"Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays

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Future Waste Scenarios Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (589 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

By increasing the amount of products that are reused within a household, individuals are placing emphasis on the perceived value and utility of goods that are consumed. Products are no longer viewed as useful for a short while, but instead are valued for their longevity. In order to increase behaviors associated with reuse within households, behavioral change in the form of habit creation is required. Just as it becomes habit to use a product and then discard of it, it becomes a habit to use a product and then reuse it for the same purpose or discover alternate, practical uses for the product. Again, communication between household members is required in order to ensure all members are on the same page in regard to reuse behaviors with the intention of positively impacting household waste generation.

Finally, recycling behavior within the household is required in order to effectively reduce the environmental impact products may have when their consumption is required and they cannot be reused. Choices made within the household regarding purchasing of products that are recyclable as well as making efforts to actively organize waste into recyclable and non-recyclable categories aids in increasing the level of recycling behavior. However, much of the required effort to promote and facilitate recycling behavior transcends beyond the household into government programs and initiatives. The reduction of household waste generation and increase in recycling behavior must be made a priority by governing bodies, and resources and efforts must be targeted towards specific goals. By increasing awareness through advertising campaigns as well as improving household recycling efficiency through programs that make it easier to choose recycling behaviors, the UK will be on the right path toward a continually green future.… [read more]


Bpethics the British Petroleum (BP) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Contingency plans should have been in place to cover spills of this magnitude, and those plans should have been adhered to. Equipment that was faulty or not even in place that would have eased the situation should have been checked continuously and in an effective manner.

Finally, the reparations (once they were initiated) seemed to have been made in an effective and efficient manner as they should have been. If a company is the root cause of a problem such as this one, reparations should be swiftly and generously made. As to the question of whether BP was ethically obligated to dole out more than what the government demanded; probably not. It's common knowledge that government always overpays for everything. When the administration demanded a $20 billion fund financed by BP, that was more than enough (as it turned out).

As one recent study found "the management of abnormal situations becomes more important everyday" (Aguilar, Prato, Bravo, Rivas, 2009, p. 406) and this oil spill was definitely an abnormal situation. However, once the scope of the situation was understood, it seemed as if BP did a fairly decent job of fulfilling its ethical obligations. The company continued to strenuously address the oil spill and its effects on the local, national, and international communities. It paid its reparations in a fairly quick manner, and it conducted its cleanup efforts in an aboveboard manner. Mistakes were made by both BP and the government, perhaps learning from those mistakes will assist in any future similar situations.

References

Aguilar, J.; Prato, F.; Bravo, C.; Rivas, F.; (2009) A multi-agent system for the management of abnormal situations in an artificially gas-lifted well, Applied Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 23, Issue 5, pp. 406 -- 426

Balaguer, A.; (2010) The black gulf, Americas, Vol. 62, Issue 5, pp. 6-11

Sylves, R.T. & Comfort, L.K.; (2012) The Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon…… [read more]


Air Quality and Watersheds Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Water Math

Water Flow

12f x 5f x 3f/s = 180 cfs

cfs = 449 gpm (from Module 2 document)

180 x 449 = 80,820

180 cfs = 80,820gpm

cfs = 28.32lps (from Google conversions)

180 x 28.32 = 5,097.6

180 cfs = 5,097.7lps

minutes/hr x 24 hrs/day = 1440m/d

80,820 x 1,440 = 116,380,800

449 gpm = 116.38mgd

RV = 0.05 + 0.009I

+ (0.009 x 0.85) = 0.05765

RV = 0.05765

R = P x RV ***

P = 6in = 0.5f

RV = 0.05765

A = 35,000sf

x 0.05765 x 35,000 = 1,008.875

R = 1,008.875cf

Molecule

Sink

Post-Sink Form

SO2

H202 in ice clouds

H2S04

Clegg & Abbatt 2001

CO2

Oceans (H2O)

H2CO3

Garrison 2004

O3

HOO

HO

Air

N2, CO2, H2O

EPA 2011

Of all of the possible pollutants resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, carbon dioxide is one of the simplest in terms of how it can be broken down, the available sinks, and the safety/lack of effect the carbon dioxide is in a sink or when broken down (EPA 2011). At the same time, carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas in terms of its creation and release into the atmosphere by humans, and thus poses a large problem in terms of potential global warming and is still the focus of many reduction efforts simply due to volume, regardless of its relative safety (EPA…… [read more]


Influence of Environmental Sustainability on Information Technology Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Display

Conceptual Framework Display

There are a variety of different conceptual frameworks and theoretical models that come into play in an examination of global air and water pollution, and deciding which frameworks and models to use not only in examining but also in presenting the data on this subject can be complex. Similarly, there are many different options for the visual presentation of these frameworks and for qualitative elements and data in general, and the varying efficacy of these different options in their impact on readers makes the selection of specific presentational designs essential when research needs to have a direct practical impact. The following paragraphs will discuss the conceptual frameworks and visual data presentations that are deemed most suitable and effective for research specifically in the area of global air and water pollution and the role that information and communications technology can and do play in attempting to prevent, eliminate, and correct such widespread pollution.

Of the "explain and predict" techniques described by Miles & Huberman (1994), the technique deemed most useful for the defined research area is a map that can generalize certain narratives about the case, such as the creation of waste and pollution as well as the methods by which such waste is dealt with. Mapping these narratives can provide clear understanding of processes that have multiple steps and influences that interact in complex fashions, sometimes at multiple places within the process (Miles & Huberman 1994). Due to the concrete complexity of pollution and its relation to information and communications techniques as well as the different conceptual frameworks that can be applied to this research, the visual mapping of various elements and processes in the research is believed to be an ideal method for presenting both data and theory.

One…… [read more]


Landscape Gypsy Moth Control Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

d.).

Topographic Features

Using the topographical map available via the trails.com website allows for a view of certain other natural geographic features that could potentially have an impact on the workings of the treatment plan. As noted above, Diana fritillary populates wooded areas, and though the species will roam to some degree in order to find food sources it is never observed far from these woodland habitats (Sholtens n.d.). The topography of the region has implications both for Diana fritillary populations and the potential impact of Gypsy Moth control methods.

By extending the scope of the map to a scale of 1:100,000, some of the flatter and broader areas around the river come into view, showing areas where it is less likely that Diana fritillary butterfly would be a regular inhabitant and perhaps suggesting other areas where a Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki spray method of controlling for Gypsy Moths (trail.com 2011; Scholtens n.d.). Restoring forests on the steeper areas of the landscape as well as achieving other groundwork in these areas will be more time and labor intensive, and focusing on areas nearer the waterway in terms of Gypsy Moth control could prove more effective, assuming proper care not to create additional problems for the river itself can be taken (Liebhold 2003; National Forest Service n.d.). More protected areas of the landscape also exist tucked amongst narrow topographic features, and such areas could be prime locations for finding other Diana fritillary populations (trail.com 2011; Scholtens n.d.).

Federal Considerations

The fact that the area under investigation and consideration for a treatment plan includes federal lands means there are certain special requirements that must be taken into account. Not all of the special circumstances regarding federal lands translate to additional complications and encumbrances when it comes to the development and implementation of this treatment plan: the additional research and information that is available regarding federal lands can be of major assistance in this undertaking (National Forest Service n.d.). Other complications exist due to regulations and oversight from agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency.

Any action taken by any federal agency, which includes actions taken on the federal lands include in the targeted region as they are part of the National Forest Service's dominion and thus require federal approval, is required to conduct Environmental Assessments and produce Environmental Impact Statements in accordance with EPA guidelines, as per 1969's National Environmental Policy Act (EPA 2011). The pest management control methods and treatment must be shown to have a minimal expected impact on other populations of both flora and fauna based on available evidence, and the benefits and necessity of these actions must also be demonstrated (EPA 2011). Coordination with other efforts to reforest specific areas of the region, correct other environmental damage, and promote the overall health of the ecosystem must also be a part of the treatment plan development, as well (National Forest Service n.d.). This is not only due to regulatory and legislative concerns but also because such coordination will represent the… [read more]


Environmental Health Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Nursing

Environmental Health

Environmental Hazard

Radon is an odorless, tasteless and invisible gas formed by the break down of naturally occurring uranium in soil and water. Radon is an arrangement of ionizing radiation and a confirmed carcinogen. Lung cancer is the only known effect on human health from exposure to radon in air. Thus far, there is no evidence that… [read more]


College Algebra Individual Project Solve Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Round to three decimal places where necessary.

x y

0

-2

1

-1

2

-0.586

3

-0.268

4

0

b)

Explain why no negative values are chosen as values to substitute in for x.

Answer: Squareroot is not defined for negative values.

c) Graph in MS Excel or another web-based graphing utility and paste your graph here. Read the information in the assignments list to learn more about how to graph in MS Excel.

