"Environment / Conservation / Ecology" Essays

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Bottled Water Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,081 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Bottled Water vs. Tap Water

Is bottled water safe to drink? Is it environmentally responsible to buy bottled water? Is tap water a safe and sound alternative? What kind of filters are necessary when drinking tap water? There are a variety of answers available in the literature today for all of these questions. And due to the importance of water… [read more]

Benefits of Recycling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Recycling offers many benefits in many different contexts for communities, and one interesting and yet pragmatic example of the diversity of applications is the recycling of waste materials for use in paving and pavement engineering / construction. According to an article in the Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering there is increased pressure for construction companies to use recycled materials in pavement construction. That pressure is "…due to a rapid depletion of high-quality natural/traditional aggregates," to the increasingly high costs of materials, and also due to the "large quantities of waste materials stockpiled around the world" (Tao, et al., 2008, p. 718).

Since the recycling of waste materials into pavement construction has been successful in Europe, Tao believes that the feasibility of "sustainable transportation infrastructure" has been proven effective and now it is time for the more widespread use of these materials. The benefits that will accrue from this strategy are several, Tao explains: a) the cost of energy will be reduced by using recycled materials; b) a lowering of the costs associated with the extraction of the virgin materials; and c) a reduction of the demand for "primary aggregates" can be expected as well.

Tao and colleagues present some complicated, algebra-heavy testing procedures in this article in order to show the economic benefits of using recycled materials for pavement, since they claim that there is currently a dearth of data in the literature showing those benefits. Hence, they tested the benefits of using Louisiana Class II crushed limestone, foamed-asphalt-treated recycled asphalt concrete, fly-ash-stabilized blended calcium sulfate (BCS), and BCS stabilized with the 120-grade ground granulated blast furnace-slag (GGBFS) (Tao, 718). The researchers actually built a "full-scale accelerated pavement test section" in order to check out the performance and stability of the above-mentioned materials. The bottom line: applying their data and measuring their test section strength indicated that for a "typical four-lane, 5-mile long road section, the use of a BCS-GGBFS base plus a lime treated sub-base in lieu of the Class II stone base and the foamed-asphalt-treated base can result in savings in the PWC up to $2.8 and $11.2 million, respectively" (Tao, 724).

While it is important for researchers to locate those wastes that can be used again, as Tao has done, and prove the value of those materials, when it comes to curbside pickups of recycled household materials, there are a number of positives and negatives that need to be discussed.

Richard C. Porter writes in his book, The Economics of Waste, that on the basic level recycling has three "major" benefits: a) the reuse, and recovery of materials that have been used or discarded; b) the "reduced use of a landfill (or incinerator); and c) the reduced need for solid waste collection (Porter, 2002, p. 133). The author attempts in this article to figure out what the dollar benefits are to recycling; but because market prices fluctuate so dramatically, it is difficult, he reminds readers, to precisely put the financial value on some recycling efforts.

Still,… [read more]

Verrazano-Narrows Bridge Upon IT's Grand Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


An excerpt from The Great Bridge by Edward M. Young and Lili Rethi: "Residents who were used to their small-town ways witnessed a metamorphosis of their borough into a densely populated bedroom community, complete with condominium developments, shopping complexes and industrial parks. While the populations in the other four boroughs held steady or even declined, the population in Staten Island more than doubled in the years that followed the bridge's opening" (Rethi & Young). If the transformation of their way of life wasn't already tough enough, the residents of Staten Island also had to deal with increased air pollution ().

Reactions to the bridge were not all negative. In fact, the majority of business people and residents who lived outside the Staten Island and Bay Ridge communities thought the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge was a great idea. However, one could argue that support for the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, or any major public work that displaces residents and increases noise and air pollution, is relative to the interests of those involved and affected by the project. To explicate, if one is going to have to sacrifice something, i.e. one is going to lose his/her home and/or his/her way of life, then he/she will of course be opposed to the change. But if one is going to profit from the construction, not only monetarily, but convenience factors related to transit, etc., then he/she is going to support the bridge despite the inconveniencies it places on other people. There are no shortages of sacrifices or opportunity costs in a project like the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.

My step-uncle Donald knows something about the sacrifices made to build the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. He grew up on Staten Island during the late 50s and 60s. Although he was quite young, he was there during the bridges construction. He remembers, quite vividly, how Staten Island morphed from a bucolic-type community to a more hustle and bustle type destination. He can also recount the full-throated opposition to the bridge by some community members even though his parents where somewhat indifferent to the project. He never ceases to remind me that three ironworkers paid the ultimate price (or made the ultimate sacrifice) in building that bridge. My step-uncle is an ironworker, so naturally he is cognizant of these statistics. Overall though, when considering the opportunity costs of building the bridge, the three ironworkers who died, the increased noise and air pollution, the displacement of 8,000 Brooklyn residents, the transformation of the Staten Island community, my step-uncle believes it was the right thing to do. He said, "Nothing worth doing comes without sacrifice. And progress is important." When pressed about why he felt this way, he said, "Building infrastructure creates jobs. Projects like Verrazano-Narrows Bridge puts people to work and putting people to work is a good thing."

After reading about the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and talking with my step-uncle about his experiences on Staten Island during the construction of the bridge, it is clear that, in the end, progress (especially when Robert Moses is the… [read more]

Antarctic Impact Human Effects Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


First, measurements and observations would clearly show that disturbances are being created by human activities; such measurements and observations actually already exist, though they are disputed by some, proving that it is quite possible to see what occurs from human activity (Ward 2001; Landcare Research 2011). This would (and has) lead to hypotheses regarding the connection between human behaviors -- such as the use of fossil fuels and the commercial harvesting of krill -- and the detrimental effects of these behaviors -- the disintegrating ice shelves and the disruptions to the Antarctic food web at all levels (Ward 2011; Landcare Research 2011). These hypotheses could then be tested by halting the production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and ceasing the commercial harvesting of krill; if the issues of global warming subsided (over the ensuing decades) and the Antarctic food web appeared to be operating in a way that allowed all populations to flourish again, then the hypothesized connections would have been demonstrated to be correct and the problems would have been corrected by the experiment itself.

Commercial solutions could also be developed, if there were monetary incentives. Developing efficient and affordable carbon scrubbers would effectively remove a lot of greenhouse gases from production cycles before they reach the atmosphere, and developing an alternative to krill that can be harvested on a more sustainable basis would also solve the problem.


Landcare Research. (2011). Accessed 11 July 2011. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/ecosystems/penguins/food_web.asp

Ward, P. (2011).. Accessed 11 July 2011. http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/science/human_impact_on_antarctica.htm… [read more]

Chemistry of Recycling Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Chemistry of Recycling Abstract

This experiment will demonstrate the synthesizing of alum from aluminum cans, which is the result of sequential reactions, in which the products of one chemical reaction become the reactants (or some of the reactants) in the next reaction. The sequential reactions involved in this experiment will demonstrate to some degree the energy requirements and percent yields of recycling aluminum, and in this way will help to demonstrate first hand the importance of recycling aluminum and certain of the processes involved. The experiment gave a clear physical example of certain of the fairly typical types of reactions that are commonly identified and theoretically mapped by chemistry students.

Materials & Methods

The reactants used in this experiment included strips of an aluminum can cut into small pieces (1.0085g), 1.4 M. solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH), 6 M. sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution, a solution of 50% ethanol, ice, and distilled water. Equipment used included two graduated cylinders (10mL and 50mL), an aspirator, rubber tubing, a standard hotplate, a Buchner funnel, stirring rod, filter paper, weight paper, clamp, ring stand, beaker, and scoopula. Standard classroom/laboratory equipment was utilized, and none of the reactants used were especially exotic, either. The mass of the aluminum strips was obtained by first weighing the beaker (104.3116g), then adding aluminum, recording the new weight (105.3201g), and taking the difference (1.0085) as the weight of the aluminum being utilized.

