"Ethics / Morality" Essays

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Ethics and Moral Theory Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,154 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethics - Moral Theory


Life is Beautiful and Dishonesty:

The movie Life is Beautiful (1998) portrays the life of Guido Orefice, a Jewish tourist traveling in Italy just before the outbreak of World War II. Under Fascist rule, Italian Jews were rounded up and dispatched to Nazi extermination camps as part of Hitler's "Final Solution" to Europe's "Jewish problem." To keep his five-year-old son Giosue from being frightened by the ordeal, Guido tells him that their purpose for traveling by train to Germany is to compete in a contest to win a shiny new tank because the child greatly admired military vehicles. The film suggests that Guido's deception was justified by its purpose and raises the larger ethical issue of engaging in deception for beneficent rather than selfish reasons.

Objective Analysis of the Ethical Issue Presented by the Movie:

Different ethical theories offer conflicting views on the morality of lying in order to achieve a worthwhile purpose. For example, utilitarian concepts would support the use of deception exclusively for the benefit of the deceived individual whereas deontological theorists might oppose the violation of the general moral rule prohibiting lying; similarly, the virtue ethics perspective might support the deception if motivated by the underlying motivation that has a moral value. In general, lying is unethical only because deception is much more likely to be motivated by immoral purposes than for beneficent goals. Nevertheless, just as in the case of other ethical principles, the rules intended to preserve those worthwhile principles are not necessarily equipped to address every imaginable situation in which the issues are capable of arising. The interest of public safety requires that the flow of vehicular traffic be regulated by light signals and road signs in conjunction with which enforcement by authorities is appropriate to ensure compliance.

However, exceptions from the ordinary circumstances those rules of the road sometimes justify violating those rules. Emergency vehicles may not obey traffic rules for the purpose of achieving the greater purpose of responding to fires and other emergencies and private citizens may also have to violate those established rules to rush someone to the hospital. The fact that exceptions from ordinary situations may justify isolated violations of otherwise sound ethical rules does not undermine the value of those rules; in fact, in certain instances, adhering to formal rules may cause harm instead of preventing harm, which is the purpose of establishing formal rules like traffic laws in the first place.

Practically all ethical perspectives, as well as ordinary common sense, view purposeful deception for personal gain as unjustified immoral conduct. Utilitarianism might justify even selfish deception if the beneficiaries far outnumbered those being deceived, but would ultimately not support such a practice because the individual being deceived is being used for the purposes of others. However, where the sole purpose of the deception is for the benefit of the individual being deceived without any selfish benefit to the perpetrator of the deception, utilitarian analysis… [read more]

Ethics, Morality, &amp Medicine Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  6 pages (2,090 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Thus, it is almost impossible today to define a common set of medical moral principles to which all physicians subscribe." (Pellegrino, 2006,-Page 66)

There is no consensus of the moral and ethical codes of practicing medicine. This is alarming. Morals and ethics belong in the practice of medicine. Pellegrino continues and provides historical precedence for the necessity of ethics and morals with respect to practicing physicians:

"In a rather brief disquisition on medications, Scribonius put forward the notion that we should determine the responsibilities of the physician by examining the nature of medicine itself. He said that the aim of the physician, the end of medicine, was humanitas. That was the first time, as far as we know, that a word with that precise meaning was used in this connection. Humanitas -- humanity, a love of mankind, was not the same as philanthropia, the Greek concept which expressed rather a kindliness towards the patient that would enable the physician to have a good practice and a good reputation." (Pellegrino, 2006,-Page 66)

One can only take a moment to imagine the experience of a physician as well as the quantity and quality of ethical and moral choices and/or situations one would encounter as a basic function of the job description. It is stunning to consider the physicians travelling around various hallways around the western world practicing medicine and treating swarms of patience and lacking or disagreeing upon the system of morals and ethics within the workplace and profession. How many people would continue to seek treatment at hospitals if they considered those questions? How many people would put their faith in physicians and hospitals after reading about Anna's experience? Ultimately, the books teaches that though Anna had the "right" or appropriate set of ethics and morals, she was meant to die so that Kate could live because Kate is the child her parents actually wanted.

Out of all the characters in the story, the character of Kate might be the most challenging. She did not ask to be born; she certainly did not ask to have leukemia. She neither asked her parents to conceive and raise another child so as to harvest that child's body parts to keep her alive. Kate wants to live. Most people do. She also respects her sister's rights to have her own life. She additionally appreciates, while perhaps does not fully understand, why her parents made the decisions they made. Kate loves her parents; she loves her sister; and she loves life. On whose side is she? Or rather, because she can empathize will several people, on whose side is she not? Anna and Kate changed the Fitzgerald family. Even though Anna dies in a car accident, the family does not change or the family is restored to the state for which the parents fought for the duration of both the girls' lives. The family goes back to being a mother, a father, and Kate. There would be no Kate without Anna. There would be no… [read more]

Ethics, Morality, Values, and Beliefs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,171 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Morally, defense lawyers may feel a sense of repugnance on an emotional level, based on their childhood teachings, when representing guilty clients. But legal, ethical systems of professional conduct are constructed and articulated as absolutes, particularly for a profession may conflict with morality. Likewise, a businessperson who is a CEO has vowed to make a profit for the company -- it is unethical for him to better his once-humble family's home life with largess while stealing funds even from wealthy stockholders.

Beliefs, in contrast to ethics or morality do not have good/bad implications. I can believe in God, or believe in Darwinism, but that does not mean I believe God is good or evolution is good, merely that I believe they exist, based on my intellectual orientation. I may value the pursuit of education and having a family as one of my core values, or value upholding the virtues of being a good child and a good friend, but values are rather vague in terms of priority, for they do not instruct that one must do one or the other action -- ethically I am bound as someone with insider information about a stock not to reveal that information, even if I value someone's friend friendship, because I value my commitment to my professional code more than simple friendship.

In terms of my own development of ethics, probably the first ethical education any child receives comes when he or she is first tempted to swipe a piece of candy from a store. Unlike the moral commandment to 'be nice to your sister,' or else she will cry, or the value of friendship not to 'snitch' in class when your best friend doesn't have his homework, eventually one learns that one has an ethical obligation not to steal. This is true even if the store owner thinks it is cute to see a little person act like a thief and you suffers no consequences for the action, after your mother forces you to take the candy back. In other words, ethics is about right and wrong, rather than what might happen to you if you do a bad thing, and even if you gave the candy bar to your best friend and upheld the value of friendship and fellowship, it would still stand as an ethical wrong.

Beyond the family and school, however, ethics is often situation-specific in professional life. This is perhaps why there are so many business scandals, because if everyone appears to loosely regard ethical rules, it is tempting not to uphold rigorous standards such as not cheating the company's time, doing the best work one can do at all times, etc. This is especially blurry regarding work, because it is hard to say if one is working hard to achieve a promotion, or because one is ethically bound to do so on behalf of a paying client.

One would like to think that beyond the values of company loyalty and money, the morality of doing well for… [read more]

Professional Licensing State Laws Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Q4. What is the relationship between the American Psychological Association (APA), the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), and the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (NRHSPP)? By which criteria do you distinguish them?

The APA sets general professional standards for the profession as a whole, while according to its official website, the ASPPB creates and maintains the Professional Exam Services (PES) used for licensing psychologists, provides educational material needed to pass the exam or for new students, and offers assistance in helping psychologists obtain certification in new or multiple states. The NRHSPP states on its official website that it specifically credentials health services professionals in the field of psychology.

Part II: Personal values and beliefs

Q1. What is right or good and what is wrong, bad or evil? Consider the etiology of these values and developmental criteria from your own life experiences.

I believe that evil is defined as the 'absence of good' or the complete and utter denial of someone else's right to exist in the world. Although pain sometimes must be caused for the good of someone (like revealing an uncomfortable truth or giving a child a shot), purposeless cruelty is the definition of evil. Based upon my religious upbringing, although I am not religious, I tend to grade the morality of actions based upon their intentionality rather than upon their effects.

Q2. What are your assumptions about the nature of human beings? How responsible are people for themselves and their actions? What are your definitions of: Values, beliefs, ethics, morality, and conscience?

Human beings are neither innately good nor bad. They are products of a constellation of influences based in both in their biology and social influences. Human beings must be viewed as responsible for their actions if they have learned a notion of right and wrong, although human development is contingent upon other influences besides that of one's personal will. Values are concepts we hold dear, such as democracy or individual autonomy, that are partially the result of our culture and partially the result of our personal upbringing. Beliefs are how we articulate our values to ourselves, while ethics relate to the formal system of how we define those beliefs so we can make decisions. Morality refers to our sense of personal convictions, although this is influenced by social and cultural values and norms and our conscience is our personal 'police' that enforces and checks our behaviors, even in the absence of formal laws or when no one is around.

Q3. Which values have drawn you to become a psychologist? How are these values reflected in the type of work you are doing and/or intend to do? How does psychology operate in legal agency for the government, federal & state, and corporate values and interests? How do psychologists operate as agents for governmental state and private corporate interests?

My belief in the right of every human being to maximize his or her potential has led me to psychology, specifically to clinical… [read more]

Code of Ethics in the Department of Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Code of Ethics as Applicable to the Department of Justice

The topic of ethics from the aspect of a professional and scientific viewpoint has emerged as a topic of significant concern in recent years, both for the Department of Justice and for other organizations as well. Ethics is generally a term used to describe a set of values that describe… [read more]

Internet and Ethical Values Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,318 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Jennings, M.M. (2002).Ethics in Cybercafe. TechFocus. The author discusses the importance of ethics in the new economy, which shows that the ethical principle is still the major method of doing business. Within the last few centuries, business leaders have continued to integrate ethics in their business portfolios because ethics have been the critical tools that shape the present business environment. Any business that deviates from ethics is bound to fail.

