Study "Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays 441-495

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Sustainability Songline Assessment

… Sustainability

Modern society has the technology to change behaviors, but perhaps lacks the political will to do so. Change cannot happen with only one country, nor can it happen immediately. Instead, globalism must move beyond the tax and trade mentality and to the cooperative nature of saving the environment for all humans. The moral action in the contemporary world is to continue to work diligently to increase awareness of global climate change, to empower young people who will be the decision makers and inventors of the future, and to continue to fight the slow political battles surrounding the issue of sustainability. Failure to do so is not just unwise; it will likely mean the extinction of life on earth, as we know it. Individuals should not feel powerless in this situation -- individuals can be a powerful catalyst for change. The idea, for instance, of thinking global, acting local; voting with your dollars; and purposing sustainable products along with disposal patterns and conversation can, and will, make the difference between success and failure.

The idea of the Earth Charter in Action, is that we, as individuals, each much take responsibility in order to provide a balance within the global political, social, and environmental balance. Instead of looking at the world as a set of geographic lines that may have been drawn arbitrarily, we need to look at the world as a set of human issues that require human solutions. When one looks at issues of potable water, fertile soil, food resources, transportation, and human rights, we see that the world at large -- as a whole, faces similar issues, albeit to a different degree of severity. It may, in fact, seem completely and utterly impossible to solve these issues, but if we as individuals all contribute to small amounts of change, taken together the synthesis of individual action becomes a large, macro set of actions that…… [read more]

Impact of Information Systems and Technology on Environmental Sustainability Questionnaire

… ¶ … Information Systems and Technology on Environmental Sustainability

Although there has been an increasing focus on environmental sustainability and sustainable development in recent years, these two discrete concepts are not well understood in many cases. According to Buckingham and Theobald (2003), in contrast to sustainable development which encompasses a broad range of social, environmental and economic development objectives, the term environmental sustainability is used to describe specific initiatives that are intended to prevent the environment from being depleted or damaged beyond what has already taken place. Paralleling this growth in interest in environmental sustainability has been an explosive increase in the proliferation and capabilities of information systems and technology (Matutinovic, 2007). A number of studies have also been conducted to identify potential solutions to the need to achieve environmentally sustainable solutions for the future in an effort to change current practices for the bette (Whitford & Wong, 2009). Because of the proliferation of increasingly sophisticated information technologies in recent years, it is not surprising, then, there has also been an increased focus on how information technologies can be applied to promoting environmental sustainability initiatives around the world, a trend that directly relates to the opportunity to be explored in the study proposed herein which is discussed further below.

Problem or opportunity statement.

The need for informed approaches to addressing the threats to the global environment has never been greater. At present, more than half of the global life-support systems have already vanished or are in jeopardy of collapsing and environmental degradation will only become more severe by mid-century when an additional 2.6 billion people are added to the world's population (Glenn & Gordon, 2006). Moreover, the overwhelming majority of the population growth that will occur by mid-century (90%) is…… [read more]

Desertification According to Brown, Desertification Affects Term Paper

… Desertification

According to Brown, desertification affects one billion people in more than 110 countries around the world. Since the first major droughts affected sub-Saharan Africa, the subject of desertification has been a major topic for UNCED. Desertification has, however, remained… [read more]

Hexabromocyclododecane (Chemical Formula C12H18Br6) Term Paper

… All samples contained the molecule. Milk and blood was also taken from mothers in Mexico and also found to contain HBCDD (Proposal 13). Similar tests were conducted in Japan where they produce HBCDD and use it on an average of 200 pounds per person. Levels of HBCDD in Japanese mothers were considerably higher than those found in the other women. The conclusion being that longer period of contact with Hexabromocyclododecane increases its presence in the body. In experimentation wherein groups of rats were injected with varying levels of HBCDD, it was found that there was a good chance that the higher-dosed animals would have more difficulty in reproducing and that their offspring would have greater difficulty in surviving the first few days after birth. In some of the male rats, the testes on male offspring were so small that the animal could never reproduce (Proposal 35). If similar tests were conducted on human beings, similar results might very well be discovered creating a direct link between HBCDD and certain deformities. Data alludes to the potential for HBCDD to affect the reproductive system, the liver, and the brain (SVHC 28).

However, manufacturers of bromine and Hexabromocyclododecane argue with these findings. They argue about the levels of toxicity to human beings or to the reproductive system. One such group, the Bromine Science and Environmental Forum, claims to have conducted an EU Risk Assessment (RA) and "identified no risk to consumers" (HBCD). They have been unable to dispute the charges that HBCD is toxic to aquatic life. Instead, the companies have made pledges to reform the creation of their products and their disposal to prohibit any further damage to fish life (HBCD). Given the two adversarial perspectives on the same time, one has to keep in mind the motivations behind the release of such statements to determine the truth of the matter.

Works Cited:

Arnot, John. "An Evaluation of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) for Persistent Organic

Pollutant (POP) Properties and the Potential for Adverse Effects in the Environment." European Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel (EBFRIP). 2009. Print.

"Chemical Book: Hexabromocyclododecane." Web. Apr. 30, 2011.

Dingemans, MM. And HJ Heusinkveld. "Hexabromocyclododecane Inhibits Depolarization

Induced Increase in Intracellular Calcium Levels and Neurotransmitter Release in PC12 Cells." 2008. Print.

"Environment Agency -- Hexabromocyclododecane." 2011. Web. Apr. 30, 2011.

"Environment Canada." 2011. Web. Apr. 30, 2011.

"Flame Retardants Fact Sheet." European Chemical Industry Council. 2006. Print.

"HBCD: Hexabromocyclododecane Fact Sheet." Bromine Science and Environmental Forum.


"Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) Action Plan Summary." Environmental…… [read more]

Environmental Health Essay

… Environmental Science

Environmental Health

Discuss the factors that lead to Urbanizations.

In urbanizations environmental factors are very important as individuals are sometimes forced to go away from rural areas because of the poverty that is frequently faced. Droughts are also… [read more]

BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill April 2010 Research Proposal

… BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill-April 2010

Oil Spill Report

Marketing and advertising strategies are used in various fields, not just in promoting products and services. Such techniques are developed and implemented in order to communicate political messages, to influence the… [read more]

Plastic Bags the Widespread Use Essay

… When the plastic is swallowed the animal may choke or experience serious damage to its stomach or intestines. In addition, terrestrial animals are at similar risk for damage from plastic bag waste. In India and throughout the Middle East and Africa, many governments have a concern about plastic bags because livestock such as cows or pigs may consume the waste and have a similar problem with digestion or choking. When plastic bags collect in roads and clog storm drains, populated areas may experience flooding of the streets and buildings, producing another risk to both humans and animals. Many communities rely on these terrestrial animals for both farming work and food, and if they die it can be an enormous financial setback for a low-income family. In addition, special species of animals, such as the endangered Leatherback Turtle or Indian Gaint Squirrel, found in Indian wildlife sanctuaries (Das, 2011).

