"Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays

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Pollution of Coastlines Makes Us More Vulnerable Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (931 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Pollution of Coastlines Makes Us More Vulnerable to Global Environmental Problems

Recent disasters in North America, such as the flooding of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina hit and the water table problems in Texas show us that development of fragile environments and uncontrolled pollution of the environment can have grave consequences. While humankind can modify the environment physically, nobody can modify the weather at will. That is another problem which is exacerbated by pollution. Weather patterns are being globally changed by the patterns of human habitation and of the pollutants we contribute back to the environment. However, that is a separate problem from the damage done by the weather due to the modifications and pollution of fragile environments in North America. While it may take years for us to undo some of the damage we have done to the global ecosystem, we can and must make changes locally to limit the damage.

Human habitation and exploitation of fragile coastal areas has and is still being greatly damaged by tourists and developers. In coastal areas, such as New Orleans and North Carolina, fresh water swamps and estuaries are part of the local water table, or aquifer, and their degradation will seriously affect the fresh water supply.

Single homes, golf course developments and retirement communities now crowd virtually any waterway where developers can acquire access.

North Carolina's coast has resisted overdevelopment better than other states' coastal regions because of protection laws enacted in the mid-1970s. That enlightened outlook needs to be renewed. (Observer Ralleigh, NC 6/4/2006)

North Carolina and Georgia are attacking this problem now, since they are seeing the damage done to local fisheries and also the economic cost of recreating the barrier environments after developers upset the sensitive balance. Development is being greatly controlled on the fragile lands.

In addition to the physical damage to barrier islands and coastline areas, salinization, that is, an increase of salt content, of these areas kills off the local wildlife, an important part of the food chain. The salinization is a consequence of human use of water for living and also of industrial use. We use the water and then let it flow back into the aquifer with extra salt. Irrigation adds even more pollutants to the water table. The salt water parts of coastal estuaries and salt water marshes creates unique niches for local wildlife. If either is damaged the whole system is affected. Of course, anything which damages the food chain have a bad impact upon local economies and may even have national or global consequences. The over-salinization of coastal areas upsets the delicate balance of salt and fresh water areas.

Estuaries and marshes are a buffer zone between coastal and inland areas. The fresh water marshes are part of the local aquifer. The unique plant life…… [read more]

John Muir and the Sierra Club: Promoting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


John Muir and the Sierra Club: Promoting the legacy of preservation vs. The materialist and utilitarian character of contemporary American society

Towards the end of 19th century, and as American society fully embarked into a period of extensive capitalism and modernism, the naturalist John Muir embodied the individual who sought to create a balance between modernism's utilitarian perspective and maintenance of humanity's harmony and relationship with its natural environment.

Muir as a noted naturalist helped develop the concept of natural environment preservation and environmentalism early on in modern American society. Originating from Scotland, Muir immigrated to America in 1849, and as a young man, traveled extensively the environs of California, becoming more than just an explorer of researcher for nature, but a preservationist of nature as well. One of the most important legacies that he left in American society is the formation of the Sierra Club, an environmentalist organization that perpetuated Muir's vision of a modern America with a preserved natural environment.

In this paper, a discussion of John Muir's legacies in the history of American society and of environmentalism in general is provided. The discussion centers on two of Muir's most important contributions to modern society: the introduction and popularization of environmentalism (specifically environment preservation) in American society, and the creation of the Sierra Club, an environmentalist group that takes concrete actions -- particularly legal and civic ones -- that support and help preserve the environment, as envisioned by its founder John Muir.

The first part of the discussion centers on the popularization of the concept of preservation of nature, or environmentalism in general. This movement is progressively introduced and developed by John Muir, having recognized the possibility that modernism's rampant and selfish utilization of natural resources could result to radical environmental degradation and loss in years to come. Miller's (1993) thoughtful analysis of Muir's contributions to environmentalism in the contemporary American society showed that Muir helped influence two important ideas in "modern environmental thinking": that (1) nature can be preserved and (2) nature can be enjoyed and used as a form of recreation (11).

The notion of preserving the nature, as noted by Miller, takes on a new meaning in the contemporary American society. In Muir's society, preservation is the crux of the environmentalist movement, since during his time Muir only encountered rapid utilization of natural resources for the increased development of the gradually modernizing environs of…… [read more]

Deforestation and Water Pollutions Issues in Mexico Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,414 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … deforestation and water pollutions issues in Mexico. The writer explore the various problems that they cause and things that the government implements for the purpose of correcting or reversing the problems. There were four sources used to complete this paper.

For many years in history mankind used the earth's natural resources without any thought to what may happen… [read more]

Pennsylvania's Recycling Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pennsylvania's Recycling Program

Today, almost all the Earth's natural reserves and natural resources are being depleted with great rapidity, and in direct proportion, the usage of disposable products and packaging has been increasing. Take for example, Pennsylvania, which recycled about 4.7 million tons of waste in the year 2004 alone, and what this means is that this will take a heavy toll on the most valuable and irreplaceable natural resources of the earth, found in the forests and the mines of the world. It is important to remember the fact that the reprocessing of used materials to make new products and packaging eventually reduces the consumption of natural resources, as seen in the example of Pennsylvania: by recycling about 1 million tons of steel in 2004, Pennsylvanians saved 1.3 million tons of iron ore, 718,000 tons of coal, and 62,000 tons of limestone. In addition, Pennsylvania recycled newsprint, office paper, and other similar materials, and this meant that more than 8.2 million trees were saved from destruction. (Recycling saves natural resources)

In Lansdale Borough, Pennsylvania, a program for recycling has been created. This program undertakes the evaluation of different types of waste and recyclables, so that it would be ultimately possible to determine whether or not changes must be brought in to the existing waste management system, in a manner in which the deteriorating conditions of the alleyways and streets of the Lansdale Borough, and the impact that these have on the health and safety issues of the people of the Borough could be handled in a proper and efficient manner. (Swana Recycling technical assistance study)

One must note that recycling refers to a series of activities that include collecting all the various recyclable materials, which would otherwise be discarded as 'waste', and then processing these materials into raw materials like fibers, and thereafter, converting them into new products in an entirely different form. The entire process creates a sort of loop, which ensures the success of the recycling processes taking place. After the collection process is completed, for example, the next step is the transportation of the materials to the materials recovery facility, so that they can be sorted out, after which they are all cleaned and separated. The next step is that of manufacture, after which is the third step of purchasing recycled products. By buying recycled products, the individual consumers, the governments, and businesses all make an important contribution to the success of the recycling process. (Municipal Solid Waste)

In Pennsylvania, recycling technical assistance, up to $7,500 is made available at no charge to those local governments that…… [read more]

Public Relations Aspect of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

Public Relations Aspect of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, which occurred on March 24, 1989 when the Exxon Valdez ran aground and leaked oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound, was the largest marine oil spill in North America (Davis pp). Roughly one-quarter of the cargo, some 10.8 million gallons or 258,000 barrels,… [read more]

Air We Breath Contrary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,123 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The consequences of air pollution on health and well being are very enigmatic as there are many different sources and their individual effects vary from one to the other. It is not only the diffusive air quality in the cities but also the indoor air quality in the rural and the urban areas that are causing concern. In fact, in the developing world, the highest air pollution exposures occur in the indoor environment. The indoor environment usually contains concentrated pollutants that are extremely harmful to health. Some of these gases both from outdoor and sometimes indoor environment can sternly and repugnantly affect the health of the population and should be given due attention. Some of these gases are as follows, as indicated in an online source.

Tobacco smoke, biological pollutants, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, lead, radon, ozone, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, SPM (suspended particulate matter) e.g.dust, fumes, mist and smoke.

Air Pollution and Our Environment

The continuous thinning of the ozone layer brought about by the harmful pollutants diffused in the air is constantly adding to the consequent causes of global warming. Climate changes in present time are very evident with the natural disasters the whole world is experiencing. Tornados, hurricanes, tropical storms, tidal waves among others are just results of this global phenomenon in global warming.

In a statement of Atrrenvi Paul of Center for Global Research Teri, he notes that;

Climate change is a reality and its impacts are already being felt the world over. Tempearture in this century has increased by 0.6 degree C. over the last century.

There are other indicators as well which support this - such as melting of glaciers and extreme events which have increased in intensity as well as in frequency.

There is ample evidence suggesting human causes of climate change. The third assessment of the IPCC has stated that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human causes mainly fossil fuel burning.

With indicators that are present in our everyday life, vigilance to protect the environment through the human control of air pollutants must be deliberated in general by both society and its government. Human activity has changed that natural balance of Mother Nature thus it is also through human intervention that we can correct this disaster before everything comes to its worst state.

Reduction Of Air Pollution

The following are some human controlled methods and tips in the reduction of Air Pollution;

Less consumption of fuel to burn like use of motorized vehicles, cars etc.

Tree planting and vigilance in illegal logging amongst forested areas which contributes to the loss of oxygen in the air.

The filtering of smoke that is being emitted by industrial processing plants etc.

We are all victims of air pollution. Hence, it is only fitting and proper that each of us should do our share to help our environment, the earth, and most especially our for the care of our health.


K12 Science (2004);Air Pollution… [read more]

Barred Tiger Salamander Term Paper

Term Paper  |  50 pages (20,550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Barred tiger salamander, etc.

In order to monitor ecological developments in forest areas of the United States, the salamander is often used as an indicator of ecological sustainability because of their high site tenacity and environmental sensitivity. As such the salamander has come to represent an essential element of the many balanced and healthy North American ecosystems. In recent years,… [read more]

Production Management Materials Requirement Planning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Production Management

Materials Requirement Planning

Materials requirement planning is defined as an "integrated production planning and control technique that schedules materials needed to create a product" (Schermerhorn 1989, p. 492). It is used to manage resources and inventory needs and allow materials to be purchased efficiently. To consider how materials requirement planning can assist a business, Hickory Chest Company will be considered. Hickory Chest Company builds and sells thousands of chests each month and has an active assembly line that produces those chests. For more than 50 years, it has bought the materials it needed when it could get the best deal on those materials and kept the materials in its warehouse until they were needed. Sometimes they ran out of raw materials, but they think that buying cheap makes up for whatever costs they incur when they run out of raw materials. Hickory Chest Company will now be discussed to show how materials requirement planning can assist the company and make production more efficient.

The way that Hickory Chest Company currently approaches acquiring materials involves allowing the external environment to determine its buying process. That is, the company purchases raw materials when there prices are low. This approach does not take into account the needs of Hickory Chest Company and causes raw materials to run out on occasions. This lack of raw materials has a cost to the company, with it limiting production and also causing other resources to be underutilized. The approach where Hickory Chest Company stores raw materials also represents an inefficiency because there is a cost involved in storing these goods. In addition, Hickory Chest Company is paying upfront for raw materials it cannot use immediately. If Hickory Chest Company was paying for raw materials as they were needed it would be able to improve its cash flow. A more…… [read more]

Rules to Live Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


That is a terribly shortsighted and selfish attitude, and it must stop if the planet is going to survive in the end. People need to be concerned about pollution because it is not going away. People need to be concerned about global warming and greenhouse gases because they are destroying the ozone and if left unchecked they can destroy the planet. It may not happen tomorrow, but it will happen, because the Earth is sturdy, and humans are treating it as if it were extremely robust and dependable. In addition, the population around the world is growing, and the Earth has only so much inhabitable space, and space to grow enough food to feed all these people. The Earth is finite, but the population is not, and that is just another problem with placing human needs before the needs of the place that houses all humans.

We as a race are massive consumers of everything from food to non-renewable resources. We use things up and throw them away at an alarming rate, and there is always more where they came from. We need to change our entire way of life and way of thinking if we are to really take care of Earth and everything we hold dear in our lives. The current gasoline prices are simply one tiny indication of what is to come as the planet begins to seriously run out of resources. Someday, there will be no more oil, no more aluminum, no more gold, no more coal, and if humans do not create alternatives to these minerals and many others, then humankind will go the way of the dodo. We will become extinct because of our own greed, avarice, selfishness, and blindness to what is really happening to the world and to the way we live. If we do not do something now, then we will leave no legacy for generations in the future.… [read more]

Garbage as Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (867 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Garbage as Art

How can this work on 'garbage as art' be used to raise environmental awareness?

People who are opposed to the environmentalist movement often sniff that environmentalism is popular when it is directed towards saving a cuddly animal species, a hospitable neighborhood park, or the drinking water of children at a local, affluent school. Making hard sacrifices to save the environment for the next generation, even when they do not result in prettier scenery, can indeed be more difficult to sell to the public. Raising environmental awareness is difficult -- for some, even "recycling is a pain that they suffer," an inconvenience rather than a life-sustaining act of community. (Porter 146) And in fact, recycling offers little or no waste cost savings if not done properly by local governments -- often it costs more than it saves, after the mechanisms of collection and incineration are put into action unless the program is implemented properly. Saving the environment takes work, hard work, and making mistakes in policies to achieve good policies -- as one must often create a great many rough drafts before creating a final product of art.

Using garbage as art reminds us that the environment is often a harsh and an ugly place and the rewards cannot always be immediately appreciated, as waste and discarding things is part of life. We breathe and take from the environment, and give out in our breath what can be used by species from the plant kingdom. So long as there is renewal of what is cast off, we need not fear waste. Acknowledging the possibilities of garbage as art shows that neither art nor the natural environment are always beautiful, and even the more humble and earthier aspects of the natural world are equally valid and necessary to cultivate and preserve. Garbage as art is a tangible, immediate way to remind individuals of the possibilities of renewal in the environment and in the human condition, a way to recycle the environment and a way for human beings to personally express their ideas about their connections to the natural environment. It is a way not subject to the whims or budgets of bureaucratic local or federal authorities.

Garbage as art reminds us that nothing, as stated by Richard C. Porter in the poetic metaphor that structures his text, The Economics of Waste is truly lost in the world's ecosystem. "I am proud of the fact that I am 'recycling' waste into economic knowledge and analytical ability." (Porter 6) The idea of garbage as art acknowledges that despite our false perceptions, nothing is truly…… [read more]

North Carolina Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



North Carolina: Top Political and Environmental Issues

North Carolina is without a doubt one of the most vibrant of the fifty states. Rich in historical memory, as well as strikingly beautiful in her natural resources, the state (according to its official website) also boasts "one of the most dynamic economies in the U.S." Yet, despite its fabled industrial, textile… [read more]

Garbage Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (779 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In what ways does looking at 'garbage' as art actually make the question of garbage more manageable?