Jennings was a lecturer in one of the top universities in the United States and when the author was invited to deliver a speech about the importance of business ethics, many successful and young e-commerce entrepreneurs received the message with chilly reception. Some people even challenged him on the ground that his thought was outdated and he was not following the modern business trends. However, increasing revelation about the business practice within the next few years reveals that ethics is very critical in the new economy. No matter the business trends, ethical values and principles are still critical for business survival, and history continues to repeat itself. For example, MicroStrategy was very successful in the 1990s because the company was able to increase its stock price from $6 to $333. However, when the company announced in 2000 that Securities Exchange Commission was investigating its financial statements for the accounting misappropriation, its share price dropped from $333 to $62.

Despite the importance of ethical principle in the new economy, many dotcoms still do not integrate business ethics in their financial reporting. However, companies that continue integrating ethics in their business models continue to be successful in the new economy. An example of such company is Dell.


Baum, J.J. (2005). CyberEthics: The New Frontier. TechTrends, 49 (6), 54-55. The author argues that the explosion of internet has created a room for students to indulge in plagiarisms, and many students do not understand the acceptable policy with regard the intellectual property. Many students also do not realize that plagiarism or hacking is a crime because it infringes on the intellectual property right. A major factor leading to the rise in act of plagiarism among students is an easy method to get access to information through the internet. The author suggests that inclusion of computer ethics in the student's curricula is a way to address the problem of plagiarism. Schools across the United States should teach cyber ethics in the classroom to assist students to understand the acceptable policy with regard to the use of articles from the internet.


Frohmann, B. (2008). Subjectivity and Information Ethics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(2):267 -- 277. The author proposes some answers to the role and meaning of subjectivity and information ethics. The author provides a brief history of information ethics and some of the issues that constitute the information ethics under the copyright, information science, code of ethics. Under the information science, quality of information, intellectual property and cyberethics have been the major issues in the information… [read more]

Values and Morals Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  7 pages (2,381 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Moreover, the word "maslahah" means "benefit or interest," and this suggests that the public interest must be protected. Hence, believing in maslahah means doing what is in the best interest of the public. Taken at face value, this should be the rule of thumb when a person is going into the accounting field; if it is not in the best… [read more]

Business People Study Ethics Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


These values are embodied in New Belgium supervising techniques, brewing methods, customer service and inter-employee interactions. Employees who perform well and remain with the company for one year receive tenure, company stock and a Fat Tire bicycle, just a few of the many ways New Belgium rewards their employees for ethical business practices.

This proactive approach and devotion to core… [read more]

Advanced Nursing Ethics Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,391 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


A second intervention is found in the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. The nurse is always responsible and accountable for practicing ethically, and she herself determines the "appropriate delegation of tasks, consistent with the nurse's obligation to provide optimum patient care" (Cohen, 2006). In other words, the nurse can, through "individual and collective action," intervene in a situation where life and death of a patient hang in the balance. Nurses face intense ethical challenges in order to live up to their professional duties, and some nurses do have "difficulty recognizing and articulating" those duties and responsibilities (Cohen). When there is moral uncertainty a nurse can and should determine the ultimate appropriate intervention to save lives, according to Cohen.

(f) Identify one model of ethical decision-making that a masters-prepared nurse would embrace while delivering healthcare services.

ONE: what are the steps in the ethical decision-making model? In a Nursing Ethics / PubMed article ("An integrated ethical decision-making model for nurses") the author presents six steps. These six steps are based on a careful review of twenty ethical decision-making models that the author critiqued and reviewed. They are: a) carefully identify the ethical problem; b) collect addition information in order to identify the problem from more than one perspective and begin to create potential solutions; c) come up with alternative solutions as a way to compare and analyze what should be done; d) select the best alternatives and be able to justify the selection of those alternative solutions; e) develop "…diverse, practical ways to implement ethical decisions and actions"; and f) from the careful evaluation of effects and from the "development of strategies" a masters nurse may then use those strategies to prevent a "similar occurrence" (Park, 2012).

TWO: Apply the selected decision-making model to the case that is presented in this assignment.

The scenario presented does not indicate the country of origin for this family, but the female physician and the attending nurse know that she does not want to inform her husband or her mother in law. This is the beginning of the ethical problem. Once it is known that the biopsy has turned out to be positive (cancerous), the doctor and nurse have collected the needed information and they now must decide on a solution (which will involve breaking confidentiality) they use a Utilitarian approach (the best solution for the most people), based on their wish to make sure that Mrs. Z receives the best care possible. The "potential beneficial outcomes" from applying Utilitarian principles outweigh the negatives (Smith, 2013).

In conclusion, of the several ethical theories that are used in this paper, and are part of the dynamics in healthcare and in particular nursing, Utilitarian principles apply in a unique and practical way. Act-utilitarianism is the principle of utility "…that is applied directly to each act in a situation of choice"; the correct act is one which "brings about the best results" (www.phil.cmu.edu). In this case, informing the family that Mrs. Z needs immediate attention and care vis-a-vis… [read more]

Ethical Systems Table Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethics Table

Q1.Brief definitions of each primary ethical theory

Duty-based ethics: Regardless of consequences, certain moral principles are binding, focusing on duty rather than results or moral obligation over what the individual would prefer to do (Trevino & Nelson, 2007, Chapter 4). In ethics, deontological ethics, or deontology (Greek: deon meaning obligation or duty), is a theory holding that decisions should be made solely or primarily by considering one's duties and the rights of others. Some systems are based on biblical or tenets from sacred texts.

Consequence-based ethics: Ethical choices should be evaluated in light of their likely consequences, not according to inflexible principles. These ethical systems occasionally set parameters as to what are the 'best' consequences to be achieved, like the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people (utilitarianism)

Rights-based ethics: Human beings possess certain inalienable rights as a result of their intrinsic nature that cannot be violated, either by the state or other human beings.

Relativistic ethics: There is no absolute ethical system or intrinsic 'rights' -- everything is defined relatively, and what is considered truth varies widely from society to society, and from era to era.

Human nature ethics: Human nature, as it is environmentally but above all biologically determined, governs what we call 'ethical.' The selfishness or altruism exhibited by humans has genetically and socially evolved and is not the result of externally-imposed moral systems. There is a finite limit to how much human nature can be changed.

Entitlement-based ethics: All human beings are entitled to certain things, such as an education, healthcare, and basic necessities like food and water.

Virtue-based ethics: Being a 'good person' and a morally sensitive human being enables a person to make good ethical decisions, using both deontological and consequence-based approaches, when necessary.

Q2. Identify alternate names or variations of each ethical system based on your reading of the text and supplemental materials.

Duty-based ethics: Deontology, pluralism, moral rights, rights-based, categorical imperative, golden rule

Consequence-based ethics: Utilitarianism, situational ethics

Rights-based ethics: Social contract theory, Lockean ethics, inalienable rights

Relativistic ethics: Postmodern ethics, post-structuralism

Human nature ethics: Social Darwinism, common sense

Entitlement-based ethics: Social welfare, freedom 'from' (from hunger and sickness) as well as freedom to do things (like speak freely)

Virtue-based ethics: Platonism or Aristotelian ethics, morality, 'good' character

Q3. Match the real-world examples listed below with the corresponding systems. The first one has been completed for you in the table.

a. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they like the taste of it. Human nature ethics

b. I believe that if sand is going to be eaten, it should be…… [read more]

Ethics an Empirical Study of Cpas Moral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,024 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20



An Empirical Study of CPAs Moral Development and Ethical Decision-Making: A Selected Group of Taiwanese CPAs

As a result of such public accounting scandals involving the world's largest public accounting firm, Arthur Anderson, and its unethical mishandling of such corporate accounts as Enron, WorldCom, Merck and Xerox, the public has a low level of confidence in the ethical makeup… [read more]

Utilitarian Kantian Virtue Ethics Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Utilitarian, Kantian, Virtue Ethics

As Vice President for Dutch Cosmetics, it is important to be involved in all aspects of the company's undertakings. After finding out from the legal department that 10,000 puppies and kittens will have to be injected with high doses of burning chemicals in order to discover at what level the glow-in-the-dark make-up will be dangerous to… [read more]

Aristotle on Voluntary Action Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


voluntary action-ARISTOTLE

The action made by an individual has some definite impact on the society, the generated impact can be observed instantly, or it may become evident with the passage of time. Before getting into the understanding of what impact can an action generate on the society, the question persists what causes an individual to commit that action. Looking into… [read more]

School Counseling Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (7,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


School Counseling

Ethics has been very much on the public mind for the past few years, beginning with stunning revelations of corporate ethical lapses, some of them consuming pensions (Enron), and others consuming lives (Bhopal, India). These are devastating lapses, but it might be argued that even more devastating are ethical lapses in counseling, and, more particularly, school counseling. Children… [read more]

Ethical and Legal Aspects of Therapeutic Relationships Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethical and Legal Aspects of Therapeutic Relationships


Daniel was a 19-year-old male suffering from mild depression. His family was well aware of the situation, and had obtained various opinions about what is needed to help him. Daniel did not react very well to medical anti-depressants. On the physical level, they made him nervous and restless. On the emotional… [read more]

Ethical Theory &amp Moral Practice Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,260 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Their work shouldn't be interpreted as a move to jettison the pursuit of objectivity, however. Rather, it is an effort to identify how "to triangulate across multiple fallible perspectives" (Trocham, 2006) in order to achieve objectivity. According to Trocham (2006), objectivity can be obtained through the efforts of many individuals -- through the conscientious critique of science by truth-seekers in… [read more]

In Technology World Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Having to tradeoff and juggle between doing 'what's right' and 'what's relatively important' given the scenario is the key to long-term success.