The environmental and ecological hazards caused by plastic bags require interventions and prevention, but many environmental interest groups note that solutions are not economically simple (Vara, 2011). Many city and state governments in the United States have begun to consider the option of banning plastic bags, this would, in theory, reduce the frequency of their use. Manufacturers of plastics, however, have countered these efforts because the use of these materials is what enables their companies to thrive. In fact, one group, the "Save the Plastic Bag Coalition" sued the city of Oakland, California for instituting a ban on plastic bags prior to filing an environmental impact report. They countered with the argument that paper bags can cause as many environmental problems as plastic and called the ban on plastic bags unjust. This type of resistance has not stopped efforts to pass bans but it has complicated the process.

Environmental groups such as the California Costal Commission and Californians Against Waste encourage consumers to make small efforts that can have far-reaching impacts on the plastic bag pollution. First and foremost, consumers can shop for and store items in recyclable cloth bags. In fact, over the past several years, the use of reusable bags has been encouraged by some stores that offer small (5-10 cent) rebates for the use of a cloth bag at checkout counters. More reusable bags are also being marketed by grocery stores and house wear suppliers, with a focus placed on creating products that are well-constructed and easy to use, so shoppers are more likely to purchase and shop with them.

Environmental groups also encourage communities to actively engage in the control of plastic bag waste. Individuals and groups can do this by making consistent efforts to store and reuse bags as well as participating in community-wide clean-ups of beaches, lakes, marshes, and other key areas where bags are likely to accumulate and cause environmental hazards.


Californian's Against Waste. 2010. "The Problem of Plastic Bags. Sacramento. California. Retrieved from 4, March. 2011.

Hawkins, D. 2010. "Beyond plastic bags: stopping plastic pollution at source." The Ecologist. Retrieved from… [read more]

Print Essay

… The authors do a good job of presenting facts about the manufacturing process of E-readers that inform consumers of the actual production details. They attempt to present a holistic and more complete assessment and evaluation of the environmental impact that E-readers have relative to traditional paper printed books. For example, they point out that an E-reader "requires the extraction of approximately 33 pounds of minerals." This is an eye opening fact because most consumers assume that these E-readers just magically come off the store shelves without any environmental impact whatsoever. The authors also state that an average E-reader like the I pad require the use of 79 gallons of water in order to produce its batteries and printed wiring boards. This use of environmental resources is relatively large when compared to the manufacturing and the production of a book. A normal printed book consumes about 9 ounces of minerals and requires only 2 gallons of water. The authors also account for the cost and consumption of fossil fuels, which is another greatly debated and influential concern when exploring the issue of environmental impact. They point out that an E-reader produces 66 pounds of carbon dioxide in its manufacturing and production process, from the use of 100 kilowatt hours of fossil fuels; this is a relatively large figure when compared to a book which only uses 2 kilowatt hours. The authors also take into account the shipping and decomposition processes of both types of products and find that the traditional use of books is far more beneficial to the environment. Overall they present some valid points and some interesting and appealing figures about the production and manufacturing of E-readers.

Works Cited

Goleman, Danie, and Gregory Norris. "How Green…… [read more]

Society Externalities Indirect Costs Imposed Essay

… If we are to meet the challenges that are blocking the path to a sustainable future, then new ways of viewing business and new ways of operating must be developed and with the utmost urgency. With the increased amount of information available in regards to the detrimental effects that humans are inflicting upon the environment, models such as the principal-agent argument are unethical in a modern world.

Works Cited

Browner, Carol. "Polluters Should Have to Pay." 01 March 2002. The New York Times. 21 February 2011 .

Dyer, G. Climate Wars. Scribe Publications, 2008.

Flaherty, P. "BP Oil Spill Commission Chief Counsel Blames BP ." 21 February 2011. Promoting Ethics in Public Life. 21 February 2011 .

Friedman, M. "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." 13 September 1970. The New York Times Magazine. 21 February 2011 .

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Kharecha, P., Beerling, D., Masson-Delmotte, V. "Where Should Humanity Aim?" Goddard Institute for Space Studies (2008): 1-8.

Karon, T. "When it Comes to Kyoto, the U.S. is the "Rogue Nation." 24 July 2001. Time. 20 February 2011 .

Laffont, J. "Externalities." 2008. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online. 20 February 2011 .

Lee, S. "How Much Is the Right To Pollute Worth?" 1 August 2001. Mindfully. 21 February 2011 .

Mauna Loa Observatory. "Earth's CO2 Home Page." 7 February 2011. CO2 Now. 21 February 2011 .

Oreskes, N. "The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." Science (2004): 1686.… [read more]

Ax Men v. Timber Management Research Paper

… Ax Men v. Timber Management

Sustainability and the depiction of logging in the History Channel's Ax Men

The television series Ax Men lionizes the bravery of men who are involved in the logging industry. However, because of concerns about the… [read more]

Seven Habits This First Reaction Paper

… If they choose to be proactive they will accept the fact that negativity surrounds them, they will not however, allow it to hurt them. They will instead work hard on the things they can change and control in order to improve themselves and their surroundings. According to the author it is a matter of stimulus and response. That is to say, without it being one's fault, one can be stimulated and provoked by circumstances or actions, but one can choose how to respond. We can be stimulated by three kinds of problems these three are classified as problems with: direct control, indirect control and no control. Problems with direct control we can solve or attempt to solve by working on our habits because they are directly related to our own behavior. Indirect control problems are those that occur because of the decisions and behaviors of those around us, we can try to solve these by attempting to influence their behavior through advice or positive examples. No control problems we can do nothing about, we can however try to accept them gracefully and with patience. This relates directly to what Covey describes as the "circle of concern" and the "circle of influence," because the above described problems ultimately belong in one of these two categories. The circle of concern encompasses things that we care about, that are important to us, that worry us, and that can affect us. The circle of influence encompasses those things that we can actually do something about, things we can directly influence. It is a waste of time to allow ourselves to be constantly preoccupied and stressed about happenings that reside in the circle of concern. Proactive people choose to occupy themselves with issues that exist within the circle of influence, because they can directly affect and these influence outcomes.


Covey, S.R. (1997). The seven habits of highly effective people: restoring the character ethic. Thorndike, Me.:…… [read more]

UNESCO This Talks About the History Research Paper


This talks about the history of the Rainforests of Atsinanana.

This talks about the significance of the Rainforests of Atsinanana.

Describe the diversity of life forms found in the area

Animals / Plants that can be found throughout the… [read more]

Defining Sustainability Essay

… ¶ … Sustainability

Across the globe there continues to be a crescendo in the discussion by political and business leaders, academics, the science community, and ordinary citizens regarding the notion of sustainability. The term has moved beyond its core meaning of environmental protection and the development of solutions to combat the "great environmental challenges confronting us- climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution, and resource depletion" (Leiserowitz, a. & Fernandez, L. 2008). Sustainability now has expanded to envelop a plethora of disciplines, including business strategy for corporations in the form of "sustainable global enterprise and the tripartite goals of corporate profitability, environmental protection, and social responsiveness" (Simola, S. 2007). Sustainability is an ideology which seeks to inculcate the central tenant of "development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs and aspirations" (Simola, S. 2007).

