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Ethics, Morality, and Medicine Discussion Chapter

… Thus, it is almost impossible today to define a common set of medical moral principles to which all physicians subscribe." (Pellegrino, 2006,-Page 66)

There is no consensus of the moral and ethical codes of practicing medicine. This is alarming. Morals and ethics belong in the practice of medicine. Pellegrino continues and provides historical precedence for the necessity of ethics and morals with respect to practicing physicians:

"In a rather brief disquisition on medications, Scribonius put forward the notion that we should determine the responsibilities of the physician by examining the nature of medicine itself. He said that the aim of the physician, the end of medicine, was humanitas. That was the first time, as far as we know, that a word with that precise meaning was used in this connection. Humanitas -- humanity, a love of mankind, was not the same as philanthropia, the Greek concept which expressed rather a kindliness towards the patient that would enable the physician to have a good practice and a good reputation." (Pellegrino, 2006,-Page 66)

One can only take a moment to imagine the experience of a physician as well as the quantity and quality of ethical and moral choices and/or situations one would encounter as a basic function of the job description. It is stunning to consider the physicians travelling around various hallways around the western world practicing medicine and treating swarms of patience and lacking or disagreeing upon the system of morals and ethics within the workplace and profession. How many people would continue to seek treatment at hospitals if they considered those questions? How many people would put their faith in physicians and hospitals after reading about Anna's experience? Ultimately, the books teaches that though Anna had the "right" or appropriate set of ethics and morals, she was meant to die so that Kate could live because Kate is the child her parents actually wanted.

Out of all the characters in the story, the character of Kate might be the most challenging. She did not ask to be born; she certainly did not ask to have leukemia. She neither asked her parents to conceive and raise another child so as to harvest that child's body parts to keep her alive. Kate wants to live. Most people do. She also respects her sister's rights to have her own life. She additionally appreciates, while perhaps does not fully understand, why her parents made the decisions they made. Kate loves her parents; she loves her sister; and she loves life. On whose side is she? Or rather, because she can empathize will several people, on whose side is she not? Anna and Kate changed the Fitzgerald family. Even though Anna dies in a car accident, the family does not change or the family is restored to the state for which the parents fought for the duration of both the girls' lives. The family goes back to being a mother, a father, and Kate. There would be no Kate without Anna. There would be no… [read more]

Ethics and Moral Theory Essay

… Ethics - Moral Theory


Life is Beautiful and Dishonesty:

The movie Life is Beautiful (1998) portrays the life of Guido Orefice, a Jewish tourist traveling in Italy just before the outbreak of… [read more]

Ethics, Morality, Values, and Beliefs Term Paper

… Morally, defense lawyers may feel a sense of repugnance on an emotional level, based on their childhood teachings, when representing guilty clients. But legal, ethical systems of professional conduct are constructed and articulated as absolutes, particularly for a profession may… [read more]

Professional Licensing State Laws Term Paper

… Q4. What is the relationship between the American Psychological Association (APA), the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), and the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (NRHSPP)? By which criteria do you distinguish them?

The APA sets general professional standards for the profession as a whole, while according to its official website, the ASPPB creates and maintains the Professional Exam Services (PES) used for licensing psychologists, provides educational material needed to pass the exam or for new students, and offers assistance in helping psychologists obtain certification in new or multiple states. The NRHSPP states on its official website that it specifically credentials health services professionals in the field of psychology.

Part II: Personal values and beliefs

Q1. What is right or good and what is wrong, bad or evil? Consider the etiology of these values and developmental criteria from your own life experiences.

I believe that evil is defined as the 'absence of good' or the complete and utter denial of someone else's right to exist in the world. Although pain sometimes must be caused for the good of someone (like revealing an uncomfortable truth or giving a child a shot), purposeless cruelty is the definition of evil. Based upon my religious upbringing, although I am not religious, I tend to grade the morality of actions based upon their intentionality rather than upon their effects.

Q2. What are your assumptions about the nature of human beings? How responsible are people for themselves and their actions? What are your definitions of: Values, beliefs, ethics, morality, and conscience?