One person's trash is another's treasure -- such cliches are frequently repeated in modern conversation. And indeed, everyone has known at some point in his or her life the pleasure of picking up an intriguing 'find,' perhaps a real wool winter coat at a yard sale at a greatly discounted price, or even better a 'free' yet pristine discarded bit of merchandise like a slightly outdated piece of electronic equipment by the side of the road, saved from the clutches of the trash collector. But beyond the issue of collecting refuse to stretch one's salary, authors Richard C. Porter's text The Economics of Waste and John Scanlan's poetic musings in On Garbage actually argue that garbage, beyond mere economics savings for the personal consumer or recycling to save one's own local environment, must begin to have a larger social and aesthetic value that cannot and should not be denied for the psychological and environmental health of our society.

In contrast to John Scanlan, Richard C. Porter stresses a more conventional, but still radically conservationist economic view of viewing garbage. Porter focuses on the use of economic analysis to reveal the costs of different policies and therefore how much can be done to meet goals to protect human health and the environment. But even in his own ecological recollections, citing his own early obsessions with conserving the environment, Porter notes, "I remember collecting bottle caps as a kid," finding beauty in the cast-off bits of other humans. (Porter ix)

But Porter reminds the reader that such scavenging by boys at play and even community recycling is not enough to save the earth's ecosystem. In fact, it has been estimated 25% of all waste is "yard waste" that contains so much glass and debris it cannot be recycled. An effective waste policy must integrate knowledge from several disciplines, including sociology and the ways in which human beings view consumerism, as America becomes an increasingly disposable society. (4) We must learn to think economically about what we now call mere waste, stresses the author.

John Scanlan offers a more potent philosophical answer to the problematic history of garbage, a problem cannot be solved by recycling alone, but must, Scanlan stresses, be resolved by looking…… [read more]

Recycling of Electric and Electronic Waste Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,295 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Recycling of Electric and Electronic Waste

In the process of discussing the waste from electronic and electric industries in Europe, we will first have to look at the basic structures as have been provided. The first of these is for the governments to fix take back requirements for the industries as also the take back specifications for them. Then they… [read more]

Environmental Presentation by Evaluating Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


(Internal Organization and Performance: Clues from the Electronics Industry)

The incorporation of environmental professionals within discussions of significant investment decisions gives rise to the developments in environmental performance. An environmental professional entails a peep into the significance of such incorporations. Environmental managers from a semiconductor manufacturer were brought into discussion of a proposed plant addition. They indicated early in the processes that the preferential design at that point would not only enhance the emissions, but thrust the plant across a significant-Environmental Protection Agency entry making it a major element of pollution under the law of that agency. The consequence was that even minor variations effected to afterwards to the plant would necessitate the approval of EPA. This would take place several times a year, declining flexibility and finally, competitiveness. The plant supplementation was restructured to maintain the facility of a minor source of pollutions. (Internal Organization and Performance: Clues from the Electronics Industry)


Russo, Michael V; Harrison, Niran S. Internal Organization and Performance: Clues from the Electronics Industry. September, 2002. Retrieved from http://fiesta.bren.ucsb.edu/~alloret/epacapmkts/Michael%20Russo%2010-02.doc… [read more]

Tragedy of the Commons Few Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,165 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Freedom, according to Hardin, can be won through restriction. Laws are often instated to protect the rights and freedoms of people, at the expense of restricting the rights and freedoms of a few. Burglary, vandalism, hate crime, and murder, are all against the law because they inhibit freedom and liberty overall. We cannot protect the rights of the robber or the murderer because we respect his or her freedom to do whatever he or she wants.

Thus, Hardin shows how some so-called freedoms, like the freedom to breed, are "intolerable," (4). I fully agree with the author's assessment. The freedom to breed is intolerable because it destroys public property and injures public health and well-being. The effects of overpopulation are extensive and they affect every place on the planet. Therefore, overpopulation is a major international problem. I take Hardin's point one step further to demonstrate how overpopulation is a unique issue because of the global extent of the problem. Because there is no global government, the solution to overpopulation rests in a combination of psychology, sociology, and science. Sound public policy can be created through a "mutually coercive" measure that involves all of these interrelated fields.

Breeding is not normally considered a selfish, self-serving activity. However, Hardin phrases it as such. When families have children they think mainly of themselves, not of the greater good. This is why "we can't control breeding simply by an "appeal to conscience," (5). We have tried that already and it doesn't work. Only more restrictive and more serious and more demanding solutions can work. China's solution is a step in the right direction. Like most solutions, it is imperfect. Hardin thankfully notes that no solution will be perfect. "We don't have to enjoy it or even pretend to," notes the author (6). Hardin continues, "injustice is preferable to total ruin," (7). Sometimes, restricting rights is necessary for the common good. The commons, when left free, open, and collective, will be depleted.

Furthermore, Hardin notes that nearly the entire human population is "deeply committed to the welfare state," that "adopts over breeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement," (5). We need to change this outlook and its corresponding policies. The freedom to breed should be restricted just as many other human freedoms are restricted. The status quo is not working. "It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard," (7). One of the highlights of Hardin's article is his point that "the status quo is also action," and in this particular case, a truly destructive action (7).

The author suggests that in creating sound public policy related to population control, the key is to weigh the pros and cons of reform vs. status quo. Then and only then can we make rational and reasonable decisions regarding which course of action is best. We will never please everyone, but there is no such thing as a perfect system… [read more]

Cod: Fish That Changed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In doing so, they forced people to search for new sources of cod outside of Europe. This example shows how the economic value of cod impacted its fishing and trade. As soon as cod became a valuable resource, there became a desire to profit from it, which led to conflict. In turn, the conflict changed the methods of fishing cod. This illustrates that environmental science is linked to economics. While the example date back to the 15th century and can seem archaic, the issues involved remain true today. In short, environmental science is related to producing and managing an economic resource. As long as the resource has the potential for profit, there will be groups wanting to exploit the product, monopolize the industry, or profit from the product so much that they do not consider the long-term impact of their actions. Part of environmental science's role is to find the balance between profiting from the resource and maintaining the resource.

Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the World also shows that environmental science is related to human geography. One good example that is seen relates to the development of towns. Kurlansky (51) describes how a town called La Rochelle in Newfoundland was a "second-string harbor town because it was not on a river." However, La Rochelle did have a well-protected harbor that made it a successful fishing port. Cod became the economic basis for La Rochelle, providing the town with a source of income and the people with a source of work. With work available, more people came to La Rochelle to fish and the town grew. With cod as a strong economic basis, the town also grew financially, which led to a growth in infrastructure. The main point made by this example is that a natural resource such as cod can become the basis for a town. As long as the resource provides income and employment, the town can grow both in infrastructure and in population. This is relevant to environmental science today, since the same concepts still apply. If a resource is available, whether it be cod, oysters, or any other type of profitable resource, it becomes an industry that supports the people of a town, both bringing them to the town and keeping them there. Like La Rochelle, this becomes the basis for a community. The next important point is that this also creates a need to protect the resource, since the community comes to depend on it. A clear example of this not occurring was described at the start of the book, with the town of Petty Harbour. Kurlansky describes how it used to be a thriving fishing town until the cod resource was almost completely depleted. After the cod began to deplete, Petty Harbour changed significantly. Kurlansky describes how the fishermen used to freely fish in each other's water. However, that was in the days when "there were enough fish to walk on" (Kurlansky 8). The kind of civility that used to exist… [read more]

Zeolite Membranes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,142 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Zeolite Membranes


Catalyst is a substance that can cause a change in the rate of a chemical reaction itself being consumed in the reaction; the changing of the reaction rate by use of a catalyst is called catalysis. Substances that increase the rate of reaction are called positive catalysts or, simply, catalysts, while substances that decrease the rate of reaction are called negative catalysts or inhibitors.


Compositionally, zeolites are similar to clay minerals. More specifically, both are alumino-silicates. They differ, however, in their crystalline structure. Many types of clay have a layered crystalline structure (similar to a deck of cards) and are subject to shrinking and swelling as water is absorbed and removed between the layers. In contrast, zeolites have a rigid, 3-dimensional crystalline structure (similar to a honeycomb) consisting of a network of interconnected tunnels and cages. Water moves freely in and out of these pores but the zeolite framework remains rigid. Another special aspect of this structure is that the pore and channel sizes are nearly uniform, allowing the crystal to act as a molecular sieve.

Why is a Catalyst important?

Many important chemical reactions require inputs of energy to proceed. If a catalyst is present less energy will be required to complete the reaction. Catalysts are substances that are mixed in with materials that are to be reacted, but they themselves do not, in the end, change chemically. They establish a local environment that promotes one or more chemical reactions to take place.

A catalyst is important in many industrial processes. Sulfuric acid, which is used to produce batteries, detergents, dyes, explosives, plastics, and many other produces, is commonly produced using a catalyst called vanadium oxide. Ammonia, a primary component of many fertilizers, could not be produced economically without the use of iron oxide which speeds up the reaction.

The process of catalyst also affects the state of our global environment. Automobiles use catalytic converters to treat exhaust. The metals platinum and palladium facilitate the chemical conversion of noxious gases to more inert forms, greatly decreasing the environmental impact of combustion engines.

Probably the most important impact of catalyst is on life itself. All important biochemical reactions are catalyzed by molecules called enzymes. Most enzymes are proteins which catalyze specific reactions within cells. Some examples include polymerases, which synthesize DNS and RNA, peptidases, which digest protein, and ATP syntheses, which produce energy for the many different cell activities.

When zeolite was discovered and who discovered it?

The first zeolite, stilbite, was discovered in 1756 by a Swedish chap called Cronstedt, who found that the mineral lost water rapidly on heating and seemed to boil. The name zeolite comes from the Greek words zeo (to boil) and lithos (stone), literally meaning "the rock that boils."

Why this is an important catalyst?

Zeolites are important catalysts used in petrochemistry industry where zeolites are used in oil refining as cracking catalysts and in the Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) catalytic conversion process.

Use of Zeolites




Fertilizer… [read more]

Environmental Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Accordingly, to understand the history of cod it is essential to understand the economic trends that have dominated our continent, and in so doing, we can make inferences into how the cod have been influenced.

Still, this problem is not only relative to figures estimated from a century ago, but the effects can be seen relative to just a decade ago. In fact it is observed that, "Filipinos now serve guests species of fish that they barely considered edible a decade ago. One market trader has given up fish and taken to selling chicken instead." (Milazzo, 1998). This change in focus for fisheries has been, largely, unprofitable. Additionally, data has managed to rule out other sources of the lowering abundances of cod in our oceans. Pollution, disease, and climate change must all be adequately understood and accurately investigated in order to come to Kurlansky's position that fishing has been the central player in the depletion of cod. "The scarcity is the result of overfishing, and it affects both poor and rich countries, polluted and unpolluted." (Milazzo, 1998). In short, the fact that cod numbers have fallen across a wide range of oceanic regions has managed to support the hypothesis put forward by Kurlansky. Also, additional fields of research need to be utilized to rule out in order for individuals and policy makers to draw the lines between economic trends and cod abundance. Kurlansky's conclusions cannot be accepted unless evidence from bacteriologists and marine biologists also suggests that overfishing is the most significant source of cod reduction. Similarly, other such sources have been ruled out, primarily, because of the non-geographic specificity of the cod problem.

Kurlansky recalls that when the French explorer Cartier first came upon the mouth of the St. Lawrence River in 1534 there were already over a thousand Basque ships already fishing there. "But by 1992, the biomass of spawning cod off Newfoundland and Labrador had fallen to only 22,000 tones, compared with 1.6m tones 30 years earlier. America halved its fishing effort in the New England groundfish fisheries. Canada closed the Grand Banks, announcing a five-year aid package worth C$1.5 billion ($1.05 billion). The collapse has cost 40,000 jobs in Newfoundland." (Milazzo, 1998). Such economic figures reveal the importance of Kurlansky's topic from a purely practical perspective as well as that of the altruistic environmentalist.

However, even the prevailing numbers regarding fish depletion cannot, by themselves, lead to the conclusion that overfishing is the culprit. Regarding sardines, "The collapse of the Pacific sardine fishery in the 1940s (see chart 5), which killed Cannery Row and provided a novel for John Steinbeck, was once regarded as a result of overfishing. Research on sediments by the Scripps Institution shows that the collapse was in fact a natural oscillation." (Milazzo, 1998). Such circumstances make persuading public officials and businesses to restrict fishing of certain species very problematic. Essentially, it could be asserted that cod may be experiencing a similar natural cycle; accordingly, economics alone cannot generate a convincing picture.

Overall,… [read more]

Technology and Global Ecosystem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,489 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The second important issue to emerge over the past few decades has been the fact that some human communities have become more vulnerable to hazards such as storms, floods and droughts as a result of increasing population density in sensitive areas such as river basins and coastal plains. "Potentially serious changes have been identified," Johansen notes, "including an increase in… [read more]

What Is the Environmental Impact of the War in Iraq? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … consequences of wars and military conflicts are generally viewed in terms of human devastation, the local environments, which support human life, are equally devastated. In Iraq, for example, decades of conflict have resulted in the deterioration of land and the collapse of the marshlands which are vital to the region.

Environmental Impact of the War in Iraq

In… [read more]

Psychological Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Noise and Stress

Noise pollution is the name given to noise that has permeated our environment and continues to cause additional psychological stress. This problem is most prominently encountered by people in urban areas where noise from cars, railroads, construction and aircrafts pollute the environment on regular basis. In this paper, we shall focus specifically on Environmental noise and its effects. Suter (1991 a) in a report to the Administrative Conference of the United States found that noise levels in America have increased up to 11% in one decade. But research on environmental noise is not something new; it started way back in 1970s. Even in those days, noise was found to have an adverse effect on health.

