properties. When rebuilding such resources special emphasis has to be made to ensure that architectural design and physical structure of the building is such that it can stand such disasters in the future thus resulting in minimum possible destruction. The industrial regulation board of the community should take in-charge of rebuilding the sector and help them in making construction… [read more]

Disturbance Dynamics Article Review

… " (Turner, 2010).

The study further focuses upon what opportunities studies of future disturbances can provide, especially in relation to studying pattern -- process interactions. Thus, Turner further states that changing disturbance regimes "will produce acute changes in ecosystems and ecosystem services over the short (years to decades) and long-term (centuries and beyond)." (Turner, 2010).

Lastly, she adds there are, therefore, questions that must be addressed in future research, such as the three below that Turner also describes in her study:

(1) disturbances as catalysts of rapid ecological change,

(2) interactions among disturbances,

(3) relationships between disturbance and society, especially the intersection of land use and disturbance, and (

4) feedbacks from disturbance to other global drivers.

Lastly, Turner states that ecologists "should make a renewed and concerted effort to understand and anticipate the causes and consequences of changing disturbance regimes," and she is absolutely right.

All references from: Turner,…… [read more]

Green Potential of RFID Projects a Case-Based Analysis Article Critique

… Green Potential of RFID Projects

Indranil Bose and Shipeng Yan's article "The Green Potential of RFID Projects: A Case-Based Analysis" attempts to analyze the current state of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology as it relates to the technology's potential for improving… [read more]

Environmental Thresholds of Connectivity Essay

… As With & Crist (1995) point out, percolation theory has been used to explain how critical thresholds of connectivity occur and how to predict them. Percolation theory offers calibration data for prediction software used in the field.

According to With & Crist (1995), the critical threshold of connectivity develops organically along with or because of the interaction among species. Thus, managing ecological connectivity might not even be possible; it might not be feasible to manufacture ecological connectivity within a park, wetland, or forest area, for example. Instead, land management specialists must contend with micromanaging at times or alternatively, with radical experimentation.

A species determines its own threshold, and humans must learn to work with a high degree of uncertainty with regards to managing properties. While some thresholds of connectivity can be estimated or predicted using computer software, there are an infinite number of variables that might impact the evolution of a given ecological zone. Much of the scientific data on critical thresholds is actually spurious (Monkkonen & Reunanen 1999).

Vegetation maps, digital elevation data, and tracking data all come into play when working with technology tools used to predict thresholds of connectivity and their consequences (Nagelkerken, 2009). Surfaces, whether terrestrial or oceanic, have an indirect and sometimes direct bearing on the thresholds of connectivity. Geology may take more time to impact the threshold of connectivity than a sudden introduction of foreign species or airborne particle. Yet the nature of surface material does have a strong bearing on the overall development of an ecosystem ranging from the rates and types of decomposition to the types and range of high-level predators.

Managers of a wildlife area or regional planner should therefore be seriously concerned about thresholds of habitat connectivity. The thresholds of connectivity have a bearing on the ecological composition of the region, including its flora and fauna. Familiarity with all the variables at play will help the land manager contend with changes. Likewise, the thresholds of connectivity can have a bearing on nearby human as well as animal populations. When thresholds of connectivity directly impact human life, managers of wildlife areas and regional planners must work together for constructive solutions.


Monkkonen, M. & Reunanen, P. (1999). On critical thresholds in landscape connectivity: A management perspective. Oikos.

Nagelkerken, I. (2009). Ecological connectivity among tropical coastal ecosystems. Springer.

With, K.A. & Crist,…… [read more]

Oil Spill Response Plan Research Paper

… One drawback of the massive response to this disaster is a somewhat greater difficulty in organizing grassroots and volunteer efforts to help in the clean-up, as the response is being so closely monitored by BP and its contractors, so the next best thing would be to ensure that local workers are given the chance for employment, rather than allowing BP to bring in outside contractors and employees. Not only will this give residents the opportunity to participate in the protection and restoration of their own civic community, but it will help tide over many of those who would lose income until their claims could processed and paid by BP.

Because the majority of the costs for the clean-up will be born by a combination of BP and the government's tax-funded rainy day fund, the overt costs for the city will be minimal. However, a loss in tourism means a subsequent loss in tax revenue for the city, so while the response itself, including formulating lawsuits and lobbying on behalf of local workers, should not cost the city extra money, preparations do need to be made for a drop in revenue overall. This means scaling back certain non-necessary programs and finding areas to increase efficiency, at least until the present crisis has subsided. Raising revenue via other means, such as increasing taxes or fees, would likely only serve to further exacerbate the financial problems brought on by the arrival of oil on the city's beaches.