Human beings are neither innately good nor bad. They are products of a constellation of influences based in both in their biology and social influences. Human beings must be viewed as responsible for their actions if they have learned a notion of right and wrong, although human development is contingent upon other influences besides that of one's personal will. Values are concepts we hold dear, such as democracy or individual autonomy, that are partially the result of our culture and partially the result of our personal upbringing. Beliefs are how we articulate our values to ourselves, while ethics relate to the formal system of how we define those beliefs so we can make decisions. Morality refers to our sense of personal convictions, although this is influenced by social and cultural values and norms and our conscience is our personal 'police' that enforces and checks our behaviors, even in the absence of formal laws or when no one is around.

Q3. Which values have drawn you to become a psychologist? How are these values reflected in the type of work you are doing and/or intend to do? How does psychology operate in legal agency for the government, federal & state, and corporate values and interests? How do psychologists operate as agents for governmental state and private corporate interests?

My belief in the right of every human being to maximize his or her potential has led me to psychology, specifically to clinical… [read more]

Advanced Nursing Ethics Essay

… A second intervention is found in the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. The nurse is always responsible and accountable for practicing ethically, and she herself determines the "appropriate delegation of tasks, consistent with the nurse's obligation to provide optimum patient care" (Cohen, 2006). In other words, the nurse can, through "individual and collective action," intervene in a situation where life and death of a patient hang in the balance. Nurses face intense ethical challenges in order to live up to their professional duties, and some nurses do have "difficulty recognizing and articulating" those duties and responsibilities (Cohen). When there is moral uncertainty a nurse can and should determine the ultimate appropriate intervention to save lives, according to Cohen.

(f) Identify one model of ethical decision-making that a masters-prepared nurse would embrace while delivering healthcare services.

ONE: what are the steps in the ethical decision-making model? In a Nursing Ethics / PubMed article ("An integrated ethical decision-making model for nurses") the author presents six steps. These six steps are based on a careful review of twenty ethical decision-making models that the author critiqued and reviewed. They are: a) carefully identify the ethical problem; b) collect addition information in order to identify the problem from more than one perspective and begin to create potential solutions; c) come up with alternative solutions as a way to compare and analyze what should be done; d) select the best alternatives and be able to justify the selection of those alternative solutions; e) develop "…diverse, practical ways to implement ethical decisions and actions"; and f) from the careful evaluation of effects and from the "development of strategies" a masters nurse may then use those strategies to prevent a "similar occurrence" (Park, 2012).

TWO: Apply the selected decision-making model to the case that is presented in this assignment.

The scenario presented does not indicate the country of origin for this family, but the female physician and the attending nurse know that she does not want to inform her husband or her mother in law. This is the beginning of the ethical problem. Once it is known that the biopsy has turned out to be positive (cancerous), the doctor and nurse have collected the needed information and they now must decide on a solution (which will involve breaking confidentiality) they use a Utilitarian approach (the best solution for the most people), based on their wish to make sure that Mrs. Z receives the best care possible. The "potential beneficial outcomes" from applying Utilitarian principles outweigh the negatives (Smith, 2013).

In conclusion, of the several ethical theories that are used in this paper, and are part of the dynamics in healthcare and in particular nursing, Utilitarian principles apply in a unique and practical way. Act-utilitarianism is the principle of utility "…that is applied directly to each act in a situation of choice"; the correct act is one which "brings about the best results" ( In this case, informing the family that Mrs. Z needs immediate attention and care vis-a-vis… [read more]

Internet and Ethical Values Research Paper

… ¶ … Jennings, M.M. (2002).Ethics in Cybercafe. TechFocus. The author discusses the importance of ethics in the new economy, which shows that the ethical principle is still the major method of doing business. Within the last few centuries, business leaders… [read more]

Values and Morals Capstone Project

… Moreover, the word "maslahah" means "benefit or interest," and this suggests that the public interest must be protected. Hence, believing in maslahah means doing what is in the best interest of the public. Taken at face value, this should be… [read more]

Business People Study Ethics Essay

… These values are embodied in New Belgium supervising techniques, brewing methods, customer service and inter-employee interactions. Employees who perform well and remain with the company for one year receive tenure, company stock and a Fat Tire bicycle, just a few… [read more]

Enforcing a Code of Ethics in a University Term Paper

… Code of Ethics

In the academic world, as well as in the business world, as an essential part in the conduct of activities and actions there is an increasing need for the existence of a code of… [read more]

