"Ethics / Morality" Essays

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What Is the Difference Between an Actual and an Apparent Conflict of Interest? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Conflict of Interest

From ethical point-of-view, what is the difference between an actual and an apparent conflict of interest? Does it matter?

An actual conflict of interest results when an individual who has a responsibility to protect the public's health will personally benefit if he or she makes a policy decision regarding a particular issue in favor or against an outside entity. An example of a direct conflict of interest is when a member of the NIH is receiving money from the companies producing the drugs the NIH officer is supposed to objectively regulate. A scientist working for the government who owns stock in such medical company also has a clear conflict of interest. If the company profits, he or she will profit, and if a drug the company produces is found to be dangerous, the company will experience a financial 'hit' and the scientist will experience a financial loss.

An apparent conflict of interest might be a scientist who has a relative or spouse working for a scientific or pharmaceutical research company.…… [read more]

Pirate Empowerment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,599 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Pirate Empowerment

The life of pirates: Pirate empowerment

The myths of pirates and piracy abound in literature in film. It is often difficult to disentangle myth from fact and there are numerous points-of-view about the actual event and the rationale behind piracy. Commentators often note that, "...the fictional accounts of the common sea robbers have created a romantic illusion of… [read more]

Gender Differences in Altruism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (883 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gender & Altruism

Assessing the relationship between gender and altruism

Independent t-test results from the data showed that generally, there is no established significant relationship between gender of the individual and his/her propensity to commit acts of altruism.

It is interesting to note, however, that looking into each scenario depicted in the survey, statistical results yielded plausible explanations and differences when respondents' responses are assessed not on significance, but on the mean responses for each scenario.

Behavior among women showed that they are more likely to respond and act altruistically in scenarios where they are asked whether to help a classmate catch up or not (M= 4.1) and jumpstart another person's car or not (M= 4.0). Among the five scenarios, it is the situation when one is asked to help another person with a flat tire that generated the least likelihood of assuming an altruistic behavior among female respondents, with only a mean response of M= 1.7.

On the overall, the mean scores of male respondents are relatively lower than females, which means that they assessed their altruistic behavior relatively lower than the women. Male respondents responded similarly to the scenario when one is asked whether s/he would help jumpstart another person's car or not, which yielded the highest mean score value among the five scenarios (at M=4.0, similar to the mean score of female respondents' answers). However, it was the first scenario, which asked the individual to assess whether s/he would more likely help an individual struggling to carry a heavy box or not, with a mean response of M= 3.5, the second highest mean score among the scenarios presented. Interestingly, male respondents also responded unfavorably to the third scenario, which asked the respondent to determine whether she will more or less likely help an individual with a flat tire while on the road (M= 2.0).

From these results, both male and female respondents assessed two scenarios in the same manner and level of altruism. The scenarios which asked whether they will help jumpstart another person's car and help an individual with a flat tire, encountered while on the road, are both "car scenarios" that requires relatively greater levels of altruism than the other scenarios. The difference between these two scenarios, however, is that they have different settings. It can be construed that what made the respondents respond favorably to the "jumpstart" scenario is the fact that it takes place at a relatively safe place, unlike that of the "flat tire" scenario, which places the individual at an undetermined place, and greater risk than the "jumpstart" scenario.

The willingness to help out other people while someone is within one's "comfort…… [read more]

Presentation on a Country Japan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Japan: Customs and Etiquette

Japan Customs And Etiquette


Customs and Etiquette in Society and the Business World

Japan: Customs and Etiquette in Society and the Business World

When conducting either business or merely oneself successfully in a foreign country, it is imperative to understand the customs and etiquette that is enacted by that country's people. No matter how knowledgeable or business-savvy an individual may be, acting in a manner that is deemed acceptable by the culture around oneself is equally necessary to achieve success. Something as simple as a gesture, acceptable in one country, may be deemed highly inappropriate in another. Such is true for a country as rich in culture and history as Japan, where customs and etiquette such as business conduct and the concept of time vary significantly from customs in Western society.

Customs and Key Themes

Embracing a country's customs and themes is the most crucial step one can take in assimilating into society and business seamlessly. Turner Wright (2008) notes that there are several key customs that are necessary to enact upon arriving in Japan, the most important of all being respect (p. 1). Wright notes, "In Japan, respect is pounded into children's heads from the moment they enter school, but for tourists, a simple inclination of the head or an attempt to boy at the waist will usually suffice" (p. 1). Further, respect includes addressing an individual especially in the business world by their full name and title and assuring that manners are used in conversation and especially at the table.

In mentioning the table, it should also be noted that in Japan, tipping in any situation is considered insulting. Whereas a businessman at a lunch with colleagues in the United States would be frowned upon for leaving a shabby tip, the same individual placed in the same situation in Japan would be frowned upon for leaving a tip at all.