A Personal Definition of Sustainability

The recognition of finite limits on human activity forms the foundation for sustainability. Whether the discussion is energy, development, or global environmental sustainability the underlying narrative reflects the reality of finite resources against a backdrop of accelerating usage. As the earth's population approaches a U.N. projected peak of 9.22 billion in 2075 ( 2004), the focus on sustainability becomes an issue of "society learning to live within the carrying capacity of its landscapes" (Holmes, R. 2007). Invariably however, sustainability confronts the broader implications of societal choices, acknowledging that there is a long-run equilibrium constant defining the: amounts, duration, intensity, and types of activities in which individuals and societies choose to participate. Sustainable development seeks to discover and implement this constant.

Factors that Contribute in Academic Major

As a business and economics major the concept of sustainability specifically defines the range of choices which economic actors face. Opportunity cost refers to the value of alternative choices which are available but not chosen. The business leaders of tomorrow face choices on which activities will not only provide requisite profit for shareholders, but will incorporate productive strategies which promote long-run sustainability. These choices however, have a…… [read more]

Planning and Pollution Control Annex 2: Development Essay

… Planning and Pollution Control

Annex 2: Development on Land Affected by Contamination

Assessment of the Planning Policy Statement 23: Planning and Pollution Control

Annex 2: Development on Land Affected by Contamination raises many questions which does not identify it to be a perfect solution to address the problem of land area contamination, while referring to the point,

"The potential for new contamination to arise is generally controlled through other

Environmental protection legislation, including Parts I and II of the EPA 1990 and the Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999 (cited in PPS 23 annex 2)"

In this policy, there is no proper or even a remote mention of any method or process which may help in stopping the land form contamination from the start rather than solving the problem latter on, it should have been part of this policy as to give an overall idea of what lies as a pre-requisite for this act to be operational, it should have addressed in brief detail on how to identify the problem, devise a solution, and then report to the local authority even before the contamination originally started. This policy also would have been more efficient if they stated ways to raise a public awareness campaign which would allow ordinary citizens who do not have much knowledge of the contaminated disposals to know more about the hazards, dangers of the industrial, natural or other forms of waste. It would empower the ordinary individual to better identify the problem because in many cases the root cause of the problem lies in front of many people but they fail to identify or to take appropriate action because they believe it is a normal function unless the problem starts to take huge toll on the receipts.

All available media in hand such as print, electronic or other should be used to inform people. This can severely reduce the damage being caused by the problem.

The plan also fails to mention any proper compensation methods which apply on those who are affected by the contamination; it should focus on how to deal with a situation in which cases of damages are paid either by the local authority, the government or from the source of the contamination. The compensation in itself should be of various degrees such as dealing with the property damage such as house, flat or any other equipment or the extent of the damage caused on a property due to the problem, damages on crops, other factories, personal lands and more emphasis should be paid on damages on the health of individual.

As in many cases, the health related problems are considered to be far more dangerous than any other property related damage, a proper categorization of the health problems should range from minor diseases to much more severe long-term damages such as organ…… [read more]

Bottled Water Essay

… Chemistry

Bottled Water

What are the environmental and economical effects of drinking bottled water? What are the factors behind the success of bottled water business? What is your opinion on promoting bottled water vs. tap water?

As clean water supplies are additionally extended to meet the burdens of industry, farming and an ever growing population, the scarcity of secure and easy to get to drinking water has become a chief problem in many areas of the world. In the wake of several major epidemics involving food and water, there is a mounting apprehension for the security and superiority of drinking water. While bottled water is extensively obtainable in both developed and developing nations, it frequently symbolizes a momentous cost to the customer. Customers may have a variety of reasons for buying bottled drinking water, such as flavor, handiness or style, but for a lot of customers, security and possible well-being benefits are significant contemplations (Bottled drinking water, 2011).

It is difficult to dispute the fact that waste management has turned into a big difficulty in the world, with landfills increasing to massive dimensions and recycling rates continuing to be very low. The amount of plastic bottles formed by the bottled water industry and consequently thrown away by customers has merely made this difficulty worse. In addition to the total amount of plastic bottles formed yearly, the power necessary to produce and move these bottles to market tremendously exhausts limited fossil fuels. Bottled water corporations, because of their unregulated utilization of precious assets and their manufacture of billions of plastic bottles have had a considerable strain on the environment (the Effects of Bottled Water on the Environment, 2004).

It was not until the 1990's that bottled water blossomed into a main wealth maker for the American and Canadian food and beverage business. European bottled water corporations led the way by constructing and combining the business in North America. Nestle and Groupe Danone started to increase into the North American marketplace; both bought soundly founded local and regional bottling corporations. On the occasion that bottled water sales started to climb, the two major soft drinking corporations came onto the scene. Nowadays, Coca Cola and PepsiCo…… [read more]

Harmful Effects of Bottled Water Essay

… Bottled Water

Harmful effects of bottled water

The harmful effects of bottled water: A manifesto 'Drink more water.' Drinking water is a necessary part of sustaining human life. Although the recommendations of how much water people should drink vary with the person's level of activity and the seasons, in general 6-8 glasses of water a day is considered optimal for good health, to prevent the individual from becoming dehydrated, to improve digestion, and encourage the efficient excretion of wastes from the body. Buying commercially-bottled water is a popular method of ensuring that healthy, safe and clean water is always at hand. "The average American consumed 1.6 gallons of bottled water in 1976. In 2006, that number jumped to 28.3 gallons" (Plastic recycling facts, 2011, Earth911). However, despite the importance of drinking more water and drinking fewer sodas and sugary juices, bottled water is not the answer to improving American drinking habits, for environmental, health, and financial reasons.

Despite the fact that most forms of bottled water come in recyclable containers, there is often no guarantee that the bottles are actually recycled. "More than 2.4 billion pounds of plastic bottles were recycled in 2008. Although the amount of plastic bottles recycled in the U.S. has grown every year since 1990, the actual recycling rate remains steady at around 27%" (Plastic recycling facts, 2011, Earth911). Even the most environmentally-conscious person who recycles every bottle of water he or she consumes cannot guarantee that the bottles he or she throws in recycling bins will not end up in landfills. The only certain method of reducing waste is to carry a reusable bottle of water and fill it with safe tap water or filtered tap water.

There are serious health concerns…… [read more]

Solid Waste in Todays Capitalistic Essay

… Most experts agree that the best approach is an integrated method where both of the strategies mentioned above are used.

There are many strategies that an environmentally conscious person can use to effectively deal with the problem of solid waste management. Miller indicates that individuals can reuse, reduce and recycle. An example of reusing can be avoiding one time use items such as plastic or paper bags and instead using a cloth one to do shopping. An example of reducing is becoming more conscious and aware of what products one can do without and avoid purchasing them whenever possible. An example of recycling in turning in material that can be treated and used in the manufacturing of new products like bottles, cans, metals and cardboards.

According to Harvey Neo-author of the essay titled The Potential of Large Scale Urban Recycling; recycling is the key strategy in attempts to reduce solid waste, which is an increasing problem all across the world. Manufactures and leaders in industries can also take many important approaches in order to reduce and help with the management of solid wastes. They can redesign products and production process so the energy materials can be saved. The use of unnecessary packaging can also be eliminated to reduce material waste. Government and civic leaders can also take measures like the banning and taxation products like plastic bags which are notoriously problematic to deal with. According to Miller in places like Japan the government has placed responsibility on the manufacturer to dispose of the waste once the consumer is done with it, it is known as the cradle to the grave approach.

