Study "Ethics / Morality" Essays 771-825

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George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant, the Declaration Term Paper

… George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant, the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Paine, the Rights of Man.

The rights of human beings over others and the morality of a person's action within the realm of a society are all dependent upon the situation. An immoral act in one society would be moral in another.

When we read 'Shooting an Elephant' by George Orwell we learn about the conflict of morality within an Imperial rule. The British rule in Burma was such that it suppressed the natives and gave priority to the Europeans. The latter were treated with disdain and ruled and remained in control through simple force. The author in the essay writes of the conflict of the protagonist, a policeman who has to shoot an elephant for no reason than to show his supremacy. As a European he has an image of violence to uphold and thus has to prove his might by killing an elephant. The irony shown within the essay is that by some accounts the killing of an elephant is worth more than a human life, especially that of a native Burman. In the words of the author, the killing of the elephant was done by the protagonist, ' ... solely to avoid looking a fool.' [Orwell, 2003]

Similarly, when reading the Declaration on Independence we see again the influence of Imperialism on the moral and legal conflicts created within society. The Americans attempt to separate themselves from the British Imperialists and create a decentralized state. [Wills, 1979] According to the Declaration the British Monarchy had abused the rights of the citizens of the New World by imposing taxes on them that were beyond their means. This gave them the incentive to rebel and also the right to rebel. However, again when viewed from the perspective of the British the rebellion was illegal but as per rights perceived by the Americans they had a legal and moral right to rebel.… [read more]

Socrates, Some 2500 Years Ago Term Paper

… ¶ … Socrates, some 2500 years ago, the question of whether or not ethics can be taught or has limited application has raged on. Yet, a consensus that ethics does or does not have a place in business has never been garnered and the age-old issue will likely remain elusive in the centuries to come. Because the question remains unanswered does not, however, imply that future discussion and debate are not required, needed, or practical. The longer the debate continues less likely the ethic's issue will be relegated to the crevices of forgotten knowledge. The remainder of this paper will focus on how ethics, according to one journal article author, impacts the financial decision-making process, those issues of ethics involved in financial decision-making with respect to financial objectives and financial decision-making. The analysis will also include comments on the author's use of business research formatting and the method by which the author presented his research investigation. In order to exemplify these variables an article relative to the subject matter was chosen for analysis. The article chosen was published by the Australian Conservation Foundation and entitled Disclosure of Ethical Considerations in Investment Product Disclosure Statements: A review of Current Practice in Australia (August 2004). However, prior to any discussion as to the efficacy and content knowledge of the article it is important to first have a clear understanding of the basic elements of business ethics in business - an issue not referenced in the selected article. For the most part business ethics in business are governed by the principles of selflessness, integrity, objectivity, accountability, openness, honesty, and leadership with respect to the social and environmental on business and business management.

The primary investigative premise of the article was to discuss the extent to which environmental and social issues are taken into account with respect to the selection, retention, and realization of investment programming. In essence the considerations are viewed as ethical considerations. According to the authors a problem exists relative to the impact of ethical considerations on investment decision-making wherein there exists is a gap between ethical corporate behavior and long-term financial performance. Pointed out was the fact that the investment community is not performing well with respect to looking out for the long-term interests of their investors, environment, and community. As such the parties involved appear not to be interested, nor appreciate, the impact of ethical concerns on a company's performance and tend to consider ethics as risks and not financial opportunities and make business decision as ethics issues arise. More interesting is the fact that the involved parties, i.e., managers, do not generally heed ethical considerations and only take ethical considerations into account when they financially impact the value of the investment. A review of several investment product disclosure statements by the author clearly… [read more]

Decision Making Model Term Paper

… While Mary is a dedicated worker, I recently noticed that her performance was suffering. When the time of appraisal came, I couldn't help noticing that she was usually last one to arrive each day, she was using office equipment for personal use and on top of that her contribution to the project was not as considerable as that of others. I was faced with a tough situation. But since I needed to report everything to my supervisor, I was in a fix. I could either report her behavior and risk losing my friendship or I could ignore it and hurt my credibility as a fair supervisor. I knew it was ethically more correct to follow the latter path but I didn't want to lose a friend like Mary too. I followed the ethical model of decision making and this is what I came up with:

Mary is cheating on her work. She is not doing justice to the project. Our office policy clearly states that we cannot use office equipment for personal things. Apart from that we are not even allowed to come late or ask others to do our work for us especially when a project is involved.