Business Etiquette

Japanese business etiquette can be summed up in one word: formal. It is fair to say that the term "casual Friday" is one that is not tossed around very often in Japanese businesses. The business meeting is considered a structured ritual, full of rules and standards that are nonexistent in the west. Japanese business prides itself on punctuality, professionalism and establishing relationships between interacting companies and individuals, not in merely brokering quick deals. In Japan, business is personal, and relationships are key to developing business…… [read more]

Milgram's Experiment Response Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Stanley Milgram's classic experiment into the nature and limits of human obedience to authority was not unethical at the time that it was conducted for several reasons: First, it was not anticipated that the research subjects would exhibit the extremes of behavior that many of them did exhibit by delivering what they believed to be maximum electric shocks. Second, it was not anticipated that the research subjects would continue delivering shocks after the sham research subject began complaining and asking to cease participating in the experiment. Third, the level of acute psychological trauma experienced by the subjects was much greater than expected in advance, largely because of the first two reasons having to do with the expectations of the experimenters.

Detailed Response

At the time of Milgram's classic experiment into the nature and limits of obedience to authority, the experiment was not unethical, mainly because the experts never anticipated the results that could potentially correspond with significant negative consequences for the study's participants. Milgram made a conscientious attempt to mitigate any of those potential harms after the fact, but with the benefit of 20/20 hindsight, the experiment probably should not have been conducted in the first place because it is distinctly possible that residual negative consequences to the subjects defied the experimenter's attempt to minimize them through debriefing. It is also possible that some of those negative consequences occurred at levels of consciousness below the awareness of the participants, thereby invalidating the suggestion that their personal assessments of the effects they may have suffered were inconsequential.

The experiment raises serious ethical issues in several respects. First, it caused the research subjects significant emotional and psychological stress during the experiment. At…… [read more]

Evaluators Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Evaluators should also be candid about any potential conflict of interest they may have and evaluators should also be careful to properly represent their findings and should be alert in order to prevent "or correct any substantial misuses of their work by others" (Scheirer).

The keys to evaluators' effectiveness include: a) taking responsibility for the "diversity of interests and values" linked to the public; b) there must always be a legitimate sense of respect for the "dignity," "security" and "self-worth of the respondents, program participants, clients and other stakeholders with whom they interact"; c) evaluators must show competence when relating to stakeholders; d) there must be a "systematic inquiry" presented by evaluators, using the "highest appropriate technical standards" when conducting their research and investigations; and e) integrity and honesty must be adhered to during the entire evaluation process (Scheirer).

Meantime, revisions made to the evaluation standards were approved by the AEA membership in July, 2004. Some of those revisions include a note that introduces some flexibility into the original principles. For example, the 2004 update acknowledges that "…it is impossible to write guiding principles that neatly fit every context in which evaluators work" (AEA). Moreover, because some evaluators will work in contexts in which "…following a guideline cannot be done for good reason," the evaluators should not be constrained but instead those evaluators should "…consult colleagues about how to proceed" (AEA). All stakeholders should be empowered -- and will be -- if there are engaged in the evaluation process.

Works Cited

American Evaluation Association. (2004). American Evaluation Association Guiding

Principles for Evaluators. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from http://www.eval.org/publications/guidingprinciples.asp.

Scheirer, Mary Ann, Newman, Dianna, Shadish, William, and Wye, Chris. (1994). Guiding

Principles for Evaluators. A Report from the AEA Task Force. Retrieved…… [read more]

Positive and Negative Observations Five Positive Judgment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (451 words)
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Positive and Negative Observations

Five Positive Judgment and Observations

Apparent politeness and consideration for others.

Apparent humility

Apparent absence of preoccupation with trendiness

Apparent respect for authority

Apparent benevolence

Five Negative Judgment and Observations

Apparent impoliteness and inconsideration for others.

Apparent self-centeredness and need for attention from others

Apparent preoccupation with trendiness

Apparent lack of respect for authority

Apparent malevolence

Possible Relevance to my Responses to others as a Teacher

I recognize that some of my instinctive reactions to others based on my observations of them could potentially affect the way I respond to people in the educational environment. When I observe people who are impolite or inconsiderate to others, it annoys me and as a teacher, I imagine that I would respond by providing guidance about why politeness and consideration are important in society. Likewise, because I admire and respect people who have appropriate respect for authority and who exhibit benevolence in general, I imagine that I would also respond to instances of apparent lack of respect and inconsideration by providing guidance in that regard.

On the other hand, the issues of humility, superficial preoccupations, and the need for attention from others are issues that matter more to personal psychological development and much less to the manner in which individuals affect others in society. Therefore, whereas when it comes to issues of respect, consideration,…… [read more]

Population or Pool of Possible Subjects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … population or pool of possible subjects for this project, because the population is too large for that type of study. Therefore, the study must focus on a sample of the population. "When determining which potential subjects from a large population to include in our study there are several approaches to choose from. Each of these sampling techniques have its own strengths and, of course, its own weaknesses. The idea behind adequate sampling, however, remains the same: to gather a sample of subjects that is representative of the greater population. The ideal research sample is therefore often referred to as a representative sample" (AllPsych, 2003).

In order to get a representative sample for this project, it is important to get a random sample. However, the population is sufficiently large that a simple random sample might be difficult to attain. Therefore, using a random number sample might be the best way to get an actual representative sample of the population. "A random number table is a computer generated list of numbers placed in random order" (AllPsych, 2003). The population is assigned random numbers, and those numbers are selected using a random number generator to determine the subjects for the survey. Because the population size for questioning is manageable, this use of random number survey should ensure a sufficiently random sample. The only significant problem with the selection of a random sample from a random number table is that it might not adequately reflect the members of different subgroups within the population. However, because I do not anticipate that subgroups will have a significant impact on the research questions, I am not concerned about having representative sections of different subgroups.