Then comes the plague of ethnocentrism, which can run havoc for a multinational in today's globalized market place which is getting more ethnically diverse with each passing day, making ethical diversification a real challenge. Ethical organizational citizenship dictates… [read more]

Ileana Final Portfolio Bioethics Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Other examples include the Willowbrook and Tuskeegee experiments in Unit Four, which I had heard about but only in a diffuse anecdotal sense. Now I have a more formal understanding of the justification behind human subjects review and the importance of Institutional Review Board oversight before any experiment no matter how seemingly innocuous the treatment.

Once we had identified and… [read more]

Cooperation Due Process and Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Cooperation, Due Process, And Justice

In the course of daily life, everyone will encounter a number of different situations, where they must use ethics to determine the right course of action. As a number of different ethical philosophies have been developed; to help people decide how to react to various issues they face. Yet, with so many different theories, to… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Deontology Emphasizes Importance Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,050 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


But what of children who are told to do morally reprehensible actions by their parents? It is also considered a moral duty to obey the laws of the state. But does that mean that all acts of civil disobedience are evil? What of Thoreau's refusal to pay his taxes during the Mexican-American war? Or the civil rights demonstrators' acts of civil disobedience when engaging in sit-ins at segregated lunch counters? Or the hiding of Anne Frank during World War II? All of these actions were transgressions of the notion that we must obey the laws of the land. Some deontologists might argue that in these instances, the laws were contrary to the moral code we should universally obey; but this seems to presuppose some need for a virtuous character to make this subjective distinction.

Of course, virtue ethics can be problematic as well, given the extent to which definitions of virtue have varied over the ages. What constituted a 'virtuous woman' in the Victorian era would have been very different in modernity. 'Goodness' and moral decision-making are highly situational in nature and character traits which are viewed as admirable in one society (such as the individualism of the United States) may not be seen as such universally (many other societies prize collectivism and the moral obligations to the community as virtuous). Also, there are questions about how to achieve that moral character, given that people within the same society or even the same families can receive the same educations, and yet reach different moral conclusions about moral dilemmas spanning from personal life to politics.

However, a similar objection could be raised with regards to deontology: different societies have constructed radically different moral systems. The 'eye for an eye' ethos of early societies has given way to a far more complex and nuanced legal code. Deontology presupposes a certain self-evident nature to what constitutes ideal laws of conduct and obligation, just as much as virtue ethics suggests there are universal character traits that lead to a moral world.

Although neither are perfect moral systems, ultimately virtue ethics is more flexible and better-equipped to deal with changing situations. Deontologists invariably find themselves confronted with the unexpected, and this can lead to the need to follow moral laws that their human instincts tell them are reprehensible. Virtue ethics is more ambiguous, but also more feasible to follow in a consistent fashion. Although it can be swayed by unconscious self-interest to a greater degree than deontology, it is also founded upon sympathy, compassion and reasoned judgment in a more balanced fashion. It allows for the moral actor to continually use his or her critical faculty when making decisions. And hopefully, this self-reflection about the question 'how should I be good' reinforces the need to have an objective and reasoned perspective upon one's moral actions.


Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. "Deontological Ethics." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Fall 2008 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). 22 Nov 2012. .

Hursthouse, Rosalind. "Virtue Ethics." The Stanford… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethics and Morality

Organ donation is an extension of a person's life, but who can say whose life should be extended? In a situation where two people are in need of the same organ, who should we choose? Two people are in need of a kidney, one is a two-year-old patient and the other, 47 years old. Who gets to have that kidney that can save their lives?

There are a lot of ethical reasons to be considered in choosing the "right" organ recipient. In an article by Dr. David L. Perry, he discussed about ethical considerations in organ transplant. He pointed out some things to be considered in choosing a recipient. First is the ability to pay. Economic inequality may hinder someone from "availing" an organ, but he points out that this shouldn't be that case. Donated organs are not luxuries of life. These are scarce resources and every taxpayer in need has the right to organ transplantation. Another consideration is the preference of the donor or kin. For some this could be an act of kindness or gratitude in which they ask to donate their organ to someone they owe their life to or who they love dearly. But this could also be means of inequality when the donor would only prefer patients of the same race, culture or religion to be their recipients. This could also be true when citizens of the same region and nation are more favored over foreigners. An important consideration is the need for the organ. Who is more in need of the organ? What if two are more patients are equally needy?

Between a two-year-old and a forty-seven-year-old, who should get the life-saving kidney? A two-year-old child could have a greater chance to live longer, do more. A 47-year-old has already lived his life, already experienced living; did things…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (696 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethics and Morality: Analysis of a Statement

The statement: 'It is my duty to speak up if I see someone getting hurt, even if it involves great risk to myself', is one with which I agree, because to speak up on someone else's behalf when he or she is getting hurt by another person or group is to exercise moral virtue, that is, to interfere positively and rationally when someone (or some group) is doing something irrational and therefore negative to someone else. A moral person knows right from wrong, which is a key aspect of moral ethics. Knowing right from wrong, a moral person striving toward virtue (as Aristotle suggests) is able to apply these understandings of right vs. wrong to everyday life. To interfere on someone else's behalf if that other person is getting hurt, either by another person; a group; or perhaps even himself or herself, is a moral virtue. All human beings have the right to be treated rationally and respectfully (people will do this when they possess human virtues, through experience and education. No one should be acted upon negatively due to another individual's irrationality and lack of education leading to an understanding and ability to practice moral virtue. In order for me to be virtuous when I see someone getting hurt, I must act rationally and speak up when another person is being hurt, even at risk to myself.

One thing that can and all too often does interfere with acting morally and ethically, if, say, a person is being hurt by another person or group, is that one may fear retribution from the person or group later on, or even fear having the person or group turn against one right then there, and thus become the new target instead of the person first being hurt. One historical example of this sort of dynamic has to do with the way that, during the World War II Holocaust, there were numerous instances during which various European peoples could, if they dared, to speak out against the Nazis and their widespread persecution of Jews…… [read more]

John Dewey Ethics Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


John Dewey Ethics

Dewey: A Study on Ethics

Dewey's introduction in Ethics is rather broad in scope and makes an attempt to illustrate a brief overview of the reasons necessary to write this particular treatise. In keeping with this purpose the author provides a general definition of ethics -- "the science that deals with conduct, good or bad" (Dewey 1)… [read more]

Morality of Statistics Ethics/Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


However, when the context suggests a higher degree of veracity and the results can be potentially misinterpreted, greater moral questions once again arise: a Gallup poll is assumed to be objective, as is an advertisement that 'looks' scientific, even though it might be produced by a biased party.

On a personal level, the analysis of both Ostapski & Superville and Geertsema are a reminder of the limits of objectivity, even in a numerically-driven science and the fact that an understanding of both the principles behind the analysis applied to the final result and also the consequences of the interpretation must be taken into consideration. The Christian belief in human rationality must also be tempered with an understanding that humans are fallible creatures and are prone to misunderstandings, particularly when they are being fearful and egotistical (as is often the case when people are looking for information from business-related content). Ideally, statistical evidence should support people's ability to make free choices, not hamper it.


Geertsema, J. (1987). A Christian view of the foundations of statistics. Perspectives on Science

and Christian Faith, 39.3:158-164.

Ostapski, A. & Superville, C. (2001). Reflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues. Business Quest. Retrieved:

http://www.westga.edu/~bquest/2001/consultant.htm… [read more]

Morality and Ethics in Henry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He is of the view that in English society, if a man refused the sexual advances of a woman, his masculinity was often doubted, whereas if a woman chose to have a lover, she was shunned and considered immoral. At one occasion in the novel, Lady Booby is vexed at Andrews' almost fatuous resistance and angrily lashes out at him,… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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So the conclusion is that either accepts the principle that might is right or accepts the fact that by cooperating with others is a better approach to attaining self-interests.

Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory, which promotes that the end of human conduct is happiness, and that the outcome of discriminating between right and wrong is pleasure and pain. Utilitarianism does not associate morality with religion but links determinism with its other tenets, making this ethical theory relatively more positive.

Virtue theory places its foundation of morality entirely on the development of good character traits, or virtues. Therefore, a person is good, if he has virtues and has no vices. Virtues include courage, temperance, justice, prudence, fortitude, liberality, and truthfulness. Some virtue theorists believe there are as many as100 virtuous character traits, which make someone a good person. Virtue theory emphasizes on moral education for developing virtuous character traits in youngsters as well as in adults.

The inability to develop virtuous character traits results in the person acquiring bad character traits. Vices include cowardice, insensibility, injustice, and vanity.

The important issue of contemporary virtue theory is based on whether virtue ethics can be totally unconnected with rules of morality. Eliminatism, is a different view from virtue theory that states rules can be separate from being associated with virtue. This implies that morality is entirely based on virtuous character traits that include one trait such as courage, being completely independent of ideal principles.

Religious ethics are the moral principles that serve as a guide to human beings and also set the standard for what is and… [read more]

Ethics and Moral Development Term Paper

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S. Mill, presents an altogether different perspective of Janice's dilemma. Since Utilitarianism considers the ethical value of an action or behavior based on its outcome, that is, there is an achievement of greatest happiness for most (or majority) of people. In this theory, collective happiness and satisfaction is considered, and not the individual's benefit only. Thus, since the second situation presented, wherein Janice connives with John to present his program as her own in exchange for a raise in salary and promotion, creates happiness for both Janice and John, then this is the action that Janice must adopt. In effect, using the utilitarian perspective, the ethical thing to do when put in Janice's position is to offer John a raise and promotion in order to benefit from his essential input, the program he created, which she will be using as her "own" work/creation.