Answer:

5) A water tank is h feet high. Water is flowing from this water tank with a velocity V feet per second. The model representing the relationship between the velocity and height is given by V = 6?h

(a). find the height of a water tank that provides a water flow of 60 feet per second.

V = 60, substitute this in the original function above we get

60 = 6?h

60/6 = ?h h = 10

Square both sides we get

Answer: h = 100 feet

(b) find the velocity of the water flow when the…… [read more]


Chemistry of Recycling Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chemistry of Recycling Abstract

This experiment will demonstrate the synthesizing of alum from aluminum cans, which is the result of sequential reactions, in which the products of one chemical reaction become the reactants (or some of the reactants) in the next reaction. The sequential reactions involved in this experiment will demonstrate to some degree the energy requirements and percent yields of recycling aluminum, and in this way will help to demonstrate first hand the importance of recycling aluminum and certain of the processes involved. The experiment gave a clear physical example of certain of the fairly typical types of reactions that are commonly identified and theoretically mapped by chemistry students.

Materials & Methods

The reactants used in this experiment included strips of an aluminum can cut into small pieces (1.0085g), 1.4 M. solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH), 6 M. sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution, a solution of 50% ethanol, ice, and distilled water. Equipment used included two graduated cylinders (10mL and 50mL), an aspirator, rubber tubing, a standard hotplate, a Buchner funnel, stirring rod, filter paper, weight paper, clamp, ring stand, beaker, and scoopula. Standard classroom/laboratory equipment was utilized, and none of the reactants used were especially exotic, either. The mass of the aluminum strips was obtained by first weighing the beaker (104.3116g), then adding aluminum, recording the new weight (105.3201g), and taking the difference (1.0085) as the weight of the aluminum being utilized.

After weighing the aluminum, the beaker was placed on a hot plate set to low heat and 50mL of the KOH solution was added to the beaker while venting under a laboratory hood. As the reaction took place, distilled water was added at intervals to the beaker in order to maintain a volume of approximately 25mL throughout the reaction period (approximately 30 minutes). An aspirator system was set-up and used to filter the reaction mixture that resulted from the reaction, rinsing the beaker and pouring the rinse through the filter system multiple times in order to collect the solid substance created from the aluminum during the reaction. 20mL of the 6.0 sulfuric acid was then added to the reaction mixture, again over low heat on the hot plate and venting until no solids formed in the beaker and all solids that had formed had dissolved. The beaker was then…… [read more]


Antarctic Impact Human Effects Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

First, measurements and observations would clearly show that disturbances are being created by human activities; such measurements and observations actually already exist, though they are disputed by some, proving that it is quite possible to see what occurs from human activity (Ward 2001; Landcare Research 2011). This would (and has) lead to hypotheses regarding the connection between human behaviors -- such as the use of fossil fuels and the commercial harvesting of krill -- and the detrimental effects of these behaviors -- the disintegrating ice shelves and the disruptions to the Antarctic food web at all levels (Ward 2011; Landcare Research 2011). These hypotheses could then be tested by halting the production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and ceasing the commercial harvesting of krill; if the issues of global warming subsided (over the ensuing decades) and the Antarctic food web appeared to be operating in a way that allowed all populations to flourish again, then the hypothesized connections would have been demonstrated to be correct and the problems would have been corrected by the experiment itself.

Commercial solutions could also be developed, if there were monetary incentives. Developing efficient and affordable carbon scrubbers would effectively remove a lot of greenhouse gases from production cycles before they reach the atmosphere, and developing an alternative to krill that can be harvested on a more sustainable basis would also solve the problem.

References

Landcare Research. (2011). Accessed 11 July 2011. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/ecosystems/penguins/food_web.asp

Ward, P. (2011).. Accessed 11 July 2011. http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/science/human_impact_on_antarctica.htm… [read more]


Verrazano-Narrows Bridge Upon IT's Grand Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

An excerpt from The Great Bridge by Edward M. Young and Lili Rethi: "Residents who were used to their small-town ways witnessed a metamorphosis of their borough into a densely populated bedroom community, complete with condominium developments, shopping complexes and industrial parks. While the populations in the other four boroughs held steady or even declined, the population in Staten Island more than doubled in the years that followed the bridge's opening" (Rethi & Young). If the transformation of their way of life wasn't already tough enough, the residents of Staten Island also had to deal with increased air pollution ().

Reactions to the bridge were not all negative. In fact, the majority of business people and residents who lived outside the Staten Island and Bay Ridge communities thought the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge was a great idea. However, one could argue that support for the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, or any major public work that displaces residents and increases noise and air pollution, is relative to the interests of those involved and affected by the project. To explicate, if one is going to have to sacrifice something, i.e. one is going to lose his/her home and/or his/her way of life, then he/she will of course be opposed to the change. But if one is going to profit from the construction, not only monetarily, but convenience factors related to transit, etc., then he/she is going to support the bridge despite the inconveniencies it places on other people. There are no shortages of sacrifices or opportunity costs in a project like the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.

My step-uncle Donald knows something about the sacrifices made to build the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. He grew up on Staten Island during the late 50s and 60s. Although he was quite young, he was there during the bridges construction. He remembers, quite vividly, how Staten Island morphed from a bucolic-type community to a more hustle and bustle type destination. He can also recount the full-throated opposition to the bridge by some community members even though his parents where somewhat indifferent to the project. He never ceases to remind me that three ironworkers paid the ultimate price (or made the ultimate sacrifice) in building that bridge. My step-uncle is an ironworker, so naturally he is cognizant of these statistics. Overall though, when considering the opportunity costs of building the bridge, the three ironworkers who died, the increased noise and air pollution, the displacement of 8,000 Brooklyn residents, the transformation of the Staten Island community, my step-uncle believes it was the right thing to do. He said, "Nothing worth doing comes without sacrifice. And progress is important." When pressed about why he felt this way, he said, "Building infrastructure creates jobs. Projects like Verrazano-Narrows Bridge puts people to work and putting people to work is a good thing."

After reading about the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and talking with my step-uncle about his experiences on Staten Island during the construction of the bridge, it is clear that, in the end, progress (especially when Robert Moses is the… [read more]


Benefits of Recycling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Recycling offers many benefits in many different contexts for communities, and one interesting and yet pragmatic example of the diversity of applications is the recycling of waste materials for use in paving and pavement engineering / construction. According to an article in the Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering there is increased pressure for construction companies to use recycled materials in pavement construction. That pressure is "…due to a rapid depletion of high-quality natural/traditional aggregates," to the increasingly high costs of materials, and also due to the "large quantities of waste materials stockpiled around the world" (Tao, et al., 2008, p. 718).

Since the recycling of waste materials into pavement construction has been successful in Europe, Tao believes that the feasibility of "sustainable transportation infrastructure" has been proven effective and now it is time for the more widespread use of these materials. The benefits that will accrue from this strategy are several, Tao explains: a) the cost of energy will be reduced by using recycled materials; b) a lowering of the costs associated with the extraction of the virgin materials; and c) a reduction of the demand for "primary aggregates" can be expected as well.

Tao and colleagues present some complicated, algebra-heavy testing procedures in this article in order to show the economic benefits of using recycled materials for pavement, since they claim that there is currently a dearth of data in the literature showing those benefits. Hence, they tested the benefits of using Louisiana Class II crushed limestone, foamed-asphalt-treated recycled asphalt concrete, fly-ash-stabilized blended calcium sulfate (BCS), and BCS stabilized with the 120-grade ground granulated blast furnace-slag (GGBFS) (Tao, 718). The researchers actually built a "full-scale accelerated pavement test section" in order to check out the performance and stability of the above-mentioned materials. The bottom line: applying their data and measuring their test section strength indicated that for a "typical four-lane, 5-mile long road section, the use of a BCS-GGBFS base plus a lime treated sub-base in lieu of the Class II stone base and the foamed-asphalt-treated base can result in savings in the PWC up to $2.8 and $11.2 million, respectively" (Tao, 724).

While it is important for researchers to locate those wastes that can be used again, as Tao has done, and prove the value of those materials, when it comes to curbside pickups of recycled household materials, there are a number of positives and negatives that need to be discussed.

Richard C. Porter writes in his book, The Economics of Waste, that on the basic level recycling has three "major" benefits: a) the reuse, and recovery of materials that have been used or discarded; b) the "reduced use of a landfill (or incinerator); and c) the reduced need for solid waste collection (Porter, 2002, p. 133). The author attempts in this article to figure out what the dollar benefits are to recycling; but because market prices fluctuate so dramatically, it is difficult, he reminds readers, to precisely put the financial value on some recycling efforts.

Still,… [read more]


Water Standards Issues in Urban Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Due to the nature of nonpoint source pollution of water in urban areas any plan that fails to incorporate collaboration between agencies and public information provision will not be effective because NPS water pollution prevention is necessarily dependent upon these to accomplish its goal of reducing and preventing NPS water pollution.