I do plan on sampling human beings, rather than attempting to gather data in another format. The study that I have planned does not present any ethical issues that would preclude using human subjects for the research. When determining whether it is…… [read more]

Altruism and Human Reciprocity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (4,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Altruism and Human Reciprocity

The purpose of the present study is to explore, both conceptually and empirically, the relationship between human connectedness to nature dimensions, various conservation behaviors, and altruism. This study is unique in that while attempting to explore the relationship between connectedness to nature and conservation, the role of altruism will also be looked at as a possible… [read more]

Post -- and a Critique Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Post -- and a critique of Mrs. Parker

In her essay, "Mrs. Post Enlarges on Etiquette," originally published in the New Yorker, 31 Dec 1927, and later reprinted in Essays in Context, the satirist and author Dorothy Parker critiqued the commonly consulted manual of etiquette popular in her day by the noted hostess Mrs. Emily Post. Although etiquette is often dismissed as mere manners, the idea of how one should comport one's self in society was of profound concern and relevance in the America of Parker and Post's day, where shifting social paradigms had upset notions of what it meant to be middle or upper class. Parker was not of Mrs. Post's milieu, but of the 'creative' or bohemian classes, and thus wrote a critique of the idea that good manners could be achieved by following a copybook or step-by-step process. Parker's intent was not simply to satirize, but to question notions of etiquette altogether -- behave and say what you like, she stressed.

Parker's main thesis was that to focus too much on good manners and how to behave correctly in society, according to Mrs. Post, eliminates most of the spontaneity that is inherent to human interaction. Those who have mastered etiquette, who are entirely, impeccably right, all of the time in their speech and behavior would seem to arrive at what Parker refers to as a social and rhetorical valley of exquisite dullness. To behave with proper etiquette in the terms set by Mrs. Post, Dorothy Parker argues, is not to be human, but to be a robot, moving in line with what one is told to do, by Mrs. Post and others in the know. To behave with civility and good manners is to eschew what it means to be wonderfully, delightfully human.

To make her argument, Parker quotes several situations from Mrs. Post's handbook. She focuses on some of the most trivial details cited by the maven of social correctness, such as Mrs. Post's elevated dictates of how to eat difficult foods properly, and makes them seem absurd by dissecting these matters of behavior. Parker makes particular, absurd fun of how to behave when another individual behaves incorrectly in one's presence, as Parker no doubt would have delighted in doing, had she been confronted with the actual visage of Mrs.…… [read more]

Mill's Views on Higher and Lower Pleasure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Mill's views on higher and lower pleasure. What is his argument for his view? Develop two objections to his argument, and explain whether Mill's view can be defended in light of those objections.

John Stuart Mill's work as a philosopher has had a significant effect on the world as a whole and on utilitarianism in particular. While most individuals are inclined to think about utilitarianism as being based on the principle of maximizing happiness, Mill considered that this theory needed to be even more explicit and that it needed to assist individuals in being able to differentiate between lower and higher happiness. From his perspective, intellectual happiness is more important and should be provided with more attention while physical happiness is less important and should generally be provided with lesser attention. While utilitarianism was considered to be a strict philosophy previous to Mill, he managed to raise public awareness regarding the importance of turning it into a more complex science by influencing people to direct their resources at experiencing higher happiness.

While the masses are typically inclined to associate happiness with concepts like food, drink, sleep, and intercourse, Mill emphasizes that there is something more important than these values and that it is actually what individuals should look for in their struggle to achieve happiness. He considers that one is more likely to experience satisfaction as a result of reading a good book or as a result of watching an educational play.

1. Mill failed to understand that he expressed a subjective point in devising his theory of higher and lower happiness. As a consequence, it would be wrong for him…… [read more]

Rigor Purpose and Methodology Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,598 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Correctly Determining a Sample for Research

The prudent researcher must consider a plethora of factors when it comes to developing a sample for a research study. Although sample selection is one of the most important aspects of a research study, it occurs subsequent to a host of other processes that include a review of literature to determine a… [read more]

Analect Second Part: Counterexamples "Not Meddling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (426 words)
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Second Part: Counterexamples

"not meddling in the affairs of others." It may seem admirable not to meddle in the affairs of others, yet imagine that a man was walking down the street and he saw a young child being raped in an alleyway by a thug. The man wants to interfere in this affair, but he is afraid that physical harm will come to him, so he runs away. In this case, it is despicable cowardice which inspires the man not to meddle in the affairs of others, because his self (which he was not centering on) wanted to interfere if he had not been afraid.

Regarding not meddling in the affairs of others, this is linked to an admirable self-centeredness in my mind because generally a person who does not obsessess over the actions of otehrs will be less likely to try to control them. However, it should be clarified (this story points out) that self-centeredness is only admirable in a situation where the self is attune to its higher self and balances the welfare of the body with the welfare of the soul. This man's conscious will suffer more harm than his body ever would, if he walks away and does nothing.

2. "Intensely aware of one's own purpose."

Being…… [read more]

Charles Peirce Maintained That Unconditional Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,438 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


264). The agapistic theory thus illustrated the process by means of which new ideas take place. Peirce felt that when a person departs from habitual ways of doing things, it generates in him a new intensity for creation which leads to new ideas and the courage to take risks. This ultimately results in growth. This growth of ideas is however… [read more]

Ingredients for a Successful Presentation? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … ingredients for a successful presentation? What are the challenges that you personally face in presentations? What are some successes that you have had in making presentations?