The theory of rights-based decision-making takes into account morality, which looks into the adherence/non-adherence of an individual to standard rules of conduct. In this theory, morality comes into play, wherein the individual or decision-maker makes the decision on a situation based on his/her rights to do so. However, in using his/her rights, the individual must also make sure that s/he does not affect or intrude with other people or another individual's rights. In Janice's case, she should not coerce John into cooperating with her 'plan,' on the threat that she would lower his performance evaluations. Option 2, then, is more appealing, wherein Janice and John cooperates with each other, benefiting both of them, as John lets Janice use his program, and Janice, raise John's salary and give him promotion.

The theory of justice-based decision-making considers an action/behavior as moral or immoral based the equality or impartiality of the decision made by the individual vis-a-vis other people's welfare. Under this theory, an individual must base the soundness and morality of his/her decision according to the fairness of the decision / resolution made. In this case, Janice should not coerce John into conniving with her plan; similarly, John should not cooperate with Janice's plan in exchange for a raise in salary and promotion. What should be considered is Janice's boss and the people who will benefit on the program: giving them the proper information on the true author and origin of the program, giving John due credit, and Janice owning up the responsibility of not accomplishing her assigned task properly and immediately are the things that Janice must consider, deciding eventually that honesty is still the best way to alleviate the problem / dilemma she is facing at the moment.… [read more]

Ethics and Morality the Ethical Decision Making Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (560 words)
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Ethics and Morality

The ethical decision making framework includes the concepts of ethical issues intensity, organizational factors, individual factors and opportunity. Discuss how these concepts influence the ethical decision making process.

Ethical issues intensity is one of the key aspects of how an organization defines its cultural norms, values and beliefs as they relate to how ethics are interpreted and acted upon. The interpretation of opportunities is also defined by the ethical issues intensity of a given organizations' culture as well. In turn organizational factors and individual factors frame or put into context the specific ethical questions an organization confronts over time. The ethical judgment of any opportunity then is more governed by the ethical issues intensity of a given culture first and further clarified by organizational and individualized factors as well. In total, these factors create a cultural baseline of ethics that in turn define the overall framework by which an organization will define itself through its ethical decisions and choices over time. In fact the nature of just what is and is not an opportunity will be interpreted through the use of a given organizations' ethical framework. While there are many different aspects to the development of an ethics framework, the most pervasive is a reliance on utilitarianism that centers on putting the collective good of all in front of the good of just a few. The need for creating an ethics framework to ensure a high level of compliance to ethical standards and values is also crucial. The bottom line is that all these factors contribute to the development of a sustainable and strong ethics framework over time.

What are the three levels of ethical concern found…… [read more]

Ethics Journal in Goldman Essay

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While it would be illegal to fire someone because of his or her religious beliefs, the issue in this scenario goes beyond the employee's personal religious beliefs. In many ways, he infringed upon the religious freedoms of his fellow coworkers. He was in a leadership position and handed out religious propaganda at his workplace. When coworkers complained that this behavior was making him uncomfortable, and he persisted in his behavior. In many ways, it can be conceived that Coppedge's own behavior was actually creating a hostile work environment for his coworkers, who were having their own rights to religious freedom infringed upon by Coppedge.

The moral issue in this case really involves an investigation of the boundaries of religious freedom. Can one person's religious freedom be allowed to negatively impact the rights of others? What obligations does a company have to protect people in terms of religious freedom? Do they have to protect employees from religious speech by coworkers, or do they have to protect people's rights to religious freedom in the workplace?

In The world's most ethical companies, Jacquelyn Smith discussed the release of Ethisphere Institute's sixth annual list of the most ethical companies in the world. It listed those companies; however, it also described how Ethisphere came up with that list. It uses a proprietary rating system, the Ethics Quotient, which is based on a series of multiple-choice questions in a survey. These questions focus on the codes of ethics, litigation, regulatory infraction histories, investment in innovation, sustainable business practices, and other factors it considered important to ethical history. The company then independently verifies survey information and checks with governance lists with governance-focused organizations. They found growth in the international arena, as well as a significant number of repeats among the top countries on the list.

The ethical issue that seemed interesting is why companies are as interested as being recognized as ethical companies. One of the noted reasons is that companies use that recognition in the recruitment materials, because the workforce has become more interested in working for ethical organizations. Furthermore, companies can use this status to help attract customers. Therefore, there are some real benefits to getting on the list.

The ethical and moral issue raised by the article is whether being listed on an ethical list should be something that companies seek? Obviously, they should seek to engage in the type of behaviors that would result in their inclusion on the list, but whether they should seek to be named on the list itself is another issue. Do these… [read more]

Ethics and Morality: Integrity Term Paper

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III. Values in Relation to Law

Carter (1996) addresses the subject area of law in relation to individual value and principle development in the individual. Salzman (2001)

IV. Values in Relation to Religion

Salzman addresses this realm of value formation as he tells the story of Sister John, a cloistered nun who has experienced divine visions which are followed by an extremely excruciating headache. It is discovered that this nun in actuality has a brain tumor which is probably causing the visions. Sister John has to make the difficult decision whether to risk herself and continue receiving visions knowing all the while they may be false and as well to do so may even cost her very life. Her 'visitations' with God were influenced by her value and belief system that underwent its' formation under the tutelage of her teacher at the convent.

V. The Importance of Integrity and Ethics

The importances of integrity and of ethics are clear themes in both the work of Salzman (2001) and Carter (1996). Without the critical factor of integrity throughout this would have been a much duller work and would have carried much less import for the individual's perusal. Integrity is what the individual's word is actually worth and is a measure by which an individual might be judged as to their character.

VI. Examples of The Source Material

Sister John literally takes upon herself the literal burden borne by Christ as she begins her day and "dropped to her knees on the floor of her cell, and offered the day to God .[praying]: "Let these clothes remind me of my consecration to this life of enclosure, silence, and solitude. It is interesting that the 'mystical' life of Carmel resided in mundane everyday things and indeed within that everyday realm was the discovery of things so special. Salzman writes,

"Pure awareness stripped her of everything. She became an ember carried upward by the heat of an invisible flame. Higher and higher she rose, away from all she knew. "

Carter states that, "because of the difficulty of trying to raise children with good social values in a nation that talks about values but often can't live up to its aspirations. "Integrity is the crucial element of good citizenship. It's more important to know if someone has integrity than to know whether I agree or disagree with him. If you lack integrity, nothing else you say you believe matters." Integrity is more than honesty, writes Carter.

VII. Summary and Conclusion

Both of the works have a clear message relating to integrity and choices in life or the lack of them and how these values are formed within the realm of family, law and religion.

Works Cited

Salzman,…… [read more]

Euthanasia Morality &amp Ethics in Cases Term Paper

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Euthanasia Morality & Ethics

In cases of extreme suffering, people could use a variety of moral and ethical traditions to justify euthanasia. Already, many countries in Europe have more tolerant social policies than the United States, and the policy of euthanasia is no exception. In February 2001, after two decades of being practiced underground, the Dutch government enacted a law legalizing euthanasia, or physician-assisted suicide.

The law had popular support and, like the health workers who worked with AIDS patients, it had the best intentions. Strict criteria were put in place, limiting physician-assisted suicides to terminally ill patients who possessed adequate mental capacity to decide and make an explicit request for euthanasia.

Peter Singer, the foremost proponent of utilitarianism, argues that there would be cases where euthanasia is perfectly moral and ethical. A person suffering from pain, especially those who are terminally ill, have a strong interest to be free from pain. This should be weighed against the…… [read more]

Ethics in the Workplace Organizational Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 8


However, they would also be at risk of getting laid off unless they bring in some business to the hotel.

The management of the hotel could face a cut in its salaries if the request is rejected and business continues to suffer. If the request is accepted, they would benefit from the increased revenue and raised profile of the hotel.… [read more]

Law and Ethics Term Paper

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Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Product liability happens when their product or service leads to physical or emotional injuries in the consumer, on the consumer's property or as a result of actions taken for the business. It arises from the violation of the basic ethics principle of not doing harm. To avoid this, the business should as if their product will harm anyone before embarking in it. Managers should think through consequences of negligence, inaction and restitution (Frenz).

Intellectual Property

This includes patents and trademarks, which include rights to their products (Morgan, 2013). Patent rights protect the inventor and exclude all others from copying and using it. Trademark rights prevent product confusion among consumers (Morgan).


Alfredo, D. (2013). Moral obligations of diversity. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8599539_moral-obligations-diversity.html

Bramble, L. (2013). What is business law and ethics? eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6303667_business-law-ethics_html

Fieser, J. (2005). Business Ethics. Approaches to Business Ethics: University of Tennessee at Martin. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.utm.edu/stiff/jfieser/vita/research/busbook.htm

- (1996). Do businesses have moral obligations beyond what the law requires?

Vol 15, Journal of Business Ethics. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/25072768?uid=3738824&uid=2133&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101887511537

Fleming, J. (2013). Ethical laws about privacy in e-business. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8347055_ethical-laws-privacy-ebusiness.html

Frenz, R. (2013). Ethics and liability. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on March 1,

2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_7758260_ethics-liability.html

Handlin, A. (2013). Equal employment opportunities and affirmative action laws. eHow:

Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/list_7387737_equal-opportunities-affirmative-action-laws.html

Lister, J. (2013). Regulations on the individual right to privacy in the workplace. Hearst Newspapers: Hearst Publications. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/regulations-individual-right-privacy-workplace-25892.html

Morgan, S. (2013). What is the role of law in business? eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6384_role-law-business_.html

Newswise (2011). Safety and ethics in the workplace -- the better bottom line. Indiana University of Pennsylvania: Newswise, Inc. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.nwswise.com/articles/safey-and-ethics-in-the-workplace-better-bottom-line

Wicks, D. (2013). Ethical implications of sexual harassment in the workplace. Houston Chronicle: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www.smallbusiness.chron.com/ethical-implications-sexual-harassment-workplace-15391.htm… [read more]

Fear Morality Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 3


Because of these thoughts, it is apparent that he did not believe that morality, as people know it, could come without there be some fear attached. People may not believe that they acted out of fear from some dire consequence, but they actually did. This can be seen in the fact that people who do bad things, go to jail. Thus, even on the physical plane it is fearful to go to jail so one ought to do good. This is in concert with the idea that God is in control of fear and uses it to create His version of goodness.

