"Ethics / Morality" Essays

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Population or Pool of Possible Subjects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
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¶ … population or pool of possible subjects for this project, because the population is too large for that type of study. Therefore, the study must focus on a sample of the population. "When determining which potential subjects from a large population to include in our study there are several approaches to choose from. Each of these sampling techniques have its own strengths and, of course, its own weaknesses. The idea behind adequate sampling, however, remains the same: to gather a sample of subjects that is representative of the greater population. The ideal research sample is therefore often referred to as a representative sample" (AllPsych, 2003).

In order to get a representative sample for this project, it is important to get a random sample. However, the population is sufficiently large that a simple random sample might be difficult to attain. Therefore, using a random number sample might be the best way to get an actual representative sample of the population. "A random number table is a computer generated list of numbers placed in random order" (AllPsych, 2003). The population is assigned random numbers, and those numbers are selected using a random number generator to determine the subjects for the survey. Because the population size for questioning is manageable, this use of random number survey should ensure a sufficiently random sample. The only significant problem with the selection of a random sample from a random number table is that it might not adequately reflect the members of different subgroups within the population. However, because I do not anticipate that subgroups will have a significant impact on the research questions, I am not concerned about having representative sections of different subgroups.

I do plan on sampling human beings, rather than attempting to gather data in another format. The study that I have planned does not present any ethical issues that would preclude using human subjects for the research. When determining whether it is…… [read more]


Rick Blaine in Casablanca Essay

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Ultimately, Rick is an both an altruist and an utilitarian. Rick's altruism allows him to let go of Ilsa so that she may rejoin Victor and help him to bring an end to Nazi rule. Rick's utilitarianism comes into play as his decision to stay behind not only benefits Victor and his political aim, but also the people in Casablanca who may seek help in getting away; by staying behind and helping Victor flee will benefit the most people; had Rick left with Ilsa then the French Resistance would have lost a powerful ally.

Renault, on the other hand, is indifferent to Rick's business, legal and illegal, and can often be found at Rick's Cafe. It is only when he is pressured by his superiors to take action against Rick does he take action against the illegal casino. Furthermore, while Rick's loyalty lies with those that he believes will have the greatest impact against Nazism, Renault's loyalty, regardless if he agrees with their policies, lies with the Vichy government. Renault is passive-aggressive against the Vichy government and though he must follow their orders, he does not act upon his orders in a timely manner and loosely enforces laws and regulations. Because he has pledged his loyalty to the Vichy government, Renault is not as free to act out against Nazism as Rick is, however, his attitudes and beliefs are slowly transformed to match those of Rick's. At the end of the film, an utilitarian relationship is formed between Rick and Renault as they successfully worked together to help Ilsa and Victor escape. Realizing the result of their joint effort, Rick states, "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship."

Rick and Renault's relationship may seem unconventional at best, but their collaboration will help to ensure that justice is served and that innocent people do not lose their lives. The utilitarian nature of their relationship will ensure that the greatest good is achieved for the greatest number of people; this is only possible through Rick and Renault's selflessness -- it is important to not confuse altruism with utilitarianism at this point as it is unclear if Rick and Renault personally, politically, and/or emotionally benefit from their actions or if their actions are…… [read more]


Positive and Negative Observations Five Positive Judgment Essay

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Positive and Negative Observations

Five Positive Judgment and Observations

Apparent politeness and consideration for others.

Apparent humility

Apparent absence of preoccupation with trendiness

Apparent respect for authority

Apparent benevolence

Five Negative Judgment and Observations

Apparent impoliteness and inconsideration for others.

Apparent self-centeredness and need for attention from others

Apparent preoccupation with trendiness

Apparent lack of respect for authority

Apparent malevolence

Possible Relevance to my Responses to others as a Teacher

I recognize that some of my instinctive reactions to others based on my observations of them could potentially affect the way I respond to people in the educational environment. When I observe people who are impolite or inconsiderate to others, it annoys me and as a teacher, I imagine that I would respond by providing guidance about why politeness and consideration are important in society. Likewise, because I admire and respect people who have appropriate respect for authority and who exhibit benevolence in general, I imagine that I would also respond to instances of apparent lack of respect and inconsideration by providing guidance in that regard.

On the other hand, the issues of humility, superficial preoccupations, and the need for attention from others are issues that matter more to personal psychological development and much less to the manner in which individuals affect others in society. Therefore, whereas when it comes to issues of respect, consideration,…… [read more]


Evaluators Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
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Evaluators should also be candid about any potential conflict of interest they may have and evaluators should also be careful to properly represent their findings and should be alert in order to prevent "or correct any substantial misuses of their work by others" (Scheirer).

The keys to evaluators' effectiveness include: a) taking responsibility for the "diversity of interests and values" linked to the public; b) there must always be a legitimate sense of respect for the "dignity," "security" and "self-worth of the respondents, program participants, clients and other stakeholders with whom they interact"; c) evaluators must show competence when relating to stakeholders; d) there must be a "systematic inquiry" presented by evaluators, using the "highest appropriate technical standards" when conducting their research and investigations; and e) integrity and honesty must be adhered to during the entire evaluation process (Scheirer).