A successful presentation covers a new and interesting topic that the audience will be interested in and frames the material in a context that the audience can relate to. The presentation will provide information that offers new insights, appropriate supporting evidence and actionable advice. and, a great presentation keeps the audience engaged in the topic. The largest challenge I've found when presenting is not always having a clear understanding of the audience composition or having an audience with mixed backgrounds and interests. The best presentations that I have given are when I facilitate interaction with the audience. I like to start by asking a few questions about the audience's composition and interests along with a request for a show of hands. With this knowledge, I then spend more time on slides that are the most likely to meet the needs of the audience. and, I like to encourage interactive questions and answers. Although this can time management a bit more challenging, I've found that answering questions at a high level with a one-on-one follow up after the presentation as a mutually beneficial way to…… [read more]

Dream Job Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Dream Job

Achieving My Dream

Each individual has dreams in life that he hopes to achieve. Most of us set goals to be able to achieve them, while some on the other hand work hard to conquer what they desire. There are in fact so many ways that one can do to achieve his dreams. However, because of such many ways, most of us tend to miss the process of planning and setting goals that focus on achieving our dreams. Sometimes, we tend to consider one strategy after another which causes us to spend and waste more time in our objective of attaining our goals.

At present, I have this simple dream relating to my future endeavor in becoming a part of the society's workforce. That is, to hold a high job position in a large company. I dream of becoming among the individuals who lead a company into success and who take care of the employees' future and welfare. With this dream, among my aspirations is to develop myself into a respected and yet humble individual who, somehow, will be known as among the people who delivered the company and its people to success.

To be able to achieve my dreams, I require myself to have the right discipline in all my present and future endeavors. I believe that among the virtues that a successful life and career needs, it is the virtue of discipline that makes the other good virtues valuable components to achieving dreams. Without the virtue of discipline in properly observing the other virtues, none of them will be helpful. For instance, without the virtue of hard work, a goal may be impossible to attain. However, without the virtue of discipline to put one's self into working hard, the virtue of hard work will not exist.

Another requirement that I believe will help me achieve my dream of having a high position in a job is to be motivated by my dreams and goals. Motivation…… [read more]

Civility by PM Forni Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Social Importance of Choosing Civility: The Twenty-Five Rules of Considerate Conduct by P.M. Forni

To many people, manners are afterthoughts. They are dainty relics that can be done away with when one is with close friends and family. Furthermore, those who place too much significance on manners are considered stuffy and as if they value form over substance.… [read more]

General Prologue of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Canterbury Tales General Prologue

An Analysis of Chaucer's General Prologue

Chaucer's General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales sets the scene for the numerous stories that follow. By drawing a parallel between the arrival of spring (April showers, the awakening of life) and the desire of English pilgrims to go on a pilgrimage to Canterbury, Chaucer connects the journey of the "palmers" (petitioners, men and women at prayer) to the awakening of a new spirit, of life, of grace in the soul. If the April rains draw flowers from their buds, so too does God's grace seem to draw the English people from their homes (now that winter and March have passed) into the outdoors, where the sun and the fresh air urge them to give thanks to God by visiting England's favorite saint in Canterbury, "the holy blessed martyr," St. Thomas Beckett.

The General Prologue introduces the reader to the various characters whom Chaucer will depict throughout the Tales. There is the Knight and Squire, the members of the clergy (the Prioress, the Monk, the Friar and the Parson), the laborers (the Cook and Plowman) and many others. Every class and walk of life is represented by Chaucer, who lends his own voice to the General Prologue, describing in the first-person how he has arrived at the inn at the same time as this diverse band of pilgrims and how he joins them for the remainder of the journey to Canterbury.

The actual details of the pilgrimage are not the subject of the Prologue nor of the Tales but merely provide the reason for their existence. While the pilgrimage certainly has an objective (and each pilgrim a different goal, some holier than others), Chaucer's idea is to divide the work into individual stories, each one told by a different pilgrim, each one supposed to be edifying, yet some more (or less) edifying than others. The General Prologue sets out the theme of the work, which is…… [read more]

Corruption on Capitalism and Foreign Investment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Corruption on Capitalism and Foreign Investment

There are several problems that most countries' governments struggle with. One of the most important problems that affect national economies, companies, and individuals is represented by corruption. The phenomenon of corruption is mostly met in poor countries in comparison with developed companies. This is because the political, economic, and legislative environments in such countries are more permissive for corruption to take place. In addition to this, the bureaucracy in these countries basically invites certain institutions to involve in corruption actions that facilitate their activity.

In order to understand the importance of the phenomenon, it is important to identify the different types of corruption. Economic theory has identified three basic types of corruption. These are represented by achieving or speeding up materialization of certain rights that citizens or companies are entitled to, corruption against legal rules, and corruption intended to change certain rules and regulations (Begovic, 2005). The type of corruption that refers to achieving or speeding up materialization of certain rights that individuals and companies are entitled to can be most frequently observed in less developed countries. This is because in these countries the state authorities are not able to provide these rights when and how individuals and companies need them (OECD, 2012). As a consequence, companies must provide financial or other types of incentives in order to benefit from their rights. This is usually the case of states with high levels of bureaucracy.