Fear without Morality and Morality without Fear

However, by approaching this as if it were a mathematical proof, it can be proven that his point is wrong. There are examples of people experiencing fear without morality and morality without fear. Two cases are presented to demonstrate this truth.

A study was conducted by psychologists in which three-year-old children in Mauritius were "exposed to two different types of sounds" and then their sweat response was measured (Cline). The gist was that one sound was followed by a blaring horn and the other was not. The children learned to anticipate the horn and sweated, a known fear response, when they knew it was coming. The original experiment was conducted in the 1970's. The report says that "decades later the team looked to see if any of the original children had significant criminal records" (Cline). It was found that 138 did, and they were children who had a much less sweat response than the other children. Thus, it can be concluded that this response was inherent and not learned due to the age of the children (Cline). So the fear creates morality argument is debunked.

Taking it the opposite direction, morality can also exist in the absence of fear. According to one researcher, Pillay, there are fear-response moral clauses such as "don't murder" and "don't steal" (Pillay), but there are also those that people, sometimes, adhere to such as "do unto others as you would have them do unto you." This is not based in fear, but it is based in a desire to truly have a good outcome. The problem, he says, is not that morality can only happen through a fear response, but that it happens much more often because of fear than without it that is the problem (Pillay).


Nietzsche was thinking about this topic for many years and observing the world trying to determine the roots of ethics and morals. He arrived at the conclusion that morals were all based in fear and that there were no true ethics. However, here are two small refutations of those assertions that disprove his thesis. In mathematics it only takes one disproof of a theorem to render it not tru. The same can be said or Nietzsche's assertions.

Works Cited

Cline, Austin. "Fear, Morality and Crime." About Agnosticism/Atheism, 2010. Web.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. "On the Genealogy of Morals: A Polemic… [read more]

Virtue Ethics: The Good Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,316 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


"To possess a virtue is to be a certain sort of person with a certain complex mindset. (Hence the extreme recklessness of attributing a virtue on the basis of a single action.)" (Hursthouse 2010). The great advantage to virtue ethics' stress upon the person, not the action, is that it allows for a certain flexibility of decision-making. There may be a principle of "do not lie," that a deontologist would argue must be obeyed inflexibly, which a consequentialist would argue should be enforced only when this promoted the majority's welfare. A virtue ethicist would see situations in which small lies might be permissible to promote the social order, although lies in certain contexts would be abhorrent and against the general good.

The fact that virtue ethics tends to focus upon creating 'states of being' rather than discrete actions also makes it an ethical system that seems to promote a continual state of community harmony over a focus upon a single result (consequentialism) or a narrow set of rules (deontology). Virtuous people who value honesty are assumed to act at all times in a manner that promotes honesty, including choosing virtuous friends, working at virtuous occupations, and engaging in public life that promotes such virtues (Hursthouse 2010). Ethical actions are not 'blocked off' into a single facet of the person's life, nor are they always conscious actions.

Perhaps the greatest benefit of virtue ethics is that it frees the actor from the straightjacket of both consequentialism and deontology, which rarely seem to mirror how individuals make decisions in 'real life.' Most ethical decisions are made fairly spontaneously, based upon past knowledge, of which the moral actor's education is a part. It also does not seem to have the dangerous inflexibility of either ethical system, resulting in a cold calculation that less deaths might occur if a particular action is taken in a utilitarian fashion, or ignoring common sense and logic simply to follow a rule in the case of deontology. However, critics state that in its own way, virtue ethics can be just as unrealistic in the standards it sets for moral actors. "The fully virtuous do what they should without a struggle against contrary desires; the continent have to control a desire or temptation to do otherwise" (Hursthouse 2010). A truly ethical, virtuous person only desires to do good, and thus does not have moral conflicts about what he or she should have done otherwise. But much like a good rule can lead someone astray in deontology, "someone's compassion might lead them to act wrongly, to tell a lie they should not have told, for example, in their desire to prevent someone else's hurt feelings" (Hursthouse 2010). The precise balance between discipline and compassion seems impossible to achieve, at least in such an instinctive manner.

Another objection to virtue ethics is the question of how to educate the moral actor to create such an ideal, virtuous person. Such a system of moral education seems impossible, particularly in a world where… [read more]

Ethic Discussion Psychology -Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (332 words)
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Not only practice but also the research is benefited from ethical behavior and a person should make sure that he does not ignore the importance of morality. While there are many advantages of adopting ethical behavior in practice and research, there are several disadvantages of unethical behavior. Psychological practice and research is not only a business endeavor but it entails responsibility towards the society. The researcher should ask himself following questions before he carries out a research:

I. What is the code of conduct of research in area/industry?

II. Why it is important to show ethical behavior when practicing psychology?

III. Will the research and practice in field of single parenting be affected if unethical behavior is shown?

IV. Does the observance of ethics make difference in the research in any positive or negative way?


Canadian Psychological Association, (2000), Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, Retrieved

from:http://www.cpa.ca/cpasite/userfiles/Documents/Canadian%20Code%20of%20Ethics%20for%20Psycho.pdf… [read more]

Value of Moral Ethics Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Many magazines printed this story when Lewinsky made her allegations as a way to prove that Clinton has had an eye for extra-marital affairs.

Although the Willey case went by unnoticed by many the only one to take this seriously was the president himself who felt that he needed to part ways with Lewinsky because of the mess the Willey story would create for him and his administration.

The Lewinsky story exploded the President in a way that he never thought it would because if the fact that the president's behavior was not just sexual but it translated into criminal with questions of false swearing and violation of justice.

Historian Thomas Reeves believes that, despite the media's reluctance to look into Kennedy's private life, if he had lived to have a second term: "[T]he realities of his lechery and his dealings with Sam Giancana might have leaked out while he was still in office, gravely damaging the presidency.... Impeachment might well have followed such public disclosure." In other words, the careless only stay lucky for so long

There are many books on ethics in public administration; one of them is Terry Cooper's "The Responsible Administrator." This book is about how the administrator plays a crucial role in shaping the future for many other people that look up to him as the role model. The book also focuses on the common ethical problems faced by the administrators and managers and how these problems can be handled through studying various cases, analysis and theories provided in the book.

To an extent, I agree with what the author has to say about the role of an administrator but if one thinks about the role of the president of the United States, one definitely agrees how important it is to be a good role model because the millions who elect the candidate to such a prestigious position also expect that person to be fit for the seat in every way possible. What Kennedy and Clinton did during their term[s] as President is obviously not pardonable but keeping in mind that they are normal human beings and above all they are men, so I suppose with the way American culture is and how Americans are with relationships, why should Clinton be charged for something that almost every American is doing everyday? Is this justified? Just because he was the president does not make it necessary that he will also have a good character he was elected to run the country and from what I see I believe he did the best job he could have done in all the public sectors and otherwise. Besides being famous means that people will pry into one's life and talk about that person as much as they possibly can.


Terry L. Cooper, The Responsible Administrator, 4th edition.

NANCY BENAC, Former intern's account gains credibility with Clinton's admission, The Associated Press, Tuesday 18 August, 1998, Website: http://www.slam.ca/CNEWSClinton/aug18_lewinsky.html

Linda K.Trevino, Katherine A.Nelson, Managing Business Ethics, 2nd edition, pp.12

Stuart Taylor… [read more]

Ethics Consider the Three Purposes Term Paper

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However, virtue-based ethics stresses characters, rather than upon rules people should follow, like religious systems of ethics tend to, or even the notion of Kant's categorical imperative or utilitarian principles of majority goods.

Instead, virtue-based ethics stress helping people develop good character traits, such as kindness and generosity. Theoretically such character traits will, in turn, allow a person to make moral and selfless decisions later on in life, decisions that will benefit the vast majority of people yet still allow for some good actions that benefit the individual through the exercise of a moral good will, as well as the majority of all individuals. By instilling good characters within individuals, correspondingly negative character traits may be eschewed. Rather than asking the question 'what do I do,' virtue-based ethics call upon the ethical student in question to ask what sort of a moral individual does he or she wish to be, assuming that if this question can be answered, good actions will, by definition, follow.

The problem with virtue-based ethics stress upon good character, however, is that quite often good people make bad ethical choices, for a variety of reasons, including bad environmental pressures, imperfect information, and confusion. To place virtue-based ethics in the context of contemporary American society as well; one could also argue that the intense individualism and self-centeredness of America could only be exacerbated in a negative fashion by such a schema of virtue-based ethics. Lastly, societies that are less individualistically oriented than America, and do not come from the Western tradition of individualism, might find such a schema confusing at best. Consider Buddhist and Shinto influenced Japan, to take one example, where coherent societal obligations and acts, rather than the nebulous notion of 'character' are at the heart of such society's philosophies.… [read more]

Business Ethics and Morality Term Paper

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An example of the latter is the continuation of utilizing immigrant and migrant workers to pick harvests in the South west. The illegal immigrants need money, and to employ them picking crops benefits them. If farmers were to pay standard wages for crop harvesting, the price of some foods would skyrocket. Thus the community at large benefits from the presence of migrant workers. However, employing illegal immigrants encourages more laborers to enter our country illegally, creating a number of problems in the Southwest. These workers labor for little more than slave wages, which does not help them build a positive economic future, or break the cycle of poverty. Thus, although utilitarian reasons support the presence of low wage immigrant laborers, the harm caused to this small group does not justify the practice.

