Study "Ethics / Morality" Essays 551-605

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Lawsuit Negotiation Discussion Chapter

… Settling a Lawsuit

When the company in question sold lawn products that turned out to be lethal, killing hundreds of dogs and cats, the pet owners naturally expected to receive some kind of fair compensation for the loss of their family pets. When the company stopped selling the products -- after it became obvious that the pesticide in the lawn care product was responsible for these animal deaths -- it was like a public admission that something was terribly wrong with their product.

How Ethics Relate to this Case

In this case, if I am the representative assigned the task of negotiating a deal to settle the dispute, and there are three options I am considering using in the negotiations -- and those three options presented in the instructions are the only three I can give consideration to -- I am in deep moral / ethical trouble. So I am answering the questions on this assignment not according to the unethical standards reflected in the three things the assignment suggests a representative might be planning. Of the three strategies that the assignment puts forward, only one has any value when considering ethical conduct in negotiations. The first one asks the families to appoint a representative for me to negotiate with, and that is proper and helpful. But to suggest that he or she receives "a premium for getting the parties to settle" is way out of line and not ethical.

Responding to this case, three ethical theories relative to this case need to be applied. The first one, the Ethics of Purpose -- which asserts that a positive conclusion can't reasonably be expected to be achieved when there are "bad means" being employed by one of the parties. By wishing to fatten up my own bonus (by shortchanging the families that lost their pets), I am also violating the ethical theory Ethics of consequence because the end (my own fatter wallet) does not justify the means (deceiving those harmed by the use of pesticide). I am also violating the Ethics of principle because I would not want a negotiator to rip me off the way I am planning to shortchange the people who are the ones hurt.

Question ONE: The ethical…… [read more]

Is it Immoral to Eat Animal? Essay

… Animal Liberation -- Peter Singer

Critic Peter Singer has written an in-depth review article about the book, Animals, Men and Morals, which very thoroughly covers the essays within the book and posits that there are some very serious questions about… [read more]

Principle of Utility Essay

… Mill's Principle Of Utility

Mill reduced the categorical imperative to utilitarianism stating that it was the consequences of the good or bad action that determined morality of that action.

Mill's Utilitarianism is the end result of the action -- both sensual and intellectual, but, according to Mill, a human's reasoning capacity makes her, generally, prefer intellectual pleasure to sensual ones. The principle of utility should measure the consequences of the action rather than the intentions or character traits of the agent as per the prescriptions of, for instance, Kant or theological duty.

Secondary moral principles underlie general moral principles, and Mill recommends his principle of utility as an instrument to be used wherever there is a dilemma between two conflicting secondary principles. For instance, the general moral principle is to disseminate happiness. An existent dilemma is whether to dole the one single bread that one has to oneself who is starving or to another who is starving. On the one hand, the moral principle of charity dictates the latter, whilst the moral principle of self-preservation indicates the former. Mill's recommendation is to obey the instance where the greatest general happiness would be served.

How does Mill's version compare with that of Jeremy Bentham?

Bentham's principle of utility differed slightly from that of Mill's in that he proposed moral consequence arising from "the greatest good for the greatest number of people." Pain and pleasure, he wrote, are our masters; and the hedonistic (or 'felicific') calulus should be used to determine this greatest happiness principle.

Behtham offers the general principle of utility. He presents no rules as Mill did, and, in this manner, the differences between Mill and Bentham could best be summarized by defining Bentham as an act utilitarian and Mill as a rule utilitarian. An act utilitarian would use thought processes to determine the greatest accruing utility, whereas a rule utilitarian would calculate according to a…… [read more]

Ethical Decision-Making Essay

… Management

Ethical Decision Making

Ethics has to do with values of actions that tell about how human beings should operate in the numerous circumstances in which they find themselves in on a daily basis. Ethics is not the same as… [read more]

Stoicism Essay

… The Stoics of course differ, and have a more advanced ethical system essentially: for the argument based on instinct, the Stoics would respond with the example of a small child learning to walk, who will keep standing back up despite the pain of constantly falling over. The hedonist basis for pleasure as the only human goal seems weak indeed if a pre-verbal child is able to exercise sufficient mind over matter as to become, officially, a toddler. (This example comes from the late Roman stoic Seneca.)

2. Since Christianity would be born into a world governed by Greek thought, what Stoic values seem to have influenced the development of early Christian philosophy?

Stoic cosmology seems to have certain points of overlap with Christian cosmology -- in particular, the Gospel of John with its opening statement that "in the beginning was the Word (Logos)" is a direct reference to the Stoic concept of divinity, which was pantheistic (God is all-pervading) but also conceived of as eminently reasonable (hence the invocation of the broad Greek concept of "Logos" which meant not only "word" but also "reason" or "rationality," the derivation of the modern word "logic").

The emphasis on personal control over the passions can be found in Christian sexual ethics, for example the injunction from St. Paul that "it is better to marry than to burn" with lustful passions -- obviously Christian ethics would have no more place than Stoic ethics for the Epicurean hedonist approach to sexual expression.

To a certain degree, the political philosophy of the Stoics was quietistic: they did not preach wholesale withdrawal from society, but rather the calm and quiet obedience to its basic obligations. This is of course not far off from the political quietism expressed in the Gospels -- e.g., Christ's instructions to "render unto Caesar that which is Caesar, but render unto God that which is God's." Stoics also distinguished between matters that were covered by moral law, and those which were "indifferent" as regards ethical behavior. The emphasis placed in Christian ethics upon a re-evaluation of legalistic religious codes -- the way in which ritual Hebrew observances such as dietary codes and circumcision are revised or overturned in discussions of the Gospels, and the Christian insistence on the spirit rather than the letter of the law for right observance -- seems to match up with the fundamentally stringent overall Stoic standards for ethics. Christianity merely marries the Stoic ethical code with the Judaic sense of its divine dispensation.… [read more]

Universal Consequentialism Term Paper

… Such figures are evidence that many people are still not doing their part to diminish poverty in developing countries, yet according to Singer, if every affluent individual gave even a small amount, say $7 annually, such poverty levels would significantly decrease in developing countries (Singer, 1972).

That so little is required to lend aid to people in poverty-stricken countries discredits the most popular criticism of universal consequentialism; namely, that it requires too much of people. In a country like the United States, where many people spend more on one meal than what it would take to diminish poverty in developing countries for one year, it can hardly be considered asking too much of people to contribute the cost of one meal every year. In fact, I would even go so far as to suggest that if people knew how little was really required of them, the majority of people would gladly give this minimum amount. The problem is that the culture of many affluent countries promotes a level of ignorance regarding need and the requirements to meet need that in turn discourages people from giving. Another problem is that, while according to universal consequentialism, it is the moral duty of all people to prevent moral evils such starvation from occurring, there will inevitably be some people who will resist this moral duty, resulting in more required of those that assume it.

Nonetheless, the resistance of some to a moral duty does not negate that duty as a whole. Going back to the drowning child scenario, that five people turn a blind eye to the drowning child doesn't mean that any one person should not swim to save the child. On the contrary, universal consequentialism with an emphasis on equal consideration asserts that all people are equally responsible for promoting the good of all people, be it a neighbor's drowning…… [read more]

Should Patricia Dunn Have Been Forced to Resign Essay

… Patricia Dunn should not have been forced to resign. Her role as Chairman of the Board was to oversee the governance of the company, and assist with the selection of the CEO. Further to this, Dunn was to act as an agent of the shareholders, to protect their interests. The interests of the shareholders, and by extension the interests of the board and the managers at the company, are generally to seek profit, in order that the investors receive a return on their investment that is roughly commensurate with the risk they are taking as owners of the company (Friedman, 1970). It is by that standard that Dunn's job performance should be judged.

There are two key perspectives from which to analyze this situation -- deontological and utilitarian. Deontological ethics derive their judgment of ethical behavior from the choices that are made, rather than from the state of affairs that those choices bring about (Alexander & Moore, 2007). The ethics of the situation are determined by the actor's adherence to the established categorical imperative. The case in question appears to most closely correlate with the agent-centered deontological ethics of Kant. In this view, the categorical imperative is roughly analogous to a moral code by which agents should act. This code for Dunn would have been entirely based on the understanding of what does and does not constitute moral actions for a person in the position of Chairman of the Board.

There are two elements that help to define moral behavior for a person in that position. The first is comprised of the laws of the land. Dunn's investigation skirted the laws of the land. Pretexting is an act on which the laws are ambiguous or ill-defined. Legally, some behaviors of Dunn's investigators may have been illegal, but there is little evidence to prove this, nor is there evidence to prove that Dunn authorized the use of illegal activities when she launched the investigation. The other element to define moral behavior is not as clearly defined -- the code of ethics for Chairmans of the Board specifically. To consider this, Dunn's role as lead agent for the shareholders is of critical importance. Dunn owes the shareholders the greatest duty of care -- more than the duty of care she owes the other directors. The behavior of the directors is one of Dunn's responsibilities. In this situation, Dunn was acting to modify the behavior of the board, in particular the one board member whose behavior was highly unethical and violated his duty of care to the shareholders. Thus, from a deontological perspective, there is little case to be made that Dunn violated any code of ethics. The company received high scores for its corporate governance, and Dunn was able to eliminate the problem director. The investigation was not abnormal, given that highly-placed employees or directors by virtue of their position sacrifice certain privacy rights as a part of their role -- the other directors had no expectation of privacy and no expectation… [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas Term Paper

… That is to say that what was found to correct, appropriate or logical in another time might to be necessarily be so in the present or future. The information gathered from this chapter indicates that Ethical choices must be well informed and not constrained to a particular set of values or beliefs. In order to remain accurately informed and objective in regards to ethical issues borders should be ignored. We must search for and find what the international community deems ethically correct or incorrect and incorporate that into our decision making processes. The author points out in the text that as a global community we have sought to do that with organizations like The United Nations. Through agreements and pacts made with this and other organizations we have outlined several ethical and moral issues that have been deemed morally and ethically right or wrong. Using a prudent pragmatic approach seems to be appropriate in a time were globalization of all types is occurring. Globalization whether it be economic or political, will cause ethical and moral dilemmas that will have to be resolved. When these issues arise there will be the need to look at them objectively and logically while at the same time recognizing cultural values and variables that can affect the judge and analyst in these cases. In a world filled with terrorism, poverty, abuse and violence it is difficult to imagine that a common ethical and moral language can be established. According to the author by teaching prudent pragmatics to international policy maker and political leader we can establish a global community where life, liberty and equality can be respected.