WHO working group reported in 1971: "Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human well-being" (Suess, 1973). Suter also predicted a steady increase in noise levels in the environment in proportion with growth of population. She also claimed that noise from air traffic will increase more rapidly. Because of air traffic rerouting, many areas have protested against a dramatic increase in noise. It is found that air traffic noise is four times louder than other noises (Wesler, 1989). The noise polluted environment is found to be a threat to health and adds to psychological stress. It is also claimed that air traffic noise leads to many problems from which are indicated by increase in the use of medicine and health care services and increase in stress-related hormones (Schulte & Otten, 1993).

Aircraft traffic which plays the most pivotal role in damaging the environment and leading to psychological stress has also seen a sudden increase because of aircraft shows at national parks. Almost 60 plans fly over Hawaii volcanoes each day and close to 10,000 fly over the Grand Canyon every month. Complaints about noise pollution from surrounding areas now equal number of complaints received at busy airports. (Lee, 1994). While on the one hand, it is important to expand airport area to accommodate the growing air traffic, on the other, increasing levels of noise have put government under pressure.

The Noise Control Act of 1972 was developed to maintain "an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardized their health and welfare" (4901 [b]). However no serious or concrete effort has yet been made to control the increasing levels of noise. It is believed that stress caused by noise is indicated by annoyed behavior. In 1970s, when noise research was still in its infancy, some studies showed that people reacted differently to same levels of noise and attributed their reaction to various factors including personality traits such as anxiety (Stephens, 1970) and annoyance which is general in nature (Thomas & Jones, 1982) and to attitudes that foster the belief that noise is controllable (Fields, 1990). These findings were thought not properly tested; they were widely accepted by the academia.

While there are many perceived stress-related effects of prolonged exposure to noise, it has been found that people who are… [read more]

Recycling and the Waste Management Problem Term Paper

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Recycling and the Waste Management Problem

This is a paper on recycling. There are nine references used for this paper.

As the population of the world continues to grow, so does the problem of waste management. Many countries throughout the world are looking at ways to reduce the refuse which is overtaking landfills and dumps, and one of the most… [read more]

Pollution in the Delaware River Term Paper

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Pollution in the Delaware River

It is important to examine the local environmental issue of pollution in the Delaware River in order to gain a better understanding of how pollution affects everyone.

Water Pollution

Water pollution is the "contamination of water resources by harmful wastes. In the United States, industry is the greatest source of pollution, accounting for more than half the volume of all water pollution and for the most deadly pollutants. Some 370,000 manufacturing facilities use huge quantities of freshwater to carry away wastes of many kinds (unknown, Columbia)." In 1996, the EPA reported that at least 40% of the freshwater sources in the United States were "too polluted for such basic uses as drinking supply, fishing and swimming (unknown, Columbia)." The Delaware River is one such water source, and has been dealing with pollution for years.

Dubious Honor

In 2002, when the EPA released its "Toxic Release Inventory that tracked toxic discharges in 2000, Delaware earned the dubious distinction of having a plant that emitted the nation's highest amount of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Motiva Enterprises, an oil refinery, had more MTBE releases than 463 other plants, and most of the 272,000 pounds of the additives vapors escaped from treated wastewater as it flowed into the Delaware River. Besides MTBE releases, Delaware also was among the nation's highest emitters of vinyl chloride, dioxin, mercury and chlorinated benzenes, with Occidental Chemical Corporation, a chlorine maker, ranked sixth nationwide out of 564 sites for mercury releases to water (Unknown, Clean Water Report)."

Problems With PCBs

There have been proposals to "establish limits on the amount of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Delaware River. The EPA has classified PCBs as a probable human carcinogen. Although their production was banned in the United States in the late 1970s, existing uses were not affected and substantial amounts of the substance remains in the environment (Unknown, Newswire)."

These proposals are to create "a 'pollution budget' which is known as TMDLs, or total maximum daily loads. It sets the maximum amount of a specific pollutant, in this case PCBs, that can be introduced into a river or stream without violating applicable water quality standards. It then allocates that total amount among all sources of the pollutant in the watershed, which must then reduce individual pollutant loads to those allocated levels (Unknown, Newswire)." The discharges into the river from the pipe and those from storm water are dealt with by the TMDLs.

Although the executive director of the "Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) stated that the Delaware River in 2003 is the cleanest it has been in decades, the presence of PCBs remains a problem (Unknown, Newswire)." The high amount of PCBs in the river have forced states to issue warnings about consuming fish from the river due to the detection of high amounts of PCBs in their tissues. The DRBC hopes to eventually eliminate these warnings by finding ways to lower the amounts of PCBs in the river. They are currently working with… [read more]

Ozone a Little Is Good Term Paper

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a Little is good, Too Much May Cause Death-

The purpose of this paper is to examine and explore the subject of the Ozone layer. Further to not only understand the facts but to research and give consideration to the implications of predictive future developments in relation to the Ozone layer's condition.

Scientists as well as grassroots and Greenpeace… [read more]

Air Pollution and Acid Rain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
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In addition, the prevailing wind direction brings storms and pollution to the Northeast from the Midwest, and dust from the soil and rocks in the Northeastern United States is less likely to neutralize acidity in the rain." [4]

Acid rain is a serious problem since it rapidly destroys the environment including plant and marine life. When acid rain falls on the surface of leaves, it causes erosion in the upper layer that affects the leaves' ability to reproduce. Similarly plan life is hurt when solid loses important minerals including calcium, potassium, and magnesium due to consistent exposure to acidic rain. While it is true that nitrogen is important for plants, acidic rain carries nitrogen that is accompanied by some undesired substances such as mercury and lead that tend to cause nitrogen saturation. This may in turn damage roots. Similarly Marine life is hurt because to leakage of aluminum. Lower pH level also tends to stunts growth of plants.

The effects of acid rain are more far reaching than we are commonly told. What we mostly hear is that acid rain causes havoc to sea life, lakes, forests etc. But it is believed that acid rain causes more sweeping damage that includes buildings, monuments and mountains too. For example in Europe, we notice that most old buildings wear a worn out look and the deterioration process is marked and rapid. This is mainly due to consistent exposure of these buildings to acid rain. In the United States, the effects on monuments and buildings are less obvious since most of them are relatively new. Mountains are affected too since stones naturally deteriorate with passage of time as they are exposed to environment. The presence of various substances in the atmosphere that cause acid rain, affect chemical and physical composition of stones thus causing huge mountains like the Appalachian Mountains to turn into small mounds. [4]

Even human life is not immune to the negative effects of acidic rain. Prolonged exposure can cause serious respiratory problems and damage to lung tissues. Other effects include cough, cold, asthma and bronchitis. This is one reason why many people living close to beaches in densely populated areas are likely to develop respiratory problems including asthma.

In short, air pollution is the primary cause of acid rain, which has now turned into a serious environmental hazard especially in more populated areas of the world. Many countries including United States and European nations have implemented some laws to control emissions. For example the Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 seeks to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide by 10 million tons. Some improvement has been observed with these laws in the environment and in the number of patients coming to hospitals with respiratory trouble. However the greater responsibility lies with larger industries that are main culprits in the increase of air pollution. With controlled emissions, the problem can be solved to a great extent, which will prove equally beneficial to human, marine life, plants and… [read more]

Global Warming Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,582 words)
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Environmental issues have long been at the forefront of American life. Global Warming and pollution are the issues that have shaped environmental policy in America and throughout the world. The purpose of this paper is to discuss global warming and pollution.

Global Warming and Pollution

One of the most well-known and controversial programs created to reduce global warming and… [read more]

Biodiversity in Lake Baikal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


[Baikal Watch]


Lake Baikal presents a unique biodiversity which is unfortunately being threatened by industrialization and environmental disregard. It is a disconcerting fact that environmental standards in many of the industrial plants and mining units in the region fall below acceptable world standards. Over the last decade however there has been a significant surge in the attention that Lake Baikal has received from environmentalists worldover. Projects funded by GEF and implemented by World Bank have helped improve the situation and limit the damage to the delicate ecosystem. NGO organizations and such as 'Baikal Environmental Wave', 'Baikal Watch' and 'Ecojuris' have also played a vital role in creating the awareness about environmental concerns and funding and monitoring conservation programs. It is necessary for policy makers to implement programs to monitor the environmental impacts on the entire stretch of the lake on a continuous basis. A coordinated effort from the Russia and Mongolia at the governmental level is indispensable to tackle this environmental crisis.


1) Anthony J. Brunello, Dr. Valery C. Molotov, "Lake Baikal Watershed," Accessed on Oct 17th 2004, http://www.worldlakes.org/uploads/Baikal_24Dec03.pdf

2) Valentin Rasputin, "Scientist Vladimir Fialkov Focuses on the Future of a Unique

Natural Wonder: crystalline Lake Baikal," People Weekly; 4/6/1987

3) Living Lakes, "Lake Baikal: Lake Characteristics," Accessed on Oct 17th 2004


4) Greenpeace, "An accident was recorded at a Baikalsk Pulp and Paper," 23 March 2004 Accessed on 18th Oct 2004, http://www.greenpeace.org/russia_en/news/details-item_id=440537

5) Cook, Gary, "Oil and politics," Earth Island Journal; 6/22/2004

6)…… [read more]

E-Trash Most of the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In Japan, for example, a law went into effect last month requiring manufacturers to take back used TVs, refrigerators, washing machines and air conditioners. Computer equipment isn't covered in the law but could be in the future (Bartholomew, 2001).

Certainly the costs of the computers will increase a bit by managing e-trash, this is not a huge price that consumer will be unwilling to pay at the risk of creating health problems for the resident of the third countries (Berger, 2004). For example, The European Union has taken these problems into consideration by taking sweeping action to stem the flow of electronic goods to landfills and reduce the use of hazardous materials. The European Union expects the net costs of its collection and recycling requirements for all household electronic equipment to total between $450 million and $800 million per year in its 15 member states, with commercial equipment adding roughly 20% to those costs. For the individual consumer, the requirements would likely mean a premium of about 1% for most electronic goods, and as much as 3% for monitors. That could add some $10 to $50 to the typical price of a PC. Although economies of scale will play a big role, in the end, as with many environmental issues, the success of computer recycling may rest with the individual.

We believe that the United States should think about the seriousness of the issue, as so far it has not taken the active role in prohibiting electronic manufacturers for dumping their waste in the third world countries as European Union has taken. Perhaps the best road map for U.S. recycling legislation can be found in Europe, as the recent European Union directive prohibits dumping of not just computers and related devices, but also video games, digital cameras, refrigerators, washing machines, toasters and hair dryers.


Bartholomew, Doug (2001). E-Business Commentary -- PC Makers: Haul Your Own Trash. Industry Week, August, pp.21-24.

Berger, Sandy (2004). Recycling Computers & Electronic Equipment.…… [read more]

Natural Resources From an Economic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This method should measure correctly how a person or a party should compensate to the society for the harm a person/corporation creates, including payment for the loss during remediation and cleanup cost. Armed with this information, investors may review how their investments also work in harmony with political and social liability (Peace, 1997).

The UK Sustainable Development Commission (2003) demands positive correlation between economic growth and sustainable development. According to a survey of public attitudes to quality of life and to the environment 2001, environment/pollution concern only ranks on the seventh priority of the most important factors affecting quality of life, after money, health, crime, job, neighborhood, transport and housing. This means the development should suffice the community's basic needs of the factors above, boost economic growth, as well as maintaining the quality of the nature for future generation.

Along with this consideration, the UK Sustainable Development Commission (2003) defined the proper management of natural resources when the issue is linked to the country development:

a. Putting sustainable development "at the centre"

The government needs to put the "framework" allowing sustainable development to be the basic concern of all decision making process in any sector.

b. The value of nature

The nature has intrinsic, economic and aesthetic values. Human activities on earth should meet the values above. Nature provides home and atmosphere for the occupants; however nature also has limit and rules. The decision maker should keep in mind that the nature has its own domain and limitation. It is against the limit if one forces an economic concern before examining the nature facts.

c. Fair shares

It is important to employ efficient use of natural resources so that it fulfills the basic need, and then advances into fulfilling human prosperity. Every plan should not overexploit a type of natural resource that it may endanger others' necessities.

d. Consequence for the polluter

Assuming that all parties have the right for quality of the environment, the government should support with transparent cost analysis to determine the consequences the community has to pay when one damages the environment. It is necessary to develop clear accounting system and policy that regulate the exploitation of natural resources as well as the cost to pay for maintenance and recovery.

Works Cited

Peace, Robert. "Natural Resource Value." 1997. Faculty of Social Sciences and Law. University of Manchester. 28 Apr. 2004. http://les.man.ac.uk/ipa97/papers/peace12.html

Porter, Gareth. "Natural Resource Subsidies, Trade and Environment: The Cases of Forests and Fisheries." 18 Oct 1996. Center for International Environmental Law. Trade and Environment Policy Project. Nautilus Institute. 28 Apr. 2004. http://www.nautilus.org/papers/enviro/tepp/porterTEPP.html

UK Sustainable Development Commission. "Redefining Prosperity: Resource Productivity, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development." 27 Jun 2003. UK Sustainable Development Commission. 28 Apr. 2004. http://www.sd-commission.gov.uk/pubs/rp/annex.htm… [read more]

Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These programs include nutrient management plans, animal pollution control, cover crops for buffer assistance, and the maintenance of buffers along the waterway. To implement these plans, The U.S. Department of Agriculture has approved an initiative, which will provide$20 million a year for pollution control in the area (CBF, "CBF's Top Priorities for EPA's Chesapeake Bay Program").

Pollution control from nitrate emissions of factories must also be aggressively pursued. These controls can include fines for factories not adhering to Clean Air standards, or forced emission control. In addition, environmental education will be provided to factories and students within the Bay area, to ensure a complete understanding of the issues at hand. To obtain these controls and education, new clean air legislation acts have been proposed, and a $6 million a year grant request for education has been requested (CBF, "CBF's Top Priorities for EPA's Chesapeake Bay Program")..