Corruption intended to violate legal rules is different. This type of corruption is somewhat the opposite of corruption intended to speed up the materialization of rights. Corruption against legal rules is intended to help companies develop their activity while not playing by the rules. The rules and regulations of the countries in case do not allow certain companies to develop their activity as they want to (Kwok & Tadesse, 2006). Therefore, they provide incentives to state authorities in order to permit them to break the rules.

This type of corruption can also be applied between companies. In other words, members of certain companies bribe members of other companies in order to provide inside information, to persuade superiors of taking certain actions, or to join efforts in the attempt of addressing competition. Such practices are against national and international rules and regulations regarding fair competition. Therefore, it is important to identify the objective of the action that refers to corruption in order to determine the type of corruption, and its implications.

The other type of corruption that refers to providing incentives in order to modify certain rules and regulations in the favor of the corruptor is also frequent in less developed countries, but also in developed ones. In most cases, this type of corruption is practiced by companies that need the rules and regulations changed in order to help them reach their objectives. However, this requires significant investments, and it is usually large companies that…… [read more]

Theory Checklist as a Guide Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Grounded theory slights the processes whereby data are assembled, processes that build concepts into the data from the start in the very process of writing field notes" (LaRossa 2005: 854). Theory only seems to 'leap' from the page because of preexisting notions of the researcher even though no experience 'naturally' gives rise to a theory in the absence of guiding research intelligence. However, LaRossa argues that, far from an imposition on experience, certain common phrases often do arise as a result of the research process, such as one study of parents in which the parent's resentment of being "on duty" and "on call" for their children and having to deal with so many activities was a reoccurring theme (LaRossa 2005: 854). There may be research bias, but provided the analysis is grounded in the data, this is no more of a problem than in quantitative research.


LaRossa, R. (2005). Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research. Journal of Marriage and Family,837-857.

First Response:

In the article "Employee alignment with strategic change: A study of strategy-supportive behavior among blue-collar employees," the article was quantitative because the article placed the theory as the framework for the entire study (Creswell, 2009). The article has a deductive base with an objective to test or verify a theory by questioning the theory and hypotheses, defining the theory through a construct, and reflecting the results as positive or negative through scoring derived from the construct. In the study, the researchers introduced the theory at the beginning of the study and the theory and hypotheses was clearly stated and gave identification on the type of study the… [read more]

Conflict Policy Conflict of Interest Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (753 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


5. After Board makes decisions

The director will be responsible for carrying out any decisions made by the board, whether it is communication, removal of the person, or any other action requested by the board.

6. Annual Conflict of Interest Statements

This policy will be reviewed and updated annually. Each representative or member will be required to read and sign a copy each year. The signed copies will be retained by Human Resources for a period of one year when an updated statement would need to be read and signed.

7. Refusal to Comply

Anyone who refuses to comply with this policy will be removed from participation in activities of The Hangout.

8. Confidentiality

Each representative or member should exercise care not to disclose confidential information obtained in connection to the conflict of interest, or potential conflict of interest, which might have adverse effects on The Hangout. Furthermore, representatives or members shall not disclose or use information relating to The Hangout's business for personal profit or advantage or personal profit or advantage of a family member.

Part II: Ethically Questionable Situation

An employee works for The Hangout as a tutor, but has the opportunity to work part time for a competing agency as a mentor in evenings and some weekends. The competing agency offers the same types of services as The Hangout. This situation has the potential to create conflict of interest because of the sharing of business strategies, which creates an intellectual property issue for The Hangout. Regardless of whether the employee is looking for extra income or is just seeking out the experience of mentoring, the conflict of interest potential could be damaging to The Hangout. It is better not to take the offer to avoid the conflict of interest situation.

Part III: Importance of Conflict of Interest Statements

The Conflict of Interest Statement is essential is managing the protection of the organization. It also reflects good governance on behalf of the management. IRS asks questions on this policy in Form1023 (application for 501(c) 3 nonprofit status) and Form 990 (annual financial information filing) (Ball, 2009).


Ball, A. (2009, Oct 21). 9 Essentials to Include in Your Policy and Statement. Retrieved from Ezine Articles: http://ezinearticles.com/?Conflict-of-Interest-9-Essentials-to-Include-in-Your-Policy-and-Statement&id=3130734

Conflict of Interest. (n.d.). Retrieved from Business…… [read more]

True Altruism Exist? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If no such point can be found, then we must conclude that the claim that empathy evokes altruistic motivation is of no real theoretical significance." Batson et al. additionally states that in the attempt to find a point of "behavioral difference, it is important, first to be clear about the points of conceptual difference." ( )

It is important according to Batson et al. To be "explicit about what we mean by egoistic and altruistic motivation for helping." ( ) The individuals assistance is egoistic "to the degree that he or she helps from a desire for personal gain or a desire to avoid personal pain. That is, egoistically motivated helping is directed toward the end-state goal of increasing the helper's own welfare. In contrast, a person's helping is altruistic to the degree that he or she helps from a desire to reduce the distress or increase the benefit t of the person in need." ( ) In other words, altruism is motivated by the hope of increasing the circumstances of the other person. In order to make a conceptual distinction between egoism and altruism three factors must be addressed according to Batson et al.: (1) helping can be motivated by egoism or atruism; (2) motivation may be a mixture of the two; and (3) making the circumstances of the individual is enough to represent altruistic goals.