After examining the federal and state agencies responsible for the response to the oil spill, as well as the corporate responsibilities mandated by law, it becomes clear that while the city should not have to worry about the long-term costs associated with cleaning up the oil and sustaining the local tourism economy, in the short-term the city must focus its efforts on the speedy delivery of federal and corporate money and resources to those requiring it via simultaneous close cooperation and the threat of lawsuits, alongside a concerted effort to ensure that local workers are given the opportunity to participate in the clean-up. In this way, the city can ensure that it is not liable for the damage caused by other, that its residents are able to maintain their lives without too much financial disruption, and that the community will be able to rebound quickly and strongly from this disaster.


Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution

Contingency Plan Overview. EPA. Retrieved from

Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Oil pollution prevention regulation overview. EPA.

Retrieved from

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (2011). Hazardous waste cleanup section.

Retrieved from

Liszka, J. (2010). Lessons from the exxon valdez oil spill a case study in retributive and corrective justice for harm to the environment. Ethics & the Environment, 15(2), 1-30.

Wald, M. (May, 1 2010). Tax on oil may help pay for cleanup. The New York Times. Retrieved from… [read more]

Gypsum on Sandy Loam and Loamy Literature Review

… ¶ … gypsum on sandy loam and loamy sand-types of soil for erosion control purposes under saline condition. All soils are three-dimensional natural bodies comprised of both mineral and organic materials, with the specific composition of a soil at a given site and point in time being the result of the interaction of five interrelated factors-parent material, climate, plants and animals, relief, and time (Shahid, Aslam, Hashmi & Mufti, 2009). According to the Australian Soil Health Knowledge Bank, the integrity of the structure of soils is important because erosion represents a serious threat to agriculture and other human pursuits (Soil stability, 2011). Gypsum has been shown to be effective in improving the soil stability and reducing erosion in certain types of soils, such as those that contain large amounts of organic matter (Orme, 2001) as well as sandy and coarse-loamy soils (Shahid et al., 2009). These are important issues for soil management purposes because sandy and loamy soils are particularly susceptible to erosion which will require the addition of gypsum for erosion control and the promotion of soil integrity (Cochrane, Reichart, Eltz & Norton, 2005). There may be chemical as well as mechanical properties involved in the function of gypsum in controlling erosion. For instance, studies of the application of gypsum on soils have demonstrated effective stabilization of soil aggregates as well as the reduction of clay dispersion (Cochrane et al., 2005). This point is also made by James (2009) who reports that, "The binding of soil particles allows water and air to filter and collect in the soil. Soils with a higher percentage of clay (loamy) will hold more water and nutrients. Sandy soils do not have the same structure or holding capacity, so water and nutrients will leach quickly" (2009, para. 2). In these situations, water transports salt solutions to the deeper layers of soil where is can accumulate and produce sodic soil (James, 2009). In these cases, water is hampered from traveling downward from the sodic soil point onward and is forced to move horizontally through the other layers of soil (James, 2009). The process is described by this authority thusly: "The Calcium (Ca) in gypsum replaces the salt while the sulfate in gypsum reacts with the sodium forming sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate is a highly water-soluble material that is easily leached below the root zone. This process also repairs soil structure so soil particles can bind with each other again. For severe cases the process may take several seasons" (James, 2009, para. 3).

In some cases, gypsum may not be as effective in improving soil stability in other types of soils without repeated applications. For instance, the authorities at the Australian Soil Health Knowledge Bank note that, "In sandy soils, soil particles are unable to form stable aggregates, but the soils are free draining. As the clay content of the soil increases, the particles are held together more strongly and structural strength increases" (Soil stability, 2011, para. 2). This means that over time, the organic content… [read more]

Lca of Printer Cartridges Life Term Paper

… Transportation and electricity use play a key role in the life cycle analysis. Electricity use begins with the extraction of raw materials from the earth. Processing of those materials used further electricity. Production of the final product also uses electricity.… [read more]

Basic Toxicology Research Paper

… Toxicology

An abandoned industrial park sits as a potentially toxic wasteland. The two now-defunct companies that had been using the site for heavy manufacturing have left a mess for others to clean up. For sixty years, these two companies manufactured… [read more]

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