Bluhm, t. William. Heineman A. Robert (2010). Ethics and Public PolicyMethods and Cases (Chap. 12) New Jersey, Upper…… [read more]

Bush Administration Decision to Invade Iraq Essay

… ¶ … Bush administration decision to invade Iraq in early 2003 was one of the most important shifts in international politics since the 9/11 attacks and the Balkan Wars. It created a new set of rules imposed to the international community not by consensus between the UN Security Council states but by the power of a single country. How was morality and ethics affected by this decision? Is there such a thing as morals in international politics? Should and could it be? These are some of the questions that scholars, international law makers and governments are asking themselves after the invasion of Iraq.

A closer look at the 1991 Gulf War reveals the motivation for the first Iraq international intervention: it was a "response to blatant aggression by a nation ruled by an oppressive leader who had not hesitated in the past to slaughter thousands of his countrymen" (Berman, 2010) the second intervention in Iraq did not have the same type of motivation but, the essence is the same: removal of the oppressive leader; which means regime change. Armed intervention and involvement in the internal affairs of a state, without UN clearance, is not allowed, so neither is any type of regime change by using force. The 2003 decision comes opposite of this, once universal truth of international politics. A member state of the Security Council and the main supporter of its rules, has bended them by creating a context that would be enough ambiguous as to build what could be called an ethical-free dilemma. As soon as the war of terrorism started with the invasion of Afghanistan, the Bush administration started building up a strategy to create the necessary conditions for overthrowing the Saddam Hussein government and replacing it with a pro-Western one, changing the entire country from an authoritarian regime to a democracy. The U.S. claims revolved around four main axes: the failure of Iraq to commit to UN sanctions; the support offered to international terrorist organizations; illegal development of weapons of mass destruction and the humanitarian reason.

The question of ethics appears instantly as according to international norms, the Bush administration acted against them. One conclusion would be that this action was un-ethical. Yet from a humanitarian point-of-view -- the dreadful actions that the Hussein regime had over the Kurdish and other populations in…… [read more]

Negotiation and Conflict Management Third Term Paper

… The ability to remain unbiased while sorting through details of a conflict between parties is crucial. Being objective entails suspending all judgment while dealing with both sides of an issue in order to most effectively reach an agreement in conflict resolution.

The next four attributes of an effective third party, sensitivity, empathy, the ability to give unconditional positive regard, and courage, are all interrelated. Often the issues being addressed within the context of conflict resolution are personal and charged with a lot of intense emotions. Therefore, the third party involved in conflict resolution must exhibit sensitivity to the parties involved. Along with sensitivity, empathy towards both sides of a conflict must be expressed. Empathy entails expressing to the parties involved that the third party has an understanding and identifies with their experiences in the situation in question. Furthermore, giving unconditional positive regard means giving both sides of a conflict a sense of acceptance regardless of whether they are "right" or "wrong." Finally courage is required on behalf of the third party to integrate all of these attributes together in order to confidently play a highly important role in the lives of people involved in a conflict resolution.

Third party intervention and mediation is often an effective option in conflict resolution. However, there are instances and circumstances that may decrease the effectiveness of these interventions. In the readings there could have been more of an emphasis on what may contribute to parties in mediation unable to effectively engage in the conflict resolution. Some of the factors outlined in the reading included power imbalances, abuse, or emotional weakness, and explanations of how these factors impact and influence the mediation process could have been expanded upon. Another point that could have been better expanded upon was ways in which the motivation of the parties involved in the conflict are shaped and how they can be influenced most positively in order for a third party intervention or mediation to be most effective.

In approaching the conflict between the two parties in "The Wedding Fight," I would implement effective inquiry to gather information from both parties in order to most effectively engage in effective conflict resolution. I would formulate questions for both sides of the argument that reveal key points in the history of the couple in order to get to the source of the dispute and to further understand the evolution of the conflict. I would ask each party what behaviors the other exhibit that impede effective communication and I would have them examine themselves for the same types of behaviors. I would ask them questions that allowed them each to express most fully their perspectives regarding the current conflict. Furthermore, I would practice effective listening skills in response to the inquiries made. By listening fully and actively, both parties will feel open enough to reflect and reveal their most genuine thoughts, emotions, and perspectives to me, the third party, on the matter in question. Above all and through all stages of mediation I… [read more]

Ethical Behavior Employees in the Painting Department Research Paper

… Ethical Behavior

Employees in the painting Department at Camden Manufacturing Company are compensated on the basis of productivity. Because Ron deliberately slowed his normal work pace while establishing the labor time standard for the painting of a new product the production expectations of the company are skewed. Employees in the Paint Department whose skills are equal to or superior to Ron's will be easily able to meet and/or exceed the production standard set by him and gain an economic benefit. Those workers whose skills are inferior to Ron's will also benefit from the lower standard because they will not have to work as hard to make minimum production requirements. Everyone in the paint department will be paid more for less work.

Discuss who was harmed from Ron's actions.

There are many aspects to consider when discerning who was hurt by Ron's actions. Obviously the Camden Manufacturing Company was hurt since the cost of the new product will be higher due to the increase in wages paid during the production phase. This will impact profit, and have an effect on stock holders. These costs will increase the price of the new product, which may have an impact on sales. The consumer will be affected because the retail price will be increased. If we wish to carry this scenario to the extreme, one may argue that because consumers are spending more capitol on the new product there will be less disposable capitol to spend on other products and services, hence other businesses such as restaurants, retail stores, and the like will suffer too. if, on the other hand, this new product is used in the production of other products than the cost of these products will be increased as well.

3. Discuss whether or not Ron was ethical in the way he performed the study.

The study of ethics involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Ethical theories can be divided into three general subject areas, metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. For the purposes of this discussion we will be looking at normative ethics. Normative ethics encompasses the study of moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct (Fieser, 2009).

Duty theories base morality on specific, foundational principles of obligations we have as human beings. Samuel Pufendorf, a German philosopher from the 17th century asserted that we have three absolute duties: avoid wronging others, treat people as equals, and promote the good of others. John Locke, a British philosopher also from 17th century argued that the laws of nature…… [read more]

Self-Assessment of Writing Paul and Elder Essay

… Self-Assessment

Assessment of Writing

Paul and Elder's first guideline reads, "All reasoning has a purpose." The purpose is clearly stated and broken down into sub-questions. In the opening paragraph of "Entrepreneurial ethics: Why study business ethics?," the writer's reasoning seems clear and logical, with a distinctly worded purpose: unbridled capitalism is unsustainable. Following from this, the argument is broken down into constituent parts. This would be fine, and in keeping with Paul's second checkpoint: "All reasoning is an attempt to figure out something, to settle some question, solve some problem." However, there is a leap from one concept to another in the following two sentences: "The idea that a perfectly stable, ethical system could be created simply through the invisible hand of capitalism was shown to be false. Functioning in enterprise today demands an astute understanding of the delicate interrelationships of modern organizational systems, emotional understanding when interpreting the wants and desires of the consumer, and an awareness of the modern regulatory environment." The leap from a question of ethics to the tripartite division of how to function in enterprise is not bridged sufficiently.

Similar leaps follow. For example, "This is why honing the tools of ethical decision-making are essential. Critical thinking skills enable an individual to break down a decision in a step-by-step fashion and to minimize personal bias." This leap represents one of the core assumptions in the paper, which is that ethical decision-making in business requires critical thinking when evaluating risk.

Assumptions need to be clarified and points-of-view also stated explicitly, as Paul and Elder note in guidelines 4 and 5. The writer later clarifies the issue of ethics with the introduction to Rousseau's theory and appropriate reference. Thus, the writer does understand what his or her assumptions are and states them explicitly. A point-of-view is also pointed out. Businesses need to follow ethical guidelines to survive and thrive. Ethics are therefore presented as good business, not simply as a matter of moral right and wrong: "negative ethical actions can impact marketing a business' products and services." Whether pursued altruistically or for the financial goals of the business alone, ethics are important.