References

Public Works Department -- Stormwater Services Division (2011) City of Durham, North Carolina Website. Retrieved from: http://www.ci.durham.nc.us/departments/works/stormwater_water_quality.cfm

Indiana Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Management Plan (2011) Watershed and Nonpoint Source Water Pollution. Indiana Government Website. Retrieved from: http://www.in.gov/idem/nps/3153.htm

Nonpoint Source Management Planning Session II (2011) Summary Report - University of Northern Iowa Institute for Decision Making. 29 Apr 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.bcs.uni.edu/idm/news/NPSMP/NPSMP_Session_2_Summary_Report.pdf

Ambrosio, JD, Lawrence, T. And Brown, LC (nd) A Basic Primer on Nonpoint Source Pollution and Impervious Surface. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet - Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from: http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/0444.html

Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention and Control Planning Handbook (nd) National Center for Environmental Publications. United States Environmental Protection agency. Retrieved from: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/30004LY0.txt-Zy ActionD=ZyDocument&Client=EPA&Index=1991%20Thru%201994&Docs=&Query=625R93004%20or%20Water%20or%20Standards%20or%20Issues%20or%20Urban%20or%20Planning&Time=&EndTime=&SearchMethod=1&TocRestrict=n&Toc=&TocEntry=&QField=pubnumber^%22625R93004%22&QFieldYear=&QFieldMonth=&QFieldDay=&UseQField=pubnumber&IntQFieldOp=1&ExtQFieldOp=1&XmlQuery=&File=D%3AYFILESINDEX%20DATA91THRU94TXT… [read more]


Entrepreneurship Research and Service Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (910 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Explain what in these images captures these issues and problems. Why does our approach become an appropriate way to understand and address these issues? How are the issues related? Why does our out-of-the-box approach allow us the needed flexibility and perspectives?

The out-of-the-box approach allows incredible flexibility because it serves to address multiple objectives simultaneously. First, it deals with the presence of unsafe, energy inefficient and run-down structures in place. These must be dealt with by some means; whether it is for aesthetical value or for safety concerns. There is no more ideal a manner of achieving this than to recycle the usable materials and discard the remanding materials in an environmentally friendly manner.

Another objective that is met with the current project plan is that it allows for a great amount of labor to be employed to meet both the demolition needs as well as the new construction needs. In a job market that is in dire straits, this could be one of the most beneficial intangible assets of the entire project that will strongly support community development. There are also some psychological benefits that might be gained from using local labor. This could reasonably foster a sense of pride and ownership that will be directed into local communities and also adding another dimension to sustainability on the community level.

The project also dictates that the new structures that are to be created from recycled materials are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. This has tremendous impact on the local carbon footprint that each individual in the community is responsible for. Not only are emissions reduced by bypassing the energy intensive industries that would be needed to produce new materials, but also it allows for energy requirements to be minimized in the maintenance of such structures.

In conclusion, no matter which perspective you are analyzing this project proposal from, the project adds value to the community on many fronts. If you view it from a people perspective, then you will find that local employment will be one of the greatest beneficiaries as well as the related psychological impacts that will bring communities together. If you view this project from an energy perspective, you will find that it minimizes energy requirements both from bypassing new production as well as creating structures that are more energy efficient. Finally, if it is viewed from the level of the community, you will find that all the stars a line and there is no better conceivable way to revitalize a community along such a sustainable development path. If only all the cities in the world could find the same sources of inspiration as Detroit, then maybe we could learn to live in harmony with the planet once again.… [read more]


Cost Assessment in Sustainable Waste Management Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Waste Management

Ghiban, a. & Moldovan, P. (2009). Structural characterization of some new glass ceramics from industrial wastes. DAAAM 20(1): 1539.

Glass ceramics are widely used in industry because they have properties that are suitable for specific uses. Glass ceramics are "fine-grained polycrystalline materials formed when glasses of suitable compositions are heat treated and thus undergo controlled crystallization to the lower energy, crystalline state," (Ghiban & Moldovan 2009). Most of the glass ceramics being used in industry are purpose-designed and manufactured.

However, certain types of industrial waste can be used to manufacture glass ceramics. The use of industrial waste in the production of glass ceramics may represent a sustainable method of processing waste. Not only are the by-products of industry recycled, but also the further manufacture of new glass ceramic products is minimized. Research into the potential for turning industrial waste into glass ceramics can therefore be important in a number of different industries.

The chemical composition of glass ceramics manufactured with industrial waste products may raise questions about toxicity and safety. The current research investigates the toxicity of recycled glass ceramics and explores the cost effectiveness of using industrial waste to manufacture glass ceramics for industry.

Typically, glass ceramics are made of high purity raw materials like silica. In the manufacturing of glass ceramics from industrial waste, other materials of lower grade are used. This research focuses on three types of industrial waste that can be turned into glass ceramics: fly ash, mixed quality soda-lime-silica; mixed boron waste; and furnace-metallurgical slag produced after Fe-Ni production. From these raw materials, the researchers manufactured three types of glass ceramics. The three types of glass ceramics produced contained different proportions of CaO.…… [read more]


BP Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

BP Case Study

Introduction (BP Oil Spill, Background)- the Gulf of Mexico British Petroleum oil spill, also known as the Deepwater Oil Disaster, was one of the largest, most damaging, and most controversial oil disasters ever. The spill itself began on April 20, 2010 with an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon Oil platform, killing 11, injuring 17. It was not until July 15th, however, that the leak was stopped by capping the wellhead, after releasing almost 5 million barrels (206 million gallons) of crude oil, or 53,000 barrels per day into the Gulf of Mexico. It was not until September 19th that the relief well process was complete and the U.S. Government, EPA, and Coast Guard agencies declared the well breach effectively stopped (Cavnar, 2010).

The damage caused by the spill is almost immeasurable; ecological, political, economic, social -- it almost devastated the U.S. Gulf Coast fishing and tourism industries. Even in January 2011 a report was made by oil-spill experts from the University of Georgia stating that tar balls continue to wash up on beaches, collect in shrimp nets, kill marsh grass, and even undegraded oil in the seabed (Dykes, 2011). It will likely be years, if not decades, before the final assessment of damage, short-term and long-term, is accurately noted from this disaster.

Leadership Analysis of Local BP Station Manager -- the BP Oil spill is not the first, nor will it be the last, error made by a company. The public realizes this, knowing all too well that the human effect is never perfect. A crisis like this, however, is not national, local, or requires ego and pride to step in -- it is ecological and has an effect on the entire world. There are ways to…… [read more]


Water Resource Issues Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Lydersen, Kari. "Three Environmental Groups to Sue Water District." New York Times. 5 March, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/06/us/06cncpulse.html?ref=earth

There is a "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico, an area in which little marine life can survive because of the presence of a certain type of algae. Researchers working for the federal government have determined the cause for the proliferation of the algae. The cause is that untreated wastewater from Chicago has been flowing down river into the Gulf of Mexico. The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has not been removing enough nitrogen and phosphorous from treated water before dumping it. As a result, the Chicago water treatment centers are polluting their local rivers, the Illinois and the Mississippi Rivers. Those rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the evidence compiled by the government researchers, three environmental groups are suing the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago for violation of the federal Clean Water Act.

3. Technical Terms: Dead Zone: An area of a large body of water that should, but can no longer support life. Excessive amounts of phosphorous and nitrogen, which are nutrients for algae, are washing into bodies of water like the Gulf of Mexico. Those nutrients then "overfertilize the water and cause massive algae blooms. As the plants die and sink, they decompose and deplete dissolved oxygen. Bottom dwellers and other creatures that cannot flee are suffocated by falling oxygen levels." The Gulf of Mexico dead zone is 7,722 square miles (Resource: Winter, 2010).

4a. Where is the issue occurring? The issue is occurring at multiple locations, showing the interconnectedness of water resource usage.

The ultimate problem is occurring in the Gulf of Mexico, where a dead zone has been documented.

The problem originates miles away in Chicago, which is located at a conjunction of major water resources including the Great Lakes and the Mississippi…… [read more]


History of Urban Growth Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Public Administration

History of Urban Growth

What were the major forces behind urban growth in early United States history?

The growth of urban areas all through the history of the United States has been spectacular. A variety of conditions and driving forces have intermingled over the years in order to reach the point where we are today. American cities grew progressively during the first seventy five years of nationhood but continued to be comparatively small in geographic area and populace. The majority was positioned next to transportation admission points such as seaports, along navigable tidal and major inland rivers, along canals, and around the Great Lakes. The speed of urbanization increased after the Civil War. Trains became the foremost transportation mode all through the nation, particularly after 1870, when an economical method to manufacture steel was established, permitting the building of a vast rail network. A lot of cities were fashioned as a product of railroad development, while others increased in size after becoming rail hubs (Auch, Taylor and Acevedo, 2004).