Meantime, revisions made to the evaluation standards were approved by the AEA membership in July, 2004. Some of those revisions include a note that introduces some flexibility into the original principles. For example, the 2004 update acknowledges that "…it is impossible to write guiding principles that neatly fit every context in which evaluators work" (AEA). Moreover, because some evaluators will work in contexts in which "…following a guideline cannot be done for good reason," the evaluators should not be constrained but instead those evaluators should "…consult colleagues about how to proceed" (AEA). All stakeholders should be empowered -- and will be -- if there are engaged in the evaluation process.

Works Cited

American Evaluation Association. (2004). American Evaluation Association Guiding

Principles for Evaluators. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from http://www.eval.org/publications/guidingprinciples.asp.

Scheirer, Mary Ann, Newman, Dianna, Shadish, William, and Wye, Chris. (1994). Guiding

Principles for Evaluators. A Report from the AEA Task Force. Retrieved…… [read more]


Milgram's Experiment Response Term Paper

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ETHICAL POSITION ON MILGRAM'S CLASSIC EXPERIMENT

Stanley Milgram's classic experiment into the nature and limits of human obedience to authority was not unethical at the time that it was conducted for several reasons: First, it was not anticipated that the research subjects would exhibit the extremes of behavior that many of them did exhibit by delivering what they believed to be maximum electric shocks. Second, it was not anticipated that the research subjects would continue delivering shocks after the sham research subject began complaining and asking to cease participating in the experiment. Third, the level of acute psychological trauma experienced by the subjects was much greater than expected in advance, largely because of the first two reasons having to do with the expectations of the experimenters.

Detailed Response

At the time of Milgram's classic experiment into the nature and limits of obedience to authority, the experiment was not unethical, mainly because the experts never anticipated the results that could potentially correspond with significant negative consequences for the study's participants. Milgram made a conscientious attempt to mitigate any of those potential harms after the fact, but with the benefit of 20/20 hindsight, the experiment probably should not have been conducted in the first place because it is distinctly possible that residual negative consequences to the subjects defied the experimenter's attempt to minimize them through debriefing. It is also possible that some of those negative consequences occurred at levels of consciousness below the awareness of the participants, thereby invalidating the suggestion that their personal assessments of the effects they may have suffered were inconsequential.

The experiment raises serious ethical issues in several respects. First, it caused the research subjects significant emotional and psychological stress during the experiment. At…… [read more]


Presentation on a Country Japan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (808 words)
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Japan: Customs and Etiquette

Japan Customs And Etiquette

Japan:

Customs and Etiquette in Society and the Business World

Japan: Customs and Etiquette in Society and the Business World

When conducting either business or merely oneself successfully in a foreign country, it is imperative to understand the customs and etiquette that is enacted by that country's people. No matter how knowledgeable or business-savvy an individual may be, acting in a manner that is deemed acceptable by the culture around oneself is equally necessary to achieve success. Something as simple as a gesture, acceptable in one country, may be deemed highly inappropriate in another. Such is true for a country as rich in culture and history as Japan, where customs and etiquette such as business conduct and the concept of time vary significantly from customs in Western society.

Customs and Key Themes

Embracing a country's customs and themes is the most crucial step one can take in assimilating into society and business seamlessly. Turner Wright (2008) notes that there are several key customs that are necessary to enact upon arriving in Japan, the most important of all being respect (p. 1). Wright notes, "In Japan, respect is pounded into children's heads from the moment they enter school, but for tourists, a simple inclination of the head or an attempt to boy at the waist will usually suffice" (p. 1). Further, respect includes addressing an individual especially in the business world by their full name and title and assuring that manners are used in conversation and especially at the table.

In mentioning the table, it should also be noted that in Japan, tipping in any situation is considered insulting. Whereas a businessman at a lunch with colleagues in the United States would be frowned upon for leaving a shabby tip, the same individual placed in the same situation in Japan would be frowned upon for leaving a tip at all.

Business Etiquette

Japanese business etiquette can be summed up in one word: formal. It is fair to say that the term "casual Friday" is one that is not tossed around very often in Japanese businesses. The business meeting is considered a structured ritual, full of rules and standards that are nonexistent in the west. Japanese business prides itself on punctuality, professionalism and establishing relationships between interacting companies and individuals, not in merely brokering quick deals. In Japan, business is personal, and relationships are key to developing business…… [read more]


How Is Mencius' Theory Different From Confucius Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (986 words)
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¶ … Mencius' theory different than that of Confucius?

Mencius, one of the key formulators of Confucianism, often-considered second only to Confucius himself (Nivison, 1996), differed to Confucius in various aspects. The teaching that he is most famous for is his view on humanity and the rest of his philosophy evolves from that. Confucius' theory revolved around humanity, but he himself never stated whether man was born good or evil. To him man just was, consisting of three key attributes, and experiences, practice, study, and socialization developed these attributes inherent in man. Mencius, however, believed that man was born good and had the capacity to either develop or destruct this goodness (Shun, 1997).