Code of Ethics in the Department of Justice Term Paper

… Code of Ethics as Applicable to the Department of Justice

The topic of ethics from the aspect of a professional and scientific viewpoint has emerged as a topic of significant concern in recent years, both for the Department of Justice… [read more]

Ethical Systems Table Term Paper

… Ethics Table

Q1.Brief definitions of each primary ethical theory

Duty-based ethics: Regardless of consequences, certain moral principles are binding, focusing on duty rather than results or moral obligation over what the individual would prefer to do (Trevino & Nelson, 2007, Chapter 4). In ethics, deontological ethics, or deontology (Greek: deon meaning obligation or duty), is a theory holding that decisions should be made solely or primarily by considering one's duties and the rights of others. Some systems are based on biblical or tenets from sacred texts.

Consequence-based ethics: Ethical choices should be evaluated in light of their likely consequences, not according to inflexible principles. These ethical systems occasionally set parameters as to what are the 'best' consequences to be achieved, like the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people (utilitarianism)

Rights-based ethics: Human beings possess certain inalienable rights as a result of their intrinsic nature that cannot be violated, either by the state or other human beings.

Relativistic ethics: There is no absolute ethical system or intrinsic 'rights' -- everything is defined relatively, and what is considered truth varies widely from society to society, and from era to era.

Human nature ethics: Human nature, as it is environmentally but above all biologically determined, governs what we call 'ethical.' The selfishness or altruism exhibited by humans has genetically and socially evolved and is not the result of externally-imposed moral systems. There is a finite limit to how much human nature can be changed.

Entitlement-based ethics: All human beings are entitled to certain things, such as an education, healthcare, and basic necessities like food and water.

Virtue-based ethics: Being a 'good person' and a morally sensitive human being enables a person to make good ethical decisions, using both deontological and consequence-based approaches, when necessary.

Q2. Identify alternate names or variations of each ethical system based on your reading of the text and supplemental materials.

Duty-based ethics: Deontology, pluralism, moral rights, rights-based, categorical imperative, golden rule

Consequence-based ethics: Utilitarianism, situational ethics

Rights-based ethics: Social contract theory, Lockean ethics, inalienable rights

Relativistic ethics: Postmodern ethics, post-structuralism

Human nature ethics: Social Darwinism, common sense

Entitlement-based ethics: Social welfare, freedom 'from' (from hunger and sickness) as well as freedom to do things (like speak freely)

Virtue-based ethics: Platonism or Aristotelian ethics, morality, 'good' character

Q3. Match the real-world examples listed below with the corresponding systems. The first one has been completed for you in the table.

a. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they like the taste of it. Human nature ethics

b. I believe that if sand is going to be eaten, it should be… [read more]

Ethics an Empirical Study of Cpas Moral Term Paper

… Ethics

An Empirical Study of CPAs Moral Development and Ethical Decision-Making: A Selected Group of Taiwanese CPAs

As a result of such public accounting scandals involving the world's largest public accounting firm, Arthur Anderson, and its unethical mishandling of such… [read more]

In Technology World Essay

… Having to tradeoff and juggle between doing 'what's right' and 'what's relatively important' given the scenario is the key to long-term success.

Then comes the plague of ethnocentrism, which can run havoc for a multinational in today's globalized market place… [read more]

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Thesis

… Their work shouldn't be interpreted as a move to jettison the pursuit of objectivity, however. Rather, it is an effort to identify how "to triangulate across multiple fallible perspectives" (Trocham, 2006) in order to achieve objectivity. According to Trocham (2006),… [read more]

Utilitarian Kantian Virtue Ethics Essay

… Utilitarian, Kantian, Virtue Ethics

As Vice President for Dutch Cosmetics, it is important to be involved in all aspects of the company's undertakings. After finding out from the legal department that 10,000 puppies and kittens will have to be injected… [read more]

Ethical and Legal Aspects of Therapeutic Relationships Essay

… Ethical and Legal Aspects of Therapeutic Relationships


Daniel was a 19-year-old male suffering from mild depression. His family was well aware of the situation, and had obtained various opinions about what is needed to help him. Daniel did… [read more]

Aristotle on Voluntary Action Term Paper

… voluntary action-ARISTOTLE

The action made by an individual has some definite impact on the society, the generated impact can be observed instantly, or it may become evident with the passage of time. Before getting into the understanding of what impact… [read more]