After weighing the aluminum, the beaker was placed on a hot plate set to low heat and 50mL of the KOH solution was added to the beaker while venting under a laboratory hood. As the reaction took place, distilled water was added at intervals to the beaker in order to maintain a volume of approximately 25mL throughout the reaction period (approximately 30 minutes). An aspirator system was set-up and used to filter the reaction mixture that resulted from the reaction, rinsing the beaker and pouring the rinse through the filter system multiple times in order to collect the solid substance created from the aluminum during the reaction. 20mL of the 6.0 sulfuric acid was then added to the reaction mixture, again over low heat on the hot plate and venting until no solids formed in the beaker and all solids that had formed had dissolved. The beaker was then…… [read more]

College Algebra Individual Project Solve Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Round to three decimal places where necessary.

x y












Explain why no negative values are chosen as values to substitute in for x.

Answer: Squareroot is not defined for negative values.

c) Graph in MS Excel or another web-based graphing utility and paste your graph here. Read the information in the assignments list to learn more about how to graph in MS Excel.


5) A water tank is h feet high. Water is flowing from this water tank with a velocity V feet per second. The model representing the relationship between the velocity and height is given by V = 6?h

(a). find the height of a water tank that provides a water flow of 60 feet per second.

V = 60, substitute this in the original function above we get

60 = 6?h

60/6 = ?h h = 10

Square both sides we get

Answer: h = 100 feet

(b) find the velocity of the water flow when the…… [read more]

Environmental Health Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Environmental Health

Environmental Hazard

Radon is an odorless, tasteless and invisible gas formed by the break down of naturally occurring uranium in soil and water. Radon is an arrangement of ionizing radiation and a confirmed carcinogen. Lung cancer is the only known effect on human health from exposure to radon in air. Thus far, there is no evidence that… [read more]

Landscape Gypsy Moth Control Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Topographic Features

Using the topographical map available via the trails.com website allows for a view of certain other natural geographic features that could potentially have an impact on the workings of the treatment plan. As noted above, Diana fritillary populates wooded areas, and though the species will roam to some degree in order to find food sources it is never observed far from these woodland habitats (Sholtens n.d.). The topography of the region has implications both for Diana fritillary populations and the potential impact of Gypsy Moth control methods.

By extending the scope of the map to a scale of 1:100,000, some of the flatter and broader areas around the river come into view, showing areas where it is less likely that Diana fritillary butterfly would be a regular inhabitant and perhaps suggesting other areas where a Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki spray method of controlling for Gypsy Moths (trail.com 2011; Scholtens n.d.). Restoring forests on the steeper areas of the landscape as well as achieving other groundwork in these areas will be more time and labor intensive, and focusing on areas nearer the waterway in terms of Gypsy Moth control could prove more effective, assuming proper care not to create additional problems for the river itself can be taken (Liebhold 2003; National Forest Service n.d.). More protected areas of the landscape also exist tucked amongst narrow topographic features, and such areas could be prime locations for finding other Diana fritillary populations (trail.com 2011; Scholtens n.d.).

Federal Considerations

The fact that the area under investigation and consideration for a treatment plan includes federal lands means there are certain special requirements that must be taken into account. Not all of the special circumstances regarding federal lands translate to additional complications and encumbrances when it comes to the development and implementation of this treatment plan: the additional research and information that is available regarding federal lands can be of major assistance in this undertaking (National Forest Service n.d.). Other complications exist due to regulations and oversight from agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency.

Any action taken by any federal agency, which includes actions taken on the federal lands include in the targeted region as they are part of the National Forest Service's dominion and thus require federal approval, is required to conduct Environmental Assessments and produce Environmental Impact Statements in accordance with EPA guidelines, as per 1969's National Environmental Policy Act (EPA 2011). The pest management control methods and treatment must be shown to have a minimal expected impact on other populations of both flora and fauna based on available evidence, and the benefits and necessity of these actions must also be demonstrated (EPA 2011). Coordination with other efforts to reforest specific areas of the region, correct other environmental damage, and promote the overall health of the ecosystem must also be a part of the treatment plan development, as well (National Forest Service n.d.). This is not only due to regulatory and legislative concerns but also because such coordination will represent the… [read more]

Influence of Environmental Sustainability on Information Technology Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Display

Conceptual Framework Display

There are a variety of different conceptual frameworks and theoretical models that come into play in an examination of global air and water pollution, and deciding which frameworks and models to use not only in examining but also in presenting the data on this subject can be complex. Similarly, there are many different options for the visual presentation of these frameworks and for qualitative elements and data in general, and the varying efficacy of these different options in their impact on readers makes the selection of specific presentational designs essential when research needs to have a direct practical impact. The following paragraphs will discuss the conceptual frameworks and visual data presentations that are deemed most suitable and effective for research specifically in the area of global air and water pollution and the role that information and communications technology can and do play in attempting to prevent, eliminate, and correct such widespread pollution.

Of the "explain and predict" techniques described by Miles & Huberman (1994), the technique deemed most useful for the defined research area is a map that can generalize certain narratives about the case, such as the creation of waste and pollution as well as the methods by which such waste is dealt with. Mapping these narratives can provide clear understanding of processes that have multiple steps and influences that interact in complex fashions, sometimes at multiple places within the process (Miles & Huberman 1994). Due to the concrete complexity of pollution and its relation to information and communications techniques as well as the different conceptual frameworks that can be applied to this research, the visual mapping of various elements and processes in the research is believed to be an ideal method for presenting both data and theory.

One…… [read more]

Air Quality and Watersheds Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Water Math

Water Flow

12f x 5f x 3f/s = 180 cfs

cfs = 449 gpm (from Module 2 document)

180 x 449 = 80,820

180 cfs = 80,820gpm

cfs = 28.32lps (from Google conversions)

180 x 28.32 = 5,097.6

180 cfs = 5,097.7lps

minutes/hr x 24 hrs/day = 1440m/d

80,820 x 1,440 = 116,380,800

449 gpm = 116.38mgd

RV = 0.05 + 0.009I

+ (0.009 x 0.85) = 0.05765

RV = 0.05765

R = P x RV ***

P = 6in = 0.5f

RV = 0.05765

A = 35,000sf

x 0.05765 x 35,000 = 1,008.875

R = 1,008.875cf



Post-Sink Form


H202 in ice clouds


Clegg & Abbatt 2001


Oceans (H2O)


Garrison 2004





N2, CO2, H2O

EPA 2011

Of all of the possible pollutants resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, carbon dioxide is one of the simplest in terms of how it can be broken down, the available sinks, and the safety/lack of effect the carbon dioxide is in a sink or when broken down (EPA 2011). At the same time, carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas in terms of its creation and release into the atmosphere by humans, and thus poses a large problem in terms of potential global warming and is still the focus of many reduction efforts simply due to volume, regardless of its relative safety (EPA…… [read more]

Satire About Water Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One cannot trust anything these liberals say, they have their own agenda, plain and simple. They love to cause trouble and stir the pot. Even the government says the country does not have a big problem with water pollution. These authors state, "Water quality in the United States, while not showing vast improvement since the early 1970s is at least… [read more]

Air Pollution Arises Both From Natural Processes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Air pollution arises both from natural processes and human activity. Substances not naturally found in the air or at greater concentrations or in different locations from usual are considered 'pollutants'. Air pollution can result from human activity or natural processes. Forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds, and natural radioactivity, are all among the natural causes of air pollution.

Natural air pollution does not usually occur in abundance in particular locations. Natural air pollution is distributed throughout the world, and as a result, poses little threat to the health of people and ecosystems (1). Therefore, the remainder of this paper will focus on air pollution resulting from human activity, and potential means of reducing air pollution from human activity.