Mencius gave the example of a child falling down a well to show innate goodness. The instinctive response would fall along four trajectories. (a) Individuals would feel instinctive commiseration: this is (ren) humanity; (b) individuals would feel instinctive dislike which represents the attitude of ('li') rules of conduct in social life; (c) onlookers would react with deference and compliance, namely (yi) 'propriety of conduct'; and (d) individuals would react with a feeling of 'zhi' right or wrong; proper direction of heart/mind which is wisdom (Lau, 1970).

Each of these qualities, Mencius entitled the Four Beginnings and, comparing man to a plant (Lau, 1970), said that man could enable these sprouts to grow in the positive environments, but negative environments and one's sensual tendencies would destruct them. The senses, powerful as they are, operate instantly and automatically, whilst zhi -- wisdom has the ability to curb and guide one's conduct in a propitious direction.

Confucius, as quoted in the Lunyu (Analects) mentions three qualities 'ren', 'li', and 'yen', and defines them in the following manner. 'Ren' refers to 'humanness' or ' 'benevolence' in the sense that it denotes love and concern for others, but Confucius also extends it to human qualities on a wider scope such as wisdom, courage, diligence, resilience, prudence, conscientiousness, tenacity, self-discipline, and trustworthiness. Li, originally referring to rites of sacrifice, is later extended to social behavior, whilst yi is close to Li in that it refers to proper conduct (Nivison, 1996; Shun, 1997).

Mencius, as said before, adopted Confucius' categorization of men into these three ethical attributes (ren (humanness), li (observance of rites), and yi (propriety)) but he added a fourth, zhi (wisdom), elaborated on these qualities, and extended Confucius' thesis of humanity to denote that man was no neutral creature, but was born with an innate capacity to goodness that could be strengthened or diminished by environment and/or practice (Lau, 1970; Shun, 1997). Mencius also differed in the definitions that he accorded, or the stress that he placed on certain aspects of the four qualities. Whilst Confucius used 'ren' in the broader sense to refer to admirable qualities in general, Mencius restricted himself to the narrower sense of the context to focus on the love or concern for others and on reluctance to cause harm not…… [read more]


Experimental vs. Quasi-Experimental Research Evaluating Client Profile Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (569 words)
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Experimental vs. quasi-Experimental research

Evaluating Client Profile

There are a number of differences between experimental and quasi-experimental research. For experimental research, there are a few basic things that one would need. First of all, a hypothesis for a causal relationship is needed as well as a control group and a treatment group. The next thing needed is a way to eradication confounding variables that could have the potential to ruin the experiment and stop them from illustrating the causal relationship. Larger groups are also important and they should have a carefully sorted constituency -- preferably randomized so that accidental differences will not ruin the experiment.

Trochim (2006) notes that experimental designs are the most rigorous of all the research design methods and all other methods are judged in comparison to the experimental design. If one can implement an experimental design well, and, Trochim (2006) emphasizes the word "if," the experiment has the potential to be the strongest design in regards to internal validity (2006). He states, basically: "If X, then Y" (2006) -- or to put it in much simpler terms: "If the program is given, then the outcome occurs" (2006). Yet, this is still not enough. To really show a causal relationship, one has to address (simultaneously) these two propositions: "If X, then Y" and "If not X, then not Y" (2006). More basic again: "If the program is given, then the outcome occurs" and "If the program is not given, then the outcome does not occur" (2006).

When one or more of these elements is missing, the experiment is not a true experiment, but rather it is considered a quasi-experiment. Quasi-experiments want to find a causal relationship, however, the researcher may not…… [read more]


Social Research Effective and Ethical Theoretical Frameworks Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,797 words)
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Social Research

Effective and Ethical Theoretical Frameworks and Conceptual Underpinnings in Social Research

The scientific method, though not really codified and rendered explicit until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was a feature the investigation of the natural world from the time of the ancient Greeks and Egyptians, and arguably even prior to the scientific advancements of these civilizations. "Science" as… [read more]


Respect Colloquial Concepts Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
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¶ … Respect

Colloquial Concepts of Respect

Respect is one of the phrases most-often referred to in connection with personal attributes and leadership qualities and capabilities. There are various misconceptions about exactly what it means to "command the respect" of others. In the most general sense, respect is a reaction to any accomplishment or achievement that is the product of hard work or ingenuity (Kinicki & Williams, 2005). However, in terms of professional and personal leadership, respect may have a much narrower definition.

Likewise, it is widely repeated that respect is earned, but in several ways, that element of respect is also widely misunderstood. For example, one way that respect of others is commonly understood to be earned is by virtue of measurable or quantifiable achievements: in that regard, one might be said to respect a business mogul for his financial acumen or foresight. For another example, respect is often said to earned by reciprocity, such as where one presumably earns the respect of others by first demonstrating respect for others. Without minimizing the value of knowledge, skills, and achievements, and without contradicting the importance of mutual respect for others in the colloquial sense (Harari, 2002), respect (particularly in the context of professional leadership and management) is much more a concept of objective principle than of personal abilities, achievements, or even interpersonal relationship style.