Batson et al. believe that individuals help others for reasons that are altruistic and that being altruistic is a result of feeling empathy for others. Batson et al. holds that research findings support the role of empathy in the generation of altruistic helping behavior. However, the work of Cialdini et al. holds that other motivations exist besides altruism to explain assistive behavior and that individuals help others to reduce their own distress. Cialdini et al. also holds that research findings do not conclusively support that individuals help others for purely altruistic reasons.

Summary and Conclusion

Batson et al. (1981) and Cialdini et al. (1987) differ in their beliefs of the behavioral reason that individuals are motivated to assist others as Batson et al. (1981) holds that altruism is the more relevant explanation while Cialdini et al. (1987) do not believe that altruism alone can explain the reason that individuals are motivated to assist others.


Batson, D. et al. (1981) Is Empathic Emotion a Source of Altruistic Motivation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology…… [read more]

Chinese Religious &amp Philosophical Leaders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Zhu Seng Du was true to his convictions and resisted the efforts of Taiohua to get him to come back home and participate in her life, helping to support and protect her. Zhu Seng Du was devoted to his religious beliefs and wanted the best for Taiohua, but he realized that he could not join her. The dedication and resolve that Zhu Seng Du exhibited was certainly laudable. He would inspire any young person who wanted to live a life devoted to piety and spiritualism.

Seng Baozhi exhibited special -- magical -- attributes. He was able to foretell the future about some events and seemed to be able to exist in two places at once. Seng Baozhi performed miracles and often did so in a manner that protected people from harm. He also saw visions and tried to warn people before they would be harmed. From a fairly young age, Seng Baozhi seemed to know that he was different -- when he was still young, he left home and went to study meditation under a monk named Jianwei at the Daolin temple. His behavior at that time was unusual and attracted attention. After a number of years, he began to show extraordinary powers.

The appeal of Seng Baozhi was not only that he was mysterious, but also that he was out and about in the world in a way that connected the spiritual to the tangible. Seng Baozhi seemed to be able tap into some other realm and common people found this very appealing. His capacity was so great and so mysterious that he was able to roam in and out of the forbidden palace areas at will. As the emperor in the narrative said, "Though the trace of Master Bzozhi's body is within this world, his spirit roves in the mysteries" (Ebrey, 1993, p. 101).


Ebrey, P.B. (1993). Chinese civilization: A sourcebook. (2nd ed. rev.). New York, NY: The Free Press.

Nylan, M. And Wilson, T. (2010). Lives of Confucius: Civilization's greatest sage through the ages. New York, NY:…… [read more]

Rick Blaine in Casablanca Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (796 words)
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Ultimately, Rick is an both an altruist and an utilitarian. Rick's altruism allows him to let go of Ilsa so that she may rejoin Victor and help him to bring an end to Nazi rule. Rick's utilitarianism comes into play as his decision to stay behind not only benefits Victor and his political aim, but also the people in Casablanca who may seek help in getting away; by staying behind and helping Victor flee will benefit the most people; had Rick left with Ilsa then the French Resistance would have lost a powerful ally.

Renault, on the other hand, is indifferent to Rick's business, legal and illegal, and can often be found at Rick's Cafe. It is only when he is pressured by his superiors to take action against Rick does he take action against the illegal casino. Furthermore, while Rick's loyalty lies with those that he believes will have the greatest impact against Nazism, Renault's loyalty, regardless if he agrees with their policies, lies with the Vichy government. Renault is passive-aggressive against the Vichy government and though he must follow their orders, he does not act upon his orders in a timely manner and loosely enforces laws and regulations. Because he has pledged his loyalty to the Vichy government, Renault is not as free to act out against Nazism as Rick is, however, his attitudes and beliefs are slowly transformed to match those of Rick's. At the end of the film, an utilitarian relationship is formed between Rick and Renault as they successfully worked together to help Ilsa and Victor escape. Realizing the result of their joint effort, Rick states, "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship."

Rick and Renault's relationship may seem unconventional at best, but their collaboration will help to ensure that justice is served and that innocent people do not lose their lives. The utilitarian nature of their relationship will ensure that the greatest good is achieved for the greatest number of people; this is only possible through Rick and Renault's selflessness -- it is important to not confuse altruism with utilitarianism at this point as it is unclear if Rick and Renault personally, politically, and/or emotionally benefit from their actions or if their actions are…… [read more]

Self-Interest and Fear Philosophers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,040 words)
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In the same way, self-interest is something that gives us pleasure and would always be the number one motivating factor in all our actions.

A valid ethical concern to actions based on self-interest alone is that if everyone is engaged in pursuing his own well being he would do so at the expense of others. While this may happen in certain circumstances, it is not always so since life is not just a zero sum game. It is not necessary that if someone is pursuing his own well-being, he or she is doing so at the expense of others. Several actions that could be taken by a person in pursuit of self-interest and harm others have been 'outlawed' by most societies. For example, if it is in the interest of a person to get something or gain pleasure by stealing from others, he cannot do so because 'stealing' is considered to be a crime, and has been made punishable by the society. Even otherwise, it is not always in our best self-interest to carry out such acts as stealing, murdering, and deceiving because such actions could also be taken by others against us, which would ultimately result in more pain than pleasure. It is, thus, the fear of retaliation that prevents us from harming others while pursuing our self-interest rather than any altruistic consideration. Hence the system of self-interest and fear works as a kind of 'natural' check-and-balance to keep things in control.