There are ethical issues involved. Her behavior is violating the rights of others. Mary's cheating on her work is certainly unfair to others on the project. While others do not complain, I know they do not appreciate Mary's consistently poor participation. Mike our team junior leader hinted at Mary's performance and expected me to do something about it when appraisal time came.

I had two choices: I could report her behavior to the senior supervisor and risk losing her as a friend. Or I could not mention anything on the report sheet but talk to Mary and inform her of her degrading performance and others' reaction. Or I had a third choice I could prepare an honest appraisal and inform Mary of the possible consequences before submitting it so she could prepare herself.

So I choose the last option. I explained to Mary that her performance was not up to the mark and that she must be prepared to answer any queries in this connection. She was bewildered to put it mildly and as expected told me to not mention that on the appraisal sheet. I had to tell her why I couldn't comply with her request.

This I know was in the greater interest of everyone. And I am glad I opted for a more ethically sound decision. Mary understood my responsibility and is definitely a more dedicated worker because of the incident.


1) Edwin Smith: Three steps to making an ethical decision. Accessed online Feb 25, 2005:

2) "An Ethical decision making Model" Accessed online Feb 25, 2005 [read more]

Confucian Self-Cultivation Term Paper

… Virtue as Good and Bad: A Modern Take on a Confucian Perspective

The concept of virtue at first seems like it is simple to understand, but if one views it from a Confucian perspective, one comes to realize that the… [read more]

Mill and Kant in Relation to Movie Extreme Measures Term Paper

… ¶ … utilitarianism and the categorical imperative in "Extreme Measures"

In the film, "Extreme Measures" the resident Guy Luteran argues that no matter what, sacrificing human lives in the short run, to achieve a long-term utilitarian goal of prolonging and improving life is wrong. Thus Guy advocates Kant's use of the categorical imperative against Dr. Lawrence Myrick's utilitarian advocacy of deploying risky surgical techniques upon spinal cord injury patients to help more patients in the future become whole again. Kant's imperative stresses following the rules of what we know, intuitively and rationally, to be wrong, rather than to morally speculate in regards possible outcomes that could be more productive.

The essence of Kant's objections to utilitarian theories is that utilitarianism actually devalued the individuals it is supposed to benefit. If we allow utilitarian calculations to motivate our actions, we are allowing the valuation of one person's welfare and interests in terms of what good they can be used for. It would be possible, for instance, to justify sacrificing one individual for the benefits of others if the utilitarian calculations promise more benefit. Doing so would be the worst example of treating someone utterly as a means and not as an end. (McCormick, 2001) the patients with the injuries have become 'means,' their welfare sacrificed for the greater good of patients… [read more]

Everyman Fails as an Exemplary Term Paper

… Even the good deeds paired against the vices of "Everyman" have a disembodied quality. The man must have done them at some point, but these good deeds are not really specified as things the viewer could copy. Rather, the Everyman speaks to these vaguely termed good deeds as if they were another character, like his bad deeds, "O Good Dedes, I stande in fere! / I must you pray of counseyll," (Lines489-490, p.15)

The dramatic frame of the play asks, who will accompany you along your path through death? Although Everyman's friends refuse him, the quality by which the good deeds and the other virtues do accompany the man, like physical beings who seem like friends, belie the suggestion that friends do not accompany one on the journey through death. The good deeds simply seem like truer friends. Thus, by creating a physical allegory through drama, the spiritual nature of humanity's true purpose and journey to the afterlife is undercut in the performance of vices and virtues as external to the main character's soul.