Respect as a Function of Objective Principles

When it comes to identifying the conceptual basis of the right to respect in principle, specific abilities and achievements are much less important that certain personal qualities. That is substantially (but not exclusively) true simply because neither abilities nor achievements or accomplishments are necessarily guarantees that an individual deserves respect except in the narrowest sense in relation to those factors. Nothing more than a cursory look at news headlines or some of the most high profile recent criminal cases to…… [read more]


Self-Reliance From the Book Transcendentalism Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (384 words)
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¶ … anathema to growth, as both consistency and conformity are the enemies of self-reliance. "The other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them." (paragraph 12)

Character

A person's character may be reflected in words and deeds but also transcends those external signs. "Character teaches above our wills. Men imagine that they communicate their virtue or vice only by overt actions, and do not see that virtue or vice emit a breath every moment." (15)

The approved version of history is a distortion of the truth because only the narratives of kings and wars are included: "In history, our imagination plays us false. Kingdom and lordship, power and estate, are a gaudier vocabulary than private John and Edward in a small house and common day's work." (19)

Prayer

Prayer should not be used for the petition of materialistic wants; prayer is an outpouring of spiritual joy and gratitude. "Prayer that craves a particular commodity, -- any thing less…… [read more]


Tell-Tale Heart Thesis

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Tell-Tale Heart

Poe's the Tell-Tale Heart is a story based around the theme of conscience. The story is told in first person by a narrator who has murdered an old man. The narrator's underlying sanity is reflected in the many ways in which his conscience helps to guide his words and actions.

At the outset of the story, the narrator emphasizes that he is not insane. While his words carry the aura of someone protesting too much, they also illustrate his own conscience. He knows that he is insane and admits such when he writes "The disease has sharpened my senses." However, he excuses the disease, claiming that it has not impaired him but rather enhanced him. The narrator's conscience drives this claim, as the narrator understands that his act was wrong but cannot readily admit it as such. If he admitted that he was mad, then he would need to admit that his act was wrong -- a deranged murder that he committed. As a rational man, however, he feels that he can justify his act. If the act can be rationally justified, then the narrator can have a clear conscience about the crime.

The narrator's desire to be viewed as a rational individual is demonstrated repeatedly throughout the text. The devices the narrator creates to justify his acts, including the evil eye, his superior senses and the beating heart, all reflect his underlying conscience. Underneath the dementia, he still views himself as a rational actor. These devices are all constructs of the narrator that help to create a scenario where his actions are justifiable on a rational basis. His conscience can accept a rational decision, but not an irrational one. This hints that the narrator is struggling with both the self-realization of his illness and also its consequences.

The theme of conscience is most strongly illustrated by the device of the beating heart. The heart represents the narrator's underlying humanity. The heart speaks to the narrator, both while the old man is alive and after he has been killed. The old man's heart is…… [read more]


Public Corruption and Its Effect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (679 words)
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TI notes, "Gift-giving is part of negotiating and relationship building in some parts of the world. But cultural relativism ends where the Swiss bank account enters the scene. It is a matter of degree: there are limits in all cultures beyond which an action becomes corrupt and unacceptable" (Editors, 2009). As noted, gift-giving, when it results in bribery or coercion, is still a form of corruption, but there are certainly degrees where it can be acceptable, and degrees where it cannot. There is a great difference between giving a gift of a bottle of wine or a fine cigar in return for consideration and review of a project, to giving money or gifts for extreme financial reward or gain. A culture that traditionally gives gifts for certain items is not bound to be corrupt, but there must be lines that gift-giving does not cross.

Unscrupulous officials could use gift-giving traditions as a basis for their own economic gain, by giving favors and other considerations to those who give the "biggest" or "best" gifts. This takes advantage of people who can afford the best gifts, but it also takes advantage of the other people that are paying the officials' salaries and seeing nothing in return. As they become more corrupt, they require more or bigger bribes, taking advantage of the situation and those that can afford to continue giving lavish gifts. To counter this, "Emphasis must thus be placed on preventing corruption by tackling the root causes that give rise to it through undertaking economic, political and institutional reforms" (Myint, 2000, p. 56). Countries that want to control corruption must weed out unscrupulous public figures, and create rules and reforms that discourage corruption and encourage trust and fairness in their public officials, or their countries will never survive and thrive.

References

Editors. (2009). Corruption FAQs. Retrieved 10 August 2009 from the Transparency International Web site: http://www.transparency.org/news_room/faq/corruption_faq.

Myint, U. (2000). Corruption: causes, consequences, and cures. Asia-Pacific Development Journal. 7 (2). 33-58.