What influence did urban growth have on urban concentration and population?

Immigration continued to boost the population in the early United States. Because of factory jobs, a lot of immigrants established homes in cities. The preponderance of the Nation's urban population was still situated in the Northeast and the Midwest. Cities in the South and West continued to increase but continued to be lesser in comparison. The previous downtown city in America reached its peak by the end of the First World War. The inside heart of the city was the hub of industrial management, manufacture, and allocation. Such cities were mainly densely populated, for the reason that most personnel lived in multifamily houses close to their sites of employment. Contemporary highways were just coming on the scene. The U.S. Census of 1920 exposed that, for the first time, more people lived in urban than rural situations (Auch, Taylor and Acevedo, 2004).

What new demands were placed on city governments when density increased?

Mounting population size decreases available resources limiting population growth, which in turn puts…… [read more]


Recycling Process Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Recycling

Americans work too hard and have too little time to be worried about what to put into their garbage bin. Most Americans also do not like to think too hard about anything, especially garbage. As Marissa McNatt points out, "It may seem simple to determine what doesn't go in a recycling bin because of the labels, but unfortunately, it's not that straightforward." Americans, with their staunchly independent values, would never support any policy that mandated recycling so the process remains up to the individual citizen to figure out what to do with each piece of garbage. Moreover, only three-quarters of Americans have access to curbside recycling. Those Americans who do not have access to curbside recycling cannot be expected to take the time and effort to haul their own garbage to some remote disposal location. Even if they were to do that, the consumers would still have to learn what they can and cannot put into the bins. In some cases, it costs money to recycle. For example, recycling electronics and some other consumer goods actually costs money. Few Americans are willing to pay for someone to take their garbage. Recycling is too complicated and too time consuming for most Americans.

The first ground on which the claim that recycling is too complicated and too time consuming for most Americans is money. Granger points out that some Americans already have to pay for recycling they do not even do, as "the state of California charges an extra recycling fee every time you buy a new TV or monitor that will pay for disposal. Moreover, any time an American buys a television or a computer monitor, he or she would have to pay to recycle that item because "there is considerable cost to properly dispose of the lead and mercury in them," (Granger).

The second ground on which the claim that recycling is too complicated and too time consuming for most Americans is the plethora of labels and consumer products that make recycling difficult. Many Americans are "not well educated enough" to recycle (Carberry). McNatt outlines many different recyclable products, but the list is confusing and even calls on Americans to read numbers on their plastic products. It is easy to put a bottle in the trash. However, it is quite another thing for a consumer to look at the bottom of the bottle for a tiny number and then refer back to the list of what constitutes acceptable products.

The third ground in support of the claim that recycling is too complicated and too time consuming is that many Americans do not have access to recycling facilities on their doorstep. The American Beverage Association states, "Curbside recycling makes it easier and more convenient for people to recycle -- and thus more likely to recycle." When Americans do not have access to curbside recycling, they…… [read more]


Florida Department of Environmental Protection Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,256 words)
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Florida Department of Environmental Protections: Mission, Powers, Budget, And Operations

Environmental issues have been a growing concern for nations around the world over the past several decades, and the United States is no exception. The 1970s saw the passage in Congress of the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act, the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency, and the Supreme Court's affirmation of the EPA's role in monitoring and regulating environmental issues. These milestones were all huge advancements in environmental regulation and awareness, and are still heralded as such due to the major break with existing patterns that they represented, yet at the same time many felt -- and still feel -- that the EPA is a rather toothless organization and that many businesses still find it easier and cheaper to pollute either legally or illegally, as the fines and punishments put in place for such behavior are generally lighter than the costs of clean operations.

There has been somewhat greater success with the creation of state environmental agencies, which have generally greater latitude than the federal government both in the degree to which they are allowed to regulate business activities and in the they it can take to protect specific areas of land. From creating more stringent emission standards to creating state parks systems that often rival the national parks in size and protection efforts, state environmental agencies have been able to accomplish many more reforms than the federal government when they have been attempted. There are several states that stand as examples in this regard.

Florida is one such state; especially in the area of land preservation and natural habitat protection, the Sunshine State truly outshines most other states and even countries with many of its efforts. Despite continuing battles between protection and development in areas like the Florida Everglades, the state system of parks and trails has won numerous awards and serves as a testament to the state's commitment to environmental protection. With a succinct mission statement of, "more protection, less process," the small-government mentality of the state is clearly a part of its efforts, though they remain highly successful nonetheless. This paper will examine certain basic attributes of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and illuminate exactly how the agency has been mandated to do what achieves, and how it carries out the practicalities of fulfilling this mandate.

Source of Authority

The Florida Department of Environmental Protection was originally established as the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation in the 1970s, following the passing of the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts by the United States Congress. The current Secretary in charge of the Department, Mimi a. Drew, actually joined the Department in 1977 and was largely responsible for overseeing the administering of the Clean Water Act in the state. Her continued career within the Department has led to numerous recognitions and her experience is a great source of political authority for the Department. This does not mean that the Department and Ms. Drew are… [read more]


Political Cartoons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (453 words)
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Political Cartoon Analysis

This cartoon is attempting to show that people are blaming Obama for the BP oil spill fiasco in the Gulf of Mexico, and hence, his poll numbers are down. This cartoon symbolizes the frustration of the people who think Obama has not done enough in to fight the oil spill and begin to penalize BP for its negligence. The cartoon also shows that despite what Obama and his administration have done to try and distract from the spill, the event and the subsequent environmental impact have begun to affect him politically, even though it wasn't his fault personally. The cartoon also reminds the viewer hat Obama is likely having to really overcome the background noise that has been generated by the spill in order to accomplish anything as a leader. Much of the world's focus has turned o the spill, and other issues are not being addressed in a way that is prudent and fair. Perhaps the artist is also alluding to the fact that Obama himself is a bit disappointed in the public for tying the BP spill to his own responsibilities and actions as commander in chief.

I disagree with this cartoon because I don't think that Obama's poll numbers were critically affected by the spill itself. I feel as though Obama's inaction, or lack of decisiveness have led to people…… [read more]


Environmental Science and Biomes Essay

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Ecosystems

Environmental Science and Biomes

I visited three types of ecosystems. The first was a coastal salt marsh. Microalgae, phytoplankton, and Spartina (cordgrass) were the primary producers in this system. Snails, periwinkle, and shrimp were some of the detritivores. Bacteria and fungi seemed to be the decomposers. Consumers included fish, small crab, and terrapin.

The second ecosystem that I visited was a small farm pond. Various species of water plants and algae were the primary producers. Decomposers included bacteria and worms. Consumers included fish, frogs, and water insects.

The third ecosystem I visited was a grassland. The primary producer was, obviously, grass. Main detritivores seemed to be worms and fungi. Some of the main consumers were birds, deer, and rodents.

a) If carbon nutrient cycle were to be disrupted by, for instance, the sudden inability of plants to undergo photosynthesis, the consequences to us would be sudden and lethal. The decay of organic matter, the burning of fossil fuels, and of course our own respiration would continue to produce CO2, but without the plants using CO2 as part of the photosynthesis process, carbon levels in the atmosphere would quickly skyrocket and become toxic.

b) The nitrogen nutrient cycle is being disrupted by agricultural practices at this very moment, and the consequences could affect us on a global level. Current fertilizing practices are increasing the amount of fixed nitrogen in the atmosphere, but the organisms that can balance this through denitrification remain limited. The resulting excess of fixed nitrogen diminishes stratospheric ozone, contaminates water, and creates acid rain.

c) If, for some reason, phosphate were no longer able to be dissolved in water and thus digested by plants and (through the plants) by animals, our bodies themselves would cease to be able to function.…… [read more]


Risk Assessment: El Dorado Hills Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (681 words)
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Risk Assessment: El Dorado Hills, California

El Dorado Hills, California, faces several risks that must be mitigated. The El Dorado Fire Department is one of the entities with the task of mitigating such risk, as it is an "all-risk" entity in the city. Increasingly, fire and police departments have integrated their services to best protect and serve the communities within which they function. This risk assessment is then focused upon determining the probability of certain risks, and to therefore be able to make recommendations regarding the measures that should be implemented to mitigate such risks. El Dorado Hill is subject to natural, chemical and man-made risks.

Natural risks include earthquakes, tornadoes, and the weather. The most significant natural risk is earthquakes. The estimated risk of earthquakes for the El Dorado Hills region is about 90% of the national average. The risk posed by tornadoes and the weather is minimal, at only 15% and 5% of the national average, respectively (PropertyMaps.com). The climate in the region is very mild, with the average temperature during July at 95 degrees F, and the coldest in January being 39 degrees F. There is therefore little danger of weather-related problems for inhabitants of the community. The average yearly rainfall is below the national average (38.64') at 24.61'. There is no risk from rain or hail.