Guideline 6 from Paul and Elder is "All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas." The writer addresses several business concepts such as that of stakeholders. For example, the author notes that direct consumers are not the only stakeholders. Evidence and quotations are judiciously selected and appropriate. This is in keeping with Paul and Elder's guideline 5: "All reasoning is based on data, information, and evidence"

Where the paper suffers most is in keeping with Paul and Elder's seventh guideline: "All reasoning contains inferences or interpretations by which we draw conclusion and give meaning to data." The author simply concludes by saying that the AMA outlines ethics for its members, whereas the business community does not. The argument may be stronger if the author had suggested the introduction of a business ethics organization. Instead the conclusion is weak: "For this reason it… [read more]

Euthanasia Is One of Those Philosophical Issues Research Paper

… Euthanasia is one of those philosophical issues that have been widely debated, without any solution in sight. One of the main reasons behind this is the many sets of principles behind each side of the debate. Against euthanasia, one might… [read more]

William Shaw and Thomas Nagel Deontological Constraints Research Paper

… William Shaw and Thomas Nagle

Over the years, there have been a number of different ethical theories introduced, that have challenged the way society will view, the most appropriate activities of the individual. As the underlying behavior and the thought process itself, are examined to determine if the individual is following the most appropriate standards. In the case of consequentialism, the overall ethical viewpoints are based upon doing the greatest amount of good. This is important, because various deontological views, will determine how the individual will act in society. Yet, there have been times that its general ethical theories have been augmented, to provide a better understanding of how to interact on a social basis. In the case of consequentialism, a number of ethical theories have been developed that further explain these ideas. To fully understand the different theories requires: examining deontological constraints over authority, how much authority these constraints have over everyone and the times these constraints can be overridden. Together these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how consquentialism is having an impact on deontological theory.

Deontological constraints do have authority over us. The reason why we should accept them is because they will define the most appropriate ways to interact with someone in a particular environment. This places constraints on us, by prohibiting certain activities that may not be considered to be appropriate. This is designed to limit those actions that are deemed as unacceptable. In consequentialism you want to accept these views, due to the fact that the underlying actions of right or wrong will be utilized, to gauge the morality of an individual. Where, society will look favorably upon those individuals who will take selfless actions for the benefit of group. Those who are embracing various deontological constraints are accepting the morals of society. Therefore, those who accept / obey them are agreeing with the principals of obtaining the most positive results possible. (Shaw)

In most cases, deontological constraints can have an impact upon the actions of the individual on a daily basis. Where, they will often shape how someone will react to various social situations. For example, when someone is a part of group, they will follow the various ethical standards more closely. This is because they do not want to be seen as an outsider, who is unethical (in the collective mind of the group). As a result, this will cause the individual to follow these various constraints on a consistent basis. (Shaw)

The absolute authority that deontological constraints have over us is limited. The reason why is because, consquentialism views what is happening based upon right and wrong. Someone who is murdering innocent people would have to be stopped, to prevent future injuries. As a result, this would justify the killing or harming of this person, with such actions having the greatest benefit for society (Shaw)

During times of emergency, the survival of the group is more than likely to be at stake. In these situations, the deontological constraints… [read more]

El Dorado Hills Fire Department Essay

… El Dorado Hills Fire Department

The issue regarding ethics is a subject of great importance in the business environment, but also within governmental institutions. Given the fact that ethics is a somewhat abstract notion, it is quite difficult for organizations to establish a code of ethics intended to address all issues that interfere with the organization's activity, to control the manner in which the code of ethics is respected, and to establish what measures should be taken in order to counteract such actions.

The same situation applies to El Dorado Hills Fire Department. The activity of the department and the fact that their actions affect the entire community determines the need of thorough enforcement of ethics in this case. The department is an example regarding ethical conduct within the society.

The appreciation expressed by the community members in relationship with the department, its personnel, and it efficient activity reveals the fact that the El Dorado Hills Fire Department is an example that must be followed in order to build a strong ethical climate within the society.

Although the department has not particularly expressed what are the specific actions that will be taken by the department's member in order to install an ethical climate within the organization, climate that can be adapted to the entire community, the values that the department intends to prove reveal the fact that the El Dorado Fire Department is determined to set an example from this point-of-view.

The department intends to become the leader in the emergency services sector. This objective is intended to be achieved by creating a diverse workforce environment, providing quality services, and focusing on implementing proactive and innovative training, education, code enforcement, risk assessment and community service (EDHFD, 2010).

The department's intention to enforce an ethical climate within the department and the community is clearly revealed by the department's mission. The El Dorado Hills Fire Department's mission consists in serving the community with integrity and excellence. As one may observe, the most important attributes that characterize the department's activity are represented by integrity, in order to support and to encourage an ethical climate within the department, and the high quality of the department's activity, which is also in relationship with ethics.

The El Dorado Hills Fire Department and the community in which they activate do not always see eye-to-eye regarding the priorities in fire and life saving and what the department should do. For example,…… [read more]

Ethical Considerations of Children Term Paper

… (2004, p.122) The work of Pentz, et al. (2008) states that there are ethical issues to children as donors which include: (1) the risks to donors; and (2) the ethical justification that minor sibling donors benefits from donating for a sibling's transplant. (p. 150)

Conditions for Minor Organ Donation

There is reported to be a lack of stringent criteria for minor participation as organ donors. For example the Amsterdam Consensus Panel holds that minor children under the age of 18 years should never be allowed o donate an organ while the U.S. Live Organ Donor Consensus Group, holds that minors under the age of 18 years could ethically donate however, only in circumstances that are "rare and exceptional." (Ross and Thistlethwaite, 2008, p. 1) The AAP holds that a minor may participate as an organ donor but only if specific and stringent criteria are met. The conditions that the AAP states as a requirement for minor organ donation are those as follows: (1) The first condition makes a requirement that both the potential organ donor and the potential recipient will benefit highly from the organ donation; (2) the surgical risk to the donor must be extremely low; (3) the third condition states that "all other opportunities for transplantation have been exhausted, no potential adult living donor is available, and timely and/or effective transplantation from a cadaver donor is unlikely; (4) the minor is required to "freely agree to donate without coercion and should only be allowed to donate within the immediate family; (5) there is a requirement that the emotional and psychological risks to the child donor be minimized. (Ross and Thistlethwaite, 2008, p. 1) The work of Olbrisch, Levenson, and Newman (2010) report that developmental factors that are important for consideration of children as organ donors includes "brain maturation affecting decision making, executive function and impulse control…" and "youthful idealism" along with the minor's sense of being invulnerable. (p. 1)

Summary and Conclusion

There are various ethical considerations to children becoming donors or organs for transplant and these have been reviewed in this brief study. Included in those ethical considerations are such as developmental issues and the medical, emotional and psychological risks associated with organ donation by children. Guidelines have been stated and reported by various organizations however, as noted in this study lacking are clear and stringent guidelines concerning children as organ donors. There is a need for the development of guidelines that clearly address the issue of children as donors of organs and it is necessary that these guidelines be clear and that the guidelines state stringent requirements for organ donation by minor children.


Olbrisch, M.E., Levenson, J.L., and Newman, J.D. (2010) Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. Ethical Legal and Financial Considerations. April 2010, Vol. 15 Issue 2. Online available at:

Pentz, R.D. et al. (2010) The Ethical Justification for Minor Sibling Bone Marrow Donation: A Case Study. The Oncologist 2008;13:148-151.

Ross, L.F., Thistlethwaite, J.R. (2008) Minors as Living Solid-Organ Donors. Pediatrics Vol. 122, No.… [read more]

Food Policy Essay

… Food Policy

What are the forces that influence and shape policy and consider whether this influence is beneficial and/or detrimental to the policy development process and/or policy outcomes? Some of the forces that influence and shape policy are values, assumptions and ideologies (Finders University, 2010; 28). Policymakers, like everyone else, possess beliefs that are both personal and professional; the difference is that their decisions go on to affect a number of citizens.

Values are the basic way that people understand the world in which we live and they guide the decisions that an individual makes. This means that the people who are making policies will consider and reflect on their own values when making decisions that will affect everyone. Our values determine many things because our ethics and morality are fundamentally why we choose to do what we do. An individual's standard of ethics and morality affects judgments that are made and, in terms of policymakers' standards of ethics and morality, their judgments affect many, so one has to hope that policymakers are able to make decisions that they believe will positively affect the common good of all people.

Some of the other influences that shape policies are knowledge, evidence and policy agenda. Policy-making is always influenced not only by values and standards of morality but by "constraints of economic, social, geographical and historical conditions" (Finders University, 2010; 29). It is up to policymakers to considers all of those conditions and then make a judgment about what their reactions to those conditions will be (2010; 29).

Knowledge is especially important when it comes to food policies as there are many "problems" that come up in relation to "food and health policy agenda based on scientific evidence" (Finders University, 2010; 29). What the evidence is may label some issues as a "problem," so it is important that policymakers are interested in what…… [read more]

Ethical Criteria Flow Chart Essay

… Business Ethics Criteria

A Decision-Making Flow in the Face of Ethical Dilemma

All organizations are faced with ethical dilemmas. Organizations that weather these dilemmas successfully are those with inbuilt procedures and guidelines for facing difficult decisions. This means that the first major criterion required for an organization to approach a challenging ethical dilemma is a preexisting and clearly defined code of ethics. This code of ethics should be based on a combination of industry best practices, elements particular to the organizational culture in question and the feedback provided by members of the organization.

Key Questions:

When considering an ethical dilemma, the following questions should be considered:

What does the organization's code of ethics state on this issue?

What are the options presented to me by this dilemma?

What are the consequences of my actions in the event of these options?

Who should have a stake in resolving this dilemma?

How should one evaluate the consequences of the decision ultimately reached?