The biggest causes of air pollution are the operation of fossil fuel-burning power plants and automobiles that combust fuel. Combined, these two sources are responsible for about 90% of all air pollution in the United States. Due to the abundance of air pollution attributable to automobiles, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a number of programs to reduce automobile emissions.

One of these initiatives is the clean air act. "Reformulated gasoline is gasoline blended to burn cleaner and reduce smog-forming and toxic pollutants in the air we breathe.

The Clean Air Act requires that reformulated gasoline be used in cities with the worst smog pollution to reduce harmful emissions of ozone" (2).

The first phase of the reformulated gasoline program was designed to reduce the air pollution that causes smog by 64,000 tons per year in the areas that use reformulated gasoline, compared to conventional gasoline, the equivalent of eliminating the smog-forming emissions from over 10 million vehicles" (2).

Green Peace has identified industrial incinerators as a major source of air pollution. According to Green Peace, "fifteen municipal waste incinerators burn 2.5…… [read more]

Tragedy of the Commons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,239 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Laws limiting toxic emissions are one coercive way of reducing the negative effects of pollution. Because individuals and corporations must now pay fines or pay for the effective treatment of their waste before throwing it out, they are less likely to pollute. Thus, Hardin suggests that laws are absolutely necessary in preventing the "tragedy of the commons." Again, the author is absolutely right. Although the companies might grumble and complain that it raises their costs, they pass those costs onto the consumer anyway. The fact is that if we want clean air and drinking water, we need to be willing to pay the price. Later, Hardin shows how laws, rather than being negative, ultimately result in positive outcomes for all human beings.

Next, Hardin talks about the intolerability of uncontrolled or unlimited breeding. Unlike many animal species, human beings do not have huge litters that are forced to survive on their own. Rather, human beings love and care for every one of their critters. Therefore, unlimited breeding leads to overpopulation of the species. A society committed to welfare and to feeding and caring for each individual who is born creates the "tragedy of the commons." Breeding is an act of self-interest that leads to collective disaster: depletion of resources, starvation, and pollution. Hardin states bluntly: "To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of action," (5). I personally agree: we must somehow control breeding, and the problem cannot be ignored for much longer. The earth has limited resources and we can no longer pretend that unlimited breeding won't produce the same problems faced by the herders. We can't simply rely on a laissez faire attitude because, as Hardin points out early in the article, "natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial," (3). To do nothing and ignore the problem means that those inclined to breed will still breed, even if they are consciously aware of the problems of overbreeding.

Therefore, we cannot control breeding simply through an "appeal to conscience," (5). In fact, Hardin states that conscience in this case has a ripple effect because "those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences," (5). The solution Hardin proposes is simple psychological coercion. Although coercion is a "dirty" word, we can "cleanse" it "by saying it over and over without embarrassment," (6). Hardin wants to show that coercion does not entail physical force or even a lack of freedom. To illustrate his point, the author provides another poignant analogy: laws against robbery create more freedom for human beings, not less (8).

There are many other means by which human beings use compulsion, coercion, and restriction in order to create a better world. For instance, "We institute and support taxes and coercion devises to escape the horror of the commons," (6). Hardin makes a rational and logical… [read more]

Biodiversity the Definition Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



But the most important aspect of "invasive species," and their impact on the biodiversity of an ecosystem, comes with the environmental harm that these species can cause. Environmental harm "includes significant changes in the ecological processes, sometimes across entire regions, which result in conditions that native species and even entire plant and animal communities cannot tolerate." ("Invasive Species Definition") In many cases, this can include disruptions in soil stabilization, deterioration of wildlife habitats, changes in wildfire patterns, decreased fish populations, and an overall alteration of entire ecosystems. ("Invasive Species Definition") Invasions by non-native invasive species have become a major problem to both man-made and naturally occurring ecosystems; changing the natural processes, killing off the natural and beneficial species, and devastating ecosystems.

For an ecosystem to be healthy and thrive, it requires a variety of different species all existing in a delicate balance. This variety of life is known as "biodiversity," and can be either a man-made or naturally occurring system. However, when non-native species are introduced to an ecosystem and they cause damage to either the naturally occurring species, or humans and their endeavors, they are considered to be "invasive." Invasive species can devastate ecosystems by out-competing native species for resources, destroying the biodiversity necessary to maintain the delicate balance of entire ecosystems.


"Invasive Species Definition Clarification and Guidance White Paper." (27 April 2006).

The National Invasive Species Council (NISC). Retrieved from http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/docs/council/isacdef.pdf

"Scientific Definitions of Biodiversity." California Biodiversity Council. Retrieved from http://biodiversity.ca.gov/Biodiversity/biodiv_def2.html… [read more]

Waste Water Runoff Inadequately Planned Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Waste Water Runoff

Inadequately planned growth has been the cause of significant health concerns for America's beaches. In 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council ordered 19,950 days of beach closures and pollution advisories. This 9% rise from the previous year affected 1,234 ocean and freshwater beaches. "The reason for 85% of the closures and advisories was the detection of excessive counts of fecal bacteria in the beach waters" (Mallin 53). Just as these high amounts of fecal bacteria were unhealthy for humans, they also were unhealthy for shellfish beds, leading to many closures as well.

With this disturbing trend, Mallin sought to investigate the relationship between human population growth and the closure of shellfish beds. This was of vast significance for several reasons. First, if the theorized linkage between population growth and shellfish bed closure was correct, then this information could be used to motivate developers and land owners to utilize more eco-friendly development plans, such as smart growth strategies. Second, healthier shellfish beds equates to healthier people who consume shellfish. Third, understand the causes of shellfish bed contamination, which would lead to action plans to prevent this contamination, also leads to economic benefits of a healthier crop of shellfish. The main point of this article was that human population growth was significantly linked to shellfish bed closures.

The author supported his conclusion with gathered data from his laboratory.

This data was gathered from five coastal North Carolina counties studied. "In 1984, when 352,124 people lived in the five counties, 35,275 acres of…… [read more]

Secondary Succession Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the Padre Island ecosystem in Texas, one can study primary succession. The action of the waves and wind form new islands, and on those islands, in time, grasses will grow. Still later woody plants will begin growing on the newly formed island and that is called primary succession (North East Independent School District).

Meanwhile, following the horrific fires in Texas in 2011, it was learned that within the 55 square miles that were burned near Bastrop, the Lost Pines area (64,000 acres of loblolly pine) was burned to the ground (Tompkins, 2011). Unfortunately the endangered Houston toad was apparently wiped out in the fire. And the loblolly pine, which is said to be "fire-intolerant," may not come back strong as part of the secondary succession process. The "short leaf pine" though, which was also burned in the Lost Pines area, is known to be drought resistant and generally tougher than the loblolly pine, so there is hope that its seedlings will begin its return in ten to fifteen years. As for the short leaf pine itself, it may take thirty years for it to be confirmed as an example of secondary succession (Tompkins). Will the short leaf pine reach climax? I believe it will because the ecosystem in the Lost Pines area is ideal for this pine, as shown in years past; it flourished until a "logging boom wiped them out in the 1880" (Tompkins). It will come back.

In conclusion, it is very clear that primary succession is based on species taking hold where there were no species to begin with, and secondary succession is the normal re-growth of organisms in a place where there is already soil for the regeneration to occur.

Works Cited

Holt, Rinehart & Winston. (2004). Holt Environmental Science. Chicago, IL: Hole McDougal.

North Ease Independent School District. (2006). Components of an Ecosystem & How they

Interact. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from www.neisd.net/curriculum/SchImprov/.../7_cs_unit6_ecology.doc.

Tompkins, Shannon. (2011). Flames from Bastrop fire will be felt…… [read more]

Solid Waste Trends Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Even as some of the most notorious 20th century landfills are capped off and repurposed as healthy, public recreational lands, the amount of waste that we are currently producing necessitates both the continued use of many imposing garbage-based masses and the creation of new ones.