The most significant chemical risk for El Dorado Hills is naturally occurring asbestos (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010). Asbestos occurs naturally in ultramafic rock formations throughout the El Dorado County in California and specifically in El Dorado Hills. In the city, asbestos has been found at the West Bear Mountains Fault Zone running north to south through the county.

According to the EPA, asbestos has been found present in soil and ambient air in El Dorado Hills by means of both investigations and visual inspection. Specifically, such investigations focused upon a residential area on Woedee Drive at Oak Ridge High school. It was recommended that mitigation activities be used to address asbestos contamination on the campus. A further recommendation could…… [read more]


Environmental Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,408 words)
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Copper Mining in Southeastern Arizona at the Morenci Operation

The Morenci Operation: Arizona

Copper is a metal that is typically found in ore form. It is smelted or leached out of the ore and used in myriad different applications. Copper wire and bus bar are used in electrical applications while jewelers, home builders, and even aerospace engineers have valued its… [read more]


James Ward Sustainability Lecture Essay

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¶ … James Ward Sustainability lecture is a sobering reminder of the effects of industrialization and the modern, Western lifestyle upon the planet. For too long people on a policy level and an individual level have ignored the real costs of burning fossil fuels on a mass scale. The problem of global warming is that its consequences are not immediately obvious, and it is still denied by many, even though droughts, rising sea levels, floods, and the destruction of indigenous ways of life are already manifest -- all the result of rising temperature. Additionally, people in the developing world wish to enjoy the privileges and luxuries of Westerners, in a manner that is not sustainable for the planet as a whole. Sustainability is defined as "the ability to meet the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs" (Ward, Sustainability, Slide 2). The population is expanding, and so is the demand for consumer goods as well as basic necessities.

The need for fostering sustainability goes further than simply providing green alternatives: it also means containing the current population explosion worldwide, even while some nations are concerned about their rapidly aging populations and reductions in their birth rates. What is pleasurable or even good for a nation is not necessarily true of the world as a whole, and for the green movement to enact real changes, citizens must start to take a global perspective, and look at the effects that their individual actions have upon the world, not just within their towns or nations. Engineers must likewise begin to police themselves, and constantly question their professional ethics. Ward states that engineers should not pursue projects that tax rather than improve the current environmental state of the planet. It is often said that the eternal question of engineers is…… [read more]


Bog Ecosystem Essay

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Bogs are unique ecosystems, at once wholly infertile and teeming with life. Our trip to the Orono Bog revealed that bogs are more than mud pits. They can be stunningly beautiful with a surprising array of wildlife, especially bird life. We saw several small songbirds along the boardwalk at Orono. Also called peatlands, bogs give rise to cranberries and similar small berries. Fungi, mosses, and flowers, including some bog-specific orchids, can all be sustained by bogs.

Although a bog is a type of wetland ecosystem, it differs significantly from marshes and swamps. Bogs are characterized by their "acidic and infertile" soil ("Bog FAQs"). Yet the term infertile belies the subtle life teeming within the bog. For instance, we could see and hear many insects, which provide nourishment not only for birds passing by but also for carnivorous plants like the pitcher plant. Bogs cannot sustain the type of flora and fauna that a forest will, though. Because of the acidic nature of the soil, the bog is devoid of trees and grasses. Their roots also cannot penetrate the thick mineral layer (class notes p. 2). However, a mat of moss known as sphagnum may provide a carpet upon which some plants and even trees like the tamarack can take root and grow (EPA). Thus, a bog is a heterogeneous ecosystem with many different manifestations, sections, and layers.

The Orono Bog is a raised bog, complete with moat, rand, and fen. Peat accumulation is higher in the center of the bog than at the edges, creating the domed terrain and also the moat surrounding it. The moat is created and sustained as rain waters flow down the rand, the sloping sides. Beyond the moat, we can see the gradual reintroduction of familiar vegetation such as woody trees and shrubs that cannot exist within the peaty part of the bog. I imagine that many of the passerine birds we witnessed along the boardwalk made their…… [read more]


Recycling Sidebar Tire Article Critique

Article Critique  |  4 pages (1,287 words)
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Recycling Sidebar: Tire-to-Tire Recycling

The adherence of all researchers to principles of Good Research Practice is crucial to the scientific process. Such principles have been defined and formulated by various scientific bodies. Good Research Practice by definition is not very specific since the details vary from field to field. Good Research Practice is made up of a set of principles that provides a structure within which research is carried out. It is designed, carried out, observed, documented, reported and archived. In order for research projects to be good ones they need:

A sharp focus that is supported by a clear research question or proposal that is used for developing them. Projects should be directed towards results which can be communicated to and used by other people

Convincing arrangements for accessing and building upon what is known already about the area to be studied. Projects need to demonstrate that they will make a systematic and collective contribution to what is already known

Clear research methods need to be use (Criteria for Research, 2010).

The scientific method is a procedure that is used for experimentation that explores observations and answer questions. Scientists use it in order to investigate for cause and effect relationships in nature. They devise an experiment so that one things changes because something else varies in an expected way. The steps of the scientific method include:

Asking a question

Doing background research

Constructing a hypothesis

Testing the hypothesis by experimentation

Analyzing the data and drawing conclusions

Communicating the results to others (Steps of the Scientific Method, 2010).

In the article Recycling Sidebar: Tire-to-Tire Recycling the author looks at the idea of how devulcanization can add value to rubber shred. The number of scrap tires that are made North America is overwhelming. According to a report published in November 2009 by the U.S. EPA, consumers along with industry in the United States produced almost 300 million scrap tires in 2008. This was thought to be about five million tonnes of non-biodegradable waste rubber. The EPA says that approximately a billion tires are disposed of every year in landfills around the world. The good thing is that the recycling of scrap tires has gone up tremendously over the last decade. Government agencies in many countries have partnered with industry to raise consciousness and find new valuable and commercially-viable ways to utilize recycled scrap tires. New markets keep on developing recycled rubber, generating what is now a multi-billion dollar industry.

Many tire makers add in recycled rubber into their tires and retreads. Until just recently, they could only combine one to two per cent recycled rubber powder in without taking the risk of having performance safety issues or even failure. This was for the reason that powdered rubber lost necessary properties that are natural in new rubber, such as suppleness and pliability. These are properties that are vital for tire performance and safety. In this study devulcanization is studied to see if this process can solve the problem of reduced performance safety.… [read more]


Swimming Pool Chemicals and the Effects of Its Agents Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (951 words)
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Swimming Pool Chemicals and the Effects of These Agents

Anyone who has taken a dip in a swimming pool that has just been treated with chlorine can readily testify to the powerful burning effects this chemical has on the eyes, but chlorine and the other chemicals that are used to treat swimming pools can have other, less noticeable but potentially harmful effects as well. To determine what chemicals are typically used to treat swimming pools and their effects, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Compared to other hazardous household wastes, American consumers tend to have more swimming pool chemicals left over at the end of a season that must be disposed of than any other category, using up to 89-90% of their pesticides and fertilizers and 90% of their cleaning products, but just 8% of their swimming pool chemicals (Wolf, Kettler, Leahy and Spitz 1999). As a result, there have been injuries of waste management personnel reported from around the country when these chemicals were improperly disposed of in municipal landfills (Wolf et al. 1999). When swimming pool chemicals are improperly combined, they have the potential to produce chlorine gas (Gas threat 2009).

One international manufacturer of swimming pool chemicals, BioLab UK, was charged with negligence following an explosion of chemicals that were improperly mixed that seriously injured a consumer's face. Although admitting that she had mixed the chemicals wrongly, the consumer emphasized that the widely sold pool care kit failed to highlight the potential dangers involved in mixing the chemicals and emphasized that she would never have purchased the kit had she been aware of the danger ("Mother's agony as Pool Cleaning Fluid Explodes in Her Face" 2004). The explosion occurred when the consumer followed the swimming pool treatment kit's directions to mix the chemicals in separate containers with water; however, rather than adding the two solutions directly to the swimming pool, she combined them in a single bucket which resulted in the explosion ("Mother's agony as Pool Cleaning Fluid Explodes in Her Face" 2004). Beyond the trauma and pain suffered, the consumer was uncertain at the time of the report whether the damage to her face could be repaired ("Mother's agony as Pool Cleaning Fluid Explodes in Her Face" 2004).

There are other dangers involved with chlorine as well. For instance, according to hair care product manufacturer Paul Clayton (2009) of Clayton and company, "Frequent swimmers with natural blonde or chemically lightened hair that is extremely porous may experience the development of green tints and shades over time" (40). Prior planning, Clayton suggests, is the most effective approach to preventing this color change. All professional hair care product companies offer a range of sun care products that can provide protection against damage from the chlorine used in…… [read more]


Cost Analysis: Categorical Descriptions and a Case Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (565 words)
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Cost Analysis: Categorical Descriptions and a Case Analysis

Variable Manufacturing Costs:

Costs associated with manufacturing that vary depending on the amount of output, such as raw materials and human resources, fall into this category. As these costs change based on production numbers, they are an essential part of an incremental cost analysis.