The restructuring of transportation methods can also be crucial in attempting to reduce solid waste. The regular use of buses and public transit can result in reducing the production of personal vehicles like cars which use a considerable amount of raw materials and ultimately end up as solid waste. The reduction of solid wastes can also occur by exchanging waste with each other instead of going out and purchasing new raw materials for products. Waste can also be reduced by designing products so that they are more suitable for a natural decomposition.

Works Cited

Harvey, Neo. "The Potential of Large Scale Urban Waste Recycling." Society and Natural Resources 23.9 (2010): 872-87. Academic Search Elite. Web. 2 Dec. 2010.

Koizumi, Harumi. "Reducing Waste." Enviroment 3.9 (2010): 5-10. Academic Search Elite. Web. 3 Dec. 2010.

Miller, Tyler G., and Scott E. Spoolman.…… [read more]

Relate Jonathan Harr's a Civil Action With Environmental Law Essay

… Jonathan Harr's "A Civil Action' and Environmental Law

In the book a Civil Action by Jonathan Harr the author explored a lawsuit, which took nine years to complete, regarding the tragic consequences of exposure to toxic waste. There were deaths from childhood leukemia, skin inflammations, queasiness, irritated eyes, along with additional illnesses. The lawsuit was filed by eight families who lived in Woburn, Massachusetts against two companies, W.R. Grace and Beatrice Foods. The grievance asserted that these businesses were responsible for illnesses and deaths linked to trichloroethylene (TCE) pollution of the water supply. When reading this book one gains an admiration for ecological epidemiology and the intricacy of coming to an end when only a small number of people are affected. Medical specialists, public health experts, geologists, civil engineers, government organizations, and the aptitude and dynamic inspiration of the influenced families and their lawyers were all essential to found the reliability of the suit (Harr, Jonathan a Civil Action, 2010).

Unfortunately, in the end, the monetary influence and stonewalling of the businesses and the prejudice of the judge for one of the defense lawyers brought about a verdict for the defense. In the end the plaintiff's lawyer had to file for bankruptcy. Only when the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) chose to begin a clean up and filed a claim in opposition to W.R. Grace and Beatrice Foods to reimburse a share of the cost, was any resemblance of justice attained. It has been said that the EPA clean up project will take fifty years, and it is thought that it will even then be unattainable to rid the site of TCE all together (Harr, Jonathan a Civil Action, 2010).

This book is a perfect example of why certain rules and regulations have been put into place in order to protect people against harm. One of these laws is that of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) which was passed in order to guard the quality of drinking water in the U.S. This…… [read more]

Government Superfund Essay

… Government Superfund

In America, there is a balance between addressing the needs of business and protecting the environment. As a host of events would often shape how this equilibrium would take place. Part of the reason for this is various… [read more]

Ethical Dilemma Introduction- Eco-Friendly Business Is Here Essay

… Ethical Dilemma

Introduction- Eco-friendly business is here to stay. The idea of people and corporations taking a level of responsibility is rampant in the developed world. There are activists in the developing world, people who wish to protect the environment whenever possible, but the rapid growth of globalism sometimes acts at cross purposes. The idea of a green business is not simply changing a few power sources or suppliers -- it is a complete paradigm that asks for an all-encompassing plan and commitment in every aspect of the business, and from every employee, vendor, supplier, and likely even customer. This, of course, is an ideal, and it may take years or even decades to reach that ideal. There are, of course, several reasons for "going green," or making decisions based on sustainability and an eco-friendly model. Among these reasons are the moral and ethical responsibility many individuals feel towards the continuation of our species and the health of our planet.

Case Study -- the Clear Skies Initiative -- the Clear Skies Initiative was a 2002 Bush Administration policy that focused on the idea that the key to environmental progress is economic growth because it is fiscal growth that provides the resources to invest in clean, sustainable, technology. This initiative proposed, essentially to make regulations less complicated for businesses to meet their reduction goals on sulfur dioxide, mercury and nitrogen oxide, although only sulfur dioxide has been part of the cap-and-trade program. The Republican Administration touted several benefits of the initiative including a reduction in medical issues resulting from air pollution; protection of wildlife habitats and ecosystem health; protection and reliability of electricity production; reducing EPS litigation against non-compliant companies; and saves about $1 billion annually for big business, ostensibly passed onto consumers (Bluhm and Heineman, 2006; President Announces Clear Skies and Global Climate Change Initiatives, 2002).

Critics of the initiative indicate that it is but a lessening of regulation on big-business with the excuse of making the environment safer. Opposed by numerous environmental groups, including the Sierra Club, opponents note that it will allow 42 million more tons of pollution than previous EPA guidelines; it weakens the cap on nitrogen oxide pollution levels allowing almost 70% more pollution; delays the improvement of sulfur dioxide levels from the…… [read more]

Toronto Stinks Article Critique

… ¶ … Toronto Stinks" (read here) / provides a comprehensive yet detailed analysis of how an economic recession/depression has affected an ongoing municipal waste management issue facing the City of Toronto. Dispute over labor contracts and negotiations that fail… [read more]

Rainfall Simulation Studies to Estimate Introduction

… " It was indicated in the report of Wang, et al. (2005) that there were differences of a significant nature of soil nutrient losses and runoff based on the land-use specifics.


Jun, W. et al. (2005) he effects of land use on runoff and soil nutrient losses in a gully catchment of the hilly areas: implications for erosion control. Journal of Geographic Sciences. Volume 15, Number 4, 396-04, DOI: 10.1007/BF02892146. Retrieved from:

Dumanski, Julian (2009) Emerging Global Trends Provide New Opportunities in Soil and Water Conservation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. Jan/Feb 2009. Vol. 64, No.1. Retrieved from:

Day, Mick (2010) Challenges to Sustainability in the Caribbean karst. Geologia Croatica. Retrieved from:

Ustun, Berk (2008) The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Services. Vol XXXVII, Part B7. Beijing 2008. Retrieved from:

Blanco-Canqui, H. And Lal, R. (2010) Soil and Water Conservation. Principles of Soil Conservation and Management. 2010. Retrieved from:

Zheng, Fenli, et al. (2003) Effects of Erosion Patterns on Nutrient Loss Following Deforestation on the Loess Plateau of China. 2005 Elsevier B.V. Retrieved from:

Appendix A

Water phase:

E = R (11.9 + 8.7 log 10 (I) )


Q = R exp ( - R c / R o )


[R c = 1000 MS BD RD ( E. t / E o ) 0.5


R o = R / R n ]


Sediment phase:

F = K ( E. exp ( -- 0, 0-5 A ) ) 10 -- 3 (5)

G = CQ 2 ( sin S ) 10 -- 3


Operating functions:

E: Kinetic energy of rainfall (J / m 2)

Q: volume of overland flow (mm)

F: Rate of splash detachment (kg / m 2)

G: Transport capacity of overland flow (kg / m


Input Parameters:

MS: Soil moisture content at field capacity

BD: Bulk density of the top soil layer (g /


RD: Topsoil rooting depth (m)

E t / E o: Ratio of actual (E t ) to potential (E o )


R: Annual rainfall (mm)

R n: Number of…… [read more]

Organizational Theory Info Term Paper

… Organizational Theory for U.S. EPA

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is a federal organization that is responsible for safeguarding human health and the environment from any potential harm. It was formed on December 3, 1970 under President Nixon.… [read more]

Garbage Land: On the Secret Trail Book Report

… Garbage Land: On the Secret Trail of Trash (2005), Elizabeth Royte uses her scientific training and her writing talent to present a story that would hardly seem likely to make for interesting reading, at least not to anybody besides an environmental engineer: the story of modern waste disposal. The author essentially accomplishes two specific tasks in her writing: first, she manages to describe the various processes and mechanisms that are relied upon to spare the average contemporary family from having to deal directly with the garbage produced in their home; second, she lays out the important argument for reducing waste for environmental reasons.