School Counseling Ethics Term Paper

… School Counseling

Ethics has been very much on the public mind for the past few years, beginning with stunning revelations of corporate ethical lapses, some of them consuming pensions (Enron), and others consuming lives (Bhopal, India). These are devastating lapses,… [read more]

Ileana Final Portfolio Bioethics Essay

… Other examples include the Willowbrook and Tuskeegee experiments in Unit Four, which I had heard about but only in a diffuse anecdotal sense. Now I have a more formal understanding of the justification behind human subjects review and the importance… [read more]

Cooperation Due Process and Justice Term Paper

… Cooperation, Due Process, And Justice

In the course of daily life, everyone will encounter a number of different situations, where they must use ethics to determine the right course of action. As a number of different ethical philosophies have been… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Deontology Emphasizes Importance Essay

… But what of children who are told to do morally reprehensible actions by their parents? It is also considered a moral duty to obey the laws of the state. But does that mean that all acts of civil disobedience are evil? What of Thoreau's refusal to pay his taxes during the Mexican-American war? Or the civil rights demonstrators' acts of civil disobedience when engaging in sit-ins at segregated lunch counters? Or the hiding of Anne Frank during World War II? All of these actions were transgressions of the notion that we must obey the laws of the land. Some deontologists might argue that in these instances, the laws were contrary to the moral code we should universally obey; but this seems to presuppose some need for a virtuous character to make this subjective distinction.

Of course, virtue ethics can be problematic as well, given the extent to which definitions of virtue have varied over the ages. What constituted a 'virtuous woman' in the Victorian era would have been very different in modernity. 'Goodness' and moral decision-making are highly situational in nature and character traits which are viewed as admirable in one society (such as the individualism of the United States) may not be seen as such universally (many other societies prize collectivism and the moral obligations to the community as virtuous). Also, there are questions about how to achieve that moral character, given that people within the same society or even the same families can receive the same educations, and yet reach different moral conclusions about moral dilemmas spanning from personal life to politics.

However, a similar objection could be raised with regards to deontology: different societies have constructed radically different moral systems. The 'eye for an eye' ethos of early societies has given way to a far more complex and nuanced legal code. Deontology presupposes a certain self-evident nature to what constitutes ideal laws of conduct and obligation, just as much as virtue ethics suggests there are universal character traits that lead to a moral world.

Although neither are perfect moral systems, ultimately virtue ethics is more flexible and better-equipped to deal with changing situations. Deontologists invariably find themselves confronted with the unexpected, and this can lead to the need to follow moral laws that their human instincts tell them are reprehensible. Virtue ethics is more ambiguous, but also more feasible to follow in a consistent fashion. Although it can be swayed by unconscious self-interest to a greater degree than deontology, it is also founded upon sympathy, compassion and reasoned judgment in a more balanced fashion. It allows for the moral actor to continually use his or her critical faculty when making decisions. And hopefully, this self-reflection about the question 'how should I be good' reinforces the need to have an objective and reasoned perspective upon one's moral actions.


Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. "Deontological Ethics." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Fall 2008 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). 22 Nov 2012. .

Hursthouse, Rosalind. "Virtue Ethics." The Stanford… [read more]

Morality of Statistics Ethics/Business Term Paper

… However, when the context suggests a higher degree of veracity and the results can be potentially misinterpreted, greater moral questions once again arise: a Gallup poll is assumed to be objective, as is an advertisement that 'looks' scientific, even though it might be produced by a biased party.

On a personal level, the analysis of both Ostapski & Superville and Geertsema are a reminder of the limits of objectivity, even in a numerically-driven science and the fact that an understanding of both the principles behind the analysis applied to the final result and also the consequences of the interpretation must be taken into consideration. The Christian belief in human rationality must also be tempered with an understanding that humans are fallible creatures and are prone to misunderstandings, particularly when they are being fearful and egotistical (as is often the case when people are looking for information from business-related content). Ideally, statistical evidence should support people's ability to make free choices, not hamper it.


Geertsema, J. (1987). A Christian view of the foundations of statistics. Perspectives on Science

and Christian Faith, 39.3:158-164.