The implementation of the above programs will greatly help the eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay. On a more local level, there are additional solutions that will help control the level of nitrate and phosphorous in the Bay. Limiting the use of fertilizer on local lawns can lower the amount of suburban runoff of nitrates (EPA, 8). The conservation of energy, resulting in fewer power plant emissions, can also benefit the area (Chesapeake Bay Foundation, "Water Pollution in The Chesapeake Bay"). The planting of trees, use of compost piles and recycling yard waste can result in additional reductions in nitrate levels (VNRLI, 3). Finally, the use of "BayScapes," or landscaping concepts which are environmentally sound, low cost, low nitrate, and low maintenance, can effectively reduce nitrates, improve air and soil quality, and provide habitat for birds and other animals. These concepts use plants that are native to the region, and thus require fewer chemicals to grow (Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay, "BayScapes").

The rapid eutrophication of the Chesapeake Bay is a tragedy that can be repaired. While the Bay may never be restored to its original beauty, as described by Captain John Smith in the early 1600's, there is still hope that the Bay can be the national treasure it once was. The restoration of the Bay back to a productive, healthy ecosystem requires water clarity, lack of toxic contaminants, and the restoration of natural buffers (Chesapeake Bay Foundation, "2002 State of the Bay Report," 2). This restoration will require to cooperation of the federal government, local enforcement agencies, local government agencies, and local businesses, developments, farms, industries, and citizens. It is only through the proper funding, enforcement, and a conscious, eager, driven effort that the Bay can be repaired.


Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay. "BayScapes." Programs and Projects. 2003. Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay. 20 Apr 2004. http://www.acb-online.org/project_type.cfm?type=prot/bayscapes.htm

Bratton, John F. "Eutrophication History of Chesapeake Bay Reconstructed from Fluxes of Rhenium, Molybdenum, and Uranium to Sediments." Geochemistry of Organic-Rich Sediments from Estuaries, Continental Shelves, Basins, and Upwelling Zones Woods Hole, MA: The Geological Society of America, 2001. 1-4.

Chesapeake Bay Foundation. 2002 State of… [read more]

Disposable Batteries Have Transformed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As we mentioned before the management of toxic waste can be an extremely difficult undertaking because there are certain products that we absolutely need that contain toxic materials. Many of the societies that use a large amount of disposable batteries have attempted to make them with less harmful materials so that they do not pollute the earth.

It seems that in time these societies will also discover a way to create batteries that are not harmful to the environment at all. In addition they will discover ways to reduce the damage done to the environment by old batteries that have already been disposed of. People that live in these societies must also begin to purchase rechargeable batteries, which will reduce the amount of batteries that are thrown away each year. Citizens must also attempt to find programs that ensure that there batteries are taken to hazardous waste dumps where they can be disposed of with more care.


Battery, Electric. 2000. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. New York:Columbia University Press.

Carpi John. 1994. Green Batteries: Powering Innovation. E. Volume: 5. Issue: 2. Publication Date: April 1994. Page Number: 46+.

Frazer, Lance. 2002. Leading the Charge for Better Batteries. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110 (4): 200.

Moyers Bill D. 1990. Global Dumping Ground: The International Traffic in Hazardous Waste. Center for Investigative Reporting (U.S.) - Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press.

Murphy, C., Rathje, W.L. 2001. Rubbish!: The Archaeology of Garbage. Arizona: University of Arizona Press.

The History of Batteries. British Battery Manufacturers. http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.bbma.co.uk/introbatterymain.htm

The History of Batteries. British Battery Manufacturers. http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.bbma.co.uk/introbatterymain.htm (Accessed March 20,2004)

Battery, Electric. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. New York: Columbia University Press. 2000.

Murphy, C., Rathje, W.L. Rubbish!: The Archaeology of Garbage. Arizona: The University of Arizona. 2001.

Carpi, John. Green Batteries: Powering Innovation. E. 5. (2):46. April 1994.

Frazer, Lance. Leading the Charge for Better Batteries. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110.(4): 200. 2002.

Carpi, 46.

Moyers, Bill D. Global Dumping Ground: The International Traffic in Hazardous Waste. Center for Investigative Reporting (U.S.): Seven Locks Press: Washington, DC. 1990.… [read more]

Ethics and Morality of Paul Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (778 words)
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But to accept equality between species it so embrace other aspects of environmentalism, such as vegetarianism, that posits the equal value of all species, and logically requires those who embrace Taylor's ethics to assume, for instance, that it is equally vital to preserve the spotted owl than it is to create an environmentally healthy apartment complex within an inner city that can sustain children's environmental lives. Prioritization is necessary, and accepting self-preservation is necessary to a life-centered ethics of environmentalism that will be politically and morally tenable for humans.

Lastly, on an international level, it is vitally important that the United States bind with other countries in international alliances to create a state of world environmental homeostasis. Presupposing species equality is unlikely to benefit, for instance, the United States in negotiating limits upon whaling in Japan. Rather, the preservation of a livable world for humans that cannot exist in an ecological balance without the continued preservation of certain species is the best strategy to take. Also, in exploring environmental issues with developing nations, the human problems of famine and drought must be addressed in conjunction and given a priority to species preservation, if these nations are to be responsive to U.S. claims upon their territory in terms of limiting poaching and destroying the rain forest.

Humans are interdependent as a species, and the world is a living and complete entity. But ultimately, all humans look to make the world more livable for themselves and their children. They must protect other species and the environment to ensure the survival for generations to come. But to accomplish this difficult feat will never be attempted with equal intensity for a necessary protozoa as it is for a human child, not should it. Of course, the ecosystem must be rendered healthy and maintained in a state of homeostasis. But when prioritization of species rights is necessary, humanity must still come first. After all, it is from the human mind that the concept of altruism and environmentalism has spring. To take Taylor's philosophy is to not only create a politically and even biologically untenable stance, but it is to face international ridicule, or worse for environmentalism to be ignored as a rich nation's philosophy that fails to take into consideration the needs…… [read more]

Pollution Strategies Improve Air Quality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,763 words)
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" (Air Quality Facts and Figures) But the fact of the matter is that the world's industries are polluting more not less.

In conclusion, I do not think that today's pollution strategies can improve our air quality. The evidence is too strong. Incidence of asthma, cancer, acid rain, global warming, Greenhouse Gas levels and the hole in the ozone layer continue to grow. Our world economy has continued to become ever dependent on fossil fuels. Therefore, industrially strong nations and the smaller or thriving third world nations continue to emit tons of pollutants into the air. These, combined with auto emissions, increased carbon dioxide, fluorocarbons, the Greenhouse House effect, smog and other combined pollutants all have been traced to diseases that are as severe as cancer and as mild as asthma. Organizations and whole nations have made some attempts at controlling the air pollution problems through the implementation of Acts and laws. But if we are to control the problems caused by air pollutants, we as a planet must derive new strategies for powering our industries and transportation. Our dependency on pollution rich fossil fuels will eventually make our planet uninhabitable.

Works Cited

Air Quality Facts and Figures. Ed. Environmental Agency. 2003. Environmental Agency. 23 Nov. 2003 http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/airquality / 595310/?version=1&lang=_e>.

Bell, Michelle L., et al. "International Expert Workshop On The Analysis Of The Economic And Public Health Impacts Of Air Pollution" Environmental Health Perspectives: Workshop Summary (2002).

Gonzalez, George A. "Urban Growth And The Politics Of Air Pollution: The Establishment Of California's Automobile Emission…… [read more]

Green vs. Green Environmentalists Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,865 words)
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... [There] are practical, commonsensical ways that individuals can change their attitudes and behavior toward the treatment of the environment. The individual is assumed to be a rational actor, acting out of his or her own self-interest. This is not an argument for a pure economic application of a cost-benefit analysis. Rather, it suggests that it is theoretically possible that a cost-benefit analysis undertaken by an individual will result in that individual working in a collective manner toward the betterment of the environment as a way to protect self-interest

(Cuesta Camacho 215)

So, if there was one lesson learned from the environmental battles of the 1990s, it was that it is possible for human beings to re-think their approaches to the world around them. Humankind has spent millennia viewing the Earth as an inexhaustible resource. While many primitive peoples have taken care to preserve the natural environment, their understanding of their actions was largely religious and superstitious in extent: you kill too many animals and the spirit-ruler of those animals becomes angry. Civilized people, however; lost much of this sense of religious sanction as they became increasingly divorced from the world around them. Religion seemed something that belonged to a more primitive time. Yet, in many Third World societies today, traditional beliefs are being turned to as a source of inspiration for solutions to modern problems. By preserving a respect for the environment -- by raising it to a level equal with our own selfish concerns -- we can make all of our lives better, and preserve the Earth as our ancestors knew it. Such will be our gift to our descendents.

Works Cited

David E. Cuesta Camacho, ed. Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles: Race, Class, and the Environment. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.

Ledgerwood, Grant, and Arlene Idol Broadhurst. Environment Ethics and the Corporation. Houndmills: Macmillan, 2000.

Santos, Miguel A. The Environmental Crisis. Ed. Randall M. Miller. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Shurmer-Smith, Pamela. Globalization and Change. London: Arnold, 2000.

Sumner B. Twiss, and Bruce…… [read more]

Canadian Trash Being Trucked Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (847 words)
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They include:

1) The materials are homogeneous solid waste - other than municipal incinerator ash - and meet the requirements for disposal in a Michigan landfill. 2) The materials were received through a materials recovery facility, transfer station, or other facility that has removed from the waste the items that are prohibited from being disposed in a landfill in Michigan and this action has been documented. 3) The country, state, province, or local jurisdiction is included on the list compiled by the DEQ (the list is provided for in SB 502) which contains information regarding countries, states, provinces, and local jurisdictions that prohibit from their landfills a list at least as stringent as those prohibited from Michigan's landfills (the list is contained in SB 498) (Staff).

Thus, waste from other areas would have to meet strict criteria before it could enter the state, and this would cut down tremendously on the waste coming in from Canada and other areas, leaving our landfills open for our own waste, and not filling them up as quickly. The opposition to the bill comes from landfill owners and waste industry associations, who feel they should be able to accept waste from anywhere. Clearly, the two sides must come to an agreement, and the Senate must find out how the people of Michigan feel about the solid waste from other areas coming into Michigan for disposal. It seems that creating a long-term solution is critical here, and simply banning certain types of waste may not be enough. If our landfills are to remain viable for generations, we will certainly need to find new locations for landfills, but we must also become more aware of recycling options to reduce the waste. There is only so much land available for landfills, and so, there must be other alternatives developed that will not only take the waste, but not endanger the environment. The Senate bill is a step in the right direction, but Michigan must ban waste from outside areas such as Canada entirely, and then take positive steps to develop new ways to dispose of our own waste, primarily. We must come up with a new solution, and stop being known as "The Great Trash State" (Schenkman).

Works Cited

Harrison, Wilma. "Solid Waste Management and Recycling." Michigan in Brief. 1999. 15 Nov. 2003. http://www.michiganinbrief.org/edition06/acrobat/issue-52.pdf

Schenkman, Lynn. "Great Trash State' Wants Canada Out." Waste Age. 1 March 2003. 15 Nov. 2003. http://www.wasteage.com/ar/waste_great_trash_state/

Staff. "Environmental Protection: Solid Waste Package." Michigan Senate Democratic Caucus.…… [read more]

Goals Statement Couldn't Believe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,013 words)
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Recycling an industry by-product like this gave me cause to appreciate chemistry's application to environmental science as well as the business sector, as we hoped to both eliminate waste and help companies save money by recycling and reusing materials. The role of the chemist is essential in both these areas, and there will always be new opportunities to discover ways to positively impact the environment as well as the human population.

While I am still interested in working with oils, I am applying to the Master's program in the hopes of expanding my research capabilities somewhat. Because of the relevance of my past experience to environmental science, I intend to investigate further possibilities for waste management in the industrial sector. My interests also include the use of biofuels, and I am particularly interested in participating in environmental analyses.

While working in research and development at Beta International, I had the chance to make a bit of history. Our team set up the first glycerin unit created by 100% Sudanese labor and materials. Responsible for all glycerin analysis during the operation as well as lab management and technical writing, I feel I made an impact on the world through science. Moreover, my undergraduate research related directly to human health and nutrition: I investigated the maximum potential utilization of oil seeds for human nutritive purposes. In fact, this project introduced me to the job possibilities in the soap and oil industry, which is why I ended up with Beta International. I also learned that I crave not only the knowledge that comes from empirical lab research but also the rewards that arise from effective human communications. I would therefore like to investigate future possibilities as a chemistry consultant or related areas in which I can help businesses improve their output. This would also open up possibilities for me to help improve the environment and human health.

Because I have been exposed to not only laboratory research but also to the administrative functions of laboratories during the course of my career, I feel I can make a further contribution to industry as a chemist. I have networked extensively with scientists in the field, especially when I worked at Beta International, and understand the importance of cooperation and collaboration on research teams. With my communication and creative thinking skills, I am in an ideal position to work in a position that interfaces business with science, one that both stimulates my mind and contributes to the expanding knowledge of the field. Already my life has steered me in this direction, and I believe that a Masters from George Mason will be the icing on the cake. Whether I will end up working in the toothpaste industry remains to be seen. However, I do look back to the day I first brushed my teeth with homemade materials and recall the sense of pride I had that I hope will remain with me throughout my…… [read more]

Native Americans in Canada Anthropology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (796 words)
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However, the overwhelming preference for plastic bags was still a little surprising. In fact, most people seemed to reply "Plastic" automatically, as if they did not consider any other option.

Furthermore, when there was a lull in the shopping, I asked some consumers the reasons for their preferences. Many of the people who chose paper bags cited environmental reasons. They argue that the paper bags were biodegradable, often made from recycled material and did not cause more pollution if they are somehow tossed into bodies of water.

In contrast, the people who chose plastic cite convenience as the main reason behind their preferences. A shopper could carry more plastic bags than paper ones. Plastic bags were sturdier and less likely to rip, especially when they get wet. In case of spills on the way home, plastic bags work better to keep the car clean. One person even cited an "environmental" reason, that he re-used the plastic bags as poop bags for pets and to line small trashcans at home.

These results show have many implications regarding how shared ideas can influence human behavior. In this case, the driving factor of the human preference for plastics is convenience. The people who chose plastic were not swayed by advertising campaigns, either from the environmentalists or from the plastics industry. Rather, they chose the product that was perceived as sturdier, easier to carry and better at containing spills.