Ethical Flow Chart:

The sequence of steps presented here below should serve as a template for making decisions in the event of an ethical dilemma in a business context:

Consult the existing organization code of ethics

If lacking such an ethics code, gain feedback from key personnel

Use feedback to construct practical code of ethics

Select proper personnel to address organizational dilemma

Dispatch individual or team to identify options within the context of the…… [read more]

Axiology Has to Do With the Philosophical Term Paper

… Axiology has to do with the philosophical science of value. Usually, when we mention values we are referring to ethics. The two main types of value studied in axiology are ethics and aesthetics. Ethics focuses on what we perceive as right or wrong and aesthetics deals with what we view as beautiful in our eye sight. Since we are all different and place value on different things, studying axiology can be quite tricky. It is my understanding that the subject focuses mainly on how people determine the order of what they value as it applies to their everyday life. Dr. Robert S. Hartman is known to many as the founder of axiology. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, he wanted to find out the answer to the question, "What is good?" As a result, he developed a mathematical system that orders our moral decisions ( This sounds fancy, but I believe it is another way of saying that Dr. Hartman developed his value system so that we can accurately measure our values using mathematics. This still seems a bit tricky since a value is something that is intangible. However, it is still used today, particularly in philosophy.

According to Dr. Hartman, there are three dimensions of value and we as individuals value things in one of these ways or a combination of the three ways. The three dimensions within the value system are: intrinsic value, extrinsic value and systemic value. Within the intrinsic dimension, the object or person is valued. We are in this dimension when we value people in our lives such as our spouses or children, or when we value objects such as our houses or cars. In the extrinsic dimension, value is placed not on an object, but instead on abstract properties such as a good student, a great student or a poor student. In the extrinsic dimension, things are judged and put into classes. In the systemic value dimension, how things should be is valued as opposed to how they really are. In this dimension, either the object is or isn't what it should be. There is no middle ground (

This entire topic still seems a bit too scientific which makes it even more confusing. There weren't any concrete or substantial peer reviewed articles to be found on axiology. The majority of the information comes from various websites on the subject. In fact, there is so little information that a new journal was started in 2008 called the Journal of Formal Axiology. Since this is the case, the focus will be directed to ethics and aesthetics. Again, both are difficult areas to tackle because they each mean something different to each person. What is ethical in one household may not be considered ethical in another. Ethics can also stretch across countries and different cultures. For instance, America does not practice female genital excision but many countries in Africa do and see nothing wrong or unethical with it. There are people in countries other than America… [read more]

Communication for Information System Technology Essay

… Communication for Information System Technology

There is a rush of rules and regulations in the corporate and government institutions that administer the ethical behavior. Because of the growing numbers of rules and regulations and the strong dearth of progressive investigation and supportive development has created a vacuum in the market. The vacuum can be filled with people who are interested in working for improving ethical behavior.

The recent surge in regulations is worldwide response to the various ethical dilemmas faced by business and governments in recent past. Australia has undergone 10 different enquiries with a major goal of improving the role of ethics in government, professions and business activities.

Whistleblowers are also being encouraged and many whistleblower protection programs have been staged to provide proper security and support. In Australia, all the states now have proper regulations and related legislations to provide full protection for the whistleblowers. A leniency policy was announced by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission -- ACCC that was meant to encourage the malefactors to accept their faults and blow a whistle against the other criminals they were involved with in return for a lessened and lenient sentence. The Chairman of ACCC, Mr. Graeme Samuels informed that ACCC have received 30 or more whistle blowing since they announced the scheme of leniency.

Corporate institutions and enterprises are also developing and using code of ethics. According to a research by Deakin University staff, the top 500 companies of Australia so use proper and well managed ethics of code. The code of ethics is regularly modified along with the methods…… [read more]

Stem Cell Research Controversy Assessment

… ¶ … Stem Cell Research Controversy

One of the most controversial ethical topics in modern American society concerns the use of stem cell science in general and embryonic stem cell research in particular. For the decade preceding the Obama presidential administration, embryonic stem cell research was excluded from any federal funding, effectively prohibiting it for all intents and purposes because of the nearly complete dependence of all major stem cell science-related research on government funding. As a result of federal funding restrictions on embryonic stem cell research in the United States, most of the important research in the field was conducted in Europe and Asia for the first decade of the 21st century.

Meanwhile, stem cell research in the U.S. was (in effect) limited to projects involving adult stem cells. The scientific problem is that not all human stem cells are equal in their potential usefulness. Embryonic stem cells have the greatest capacity for being directed to develop into specific kinds of human tissue. Adult stem cells have similar properties (in principle) to embryonic stem cells but their ability to be coaxed into developing into specific kinds of tissues is much more limited. Moreover, working with adult stem cells requires difficult and uncomfortable and potentially dangerous bone marrow extraction of stem cells from living donors.

As a government policy leader on the U.S., it is important to make policy decisions that are consistent with objective ethical principles and with applicable legal and constitutional principles. The embryonic stem cell research issue was dealt with improperly under the Bush administration because White House policy (and the resulting legal restrictions on embryonic stem cell research) seems to have obviously been driven by religious beliefs and dogma rather than by secular medical and scientific ethics. In the U.S., that is fundamental violation of the historic principle of separation of church and state upon which this nation was founded.

The objective ethical analysis of the issue would balance the potential benefits of embryonic stem cell research against the potential harms capable of being caused. Ethically…… [read more]

John Rawls Utopia Society Term Paper

… John Rawls and the Viability of His Theory of Justice in the 21st Century

John Rawls spent a great deal of time pondering issues such as fairness, justice, equality and liberty. But how well do his conclusions fare in the… [read more]

Can Ethical Behavior Really Exist in Business Research Paper

… ¶ … Ethical Behavior Really Exist in Business

What triggers unethical behavior in business

The concept of ethics in business

How to influence stakeholders and shareholders to behave ethically

Why some believe that ethical behavior is essential for the benefit of business

Ethical behavior is part of the everyday life, as it is essential for ethics to be present so as to impose control over society. Not only is business a domain where ethics is required, but it one of the foremost fields needing moral principles. Because of the diverse interests involved in business, ethical dilemmas are often present and it is difficult for certain people to act depending on ethics or to act on account of their individual concerns.

What triggers unethical behavior in business

Profits are usually the main factor influencing the removal of ethics when concerning business. Focusing on the profits that they expect to obtain from a particular business, individuals are predisposed to behave unethical and exploit others with the intention of getting the most out of the situation.

There have been numerous reports in the media presenting individuals or organizations that behaved immoral.

This was made possible because of the discrepancies between various groups of people, as some proved to be more interested in their own well-being rather than being interested in that of society as a whole.

A key confusing element that individuals come across in business is the one which involves them having to choose between profit maximization and the public's well-being. It is extremely difficult to determine what is it that can change people's behavior when they are presented with such an ethical dilemma. This is regularly because people are unlikely to accept the concept of losing profits in order to better the lives of others.

III: The concept of ethics in business

In the present day, ethics can be perceived differently by two individuals, as each might consider that the other's behavior is unethical when they conduct themselves depending on dissimilar principles. Ethical decision making should not be a right, given the fact that it would be immoral for everyone to be free to behave as they want, without being interested in the consequences of their actions.

The general public generally expects individuals and organizations to behave ethically, but most are unable to come up with an effective method of persuading masses that it is better for them to behave ethically than to act out of their own interests.

In business, it is easy for individuals to absolve themselves from any moral responsibility for their actions, as they consider their behavior to be perfectly normal because of the profits that they gain out of the deal. Society and the principles of business are intolerant toward the concept of one having the right to choose when an ethical dilemma emerges. Both advise against any immoral behavior, regardless of the interests or of…… [read more]

General Systems Theory Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … Practice

Relevant Points

I have chosen to consider Mattaini's and Lowery's (2007) framework, which they call Perspectives for Practice, as a proxy for a model or theory of practice. For purposes of this document, I refer to Mattaini's and Lowery's framework as the multiple perspectives approach. Its salient features are the following:

The client (person or organization) should be viewed by the social worker from four perspectives: ecosystems, power sharing, evidence-based, and social justice.

The ecosystems perspective emerged from two streams of ideas: ecology and general systems theory. The former is concerned with how organisms fit with their environments, and the latter represents a shift from a simple cause and effect way of thinking to one that recognizes multiple and reciprocal causation.

Key concepts in current ecosystems thinking include the following.

Transactional relationships -- not objects -- are the basic elements of reality.

That relationship networks are self-organizing and fluctuating is of critical importance.

Diversity has a crucial place in these self-organizing systems.

Sometimes environmental interventions are needed as much as or more than client interventions.

The power sharing perspective comes from Native American thought, and regards all actors (including the social worker, client and others) as either contributing to or damaging the reality that connects them.

Key concepts in the power sharing perspective are:

Shared power is not the same as empowerment as used in its transitive sense, where someone 'gives' power to another.

Everyone carries many kinds of power and can learn new kinds.

We do not have power; we 'do' power; it emerges in action.

Strengths and skills are reflections of personal power.

The sharing aspect refers to how everyone (social worker, client and relevant others) contributes to a desired outcome

Evidence-based practice -- using those intervention strategies and procedures for which there is strong empirical support -- is well-established in medicine and psychology and is becoming more appreciated for its contribution to social work.

Evidence-based practice involves five steps:

Develop the right questions.

Use effective and efficient ways (e.g., online databases and professional literature) to find the answers.

Critically evaluate the information obtained.

Determine how well the strategies and procedures found in the information fit the case being considered.

Evaluate the application of the strategies and procedures, and modify accordingly.

The social justice perspective arises from a recognition that many if not most social work clients experience oppression and deprivation of their basic human rights.