C3 Kant is one of the philosophers who attempted to take a non-religious perspective on life, and create a universal set of laws which could apply to create an ethical basis for decisions. A Kantian decision would be to limit the treatment to critically ill people in order to spend limited resources on those who show a higher potential for recovery.

C4. The nursing profession is more than a doctor's helper. Nurses are trained and desire to provide emotional and non-technical care in order to meet the social, emotional, esteem, as well as the physical needs of their patients. By treating the entire patient, studies show greater recovery rates. However when hospitals have to make decisions of the basis of budgets, such as limiting the care to patients, or limiting the number of staff to adequately meet patient needs, nurse professionals are some of the first to feel the strain, and become discouraged.… [read more]

Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (648 words)
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However, the desire to do the act must be exhibited through a moral virtue habit. Therefore, moral virtue is different from intellectual virtue, because the desire differs from the reason. Thus, just as the desire is a human action principle as far as reason is concerned, moral habits must be considered virtues as they conform to reason.

Traits that have been thought to be virtues








What traits do you find most important in your personal relationships?

A positive attitude is directly linked to a better personal relationship, greater success, and superior health. A positive attitude can boost my energy, inspire relationships, increase my inner strength, and generate the fortitude needed to counter challenges. In most cases, positive thinking heightens one's lifespan, reduce distress levels, reduce depression, and give me greater resistance to common colds, offer physical well-being, and better psychological health. All these will allow me cope well in times of stress and hardships in my personal relationships. A positive attitude can lead to a good interpersonal relationship both at the professional and personal levels. Negative attitudes could result in the lack of trust in a relationship. This trait is mostly established via parental training or from peer groups (Vaughn, 2013).

One's attitude towards other people can help to establish whether the individual will be a failure or a success in relationships. People prefer dealing with individuals who are honest and can be trusted. They also want partners who are responsible and reliable. Personal relationships work best when both partners are kind, trustworthy, and considerate. Besides, if a person acts in an obnoxious manner towards other, he/she might end up without any friends.


MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues, concise edition. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning

Vaughn, L. (2013). Contemporary moral arguments: Readings in ethical issues. New York:…… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2


Virtue Ethics

Over the centuries philosophers have argued about the most ethical ways that humankind should interact with the world around them. Where, number of different theories have emerged to help guide everyone as to the most appropriate way to act within a society. In some cases, these theories have often been reliant on rules to set the most appropriate… [read more]

Values and Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,454 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Values and Ethics

Values, morals, and ethics are part of a system on which people base their conduct related to themselves or other people. Their actions are based on this code of conduct that incorporates a series of values, morals, and ethics that people consider to be the most suitable for them and for the situations they are confronting with.… [read more]

Personal and Organizational Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,505 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Personal and Professional Ethics

A focus on ethical decision making is vitally important for the organizational leader of today and in the future. In accordance with ethical standards, every person in an organization is responsible to those whom his or her actions directly affect. As individuals progress through their careers and their role continues to evolve into one… [read more]

Morality in the Magus Essay

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Morality in the Magus

Probably the most interesting thing about ethics theories is that they are not only numerous, but also significantly divergent. This appears to suggest that human beings differ in terms of what they consider moral, good, and even true. The value of truth itself is indeed generally more subjective than many would like to admit or even consider. Particularly where political upheaval and violent disagreement are concerned, what is considered "true" by both sides is used as the basis for violence and conflict, whereas moral and ethical decisions use completely contrasting platforms to take effect. In John Fowles's novel, the Magus, while the ethical theories of utilitarianism and ethical subjectivism might be applied in varying degrees to the situations, decisions and actions described by Conchis, the specific outcomes suggest that the most relevant theory is subjectivism.

The basis of ethical subjectivism is the premise that perception, whether individual or collective, dictates moral decisions and actions, and particularly where such decisions and actions concern judgments about human conduct. In other words, these judgments are based upon a fundamentally arbitrary viewpoint that can vary among nations, individuals and time periods. The reason for this is that ethical statements are based upon feelings, beliefs, preferences, and attitudes. All these tend to be subjective to the individuals or collectives that hold these attitudes. It then follows that an ethical theory is constructed on the basis of personal experiences that are generalized to become judgments about the world and how the individual should respond to the world and other human beings. According to this view, an ethical belief is a personal opinion or perception regarding what is true that is expanded to a collective belief regarding generally held truths. These beliefs are not necessarily in fact true. However, they are an accurate representation of an individual's or number of individuals' perception of what the world is and how individuals should live in this world.

When applied to the extract from Fowles's work here, ethical subjectivism can be applied to both Conchis personally and the Nazis collectively.

Where Conchis is concerned, his personal values are temporarily overridden by the Nazi ideal, and specifically by Colonel Wimmel. Indeed, the collective Nazi ideal is so strong that he initially believes that he has no choice in terms of actions that, under normal circumstances, might be questionable. When the colonel, for example, orders Conchis to make a hostage provide information, he does this not out of a sense of personal duty, but rather out of a sense of being trapped within a certain moral paradigm. This is evident in his words: "…I begged the man to give all the information he could. & #8230;I felt passionately that it was my duty to stop any more of this atrocious degradation of human intelligence." (p. 391).

For Conchis, the moral decision-making process did not extend beyond his own horror at the torture he had witnessed. His ethical subjectivism was therefore based upon a reaction towards what had been… [read more]

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5


Kohlberg's Theory Of Moral Development

Domestic Violence

There is the growing belief that business activity, especially managerial work, involves ethical problems. With the growing belief that ethics is a very important part of business and corporate activity, "business ethics" had come to be a significant area of study in determining what is ethical in business -- and, of course, what is not. An ethical code of conduct in business is becoming more and more commonplace today. The point of these ethical codes are to reassure everyone involved in the business (in different areas -- from customers to employees, managers to suppliers) that the business and its people has a certain belief system in place. But how does one come about developing this ethical system? Where do these ethics come from? Kohlberg's theory of moral development helps us understand how people come to possess their morals, which affect the way that we behave on many different levels. Kohlberg's theory offers us an important orientation to not only the field of ethics, but it also offers us a framework in which to understand how ethics are developed beyond the simple "rule following" behavior.

Kohlberg's theory of moral development focused on the thought that human beings development both philosophically and psychologically in a progressive fashion -- that is, people progress in their moral reasoning (which translates into ethical behavior) through a series of stages. Kohlberg believed that there were six different stages, which can be classified into three distinct levels, in which people progressed. The first level, "pre-conventional," is made up of stage one and stage 2, "obedience and punishment," and "individualism, instrumentalism, and exchange," respectively. Level two, the "conventional" level, is made up of stage 3, "good boy/girl," and stage 4, "law and order." The third and final level, or the "post-conventional" level, encompasses stage 5, "social contract," and stage six, "principled conscience" (Barger 2000). Kohlberg's theory of moral development can be related to all sorts of ethics -- including administrative ethics -- as the stages are important for understanding how an individual comes to their moral reasoning, which then prompts them to act or behave in a certain way. Kohlberg believed that individuals must progress through the stages one at a time; in other words, there is no way to jump over a level. Though people may progress at different speeds through the levels, all people, if they are to reach the highest level of moral development, must go through each and every stage.

The first stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development - the pre-conventional level -- is found in young, elementary school-aged children. In this stage, Kohlberg believed that individuals act depending on the socially acceptable norms (Barger 2000). They learn these norms through authoritative figures such as teachers and parents who tell them what is "right" and what is "wrong." Individuals learn to behave because of the threat of punishment if they do not behave obediently. The second stage of level one is all about gaining the perspective… [read more]

Business Ethics Every Individual Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (875 words)
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Business Ethics

Every individual is constantly presented with both moral and ethical issues in society and the workplace. This paper will address the difference between ethical and moral issues as well as the applications of each in the workplace.

In determining the proper course of action, each individual must access and apply both his personal ideals and the rules of the societal system in which he lives. These two systems used to determine appropriate action illuminate the subtle difference between morals and ethics. Morals are a personal code of right and wrong that defines one's character, while ethics point to standards of behavior expected by the societal group to which the individual belongs (Desnoyer, 2010). This difference can create conflict because a person's moral code is often unchanging (having been developed though the course of the his lifetime), while the ethics he practices are dependant on the applicable group to which he belongs (national, familial, business, scholastic etc.) and such points are likely to exist where these two systems diverge.

Such conflicts between personal morals and societal ethics can at times lead to positive change. For example, consider slavery. Until the late 1800's it was socially acceptable and nationally ethical to own slaves in America. However, as a growing number of individual's personal morals recognized the harm that such accepted slavery caused to may people, the anti-slavery movement gained strength and the eventual result was that slavery was no longer considered ethical and became outlawed by the 13th Amendment to the U.S., constitution.

However, a discussion of slavery requires a more detailed description of individual differences in personal moral philosophies. Forsynth gives insight to help one understand more clearly how some individuals did not find slavery morally reprehensible, while others were so revolted by the concept that a civil war was eventually fought to determine whether slavery would continue to be a socially acceptable action. According to Forsynth (Forsyth, 1980) such differences are due to the concepts of idealism and relativism. Idealism, describes the degree to which an acting individual is affected by the consequences of his action on the welfare of others. High idealistic individuals believe that it is always unnecessary or wrong to harm others, and that moral actions should and do lead to good or positive consequences. A low idealistic individual believes that harmful consequences may sometimes be necessary to produce a greater good (Forsyth, 1980; Forsyth, 1992). Relativism, describes the degree to which an individual rejects universal moral principles. High relativistic individuals feel that moral actions depend on the nature of the specific situation and the circumstances of the individuals involved. Low idealistic…… [read more]

Moral Philosophy What Moral Compass Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (874 words)
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¶ … Moral Philosophy

What moral compass do you use: Kohlberg's Moral Reasoning, a professional Code of Ethics, or God's word?