Royte provides an insight that few people have ever thought about or wanted, at least before the popularity of television shows such as the Discovery Channel series Dirty Jobs. Purely from an industrial or engineering perspective, Royte describes the technical aspects of the modern waste disposal system that are beautiful in their efficiency and in their capacity, if not in their aesthetics. Royte's research exposes her to the daily lives of workers whose vocational environment would be a nightmare to many others. Some of them are so accustomed to their work that they no longer even seem to notice that they are working (literally) in feces and other noxious substances.

The author introduces readers to the mind-boggling magnitude of the volume of waste actually produced in the United States and to the large-scale industrial processes and technologies necessary to ensure that the general public is almost completely insulated from it. In that respect, she also reminds the reader how different a situation residents of big cities, only a century ago when, in New York City, for example, sidewalks were often completely un-passable, at least without risk of…… [read more]

Procter and Gamble Research Paper

… Procter & Gamble

P&G is one of the largest consumer products company in the world with operations in more than 80 countries. It manufactures about 300 products that is distributed to 160 countries spanning across several continents. Among other countries,… [read more]

Draft Sustainability Plan Going Green and the New Meadowlands Stadium Research Paper

… Environmental Sustainability: a Global Effort

In this author's opinion, environmental sustainability needs to be a group effort. The problem with past efforts to deal with environmental sustainability is that the efforts have been too compartmentalized. In recent experience, cooperation on… [read more]

Letter to Editor A2 Coursework

… Pioneering Past and Future of HP's Sustainability Efforts

Why More Companies Need to Follow HP's Lead:

The Pioneering Past and Future of HP's Sustainability Effort

The article The pioneering past and future of HP's sustainability efforts (Gunther, 2010) provides a glimpse into the world's largest technology company's efforts to also be the global leader in sustainability, recycling and eco-friendly product designs and processes. Beginning in 1960 with the definition of what the company would later call The HP Way, founders Bill Hewlett and David Packard set the direction of the company towards giving back to society and making the world a better place through their innovation and growth. The two founders were prescient in their vision. Today HP is the global leader in environmental sustainability and has received many awards and much recognition for these efforts. The company also was listed as number one in a recent Newsweek Environmental Ranking of 500 biggest U.S. Companies.

Tough-minded CEOs whose careers are entirely based on what financial results their companies deliver often doubt the value of sustainability and paying attention to the footprint their companies have on the environment. Yet HP has been able to traverse this conflict brilliantly. The company saves millions of dollars a year due to its extensive recycling and reverse logistics strategies. From printer cartridges to actual printers, HP has created entire plants to recycle components and create cost advantage for themselves in these product lines. The company, as of 2010, has recycled over 10 million printer cartridges, saved millions in plastics costs, and reduced their footprint on this planet more than any other high tech manufacturer in existence today (Gunther, 2010). What is at the center of all this success is the ability of the sustainability, recycling and…… [read more]

Environmental Science Issues -- Transportation and Energy Essay

… Environmental Science Issues -- Transportation and Energy

(1) What is the environmental impact of the world's ever increasing (direct and indirect) demand for transportation?

On one hand, modern transportation systems have greatly facilitated commerce and many other essential human activities and endeavours. On the other hand, the dramatically increasing reliance on internal combustion engines throughout the 20th century has also resulted in numerous negative environmental consequences. Most of those negative consequences are directly attributable to the chemistry of hydrocarbon emissions that are an inevitable byproduct of burning fossil fuels for energy production (Rodrigue & Comtois, 2010).

Those consequences consist of direct impacts, indirect impacts, and cumulative impacts of hydrocarbon emissions on the environment (Rodrigue & Comtois, 2010). Generally, direct impacts are those whose correlation as direct functions of transportation systems are apparent and very well understood. Indirect impacts are those that are less immediately apparent (or understood) as functions of transportation systems but which impact the environment in indirect, secondary, or tertiary ways. Cumulative consequences are those that represent the potentially highly complex nature of the interrelationships between and among transportation systems, direct, indirect consequences, and the cumulative consequences of all of those factors acting on the environment simultaneously (Rodrigue & Comtois, 2010).

Naturally, the cumulative environmental consequences of transportation systems pose the greatest threats to the environment and its ecosystems, precisely because their complexity and incorporation of multiple variables and interrelations make them so much harder to understand (Rodrigue & Comtois, 2010). In turn, that greater complexity and multidimensionality of environmental consequences make them much more difficult to mitigate. Among the most important ways that transportation systems impact the environment are climate change, air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, reduction in soil quality, biodiversity patterns, and patterns of land usage that they may require in some cases or preclude in others (Rodrigue & Comtois, 2010).

In many cases, the complete range and severity of environmental harms attributable to transportation systems may not become apparent for many years until after substantial damage has already been caused to the environment (Rodrigue & Comtois, 2010). That greatly compounds the relative dangers associated with the impact of byproducts of transportation technology because damage typically accumulates for many years before the exact nature of the underlying mechanisms responsible for it are definitively identified. It generally takes even longer before appropriate public policies and government regulations necessary to address the problems can be established and implemented in ways that genuinely rectify the problems (Rodrigue & Comtois, 2010).