Key components of social justice practice are:

Advocating for the rights of clients

Acknowledging the injustice, when it is present, and being patient and persistent in working with the client to overcome obstacles

Being alert for and resisting any temptation to 'blame the victim'

Being aware of and taking measures to counter any biases or tendencies toward prejudice

To insure that each of the four perspectives is used, the social worker might want to keep Mattaini's and Lowrey's graphic in a prominent place. The graphic is a pie labeled "The Case" and has four slices, one for each of… [read more]

Ethical Dilemma With Lavonda Essay

… Ethical Dilemma With Lavonda

Lavonda's situation is replete with legal and ethical implications. First is the issue of her engaging in a romantic relationship without reporting it to the Human Resources department. In doing this, Lavonda and Allen both broke fundamental rules of the company. As Karline told Lavonda when Lavonda presented her complaint, Karline should fire Lavonda for breaching the superior-employee ethics code. But because Lavonda has been able to retain her job in spite of her error in breaching this code, Lavonda now works in an extremely uncomfortable situation. As Karline told her, Lavonda would be taking a huge risk in formally reporting Allen's behavior since Lavonda has no proof of any wrongdoing on Allen's part and since it has been established that Lavonda has previously operated in violation of the company's superior-employee code.

Legally, Lavonda should be fired, but from an ethical standpoint, Allen is the one at fault in this situation. On more than one occasion, Allen has used his position of superiority as leverage to bed young women who work for him. At this point in the situation, Allen is attempting to bribe Lavonda with both a promotion and distance in the company from him, the man who is making her uncomfortable. This seems like a good business decision, but ethically it is wrong. Lavonda would have to put another young woman in the uncomfortable situation she is in, and she would have to accept a promotion based on something other than the merits of her work.

Lavonda now has a decision to make. She can choose the outcome that is better for her professionally and personally but is in violation of a number of ethical standards, or she can choose the outcome that is ethically upstanding but would almost certainly lead to disaster in both her career and in her family. If Lavonda chooses to lead Soo-Chin into Allen's bedchamber, Allen will give her a promotion. Lavonda would then have the money necessary to help her mother live in comfort. Lavonda would also have the benefit of working in a section of the company that does not contain Allen, the…… [read more]

Family and Consumer Sciences Term Paper

… Family and Consumer Sciences

The American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) was established in 1909 as the American Home Economics Association. Since that time, AAFCS has been committed to optimizing the well-being of families and individuals by empowering members to act on continuing and emerging concerns; focusing the expertise of members for action on critical issues; and assuming leadership among organizations with mutual purposes. (AAFCS, 2005).

Family studies and services fit within the Family and Consumer Sciences profession in the sense that it enhances the quality of life for individuals, families, and communities through education, research, creative endeavors, and public service. The inspiration came from the belief that a supportive, challenging learning environment is a foundation for the personal, intellectual and professional development in Family and Consumer Sciences. This area encompasses the study of relationships among people and their personal environments, focusing on the impact of physical, biological, and social environments on human behavior and development. Thus, one gets prepared to become an informed citizen and professional through the study of its programs.

The mission of Family and Consumer Sciences is that of preparing students to culturally offer solutions to problems that individuals go through including families and communities, this engagement can be done through giving food, clothing, shelter, and creating good family relationships. The quality of life for individuals and families within the global community seeks to be improved through education and supported by research and service. Areas such as interaction of family, environments surrounding residence, human growth and development, foods and nutrition, management of human and resource material, and consumer studies are the main focus on this. Family and Consumer Sciences prepares students to improve the global society through its life span perspective and with an applied integrative focus on individual and family development, nutrition and health, consumer studies, merchandising, apparel and textile design and hospitality management

The Code of Ethics of AAFCS and NCFR

The American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) was constituted over a century ago as the American Home Economics Association. Since its inception, AAFCS has always devoted itself to optimizing the welfares of families and individuals. This is done by enduing members to act on emerging concerns. AAFCS also focus the expertise of members for action on important issues. It also assumes leadership among organizations with common purposes. AAFCS is also involved with a number of activities. Some of them include advocating the Code of Ethics, producing a professional journal, certification of academic programs, and extending professional certification chances to those already practicing in the field.

It is AAFCS that conducts a credentialing program for family and consumer sciences professionals. The Certified in Family and Consumer Sciences (CFCS) professional authentication involves three components. The first component involves a specified prerequisite, then a standards-based examination system, and finally a continuing professional growth. The Council for Certification (CFC) is an independent unit within the AAFCS association.

The Code of Ethics of the American Association of Family are the principles intended to help… [read more]

Mommy Track and Glass Ceiling Essay

… Economic Justice and the "Mommy Track":

Are They Headed in the Same Direction?

The concept of economic justice has been interpreted and defined a variety of ways by a wide array of theorists. The dominant economic theory of the past, i.e. classical economics, has evolved into what is now considered to be neo-classical economics. Classical economists believed that the pursuit of individual self-interest generated the greatest possible economic welfares for society as a whole. They additionally asserted that the economy is either in a state of equilibrium at all times, or is at least working toward that state. The school of economics that evolved into neo-classical economics believed in economic welfare as a derivative of a free market (Shaw, 2007)

For libertarian economist John Rawls, economic justice is based on compliance with social cooperation. As William Shaw points out, Rawls' perception of economic justice entails the right of every individual to earn a high enough income to adequately support themselves and their families. However, Rawls does not impose limits on these rights to earn, and does not disparage earning more than is necessary to sustain a basic lifestyle. For utilitarian John Stuart Mill the primary concern of economic justice was with the issue of civil liberty, which centers on recognizing to what extent man can legitimately be controlled and have his freedom restrained. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory, meaning that it is based is the belief that actions or rules should be evaluated in accordance with their potential consequences. These consequences are typically measured by their intrinsic "goodness." Thus, for those with a consequentialist perspective, the degree of harm associated with a decision or action is of tremendous significance (Shaw, 2007).

In contrast to the consequentialist position is the deontological or non-consequentialist position, which is most closely associated with Immanuel Kant. The non-consequentialist position asserts that certain moral obligations remain intact regardless of their empirical consequences.

Finally, egoism, which is a teleological theory, holds that it is the duty of the individual to seek his own good. According to Shaw, this stance emphasizes the individual's ability to control only his own actions as opposed to controlling the actions of others. Considering that my chosen topic, "the mommy track," is based on maximizing freedom for the sake of economic gain, I believe the consequentialist theory of utilitarianism would provide the richest analysis.

Application of Theory to Selected Topic

Women of the 21st century are no longer striving to be "superwomen" or "soccer moms." Instead many women are opting for the "mommy track" in which they either work flexible or part-time hours through their company, work for their company from home, or start their own business in which they can choose their own hours. Kimberly Palmer of U.S. News and World Reports submits that "31% of organizations allow employees to work from home or off site on a regular basis, and 73% allow extended career breaks for family responsibilities, according to a survey by the Families and Work Institute" (2). Generally, speaking… [read more]

Personal Values Development Essay

… ¶ … happiness except the simple harmony between a man and the life he leads? -- Albert Camus

My Values

If "having values" was a value and "analyzing one's values" was considered a sport, I'd be an Olympic athlete with a purpose. That being said, it was an arduous task to narrow down my core values. After much deliberation, I have narrowed it down to what I affectionately term the "spectacular six" values for personal success:

(1) Honesty, (2) Integrity, (3) Equality, (4) Introspection, (5) Humor, and (6) Respect for Others. Despite being a self-proclaimed grammar geek, I believe the foregoing sentence violated a few capitalization rules. However, since these are my values, I deem each one important enough to be considered titles in their own right or possibly even proper nouns.

These values are not listed in any particular order of significance except for one: the catch all. Respect for Others is listed last because even before I knew what a value was, I knew the Golden Rule. Moreover, I have a philosophy that we could attain world peace and end hunger and starvation and possibly even stop global warming if every human being lived and died by the Golden Rule.

Sources of My Values

The Golden Rule certainly comes from my mother who probably repeated "Do unto others as you would have done unto you" to me when I was in vitero. When I wanted to disinvite my best friend to my seventh birthday party because she made fun of my shoes, my mom reminded me that I should treat people with kindness and asked me to apply the Golden Rule. It seemed that even as I aged and the issues became more serious and complicated, my mom's answer still entailed an application of the tenet in "Do unto others." To her credit, such an approach generally works in addressing what to do in a relationship issue.. Now, if everyone employed this simple tenet all across the globe, then we would see a revolution of thought and, hopefully, enter an era free of prejudice, racism, and bullies -- just to name a few.

Honesty and Integrity are values that I believe would help foster trust amongst human beings at all levels. In developing these values, my family reinforced the notion of honesty. In fact, growing up, if I did something wrong such as sneak out of the house in the middle of the night or cut fifth period for a week in a row, my punishment would be double if I lied about it; however, if I was honest, I could generally plea my case down and be off restriction in no time due to good behavior. Integrity to some is defined as the ability to do the right thing even under unfavorable conditions. I linked these two values together because they are probably the most difficult values to live by on a daily basis. Indeed, it is often very difficult to be honest with oneself, but to… [read more]

Post Tenure Review Validity and Integrity Essay

… ¶ … Validity, Ethics, and Integrity

Ensuring validity, ethics, and integrity in the previously proposed research study into the effects of post-tenure review on teaching research, and overall service as well as to school culture is a somewhat complex process, but one that is well mapped-out in previous literature. Mixed-method research studies such as that proposed maintain validity through careful and conscious sample size and population selections, with larger and more randomized populations for quantitative portions of a study and more narrow and purposefully, specifically selected populations of individuals for qualitative portions of the study (Creswell & Plano-Clark, 2008). The ethicality concerns of the research are not as extreme as in many other research studies; the preservation of anonymity within institutions is the primary ethical concern this study will encounter (Cozby, 2009). Integrity will be maintained through consistent practices within and throughout the research phases.