Spector, B.I. (Ed.). (2005). Fighting corruption in developing countries:…… [read more]


Rationalizing in the Augean Stables, Poirot Essay

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Rationalizing

In The Augean Stables, Poirot takes some dramatic action to discredit the X-Ray News. He rationalizes the actions based on two main considerations. One is the outcome of the event and the other is the fact that Percy Perry, the editor of the X-Ray News is a blackmailer. Even though the information that Perry had was the truth, and it was damaging, Poirot rationalized his actions based on the utilitarian virtue of the greatest good for the greatest number. Ferrier was known to be a good man while his opponent in this situation, Perry, was not. Actions that Perry was to undertake to reveal the scandal would have been good for Perry and for the potentially-dictatorial opposition party, but they would not have been good for Britain as a whole. Thus, the majority of the nation benefits from having the truth obfuscated.

There is an element of Kantian thought to Poirot's actions as well, because of the character of…… [read more]


Good Judgment Essay

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¶ … Judgment

Sophocles' Antigone illustrates the consequences of poor judgment. Creon is viewed unfavorably by the gods for his disrespect to Polyneices and Antigone. As the ruler (regent) of Thebes, he is expected to show good judgment in dealing with delicate matters involving both etiquette and the gods. Creon failed to properly recognize the ethical dilemma that he faced. What occurred then was that he made a poor decision regarding Polyneices' body and the treatment of his sisters, particularly Antigone. Thus, the play demonstrates that ethical dilemmas are not always obvious up front. In this situation, it was for Creon to recognize that he may anger the gods by showing this disrespect.

Indeed, the back story of the play should have given Creon the context he needed to show better judgment. He should have understood that as a result of Oedipus' curse, both brothers would have to die. As a result, it was only by the fulfillment of that curse…… [read more]


Aristotle and Virtues Research Proposal

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¶ … Ethical Virtue

The Nature of Virtue:

The process of human socialization involves extensive learning of societal norms, values, and expectations. In addition to teaching specific behaviors and practices, social norms and values also provide a framework for any understanding of what is considered "good" or "bad." Those concepts dominate much of human social relations and the individual begins learning them formally and absorbing them passively in infancy and early childhood.

To Aristotle, virtue was a life-long process that required striving for moderation between the two most extreme excesses and deficiencies in human conduct. He called this doctrine the mean state do denote its intermediate position relative to human excess and human deficiency. Aristotle considered the highest virtue to be intellectual contemplation, because logical contemplation is necessary for any accurate understanding of anything from which virtues can be derived.

Objective Virtue vs. Ethical Relativism:

Because human social learning is culture-specific and so dependent on unconscious absorption of norms, values, and expectations, specific cultural values and social norms differ substantially among different societies. Concepts that are considered to have the most negative (even abhorrent) connotations in one society may be regarded much more positively (even promoted) in others. Typical examples in contemporary human societies might include the way Eastern and Western societies regard certain animal foods; social expectations with respect to appropriate attire in the West and many countries in the Middle East; as well as predominant religious beliefs and values, and myriad other extremely different social practices that are all considered the "norm" in their respective societies.

Those virtues considered the most important by society often generate formal…… [read more]


Fortitude the Blue Hotel Illustrates a Pair Essay

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Fortitude

The Blue Hotel illustrates a pair of simple lessons on the subject of fortitude. Essentially, the Swede has the fortitude to stand against the cheater even though he is afforded essentially no protection. In the second bar he oversteps his bounds and ends up killed, but the chain of events that precipitated the entire sequence stemmed from Johnnie cheating.

In that case, both the Easterner and Johnnie lacked fortitude to do the right thing. Either could have admitted the cheating, but neither wished to face the consequences. Johnnie got beaten for his trouble but the Easterner suffered no consequence, save that on his conscience. The lesson of fortitude is most important with respect to the Easterner. In his case, he had little consequence to pay when faced with the ethical dilemma. Without consequence, he chose the path of least resistance. However, there were consequences for this choice. The Easterner, however, did not need to pay these consequences.

That at the end of the story, several months later, he is still wracked with guilt demonstrates that if one knows that he is making the wrong choice from…… [read more]


Honesty the Concept of Honesty Is Displayed Essay

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Honesty

The concept of honesty is displayed in Death of a Salesman in Willy Loman's inability to be honest about himself. This causes significant discord in the family, which is the basis of the tragedy. The Willy Loman character is dishonest with himself in a couple of ways. The first is that he refuses to accept that he is fading in terms of his mental capabilities. This causes him pressure at work, since he is unable to produce at a level he considers acceptable, given his myopic pursuit of the American dream.

The second way in which Willy Loman is dishonest is with respect to his own nature and that of his sons. He criticizes Biff for working on a farm, yet that is the type of work for which Biff is best suited, and where he is happiest. Biff tries to teach Happy about the joys of such work, and in the play it is further illustrated that Willy himself would have been happier if he pursued such work.