Fixed Manufacturing Costs:

Those costs associated with manufacturing that remain static regardless of the level of output belong to this category. Overhead, including some amount of energy consumption, leases, property taxes, and inspection fees are all fixed. As such, they have no need to be included in an incremental cost analysis.

Semi-Variable Manufacturing Costs:

Though a base amount of energy is needed to produce a single unit and probably won't vary much to produce 100, it will likely take more energy to make 10,000 units. This is an example of a semi-variable cost; a careful analysis of these costs is essential in an incremental analysis.

Total Production Costs:

The sum of the above costs equal the total manufacturing or production costs. The optimum total cost is that which maximizes profits, and has no bearing on an incremental analysis.

Direct Costs:

Direct costs are those which can be attributed to a specific material, good, or service produced by a firm. The specific amount of labor necessary to produce a single unit of product, for example, would be a direct cost. As these costs directly relate to the product, they are important in an incremental analysis.

Indirect Costs:

Indirect costs are those that cannot be attributed directly and specifically to a product. Building maintenance and administrative costs are two examples; these costs are non-incremental.

Case Analysis: Laundry Detergent

An examination of the…… [read more]


Arizona History Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,677 words)
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Pollution in Arizona

The state of Arizona used to be internationally known for its clean air and dry climate. It was an ideal place for someone suffering from allergies, asthma, and other respiratory diseases to reside. Now, Arizona has some of the U.S.'s most polluted skies, ground, and water. This change has occurred over then past century and is due… [read more]


Sustainable Development Plan in 2008, Canada Passed Thesis

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Sustainable Development Plan

In 2008, Canada passed the Federal Sustainable Development Act. This act includes a number of tactics and strategies to help one of the world's large industrialized nations develop in a sustainable manner. Many of these are for federal agencies, and each agency has its own set of sustainable development strategies. A sustainable development advisory panel has also been established to help monitor the progress of the federal agencies with respect to sustainable development.

Canada is a signatory to many international agreements on sustainable development, including the Beijing Declaration on the advancement of women, the Kyoto Protocol and commitment to the Millennium Development Goals. Canada views sustainable development as an ongoing process, with each individual goal as having its down timeline. The Millennium Development Goals, for example, have a timeframe for completion of 2015. The Kyoto Commitment Canada signed on for -- a much more stringent commitment than most countries -- was to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 6% lower than 1990 levels by 2012.

Canada's sustainable development plan does not address many areas that other sustainable development plans address. For example, there is little with regards to water, Canada being a water-rich nation. Employment is considered a separate issue from sustainability. There is no funding from the IMF, World Bank or other agencies, since Canada can afford its own programs. There are programs to aid in employment and economic development, but for the most part they are not part of the sustainable development plans. The lack of tie-in between the "sustainable" and the "development" is the main weakness in Canada's sustainable development plans.

In 2002, Ethiopia launched its down sustainable development program, which addressed several crucial issues (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2002) . The plan is centered on the primary goal of poverty reduction. With respect to land use, the plan focused on the production of cash crops, as a means to generate income, but the government feels that this can be balanced with…… [read more]


Sustainable Development the Brundtland Report Essay

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Sustainable Development

The Brundtland Report defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (IISD, 2009). The concept of sustainable development is based on the understanding that the world is a system -- a set of interrelationships that is near infinite in its complexity.

There are two levels of interrelationships involved. One is geographic and the other is temporal. The world's system spans all geographies. Actions taken in one part of the world will, in some, impact other parts of the world. Forest fires from slash and burn agriculture in Indonesia create pollution across all of Southeast Asia. The temporal relationship means that the system functions over time. Actions taken at one point in time will impact points in the future. Overfishing the bluefin tuna to extinction today will impact the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems for generations to come, until a new post-bluefin equilibrium is reached.

There are multiple dimensions to the concept of sustainable development, including social, economic, and environmental (UN Division for Sustainable Development, 2009). Within each of these dimensions are webs of relationships that intertwine frequently. The interaction of different factors creates complex relationships between the factors.

Sustainable development, being based on holistic, global system, ultimately must resolve every environmental, social and economic ill on the planet. As a result of the complex webs of interrelationships, sustainable development faces numerous challenges that must be overcome in order to resolve these issues. The first is with respect to measuring sustainable development. While the definition indicates what the outcomes of sustainable development look like, it is difficult to definitively measure the impacts of individual decisions. A decision's on direct outcome variables can be measured, but its impacts on indirect outcome variables can be difficult to measure. The number of different factors that contribute to any one outcome can be high, and the degree of influence of any one…… [read more]


Eutrophication Is the Process by Which Human Essay

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Eutrophication is the process by which human activities, as a result of released nitrogen and phosphorus, drives excessive plant and algae growth within bodies of water (Carpenter, 2009; James E. Cloern & J. Emmett Duffy, 2007). This artificial enrichment causes abnormally high rates of growth, often known as algal blooms, and can function to eventually degrade water quality (James E. Cloern & J. Emmett Duffy, 2007). The increased nitrogen and phosphorus within these bodies of water can often be traced to fertilizer run-off of farms and lawns or sewage-treatment plants. Extreme algal growth can result in anoxic conditions due to high levels of oxygen utilization, potentially killing many marine creatures and fish (James E. Cloern & J. Emmett Duffy, 2007). The Salton Sea in California, the Baltic Sea, the Sea of Marmara near Turkey, and Lake Prespa on the boundary of Macedonia and Greece are well-known examples of bodies of water which are or haven been undergoing eutrophication (James E. Cloern & J. Emmett Duffy, 2007).

Most solutions which have been proposed to deal with the problem of eutrophication target the…… [read more]


Gray Water System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
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Adding water recycling units to residential homes only makes sense. "As lakes shrink and droughts worsen, people all over the world are realizing that our freshwater supply is limited and must be protected. In the United States alone, experts predict that at least 36 states will face serious water shortages within the next five years." (Greenlink) By capturing and reusing… [read more]


Green Is the New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (342 words)
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We want you to come up with new ways for us to save even more, through a program that will reward our staff members for their ideas on conserving energy, recycling, and reusing. If you see waste in your department, we'd like to hear your creative ideas on how to manage it. If you have an idea for other areas of the company, we want to hear your solutions. We're proud to be an innovator in green technology, and for our awards from the Council, but we feel there is even more we can do, even at remote locations far away from our award-winning San Jose facilities. Now is the time to be even more creative and innovative in looking for ways to save energy and recycle. It creates better, happier, and safer workplaces, it saves money, and it's the socially conscious thing to do. Adobe has been a leader in technology and innovation, and now's the time to continue…… [read more]


Defining Problems and Putting Them Into Context Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,016 words)
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Asbestos

Defining Problems and putting them into context

Environmental health risk management plan: Asbestos

The "Framework for risk management" when evaluating an environmental hazard takes a six-stage form according to the federal government:

Define the problem and put it in context

Asbestos possesses qualities that make it ideal for use in thermal insulation. It is strong and chemically stable. This is why asbestos is commonly used as an acoustic insulator, and in thermal insulation, fire proofing and in other building materials. However, "asbestos is made up of microscopic bundles of fibers that may become airborne when asbestos- containing materials are damaged or disturbed," such as during routine procedures in cutting the material for insulation (Asbestos, 2009, EPA). "When these fibers get into the air they may be inhaled into the lungs, where they can cause significant health problems" (Asbestos, 2009, EPA)

Step 2: Analyze the risks associated with the problem in context

Millions of Americans have been exposed to asbestos through their occupations or in their daily lives. While low levels not deemed to be hazardous according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), it is clear that there are severe health consequences that can result from continued exposure. Shipbuilders, workers involved in asbestos mining, milling, and textile work, and construction workers are only some of the individuals at increased risk because of their employment. Family members of workers in these industries can also be exposed through contact to workers' hair or clothing. This is why the federal government mandates on-site decontamination procedures in most industries where work is done with asbestos (Asbestos exposure and cancer risk, 2009, The National Cancer Institute).

For some -- and there is no way of telling who -- "although it is clear that the health risks from asbestos exposure increase with heavier exposure and longer exposure time, investigators have found asbestos-related diseases in individuals with only brief exposures. Generally, those who develop asbestos-related diseases show no signs of illness for a long time after their first exposure. It can take from 10 to 40 years or more for symptoms of an asbestos-related condition to appear" (Asbestos exposure and cancer risk, 2009, The National Cancer Institute). This also makes it difficult to connect certain levels of exposure and certain types of exposure with increased risk for cancer, lung disease, emphysema, or other illnesses related to asbestos.