A large portion of the proposed research's validity will come from the balanced perspective that it aims to achieve through rigorous exploration along both quantitative and qualitative lines. Within these separate spheres, the use of subject area experts to vet proposed instruments will help to maintain validity. Where possible, instruments developed for and utilized in previous research with high measures of certainty and validity can be adjusted for the purposes of the proposed study (Creswell & Plano-Clark,…… [read more]

Ethical Analysis Holding an Ethical Reputation Research Proposal

… Ethical Analysis

Holding an ethical reputation within the local environment is key for small and growing businesses. The second you offend your local consumer base, is the second you limit your growth outside of that initial market. Thus, in the case of Broadway, it made the decision to remove provocative games from its local market, yet did not follow through with this ethical decision across the board, and decided to sell overseas, where there would be less of a backlash.

There are several stakeholders within this specific case that will be affected by the overall decision. First, are the executives at Broadway, whose reputation will be tarnished or whose pockets will be drained. If they decide to shell away the game forever, the loose money. However, if the decide to sell the game, it may affect their reputation and still cost them money. Additionally, the employees are at risk. Within a small company, if a game goes sour, all the employees within that small organization will feel the pain.

The ethical issue in this situation is whether or not to sell a sexually explicit and violent game to young gamers. Broadway has conducted several studies to determine the nature of their market. They know very well that their target market is kids between 5-12 and teens 13-19. Out of this market, 75% percent is male. Kent saw that his target audience wanted more action and violence in new upcoming games. Research has shown a level of addiction to video games that rivals that of compulsive gambling. In fact, further research done by Kent showed that because players wanted more intense levels, they were actually willing to pay more for those levels. Thus, gamers were willing to pay double the amount of coins if it meant an increase in game intensity. Broadway took his results from the research and implemented them into several new games that were instant hits in the market. The game Kent developed utilized this and other questionable elements to capture the attention of his target audience. He implemented a female character within the game that would remove one piece of clothing after every successful level played. Eventually, at the end of the game, the character was fully nude. This was too provocative for an American young audience, and so the executives at Broadway made the decision to sell games online to adult audiences and to sell it overseas. Taiwan is ok with accepting it as is, and all that needed to be done elsewhere was to tone down the violence and also sell the games to the Mexican market, while still leaving the sexually explicit references and nudity.

Broadway was following a strong ethical principle in their decision, that of Respect for Autonomy. According to this principle, businesses "should allow people to reign over themselves and to be able to make decisions that apply to their lives," (Rainbow 2010). Thus, by moving the game to overseas markets, Broadway was trusting in the autonomy of individuals outside the… [read more]

Ethical Thesis

… Ethical IT

The question of whether or not it is right for a company to put spyware on all of its employee's workstation computers in order to detect private usage and so increase productivity -- or at the very least stem the loss of work hours due to private use -- that the company believes is occurring is indeed an ethically tricky one. There is a definite right on the part of the employees to their privacy, and yet there is a right by the company to get the proper work hours that the employee has been contracted and paid for. These rights, in the given situation, would seem to be in conflict, and though this need not be the case it presents in interesting grounds for the comparison of utilitarian and deontological ethical systems. Neither of these directly and simply answers the ethical question raised here, but both have clear and relevant positions supporting both the employees and the company.

The ultimate end and ethical measure in the system of utilitarian ethics is often summed up as "the greatest good for the greatest number," meaning that the ethical course of action is that which maximizes the benefits and minimizes the harm to all affected partied in a given situation (Andre & Velasquez 2008). The name of the system is actually derived from the economic term "utility"; the decision with the highest overall utility is deemed ethically correct (Mautner 2002). Deontology, on the other hand, derives from Greek words meaning "the study of duty," and is concerned with the motives and normative moral obligations that are seen to exist in all actions (Alxander & Moore 2007). Deontology, that is, specifies that there are right acts and wrong acts, and that the outcome of these actions does not determine their morality, but rather the act itself is classified as correct or incorrect.

Applying these theories to the situation at…… [read more]

Conduct an Ethical Analysis of Satyam Scandal Research Proposal

… Ethical Analysis of Satyam Scandal

The Satyam Computer Services scandal involved India's fourth-largest software services exporting company and likely represents the largest case of corporate fraud in India's corporate history. Last January, the company's founder and chairman, Ramalinga Raju, suddenly… [read more]

Policy Statement Analysis the Tri-Council Research Proposal

… Policy Statement Analysis

The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans 2008 draft version is substantially different from its 2003 first draft predecessor. In particular, the chapter dedicated to "Free and Informed Consent" is much more extensive in the 2008 draft. In addition to the expansion of existing sections, the 2008 draft also amends the prior version with the addition of new principles and concepts that were entirely missing from the 2003 draft version.

Moreover, whereas both the 2003 and 2008 draft versions address the conceptual difference between merely signing consent forms and establishing that such signatures genuinely represent valid consent based on meaningful comprehension, the 2008 draft version seems to incorporate that fundamental principle throughout the chapter. By comparison, the corresponding concept is just a nominal reference in the 2003 draft version. Generally, Chapter 3 of the 2008 draft version marks a clear evolution of the extent to which many traditional aspects of ethical concepts must be applied to research in the intervening five years between their respective authorship.

Without exception, the new changes are beneficial to potential research subjects and reflect a much greater awareness and concern for the possible detrimental effects of research on subjects. Some of the most important changes manifested in the new version are that: (1) it explicitly details the informed consent withdrawal rights of subjects; (2) it expands the criteria for voluntariness of consent from one very small paragraph in the 2003 version to 3 full pages in the 2008 version, comprising 10 subsections; (3) the 2008 version specifies an ongoing responsibility with respect to informing subjects of every element necessary for valid consent; (4) the 2008 version adds a section pertaining to incidental findings that is absent from the 2003 draft; and (5) the 2008 version also adds a specific burden of establishing a justification and specific need for any departure from the general consent requirement in conjunction with procedures established for the approval of such departures by the research ethics board (ERB).

Informed Consent Withdrawal Rights

In the 2008 draft version of Chapter 3: Free and Informed Consent, Article 3.1 under Section A. General Principles

adds the explicit statement describing the rights of study participants (in sum and substance) to change their minds, for any reason, or for no reason, and to withdraw from the study after it has begun. The 2008 draft version incorporates this provision within the duties of the researchers to include that right of participants within their obligation to inform them fully in conjunction with securing informed consent. By contrast, the 2003 draft version does refer to the withdrawal rights of study participants but does not otherwise address this obligation in connection with the specific information required to be included in the process of informing participants during the consent acquisition process.

Voluntariness of Informed Consent

The 2003 draft version of Chapter 3: Free and Informed Consent, Article 2.2 under Section B. Voluntariness provides, in its entirety, (in sum and substance) that free and informed consent… [read more]

System of Inquiry the Code of Ethics Essay

… System of Inquiry

The code of ethics, or the code of professional responsibility as it is sometimes referred to, represents one of the most important tools that help regulate a profession, whether one refers to private businesses or to governmental… [read more]

Exporting Pollution Essay

… ¶ … Ethical Problem With Exporting Pollution

The choice to relocate an American plant in a third-world country is ethically unjustifiable to whatever extent operating the same plant would be environmentally unsound or legally prohibited in the United States. It would only be ethically permissible to the extent the decision was unrelated to shifting the risk or burden of environmental consequences to the third world.

More particularly, where the choice is intended to shift the risk of disease out of the U.S. Or to avoid statutory prohibition or costly regulatory domestic requirements, the utilitarian ethical perspective in particular would oppose the proposed plant relocation on two specific grounds. First, the utilitarian ethical system would oppose the relocation on the grounds that it amounts to using other nations as a means to ends sought by citizens of this nation; that is a clear violation of one of Kant's fundamental utilitarian principles (Rosenstand, 2008). Second,…… [read more]

System of Inquiry for the University Essay

… System of Inquiry for the University of Houston

There are many different factors that contribute to ethical decision-making in an organization. Since every individual has their own personal 'moral compass', it is up to the organization to lay out a… [read more]

International Management the Award Serves a Dual Research Proposal

… International Management

The award serves a dual purpose. The external purpose is to promote Conoco's ethics beyond the company. Internally, the award serves as a benchmark for all Conoco employees -- recipients are role models up to which all Conoco employees can look. At its core, the award serves as a tool to reinforce the company's code of ethics. It is more critical that employees and external stakeholders are aware the corporate ethical codes than to simply have them (Barnett, 2003).

The term "extraordinarily" can be defined in one of two ways. It can be taken to mean that the firm's ethical standards are upheld in unusually difficult circumstances. It can also be taken to mean that the employee raises the bar on ethical standards for all around him or her.

Given the purpose of the award, the first recipient should be a true benchmark recipient. In this case, the first award should go to Raymond Marchand. He has actively promoted Conoco ethics, even in the most difficult of circumstances such as the world's most corrupt countries (BBC, 2000). Furthermore, he has done so over the course of his entire career.

4) One major structural feature blocking ethical action is the duty of the managers to shareholders. In many nations, unethical activity does not directly harm profit, so attention to the profit motive can result in unethical activity if the manager believes greater profit opportunities will result. Another structural issue with a firm like Conoco is the far-flung nature of the firm's operations. It is difficult for managers at head offices to police the behavior of employees in the remotest corners of the world. These locations also necessitate the hiring of thousands of local employees, many of whom do not have any experience with Western ethical culture.