Honesty is typically represented as an ethical dilemma in terms of being honest with other people, yet in this case the dilemma is more with respect to being honest with oneself. If Willy had been more honest with himself about himself and the keys to happiness,…… [read more]


Program Evaluation -- Things Happen Systematic Inquiry Research Proposal

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Program Evaluation -- Things Happen

Systematic Inquiry

The principle of systematic inquiry becomes obvious even before the evaluator took on the responsibility of surveying the program and its effects. Respecting this principle was a complex task due to the existence of a previous study and the need to review the direction and results of the already taken survey. It even… [read more]


Entrepreneurial Case Study

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Entrepreneurial Case

Carmine has been unethical in his conduct, in two ways. He has a duty of care to any potential investors to fully disclose all relevant financial information. His selective disclosure violates that duty. Additionally, he is intending to commit insider trading. His intent is to trade on sensitive information that has not been made public yet. It would be illegal if he does it, but even at this point his intention is unethical. Worse, he has essentially encouraged his father and uncles to commit insider trading as well. Should they go through with the transactions, they could face prosecution. It is unethical of Carmine to put his family members in that situation. They are not identified in this case as sophisticated investors. While Carmine may not have a legal fiduciary duty to them, he would still have an ethical one since he is in a position to know their actions are illegal and they are relying on him for advice.

It could be ethical for Carmine to pass along the financial information to…… [read more]


Chinese Philosophy Thesis

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Chinese Philosophy

Appropriateness and righteousness in Confucian tradition, as emphasized by the two respective texts, revolves around the idea of humanity and being humane as the most important motivation in any enterprise that an individual embarks himself on. In this sense, the second text is most eloquent, since being humane can sometimes go above the customs or even local laws by which the individual must abide. The ritual (custom, tradition) is that men and women should not touch when handing something to one another, however, when the most precious element in existence, individual life, is in question, all this is put behind. It is as if the primary objective changes with the new premises and humanity takes the place of tradition.

On the other hand, appropriateness and righteousness in Confucian tradition is also strongly related to filial piety and the text in the Analects proves this. Fathers and sons cover for each others mistakes because the family is the fundamental cell of the society and it is natural for them to base their existence on the credibility between one another. Again, such abstract notions as filial piety will take the place of the usual duty towards higher authorities. The duty is first of all towards the family.

2. I think the best answer to this starts with the end and analyzes how nothing can turn into everything. First of all, doing nothing does not necessarily mean an act of inactivity, but more of the individual capacity to be prepared for anything, as a premise and first step towards doing everything. In this sense, if you do nothing, it is virtually a parallel to being constantly…… [read more]


Hamlet Tragic Flaw Is His Inability Term Paper

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Hamlet tragic flaw is his inability to deal with problems head on. He has to think about them and find what he thinks is the absolute best solution, and often, he thinks about them so much that he never does come to a conclusion. He cannot act, he has to think, think, think, and it gets in the way of everything else in his life. He is also extremely cynical and negative, which only adds to his ultimate tragic law.

If Claudius were simply evil, he would be a one-dimensional character, and he certainly is not that. He is manipulative, almost paranoid, and power-hungry. However, he, at least at times, seems to genuinely care for Gertrude, and he is certainly wise enough to fear Hamlet when he learns he has killed Polonius. He is not purely evil, he display some characteristics that are not evil, although he does show remorse, and prays for forgiveness, showing that he is not completely evil and without any morals, even though his actions sometimes seem like it.

Gertrude is an intriguing character that challenges the…… [read more]


What Is the Difference Between an Actual and an Apparent Conflict of Interest? Term Paper

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Conflict of Interest

From ethical point-of-view, what is the difference between an actual and an apparent conflict of interest? Does it matter?

An actual conflict of interest results when an individual who has a responsibility to protect the public's health will personally benefit if he or she makes a policy decision regarding a particular issue in favor or against an outside entity. An example of a direct conflict of interest is when a member of the NIH is receiving money from the companies producing the drugs the NIH officer is supposed to objectively regulate. A scientist working for the government who owns stock in such medical company also has a clear conflict of interest. If the company profits, he or she will profit, and if a drug the company produces is found to be dangerous, the company will experience a financial 'hit' and the scientist will experience a financial loss.

An apparent conflict of interest might be a scientist who has a relative or spouse working for a scientific or pharmaceutical research company.…… [read more]


Pirate Empowerment Term Paper

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Pirate Empowerment

The life of pirates: Pirate empowerment

The myths of pirates and piracy abound in literature in film. It is often difficult to disentangle myth from fact and there are numerous points-of-view about the actual event and the rationale behind piracy. Commentators often note that, "...the fictional accounts of the common sea robbers have created a romantic illusion of… [read more]


Gender Differences in Altruism Term Paper

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Gender & Altruism

Assessing the relationship between gender and altruism

Independent t-test results from the data showed that generally, there is no established significant relationship between gender of the individual and his/her propensity to commit acts of altruism.

It is interesting to note, however, that looking into each scenario depicted in the survey, statistical results yielded plausible explanations and differences when respondents' responses are assessed not on significance, but on the mean responses for each scenario.