Controlling These Factors:

A number of strategies have been implemented in recent years to offset the amount of solid waste matter that does end up in landfills. The chart provided by section four of the module and entitled "Destination of Municipal Solid Waste" shows the alternative methods of waste disposal that have increasing come into usage. The combustion method has been used as a method of disposal since the 1960s and in greater proportion than other alternatives until concerns about airborne emissions diminished its appeal. By the 1980s, rising emphasis on recycling would be a significant step in helping to reduce landfill-bound waste. And with the start of the 1990s, composting would begin to gain popularity as a way of turning waste into reusable planting mulch.

Problems With Recycling Program:

As the same chart cited here above demonstrates, one of the biggest drawbacks to the recycling program is the small proportion of recyclable items relative to the amount of waste which does go to the landfill. Even as recycling usage grows in popularity and penetration, its growth in usage lags behind the growth in the amount of waste produced in general. One culprit for this lag can be seen in neighborhoods such as my own. Here, the municipality has not made recycling cans readily available to residents. Instead of distribution, the community has asked residents to seek out bins in a remote city building. This approach lacks the necessary outreach to help…… [read more]

E-Waste Environmental Condition Like Economics and Market Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Environmental condition like economics and market is the most influential leverage point for change within this ecosystem. When individuals or corporate organizations doing electronics waste recycling and disposal get to publish their end year financial results and people get to see how engaging in electronic waste recycling can be lucrative, many organizations will seek federal license to eat into their market share (Russell, 2006). People will appreciate that they can earn their livelihood from recycling electronic waste. This far nobody would be willing to dispose electronic waste anyhow.

Very few would be willing to dump their e-waste in land fills or even burning them leading to further environmental degradation. When early adopters establish specific markets for electronic waste, households would be keen at accumulating their electronic wastes and selling them to such individuals to get some cash (Kozlan, 2010). Specific markets for electronic wastes are also likely to attract giant corporations that would buy such materials and recycling them as opposed to purchasing new ones. Think of manufacturers of lead-acid batteries, giant electronics companies like General Electronics, and even manufacturers of computer hardware.

For purposes of sanity in electronic waste recycling and disposal industry, the government has to step in and regulate the market by ensuring that there are legislations that dictate the rules of the game. Other than passing the legislations, the passed legislations have to be enforced by the law enforcement agencies that are particularly concerned with environmental issues. These laws will ensure that entrepreneurs engaging electronic waste management and disposal conduct their businesses within the law (Heylighen & Bernheim, 2000). Environmental condition like economics and markets would also attract non-profit organizations who would champion for recycling of electronic wastes and their responsible disposal. Non-profit organizations cannot responsibly carry out their stipulated duties without both financial and human resources. Individuals and local government has to be brought on board. They also have to look for volunteers. Activities undertaken…… [read more]

Logging and Slash and Burn Agriculture Lab Report

Lab Report  |  2 pages (512 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Logging and slash and burn agriculture are two major contributors to deforestation. Three other major factors are?

Cattle ranching

The debt burden (where in order to reduce their debt, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are forcing developing countries to destroy their rainforests.)

Shifted Cultivators (i.e. people who have moved into rainforest areas and taken up territory to farm in their ad hoc way).

List five major negative impacts of deforestation on forest ecosystems:__ Erosion____,__Climate Change (resulting in CO2 being released into the atmosphere and enhanced greenhouse effect),_ loss of plants that may provide potential treatments to diseases such as cancer, quality of land declines, and the old field is left for waste e laving country with less territory and further impoverishing them

Question 3

What are two ways you could slow down the rate of forest deforestation considerably: Recycling paper (buying paper that has the FSC certification) and protesting about corporations that are responsible for destroying rainforests._.

Review the following newspaper article on deforestation. This is a news article without data: "Farming in the rainforest can preserve biodiversity, ecological services.," located at http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0305-sulawesi.html

a. Name two types of data you would like to know regarding the situation in order to academically assess the situation. Be specific and academic. Additionally, explain why these types of data are important

"An analysis of Indonesian rainforests shows that farming cacao under the partial shade of high canopy trees can provide a way to balance economic gain with environmental considerations."

I would like to know how many rainforests…… [read more]

Science vs. Policy Scientific Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In bottom up policy initiatives, scientific and engineering communities, basically middle level federal scientists and members drawn from academic circles and industry may see a particular need and through long discussions formulate a proposal. They may then seek senior government officials who may adopt the proposal and take it through the daunting political process. Human Genome Project and Nanotechnology initiative is one such policy guideline that followed the above named process (Cheney, Windham, Kiyosada, Hill, & Heaton, 2003).

In as much as one would be taken to believe that science has widely been used in shaping policy issues, all has not been rosy. It is still largely taken for granted that modern natural sciences can play an important public role in improving conditions of human life. Some presidents hardly consult their science advisors. This is an attestation to the fact that the historical accommodation between science and policy is slowly disintegrating. Public and federal funds that scientists seriously need are not forthcoming (Rubin, 1997). This is making it extremely difficult to sell big-ticket science. Besides, individual researchers are finding it extremely difficult to fund their researches. The prevailing legal and regulatory climate is also stagnating innovation and is henceforth anti-science. Politicization of science has also worsened everything. Scientists are increasingly using science to advance partisan policy agenda by interpreting its results in a way that serves the intended cause (Ziman, 1996).

References List

Cheney, D.W., Windham, P., Kiyosada, T., Hill, C.T, Heaton, G.R. (2003). The Decision Making

Process in U.S. Science and Technology Policy. Retrieved from http://www.technopoli.net/JST%20Report.pdf

Pielke, R.A. (2007). The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rubin, C.T. (1997). The Troubled Relationship between Science and Policy. Retrieved from http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=19

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Pesticides: Science and Policy. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/science/index.htm

Ziman, J. (1996). Is Science Losing its Objectivity? Nature, 382(29), 751-754.… [read more]

Community Health Issues Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Community Health

There are many state and federal organizations that might be useful in preventing problems associated with radon exposure. If a radon health problem surfaced in my community, I would examine the various local, state, and federal organizations that provided me with information. The federal organization that would be the logical starting point is the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA offers a wealth of resources related to radon, including a citizen's guide, an EPA-drawn special map of radon risk zones, a buyers and sellers guide to radon for homeowners and prospective buyers, and information about where citizens can get tested for radon in order to prevent problems. The EPA has hotlines for communities impacted by radon, as well as other resources for citizen advocacy. This compendium of knowledge and resources makes the EPA the logical first choice.

From the EPA Website, I can then find links to local and state organizations that might be able to help me devise an intervention program in my community. The EPA website guides me toward what organizations exist to serve the needs of individuals and community leaders. For example, there are listings for the EPA Radon Program in Georgia, including the Georgia Dept. Of Community Affairs and the Georgia Department of Community Health. These organizations can then help locate whatever it is I may determine is the most pressing need, such as testing. A state-specific radon map is available to help show which communities are at highest risk, and if my community is identified as one of those, I would wonder why I did not know this problem beforehand. If my community is not identified as a highest risk area, I could still discover ways of mitigating the problem. The EPA also offers a list of construction and land developer links to companies committed to eliminating radon.

In terms of health care intervention, I would need to take a more localized…… [read more]

Oil Spill Damage the Effects Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,047 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


There have been gaps in the testing of dispersants. Most of the test only test the acute effects where little testing has been done on the chronic toxicity. The studies have also not examined the long-term effects of the dispersants. By using the dispersants to break up the oil hydrocarbon particles, it has added to damage from the oil and methane. Other than the shifting of the problem in the ecosystem, it still is not known to what extent the dispersants add to the damage of the oil spill.