Work Cited

Anonymous. "Everyman." Text available in full on 16 Feb at 2005 at rgn=TEI.2& byte=6099867 [read more]

Barn Burning in Faulkner Term Paper

… " This calm pervades even when he is acting out on his rage, and with restrained ease preparing to burn down a barn. His son, on the other hand, does not restrain his passion beneath such a veneer and subsequently is allowed to vent it out of his system without burning barns. Abner seems dispassionate, but has uncontrolled fits of fire -- his coolness is the thing that enforces his fire. Sarty seems firey, but underneath he is more level-headed and has the sense to avoid crime.

The two share a certain inability to separate themselves from their family, and a fierce sense of loyalty. One sees the parallels between Abner's speech, "You got to learn to stick to your own blood or you ain't going to have any blood to stick to you..." (Faulkner) and the ways in which Sarty at first cannot distinguish between an enemy of his father and an enemy of himself, or in which he gets into fights for his father. Yet Abner seems to remain a part of his family till the end (after all, when Sarty goes to tell the landowner of his father's crimes, Abner does not harm him, only attempts to restrain him), while Sarty breaks away from his family, quite literally. In tearing out of his mother's grasp, and (unintentionally) bringing down death on his father, Sarty at once betrays his blood and in some ways fulfills it. He has shown that he is capable of being as destructive as his father, in that he destroys his family, but he has also shown that he is not as immoral as the rest of the family. He has a greater loyalty to the human race, to civilization and to "only truth, justice."

In the final analysis, though Sarty is obviously his father's son, he is in the end a far more noble and pure being than any of the others in his family. He has somehow become an aware human being, though he lives in a family of bovines and automatons. He has somehow become moral, though raised in a shiftingly amoral family. His passion comes out pure and clean, and honest, unlike the strange cool violence that his father practices. His loyalty is fierce, but not blind. Though he suffers from the "handicap of being young," in a family and world where youth bars one from the freedom to make one's own way in the world, still he manages a surprising… [read more]

Ethical Issues Term Paper

… In the case of the problem our team experiences about a learning team member who demonstrates no concern for teamwork, it is my responsibility as a co-member to help him out of his problem. Being in a team, it is everyone's responsibility to know and understand the principle that a member's problem is the entire team's problem. Going through with him on any concern he might have about not being able to participate in the team is an element of this principle.

Bearing the name of my school, my responsibility as a student is to make certain that I uphold all moral and ethical conducts that my school is teaching. It is my responsibility not to be involved in any wrongdoings that will bring bad name and impression to our school. Thus, in the case of our team's current situation, in which a co-member is not doing his part, it is my responsibility as to ensure that all actions and decisions we come up are of the highest ethical standards.

What I Would Do and Why?

As a group, it is important that every decision is acceptable and understood by every member. The best thing that I would do as a first step in accomplishing a solution to our current team problem is to hold a discussion with the other members. In this process, we can determine and decide whether the behavior of our co-member who did not cooperate is acceptable or not.

In addition, we can discuss in the meeting what course of action we can do to help our co-member with his problem.

After discussing everything with the team, speaking with the uncooperative member should be the next step. Here, everything that has been discussed by the group should be communicated to him. Perhaps it is best that a member be appointed as the team's speaker. Holding a one-on-one communication with the uncooperative member may be an effective approach. This will somehow prevent any pressure on the uncooperative member, such as worrying that the whole team is against him.

I, and the entire team, must try to reach a compromise with the uncooperative member. After all, giving another chance to a member who committed a mistake is a usual element of teamwork. However, regarding the dishonesty that he is suggesting to do in the team log, what I will do is to still report only those members who really participated in the activities. This can provide him a lesson that he should participate in our team in the next activities. Further, it will make him learn that our team upholds ethical values. [read more]

Relativism as Discussed by Gilbert Term Paper

… This is very similar to Harmon's explanation of how morality is a group agreement and one must believe in the group agreement for one to understand that one has broken the moral agreement.