Ostapski, A. & Superville, C. (2001). Reflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues. Business Quest. Retrieved: [read more]

John Dewey Ethics Essay

… John Dewey Ethics

Dewey: A Study on Ethics

Dewey's introduction in Ethics is rather broad in scope and makes an attempt to illustrate a brief overview of the reasons necessary to write this particular treatise. In keeping with this purpose… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Term Paper

… Ethics and Morality

Organ donation is an extension of a person's life, but who can say whose life should be extended? In a situation where two people are in need of the same organ, who should we choose? Two people are in need of a kidney, one is a two-year-old patient and the other, 47 years old. Who gets to have that kidney that can save their lives?

There are a lot of ethical reasons to be considered in choosing the "right" organ recipient. In an article by Dr. David L. Perry, he discussed about ethical considerations in organ transplant. He pointed out some things to be considered in choosing a recipient. First is the ability to pay. Economic inequality may hinder someone from "availing" an organ, but he points out that this shouldn't be that case. Donated organs are not luxuries of life. These are scarce resources and every taxpayer in need has the right to organ transplantation. Another consideration is the preference of the donor or kin. For some this could be an act of kindness or gratitude in which they ask to donate their organ to someone they owe their life to or who they love dearly. But this could also be means of inequality when the donor would only prefer patients of the same race, culture or religion to be their recipients. This could also be true when citizens of the same region and nation are more favored over foreigners. An important consideration is the need for the organ. Who is more in need of the organ? What if two are more patients are equally needy?

Between a two-year-old and a forty-seven-year-old, who should get the life-saving kidney? A two-year-old child could have a greater chance to live longer, do more. A 47-year-old has already lived his life, already experienced living; did things… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Term Paper

… Ethics and Morality: Analysis of a Statement

The statement: 'It is my duty to speak up if I see someone getting hurt, even if it involves great risk to myself', is one with which I agree, because to speak up on someone else's behalf when he or she is getting hurt by another person or group is to exercise moral virtue, that is, to interfere positively and rationally when someone (or some group) is doing something irrational and therefore negative to someone else. A moral person knows right from wrong, which is a key aspect of moral ethics. Knowing right from wrong, a moral person striving toward virtue (as Aristotle suggests) is able to apply these understandings of right vs. wrong to everyday life. To interfere on someone else's behalf if that other person is getting hurt, either by another person; a group; or perhaps even himself or herself, is a moral virtue. All human beings have the right to be treated rationally and respectfully (people will do this when they possess human virtues, through experience and education. No one should be acted upon negatively due to another individual's irrationality and lack of education leading to an understanding and ability to practice moral virtue. In order for me to be virtuous when I see someone getting hurt, I must act rationally and speak up when another person is being hurt, even at risk to myself.

One thing that can and all too often does interfere with acting morally and ethically, if, say, a person is being hurt by another person or group, is that one may fear retribution from the person or group later on, or even fear having the person or group turn against one right then there, and thus become the new target instead of the person first being hurt. One historical example of this sort of dynamic has to do with the way that, during the World War II Holocaust, there were numerous instances during which various European peoples could, if they dared, to speak out against the Nazis and their widespread persecution of Jews… [read more]

Ethics and Moral Development Term Paper

… S. Mill, presents an altogether different perspective of Janice's dilemma. Since Utilitarianism considers the ethical value of an action or behavior based on its outcome, that is, there is an achievement of greatest happiness for most (or majority) of people. In this theory, collective happiness and satisfaction is considered, and not the individual's benefit only. Thus, since the second situation presented, wherein Janice connives with John to present his program as her own in exchange for a raise in salary and promotion, creates happiness for both Janice and John, then this is the action that Janice must adopt. In effect, using the utilitarian perspective, the ethical thing to do when put in Janice's position is to offer John a raise and promotion in order to benefit from his essential input, the program he created, which she will be using as her "own" work/creation.

The theory of rights-based decision-making takes into account morality, which looks into the adherence/non-adherence of an individual to standard rules of conduct. In this theory, morality comes into play, wherein the individual or decision-maker makes the decision on a situation based on his/her rights to do so. However, in using his/her rights, the individual must also make sure that s/he does not affect or intrude with other people or another individual's rights. In Janice's case, she should not coerce John into cooperating with her 'plan,' on the threat that she would lower his performance evaluations. Option 2, then, is more appealing, wherein Janice and John cooperates with each other, benefiting both of them, as John lets Janice use his program, and Janice, raise John's salary and give him promotion.