Pursuit of self-interest and avoidance of fear has been seen as part of human nature. We must reflect on why this is so, since nature does not act without reason. Self-interest is often associated with a negative and undesirable human trait that is either to be denied or suppressed. It must be realized that self-interest is not just a negative feeling and may well be responsible for progress made by mankind. It is what motivates human beings to make inventions, to strive for excellence, to compete, to try and better ourselves and our lives. It is a valuable and positive natural instinct and nothing to be ashamed of.

All of above does not mean that human beings are little more than animals living their lives instinctively with their behavior totally controlled by their built-in emotions and instincts. It is possible for us to change our behavior. We can do this in different ways and one of them is by using fear or pain. If we can train ourselves to associate massive pain to behaviors that we want to change, it becomes easy for us to do so.

In conclusion, it is safe to say that whatever action we take, it is invariably motivated by either self-interest or fear. Both these powerful forces are part of human nature that have helped the human race to survive in a hostile environment and can be used in a positive manner for our own as well as the betterment of the society.

Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789)… [read more]

Individualism in the Eyes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (315 words)
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" In this assertion the author expresses how modern life has made humanity's existence inutile, met without any kind of challenges that make living exciting and more meaningful. Similarly, Emerson's subsistence to individualism as synonymous with self-reliance is reflected in his essay, aptly titled, Self-reliance. In this essay, Emerson contends, "... reliance on Property... is the want of self-reliance... They measure their esteem of each other by what each has, and not by what each is. But a cultivated man becomes ashamed of his property, ashamed of what he has, out of new respect for his being." This passage shows parallelism between Thoreau's and Emerson's beliefs -- that is, individualism necessitates deviating from the norms of society and asserting one's identity and natural right to live according to his/her preference and need.… [read more]

Existentialism and Sartre Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (574 words)
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As a consequence, these people can act in bad faith in spite of the fact that they are well-acquainted with the nature of their actions.

Society has the tendency to put pressure on individuals as they struggle to be liked. This leads to people coming to put across behaviors they know to be wrong and thus makes them feel that it would only be natural for them to act in bad faith -- as this is something that one needs to do in order to be an active member of the social order.

3. In addition to relating to the idea of bad faith, Sartre also concentrated on addressing the concept of people constantly being in charge of their lives. The French philosopher virtually wanted to demonstrate that acting in bad faith and being free should not necessarily need to be considered as two distinct concepts. Furthermore, being free should not be regarded as a good thing, as people often perform acts that can harm both themselves and the rest of the world as a result of having the freedom to choose.

As they exercise their freedom, individuals can risk making decisions that have a negative impact on a series of people including themselves. As a consequence, a person who chooses to work in a company performing actions in disagreement with his or her principles is actually free to do whatever he or she wants. The fact that he or she chooses to do this in spite of knowing it is immoral directly proves that he or she exercises his or her freedom.

Works cited:

"Existentialism Is a Humanism," Retrieved July 20, 2014, from https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/sartre/works/exist/sartre.htm… [read more]

Extraordinary Examples of Human Cognitive Misperception Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
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3. Define Altruism and give an example.

Altruism is a practice that focuses on the welfare or well-being of others, and is separate from any expectation of a reciprocal benefit. Altruism is thought to have a sacrificial quality in that something is given up by the altruistic person in order to benefit the other. An example of altruistic behavior is when someone pays it forward: all the way from paying for the beverage of the person in the rear car in a line-up at the coffee drive-thru to making a charitable donation for the construction of a major public building that will benefit the civic affairs of a metropolis -- while requiring that no plaque be placed on the building identifying the donor, or no mention is made of the donor's name in the roll of charitable givers, typically categorized by the amount of their monetary of in-kind donation. The key aspects of altruism, then, are that something of value is given to someone to be put to good purpose, which can be as simple as putting bread on the table, without any expectation of acknowledgement, gain, or return.

4. Comment on Our Human Capacity for Adaptation.

The human capacity for adaptation is driven by our ability to adjust or judgments based on the most recent or most neutral of our past experience. There exists a recency factor in our memory that tends to exploit that which has just happened or that which is most salient because it was exceptional in some way. The entire process is iterative, in that, it is continually changing in a relativistic manner. It is as though our experience is conducted within a static band that ranges from very positive to very negative, and we are aware that we carom from one boundary of this band to another depending on events that have befallen us or experiences that we have been able to maximize. We acclimatize. We adapt. We accommodate. It seems that it is in our nature not to accept homeostasis, at least over the long-term. Since we are not good at predicting what will make us happy or bring us satisfaction, it is perhaps a good thing that we do easily content ourselves with the status quo. By changing our expectations and desires, we may be keeping ourselves on our toes, so to speak, evolutionary wise. If we are dissatisfied, and seek other experiences, then do we not work more steadily to accumulate various experiences -- any one… [read more]

Human Quality Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (685 words)
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This requires the consciousness of ones egocentric tendency in order to identify the immediate perceptions of ones longstanding thoughts or beliefs. It correlates with the ability of reconstructing accuratelyothers viewpoints and their reasoning and hence conforms to their ideas and assumptions as opposed to our own. The corresponding vice intellectual empathy is intellectual apathy. This is thinking that is centered on one self. When one thinks from a self-centered perspective then they will not be able to understand how others think or feel.