There is also the problem of undersea oil patches creating oxygen depleting "dead zones" in the ocean. As the areas of "dead zones" expand, it causes an oxygen problem in the ocean. This puts the water column animals at greater risk. Where water surface animals can go to the surface for oxygen, the water column animals do not have the ability to breathe in the dead zones. At the same time, the larger animals are put at risk because they feed from the water column animals. As the water column animals are put at risk of oxygen dead zones, the larger animals lose their food chain.

The impact of oil spills on the marine and terrestrial ecosystems have been long and lasting as well as still immeasurable as to the total effects. The oil spills alone cause an immeasurable amount of damage that lasts decades, but the cleanup efforts of using dispersants add more immeasurable damage to the oil spill damage. With gaps in the testing of the dispersants, there is no real knowledge of the actual damage or the long-term effects of the products. Even though the dispersants break up the hydrocarbon particles of the oil reducing risk to the water surface animals, they are still affected with the increased risk to the water column organisms they use as food.

Even though species reproduce and replenish themselves, recovery in the species has been slow due to the damage done to the reproductive system. And, as more oil spills have happened, it has damage in the loss of the majority of the species, making recovery efforts even more slowly. With the effects of the damages caused by oil spills and their cleanup efforts, killing off major portions of the species, their food chains, and damaging the reproductive systems, recovery will be long and slow.


A Deadly Toll: The Gulf Oil Spill and the Unfolding Wildlife Disaster. (2011, Apr). Retrieved from Center for Biological Diversity: http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/public_lands/energy/dirty_energy_development/oil_and_gas/gulf_oil_spill/

asladirt. (2010, June 1). Oil Spill Will Hve Long-term Impact on Local Ecosystems. Retrieved from The Dirt: http://dirt.asla.org/2010/06/01/damage-to-gulf-of-mexico-ecosystem-grows/

Narisimha, M. (n.d.). Human Impact on Marine Ecosystem. Retrieved from Aquafind: http://www.aquafind.com/articles/HumanImpact.php

Oil Spill Impacts on Mammals. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Wildlife Federation: http://www.nwf.org/Oil-Spill/Effects-on-Wildlife/Mammals.aspx

Schor, E. (2010, July 30). Oil Spill Dispersants shifting Ecosystem Impacts in Gulf, Scientists Warn. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2010/07/30/30greenwire-oil-spill-dispersants-shifting-ecosystem-impact-95608.html… [read more]

Solve the Equation the Solution Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Question 13:

Solution: The solution is straight forward using the given table.

However, checking the inequality for take.

Then condition false.

Checking the inequality for take.

Then condition satisfied.

Therefore, The correct inequality "D."

Question 14:


The correct solution set is.

Question 15:


The solution set is.

Question 16:


The solution set is.

Question 17:


Student score on first test=72

Student score on second test=x

Average score=80

The student needs to score at least 88 out 100 on the test.

Question 18:

Solution: Let x be the cost of the car, then according to the given condition,

The answer is $21,750.

Question 19:


The solution set is t=0.

Question 20:

Solution: The year in which there were 1.7 million in mates is given by 1.7=0.05x-98.5




It was in the year x=2004.

Question 21:



Question 22:.

Question 23:


The perimeter of a rectangle=

The length of the rectangle is 15 inches.

Question 24: The correct choice is "D."

Question 25:


The solution set is. The correct choice is "D."

Question 26:


The solution set is.

Question 27:

Solution: The…… [read more]

Romf Microfiltration and Reverse-Osmosis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



I. Background and introduction

A. History of Water Treatment Methods

B. History of use of Reverse-Osmosis and Microfiltration

C. Current uses of both reverse-osmosis and microfiltration

II. What is Reverse-Osmosis?

A. How it works

1. Technical specs of R-O systems

2. Applications in specific industry sectors like wastewater treatment or desalination

B. Drawbacks, limitations, costs

III. What is Microfiltration?

A. How it works

1. Technical specs

2. Applications in industry sectors such as wine and beer

B. Drawbacks, limitations, costs

IV. The Best of Both Worlds: Using R-O and Microfiltration Together

A. Review of Literature

B. Potential applications and recommendations

V. Conclusion


Al-Samadi, R.A. & Benedek, A. (1994). Microfiltration enhanced reverse-osmosis for water treatment. United States Patent Number 5501798. March 26, 1996.

Fritzmann, C., Lowenberg, J., Wintgens, T. & Melin, T. (2007). State-of-the-art of reverse osmosis desalination. Desalination 216(1-3): 1-76.

Gabelich, C.J., Yuna, T.I., Coffeya, B.M. & Suffetb, I.H.M. (2003). Pilot-scale testing of reverse osmosis using conventional treatment and microfiltration. Desalination 154(3): 207-223.

Ghayeni, S.B.S., Beatson, P.J., Schneider, R.P. & Fanea, A.G. (1998). Water reclamation from municipal wastewater using combined microfiltration-reverse osmosis (ME-RO): Preliminary performance data and microbiological aspects of system operation. Desalination 116(1): 65-80.

Ghayenia, S.B.S., Madaeni, S.S., Fanea, A.G. & Schneider, R.P. (1996). Aspects of microfiltration and reverse osmosis in municipal wastewater reuse. Desalination 106(1-3): 25-29.

Kershner, K. (n.d.). How Reverse Osmosis Works. How Stuff Works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/reverse-osmosis.htm

"Reverse Osmosis," (2012). GEA Filtration. Retrieved online: http://www.geafiltration.com/technology/reverse_osmosis.asp

"Reverse Osmosis, Nano, Ultra & Micro Filtration," (n.d.). GEA Filtration. Retrieved online: http://www.geafiltration.com/technology/membrane_filtration_process.asp

Vial, D. & Doussau, G. (2003). The use of microfiltration membranes for seawater pre-treatment prior to reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination 153(1): 141-147.… [read more]

Corporate Violence White Collar Crime Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In other instances of unsafe products, the actions of the company may be even more craven. For example, when Ford created the Ford Pinto, the company actually calculated that it would be cheaper to settle lawsuits than to insert an inexpensive safety device that would prevent the car from catching fire when it was hit from behind. Ford feared that the increased cost, which would be passed on to consumers, would reduce the appeal of what was supposed to be an inexpensive car.

Discussion 2

Examples of corporate violence which consumers are put directly and unwittingly at risk are the most egregious examples of corporate violence, but it could also be argued that when corporations sell cigarettes and unhealthy fast food to the public in an attractive manner that they are facilitating the consumer doing violence to his or her body. Even if the risks are known by consumers, such products have addictive qualities, and once the consumer is 'hooked' it can be very difficult to get 'off' of the product.

Of course, not all corporate violence is so blatant. Sometimes, when a particular food product is contaminated (such as lettuce) from a third-party source, a company may unwittingly poison consumers, even if the food is prepared according to industry guidelines on-site. Still, corporations have a responsibility to vet their suppliers and outside contractors as well as to engage in scrupulous ethical behaviors themselves (such as when the toy company Mattel's subcontracting in China led to its products containing dangerous amounts of lead).

Sadly, it is often the most vulnerable populations who are the most affected by corporate violence: people who cannot afford to move to another area if their land is contaminated; the sick who need medications; the poor who cannot afford high-quality products; the uneducated who cannot research the risks of an addictive product; and the young who are dependent upon others for their safety.…… [read more]

Water Management Contemporary Issue Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Also, due to the vast increase in the population of the world, the amount of waste has also increased many folds. This waste is a constituent of toxic, chemical and non-bio-degradable waste that cannot be easily decomposed ("Water management -,"). Thus, whenever it rains, the water takes up these chemicals, sweeps through the ground and contaminates the underground water reservoirs.