The theory of justice-based decision-making considers an action/behavior as moral or immoral based the equality or impartiality of the decision made by the individual vis-a-vis other people's welfare. Under this theory, an individual must base the soundness and morality of his/her decision according to the fairness of the decision / resolution made. In this case, Janice should not coerce John into conniving with her plan; similarly, John should not cooperate with Janice's plan in exchange for a raise in salary and promotion. What should be considered is Janice's boss and the people who will benefit on the program: giving them the proper information on the true author and origin of the program, giving John due credit, and Janice owning up the responsibility of not accomplishing her assigned task properly and immediately are the things that Janice must consider, deciding eventually that honesty is still the best way to alleviate the problem / dilemma she is facing at the moment. [read more]

Ethics and Morality Term Paper

… So the conclusion is that either accepts the principle that might is right or accepts the fact that by cooperating with others is a better approach to attaining self-interests.

Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory, which promotes that the end of human conduct is happiness, and that the outcome of discriminating between right and wrong is pleasure and pain. Utilitarianism does not associate morality with religion but links determinism with its other tenets, making this ethical theory relatively more positive.

Virtue theory places its foundation of morality entirely on the development of good character traits, or virtues. Therefore, a person is good, if he has virtues and has no vices. Virtues include courage, temperance, justice, prudence, fortitude, liberality, and truthfulness. Some virtue theorists believe there are as many as100 virtuous character traits, which make someone a good person. Virtue theory emphasizes on moral education for developing virtuous character traits in youngsters as well as in adults.

The inability to develop virtuous character traits results in the person acquiring bad character traits. Vices include cowardice, insensibility, injustice, and vanity.

The important issue of contemporary virtue theory is based on whether virtue ethics can be totally unconnected with rules of morality. Eliminatism, is a different view from virtue theory that states rules can be separate from being associated with virtue. This implies that morality is entirely based on virtuous character traits that include one trait such as courage, being completely independent of ideal principles.

Religious ethics are the moral principles that serve as a guide to human beings and also set the standard for what is and [read more]

Morality and Ethics in Henry Term Paper

… He is of the view that in English society, if a man refused the sexual advances of a woman, his masculinity was often doubted, whereas if a woman chose to have a lover, she was shunned and considered immoral. At… [read more]

Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics Essay

… However, the desire to do the act must be exhibited through a moral virtue habit. Therefore, moral virtue is different from intellectual virtue, because the desire differs from the reason. Thus, just as the desire is a human action principle as far as reason is concerned, moral habits must be considered virtues as they conform to reason.

Traits that have been thought to be virtues








What traits do you find most important in your personal relationships?

A positive attitude is directly linked to a better personal relationship, greater success, and superior health. A positive attitude can boost my energy, inspire relationships, increase my inner strength, and generate the fortitude needed to counter challenges. In most cases, positive thinking heightens one's lifespan, reduce distress levels, reduce depression, and give me greater resistance to common colds, offer physical well-being, and better psychological health. All these will allow me cope well in times of stress and hardships in my personal relationships. A positive attitude can lead to a good interpersonal relationship both at the professional and personal levels. Negative attitudes could result in the lack of trust in a relationship. This trait is mostly established via parental training or from peer groups (Vaughn, 2013).

One's attitude towards other people can help to establish whether the individual will be a failure or a success in relationships. People prefer dealing with individuals who are honest and can be trusted. They also want partners who are responsible and reliable. Personal relationships work best when both partners are kind, trustworthy, and considerate. Besides, if a person acts in an obnoxious manner towards other, he/she might end up without any friends.


MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues, concise edition. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning

Vaughn, L. (2013). Contemporary moral arguments: Readings in ethical issues. New York:… [read more]

Ethic Discussion Psychology -Ethics Research Paper

… Not only practice but also the research is benefited from ethical behavior and a person should make sure that he does not ignore the importance of morality. While there are many advantages of adopting ethical behavior in practice and research, there are several disadvantages of unethical behavior. Psychological practice and research is not only a business endeavor but it entails responsibility towards the society. The researcher should ask himself following questions before he carries out a research:

I. What is the code of conduct of research in area/industry?

II. Why it is important to show ethical behavior when practicing psychology?

III. Will the research and practice in field of single parenting be affected if unethical behavior is shown?

IV. Does the observance of ethics make difference in the research in any positive or negative way?


Canadian Psychological Association, (2000), Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, Retrieved

from: [read more]

Law and Ethics Term Paper

… Product liability happens when their product or service leads to physical or emotional injuries in the consumer, on the consumer's property or as a result of actions taken for the business. It arises from the violation of the basic ethics principle of not doing harm. To avoid this, the business should as if their product will harm anyone before embarking in it. Managers should think through consequences of negligence, inaction and restitution (Frenz).