Another example of intellectual virtue is intellectual courage. This involves having consciousness of the need to face and address ideas fairly, beliefs or viewpoints towards which one can have strong negative emotions and to which normally one is not given a serious hearing. The courage is connected to recognizing that ideas termed as dangerous or even absurd are at times justified in a rational manner. And the conclusions and beliefs are inculcated are at times misleading or false. So as to determine for one, which one is which then we are required to not passively and uncritically accept everything that we have learned. Intellectual courage is used here since inevitably come to see some truth in the ideas which are termed as absurd or dangerous and falsity in some of the ideas that are held strongly in some of the social groups one is part of. Courage is required so as to be true to ones own thinking in these kinds of circumstances. The corresponding vice to this virtue is intellectual cowardice involves putting forward a claim as a claim and not standing by it. It is the fear of ideas which do not conform to those that an individual holds. This vice is motivated by fear of being shown to be wrong but at the same time having the desire to achieving something (Criticalthinking.org, 2013).


Criticalthinking.org (2013).Valuable Intellectual Traits. Retrieved August 18, 2014 from http://www.critical thinking.org/pages/valuable-intellectual-traits/528

Boyd, C.&Timpe, K. (2014). Virtues and their vices.… [read more]

Ego Human Beings Are Capable Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (644 words)
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Human beings are capable of both incredibly selfish and amazingly altruistic acts. In fact, sometimes it may be impossible to distinguish between selfishness and altruism because much altruism is motivated by selfish goals like fame, respect, or recognition. Instances of ethical egoism aside, there are certainly examples of persons who do have a saintly demeanor, and who seem psychologically conditioned toward absolute altruism. On the other end of the spectrum are the sociopaths, who seem psychologically conditioned toward absolute egoism or in some cases, something worse: complete misanthropy.

Therefore, the human condition seems to allow for a gamut of behaviors and psychological makeups. Most individuals would reside somewhere in the middle of a continuum between sociopath and saint. Many act selfishly throughout most of their daily behaviors, thinking first of themselves and their immediate family members and only then turning their attention toward humanity at large. Bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility are terms used to describe the complexity of human egoism. In some situations, human beings stand by while others are injured or hurt, expecting that someone else will come to the victim's rescue. Reasons for not intervening are generally going to be egotistical in nature, such as fear for one's own safety, embarrassment, or being personally inconvenienced. When people donate money to a charity, they are often motivated by guilt and other egotistical emotions rather than a genuine desire to help. For example, commercials depicting sad hungry children in Africa will tug on the heartstrings, making the wealthy person with a television and Internet feel guilty with their possessions while others suffer. In some cases, religion is also used in commercials like these to suggest that the person is not being "Christian" enough if they do not give money to the charity. Fearing for one's soul or wanting to do things that create belonging in a social organization are not altruistic motives. Thus, not all behavior that appears altruistic…… [read more]

Research Proposal Related to Food Safety Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (918 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Food contamination can happen at any stage, from farm to table. It is important to understand the risk factors evident at every stage of food production because many food-borne illnesses are preventable. In spite of the abundance of knowledge related to preventing food safety, one in six Americans still get sick from contaminated food, amounting to millions of people (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015; United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2016). The most common culprits in food poisoning cases are bacteria, viruses, parasites, molds, toxins, contaminants, and allergies.

Unfortunately, contamination can occur at every stage of food production. It can therefore be difficult in many cases to locate the precise causes of a food-borne illness. For example, if contaminated water is used for crop irrigation, those crops could contain contaminants that cause illness. The people consuming those crops might be located in various regions of the country or even the world. It may be difficult to trace the root cause of the bacterial or viral infection.

Foods that are processed or stored improperly prior to distribution might be exposed to contaminants or be exposed to temperatures that foster the growth of bacteria. These types of food safety issues may be easier to research given the fact that processed foods are somewhat traceable, but it still can be hard to find the common source of a food-related illness in diverse populations.

Sick staff can contaminate the food they work with, or facilities that are not cleaned properly can also promote bacterial or viral growth. In cases like these, a group of people eating at the same restaurant who all became ill can point to that restaurant as the culprit.

Finally, food safety continues in the home as undercooking food or leaving food out for long periods can lead to the growth of illness-causing bacteria and these may be relatively easy cases to identity. Therefore, closer scrutiny must be paid to the earlier stages of food production in which contamination occurs during harvesting or production or during handling, processing, or storage.

Food safety is relatively simple to learn, but because of the multiple stages involved in food production and preparation, it may be hard to trace the origins of a breakout. Globalized food production and delivery services complicate matters, as it is difficult to carefully control or monitor food safety practices in all source and production countries. This research seeks to clarify the stage at which contamination is most likely to occur, and thereby helps policymakers to devote more funding to improving food safety in that area.


In spite of the fact that they are entirely preventable, food-borne illnesses affect one in six Americans. Most of the causes of food-borne illnesses are well-known, including specific bacteria,…… [read more]