5) it is important to measure all aspects of an ethical program. While the awards component of the program cannot be measures using all known measures, some can certainly contribute to the measurement. There are several potential success measures that can apply to the awards program. There are external measures, such as recognition…… [read more]

Ethical Management in Fictitious Company Nathealth Nutrition Research Proposal

… Ethical Management in Fictitious Company

NatHealth Nutrition Inc. is a commercial organization that provides comprehensive food services to businesses and other organizations. It offers menus of healthful and nutritious meals as a better option to standard food service fare typically offered in institutional settings such as schools, colleges, businesses, and other entities that serve food to students and employees. The mission of NatHealth Nutrition Inc. is to support improvements in national health by improving the regular diet of as many people as possible. It is the commercial food vendor analogue to the Whole Foods retail sales concept.

In addition to directly improving national health through better nutrition, the organization is also dedicated to contributing positively to the growth of preventative health care in general. In that regard, NatHealth Inc. actively supports initiatives to increase disease screening programs, smoking cessation programs, recreational exercise programs, and is involved in numerous other campaigns to increase awareness of preventative health issues and to provide greater access to healthful nutrition and other services to lower income communities.

The organization maintains very high standards of ethics that go beyond the requirements of law in the workplace. It prohibits various types of discrimination beyond what is required by federal and state law in connection with which it recognizes rights such as health insurance for cohabitating significant others and recognition of same-sex unions in employee benefits even without any formal (i.e. legal) recognition of same-sex marriages in the state where it is incorporated and does business.

Ethical Focus in Recruitment:

In the recruitment phase, NatHealth Inc. relies more on passive communication efforts (Locker, 2006) than on specifically selecting for ethically superior new hires. This is mainly because Human Resource executives recognize that prospective job applicants undergoing the interview process can be naturally expected to mirror whatever values and attitudes are modelled by the recruiter and the organization (Myers & Spencer, 2004). On the other hand, the recruiter does emphasize the organizational values and commitment to high ethical principles in a manner that accurately represents the organizational expectations of all employees throughout its recruitment brochures and related printed matter.

Ethics in Training:

Once new hires join the organization, NatHealth Inc. provides extensive new-hire training in ethics. That process includes standard ethical training in compliance with legal requirements, definitions, and standards; following that, NatHealth Inc. continues with sensitivity training and ethics-in-the-workplace seminars covering additional elements of organizational values and ethical policies. Those materials and presentations cover everything from cultural sensitivity and establishing positive working group dynamics to understanding discrimination and avoiding harassment scenarios in every conceivable context.

The company also distributes written versions of organizational values and expectations in ethical matters in the employee handbook materials and all NatHealth Inc. employees must fulfil annual ethics training in conjunction with which they must complete an annual online certification test conducted on each employee's computer terminal.

Ethics in Supervision and Administration:

In addition to regular organization-wide annual employee ethics training, managers and other employees with supervisory responsibilities must participate in additional ethics… [read more]

Informational Privacy Essay

… ¶ … Piracy

There are a couple of fundamental philosophical approaches that can be used to analyze the issue of whether or not Justin's parents should have been given his email after his death. One school is the deontological school, wherein the morality of an action is absolute, regardless of the outcome. The other is the consequentialist school, wherein the morality of an action is dictated by its outcome. This paper will examine the question of Justin's email in the context of each of those schools, from the perspective of Yahoo.

At the core of deontological ethics is the idea that actions have absolute morality. The outcome of the action is irrelevant to the question of that action's morality. Whereas many acts are outright immoral to most deontological philosopher's the morality of most human actions is subject to a certain degree of interpretation. The bounds of morality, therefore, are dictated by the moral norms. Within deontological theory, there are two main perspectives to consider -- agent-centered and victim-centered. (Alexander & Moore, 2007)

Agent-centered theory is based on the premise that the agent, in this case Yahoo, has a set of obligations and permissions that drive action (or inaction). Mr. Ellsworth's Yahoo email account came with a set of permissions and obligations, as outlined in the user agreement. From Yahoo's perspective, the agreement guides the morality of their actions. There is nothing from a deontological perspective that would suggest that Yahoo should not uphold that agreement, even in the event of Mr. Ellsworth's death.

Victim-centered theory focuses more on rights as a guideline for the moral imperative. The right of Mr. Ellsworth to privacy while living is enshrined in the agreement. In this case, however, there is the question of the time frame for those rights. It does not hold that Mr. Ellsworth maintains his privacy rights after his death, as the rights were bounded in a contract with Yahoo that, legally, expires when Mr. Ellsworth dies. However, if the parents are viewed as the other victims in this situation, it is then important to examine how their rights can set the moral imperative. Under deontological theory, the intent of the parents comes into question, in that good intent on their part aligns them with the inherently moral position. However, the parents never made any agreement with Yahoo, so in that way they never set any moral imperative with the company. Thus, Yahoo's agreement with Mr. Ellsworth would appear to trump the position of the parents with respect to the defining moral imperative of this situation.

Consequentialist ethics contends that the morality of an action derives from its outcome. This school derives from utilitarianism, wherein an act is only morally right if the positive outcomes outweigh the negative ones (Sinnot-Armstrong, 2006). Under our scenario, the parents suffer because they are denied access to their son's email. The son is dead, so is irrelevant to the question. Yahoo does not suffer from the decision and it would…… [read more]

Ethical Scenarios in Modern Policing Thesis

… Ethical Scenarios in Modern Policing

Scenario 1- Drugs at a Friend's House:

This scenario raises a moral problem because the officer is duty bound by oath to enforce penal law and in this circumstance, the officer has observed a penal violation that constitutes a felony in most jurisdictions. Had the officer observed the same conduct while on duty, there would be no question that he would have an affirmative duty to take enforcement action, in which case it would not be appropriate to apply discretion instead of taking action.

Since he is off-duty, enforcement action is not required as it would be were it to involve the immediate threat to the life or limb of a specific victim or to members of the public. The specific criteria justifying the decision not to take enforcement action are: (1) the absence of immediate danger or harm to persons or property and (2) the officer's off-duty status. On the other hand, the scenario still presents several ethical issues. First, the officer has an ethical obligation to inform his friend to alert him to criminal activity on his property for his benefit and to allow him to make appropriate and informed decisions in terms of any associated risks to his interests. Second, the officer has an ethical obligation to distance himself from his friend in the event his friend is aware of and condones the cocaine use. Sworn law enforcement officers cannot allow friendships to place them in circumstances where they are likely to be exposed to felonious behavior.

Therefore, I would immediately confront my friend to ascertain whether or not he is aware of the drug use in his house. If he responds appropriately by confronting his friends and then distancing himself from them, there is…… [read more]

Kant's Formulations Research Proposal

… Nestle_Kant_Utilitarianism

"To tell the truth is a duty, but is a duty only with regard to one who has a right to the truth. But no one has a right to a truth that harms others" (Immanuel Kant, "Grounding for… [read more]

Rationalizing the Play Murder in the Cathedral Essay

… Rationalizing

The play Murder in the Cathedral illustrates how one can rationalize their way through ha number of choices. Archbishop Thomas Becket is in conflict with the king. Upon his return to London, he is faced with four tempters, who offer him different choices for his future. After each tempter has made his imploration, Thomas rejects his offer. In doing so, the Archbishop rationalizes his choice.

The rationalizations indicate that perhaps the Archbishop has already made his mind, that none of the options are the one he intends to choose. He ultimately is killed, even though he did not go with the fourth tempter is becoming a martyr. He ends up as a martyr nevertheless, and perhaps he knew that this would happen. The rationalization of this choice is that such an act would be sinful. Thus, even if he ultimately becomes a martyr, he cannot actively choose such a fate for himself under the eyes of God.…… [read more]

Memento and Identity to a Great Essay

… Memento and Identity

To a great extent, memory enables us to be virtuous people. For example, because we as a species are capable of possessing memories, we remember that we are sons or daughters, and have obligations to our parents. Because we possess memories, we remember we are Catholic or Jewish or American and live according to a particular code of values. Virtue theory states that it is having a good 'character,' not abiding by particular rules, that enables us to be virtuous people. A good character enables us to know when to apply the rules of ethics and how. But without a stable identity and character no really consistent virtuous actions are possible. In Christopher Nolan's Memento the protagonist Lenny understands that he must remind himself of his obligation to avenge is wife, but only partly comprehends how his identity as a husband is compromised -- he has no memory of the real relationship he had with his wife, and relationships are part of what create the individual's state of virtuous 'being' in the world that foster his character and growth.