(2) What is the…… [read more]

Science and Culture Learning From Failure Essay

… ¶ … humans are an interpretive species, the way we look at data - what we include in our model, what we exclude -- can lead to varying interpretations of hypothetical results. This is also true when we use logic,… [read more]

Computing Pollution Computers Are Being Creative Writing

… It is stated that the project serves to span the fields of "nanotechnology, robotics, computer science and marine biology" (Daily University Science News, 2002, p.1)[footnoteRef:6] however the project is focused on developing small robotic sensors and the software needed to control those sensors. First built by the University of Southern California researchers will be small robots with the ability to "move, sense and communicate while tethered in a tank of water in the laboratory" and the project will progress to "building and controlling increasingly large numbers of smaller freely moving robots." (Daily University Science News, 2002)[footnoteRef:7] The final stage of the project involves the creation of robots the size of the microorganisms that will ultimately be monitored by this project. (Daily University Science News, 2002, paraphrased)[footnoteRef:8] [5: Swarms of Tiny Robots to Monitor Water Pollution (2002) Daily University Science News. UNISCI online available at:] [6: Ibid] [7: Ibid, p.1] [8: Ibid]

IV. E-Pollution Applications

Another computing pollution application is reported in the work of Hooker, Gaver, Steed, and Bowers (2007)[footnoteRef:9] in which reported is the design and construction of a 'Pollution eSign" which is stated to be an electronic street sign that serves to communicate the local air quality information by "automatically bluejacking passing devices." (p. 1)[footnoteRef:10] Bluejacking is defined as "…the act of using Bluetooth to send unsolicited messages to other Bluetooth-enabled devices such as cell phones and PDAs." (Hooker, Gaver, Steed and Bowers, 2007, p. 1)[footnoteRef:11] The Pollution eSign is reported to have been developed as part of an Environmental e-Science project between 2002 and 2004. The Pollution e-Sign was tested in three public places and indications were that the e-Sign not only served to communicate how "mixed physical-electronic artifacts…might be engaged with i9n the future…[as] part of the overall texture of the urban environment." (Hooker, Gaver, Steed and Bowers, 2007, p. 4)[footnoteRef:12] [9: Hooker, Ben, Gaver, William W., Steed, A. And Bowers, J. (2007) The Pollution e-Sing. Online available at:] [10: Ibid] [11: Ibid] [12: Ibid]

Summary and Conclusion

This study has reviewed the various applications that are used in computing pollution and has clearly demonstrated how important these applications are becoming in assisting researchers in determining pollution levels and informing researchers of areas of the environment that should be targeted for reduction of such pollution.


Emad, AA., Sayed, M.E., and Kassem K.O. (nd) Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model. Canadian Journal on Computing in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering & Medicine Vol. 1, No. 3, April 2010. Online available at:

Hemann, J. And Granger, B. (nd ) Parallel Computing with IPython: An Application to Air Pollution Modeling. Available online at:

Maringanti, Chetan and Chaubey, Indrajeet (nd ) High Performance Computing Application to Address Non-Point Source Pollution at a Watershed Level. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Purdue University. Online available at:

Swarms of Tiny Robots to Monitor Water Pollution (2002) Daily University Science News. UNISCI online available at:

Hooker, Ben, Gaver, William… [read more]

Fire Department and Local Government Essay

… Fire Department and Local Government

El Dorado Hills Fire Department:

Facing community challenges and providing critical services

El Dorado Hills Fire Department:

Facing community challenges and providing critical services

The El Dorado Hills Fire Department faces considerable challenges, as do all local government service organizations in the state of California. Budgetary constraints mean that essential services must be provided, yet constantly justified in terms of their necessity for financial reasons. However, the El Dorado Hills Fire Department has risen to the challenge, and continues to not only fight fires but also engage in proactive measures to prevent fires from taking place. Mobilizing the community as a whole has proven to be a critical part of reducing the threat of fires. Encouraging every person to do their utmost to prevent fires is both cost-effective and necessary.

The dry conditions of the El Dorado area are highly conducive to brushfires, thus the fire department must be continually on its guard. El Dorado lies within a Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) which means it is particularly at risk for fires that spread quickly from house to house. Burning is strictly controlled on all premises: residents must apply for a burn permit, and even these may be suspended if the area is deemed to be at particular risk for wildfires.

The risk of wildfires to human life is obvious: it can cause destruction to both life and property. However, wildfires can also cause great damage to the environment. "El Dorado County is situated almost entirely within Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest, oak woodlands and heavy chaparral vegetation types. The county comprises 1,805 square miles with over half in National Forests and recreation areas" (About El Dorado, 2010, Fire Safety Council). Through its website, through publicity-raising marches, and educational sessions as well as policy enforcement, the Fire Department in conjunction with the Fire Safety Council seeks to unite the community to reduce the risk of brushfires in a multifaceted effort. It impresses upon all residents that it is their moral as well as their legal responsibility to the environment and to their neighbors to unite in this effort.

Since 2006, the El Dorado Hills Fire Safety Council and the El Dorado Hills Fire Department have…… [read more]

Role of Engineers Term Paper

… ¶ … Role of Engineers

The progress experienced by technology in the recent centuries could not be possible without extensive work performed by engineers. Civil engineers are largely responsible for the contemporary living standards, as they created a series of accommodations intended to make society more comfortable. While the field of engineering regards a great deal of factors (ranging from manufacturing engineering to military engineering) involving matters which are not necessarily intended to help people directly, civil engineering is mainly based on assisting technological improvements for the benefit of the general public.

When it comes to the public's appreciation on the subject of engineering, most people are uninterested, as they are inclined to believe that engineers have little to do with some of the essential advancements which improved their existence. It is very probable that the masses display an indifferent attitude toward engineers because this job enjoys less support in comparison to other jobs, which actually bring a smaller contribution to society. In spite that their work is very important, engineers are virtually anonymous, given that children are more likely to name rock stars and socialites when being asked to name a person who played a special role in shaping the world today.

In addition to the fact that engineers rarely enter the spotlight even with the impressive activities they perform, the government is not very different from the public when it comes to its relationship to the engineering world. When considering an international matter where world governments consult a series of individuals from various domains, engineers are among the last to be approached. Through such occurrences, the world practically denies engineers of their imperative position in society.

The Industrial Revolution broke out as a result of numerous engineers getting actively engaged in modernizing the world and providing the public with better opportunities. With society now going through difficult times, it seems that engineers once again have the chance to prove themselves.

Environmental problems are a present issue and environmental engineers are the ones expected to come up with new methods to prevent a disaster from happening. Unfortunately, the general public is in most occasions reluctant to cooperate with engineers, believing that the latter require no assistance in their endeavor. Moreover, world leaders prefer to invest in things other than educational institutes meant to train new engineers. In spite of their dedication, engineers following a traditional set of rules will be less competent in dealing with newly arisen environmental issues.

The purpose of environmental engineers is that of providing the public with adequate living conditions and see that this does not come in disagreement with the natural world. People working in environmental engineering focus on discovering solutions that are expected to reduce the impact of human actions on the environment. In order to do this, environmental engineers need to create products and procedures that are meant…… [read more]

Government Waste Management Term Paper

… Government

Waste Management

Waste management is a phenomenon that is an issue in almost every city that there is today. Waste is fact of living and the more people that are living in or near cities the more waste that… [read more]

Current Events in April 2010, the Deep Essay

… Current Events

In April 2010, the Deep Water Horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico would explode and sink to the bottom of the ocean floor. This would set off the biggest environmental disaster in U.S. history, with the full impact of this event still unknown. In the aftermath of what took place, a series of accusations would surface; that BP knowingly circumvented safety regulations and had no emergency in plan, before the events that led up to the explosion. As a result, this would cause the public to feel a sense of anger about the disconnect that is occurring between key executives and how they handled the spill. In many ways one could effectively argue, that the BP disaster was the result of a lack of ethics, at the company that allowed for creation of a culture that would perpetuate the events, leading to the explosion. To fully understand the overall lack of ethics at the company and among key executives requires: examining the lack of ethics that were used in the events before the explosion. This will highlight; how the lack of ethics from: BP and the various executives would make the situation worse.