Water is our need. It is necessary for the sustainability of life on earth. But due to excessive growth in population, the world's economy and pollution the world is approaching on the verge of war; a war that would be fought for water. So, what is the solution, for stopping the whole socio- economic system from collapsing? The first step should be the inculcation of awareness amongst people about the possible water crisis, which is destined to hit the world in the near future and the productive measures which can help to avert the crisis ("Water management -,"). The second step is to bring a revolution in our reforms, pertaining to water management. Radical steps would have to be taken to put a curb on toxic waste being discharged into water bodies and new breed of harmless or less harmful chemicals have to be introduced, that will be destined to save the water from being contaminated. The third step is to put a limit on the population growth, especially in the developing countries ("Water management -,"). This will not only increase the number of litres of available water per person but will also help to relieve the Mother Earth from bearing the brunt of feeding a much larger inhabitants, thus evading the food crisis.

These are only a few, of the thousands of steps, which could be taken to save water and consequently, the future of the human race.


Water management - problems and methods. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aquamedia.at/templates/index.cfm/id/1462

Pietersen, K., & Beekman, H. (n.d.). Freshwater. Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/DEWA/Africa/docs/en/aeo-2/chapters/aeo-2_ch04_FRESHWATER.pdf… [read more]

Eradicating Ecocide Wanton Destruction Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The author wavers between a nerdy, scholastic pitch to one that is idealistic and politically charged: "It is your rally too if you choose it to be. I ask you to join me," (Higgins, 2010, p. 171). Yet even if this is so, the practical advice that Higgins (2010) offers does have the potential to eradicate ecocide in a meaningful, proactive way. For example, the author suggests to readers that they re-examine their investment portfolios, "taking stock," so to speak, of the ways money flows into the channels that either eradicate or perpetuate ecocide. Businesses committed to organizational change can gain much from the Higgins assessment, as she offers concrete objectives and strategies for cleaning up dirty sectors. Of course, all of what Higgins advises is contingent upon radical mind changing. Any businessperson settled comfortably into a profit-driven mentality that does not have room for an ecological ethic will ignore the advice in Higgins's (2010) book. Moreover, Higgins (2010) outright ignores some of the most significant culprits of ecocide in the developing world. Eradicating Ecocide is written for an educated Western audience, but the problem of ecological destruction is a global one. The principles set forth in Higgins's (2010) book must be re-written and re-formulated for Chinese, Brazilian, and Indian audiences as well.

However, we must begin somewhere. Higgins at least accomplishes the goals the author sets out to do in Eradicating Ecocide. The principles of the book are sound, and there are no noticeable local fallacies. Drawing on legal and political root causes of ecocide, the author presents a case that is in many ways air tight and incontrovertible. The problem now is getting on board the people at the top of the totem pole, who are in the…… [read more]

Future Waste Scenarios Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (589 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


By increasing the amount of products that are reused within a household, individuals are placing emphasis on the perceived value and utility of goods that are consumed. Products are no longer viewed as useful for a short while, but instead are valued for their longevity. In order to increase behaviors associated with reuse within households, behavioral change in the form of habit creation is required. Just as it becomes habit to use a product and then discard of it, it becomes a habit to use a product and then reuse it for the same purpose or discover alternate, practical uses for the product. Again, communication between household members is required in order to ensure all members are on the same page in regard to reuse behaviors with the intention of positively impacting household waste generation.

Finally, recycling behavior within the household is required in order to effectively reduce the environmental impact products may have when their consumption is required and they cannot be reused. Choices made within the household regarding purchasing of products that are recyclable as well as making efforts to actively organize waste into recyclable and non-recyclable categories aids in increasing the level of recycling behavior. However, much of the required effort to promote and facilitate recycling behavior transcends beyond the household into government programs and initiatives. The reduction of household waste generation and increase in recycling behavior must be made a priority by governing bodies, and resources and efforts must be targeted towards specific goals. By increasing awareness through advertising campaigns as well as improving household recycling efficiency through programs that make it easier to choose recycling behaviors, the UK will be on the right path toward a continually green future.… [read more]

Bpethics the British Petroleum (BP) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Contingency plans should have been in place to cover spills of this magnitude, and those plans should have been adhered to. Equipment that was faulty or not even in place that would have eased the situation should have been checked continuously and in an effective manner.

Finally, the reparations (once they were initiated) seemed to have been made in an effective and efficient manner as they should have been. If a company is the root cause of a problem such as this one, reparations should be swiftly and generously made. As to the question of whether BP was ethically obligated to dole out more than what the government demanded; probably not. It's common knowledge that government always overpays for everything. When the administration demanded a $20 billion fund financed by BP, that was more than enough (as it turned out).

As one recent study found "the management of abnormal situations becomes more important everyday" (Aguilar, Prato, Bravo, Rivas, 2009, p. 406) and this oil spill was definitely an abnormal situation. However, once the scope of the situation was understood, it seemed as if BP did a fairly decent job of fulfilling its ethical obligations. The company continued to strenuously address the oil spill and its effects on the local, national, and international communities. It paid its reparations in a fairly quick manner, and it conducted its cleanup efforts in an aboveboard manner. Mistakes were made by both BP and the government, perhaps learning from those mistakes will assist in any future similar situations.


Aguilar, J.; Prato, F.; Bravo, C.; Rivas, F.; (2009) A multi-agent system for the management of abnormal situations in an artificially gas-lifted well, Applied Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 23, Issue 5, pp. 406 -- 426

Balaguer, A.; (2010) The black gulf, Americas, Vol. 62, Issue 5, pp. 6-11

Sylves, R.T. & Comfort, L.K.; (2012) The Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon…… [read more]

Water Standards Issues in Urban Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Due to the nature of nonpoint source pollution of water in urban areas any plan that fails to incorporate collaboration between agencies and public information provision will not be effective because NPS water pollution prevention is necessarily dependent upon these to accomplish its goal of reducing and preventing NPS water pollution.


Public Works Department -- Stormwater Services Division (2011) City of Durham, North Carolina Website. Retrieved from: http://www.ci.durham.nc.us/departments/works/stormwater_water_quality.cfm

Indiana Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Management Plan (2011) Watershed and Nonpoint Source Water Pollution. Indiana Government Website. Retrieved from: http://www.in.gov/idem/nps/3153.htm

Nonpoint Source Management Planning Session II (2011) Summary Report - University of Northern Iowa Institute for Decision Making. 29 Apr 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.bcs.uni.edu/idm/news/NPSMP/NPSMP_Session_2_Summary_Report.pdf

Ambrosio, JD, Lawrence, T. And Brown, LC (nd) A Basic Primer on Nonpoint Source Pollution and Impervious Surface. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet - Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from: http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/0444.html

Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention and Control Planning Handbook (nd) National Center for Environmental Publications. United States Environmental Protection agency. Retrieved from: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/30004LY0.txt-Zy ActionD=ZyDocument&Client=EPA&Index=1991%20Thru%201994&Docs=&Query=625R93004%20or%20Water%20or%20Standards%20or%20Issues%20or%20Urban%20or%20Planning&Time=&EndTime=&SearchMethod=1&TocRestrict=n&Toc=&TocEntry=&QField=pubnumber^%22625R93004%22&QFieldYear=&QFieldMonth=&QFieldDay=&UseQField=pubnumber&IntQFieldOp=1&ExtQFieldOp=1&XmlQuery=&File=D%3AYFILESINDEX%20DATA91THRU94TXT… [read more]

Entrepreneurship Research and Service Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (910 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Explain what in these images captures these issues and problems. Why does our approach become an appropriate way to understand and address these issues? How are the issues related? Why does our out-of-the-box approach allow us the needed flexibility and perspectives?

The out-of-the-box approach allows incredible flexibility because it serves to address multiple objectives simultaneously. First, it deals with the presence of unsafe, energy inefficient and run-down structures in place. These must be dealt with by some means; whether it is for aesthetical value or for safety concerns. There is no more ideal a manner of achieving this than to recycle the usable materials and discard the remanding materials in an environmentally friendly manner.