Intellectual Property

This includes patents and trademarks, which include rights to their products (Morgan, 2013). Patent rights protect the inventor and exclude all others from copying and using it. Trademark rights prevent product confusion among consumers (Morgan).


Alfredo, D. (2013). Moral obligations of diversity. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

Bramble, L. (2013). What is business law and ethics? eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

Fieser, J. (2005). Business Ethics. Approaches to Business Ethics: University of Tennessee at Martin. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

- (1996). Do businesses have moral obligations beyond what the law requires?

Vol 15, Journal of Business Ethics. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

Fleming, J. (2013). Ethical laws about privacy in e-business. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

Frenz, R. (2013). Ethics and liability. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on March 1,

2013 from

Handlin, A. (2013). Equal employment opportunities and affirmative action laws. eHow:

Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

Lister, J. (2013). Regulations on the individual right to privacy in the workplace. Hearst Newspapers: Hearst Publications. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

Morgan, S. (2013). What is the role of law in business? eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

Newswise (2011). Safety and ethics in the workplace -- the better bottom line. Indiana University of Pennsylvania: Newswise, Inc. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from

Wicks, D. (2013). Ethical implications of sexual harassment in the workplace. Houston Chronicle: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from [read more]

Fear Morality Essay

… Because of these thoughts, it is apparent that he did not believe that morality, as people know it, could come without there be some fear attached. People may not believe that they acted out of fear from some dire consequence, but they actually did. This can be seen in the fact that people who do bad things, go to jail. Thus, even on the physical plane it is fearful to go to jail so one ought to do good. This is in concert with the idea that God is in control of fear and uses it to create His version of goodness.

Fear without Morality and Morality without Fear

However, by approaching this as if it were a mathematical proof, it can be proven that his point is wrong. There are examples of people experiencing fear without morality and morality without fear. Two cases are presented to demonstrate this truth.

A study was conducted by psychologists in which three-year-old children in Mauritius were "exposed to two different types of sounds" and then their sweat response was measured (Cline). The gist was that one sound was followed by a blaring horn and the other was not. The children learned to anticipate the horn and sweated, a known fear response, when they knew it was coming. The original experiment was conducted in the 1970's. The report says that "decades later the team looked to see if any of the original children had significant criminal records" (Cline). It was found that 138 did, and they were children who had a much less sweat response than the other children. Thus, it can be concluded that this response was inherent and not learned due to the age of the children (Cline). So the fear creates morality argument is debunked.

Taking it the opposite direction, morality can also exist in the absence of fear. According to one researcher, Pillay, there are fear-response moral clauses such as "don't murder" and "don't steal" (Pillay), but there are also those that people, sometimes, adhere to such as "do unto others as you would have them do unto you." This is not based in fear, but it is based in a desire to truly have a good outcome. The problem, he says, is not that morality can only happen through a fear response, but that it happens much more often because of fear than without it that is the problem (Pillay).


Nietzsche was thinking about this topic for many years and observing the world trying to determine the roots of ethics and morals. He arrived at the conclusion that morals were all based in fear and that there were no true ethics. However, here are two small refutations of those assertions that disprove his thesis. In mathematics it only takes one disproof of a theorem to render it not tru. The same can be said or Nietzsche's assertions.

Works Cited

Cline, Austin. "Fear, Morality and Crime." About Agnosticism/Atheism, 2010. Web.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. "On the Genealogy of Morals: A Polemic… [read more]

Ethics in the Workplace Organizational Essay

… However, they would also be at risk of getting laid off unless they bring in some business to the hotel.