The most important moral guidance in my life are God's principles more so than their literal interpretations by man. Since entering Kohlberg's post-conventional stage of moral reasoning, it has become more difficult for me to accept interpretations of God's words that seem to conflict with fundamental principles of God's love. Where such conflicts seem to exist, I apply my most genuine attempt to reconcile the apparent discrepancies and I do what seems to be most consistent with God's principles.

What is your trump card?

My trump card is the principle of do unto others. In my experience, this is the most important of God's principles with respect to human relations and also to the way we treat all living things. In every respect, I try to remember to reverse situations in my mind and imagine circumstances as though I were on the receiving end of my contemplated behavior.

3. What governs your behavior?

In principle, the Golden Rule governs my behavior more than any other concept in human affairs. I try to be truthful and considerate, and as fair as possible to my fellow man at all times and to remind myself that none of us is perfect or above making mistakes. I try to treat others as I would have them treat me at all times.

4. What reasons do you give for your choices?

Generally, I try to make sure that my choices are the product of objective principles and never the product of self-interest. Likewise, I try to uphold any values or standards that I expect of others and I try to understand the same failings in others of which I am capable as well.

5. Why do you think an Evangelical University has such a huge problem with blatant cheating and plagiarism?

If I had to guess (without passing judgment), I would imagine that plagiarism is a problem because students rationalize their behavior. They may figure that "everyone else is doing it" or they may rationalize that their plagiarism is "not hurting anybody." More generally, I would imagine that students who cheat in any way have lost sight of the fact that the main purpose of their education is to learn and that grades are secondary to that goal.

6. What moral code might those students be following?

I would hesitate to assume that their cheating is necessarily a function of their moral code. I would imagine that many of them subscribe generally to the same moral code as mine but that,…… [read more]

Morals and Ethics What Makes Actions Right and Wrong Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Ethics

Ethical decision-making paradigms are often presented as a contrast between situational ethics, or individuals who make ethical decisions on a case-by-case basis, and ethics based upon sweeping moral systems (Hursthouse 2007). In general, I favor the latter schema, but I also see value in the former. I think that overall is too easy to rationalize bad behavior based upon situational needs. That is why I stated that 'it is always wrong to kill innocents during wartime,' even though I fully acknowledge that even in just wars, innocents are killed. If everyone upheld the higher moral standard of not killing innocent non-combatants, there would perhaps be no wars, or at least less costly wars. Setting ethical standards, in my view, should be about setting ethical ideals, even though we live in an imperfect world, and can never uphold any ethical system in its entirety.

It is all too easy to shrug one's shoulders and say that it is impossible to live an ethically pure life regarding other people, the environment, and even in terms of the standards we set for our individual self-improvement. Without high goals, change is impossible. That is why I believe it is important to have some kinds of general moral rules, even if they are not able to be obeyed at all times in the 'real world.' Instead of thinking up exceptions, we must do all we can to make these rules 'work.'

I am not inflexible -- far from it. I think self-defense is morally permissible when physically attacked, and to steal when starving is acceptable, even though under most circumstances I believe violence and stealing is wrong. However, that is because I uphold the principle…… [read more]

Defend the Ethics of Your Values Essay

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Defend the Ethics of Your Values by Using One or More of the Four Kinds of Ethical Theories

Personal values development

Although it may sound strange, given that religious values have not formed the core of my moral development, the ethical theory with which I most identify is that of Kantian deontological or duty-based ethical theory. I believe that certain moral values are absolute, and cannot be distilled with situational variables. These moral values include tolerance, respect for other human beings, and the need to make meaning out of one's existence beyond merely serving one's material desires and needs. While some aspects of various ethical systems may vary between cultures, for a human being or a society to be ethically functional, there must be some core of moral values to support its rules and tenants. This is why, over the course of my moral development, I have defined my moral identity as a search for absolute truths. My beliefs in the value of anti-materialism, tolerance of gays and lesbians, and other issues have changed over time, but they changed and grew more sound and certain as I created a more coherent ethical code for myself.

One of the reasons I am less sympathetic to utilitarianism or consequential ethics than other philosophical theories is because utilitarianism stresses satisfying the needs of the greatest number of individuals, in a material sense. While this may sound democratic in theory, the question always arises -- what majority, of what group of people? The majority of one's own group or one's own nation or all humanity? For example, the individuals who orchestrated some of the deals that gave rise to the current credit crisis might have rationalized that their actions served a common good, because they served the majority of their shareholders, families, and colleagues. Yet the majority needs of all of society were not upheld, and many innocent individuals were hurt because of the subsequent recession that occurred. It is not in human nature to fairly perceive 'the majority' as the whole of humanity -- we pick and choose what majority we satisfy, when we are engaged in utilitarian thinking.

Kant would respond to these utilitarian bankers that to take risks with other people's money and to encourage financially ignorant individuals to take out mortgages was a violation of the principles of trust and ethics that must underlie every professional transaction. I agree with such an estimation, and also believe the current recession illustrates how satisfying material wants and desire is never enough to sustain a functional society: I have defined materialism very low upon my personal list of priorities as a result of a great deal of soul-searching.

The banking crisis is an excellent example of how people rationalized that 'the ends justifies the means,' namely that high levels of risk and unethical practices were acceptable, if a large profit could be incurred. The results of actions are unpredictable, advised Kant, therefore the rightness of the action must…… [read more]

Morality and Ethnics of Frankenstein's Daemon and Shakespeare's Richard III Thesis

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Ethics & Morality in Frankenstein & Richard III

Ethics and Morality in Frankenstein and Richard III

Literature has provided mankind with entertainment for centuries. Through literature, authors were able to express their thoughts. What Frankenstein and Richard III convey about morality and ethics?

According to a presentation about Ethical Decision-Making in the California State University, Northridge website, "ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality." On the other hand, morality is defined as behaviors and beliefs about human decency, right and wrong, good and evil, proper and improper. An analogy with music and musicology helps explain the difference between the definition of ethics and morality. Morality is said to be comparable to music and ethics is comparable to musicology. According to the California State University, musicology is "a conscious reflection on music"; following the analogy, ethics is therefore a conscious reflection of morality.

In order to analyze how ethics and morality is embodied in Frankenstein and Richard III, a recollection of both stories is necessary.

Frankenstein, written by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, is a story about the life of Dr. Victor Frankenstein who is an intelligent young man. The quest for scientific knowledge was Victor Frankenstein's obsession. He was particularly fixated with the mystery of giving life. Working hard in his laboratory alone, he spent all his time in isolation in creating a being out of the organs of dead men. Not realizing the full extent of the consequences of his experiment, Victor Frankenstein created a monstrous being. Victor Frankenstein ended up abandoning the monstrous being he created because he was so appalled by his creation's repulsive appearance.

The daemon that Frankenstein created was gentle and sensitive at the beginning. Just like any child, it was curious about everything there is in the world. It yearned to be loved. However, all of these initial characteristics changed largely because of its isolation. Having experienced only cruel encounters with humans, Frankenstein's daemon became bitter and revengeful. And because of its hideous appearance which all human feared, the monster was forced to hide itself, away from people. Frankenstein's daemon yearned most for nothing else but to feel that it belongs to a group or to someone. However, its hideous appearance prevented Frankenstein's daemon to establish any meaningful connection with another human being. This drove the monster to become vengeful to its creator. It ended up killing the people who are most dear to Victor Frankenstein.

The desire to make its creator feel the loneliness and isolation that it feels drove Frankenstein's daemon to kill the important people in his creator's life. Looking at the world from the daemon's perspective, the daemon considered taking revenge against its creator as right and proper. To Frankenstein's daemon, what it did was only right. In doing what it did, the daemon remained true to its morals and ethics. However, Frankenstein's daemon knows nothing much about human ethics and morality precisely because nobody taught the daemon what is right and wrong, and what is proper and improper.… [read more]

Individual Project - Ethics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,965 words)
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Individual Project - Ethics

Ethics Individual Project

The Hon. Justice Potter Stewart once wrote: "There is a big difference between what we have the right to do and what is right." While this may seem immoral to some people, the reality is that American law protects individual liberties first and foremost, which can make it more difficult to legislate ethical… [read more]

Ethics of Care Serve as a Clever Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,280 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethics of care serve as a clever alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so poorly to guide an individual lives. The ethics of care is merely a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinctive moral theory or normative approach to the troubles humans face. It is important to global along with political matters as well as to the individual relations that can most clearly represent care (Virginia Held, 2007). However, the modern literature illustrate that ethics of care can be used as a theoretical basis to add a new, significant surface to social matters. The ethics of care is related to ethical theory to be exact a theory regarding what make an individual actions right as well as wrong. Plus it is one of a group of normative ethical theories that were originated by feminists in the mid of the twentieth century. Despite the fact that consequentialist as well as deontological ethical theories highlight universal values and independence where as ethics of care highlight the significance of relationships. In addition, it should be noted that the ethics of care was originally inspired and motivated by the efforts of psychologist Carol Gilligan who worked with psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg at the same time as he was doing research on his theory of moral development however Gilligan's efforts on women's moral development began in reaction to the apparent male based outcomes that arise from Kohlberg's learning some how Gilligan as well as others have recommended that the history of ethics in Western culture has highlighted the justice vision of morality for the reason that it is the point-of-view that has traditionally and conventionally been sophisticated as well as cultivated plus shared by males where as by marked different females have traditionally and usually been taught a unusual kind of moral outlook that highlights unity, building a community also caring about one's out of the ordinary relationships. So, the care view of morality has been disregarded, ignored, neglected and trivialized for the reason that women were traditionally at point of limited power as well as authority. In fact, justice view of morality emphasizes on doing the precise thing although if it need personal cost or forfeiting the interest of those to whom an individual is close moreover care view would instead indicate that an individual can and must place the interests of individuals who are close to us greater than the interests of total strangers as well as that one should be sophisticated and cultivated to their natural ability to care for others as well as themselves (Gilligan and Carol, 1982).