Step 3: Examine options for addressing the risks

The EPA has used a two-pronged strategy: phasing out future use of asbestos and only 'grandfathering' in those existing structures with acceptable levels of risk. Asbestos has been used in many buildings and in many industries since the 1800s. It is used in strengthening cement and plastics as well as for insulation, roofing, fireproofing, and sound absorption. Asbestos has also been used in ceiling and floor tiles; paints, coatings, and adhesives; and plastics -- even in crayons until recently (Asbestos exposure and cancer risk, 2009, The National Cancer Institute).

Thus, in terms of the stakeholders, many people are potentially at risk. Builders,… [read more]


Exxon Valdez Disaster Thesis

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¶ … Exxon Valdez Disaster

Good Friday was turning out to be a bad day for the Prince William Sound in Alaska. In 1965, the day was marked by a major earthquake. (Valdez, 2007). In 1989, something even worse happened -- the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran over the Bligh reef, tearing large holes in its oil storage tanks and spilling nearly eleven million gallons of crude oil into the Sound (Streissguth & Chandler, 2003; Valdez, 2007). This was and still is the largest oil spill in North American history, and cleanup efforts on some of the areas most affected by the spill continue to this day (Valdez, 2007). The effect on wildlife in the area was huge, with over 30,000 dead sea birds recovered in the first few months, who dies as a direct result of the spill, and an additional 7,000 dying off in the months following the spill from undetermined but most likely indirect causes related to the spill, such as a diminishing of the food supply and destruction of habitat (Piatt et al., 1990). The cost of the spill, both environmentally and financially in terms of clean up, was too enormous to accurately calculate.

The cost of the oil lost was also huge to Exxon, though the company never really faltered. In fact, though the company did begin immediate efforts to clean up the spill, some believe that they did not act quickly enough, or that the ensuing cleanup project did not reach a large enough scale to fully minimize the damage done (Streissguth & Chandler, 2003). It is also believed by many that adequate precautions were not taken to prevent the spill from occurring, and there is very likely some truth to this statement. According to the official version of events, Joseph Hazelwood, captain of the Exxon Valdez, left the ship in command of Gregory Cousins shortly before midnight on. Hazelwood insists that he instructed Cousins to set a course that would steer them around the Bligh Reef before leaving the bridge, but Cousins…… [read more]


How the Invention of Nylon Changed Society as We Know it in the 20th Century Essay

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Nylon

One of the first commercially available synthetic fibers, nylon transformed the fabric and textile industry during the first half of the twentieth century. Manufacturing the polymide fiber reduced dependence on natural fibers like silk, linen, and cotton in the production of clothing and other fabrics; brush bristles; and a slew of other everyday products. Nylon also became instrumental in harder industries demanding tough, endurable materials used for ropes and other products. Although preceded by rayon as a synthetic, nylon was dubbed a "miracle fiber" because of its amazing strength and versatility ("A Short History of Manufactured Fibers" nd). Unlike rayon, nylon was one hundred percent synthetic: derived from petrochemicals. Well before automobiles because commonplace, nylon helped catapult the petroleum industry into the foreground of twentieth century manufacturing.

Nylon is a polyamide fiber, one that is "derived from a diamine and a dicarboxylic acid," (Hegde, Dahiya, & Kamath 2004). Polymers are the building blocks of nylon: chains of molecules that can be formed into strong fibers (Bellis nd). The most commonly used chemicals in the production of nylon, and the ones used in its original manufacturing by the DuPont Company, include nylon 66 (polyhexamethylene adiamide) and nylon 6 (Polycaprolactam, a cyclic nylon intermediate). Hegde, Dahiya & Kamath (2004) note that in addition to petroleum products, benzene and furfural are also raw materials from which nylon 66 and nylon 6 are extracted. Under pressure to compete with the budding rayon industry and because of its heavy investment in research and development, the DuPont Company's Wallace Carothers and his team of researchers created and perfected the first nylon ("Nylon: A Brief History of Its Inception at DuPont"). Nylon not only had an enormous impact on twentieth century manufacturing but also on the life of Carothers, who committed suicide soon after discovering the fiber. Carothers was deeply dismayed at the way the DuPont Company focused almost solely on the commercial applications of nylon ("Nylon: A Brief History of Its Inception at DuPont"). In fact, the creation of nylon inspired the DuPont Company to saturate the market with products using the new synthetic fiber. Nylon, for all its…… [read more]


1874 as Othmar Zeidler's Graduate School Project Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (762 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … 1874 as Othmar Zeidler's graduate school project, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was not initially invented for use as a pesticide. However, in 1939, Paul Herman Muller synthesized the chlorinated hydrocarbon specifically for use as a pesticide and thus was born one of the most monstrous chemicals ever used in agriculture. Muller experimented with DDT not only on crops but also on human beings, applying the toxic substance to war refugees for their lice (Davis nd). Because DDT appeared to kill insects on contact but not human beings, the substance was deemed a miraculous success and brought quickly to market. During World War Two, DDT was used for the "control of vector-borne diseases such as typhus and malaria," according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1975). Other contagious diseases like yellow fever were also believed to respond to DDT ("DDT: An Introduction"). Its "reasonable cost, effectiveness, persistence, and versatility" made DDT seem to be a boon for civilization during the first half of the twentieth century (EPA 1975). Dr. Muller won the Nobel Prize for medicine because of his discoveries.

DDT tremendously changed society during the twentieth century and especially during the latter half. Because of its dramatic effect on killing insects, DDT was dubbed "the 'atomic bomb' of pesticides," ("DDT: An Introduction"). After its use during World War Two in attempting to stop the spread of disease, DDT was applied almost exclusively to agro-business crops. One of the most notable impacts of DDT was on the twentieth century marketplace: the chemical proved extremely lucrative. Well over a billion pounds of the substance was used in the United States alone prior to the ban on DDT in 1972. DDT changed the way the agriculture industry operated: switching the production of crops from smaller farms to larger ones that were aided by DDT and other pesticides in producing massive amounts of surplus. The agro-businesses not only altered landscapes in America but also the labor models of farming. Moreover, DDT would leave a horrific legacy as the precursor to seemingly safer chemical-based pesticides. DDT promised a world in which crops would grow unfettered by bugs and rodents. A bug-free world is of course a fantasy, one that has led to dangerous levels of toxins in drinking water and soils and also to…… [read more]


Environmental Science Deforestation Is Occurring Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (372 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Environmental Science

Deforestation

Deforestation is occurring around the world today, and it is permanently killing forests and woodlands in many countries, but especially in the tropical areas of the world. Logging is a major contributor to deforestation, (Stock and Rochen), but cattle ranching, agriculture, and building can all lead to deforestation, as well. In addition, most of the deforestation occurs in the tropics, and the tropics have very poor soil for agriculture, when the forest is cleared for agriculture, the crops quickly deplete the soils nutrients, and more forest must soon be cleared to continue the growth. Thus, it is a never-ending cycle of clearing and deforestation. Acid rain can also lead to deforestation, and climate change could lead to more deforestation in other areas of the globe, as well.

Deforestation affects the globe in many ways. When a tropical forest is lost, the other plants and animals that depend on the forest for their survival are displaced, and this can lead to extinction. In addition, trees take in carbon dioxide (CO2) and release oxygen. Without this carbon cycle, more CO2 remains in the air, which…… [read more]


Bottled Water Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,081 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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Bottled Water vs. Tap Water

Is bottled water safe to drink? Is it environmentally responsible to buy bottled water? Is tap water a safe and sound alternative? What kind of filters are necessary when drinking tap water? There are a variety of answers available in the literature today for all of these questions. And due to the importance of water… [read more]


Waste Water Runoff Inadequately Planned Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Waste Water Runoff

Inadequately planned growth has been the cause of significant health concerns for America's beaches. In 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council ordered 19,950 days of beach closures and pollution advisories. This 9% rise from the previous year affected 1,234 ocean and freshwater beaches. "The reason for 85% of the closures and advisories was the detection of excessive counts of fecal bacteria in the beach waters" (Mallin 53). Just as these high amounts of fecal bacteria were unhealthy for humans, they also were unhealthy for shellfish beds, leading to many closures as well.

With this disturbing trend, Mallin sought to investigate the relationship between human population growth and the closure of shellfish beds. This was of vast significance for several reasons. First, if the theorized linkage between population growth and shellfish bed closure was correct, then this information could be used to motivate developers and land owners to utilize more eco-friendly development plans, such as smart growth strategies. Second, healthier shellfish beds equates to healthier people who consume shellfish. Third, understand the causes of shellfish bed contamination, which would lead to action plans to prevent this contamination, also leads to economic benefits of a healthier crop of shellfish. The main point of this article was that human population growth was significantly linked to shellfish bed closures.