However, several implications regarding behavior can also be inferred from the people who chose paper bags. While their plastic-choosing counterparts did not report any reaction to the plastics industry advertising, people who chose paper were very aware of the environmental implications of their choice. This implies that when people agree with a shared idea, they may be willing to give up habituated behavior to adopt new ones. In this case, people who feel strongly about the need to preserve the planet and to cut down on pollution are willing to forego the convenience of plastic bags to go with the more unwieldy paper ones.

In conclusion, this ethnographic observation shows that human behaviors, such as the preference for plastic bags at the supermarket, are often determined by convenience. However, many people will willingly adopt other, "less" convenient behaviors in the face…… [read more]

Emissions Trading Programs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Permits are allocated through a combination of auctioning and grandfathering.


Under the Kyoto Protocol, Denmark is committed to reducing GHG emissions by 21% below 1990 levels during the first commitment period between 2008 and 2012. Denmark also set a national goal for CO2 reductions at 20% below 1988 levels by 2005. However, due to strong economic growth in recent… [read more]

Threats of Excessive Population Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, there are limits to natural resources beyond which they can't deliver - no matter how much the machinery advances. And, population growth has started to stretch the very limits of what is available for the generations to come.

Growing population doesn't only require (and consume) extra resources but at the same time, pays back negatively to the planet. Increased population means increased amount of waste material released back in the eco system - the atmosphere, water and land gets polluted as a direct result of population growth (Ucsusa). Population surge increases population density in urban areas of the world, and also pushes people from rural suburbs to city areas. Considering that urban areas do not expand as rapidly as the population - the population multiplicity results in problems related to healthcare, environment (air and water pollution) and increased hunger. In some cities, the population could double as fast as every 10 to 20 years causing major urban problems. And, it's not only the humans and their surroundings that are at stake due to population outburst but also the animal kingdom. Many of the endangered species might cease to exist altogether, along with a number of undomesticated plants as mass deforestation continues.

The ultimate question raised by the people who are concerned with population grow is - just how many people can our planet earth hold? There has to be some physical upper bound. The most common estimation of scholars lie between 4 and 16 billion, although it's indeed quite hard to predict exact number since we do not know yet, how the future technology would shape the world (Ucsusa). But, there has to be some preparation for the time our means of food production runs out - and the answer lies in sustainable and stabilized population growth. Considering average scenario, the projected population of the world stands at 8.9 billion by the year 2050 (Prb.org). Population growth is more threatening for the developing / under developed countries like sub-Saharan African, South Asian and South American countries. Governments of these regions should try their best to contain the growth rate by increasing awareness, having birth control plans, encouraging late marriages, family planning (restricting number of children and interval between children). On the other hand, in the more developed countries (North America, Australia, New Zealand and Japan) population growth is under 1%. Explosion of population and its consequences were envisioned by Thomas Malthus as far back in time as 1789. He analyzed that the rate of population-increase was faster than rate with which provisions were produced - and thus, he dreaded ultimate global starvation (Prb.org). Although, this hasn't happened thus far, as scientific knowledge has led to increased production rate as compared to 1700s; but, what worried Malthus at the time, should be a point of alarm for the leaders of this world - today.


Human Population: Fundamentals of Growth Population Growth and Distribution http://www.prb.org/Content/NavigationMenu/PRB/Educators/Human_Population/Population_Growth/Population_Growth.htm

Pimentel, David, Xuewen Huang, Ana Cordova, Marcia Pimentel. Impact of Population Growth on Food Supplies… [read more]

Excessive Population Growth Threats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But despite optimistic projections by the FAO for further advances in agricultural production due to new developments in genetic engineering, most experts fear the world's food production may be nearing its limits. (Brown) Besides, over-fishing in the oceans has also severely depleted supplies of fish. Since a large part of the world relies on fish as a food staple, the threat of dwindling fish is alarming.

The threat of looming water shortages is even more alarming. Water tables are now falling on every continent as the demand for water drains the supply of existing aquifers. The situation is doubly serious, as most of the estimated 3 billion people to be added to the world population in the next 50 years will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. ("Impacts" World Population Awareness Web site, Para on "Water")

Another result of overpopulation is the dwindling forests and wetlands. It is estimated by the UN that half of the world's wetlands were lost during the last century and logging and conversion reduced the world's forests by half during the same period. Tropical deforestation exceeds 130,000 square kilometers per year and about 9% of the world's tree species are at risk of extinction. (Ibid. Quote from UNDP's March 2000 Report) Apart from the economic loss, such massive deforestation result in increasing flood damages.

Overpopulation and burning of fossil fuels is also giving rise to Global Warming triggered by the resulting rise in CO2 levels. The full ramifications of global warming and weather changes are still not clear but most scientists are convinced that it is a very real problem and higher temperatures are projected to threaten food supplies in the next century, while rising seas could inundate coastal cities.


As we have seen in this essay, the threats associated with overpopulation are extremely serious that threaten the very survival of the human race. The good news is that the worst-case scenario of a runaway world population is preventable. All it needs is a realization about the seriousness of the situation and a firm commitment by all countries of the world to tackle the issue.

Works Cited

Brown, Lester. "The Population Challenge." Feature Article from Encarta Yearbook, March 2000. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Corbett, Thomas J. "Poverty." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Impacts." World Population Awareness and World Overpopulation Awareness (WOA!!) Web Site. April 15, 2003. May 18, 2003. http://www.overpopulation.org

Malthus, Thomas Robert. An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), from the Norton Critical Edition, ed. By Philip Appleman. Norton, 1976

United Nations Human Development Report-2002." United Nations Development Program (UNDP). New York: Oxford University Press, 2002

According to the UN, the World population crossed the 6 billion mark in 1999 and is likely to touch a figure between 7.7 billion and 11.5 billion by 2050 depending on what measures are taken to control the growth rate.

The other leading cause being unequal distribution of resources

United Nation's "Human Development Report, 2002."

Thomas Maltus, British economist wrote an influential treatise… [read more]

Experimental Research Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (776 words)
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Quasi-Experimental Designs make the identification of causal relationships more valid than do the pre-experimental designs described above. One form of a quasi-experimental design is a two-group post-test-only design. Two groups are conducted with subjects randomly assigned to each condition. The groups are only test once, after the presentation of the experimental treatment to the experimental group. While this random assignment reduces this chances that the groups differed before treatment, it is impossible to be certain because there is no pre-test to discover pre-treatment differences between experimental and control group subjects on the variables being measured. Therefore, post-treatment differences between the two groups could b attributable to pre-experimental differences between them. Another type of Quasi-Experimental Design is the post-test only with control group. In this design, only one group receives the experimental treatment while the second group acts as a control and receives no treatment. There is no pre-test; the post-test performance of the experimental group is compared with the performance of the controls in a one-time only measurement stage.

Pre-test introduces measurement issues because a pre-test may influence the way subjects respond during the experimental treatment. A pre-test can give clues as to the purpose of an experiment or provide the subject with the opportunity to practice a relevant skill.

The Solomon Four-Group Design controls for these possibilities. Respondents are randomly assigned to four groups, two of which receive a pre-test and two of which do not. All groups then undergo the treatment. Two groups (one with pre-test and one without pre-test) undergo one version of the treatment, while the other two groups undergo the second version. All groups are then post-tested. If the groups who were pre-tested differ in their post-test performance from those who were not pre-tested, the researcher can conclude that the pre-test itself did influence post-test results.

In summary, the validity issues with the Classical Design are due to the artificial nature of the experiment, whereas the primary validity issues with Pre-Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs are based on internal and statistical conclusion validity because of the lack of control the researcher has over the design. The Solomon Four-Group Design can address the Classical Design issues surrounding the interaction between the testing situation and the experiment stimulus, but it requires a complex methodology involving four groups to test a single treatment.… [read more]

Country Living Better Than City Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (906 words)
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The social environment of rural areas also helps prevent stress because there is a sense of commonality and cooperation among the people. This is due to the small community rural environments are made up of, further establishing a close-knit relationship with people in it. Also, because of the high regard and expectations of people around you, camaraderie and a collectivist form of society emerges, thus ensuring one's cooperation for a particular task concerning the community.

Lastly, country living is also beneficial when it comes to economic efficiency. Country living means good crop vegetation and animal rearing, allowing people to obtain fresh food and commodities because of the accessibility of these goods. It also avoids the danger of being exposed to harmful chemicals that tend to be included in manufactured goods often bought in urban and city areas. The natural environment once again figures into the economic efficiency trait of country living; its importance to people is immense in that the main distinguishing factor between country and city living is that country living boasts of a good natural environment that produces a holistically healthy life.

On the other hand, city living can have various advantages over country living, which includes a developed and highly-industrialized society. However, these disadvantages are useless if an individual will not be able to enjoy these developments because of poor living conditions. Indeed, city or urban living is best described as not an ideal place to live in because of the cramped physical landscape and large-scale pollution in the environment. As a result of these unhealthy physical environment conditions, city dwellers often develop physical illness and an unhealthy body.

An individual's unhealthy disposition contributes to the deterioration of one's emotional and mental health. As a result of urban living's fast-paced life, people become more stressful, resulting to numerous mental and emotional ailments. The city's fast-paced life is evidently a product of industrialization, wherein its introduction of the manufacturing industry allowed people to accomplish things at a faster rate, making all human activities to be conducted at a faster rate, too. Socialization is also affected and related to the fast-paced city life. Due to the numerous work people have to accomplish in a day, city life shapes its society as highly-individuated, wherein people are becoming more self-reliant on themselves and barely cooperate to accomplish tasks with other people. Thus, relationships among city dwellers are loose and impersonal.

Lastly, because of the societal development in city living, high cost of living persists and further increases. As a result, there is more economic consumption of manufactured goods than fresh products, making the cost of manufactured products more expensive than fresh goods because of the manufacturing costs spent on producing that good…… [read more]

Recycling Should Be Mandatory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, many assert that Japan's recycling program is caused not by environmental concerns, but by a lack of landfill space. Compared to Japan, they maintain that there is no shortage of landfill space in the United States (Winston).

This argument fails to address both the economic, environmental and health costs associated with landfills. In addition, the widespread availability of landfill space in the country is a debatable fact, as many landfills are forced to close due to problems of leaching and contamination. Many citizens are also protesting the development of new landfills, particularly when these are being constructed near their cities of residence (Hershkowitz 82-83).

In conclusion, there are also several hidden, long-term benefits to recycling. Businesses that use recycled material incur less overhead expenses, which could be passed on to the consumer in the form of less expensive goods. These programs prevent water contamination, saving the government expensive waste clean-up programs. Finally, recycling's benefits to human health through reduced emissions and leaching cannot be simply quantified in dollar costs.

Mandatory recycling programs have already shown tremendous economic and environmental benefits for many cities. In New York City, for example, recycling programs reduce solid waste while turning otherwise discarded objects into a source of revenue. The example of Japan indicates that a national recycling law greatly reduces solid waste, without adverse effects for many industries.

These two examples illustrate how recycling programs can result in environmental and economic benefits. It is thus necessary to extend these benefits throughout the United States, by enacting national legislation regarding recycling programs.

Works Cited

Bowden, Rob. Waste, Recycling and Reuse. Austin and New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughan Publishers, 2002.

Cardwell, Diane. "City Council to Offer a Plan To Keep Recycling Program." New York Times. April 6, 2002: B.3+. ProQuest Database.

Carless, Jennifer. "Taking Out the Trash." In Pollution: Current Controversies. Charles P. Cozic, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1994.

Hershkowitz, Allen. "Critics Willing to Throw Away Success." In The Environment: Opposing Viewpoints. William Dudley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Japan Containers and Package Recycling Association. "What is Containers and Packaging Recycling Law?" JCPRA Index. March 2003. Retrieved April 19, 2003 at http://www.econedlink.org/lessons/index.cfm?lesson=EM218

Lober, Douglas J. "Informing the Process and Outcomes of Recycling in the United States: The National Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Symposium." November 1996. Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management. Retrieved April 19, 2003 at http://www2.widener.edu/~sxw0004/abstract1.html.

Padgett, Carol Badaracco. "Encouraging recycling." Waste Age, 33(12), December 2002. ProQuest Database.

Winston, Michelle.…… [read more]

Recycling and Trash Collection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,159 words)
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The taxes help much to pay the recycling expenses.

As a matter of fact, although recycling seemed to be a new solution for the country, Kirby (2002, par. 11-12) reported that England is left behind for its attentiveness in responding to the waste problem than its neighboring European countries. From 80% of recyclable waste that the country produces every year,… [read more]

Environmental Biology: The Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,097 words)
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Actions Taken to Prevent Ocean Pollution

The National Clean Water Action Plan was established in 1998 to provide a foundation for local, state, tribal, and federal governments to implement that would protect and restore the water resources of our nation. The four key components of the plan are the following goals:

watershed approach

Strong federal and state mandated standards

Natural resource stewardship

Informed citizens and officials through education resources

The plan identified the need for development of a multi-agency Coastal Research Strategy and a plan for a coordinated monitoring of coastal waters. These combined efforts led to the comprehensive report to the public and the development of educational materials for distribution.

This research produced efforts that targeted adult audiences who directly or indirectly make decisions that affect the national coastlines. The program provides information about pertinent resource issues to citizens, landowners, interest groups, and government officials involved with coastal management. Educational K-12 programs as well as providing hands-on experiences for students and teacher training. Curriculum has been designed for use in the classroom to teach and utilize these learned skills.

The protection of reserves and wetlands has promoted coastal stewardship. Requirements for such reserves include for the establishment of facilities that will accommodate centers, classrooms, parking and restrooms. While some of the reserves continue to conduct or participate in agriculture, others just are strictly there for the land management and education. Techniques for addressing issues such as runoff and wastewater managements, erosion management, water pollutions, wetlands and watershed restoration are being implemented.

By working to correct these problems, drinking water supplies will become cleaner and healthier for human use as well as valuable food sources. The link between agricultural runoff and water-borne organisms that cause lesions and death in fish will occur on a smaller scale or become non-existent. Humans who come in contact with these polluted waters and affected fish can also experience harmful symptoms. Industries can reduce pollution by treating wastes to remove harmful chemicals before dumping the wastes into water. Using manufacturing processes that recover and reuse polluting chemicals can also reduce industrial wastes.