Furthermore, Proponents of an Ethics of Care highlights the responsibility of Mutual Interdependence along with Emotional Response that play significant part in humans' moral lives. In addition, it should be observed that a lot of human relationships and interactions involve persons who are helpless, reliant, sick as well as weak however the wanted and advantageous moral response is attached thoughtfulness, attentiveness and care to needs so an individual… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Ethics Dilemmas the Ethical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
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Ethics and Morality

Ethics Dilemmas

The ethical considerations here are whether someone's right secure property are more valuable than the risk of your own life. Because the dilemma states that you fear you will freeze to death, I do not see that the cost of your own life would be less valuable than another's claim to secure property.

To some it may seem deceitful to the police officers to observe them under these conditions. Yet, it was the police chief's call to tell them the real reason for the observation, or not. The fact that they are acting violently is their choice and you have done nothing wrong in observing it.

The farmer is obligated to pay for income he receives and is not entitled to the medical deduction according to law. His action is clearly illegal, so it undermines all other laws to ignore it. However, it does not hurt anyone directly so I would be more likely to do it than other scenarios.

Ethically, it seems cruel to the actual test subjects to participate in this project. They may be morally incriminating themselves and may feel bad later when they realize what they would have done in a real situation.

5. The ethical dilemma is whether you can kill your son under duress and the threat of indirectly killing another person. Though it is horrible, your son likely understands the situation to know that you must kill him to save another's life. However, whether or not he understands I would choose to save another life because I feel like I should save as many people as I can in a bad situation.

6. Depending on the law, many psychiatrists have a duty to warn if they think that someone is in actual danger, regardless of confidentiality. If…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Case Analysis Morality Pertains Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,271 words)
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Ethics and Morality Case Analysis

Morality pertains to moral conduct or standards, which in turn, determine the rightness or wrongness of one's conduct (Perle 2004). Ethics is the study of standards of conduct. It is also called moral philosophy. Ethics and morality are often used interchangeably because of their connectedness. It is generally believed that morality is ethics in action.… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


VIRTUE ETHICS' refers to the theory or a system of philosophical belief that focuses on entire personality or disposition of a person instead of actions alone. Virtue ethics arose in response to the prevalent theories of deontology and utilitarianism that often failed to provide satisfactory answers for a variety of questions connected with ethics in certain situations especially where emotions and human connections were involved. Virtue ethics were developed by ancient thinkers Plato and Aristotle and for this reason, it is not something new. It has its roots in ancient times however the reason it is considered a modern moral philosophy is precisely because its rebirth is a fairly new phenomenon. It was in 1950s that interest in virtue ethics was renewed by Anscombe's famous paper titled: Modern Moral philosophy. This theory was developed to distinguish a set of beliefs that focused on moral character of a person instead of its individual actions.

In other words, virtue ethicist maintains that it is the entire disposition of the person that makes him virtuous or not, instead of his individual actions in isolated cases. They argue that virtue is ingrained in one's personality and is a person of sum of his beliefs, values and actions instead of simply his actions and reactions. A good way to explain this would be to take an example. If we are in a situation where someone needs our help and we extend it, the deontologist would think that help should be offered because it is a moral dirty, utilitarian would argue that this kind of action would maximize happiness of everyone involved, while a virtue ethicist would feel benevolent and thus extend help. In other words, virtue ethics is a logical way of thinking. We help others because that's the kind thing to do. We may not be overly concerned about or moral duties or maximization of happiness, but this is something that comes naturally to us. We see someone in distress and extend help because we know that we expect the same from others in such a situation. Virtue ethics is also on the sense of empathy.

Prior to 1960s, the field of normative ethics was largely dominated by deontology, which was based on the values and beliefs of eighteenth-century philosopher Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism, which was based on the views of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century philosophers Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill. In most of the books published up until thirty years ago, virtue was discussed in terms of deontology or utilitarianism. Gradually a change was witnessed as people began searching for something beyond deontology and utilitarianism as it was found that these two theories did not encompass many important issues or had no answers for some modern problems. This gave rise to virtue ethics, which was not exactly…… [read more]

Vamc Ethics the Lincolnville Essay

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The strict code of conduct and the well-understood hierarchy that exists at al levels of the military makes it quite easy to remain within ethical guidelines both as medical professionals and as members of the military, and deviance in such behavior is not looked upon lightly, holding individuals strongly to this applied code of ethics. Another ethical leg-up that the VA system as a whole and the Lincolnville VAMC in particular is in the recent technological growth and expansion that has radically changed the way certain processes are carried out within the system and its individual institutions (Kizer et al. 2009). With better integrated information networks and a variety of treatment- and administrative-related equipment and software, care within the VA system has been made far more efficient and effective, as well as presenting a cost savings to all paying parties (Kizer & Dudley 2009).

There are certainly some ethical issues that the Lincolnville VAMC needs to address, and indeed that the entire VA system must examine. The institution and the wider system have also greatly improved in some areas, and appears to be performing fairly strongly from an ethical viewpoint. Addressing the problems the institution has will lead to more effective and accessible care.


Howlader, N., Ries, L. & Edwards, B. (2009). The Impact of Underreported Veterans Affairs Data on National Cancer Statistics: Analysis Using Population-Based SEER Registries. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 101(7): 533-6.

Hunter, L. & Schmidt, N. (2010). Anxiety psychopathology in African-American adults: Literature review and development of an empirically informed sociocultural model. Psychological Bulletin 136(2): 211-35.

Kizer, K. & Dudley, A. (2009). Extreme Makeover: Transformation of the Veterans Health Care System. Annual Review of Public Health.

Layman, E. (2008). Ethical Issues and the Electronic Health Record. Health Care Manager 27(2):165-76.

Upahyay, S., Beck, A. & Rishi,…… [read more]

Ethics Is a Moral Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Ethics is a moral philosophy that attempts to discover a systematic understanding of the nature of morality and what it requires of people -- which, in Socrates's words, would simply come down to "how we ought to live" -- and why (Rachels & Rachels 2009). But, who is to say how one ought to live? Every person or group has… [read more]

Morality and Culture Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (5,560 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


¶ … culture and morality. In other words it deals with the question: Is morality relative to culture? Proponents of so called "cultural relativism," sometimes also called "moral relativism" or "ethical relativism" argue that different cultures obtain varying moral codes. "If there is no transcendent moral or ethical standard, then often culture arguably seems to become the ethical norm for… [read more]

Ethics in the Sciences Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … ethics in the sciences has become a focus of debate during the last century. Many scientists and statisticians have deviated from the more formal view of science as only being concerned with objective results and measurement. There is a growing consensus that science and the scientist, or statistician, has an ethical and moral responsibility to the society in which they function and to humanity as a whole. This paper will explore these views with regard to ethics and statistics. This will include a personal assessment of these views. This paper will also emphasize the personal view that ethics are an important and integral part of the discipline of statistics.

Ethics and Statistics

The issue of ethics in statistics is one that has become extremely relevant in our contemporary environment. The reason for this is clearly stated in an article by Ostapski and Superville entitled Reflection Before Action: the Statistical Consultant Confronts Ethical Issues. In this article the authors state that; "Statisticians have become integral members of research and consulting teams that conduct projects for industry and government. They face a number of ethical issues that are somewhat unique to their profession" (Ostapski and Superville). This view therefore implies that the discipline of statistics is not exempt from ethical considerations. This is the view that I also adopt in this paper, both from a personal and professional standpoint

However, the more orthodox view of the role of statistics and science in general tend to oppose this view. For example, Geertsema in a Christian View of the Foundations of Statistics refers to the more traditional stance taken by science with regard to ethics;

… because of their so-called exactness, they are often thought to be neutral from a philosophical or religious point-of-view. This tendency is strengthened by a traditional view of science as a whole, known as the standard view of science" (Geertsema, 1987).

This refers to the view that scientific objectivity and exactness takes precedence over ethical and other issues. From this perspective all scientific and mathematical disciplines are in essence exempt from social responsibility or ethical considerations. However, Geertsema and others argue against this stance and put forward the view that science and statistics in particular does have an ethical responsibility towards the society and humanity in general and therefore cannot be considered to be ethically neutral, as the statistician also has to take various ethical decisions in the course of his or her work. As Geertsema states, "The result is that the human aspect of science comes to the fore and that it becomes clear that science cannot be seen in isolation-it must be seen in context" (Geertsema, 1987).

Personal Reflections

I would tend to agree with the above assessment by Geertsema in that the actual practice of statistics should always be seen in context and in relation to the actual implications of the statistical work. To view the practice of statistics in isolation or out of context would mean that one ignores or turns a blind… [read more]

Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle's Own Work Term Paper

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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics

The concept of ethics can mean many different things, depending on the person asked to describe or discuss it. However, there are specific issues that can be examined to help determine whether something is actually ethical or not. Aristotle used certain mail concepts to show how ethics can be turned into something tangible that everyone can agree… [read more]

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