Harmon believes that morality and ideas themselves are simply relative to other similar ideas. He uses the example of a large dog compared to a Chihuahua (Harmon, 1975). The large dog when compared to the Chihuahua is considered to be very big, but if one compares it to dogs in general it is not so big. This is the same way that morality works which makes it all relative. If the rule or moral guideline is considered to be bad in a small group it then appears to be bad, but if it is then compared to a much larger group in which not many believe the behavior is immoral the behavior begins to look less "bad" or evil according to Harmon (Harmon, 1975).

Harmon explores the concept of sophisticated conventionalism too. Using the example of aliens visiting who belong to an advanced society that does not feel human life is worthwhile, the killing of humans, from the alien standpoint means nothing which means it is not immoral (Harmon, 1975). One can compare this to the fact that humans smash bugs with their shoe rather then let them run freely about the house. Humans feel nothing is morally wrong with the killing of a bug, because the group (society) has never come to an agreement that it is morally wrong to do so. If aliens from another planet had developed to the point that humans seemed of little more value than insects are to current society, then the murdering of humans could not be considered morally wrong (Harmon, 1975). This would be in tune with Harmon's theory of sophisticated forms of conventionalism and it also dovetails with his logical form that he applies to the theory of moral relativism.

Harmon uses this scenario to move more closely to a possible current societal event. According to Harmon cannibals who capture and eat a ship wreck survivor may be labeled as savage, or of wild moral values when compared to civilized society but rarely will someone say they were morally wrong to eat the man. Society accepts the fact that morals arise from a group agreement and accepts the idea that some groups have agreed to a different set of acceptable behaviors for their moral barometer.

Harmon bridges this theory to discuss the way the mind of a murderer might work. If a murderer was raised in a home and family where the family was respected but society was scorned upon he or she may grow up to see nothing wrong with hurting members of society as long as he or she showed respect and moral obedience to the family members. This helps to explain how members of organized crime, and gangs have a hard time understanding what they do is morally wrong.

Harmon explores the aspect of inner… [read more]

John Le Carre's Classic Spy Term Paper

… If we adhere to this sort of view of morality, then what are the limits of our willingness to adhere to it? Are we willing to commit a truly heinous act because of the belief that it will result in a greater good at least for us and those that we care about? Frighteningly, this sort of method for decision-making is often employed by governments, especially in times of war. The United States decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was motivated by such Utilitarian fears. The U.S. was concerned that an invasion of Japan could have cost more than one million casualties and that the Japanese would have resisted so severely that many more casualties would have been sustained on their side. For this reason, the U.S. decided to use atomic force, and although it did result in fewer casualties then the above numbers it did so at the cost of killing thousands upon thousands of innocent civilians.

By the end of The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, Le Carre shows the difficulty with such a utilitarian point-of-view, and there are several. The first is that in order to adhere to such a worldview, one has to be willing to condone merciless atrocities. Leamas, in falling in love with the British communist Liz, has entered a realm in which he cannot merely toss aside his feeling, his sympathy, and his humanity, and so a truly utilitarian course of action would be impossible for him if it recalled betraying his beloved. Secondly, adhering to such a terrible utilitarian morality results in the willingness of a party to betray one of its own members if that betrayal will benefit the party in a fittingly utilitarian fashion. Thus, Control is willing to hang Leamas out to dry despite all of his years of faithful service, his loyalty, and his willingness to undertake this mission at great personal cost, injury, and danger. By the end of Le Carre's novel, a sensitive reader cannot help feeling that Control's argument for a utilitarian morality is inhuman. Indeed, when such monstrous principles are the basis for action between international parties, one begins to wonder whether it matters which side one is on, or, if indeed, one side could possibly better than the other at all. Le Carre's book ultimately demonstrates the monstrosity of such notions.