Many sewage treatment plants use three processes primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment. Primary and secondary treatment can remove up to ninety-five percent of the waste in sewage. Tertiary treatment removes even more impurities. Many plants use primary and secondary processes, and some use tertiary processes as well. However, most treated sewage still contains nutrients and toxic chemicals because secondary processes cannot remove them all. More research needs to be completed to learn how to implement technology that will successfully treat sewage that contains medical toxins that remain eventually find their way into the ocean's waters.

If all citizens and consumers would become of or were made aware of the severe ongoing problem of water pollution, everyone could contribute in ways to help clean up the water supply. However, without the proper initiative and education, this problem will go on ignored or overlooked and then only become worse.

Works Cited

Adler, T. (1996, Feb.).… [read more]

Air Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  40 pages (11,091 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The natural protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere protects us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays, on the contrary man-made ground -level ozone is harmful to us and all living things inhibiting our planet.

Nitrogen Dioxide

Oxides of nitrogen include NO and NO2. These have lower reactivity than Ozone. Nitrogen dioxide dissolves in water in the airways to… [read more]

Roles of Physical, Cultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (788 words)
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Also, the social processes behind human relations to the environment play a major role in the form of human attitudes and behaviors, population dynamics, institutions and economic / technological transformations.

Cultural landscapes, or those elements "that serve as markers to announce and display the presence of a cultural group's most cherished ideals to their own members and to outsiders" (Alanen 11), are usually divided into three groups -- the individualist, the holistic which argues that large-scale events are autonomous and independent of the participating individuals, and the socio-dialectical which focuses on how different individuals and groups, dependent on access to power and resources, affect the context of the landscape. A good example of this would be the relationship between native American Indians, the U.S. government (particularly the Department of the Interior) and the use or importance of land to both parties. In this instance, a specific archeological site such as a burial ground held as sacred to a particular tribe might come under attack if the land on which it sits is determined to be on federal property, thus creating tension between the two parties. As explained by the socio-dialectical, the "choice" of whether the Indians or the government becomes the dominant player is based on how much power or influence each party maintains, one being non-affluent and the other "elite."

The landscape of the vernacular refers to "localized creations in language, the arts and the built environment outside of the influence of trends or thoughts" (USGCRP website, 2002) and contains a focus on movement and change. Dwellings such as a mobile home or an open field are good examples of vernacular landscapes. If the above-mentioned burial ground also contained some form of artwork done by a local tribe, such as petroglyphs, this would create a dual landscape, an admixture of cultural and vernacular. The impact of human dimensions on this example are most closely related to land use, federal legislation and tribal sovereignty in such locales as New Mexico or northeastern Arizona.

Works Cited

Alanen, Arnold R. "Grounded in Reality: The Importance of Vernacular Landscapes."

Courier 34 (August 1989): 10-13.

Appleton, Jay. The Experience of Landscape. New York: John Wiley, 1975.

United States Global Change Research Program. The…… [read more]

Guest Speaker From MPI Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (307 words)
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This was more of an overview of key issues, supported by references to text materials and examples that demonstrated the importance of the issue.

The lecturer knew her subject matter and did not refer to notes. I think the lecturer provided a good understanding of the material and her presentation style was comfortable. She immediately made the class interactive by looking for input.

This type of material can sometimes be dry but by using personal stories and examples, she made it tie into every day life. I was most surprised by the staggering amount of food that is wasted in our country.

Surely this lecture will be the catalyst for wanting to know more about ways to protect our environment and be socially responsible. My take-away from this lecture is that the environment is our future and our behavior will have long-term effects, not only on this generation but…… [read more]

Ring of Haze Surrounding Modern Term Paper

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Los Angeles and Mexico City are perfect examples of smog havens. The internal combustion engine may have revolutionized human life, but it also pollutes it due to the number of particulates that now litter our air. Particulates are the large particles suspended in the air that not only cause smog but seep into the lungs of all animals. They include particles from smoke, diesel fuel, and dust.

Fossil fuel burning at power stations also causes an excess of carbon dioxide to be emitted into the environment. This not only creates acid rain but also contributes to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Chlorofluorocarbons, which are commonly used in air conditioning, refrigeration, and solvents, also kindle the greenhouse effect, as does deforestation. Agriculture and waste disposal are also major culprits that bring about global warming as their by-products emit greenhouse gases.

Radionuclides come from processes like X-rays that emit ionizing radiation, causing severe detrimental effects on all life forms. Besides governmental regulation, steps must be taken to increase the availability and development of alternatives to such radiation-creating devises.

Alternative energy sources are the number one technological solution to air pollution. Alternative energy sources, such as solar, hydroelectric, wind, geothermal, biomass, and ocean-derived power have been investigated over the past few decades. The only hindrance to the usage of these power sources seems to be economic incentive. The limitations or potentials of the technology hinge on how much financial support is offered to companies that develop such technologies. Unfortunately, the burning of fossil fuels remains the primary motivator and moneymaker for big businesses around the world, and thus our planet continues to suffer the ravages of air pollution.


Natural Resources Defense Council


U.S. Environmental Protection Agengy http://www.epa.gov/radiation/cleanup/index.html… [read more]

Temperature on Enzyme Activity Tube Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (387 words)
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b. More substrate. With more substrate, enzyme comes into contact with substrate more quickly, speeding the reaction.

3. Based on the experimental procedures you performed, name three other conditions (other than the ones mentioned in number 2) that maximize enzymatic reactions.

A. Temperature of the environment.

B. Temperature of the enzyme.

C. Initial temperature of the substrate.

4. Explain the necessity for each of the three conditions you listed in number 3.

A. As was observed in the experiment, placing the substrate in an environment at 37c maximized the reaction (observed when placing refridgerated milk in the water bath). This shows how enzymes work best at a certain preferred temperature.

b. As was observed in the experiment, at too high of a temperature, the enzyme is denatured (observed with the boiled rennin). This shows how placing the enzyme at too high a temperature can make it ineffective.

c. As was observed in the experiment, a higher initial temperature speeds the reaction. (Observed where the warmed milk solidified when placed in the water bath, but the refridgerated milk only…… [read more]

Suitable for the 2210 Feasibility Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (404 words)
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The second ideal is similar to the first, but different in that companies are disposing of hazardous waste without thinking about the consequences that it is bringing to the nation. Many of these are topic and infectious. The hazardous waste can and is harming the environment. Hazardous wastes have poisoned many of the lakes and rivers. Many of the cities ponds have waste thrown in them. It is my ideal that there should be penalties for people who throw waste in these. Perhaps if a guard was posted to the city's ponds that this could be prevented from happening. I think that as a part of this solution that many of the high school students could volunteer to go clean up the park and the ponds. What is meant for beauty is becoming ugly with the carelessness of a few people. Cleaning up the city can be a starting for the other places. Perhaps if a feasibility report was shared with other cities perhaps the nation could start getting rid of all the garbage. America is meant to be beautiful, but it is being…… [read more]

Environmental Ethics in "Ishmael Term Paper

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It is only by example of the native, tribal and aboriginal peoples of the non-"civilized" world that we see this caretaking of the earth taking place, however, once modern man enters the world of the tribe he begins to erode what was once a serene and perfect world and ecosystem.

Ishmael is the only book to argue for the survival of the earth and urges man to rethink his attitude on how he is treating the earth. The world is suffering and it is in many ways dying on a global scale, people are dying through loss of their homes, loss of regional food growth which in its own way has been caused by the damage to the environment by man himself.

Governments and corporations in their powerful buildings and fat bellies do not care for the world they only care for the money they are making by oppressing the poor and destroying the ecological systems of the world. By their actions alone they are the destroying the world before any lessons can be learned.

When man first stepped upon the earth on two feet he was one with the earth, the earth fed him and in turn he believed that when he died he returned from whence he came. Modern man does not believe these issues any more than he does in the belief of God and heaven therefore the need to protect the earth or want to return to it no longer appeals his only desire is to live as long as possible and gain as much wealth as possible, as far as modern civilized man is concerned human suffering is for the weak, like wise if the earth is damaged in the search for wealth and fulfilment who cares.

Man in many ways understands what he has done to the earth, sadly when this realization struck the idea of man then many buried their heads in the earth, they became ostriches to their own destruction of the earth. The protection of the earth and its reparation can only be achieved by man learning from the environment and its inhabitants.


Quinn D (1995) Ishmael:…… [read more]

Quality of Indoor Air Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,524 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This sense is associated with the trigeminal nerve, and can trigger avoidance reactions like discomfort, breath holding, paresthesias, and odd sensations like skin crawling, burning and itching. Further, trigeminal irritation can result in dilation of surface blood vessels, decreased attention, disorientation, diminished reflex time and dizziness.

It is almost impossible to determine if the volatile compounds released by mold play… [read more]

Health Consequences of Air Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  22 pages (6,129 words)
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Definition of Terms

We have already touched on some of the important concepts that will be explored in this project including a general definition of air and of air pollution. However, a few more specific definitions need to be given to help us understand the specific types of pollution most commonly involved in these two instances as well as their… [read more]

Earthy Odyssey: A Review Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,134 words)
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Hertsgaard's journey through Russia took him to an industrial complex north of Chelyabinsk in western Siberia that was the Soviet Union's primary nuclear weapons production facility for nearly 50 years. Three nuclear disaster's occurred at Mayak during this time "whose damages were comparable to, and probably worse than, the reactor meltdown in 1986 that made Chernobyl a household name around the world." (p.125) These accounts of these events and their outcome were horrible to both the environment and its inhabitants.

Hertsgaard blames yet another source for the withering of our environment -- capitalism. According to him, capitalism "predicated on continual growth, and traditionally growth has meant ecological destruction and decline." "The profit motive is what makes capitalism go, but it is so basic to the working of the system that it tends to override other social goals. It leads the factory owner to care more about minimsing operating costs than minimising pollutant outflow." (p.273) "Capitalism accelerates resource depletion and waste production and undercuts nations' efforts to environmental and social standards." (p.278)

The remedies to these problems are quite simple: each country needs to accept responsibility for their contribution to environmental degradation so that a global solution can be achieved. However, the author acknowledges that poor countries may have a harder time being loyal to this solution. "Just as population makes it harder for a given nation to climb out of poverty, so does poverty make it harder to limit population growth. Poor and hungry people have so many children precisely because they are poor and hungry people." (p.199) People have to take responsibility for people.

Earth Odyssey is a book that opens the eyes of us all and asks that we take a good look at the lives we live now and the future we want to create. I agree with the author's judgments and solutions; I agree with his impression of our environment. First hand experience beats all. Looking something straight in the eye always give a better idea of just what state things are in. Our environment needs help and Hertsgaard has gone out to see how we can all do our part in saving it.

Hertsgaard recommends solutions for us all including cutting back on our everyday consumption, promoting environmentally sound industry, and shifting the surplus wealth from the rich, where it languishes, to the poor, by whom he believes it will be spent. For my family, I know these solutions will be a gradual change as we learn how to live better and more aware of our environment. It means that we will need to think about our consumption and our need of things, things we don't necessarily need to live. We will need to think about the poor and how our lives, while still being better, could be a lot simpler and less damaging to the environment.

He offers enthusiastic support for the Global Green Deal. (p.330-32, 334). Mark Hertsgaard reminds the population that we can't be negligent and lazy when it comes to the… [read more]

Analyzing Abolishing the Death Penalty and Capital Punishment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (5,168 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Abolishing the Death Penalty/Capital Punishment

Social evolution seems to have triggered people and countries across the globe to a consensus regarding certain practices. Many countries seem to have agreed that some practices must be stopped, as a way of maintaining the dignity of humanity. Slavery and sacrificing humans as a ritual are some examples of the practices that the world… [read more]

Reduce the Incidence of Air Pollution? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … reduce the incidence of air pollution?

Air Pollution. Intervention: Public awareness programs regarding air pollution. Cause: Biohazards, traffic, and excessive fires. Outcome: asthma, allergic respiratory disease and COPD.

What information do you need about his issue? I would need an extremely detailed and effective cost-benefit analysis of the various ways to reduce the incidence of air pollution. This sort of research would help me to answer the first PICO question, and reveal what sorts of costs are required for the measures that can provide the most salient sorts of boons. I would be looking for other public awareness programs that are related to reducing air pollution, and utilizing them in one of two different ways. The first would be to actually find cost-benefit analysis that were conducted on these programs. The second would be to utilize the information gleaned from my research to conduct my own cost-benefit analysis.

Specifically, I would be looking to determine what the most efficacious means of advertising the various aspects of a reduction in air pollution campaign to the general public is. There are a number of different mechanisms and vehicles (in some instances literally) that one can utilize. I would need to know what they are and the various prices associated with them. Additional information I would be looking to procure pertains to reduced vehicle emissions options (such as hybrid or electric cars), as well as the location and direct effect of any factories in the area.

3. Such information is largely prescriptive in nature, since it will inform the measures that are ultimately used to reduce air pollution in Ironridge.

4. The database that would be most helpful is PubMed

What sort of governmental funding is available to provide economic relief for Ironridge's safety issues?

Problem: A lack of…… [read more]

Queues V System Dynamics Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


There are several examples of how queuing theory can be applied one is in a post office where there is one line but with several clerks the net person who will be served is the one that has stood longest within a line. The burden of the wait is thus shared by all those people that are found within the line the longer a line is then the longer the wait will be. A second example is trucks that are entering a dock; they have to be within a queue so that they can be order during the process of clearing. It would be chaotic if everyone would want to be served without following a queue. On the basis of average arrival rates and average service rates there are formulas that describe queuing models can be used for the calculation of important system measurements like capacity utilization, average waiting times for servicing of average number of items that are to be in a queue at any particular time.

The nature of the queue is one that involves the shifting of costs and burden averaging. A provider of a particular service that has limited resources may only be able to serve a small number of people at a time, any number of people that is beyond that is forced to wait for their turn.Queuing systems are stochastic which means that they are based on different random variables. The arrival rate of customers random but is usually theorized to follow a specific probability function. They key to analyzing queues is the use of theory and equations that allow one to determine the probabilities.