The management of the hotel could face a cut in its salaries if the request is rejected and business continues… [read more]

Ethics Journal in Goldman Essay

… While it would be illegal to fire someone because of his or her religious beliefs, the issue in this scenario goes beyond the employee's personal religious beliefs. In many ways, he infringed upon the religious freedoms of his fellow coworkers. He was in a leadership position and handed out religious propaganda at his workplace. When coworkers complained that this behavior was making him uncomfortable, and he persisted in his behavior. In many ways, it can be conceived that Coppedge's own behavior was actually creating a hostile work environment for his coworkers, who were having their own rights to religious freedom infringed upon by Coppedge.

The moral issue in this case really involves an investigation of the boundaries of religious freedom. Can one person's religious freedom be allowed to negatively impact the rights of others? What obligations does a company have to protect people in terms of religious freedom? Do they have to protect employees from religious speech by coworkers, or do they have to protect people's rights to religious freedom in the workplace?

In The world's most ethical companies, Jacquelyn Smith discussed the release of Ethisphere Institute's sixth annual list of the most ethical companies in the world. It listed those companies; however, it also described how Ethisphere came up with that list. It uses a proprietary rating system, the Ethics Quotient, which is based on a series of multiple-choice questions in a survey. These questions focus on the codes of ethics, litigation, regulatory infraction histories, investment in innovation, sustainable business practices, and other factors it considered important to ethical history. The company then independently verifies survey information and checks with governance lists with governance-focused organizations. They found growth in the international arena, as well as a significant number of repeats among the top countries on the list.

The ethical issue that seemed interesting is why companies are as interested as being recognized as ethical companies. One of the noted reasons is that companies use that recognition in the recruitment materials, because the workforce has become more interested in working for ethical organizations. Furthermore, companies can use this status to help attract customers. Therefore, there are some real benefits to getting on the list.

The ethical and moral issue raised by the article is whether being listed on an ethical list should be something that companies seek? Obviously, they should seek to engage in the type of behaviors that would result in their inclusion on the list, but whether they should seek to be named on the list itself is another issue. Do these [read more]

Virtue Ethics: The Good Essay

… "To possess a virtue is to be a certain sort of person with a certain complex mindset. (Hence the extreme recklessness of attributing a virtue on the basis of a single action.)" (Hursthouse 2010). The great advantage to virtue ethics' stress upon the person, not the action, is that it allows for a certain flexibility of decision-making. There may be a principle of "do not lie," that a deontologist would argue must be obeyed inflexibly, which a consequentialist would argue should be enforced only when this promoted the majority's welfare. A virtue ethicist would see situations in which small lies might be permissible to promote the social order, although lies in certain contexts would be abhorrent and against the general good.

The fact that virtue ethics tends to focus upon creating 'states of being' rather than discrete actions also makes it an ethical system that seems to promote a continual state of community harmony over a focus upon a single result (consequentialism) or a narrow set of rules (deontology). Virtuous people who value honesty are assumed to act at all times in a manner that promotes honesty, including choosing virtuous friends, working at virtuous occupations, and engaging in public life that promotes such virtues (Hursthouse 2010). Ethical actions are not 'blocked off' into a single facet of the person's life, nor are they always conscious actions.

Perhaps the greatest benefit of virtue ethics is that it frees the actor from the straightjacket of both consequentialism and deontology, which rarely seem to mirror how individuals make decisions in 'real life.' Most ethical decisions are made fairly spontaneously, based upon past knowledge, of which the moral actor's education is a part. It also does not seem to have the dangerous inflexibility of either ethical system, resulting in a cold calculation that less deaths might occur if a particular action is taken in a utilitarian fashion, or ignoring common sense and logic simply to follow a rule in the case of deontology. However, critics state that in its own way, virtue ethics can be just as unrealistic in the standards it sets for moral actors. "The fully virtuous do what they should without a struggle against contrary desires; the continent have to control a desire or temptation to do otherwise" (Hursthouse 2010). A truly ethical, virtuous person only desires to do good, and thus does not have moral conflicts about what he or she should have done otherwise. But much like a good rule can lead someone astray in deontology, "someone's compassion might lead them to act wrongly, to tell a lie they should not have told, for example, in their desire to prevent someone else's hurt feelings" (Hursthouse 2010). The precise balance between discipline and compassion seems impossible to achieve, at least in such an instinctive manner.

Another objection to virtue ethics is the question of how to educate the moral actor to create such an ideal, virtuous person. Such a system of moral education seems impossible, particularly in a world where… [read more]

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