The Events before the Explosion

In the years before the explosion of the Deep Water Horizon, BP has a track record of knowingly putting their employees at risk. With the company's overall objective, to increase profit margins as much as possible. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the company's environmental and safety track record. Where, BP has paid over $550 million in fines over the last two years, two of which were the largest penalties ever assessed by OSHA. Then, when you consider the fact that BP cut corners during the installation of the Deep Water Horizon, only underscores managements lack of ethics. (West, 2010) What happened was BP cut costs during the installation of the well as much as possible. Where, the company would emit safety guards and triggers because of this fact. A good example of this can be seen with, acoustic triggers. These are caps that are placed in deep water wells, to protect against an explosion could occur. Where, if such an incident takes place, the acoustic caps would automatically shut the well down…… [read more]

Global Change Science the Negative Effects Research Proposal

… Global Change Science

The negative effects of road surfaces on local, regional, and national ecosystems is empirically evidenced and a large contributing factor to the increasingly large carbon footprint of developed nations (Switalski, et al. 2004). The use of primarily… [read more]

Indoor and Noise Pollution Term Paper

… ¶ … Control of Indoor and Noise Pollution

Noise pollution and indoor air pollution can come from a variety of sources, and can affect people in a variety of ways. The purpose of this paper is to determine the sources,… [read more]

Environmental Toxicology of Lead Pb Research Paper

… Environmental Toxicology of Lead


Chemical Nature of Lead

Basically, Lead is a major group element, which is found beneath Tin, in group fourteen of the periodic table and its symbol is Pb. It is a bluish -white shiny metal… [read more]

Implications of Continuing Human Population Growth Research Paper

… ¶ … Human Population Growth

Long gone are the times when the population was encouraged to procreate and as such produce future labor force. Since those periods, the nations have been faced with tremendous challenges, such as wars or famines.… [read more]

Lessons Learned From the Love Canal Environmental Crisis Term Paper

… ¶ … history of Love Canal, the lessons learned, and the movement toward a proactive response to environmental protection.

The tragic experience of the Love Canal served as a catalyst for the United States to develop public policies to protect… [read more]

Time for Water Crisis Is Coming Essay

… Water Crisis

In "Private Water Saves Lives," Frederik Segerfeldt claims that governments are ineffective managers of water and that the private sector would do a better job of distributing water equitably to reduce the water crisis. Segerfeldt states, "ninety-seven percent… [read more]

Water and Plastic Bottle Burden Research Paper

… Water and Plastic Bottle Burden

Where to Turn for Safe Water

The first time sustainability was defined by a global institution was in 1987, when the Brundtland Commission, with a grant through the United Nations, outlined what was meant by… [read more]

Campus Sustainability Viewed Through the Library Research Paper

… Sustainable Building

Promoting Sustainability through the Campus Library

The library is the center of campus life and offers its community a valuable resource. As the center of campus and community life, the example that the library sets can have an… [read more]

Air Pollution and Effects on Economy Research Paper

… Air Pollution and Effects on Economy

Pollution has been a contentious topic for the past decades, with it having affected virtually every domain. The financial system is no exception from the rule, as pollution has caused severe damage to economies… [read more]

Human Geography Research Paper

… Human Geography

Urban or local environmental stress refers to the stressors that are present as a result of built environment and activities within an urban or local setting. These factors can include everything from the aesthetics of a building to… [read more]

Miami-Dade Area and Brickell Ave Research Proposal

… ¶ … Miami-Dade area and Brickell Ave. As well. You will have to write something that these areas could improve upon as far as the ideals of urban ecology and sustainability are concerned. You will need to write about the following topics:

Urban ecology


ecological footprint

The paper should not include an introduction neither a conclusion, this is a group project and someone else is in charge of that part. My part will be the body of the paper.

Besides that, I need you to include at least 3-4 interviews/opinions from the following groups:

Contact those who are in charge of environmental programs in Miami-Dade and Brickell Ave. And ask them questions such as: Who were the original people to start it? What was their stated reason and objective? How expensive is it? Who pays for it? What are the benefits of the program? What were the obstacles to implementation? Do the residents of the community seem to be happy with the program? Why or why not? What are the…… [read more]

External Validity - Is the Degree Thesis

… ¶ … External Validity - is the degree to which the conclusions of a study would hold true under different circumstances.

Field Experiment -- are experiments that are conducted outside of a laboratory.

Internal Validity - is the approximate truth about inferences in regards to cause and effect.

is a proposed explanation for an observed occurrence

Operationalization -- is the process of defining something that is not clear so that it can be measurable and testable.

Treatment levels -- the level at which a treatment is administered to an experimental variable.

Reliability - is the consistency of a set of measurements or instrument.

Internal Consistency -- is a measurement of the correlations between different items on the same test.

Validity -- the degree to which something accurately reflects the concept that is being measured.

Content Validity -- is the extent to which a measurement returns the specific intended outcome.

Criterion-Related Validity - is the measure of how well one variable predicts an outcome based on information from other variables.

1. Distinguish between the following:

a) internal validity and external validity - internal validity is the approximate truth about inferences regarding cause…… [read more]

Water Purification Processes Essay

… Water Purification: Natural, Drinking, And Wastewater

Water can still be found that is purified naturally by the environment. For example, if the source of the groundwater is deep enough, the groundwater may be isolated from chemicals and other impurities, and naturally filtered through the soil and rocks. Springs are often the source of deep ground water, although because of its high mineral content, deep groundwater may taste unpleasant, compared with artificially purified drinking water. But as a precaution: "No water, irrespective of the original source, should be assumed to be completely free of contaminants. The most common process used for treatment of surface water and ground water consists of sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, disinfection, conditioning, softening, fluoridation, removal of tastes and odors, corrosion control, algae control, and aeration" (Robson 2010).

The first process of treating water for drinking purposes is sedimentation, or removal of obvious particles, such as dirt and sand. Then, by adding a chemical such as alum, the water is coagulated and takes the form of flocculent particles. The dangerous particles then settle to the bottom. The filtration process follows, along with disinfection with an agent such as chlorine. This chemical is used to kill harmful organisms and pathogenic bacteria. Softening removes bitter 'hard' minerals such as calcium and magnesium. "In a typical municipal water treatment process, water flows through pumps to a rapid mix basin, then to a flocculation basin, to a settling basin, through filters to a clear well, then after disinfection, to storage tanks, and finally to the end users" (Robson 2010).

Depending on the nature of the water, different purification strategies may be deployed. Aeration, adding oxygen to water, is used to remove carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Deionization (the substituting of sodium ions for calcium and magnesium ions) or using lime and soda ash to precipitate the calcium and magnesium as carbonate and hydroxide, are used for softening water (Water treatment," Sci-Tech Encyclopedia, 2010).

While filtration of drinking water is similar to the natural filtration of groundwater in that the…… [read more]

Smog Is a Form Term Paper

… Constituents of Smog

The noxious smog mixture is made up of the following chemicals.