Another objective that is met with the current project plan is that it allows for a great amount of labor to be employed to meet both the demolition needs as well as the new construction needs. In a job market that is in dire straits, this could be one of the most beneficial intangible assets of the entire project that will strongly support community development. There are also some psychological benefits that might be gained from using local labor. This could reasonably foster a sense of pride and ownership that will be directed into local communities and also adding another dimension to sustainability on the community level.

The project also dictates that the new structures that are to be created from recycled materials are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. This has tremendous impact on the local carbon footprint that each individual in the community is responsible for. Not only are emissions reduced by bypassing the energy intensive industries that would be needed to produce new materials, but also it allows for energy requirements to be minimized in the maintenance of such structures.

In conclusion, no matter which perspective you are analyzing this project proposal from, the project adds value to the community on many fronts. If you view it from a people perspective, then you will find that local employment will be one of the greatest beneficiaries as well as the related psychological impacts that will bring communities together. If you view this project from an energy perspective, you will find that it minimizes energy requirements both from bypassing new production as well as creating structures that are more energy efficient. Finally, if it is viewed from the level of the community, you will find that all the stars a line and there is no better conceivable way to revitalize a community along such a sustainable development path. If only all the cities in the world could find the same sources of inspiration as Detroit, then maybe we could learn to live in harmony with the planet once again.… [read more]

San Diego-Tijuana Water Epidemic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


San Diego later cancelled those plans and this prompted the federal governments to delay the program until 1998. Citing San Diego's change in construction plans as well as the famed San Diego flood troubles the plans were placed on hold until at least 1998, which consequently cost the city of San Diego many tourist revenue dollars (Drought PG 56). In… [read more]

Angiosperms, Fungi, Algae Characteristics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This plant is nourished by sunlight and heat, and flourish in water with a high pH level and water that is in high nitrogen level.

Algae cultivate growth of bacteria.

Black Algae Cyanophyta: These are dark blue, black or in green color that are mostly grown in colonies as small dots.

They have a protective layer over itself and are usually visible in white plaster.

Green Algae Chlorophyta: they are the most common algae.

They are formed in green patches on pool and spa surfaces.

Yellow Algae Phaeophyta: They are also called Mustard Algae that makes a slimy layer in order to protect it from sanitizers.

Yellow algae can be removed easily with brush, but returns quickly at the same time.

They can set in on any pool or spa.

Chlorine may slow its growth, but will not totally remove this damage of Algae

Works Cited

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Characteristics of Angiosperms.

A www.academics.hamilton.edu

Characteristics of Fungi. Master Gardener General Training. Table of Contents.

A www.plantpath.wisc.edu

Algae and its Characteristics. Warehouse Pool Supply.

A www.warehousepools.com

Angiosperms, Fungi, Algae… [read more]

Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrient Cycles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Decomposers are microorganisms that are able to break down large molecules into smaller parts, meaning that they return nutrients from a living organism (or previously living organism) back into the earth, where they will return to the producers which will draw these kinds nutrients out of the soil to aid in production of food.

A food chain follows the path of energy transfer as organisms find food. An example of a food chain involving the animals I have observed:

Prickly Pear Cactus -> Turtles -> Wolves ->mosquito ->Venus Fly Trap -> Deer ->Wolves

This is not an example that would be expected, however, because although wolves are considered to be at the top of the food chain, meaning that they have no natural predators, they do in fact have parasites, such as mosquitos, or even flies that will eat their ears during the summer, which will then continue the food chain. It is also interesting to have the Venus Fly Trap, which is a plant, acting as a consumer in this theoretical food chain. Also, it is interesting to note that the wolf occurs twice on this food chain example, because it eats both the turtle and the deer, which is an example of how the food chain is not as simple as "one, two, three" in the way that people often imagine it.) food web follows many paths, and shows how organisms are related in many ways in their search to find food. An example of a food web including organisms I have observed:

tree produces acorns which may be eaten by many small animals, including squirrels and chipmunks, and also eaten by wild boars. In turn, these small animals may be eaten by larger animals such as bobcats and owls, and wolves may eat both these smaller animals and also the wild boars which have eaten the acorns. After they die, any of these animals may be eaten by vultures and insects, such as flies. Flies may be eaten by Venus Fly Traps, or by Black Bears which enjoy eating insects. (Food webs have no logical end point because the cycle continues forever.)


Campbell, Neil and Reece, Jane. Biology. Pearsons Higher Education, 2001.

Taylor, Martha. Student Study Guide for Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 1999.… [read more]

Louisiana Air Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


[Anne Rolfes]

If exposed, HF can immediately vaporize and contaminate the air by forming an acid cloud for miles. Fluoride ion is very powerful and can penetrate human tissues and cause pulmonary edema and death due to suffocation. As the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety states, "Even a concentration as low as 30 ppm of hydrofluoric acid in the air is considered 'immediately dangerous to life and health,' [SBCEQ] The Hydrofluoric Acid usage by the Exxon Mobil refinery is definitely an ominous threat to the lives of over one million people in the locality.


Designed by SBCEQ ('Saint Bernard Citizens for Environmental Quality'), "Exxon Mobil's Hydrofluoric Acid and Chalmette, Louisiana - Unnecessary Risk," Accessed on April 24th 2004, http://www.exxonmobildoublestandards.com/

Anne Rolfes, Darryl Malek, Ken Ford, Aaron Viles and Rick Hind, "Exxon Mobil's Chalmette Refining Leads Refineries Nationwide in Use of Hazardous Acid," Accessed on April 24th 2004, http://www.labucketbrigade.org/communities/chalmette/press/3.16.04%20HF%20Press%20Release.pdf

Louisiana Bucket Brigade, "Chalmette's Exxon Mobil Skips Deadline to Provide

Air Monitoring Results," Accessed on April 24th 2004, http://www.labucketbrigade.org/communities/chalmette/press/20031120.shtml… [read more]

Recycling I Support Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


So anything that can be done to reduce the amount of waste going into landfills has considerable benefit.

Recycling also promotes a more efficient economy. Material is not discarded until all of its economic value has been utilized. There are often revenue-generating opportunities from the recycling as well, because the cost of acquiring the materials is free -- consumers essentially donate them when they recycle them -- and after processing the materials can then be re-sold (EPA.gov, 2014).

Counter Argument

There are some reasons for not recycling, however. The EPA (2014) notes that recycled goods typically require some form of processing before they can be re-used. This often requires more energy or cost than is required to process the same material new. There are valid economic reasons for this, but the end result is that sometimes recycling is only efficient in principle, that financially it is actually less efficient. In such instances, it is harder to make the case for recycling. A good example is that sometimes with plastics, because they need to be melted down, more fossil fuels are used in recycling the plastics than would have been used in the production of new plastics. So there are definitely instances where recycling is not as favorable as it appears.


On balance, recycling is the right thing to do. It promotes economic efficiency and a mindset against needless waste. The reality is that recycling allows us to maximize the economic value that we derive from resources, some of which are non-renewable. There are cases where one can argue against recycling, but on balance recycling is positive, promotes economic efficiency and minimizes resource waste.


EPA.gov. (2014). Waste management options. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.epa.gov/osw/homeland/options.htm

Kinnon, S. (2008). Plastic pros and cons. Alive. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.alive.com/articles/view/21832/plastic_pros_and_cons… [read more]

Resources and Population Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For those who use outhouses and related types of waste disposal, the use of "chemical toilets" can make things more hygienic. These chemicals provide better hygiene because they break up waste and dissolve it. That means less chance of it contaminating the area of earth where it is being buried. It also allows the outhouse to remain in the same place for a much longer period of time, because the hole that is dug for the waste disposal does not reach its capacity as quickly. This can reduce the amount of sewage that works its way into the soil, and make the use of the outhouse more hygienic and convenient for everyone. This works well for countries that do not have large water supplies, too, because outhouses and chemicals to dissolve waste do not need any water in order to be effective. Where there is already a water shortage, the water is needed for drinking and watering crops to produce food. Its best usage is not for the disposal of waste.