Behavior among women showed that they are more likely to respond and act altruistically in scenarios where they are asked whether to help a classmate catch up or not (M= 4.1) and jumpstart another person's car or not (M= 4.0). Among the five scenarios, it is the situation when one is asked to help another person with a flat tire that generated the least likelihood of assuming an altruistic behavior among female respondents, with only a mean response of M= 1.7.

On the overall, the mean scores of male respondents are relatively lower than females, which means that they assessed their altruistic behavior relatively lower than the women. Male respondents responded similarly to the scenario when one is asked whether s/he would help jumpstart another person's car or not, which yielded the highest mean score value among the five scenarios (at M=4.0, similar to the mean score of female respondents' answers). However, it was the first scenario, which asked the individual to assess whether s/he would more likely help an individual struggling to carry a heavy box or not, with a mean response of M= 3.5, the second highest mean score among the scenarios presented. Interestingly, male respondents also responded unfavorably to the third scenario, which asked the respondent to determine whether she will more or less likely help an individual with a flat tire while on the road (M= 2.0).

From these results, both male and female respondents assessed two scenarios in the same manner and level of altruism. The scenarios which asked whether they will help jumpstart another person's car and help an individual with a flat tire, encountered while on the road, are both "car scenarios" that requires relatively greater levels of altruism than the other scenarios. The difference between these two scenarios, however, is that they have different settings. It can be construed that what made the respondents respond favorably to the "jumpstart" scenario is the fact that it takes place at a relatively safe place, unlike that of the "flat tire" scenario, which places the individual at an undetermined place, and greater risk than the "jumpstart" scenario.

The willingness to help out other people while someone is within one's "comfort…… [read more]


Dream Job Term Paper

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Dream Job

Achieving My Dream

Each individual has dreams in life that he hopes to achieve. Most of us set goals to be able to achieve them, while some on the other hand work hard to conquer what they desire. There are in fact so many ways that one can do to achieve his dreams. However, because of such many ways, most of us tend to miss the process of planning and setting goals that focus on achieving our dreams. Sometimes, we tend to consider one strategy after another which causes us to spend and waste more time in our objective of attaining our goals.

At present, I have this simple dream relating to my future endeavor in becoming a part of the society's workforce. That is, to hold a high job position in a large company. I dream of becoming among the individuals who lead a company into success and who take care of the employees' future and welfare. With this dream, among my aspirations is to develop myself into a respected and yet humble individual who, somehow, will be known as among the people who delivered the company and its people to success.

To be able to achieve my dreams, I require myself to have the right discipline in all my present and future endeavors. I believe that among the virtues that a successful life and career needs, it is the virtue of discipline that makes the other good virtues valuable components to achieving dreams. Without the virtue of discipline in properly observing the other virtues, none of them will be helpful. For instance, without the virtue of hard work, a goal may be impossible to attain. However, without the virtue of discipline to put one's self into working hard, the virtue of hard work will not exist.

Another requirement that I believe will help me achieve my dream of having a high position in a job is to be motivated by my dreams and goals. Motivation…… [read more]


Ingredients for a Successful Presentation? Term Paper

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¶ … ingredients for a successful presentation? What are the challenges that you personally face in presentations? What are some successes that you have had in making presentations?

A successful presentation covers a new and interesting topic that the audience will be interested in and frames the material in a context that the audience can relate to. The presentation will provide information that offers new insights, appropriate supporting evidence and actionable advice. and, a great presentation keeps the audience engaged in the topic. The largest challenge I've found when presenting is not always having a clear understanding of the audience composition or having an audience with mixed backgrounds and interests. The best presentations that I have given are when I facilitate interaction with the audience. I like to start by asking a few questions about the audience's composition and interests along with a request for a show of hands. With this knowledge, I then spend more time on slides that are the most likely to meet the needs of the audience. and, I like to encourage interactive questions and answers. Although this can time management a bit more challenging, I've found that answering questions at a high level with a one-on-one follow up after the presentation as a mutually beneficial way to…… [read more]


Charles Peirce Maintained That Unconditional Term Paper

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264). The agapistic theory thus illustrated the process by means of which new ideas take place. Peirce felt that when a person departs from habitual ways of doing things, it generates in him a new intensity for creation which leads to new ideas and the courage to take risks. This ultimately results in growth. This growth of ideas is however… [read more]


Analect Second Part: Counterexamples "Not Meddling Term Paper

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Analect

Second Part: Counterexamples

"not meddling in the affairs of others." It may seem admirable not to meddle in the affairs of others, yet imagine that a man was walking down the street and he saw a young child being raped in an alleyway by a thug. The man wants to interfere in this affair, but he is afraid that physical harm will come to him, so he runs away. In this case, it is despicable cowardice which inspires the man not to meddle in the affairs of others, because his self (which he was not centering on) wanted to interfere if he had not been afraid.

Regarding not meddling in the affairs of others, this is linked to an admirable self-centeredness in my mind because generally a person who does not obsessess over the actions of otehrs will be less likely to try to control them. However, it should be clarified (this story points out) that self-centeredness is only admirable in a situation where the self is attune to its higher self and balances the welfare of the body with the welfare of the soul. This man's conscious will suffer more harm than his body ever would, if he walks away and does nothing.