1. Tropospheric ozone

2. Oxides of nitrogen such as nitrogen dioxide

3. Volatile organic Compounds (VOCs)

4. Aldehydes (RCHO)

5. Peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN)

The constituent chemicals of ozone listed above are very highly reactive and possess oxidizing potential. This makes photochemical smog a modern day industrial problem. It is a fact that photochemical smog is present in almost all cities of the world. Its concentration is what varies. It is more common in cities having warm and sunny climatic conditions. The effects is even more in cities with a high vehicular traffic density. Its ability to be dispersed by wind makes it even worse as it can easily affect highly populated areas.

Effects on health

The health problems associated with smog is inherent in many cities. its constituent chemicals such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ground level ozone and nitrogen dioxide cause serious health problems. The health problems are more pronounced in senior citizens, children and normal adults who exercise outdoors. The effects aggravates heart and lung conditions such as emphysema, asthma and bronchitis. These chemicals also inflame respiratory tract and hence decreases the capacity of the lungs to function properly. he chemicals also cause eye and nose irritation.

Threfore, both the state and federal government should introduce strict measures to ensure that the industries and vehicles that cause smog causing emissions are eliminated.


Miller, Jr., George Tyler (2002). Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions (12th Edition). Belmont: The Thomson Corporation.

Seinfeld, John H.; Pandis, Spyros N (1998). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics - From Air Pollution to Climate Change.…… [read more]

Global Pollution Thesis

… Global pollution has increased significantly over the last few decades. Rapidly growing population, increasing consumption and demands have resulted in rapid industrialization and aggressive production strategies with very little concern for long-term environmental impacts. Air and water pollution by industrial… [read more]

Maryland Slave Essay

… ¶ … doubt, I would run away with my sister. I would be deeply afraid, not just of getting caught and whipped, but also of the cold, hunger, and uncertainty. I would also miss my brother. However, the prospect of freedom is too great to ignore. The timing of the escape is crucial. If we don't leave now, we might never be able to. This moment is crucial, because once the master's estate has been settled, my sister and I might be sold South. I believe it's better to take our chances running away than to regret not having tried.

Being enslaved is demeaning and painful both physically and emotionally. At only twelve years old I already understood what a life as a slave entailed, especially for females. I could be raped or beaten by my next master. The situation might be far worse than I could ever imagine. Plus, I don't want to willingly waste my life in such an environment. At least if I run away and something bad should happen, I would die knowing that I took…… [read more]

Sustainable Development: Its Nature and Dynamics Thesis

… Sustainable Development: Its Nature and Dynamics in Today's Global Societies

More than two (2) decades ago, nations from all over the world have discussed the future of our planet, as societies continuously industrialize, as they pursue the path to technological development and economic growth. The United Nations have become instrumental in promoting and facilitating these discussions among different countries, highly-industrialized ones or otherwise. In fact, the Brundtland Report, developed and published in the 1980s, reflected the need for sustainable development as a measure through which the irreversible negative effects of industrialization and urbanization can be reduced, if not totally eliminated. It reported that, in the 1980s, the world is "close to many [of those] thresholds," and "[t]here are thresholds that cannot be crossed without endangering the basic integrity of the system."

Indeed, these words from the Brudtland Report ring true today. Not only are we close to these thresholds that could endanger the natural, and in effect, all existing systems in the world, but we must now make the inevitable decision to act and come up with ways that will not force us to cross these thresholds. If indeed some of these thresholds have been crossed already, measures to counter potential damages to both natural and man-made systems must be immediately developed and implemented. This is why sustainable development has been a popular buzz word in the past decades, and has been the guiding principle of most companies and corporations that have been dominantly using energy as a core part of their operations and business survival. Sustainable development is technically defined by the United Nations and the Brundtland Commission Report as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (UNDESA, 2002:7).

The implications of implementing sustainable development programs or business operations require not only the cooperation of business organizations, but are actually an interdependent relationship between the government, civil society,…… [read more]

Systems Planet Earth Is Recognized for Being Research Proposal

… ¶ … Systems

Planet Earth is recognized for being the only planet known to man that has the proper conditions for a multitude of organisms to stay alive. These organisms survive in environments that are fit for them or they… [read more]

Kasim, Azilah. ). "Corporate Environmentalism Research Proposal

… Kasim, Azilah. (2007). "Corporate Environmentalism in the Hotel Sector: Evidence of Drivers and Barriers in Penang, Malaysia." Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 15(6), 680-699.

The author uses hotel development in an environmentally sensitive area of Malaysia as a sort of a case study to determine the encouragements and challenges in developing corporate environmentalism in developing-world tourist trades generally. He begins by providing background on the link between tourism and environmental sustainability, as well as identified provisions that could theoretically influence a corporation's increasing sense of environmentalism and environmental activism. Fieldwork attempted to distinguish between regulatory, community/employee, and sectoral pressure and identify the levels and interactions of these pressures through an interview phase to determine the state of corporate environmentalism in Malaysia, and a data collection phase to determine the drivers and barriers of this environmentalism.

The general and specific research methodologies described here are sound and well-documented; the author used established methods for gathering background information and in data collection. His approach to qualitative data analysis from field notes and other observational data was likewise well established and clearly laid out in the article, improving the reliability of the results and the understanding of the approaches employed that led to the specific conclusions of the author. The codifying and sorting of qualitative data without reduction to pure quantitative status is essential to coming to an accurate understanding of this issue, and the patterns identified by the author in his data reflect the care and the large measure of success that the researcher achieved in this…… [read more]

Redesign Package System for Name of the Company Cosmetic Line Research Proposal

… ¶ … companies have redesigned their packaging to make it more environmentally friendly. There have been many ways in which companies have gone about making such changes. The purpose of this discussion is to redesign the packaging system of Covergirl cosmetics.

Covergirl cosmetics is an international cosmetics company that could benefit greatly by making their packing more environmentally friendly. One of the primary ways this can be accomplish is by making not only the exterior packaging, but also the plastic packaging that surrounds the actual make-up are biodegradable. Biodegradable products are those that are "capable of being broken down especially into innocuous products by the action of living things (as microorganisms)." Making packaging biodegradable reduces the amount of waste and pollutants that harm the environment.

Companies in other industries such as the food industry have redesigned their packaging to make it biodegradable. For instance, McDonald's uses paper to package its burgers and fries as opposed to the Styrofoam packaging that it once used. This has greatly reduced the amount and type of waste that McDonalds produces.

With this understood Covergirl should also develop packaging that is completely biodegradable. In fact the development of more environmentally friendly products is a necessity and would also be beneficial to the demographic that Covergirl serves. Consumers who purchase Covergirl products are mostly woman between the ages of 16 and 35. This age group is also very aware of the problems that have arisen as a result of the amount of pollution in the environment. This awareness is known as environmental concern which is defined as "environmental concern is conceptualized in this study as a general attitude that reflects the extent to which the consumer is worried about threats to the environment, the consequences of such threats for the harmony of nature and future generations, and the lack of human…… [read more]

Environmental Protection Agency Thesis

… EPA Health

Promoting Health Through Environmental Protection:

The EPA as a Public Health Organization

Promoting and protecting the health of its citizens is, quite obviously, one of the major concerns of any effective society and government. To that end, various… [read more]

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