Overall, in countries where there is plenty of water, sewer systems and septic tanks coupled with indoor plumbing are the best choices. In countries where a lack of water is a problem, outhouses, chemical toilets, and related options are the best choices. They are still relatively hygienic in that the waste products are disposed of and are not in the house, but yet they do not require water to work or be effective. They can provide the best of both worlds for those who need a way to dispose of waste but who are not comfortable with the use of water for those purposes. Not every country has an abundance of water, and even countries that normally have adequate water supplies can struggle in times of drought. It is important to understand other ways of sewage and waste disposal in order to ensure there are options no matter how much water is available.… [read more]

Waste Water Treatment: Conventional Methods Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In this case, the conventional methods are modified as to recover human excreta as a resource, as opposed to disposing it off as waste (Rapaport, 1995). These treatment options make use of natural processes to convert human excreta into fuel or even fertilizer. The most common of these treatment methods include;

The use of waterless biological toilets: these rely on the composting process of soil-based microorganisms, which decompose human waste into humus (Rapaport, 1995). These do not use water. Instead, air is pulled in through the toilet's pile to facilitate microorganism activity, which slowly decomposes the waste as the effluent percolates through the soil, leaving liquids to leach and be treated the same way as grey water (Rapaport, 1995).

Waste water gardens: in this case, waste water from households is led into a sealed septic, and then into a specially-designed subsurface wetland cell which keeps it below the soil, preventing odors, and at the same time treating the effluent through a three-phase microorganism composting process that converts the solids to humus, and leaves the liquids to leach into the soil as grey water (Rapaport, 1995).

Treatment Wetlands: from a septic tank, waste water is led to a wetland whose vegetation not only slows down the waste water's speed, but also traps the suspended solids therein (Rapaport, 1995). The wetland vegetation provides favorable grounds for the thriving of microorganisms, which then decompose the solid waste matter into humus, producing water vapor and carbon (IV) oxide (Rapaport, 1995).

Biogas systems: in this case, the septic tank is replaced with a biodigestor that allows for the growth and reproduction of methan-producing microorganisms (Rapaport, 1995). These microorganisms decompose the solid waste into biogas, and treat the waste water, which is then stored in one of the system's compartments mostly for purposes of irrigation (Rapaport, 1995).


NCSU. (2013). Septic Systems and their Maintenance. North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-13/

Rapaport, D. (1995). Sewage Pollution in Pacific Island Countries and how to Prevent It. Center for Clean Development.

UNL. (2011). A Place in the Country: the Acreage Owner's Guide. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.…… [read more]

Raworth's a Safe and Just Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


4. How could inequalities in global resource use be represented graphically within the framework?

Throughout the discussion paper various graphic and tables are employed to provide a visual element to the startling data compiled and presented. For example, Figure 2. Falling below the social foundation: An illustrative assessment based on Rio+20 priorities combines the traditional pie-chart with a modernized "word-cloud" format to depict an image in which "social dimensions with two indicators in Table 1 are represented by split wedges, showing both of the deprivation gaps" (Raworth, 2012). To graphically represent inequalities in global resource use, the author could use the same format to depict various industrialized nations' use of arable land, fresh water and other essential but finite natural resources as compared to their non-industrialized counterparts.

5. How could this framework be extended to explore the fair shares of effort needed, between and within countries, to bring humanity into the safe and just space?

Recognizing the incredibly complex nature of the geopolitical map -- one which includes nearly 200 nations with distinctly different capabilities in terms of natural resources, environmental regulation, and population demands -- Raworth spends much of the discussion paper's fourth section examining the concept of "fair shares of effort." In the author's estimation "the diversity of natural resource endowments between countries (in terms of their land mass, forests, biodiversity, freshwater, marine resources, and oil and minerals), their very different histories of resource use, and their contrasting levels of economic development, add further dimensions of complexity" (2012) to the ongoing effort to alleviate global poverty in a sustainable manner. To reconcile this divide, Raworth advocates a principle which was enshrined in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992, one in which the framework is extended to recognize that various nations must utilize "common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities" (2012).

6. What are the major policy shifts required to achieve economic development that brings humanity within social and planetary boundaries?

Raworth believes that the traditional metrics policymakers use to assess economic progress -- including Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rates -- have become outmoded in their ability to accurately gauge social issues like poverty, hunger and disease which are inextricably linked to national fiscal policy. As Raworth asserts in the first section of the discussion paper, "mainstream economic policies have so far failed to deliver inclusive and sustainable economic growth, and policymakers continue to rely on economic indicators -- such as GDP growth -- that are not up to the task of measuring what matters for social justice and environmental integrity" (2012). As the author appraises the current situation, policymakers must adjust the metrics used to measure global sustainability, while also becoming "more accountable for the impact of economic activity on planetary and social boundaries,…… [read more]

Queues V System Dynamics Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


There are several examples of how queuing theory can be applied one is in a post office where there is one line but with several clerks the net person who will be served is the one that has stood longest within a line. The burden of the wait is thus shared by all those people that are found within the line the longer a line is then the longer the wait will be. A second example is trucks that are entering a dock; they have to be within a queue so that they can be order during the process of clearing. It would be chaotic if everyone would want to be served without following a queue. On the basis of average arrival rates and average service rates there are formulas that describe queuing models can be used for the calculation of important system measurements like capacity utilization, average waiting times for servicing of average number of items that are to be in a queue at any particular time.

The nature of the queue is one that involves the shifting of costs and burden averaging. A provider of a particular service that has limited resources may only be able to serve a small number of people at a time, any number of people that is beyond that is forced to wait for their turn.Queuing systems are stochastic which means that they are based on different random variables. The arrival rate of customers random but is usually theorized to follow a specific probability function. They key to analyzing queues is the use of theory and equations that allow one to determine the probabilities.


Aitelli, M.&Deckro, M.(2004).Modelling the Lanchester Laws with system dynamics. Retrieved July 3,2014 from http://www.scs.org/pubs/jdms/vol5num1/Artelli.pdf… [read more]

Reduce the Incidence of Air Pollution? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … reduce the incidence of air pollution?

Air Pollution. Intervention: Public awareness programs regarding air pollution. Cause: Biohazards, traffic, and excessive fires. Outcome: asthma, allergic respiratory disease and COPD.

What information do you need about his issue? I would need an extremely detailed and effective cost-benefit analysis of the various ways to reduce the incidence of air pollution. This sort of research would help me to answer the first PICO question, and reveal what sorts of costs are required for the measures that can provide the most salient sorts of boons. I would be looking for other public awareness programs that are related to reducing air pollution, and utilizing them in one of two different ways. The first would be to actually find cost-benefit analysis that were conducted on these programs. The second would be to utilize the information gleaned from my research to conduct my own cost-benefit analysis.

Specifically, I would be looking to determine what the most efficacious means of advertising the various aspects of a reduction in air pollution campaign to the general public is. There are a number of different mechanisms and vehicles (in some instances literally) that one can utilize. I would need to know what they are and the various prices associated with them. Additional information I would be looking to procure pertains to reduced vehicle emissions options (such as hybrid or electric cars), as well as the location and direct effect of any factories in the area.

3. Such information is largely prescriptive in nature, since it will inform the measures that are ultimately used to reduce air pollution in Ironridge.

4. The database that would be most helpful is PubMed

What sort of governmental funding is available to provide economic relief for Ironridge's safety issues?

Problem: A lack of…… [read more]

Analyzing Abolishing the Death Penalty and Capital Punishment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (5,168 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Abolishing the Death Penalty/Capital Punishment

Social evolution seems to have triggered people and countries across the globe to a consensus regarding certain practices. Many countries seem to have agreed that some practices must be stopped, as a way of maintaining the dignity of humanity. Slavery and sacrificing humans as a ritual are some examples of the practices that the world… [read more]