Aitelli, M.&Deckro, M.(2004).Modelling the Lanchester Laws with system dynamics. Retrieved July 3,2014 from http://www.scs.org/pubs/jdms/vol5num1/Artelli.pdf… [read more]

Raworth's a Safe and Just Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


4. How could inequalities in global resource use be represented graphically within the framework?

Throughout the discussion paper various graphic and tables are employed to provide a visual element to the startling data compiled and presented. For example, Figure 2. Falling below the social foundation: An illustrative assessment based on Rio+20 priorities combines the traditional pie-chart with a modernized "word-cloud" format to depict an image in which "social dimensions with two indicators in Table 1 are represented by split wedges, showing both of the deprivation gaps" (Raworth, 2012). To graphically represent inequalities in global resource use, the author could use the same format to depict various industrialized nations' use of arable land, fresh water and other essential but finite natural resources as compared to their non-industrialized counterparts.

5. How could this framework be extended to explore the fair shares of effort needed, between and within countries, to bring humanity into the safe and just space?

Recognizing the incredibly complex nature of the geopolitical map -- one which includes nearly 200 nations with distinctly different capabilities in terms of natural resources, environmental regulation, and population demands -- Raworth spends much of the discussion paper's fourth section examining the concept of "fair shares of effort." In the author's estimation "the diversity of natural resource endowments between countries (in terms of their land mass, forests, biodiversity, freshwater, marine resources, and oil and minerals), their very different histories of resource use, and their contrasting levels of economic development, add further dimensions of complexity" (2012) to the ongoing effort to alleviate global poverty in a sustainable manner. To reconcile this divide, Raworth advocates a principle which was enshrined in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992, one in which the framework is extended to recognize that various nations must utilize "common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities" (2012).

6. What are the major policy shifts required to achieve economic development that brings humanity within social and planetary boundaries?

Raworth believes that the traditional metrics policymakers use to assess economic progress -- including Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rates -- have become outmoded in their ability to accurately gauge social issues like poverty, hunger and disease which are inextricably linked to national fiscal policy. As Raworth asserts in the first section of the discussion paper, "mainstream economic policies have so far failed to deliver inclusive and sustainable economic growth, and policymakers continue to rely on economic indicators -- such as GDP growth -- that are not up to the task of measuring what matters for social justice and environmental integrity" (2012). As the author appraises the current situation, policymakers must adjust the metrics used to measure global sustainability, while also becoming "more accountable for the impact of economic activity on planetary and social boundaries,…… [read more]

Waste Water Treatment: Conventional Methods Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In this case, the conventional methods are modified as to recover human excreta as a resource, as opposed to disposing it off as waste (Rapaport, 1995). These treatment options make use of natural processes to convert human excreta into fuel or even fertilizer. The most common of these treatment methods include;

The use of waterless biological toilets: these rely on the composting process of soil-based microorganisms, which decompose human waste into humus (Rapaport, 1995). These do not use water. Instead, air is pulled in through the toilet's pile to facilitate microorganism activity, which slowly decomposes the waste as the effluent percolates through the soil, leaving liquids to leach and be treated the same way as grey water (Rapaport, 1995).

Waste water gardens: in this case, waste water from households is led into a sealed septic, and then into a specially-designed subsurface wetland cell which keeps it below the soil, preventing odors, and at the same time treating the effluent through a three-phase microorganism composting process that converts the solids to humus, and leaves the liquids to leach into the soil as grey water (Rapaport, 1995).

Treatment Wetlands: from a septic tank, waste water is led to a wetland whose vegetation not only slows down the waste water's speed, but also traps the suspended solids therein (Rapaport, 1995). The wetland vegetation provides favorable grounds for the thriving of microorganisms, which then decompose the solid waste matter into humus, producing water vapor and carbon (IV) oxide (Rapaport, 1995).

Biogas systems: in this case, the septic tank is replaced with a biodigestor that allows for the growth and reproduction of methan-producing microorganisms (Rapaport, 1995). These microorganisms decompose the solid waste into biogas, and treat the waste water, which is then stored in one of the system's compartments mostly for purposes of irrigation (Rapaport, 1995).


NCSU. (2013). Septic Systems and their Maintenance. North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-13/

Rapaport, D. (1995). Sewage Pollution in Pacific Island Countries and how to Prevent It. Center for Clean Development.

UNL. (2011). A Place in the Country: the Acreage Owner's Guide. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.…… [read more]

Resources and Population Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For those who use outhouses and related types of waste disposal, the use of "chemical toilets" can make things more hygienic. These chemicals provide better hygiene because they break up waste and dissolve it. That means less chance of it contaminating the area of earth where it is being buried. It also allows the outhouse to remain in the same place for a much longer period of time, because the hole that is dug for the waste disposal does not reach its capacity as quickly. This can reduce the amount of sewage that works its way into the soil, and make the use of the outhouse more hygienic and convenient for everyone. This works well for countries that do not have large water supplies, too, because outhouses and chemicals to dissolve waste do not need any water in order to be effective. Where there is already a water shortage, the water is needed for drinking and watering crops to produce food. Its best usage is not for the disposal of waste.

Overall, in countries where there is plenty of water, sewer systems and septic tanks coupled with indoor plumbing are the best choices. In countries where a lack of water is a problem, outhouses, chemical toilets, and related options are the best choices. They are still relatively hygienic in that the waste products are disposed of and are not in the house, but yet they do not require water to work or be effective. They can provide the best of both worlds for those who need a way to dispose of waste but who are not comfortable with the use of water for those purposes. Not every country has an abundance of water, and even countries that normally have adequate water supplies can struggle in times of drought. It is important to understand other ways of sewage and waste disposal in order to ensure there are options no matter how much water is available.… [read more]

Recycling I Support Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


So anything that can be done to reduce the amount of waste going into landfills has considerable benefit.

Recycling also promotes a more efficient economy. Material is not discarded until all of its economic value has been utilized. There are often revenue-generating opportunities from the recycling as well, because the cost of acquiring the materials is free -- consumers essentially donate them when they recycle them -- and after processing the materials can then be re-sold (EPA.gov, 2014).

Counter Argument

There are some reasons for not recycling, however. The EPA (2014) notes that recycled goods typically require some form of processing before they can be re-used. This often requires more energy or cost than is required to process the same material new. There are valid economic reasons for this, but the end result is that sometimes recycling is only efficient in principle, that financially it is actually less efficient. In such instances, it is harder to make the case for recycling. A good example is that sometimes with plastics, because they need to be melted down, more fossil fuels are used in recycling the plastics than would have been used in the production of new plastics. So there are definitely instances where recycling is not as favorable as it appears.


On balance, recycling is the right thing to do. It promotes economic efficiency and a mindset against needless waste. The reality is that recycling allows us to maximize the economic value that we derive from resources, some of which are non-renewable. There are cases where one can argue against recycling, but on balance recycling is positive, promotes economic efficiency and minimizes resource waste.


EPA.gov. (2014). Waste management options. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.epa.gov/osw/homeland/options.htm

Kinnon, S. (2008). Plastic pros and cons. Alive. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.alive.com/articles/view/21832/plastic_pros_and_cons… [read more]

Community Health Issues Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Community Health

There are many state and federal organizations that might be useful in preventing problems associated with radon exposure. If a radon health problem surfaced in my community, I would examine the various local, state, and federal organizations that provided me with information. The federal organization that would be the logical starting point is the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA offers a wealth of resources related to radon, including a citizen's guide, an EPA-drawn special map of radon risk zones, a buyers and sellers guide to radon for homeowners and prospective buyers, and information about where citizens can get tested for radon in order to prevent problems. The EPA has hotlines for communities impacted by radon, as well as other resources for citizen advocacy. This compendium of knowledge and resources makes the EPA the logical first choice.

From the EPA Website, I can then find links to local and state organizations that might be able to help me devise an intervention program in my community. The EPA website guides me toward what organizations exist to serve the needs of individuals and community leaders. For example, there are listings for the EPA Radon Program in Georgia, including the Georgia Dept. Of Community Affairs and the Georgia Department of Community Health. These organizations can then help locate whatever it is I may determine is the most pressing need, such as testing. A state-specific radon map is available to help show which communities are at highest risk, and if my community is identified as one of those, I would wonder why I did not know this problem beforehand. If my community is not identified as a highest risk area, I could still discover ways of mitigating the problem. The EPA also offers a list of construction and land developer links to companies committed to eliminating radon.

In terms of health care intervention, I would need to take a more localized…… [read more]

Science vs. Policy Scientific Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In bottom up policy initiatives, scientific and engineering communities, basically middle level federal scientists and members drawn from academic circles and industry may see a particular need and through long discussions formulate a proposal. They may then seek senior government officials who may adopt the proposal and take it through the daunting political process. Human Genome Project and Nanotechnology initiative is one such policy guideline that followed the above named process (Cheney, Windham, Kiyosada, Hill, & Heaton, 2003).

In as much as one would be taken to believe that science has widely been used in shaping policy issues, all has not been rosy. It is still largely taken for granted that modern natural sciences can play an important public role in improving conditions of human life. Some presidents hardly consult their science advisors. This is an attestation to the fact that the historical accommodation between science and policy is slowly disintegrating. Public and federal funds that scientists seriously need are not forthcoming (Rubin, 1997). This is making it extremely difficult to sell big-ticket science. Besides, individual researchers are finding it extremely difficult to fund their researches. The prevailing legal and regulatory climate is also stagnating innovation and is henceforth anti-science. Politicization of science has also worsened everything. Scientists are increasingly using science to advance partisan policy agenda by interpreting its results in a way that serves the intended cause (Ziman, 1996).

References List

Cheney, D.W., Windham, P., Kiyosada, T., Hill, C.T, Heaton, G.R. (2003). The Decision Making

Process in U.S. Science and Technology Policy. Retrieved from http://www.technopoli.net/JST%20Report.pdf

Pielke, R.A. (2007). The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rubin, C.T. (1997). The Troubled Relationship between Science and Policy. Retrieved from http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=19

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Pesticides: Science and Policy. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/science/index.htm

Ziman, J. (1996). Is Science Losing its Objectivity? Nature, 382(29), 751-754.… [read more]

Oil Spill Damage the Effects Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,047 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


There have been gaps in the testing of dispersants. Most of the test only test the acute effects where little testing has been done on the chronic toxicity. The studies have also not examined the long-term effects of the dispersants. By using the dispersants to break up the oil hydrocarbon particles, it has added to damage from the oil and methane. Other than the shifting of the problem in the ecosystem, it still is not known to what extent the dispersants add to the damage of the oil spill.

There is also the problem of undersea oil patches creating oxygen depleting "dead zones" in the ocean. As the areas of "dead zones" expand, it causes an oxygen problem in the ocean. This puts the water column animals at greater risk. Where water surface animals can go to the surface for oxygen, the water column animals do not have the ability to breathe in the dead zones. At the same time, the larger animals are put at risk because they feed from the water column animals. As the water column animals are put at risk of oxygen dead zones, the larger animals lose their food chain.

The impact of oil spills on the marine and terrestrial ecosystems have been long and lasting as well as still immeasurable as to the total effects. The oil spills alone cause an immeasurable amount of damage that lasts decades, but the cleanup efforts of using dispersants add more immeasurable damage to the oil spill damage. With gaps in the testing of the dispersants, there is no real knowledge of the actual damage or the long-term effects of the products. Even though the dispersants break up the hydrocarbon particles of the oil reducing risk to the water surface animals, they are still affected with the increased risk to the water column organisms they use as food.

Even though species reproduce and replenish themselves, recovery in the species has been slow due to the damage done to the reproductive system. And, as more oil spills have happened, it has damage in the loss of the majority of the species, making recovery efforts even more slowly. With the effects of the damages caused by oil spills and their cleanup efforts, killing off major portions of the species, their food chains, and damaging the reproductive systems, recovery will be long and slow.


A Deadly Toll: The Gulf Oil Spill and the Unfolding Wildlife Disaster. (2011, Apr). Retrieved from Center for Biological Diversity: http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/public_lands/energy/dirty_energy_development/oil_and_gas/gulf_oil_spill/

asladirt. (2010, June 1). Oil Spill Will Hve Long-term Impact on Local Ecosystems. Retrieved from The Dirt: http://dirt.asla.org/2010/06/01/damage-to-gulf-of-mexico-ecosystem-grows/

Narisimha, M. (n.d.). Human Impact on Marine Ecosystem. Retrieved from Aquafind: http://www.aquafind.com/articles/HumanImpact.php

Oil Spill Impacts on Mammals. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Wildlife Federation: http://www.nwf.org/Oil-Spill/Effects-on-Wildlife/Mammals.aspx

Schor, E. (2010, July 30). Oil Spill Dispersants shifting Ecosystem Impacts in Gulf, Scientists Warn. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2010/07/30/30greenwire-oil-spill-dispersants-shifting-ecosystem-impact-95608.html… [read more]

Solve the Equation the Solution Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Question 13:

Solution: The solution is straight forward using the given table.

However, checking the inequality for take.

Then condition false.

Checking the inequality for take.

Then condition satisfied.

Therefore, The correct inequality "D."

Question 14:


The correct solution set is.

Question 15:


The solution set is.

Question 16:


The solution set is.

Question 17:


Student score on first test=72

Student score on second test=x

Average score=80

The student needs to score at least 88 out 100 on the test.

Question 18:

Solution: Let x be the cost of the car, then according to the given condition,

The answer is $21,750.

Question 19:


The solution set is t=0.

Question 20:

Solution: The year in which there were 1.7 million in mates is given by 1.7=0.05x-98.5




It was in the year x=2004.

Question 21:



Question 22:.

Question 23:


The perimeter of a rectangle=

The length of the rectangle is 15 inches.

Question 24: The correct choice is "D."

Question 25:


The solution set is. The correct choice is "D."

Question 26:


The solution set is.

Question 27:

Solution: The…… [read more]

Logging and Slash and Burn Agriculture Lab Report

Lab Report  |  2 pages (512 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Logging and slash and burn agriculture are two major contributors to deforestation. Three other major factors are?

Cattle ranching

The debt burden (where in order to reduce their debt, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are forcing developing countries to destroy their rainforests.)