Relationships with other people and social roles are the usual reminders of identity in society. Relationships such as the obligations of parents to…… [read more]

Clockwork Orange Is Essentially a Story Against Essay

… Clockwork Orange is essentially a story against use of force to suppress free will and raises many questions about virtue and morality. I feel that virtue can be certainly be taught but not by altering brain chemistry or brainwashing a person but by exposing him to acts of kindness and virtue that might help him make better decisions for himself. What makes a person moral is his ability to choose right over wrong and good over evil. The absence of evil doesn't make a person any better than the next one. It is the ability and courage to do the right thing when presented with both options that makes a person moral. Even though I fully agree that violence must be removed from society, I cannot endorse use of scientific techniques to alter brain chemistry. However I will definitely support a rehabilitation program that would help suppress a person's urges to choose evil over good. This program must not play with the mind of the subject but simply use techniques like suggestion to alter his way of thinking. This is because as much as we might support free will; we cannot allow criminals to rob our homes, gang rape our women and hurt our community in the name of free will. Free will must be taken…… [read more]

Ethical Issues in Business the Duty Thesis

… Ethical Issues in Business

The Duty to Report Legal Violations:

There is no question as to whether one has an affirmative duty to report the situation if, and to whatever extent, one believes in good faith that the accounting practices… [read more]

Cons of Pro-Assisted Suicide Perspective Research Paper

… ¶ … Against Assisted Suicide

There are few topics in medicine today as controversial as the issue of assisted suicide. Though there are perhaps fewer headlines regarding the subject than during Dr. Jack Kevorkian's heyday or the Terri Schiavo, legal… [read more]

Compromise of 1850 Forming a Critical Essay

… ¶ … Compromise of 1850

Forming a critical and objective response to these three speeches is far easier said than done. The issues involved, slavery and secession, are both fraught with implications both inside and out of the political realm, which can make objectivity simply impossible. A fair examination of the law during that period seems to necessitate racism, as the laws of slavery were inherently racist. At the same time, any other interpretation other than a completely fair one is, by definition, unfair. The three very different views expressed by William H. Seward, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster illustrate the fact that these same issues were being dealt with during the time of the Compromise. It was impossible to give an answer that was both entirely consistent with law and the Constitution while at the same time upholding emerging moral sensibilities that are considered normative today, and each of these three men had to choose a compromise of their own in coming to their decision, some with greater success than others.

Despite the length and breadth of Seward's argument, it is rather too emotionally and rhetorically driven to be considered a serious scholarly answer to suggestions of compromise. Seward's commitment to his moral sentiments is commendable, but he as much as says that the Constitution can no longer be considered the highest law of the land, but that a higher moral law (and religious law, though the two were synonymous for all intents and purposes at that time) must be used in determining whether or not slavery should be permitted. From the point-of-view of our modern sensibilities, his beliefs and assertions are fully correct; slavery has been (rightly, in the opinion of this author, though how much of that is a product of the time in which we live must always remain unknown) outlawed and decried for its inhumanity, but…… [read more]

Ethical Leadership Thesis

… Ethical Leadership in the Military

The field of ethics is extremely complex and it has applications in all domains of life, including social interactions, as well business and military ones. The military filed is renowned for its high levels of discipline, which consequently implies high moral values. More recently however, a question has been raised relative to the ethics of the soldiers in their non-combat situations. Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Doty and Major Shawn Tenace (2009) recognize that the soldiers are still respectful and disciplined in their interactions with the superiors, but are unsure as to the morality of their interactions with the prisoners and the civilian populations. The question has been raised relative to the soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan, who may at times reveal unethical behavior towards civilians and prisoners. The emergence of the issue is based on the principle of "What goes on in the theater stays in the theater" - a saying implying that, in given instances, it is acceptable to behave in an immoral manner, as long as this is behavior only occurs in a restricted climate. A first means of addressing the issues raised by Doty and Tenance is that of limiting the applicability of the principle and increasing the transparency of the military interactions.

In achieving higher levels of ethics in the military, the leaders should focus more on the implementation of numerous moral values. Also, they must present an example of morality and high ethics among their peers and subalterns. The most relevant of the ethics principles are succinctly presented below:

Honesty - telling the truth at all times, being straightforward and candid

Integrity - basing all actions and decisions on moral principles, such as independent and unbiased judgement or honour

Loyalty - the soldiers and leaders should be faithful to their cause and not act in its detriment

Accountability - the military men have to assume responsibility for their actions, decisions and resulting consequences

Fairness - the military men must treat all individuals in a fair and equal manner and their actions and decisions must not be arbitrary, capricious or biased

Caring - soldiers and their leaders must be kind to those with whom they interact

Respect - soldiers…… [read more]

Ethical Standards Essay

… Ethical Standards and Codes Defined

Ethical standards and codes of ethics can be defined as the common standards of practice within a profession. All professionals within the discipline can be said to agree upon the correct way of practicing their work and their dealings with other professionals as well as clients. According to Freeman, Engels & Altekruse (2004), codes of ethics represent both the highest and lowest standard of practice that is expected from a professional in any business.

Ethical standards in a profession can also be said to emerge from moral expectations as these have evolved over the time of the profession's existence. While ethical standards for a lawyer today is for example not necessarily quite the same as those of a century before, such standards evolve to suit the requirements of any given time in human history and society.

In addition to their nature as evolved from the requirements and norms associated with the profession from its existence over centuries, ethical standards also provide a guideline for present and future practice. This is particularly handy in cases where the obvious ethical principle is not obvious. In ethical dilemmas, for example, the ethical standards denoted for the profession can be consulted for guidance on how to resolve this.

In this way, ethical standards provide a business with guidance on dealing with clients, colleagues and society in a uniform way within the accepted norms of its profession. As such, ethical standards are the accepted moral expectations that are applicable to all decent and respected members of the profession. These standards are accepted not only within the profession, but generally within society as well (Freeman, Engels & Altekruse, 2004).

Because ethical standards can be arbitrary and unclear, it is essential to substantiate it with duty. If ethical dilemmas or unclarity arise, the professional can then consult the underlying theory for greater guidance in how to act in specific situations. Ethical codes may be based upon ancient codes that have evolved, as mentioned above, and current situations may be beyond the scope of the so evolved standards. This is why theory should…… [read more]

Core Values Research Proposal

… ¶ … Ethical Principles to Saint Leo University's Core Value Statements

In today's world, most organizations, whether they are associations of professionals, schools, or non-profit organizations, have codes of conducts or statements of ethical principals. The purpose of such statements… [read more]

Ethical Behavior Essay

… ¶ … Ethics


Ethics in human life is a concept that may be defined differently in different cultures and societies. However, in many respects, ethics can be defined objectively in a way that does not depend on context. Generally, we receive our ethical training only informally from family and societal mores and to some degree, those efforts are successful. However, evidence of widespread unethical behavior includes both publicized instances of corporate dishonesty and business fraud as well as common personal rationalizations used by ordinary individuals to justify their obviously unethical behavior.

In principle, ethical behavior can be defined logically as conduct that is unfair, dishonest, or deceitful, as well as conduct that is harmful to other people and without valid justification. Discussion:

Ethical standards are defined by social learning and vary substantially in different human cultures. Therefore, the definition of ethical behavior must not depend on cultural differences. In some societies, behaviors are condoned and encouraged that would be considered unethical in other cultures. In the most extreme examples, countries like Nazi Germany taught the supposed ethical obligation to turn in Jews who were hiding from extermination. In the United States prior to 1865, it was illegal to teach black people to read or to help them escape from slavery. Even today, certain societies such as some in the Middle East punish petty crimes of theft with amputation of limbs and impose the death penalty by hanging or stoning for infidelity or homosexuality. In principle, therefore, the definition of ethics cannot depend on local beliefs and customs. Rather, ethical value must be capable of being defined objectively and without reference to any particular culture. Objective ethical standards and values are those that do not depend at all on personal or social perspective, precisely because such ethical values reflect cultural beliefs, values, and prejudices that may themselves be extremely unethical.

Even with an objective definition of ethics, many instances of unethical behavior persist because of the tendency of human beings to rationalize their behavior to justify violating established ethical values. In American society, typical ethical values include being truthful, not stealing, and not breaking rules of cheating. Nevertheless, it is quite common for people to justify lying by saying "I will lie when it suits me - as long as it doesn't cause any real harm," to justify stealing by saying "I will steal from those who won't really miss it," and to justify cheating by saying "Most people…… [read more]

Ethical Leadership Problems That Resulted in Columbia Case Study

… ¶ … ethical leadership problems that resulted in Columbia's misconduct. The company had a poor training program that could not possibly have communicated the need for ethical behavior. There was no commitment from the firm's executives to ethical behavior; many in fact were committed to unethical behavior. The corporate culture was focused on intimidation from the top, rather than on ethical behavior as taking precedence.

The current ethics program contains an ethical component and has strong leadership commitment from the top of the company. Another strength is that the new program includes an extensive training program. One glaring weakness is that the new program does not balance the needs of other stakeholders. The firm's profitability decline significantly as the company became myopic in its pursuit of improved ethics. Another weakness is that the chain of leadership is muddled, with far too many executives in charge of various components of the program.

The current program appears to satisfy all seven provisions of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines that will allow for lower sanctions. The…… [read more]

Ethical Dilemma of Business Thesis

… Ethical Dilemma of Business

Globalization and market liberalization have radically changed the business community. However they have been the primary determinants of the modifications incurred, they have not been the sole generators of change. Other such forces include the economic… [read more]

Child Development Comparison of Conventional and Post Essay

… Child Development

Comparison of Conventional and Post-Conventional Moral Thinking

In morality thinking at the conventional level, an individual build choices from a member of society perspective, taking into consideration the good of others, the preservation of positive relations, and the rules, norms, and opportunities of society. An individual will try to do the accepted thing to gain approval from other people and to maintain good relationship and conformed to authority to avoid censure and guilt. An individual will emphasize being a good person that basically means having helpful motives toward people close to one.

While in morality thinking at the post-conventional level, an individual explain from a priority of society perspective in which conceptual ideals take priority over particular public laws. Also in this level, an individual will voluntarily comply with rules on the basis of ethical principles and make exceptions to rules in certain circumstances. Lastly in this level, an individual will be less concerned with maintaining society for its own sake, and…… [read more]

Freedom and Responsibility an Ethical Analysis Thesis

… Freedom and Responsibility: An Ethical Analysis

There are many who suggest that from an ethical point-of-view, freedom and responsibly are in essence one and the same thing. In other words, this refers to the view that freedom implies responsibility in… [read more]

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