Thus, Le Carre's novel is an example of the terrible effects that holding the motto "the end justifies the means" can have on people and on international affairs. Through the struggles of Alec Leamas, Le Carre depicts the difficulties that a feeling and caring person encounters in attempting to ignore their basic human emotions in the rational pursuit of a goal when that pursuit may require the undertaking of horrible actions. Ultimately, we, as readers, sympathize with Leamas for his heightened humanity and admire his bravery even though we may consider his decision to take this final mission foolhardy and believe that his pervious espionage career was… [read more]

Dumpster Diving, by Lars Eighner Term Paper

… He has a sense of humor "...but botulism is almost certainly fatal and often the first symptom is death" (Eighner 505), and sees his scavenging as an opportunity, not a curse. He is quite pragmatic about what he does, and does not seem to be ashamed of it at all, which he explains happens as Dumpster divers become more used to what they do. "At this stage, Dumpster shyness begins to dissipate" (Eighner 508).

One very interesting about his essay is the hatred he feels for the can scroungers. "Curiously, I do not mind my direct competition, other scavengers, so much as I hate the can scroungers" (Eighner 509). It is amusing and fascinating to see that even in the world of Dumpster diving, there is a hierarchy, and it is clear in Eighner's mind, the can scroungers are at the very bottom of the Dumpster diving heap.

Even in the world of Dumpster diving there are ethics, and Eighner shows he has personal ethics in several parts of the essay. He does not take drugs to sell on the streets, and he does not drink to excess. He can recognize the value of items to pawn, and will not share personal information he finds in the Dumpsters, such as addresses, prescription information, and such. He has the ability to wreak havoc on people, but that is not his purpose or his plan. He is simply attempting to survive the only way he can see. It is clear that he has morals and principles, and these guide him as he scavenges.

Eighner's essay is partly frightening, for today, with all the unemployment in the United States, it is easy to see how this man who certainly has a variety of skills could end up homeless on the streets. It is also uplifting, because he has not let his situation get him down. He is optimistic and surviving. From this essay, it is also clear he could make his living as a writer, and hopefully, he is doing just that, and putting his experiences on the streets into words so others can understand just what it's like to be homeless today in America.


Eighner, Lars.… [read more]

Titus Lucretius Carus in Materialism Term Paper

… Aside from the moralistic virtues that Epicureanism subsists to, Lucretius also explained in his work the importance of knowing that man and all things in this world are made up of matter, which are then made of atoms, particles that are indestructible. What materialism teaches its proponents and believers is that death, as stated by Lucretius, "is nothing to us," since we are all going to be unaware of what will happen after our deaths, particularly because we become matter when we die. Hence, as matter, we will not possess the spirit, mind, and feeling that we had when we were humans, and death, then, will be of "nothing to us."

Lucretius' discourse on materialism and Epicureanism is significant to the study not only of philosophy, but also in the study of physics. The concept of materialism and the composition of all things in the universe as made up of atoms are concepts that have been supported by science for many years. The Epicureanist philosophy is agreeable primarily because it does not abhor free thought, and its beliefs in materialism and hedonism are qualities that we, as humans, inherently possess. Also, Epicureanism frees man from the fear that there is more suffering to life after one's death, and that supernatural beings such as gods and goddesses are entities that must not be feared, for we, as humans, can seek happiness and contentment in life without their (the deities') intervention (and also because we do not fear death anymore). Lucretius' discourse is a good example of how Epicurean philosophy was utilized as a tool for alleviating the Roman society from the ills and sufferings in life that they have been experiencing during Lucretius' time (which coincides with the fall of the Roman… [read more]

Philosophy of Alasdair Macintyre Term Paper

… A right-based moral theory helps the members of a practice work together for the common good, or "right," and helps each individual develop the characteristics necessary to benefit the whole, unlike a goal- or duty-based theory, which is more self-serving.

Doing business would not be a form of practice for MacIntyre. He cites the game of football and farming as practices, and these are both businesses, but those who engage in them get more internal satisfaction than external (for the most part). He also cites the "creation and sustaining of human communities" as a practice. He defines his practice as any coherent and complex form of socially established cooperative human activity through which goods internal to that form of activity are realized in the course of trying to achieve those standards of excellence which are appropriate to, and partially definitive of, that form of activity, with the result that human powers to achieve excellence, and human conceptions of the ends and goods involved, are systematically extended.