2. "Intensely aware of one's own purpose."

Being…… [read more]


Post -- and a Critique Term Paper

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Post -- and a critique of Mrs. Parker

In her essay, "Mrs. Post Enlarges on Etiquette," originally published in the New Yorker, 31 Dec 1927, and later reprinted in Essays in Context, the satirist and author Dorothy Parker critiqued the commonly consulted manual of etiquette popular in her day by the noted hostess Mrs. Emily Post. Although etiquette is often dismissed as mere manners, the idea of how one should comport one's self in society was of profound concern and relevance in the America of Parker and Post's day, where shifting social paradigms had upset notions of what it meant to be middle or upper class. Parker was not of Mrs. Post's milieu, but of the 'creative' or bohemian classes, and thus wrote a critique of the idea that good manners could be achieved by following a copybook or step-by-step process. Parker's intent was not simply to satirize, but to question notions of etiquette altogether -- behave and say what you like, she stressed.

Parker's main thesis was that to focus too much on good manners and how to behave correctly in society, according to Mrs. Post, eliminates most of the spontaneity that is inherent to human interaction. Those who have mastered etiquette, who are entirely, impeccably right, all of the time in their speech and behavior would seem to arrive at what Parker refers to as a social and rhetorical valley of exquisite dullness. To behave with proper etiquette in the terms set by Mrs. Post, Dorothy Parker argues, is not to be human, but to be a robot, moving in line with what one is told to do, by Mrs. Post and others in the know. To behave with civility and good manners is to eschew what it means to be wonderfully, delightfully human.

To make her argument, Parker quotes several situations from Mrs. Post's handbook. She focuses on some of the most trivial details cited by the maven of social correctness, such as Mrs. Post's elevated dictates of how to eat difficult foods properly, and makes them seem absurd by dissecting these matters of behavior. Parker makes particular, absurd fun of how to behave when another individual behaves incorrectly in one's presence, as Parker no doubt would have delighted in doing, had she been confronted with the actual visage of Mrs.…… [read more]


Individualism in the Eyes Term Paper

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" In this assertion the author expresses how modern life has made humanity's existence inutile, met without any kind of challenges that make living exciting and more meaningful. Similarly, Emerson's subsistence to individualism as synonymous with self-reliance is reflected in his essay, aptly titled, Self-reliance. In this essay, Emerson contends, "... reliance on Property... is the want of self-reliance... They measure their esteem of each other by what each has, and not by what each is. But a cultivated man becomes ashamed of his property, ashamed of what he has, out of new respect for his being." This passage shows parallelism between Thoreau's and Emerson's beliefs -- that is, individualism necessitates deviating from the norms of society and asserting one's identity and natural right to live according to his/her preference and need.… [read more]


Self-Interest and Fear Philosophers Term Paper

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In the same way, self-interest is something that gives us pleasure and would always be the number one motivating factor in all our actions.

A valid ethical concern to actions based on self-interest alone is that if everyone is engaged in pursuing his own well being he would do so at the expense of others. While this may happen in certain circumstances, it is not always so since life is not just a zero sum game. It is not necessary that if someone is pursuing his own well-being, he or she is doing so at the expense of others. Several actions that could be taken by a person in pursuit of self-interest and harm others have been 'outlawed' by most societies. For example, if it is in the interest of a person to get something or gain pleasure by stealing from others, he cannot do so because 'stealing' is considered to be a crime, and has been made punishable by the society. Even otherwise, it is not always in our best self-interest to carry out such acts as stealing, murdering, and deceiving because such actions could also be taken by others against us, which would ultimately result in more pain than pleasure. It is, thus, the fear of retaliation that prevents us from harming others while pursuing our self-interest rather than any altruistic consideration. Hence the system of self-interest and fear works as a kind of 'natural' check-and-balance to keep things in control.

Pursuit of self-interest and avoidance of fear has been seen as part of human nature. We must reflect on why this is so, since nature does not act without reason. Self-interest is often associated with a negative and undesirable human trait that is either to be denied or suppressed. It must be realized that self-interest is not just a negative feeling and may well be responsible for progress made by mankind. It is what motivates human beings to make inventions, to strive for excellence, to compete, to try and better ourselves and our lives. It is a valuable and positive natural instinct and nothing to be ashamed of.

All of above does not mean that human beings are little more than animals living their lives instinctively with their behavior totally controlled by their built-in emotions and instincts. It is possible for us to change our behavior. We can do this in different ways and one of them is by using fear or pain. If we can train ourselves to associate massive pain to behaviors that we want to change, it becomes easy for us to do so.

In conclusion, it is safe to say that whatever action we take, it is invariably motivated by either self-interest or fear. Both these powerful forces are part of human nature that have helped the human race to survive in a hostile environment and can be used in a positive manner for our own as well as the betterment of the society.

Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789)… [read more]