Shifted Cultivators (i.e. people who have moved into rainforest areas and taken up territory to farm in their ad hoc way).

List five major negative impacts of deforestation on forest ecosystems:__ Erosion____,__Climate Change (resulting in CO2 being released into the atmosphere and enhanced greenhouse effect),_ loss of plants that may provide potential treatments to diseases such as cancer, quality of land declines, and the old field is left for waste e laving country with less territory and further impoverishing them

Question 3

What are two ways you could slow down the rate of forest deforestation considerably: Recycling paper (buying paper that has the FSC certification) and protesting about corporations that are responsible for destroying rainforests._.

Review the following newspaper article on deforestation. This is a news article without data: "Farming in the rainforest can preserve biodiversity, ecological services.," located at http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0305-sulawesi.html

a. Name two types of data you would like to know regarding the situation in order to academically assess the situation. Be specific and academic. Additionally, explain why these types of data are important

"An analysis of Indonesian rainforests shows that farming cacao under the partial shade of high canopy trees can provide a way to balance economic gain with environmental considerations."

I would like to know how many rainforests…… [read more]

Romf Microfiltration and Reverse-Osmosis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



I. Background and introduction

A. History of Water Treatment Methods

B. History of use of Reverse-Osmosis and Microfiltration

C. Current uses of both reverse-osmosis and microfiltration

II. What is Reverse-Osmosis?

A. How it works

1. Technical specs of R-O systems

2. Applications in specific industry sectors like wastewater treatment or desalination

B. Drawbacks, limitations, costs

III. What is Microfiltration?

A. How it works

1. Technical specs

2. Applications in industry sectors such as wine and beer

B. Drawbacks, limitations, costs

IV. The Best of Both Worlds: Using R-O and Microfiltration Together

A. Review of Literature

B. Potential applications and recommendations

V. Conclusion


Al-Samadi, R.A. & Benedek, A. (1994). Microfiltration enhanced reverse-osmosis for water treatment. United States Patent Number 5501798. March 26, 1996.

Fritzmann, C., Lowenberg, J., Wintgens, T. & Melin, T. (2007). State-of-the-art of reverse osmosis desalination. Desalination 216(1-3): 1-76.

Gabelich, C.J., Yuna, T.I., Coffeya, B.M. & Suffetb, I.H.M. (2003). Pilot-scale testing of reverse osmosis using conventional treatment and microfiltration. Desalination 154(3): 207-223.

Ghayeni, S.B.S., Beatson, P.J., Schneider, R.P. & Fanea, A.G. (1998). Water reclamation from municipal wastewater using combined microfiltration-reverse osmosis (ME-RO): Preliminary performance data and microbiological aspects of system operation. Desalination 116(1): 65-80.

Ghayenia, S.B.S., Madaeni, S.S., Fanea, A.G. & Schneider, R.P. (1996). Aspects of microfiltration and reverse osmosis in municipal wastewater reuse. Desalination 106(1-3): 25-29.

Kershner, K. (n.d.). How Reverse Osmosis Works. How Stuff Works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/reverse-osmosis.htm

"Reverse Osmosis," (2012). GEA Filtration. Retrieved online: http://www.geafiltration.com/technology/reverse_osmosis.asp

"Reverse Osmosis, Nano, Ultra & Micro Filtration," (n.d.). GEA Filtration. Retrieved online: http://www.geafiltration.com/technology/membrane_filtration_process.asp

Vial, D. & Doussau, G. (2003). The use of microfiltration membranes for seawater pre-treatment prior to reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination 153(1): 141-147.… [read more]

E-Waste Environmental Condition Like Economics and Market Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Environmental condition like economics and market is the most influential leverage point for change within this ecosystem. When individuals or corporate organizations doing electronics waste recycling and disposal get to publish their end year financial results and people get to see how engaging in electronic waste recycling can be lucrative, many organizations will seek federal license to eat into their market share (Russell, 2006). People will appreciate that they can earn their livelihood from recycling electronic waste. This far nobody would be willing to dispose electronic waste anyhow.

Very few would be willing to dump their e-waste in land fills or even burning them leading to further environmental degradation. When early adopters establish specific markets for electronic waste, households would be keen at accumulating their electronic wastes and selling them to such individuals to get some cash (Kozlan, 2010). Specific markets for electronic wastes are also likely to attract giant corporations that would buy such materials and recycling them as opposed to purchasing new ones. Think of manufacturers of lead-acid batteries, giant electronics companies like General Electronics, and even manufacturers of computer hardware.

For purposes of sanity in electronic waste recycling and disposal industry, the government has to step in and regulate the market by ensuring that there are legislations that dictate the rules of the game. Other than passing the legislations, the passed legislations have to be enforced by the law enforcement agencies that are particularly concerned with environmental issues. These laws will ensure that entrepreneurs engaging electronic waste management and disposal conduct their businesses within the law (Heylighen & Bernheim, 2000). Environmental condition like economics and markets would also attract non-profit organizations who would champion for recycling of electronic wastes and their responsible disposal. Non-profit organizations cannot responsibly carry out their stipulated duties without both financial and human resources. Individuals and local government has to be brought on board. They also have to look for volunteers. Activities undertaken…… [read more]

Corporate Violence White Collar Crime Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In other instances of unsafe products, the actions of the company may be even more craven. For example, when Ford created the Ford Pinto, the company actually calculated that it would be cheaper to settle lawsuits than to insert an inexpensive safety device that would prevent the car from catching fire when it was hit from behind. Ford feared that the increased cost, which would be passed on to consumers, would reduce the appeal of what was supposed to be an inexpensive car.

Discussion 2

Examples of corporate violence which consumers are put directly and unwittingly at risk are the most egregious examples of corporate violence, but it could also be argued that when corporations sell cigarettes and unhealthy fast food to the public in an attractive manner that they are facilitating the consumer doing violence to his or her body. Even if the risks are known by consumers, such products have addictive qualities, and once the consumer is 'hooked' it can be very difficult to get 'off' of the product.

Of course, not all corporate violence is so blatant. Sometimes, when a particular food product is contaminated (such as lettuce) from a third-party source, a company may unwittingly poison consumers, even if the food is prepared according to industry guidelines on-site. Still, corporations have a responsibility to vet their suppliers and outside contractors as well as to engage in scrupulous ethical behaviors themselves (such as when the toy company Mattel's subcontracting in China led to its products containing dangerous amounts of lead).

Sadly, it is often the most vulnerable populations who are the most affected by corporate violence: people who cannot afford to move to another area if their land is contaminated; the sick who need medications; the poor who cannot afford high-quality products; the uneducated who cannot research the risks of an addictive product; and the young who are dependent upon others for their safety.…… [read more]

Solid Waste Trends Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Even as some of the most notorious 20th century landfills are capped off and repurposed as healthy, public recreational lands, the amount of waste that we are currently producing necessitates both the continued use of many imposing garbage-based masses and the creation of new ones.

Controlling These Factors:

A number of strategies have been implemented in recent years to offset the amount of solid waste matter that does end up in landfills. The chart provided by section four of the module and entitled "Destination of Municipal Solid Waste" shows the alternative methods of waste disposal that have increasing come into usage. The combustion method has been used as a method of disposal since the 1960s and in greater proportion than other alternatives until concerns about airborne emissions diminished its appeal. By the 1980s, rising emphasis on recycling would be a significant step in helping to reduce landfill-bound waste. And with the start of the 1990s, composting would begin to gain popularity as a way of turning waste into reusable planting mulch.

Problems With Recycling Program:

As the same chart cited here above demonstrates, one of the biggest drawbacks to the recycling program is the small proportion of recyclable items relative to the amount of waste which does go to the landfill. Even as recycling usage grows in popularity and penetration, its growth in usage lags behind the growth in the amount of waste produced in general. One culprit for this lag can be seen in neighborhoods such as my own. Here, the municipality has not made recycling cans readily available to residents. Instead of distribution, the community has asked residents to seek out bins in a remote city building. This approach lacks the necessary outreach to help…… [read more]

Secondary Succession Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the Padre Island ecosystem in Texas, one can study primary succession. The action of the waves and wind form new islands, and on those islands, in time, grasses will grow. Still later woody plants will begin growing on the newly formed island and that is called primary succession (North East Independent School District).

Meanwhile, following the horrific fires in Texas in 2011, it was learned that within the 55 square miles that were burned near Bastrop, the Lost Pines area (64,000 acres of loblolly pine) was burned to the ground (Tompkins, 2011). Unfortunately the endangered Houston toad was apparently wiped out in the fire. And the loblolly pine, which is said to be "fire-intolerant," may not come back strong as part of the secondary succession process. The "short leaf pine" though, which was also burned in the Lost Pines area, is known to be drought resistant and generally tougher than the loblolly pine, so there is hope that its seedlings will begin its return in ten to fifteen years. As for the short leaf pine itself, it may take thirty years for it to be confirmed as an example of secondary succession (Tompkins). Will the short leaf pine reach climax? I believe it will because the ecosystem in the Lost Pines area is ideal for this pine, as shown in years past; it flourished until a "logging boom wiped them out in the 1880" (Tompkins). It will come back.

In conclusion, it is very clear that primary succession is based on species taking hold where there were no species to begin with, and secondary succession is the normal re-growth of organisms in a place where there is already soil for the regeneration to occur.

Works Cited

Holt, Rinehart & Winston. (2004). Holt Environmental Science. Chicago, IL: Hole McDougal.

North Ease Independent School District. (2006). Components of an Ecosystem & How they

Interact. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from www.neisd.net/curriculum/SchImprov/.../7_cs_unit6_ecology.doc.

Tompkins, Shannon. (2011). Flames from Bastrop fire will be felt…… [read more]

Biodiversity the Definition Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



But the most important aspect of "invasive species," and their impact on the biodiversity of an ecosystem, comes with the environmental harm that these species can cause. Environmental harm "includes significant changes in the ecological processes, sometimes across entire regions, which result in conditions that native species and even entire plant and animal communities cannot tolerate." ("Invasive Species Definition") In many cases, this can include disruptions in soil stabilization, deterioration of wildlife habitats, changes in wildfire patterns, decreased fish populations, and an overall alteration of entire ecosystems. ("Invasive Species Definition") Invasions by non-native invasive species have become a major problem to both man-made and naturally occurring ecosystems; changing the natural processes, killing off the natural and beneficial species, and devastating ecosystems.

For an ecosystem to be healthy and thrive, it requires a variety of different species all existing in a delicate balance. This variety of life is known as "biodiversity," and can be either a man-made or naturally occurring system. However, when non-native species are introduced to an ecosystem and they cause damage to either the naturally occurring species, or humans and their endeavors, they are considered to be "invasive." Invasive species can devastate ecosystems by out-competing native species for resources, destroying the biodiversity necessary to maintain the delicate balance of entire ecosystems.


"Invasive Species Definition Clarification and Guidance White Paper." (27 April 2006).

The National Invasive Species Council (NISC). Retrieved from http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/docs/council/isacdef.pdf

"Scientific Definitions of Biodiversity." California Biodiversity Council. Retrieved from http://biodiversity.ca.gov/Biodiversity/biodiv_def2.html… [read more]

Water Management Contemporary Issue Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Also, due to the vast increase in the population of the world, the amount of waste has also increased many folds. This waste is a constituent of toxic, chemical and non-bio-degradable waste that cannot be easily decomposed ("Water management -,"). Thus, whenever it rains, the water takes up these chemicals, sweeps through the ground and contaminates the underground water reservoirs.

Water is our need. It is necessary for the sustainability of life on earth. But due to excessive growth in population, the world's economy and pollution the world is approaching on the verge of war; a war that would be fought for water. So, what is the solution, for stopping the whole socio- economic system from collapsing? The first step should be the inculcation of awareness amongst people about the possible water crisis, which is destined to hit the world in the near future and the productive measures which can help to avert the crisis ("Water management -,"). The second step is to bring a revolution in our reforms, pertaining to water management. Radical steps would have to be taken to put a curb on toxic waste being discharged into water bodies and new breed of harmless or less harmful chemicals have to be introduced, that will be destined to save the water from being contaminated. The third step is to put a limit on the population growth, especially in the developing countries ("Water management -,"). This will not only increase the number of litres of available water per person but will also help to relieve the Mother Earth from bearing the brunt of feeding a much larger inhabitants, thus evading the food crisis.

These are only a few, of the thousands of steps, which could be taken to save water and consequently, the future of the human race.


Water management - problems and methods. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aquamedia.at/templates/index.cfm/id/1462

Pietersen, K., & Beekman, H. (n.d.). Freshwater. Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/DEWA/Africa/docs/en/aeo-2/chapters/aeo-2_ch04_FRESHWATER.pdf… [read more]

Eradicating Ecocide Wanton Destruction Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The author wavers between a nerdy, scholastic pitch to one that is idealistic and politically charged: "It is your rally too if you choose it to be. I ask you to join me," (Higgins, 2010, p. 171). Yet even if this is so, the practical advice that Higgins (2010) offers does have the potential to eradicate ecocide in a meaningful, proactive way. For example, the author suggests to readers that they re-examine their investment portfolios, "taking stock," so to speak, of the ways money flows into the channels that either eradicate or perpetuate ecocide. Businesses committed to organizational change can gain much from the Higgins assessment, as she offers concrete objectives and strategies for cleaning up dirty sectors. Of course, all of what Higgins advises is contingent upon radical mind changing. Any businessperson settled comfortably into a profit-driven mentality that does not have room for an ecological ethic will ignore the advice in Higgins's (2010) book. Moreover, Higgins (2010) outright ignores some of the most significant culprits of ecocide in the developing world. Eradicating Ecocide is written for an educated Western audience, but the problem of ecological destruction is a global one. The principles set forth in Higgins's (2010) book must be re-written and re-formulated for Chinese, Brazilian, and Indian audiences as well.

However, we must begin somewhere. Higgins at least accomplishes the goals the author sets out to do in Eradicating Ecocide. The principles of the book are sound, and there are no noticeable local fallacies. Drawing on legal and political root causes of ecocide, the author presents a case that is in many ways air tight and incontrovertible. The problem now is getting on board the people at the top of the totem pole, who are in the…… [read more]

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