The author supported his conclusion with gathered data from his laboratory.

This data was gathered from five coastal North Carolina counties studied. "In 1984, when 352,124 people lived in the five counties, 35,275 acres of…… [read more]


Tragedy of the Commons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,239 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Laws limiting toxic emissions are one coercive way of reducing the negative effects of pollution. Because individuals and corporations must now pay fines or pay for the effective treatment of their waste before throwing it out, they are less likely to pollute. Thus, Hardin suggests that laws are absolutely necessary in preventing the "tragedy of the commons." Again, the author is absolutely right. Although the companies might grumble and complain that it raises their costs, they pass those costs onto the consumer anyway. The fact is that if we want clean air and drinking water, we need to be willing to pay the price. Later, Hardin shows how laws, rather than being negative, ultimately result in positive outcomes for all human beings.

Next, Hardin talks about the intolerability of uncontrolled or unlimited breeding. Unlike many animal species, human beings do not have huge litters that are forced to survive on their own. Rather, human beings love and care for every one of their critters. Therefore, unlimited breeding leads to overpopulation of the species. A society committed to welfare and to feeding and caring for each individual who is born creates the "tragedy of the commons." Breeding is an act of self-interest that leads to collective disaster: depletion of resources, starvation, and pollution. Hardin states bluntly: "To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of action," (5). I personally agree: we must somehow control breeding, and the problem cannot be ignored for much longer. The earth has limited resources and we can no longer pretend that unlimited breeding won't produce the same problems faced by the herders. We can't simply rely on a laissez faire attitude because, as Hardin points out early in the article, "natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial," (3). To do nothing and ignore the problem means that those inclined to breed will still breed, even if they are consciously aware of the problems of overbreeding.

Therefore, we cannot control breeding simply through an "appeal to conscience," (5). In fact, Hardin states that conscience in this case has a ripple effect because "those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences," (5). The solution Hardin proposes is simple psychological coercion. Although coercion is a "dirty" word, we can "cleanse" it "by saying it over and over without embarrassment," (6). Hardin wants to show that coercion does not entail physical force or even a lack of freedom. To illustrate his point, the author provides another poignant analogy: laws against robbery create more freedom for human beings, not less (8).

There are many other means by which human beings use compulsion, coercion, and restriction in order to create a better world. For instance, "We institute and support taxes and coercion devises to escape the horror of the commons," (6). Hardin makes a rational and logical… [read more]


Air Pollution Arises Both From Natural Processes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Air pollution arises both from natural processes and human activity. Substances not naturally found in the air or at greater concentrations or in different locations from usual are considered 'pollutants'. Air pollution can result from human activity or natural processes. Forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds, and natural radioactivity, are all among the natural causes of air pollution.

Natural air pollution does not usually occur in abundance in particular locations. Natural air pollution is distributed throughout the world, and as a result, poses little threat to the health of people and ecosystems (1). Therefore, the remainder of this paper will focus on air pollution resulting from human activity, and potential means of reducing air pollution from human activity.

The biggest causes of air pollution are the operation of fossil fuel-burning power plants and automobiles that combust fuel. Combined, these two sources are responsible for about 90% of all air pollution in the United States. Due to the abundance of air pollution attributable to automobiles, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a number of programs to reduce automobile emissions.

One of these initiatives is the clean air act. "Reformulated gasoline is gasoline blended to burn cleaner and reduce smog-forming and toxic pollutants in the air we breathe.

The Clean Air Act requires that reformulated gasoline be used in cities with the worst smog pollution to reduce harmful emissions of ozone" (2).

The first phase of the reformulated gasoline program was designed to reduce the air pollution that causes smog by 64,000 tons per year in the areas that use reformulated gasoline, compared to conventional gasoline, the equivalent of eliminating the smog-forming emissions from over 10 million vehicles" (2).

Green Peace has identified industrial incinerators as a major source of air pollution. According to Green Peace, "fifteen municipal waste incinerators burn 2.5…… [read more]


Satire About Water Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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One cannot trust anything these liberals say, they have their own agenda, plain and simple. They love to cause trouble and stir the pot. Even the government says the country does not have a big problem with water pollution. These authors state, "Water quality in the United States, while not showing vast improvement since the early 1970s is at least… [read more]


Louisiana Air Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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[Anne Rolfes]

If exposed, HF can immediately vaporize and contaminate the air by forming an acid cloud for miles. Fluoride ion is very powerful and can penetrate human tissues and cause pulmonary edema and death due to suffocation. As the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety states, "Even a concentration as low as 30 ppm of hydrofluoric acid in the air is considered 'immediately dangerous to life and health,' [SBCEQ] The Hydrofluoric Acid usage by the Exxon Mobil refinery is definitely an ominous threat to the lives of over one million people in the locality.

Bibliography

Designed by SBCEQ ('Saint Bernard Citizens for Environmental Quality'), "Exxon Mobil's Hydrofluoric Acid and Chalmette, Louisiana - Unnecessary Risk," Accessed on April 24th 2004, http://www.exxonmobildoublestandards.com/

Anne Rolfes, Darryl Malek, Ken Ford, Aaron Viles and Rick Hind, "Exxon Mobil's Chalmette Refining Leads Refineries Nationwide in Use of Hazardous Acid," Accessed on April 24th 2004, http://www.labucketbrigade.org/communities/chalmette/press/3.16.04%20HF%20Press%20Release.pdf

Louisiana Bucket Brigade, "Chalmette's Exxon Mobil Skips Deadline to Provide

Air Monitoring Results," Accessed on April 24th 2004, http://www.labucketbrigade.org/communities/chalmette/press/20031120.shtml… [read more]


Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrient Cycles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Decomposers are microorganisms that are able to break down large molecules into smaller parts, meaning that they return nutrients from a living organism (or previously living organism) back into the earth, where they will return to the producers which will draw these kinds nutrients out of the soil to aid in production of food.

A food chain follows the path of energy transfer as organisms find food. An example of a food chain involving the animals I have observed:

Prickly Pear Cactus -> Turtles -> Wolves ->mosquito ->Venus Fly Trap -> Deer ->Wolves

This is not an example that would be expected, however, because although wolves are considered to be at the top of the food chain, meaning that they have no natural predators, they do in fact have parasites, such as mosquitos, or even flies that will eat their ears during the summer, which will then continue the food chain. It is also interesting to have the Venus Fly Trap, which is a plant, acting as a consumer in this theoretical food chain. Also, it is interesting to note that the wolf occurs twice on this food chain example, because it eats both the turtle and the deer, which is an example of how the food chain is not as simple as "one, two, three" in the way that people often imagine it.) food web follows many paths, and shows how organisms are related in many ways in their search to find food. An example of a food web including organisms I have observed:

tree produces acorns which may be eaten by many small animals, including squirrels and chipmunks, and also eaten by wild boars. In turn, these small animals may be eaten by larger animals such as bobcats and owls, and wolves may eat both these smaller animals and also the wild boars which have eaten the acorns. After they die, any of these animals may be eaten by vultures and insects, such as flies. Flies may be eaten by Venus Fly Traps, or by Black Bears which enjoy eating insects. (Food webs have no logical end point because the cycle continues forever.)

Bibliography

Campbell, Neil and Reece, Jane. Biology. Pearsons Higher Education, 2001.

Taylor, Martha. Student Study Guide for Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 1999.… [read more]


Angiosperms, Fungi, Algae Characteristics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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This plant is nourished by sunlight and heat, and flourish in water with a high pH level and water that is in high nitrogen level.

Algae cultivate growth of bacteria.

Black Algae Cyanophyta: These are dark blue, black or in green color that are mostly grown in colonies as small dots.

They have a protective layer over itself and are usually visible in white plaster.

Green Algae Chlorophyta: they are the most common algae.

They are formed in green patches on pool and spa surfaces.

Yellow Algae Phaeophyta: They are also called Mustard Algae that makes a slimy layer in order to protect it from sanitizers.

Yellow algae can be removed easily with brush, but returns quickly at the same time.

They can set in on any pool or spa.

Chlorine may slow its growth, but will not totally remove this damage of Algae

Works Cited

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Characteristics of Angiosperms.

A www.academics.hamilton.edu

Characteristics of Fungi. Master Gardener General Training. Table of Contents.

A www.plantpath.wisc.edu

Algae and its Characteristics. Warehouse Pool Supply.

A www.warehousepools.com

Angiosperms, Fungi, Algae… [read more]


San Diego-Tijuana Water Epidemic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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San Diego later cancelled those plans and this prompted the federal governments to delay the program until 1998. Citing San Diego's change in construction plans as well as the famed San Diego flood troubles the plans were placed on hold until at least 1998, which consequently cost the city of San Diego many tourist revenue dollars (Drought PG 56). In… [read more]