Businesses rarely if ever fall into that category, as there are certainly many businesses that have absolutely no standards of excellence. The idea behind his definition of practice is the ultimate form of successful and challenging internal satisfaction.

Unfortunately, MacIntyre's views seem not as relative to modern society. Perhaps we have left all our virtue and morality behind. In a society based on business, there is far less satisfaction in the internal, and much more satisfaction with the external, the property and possessions of a life rather than the satisfaction of living a good life and doing a good job. In the example of the basketball player who takes satisfaction in "graceful field goals" may exist, but in our modern world, the seven-figure salaries professional basketball players command is the external and most important goal. That does not make it right, but it does however, have more in common with modern day society than… [read more]

Abolition of Man, C.S. Lewis Term Paper

… They are more concerned with self, their children and their grandchildren. Parents are more concerned with their children than they are with future descendants.

No parents who were guided by this instinct would dream for a moment of setting up claims of their hypothetical descendants against those of the baby actually crowing and kicking in the room" (Lewis, 51). Men have a responsibility to their own kin and have a moral obligation towards their own relations. A father who would sacrifice for his son or daughter believes in morals (Lewis, 55). Lewis states that morality is called the Tao and that there will be "no progress in our perceptions of value." Although society and acceptability may change, there is a fundamental system of values that will never change.

Lewis argues that men must remain within the boundaries of the Tao to survive. In order for men to create new moral laws, he must understand and exist within current moral standards. No one can create morals without some sort of a foundation. There must be a foundation set so that morals may be manipulated. Men must understand morals before they have the right to make any changes. Men who live within the Tao have power over themselves. Those who live outside of the Tao live through an abstract law without boundaries or a foundation.

In the third essay, Lewis discusses man's power over nature. Previous generations had more power than existing and future generations. Prior generations had the power to control and make rules and standards that people today and in future generations must live by. The longer a race survives, the less power that race has. Lewis says that men who attempt to control nature will control other men. Therefore, society will be ruled by a few men. These people will live outside of the law of morals. There will be no reason for them to live by the standards that they impose. Men who control nature will end up being controlled by nature, he argues. While people believe they are controlling nature, they will be controlled by a small group of men who will live by their own "irrational" impulses, he explains. "Man's conquest of Nature turns out, in the moment of its consummation, to be Nature's conquest of man" (Lewis, 80).

I believe that man must live by a moral foundation and tradition. We should not feel as if we are gaining control over nature because nature will always rule man. I agree with Lewis' theory on that matter. I also feel that people should live according to their inert feeling that allows them to distinguish between right or wrong. At least, those who live within the Tao should be able to distinguish right from wrong. However, I accept the fact that some people have no understanding of morals. There will always be people who believe that they should be guided by science instead of by the heart or nature. As humanity progresses, people are beginning to diverge… [read more]

Insider Trading From a "Utilitarian Term Paper

… The "invisible hand" of the market force continues to work like a force of nature to keep order, "not just in spite of but precisely by virtue of the selfishness of the players."

Other economists have opined that insider trading is beneficial to everyone who participates in the stock market as "it reduces overall dependence on chance."

Arguments against Insider Trading

If there were consensus on this opinion among the experts, our quest for finding a utilitarian ethical perspective of insider trading would have ended neatly, i.e., we could have said that insider trading actually helps to bring efficiency to the market making all the players involved happy -- proving the "rightness" of insider trading by Utilitarianism. Unfortunately, other experts disagree. For example an official of the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission says, "one of the main reasons that capital is available in such quantities in the U.S. markets is basically that the investor trusts the U.S. markets to be fair.The common belief in Europe that certain investors have access to confidential information and regularly profit from that information may be the major reason why comparatively few Europeans actually own stock."

The second problem that a Utilitarian would face while attempting to decide whether insider trading is right or wrong is the difficulty in quantifying the amount of happiness and unhappiness that such an act is likely to bring. Despite Bentham's theory of hedonic calculus that states that such quantification is theoretically possible, the practical difficulty of such quantification is underlined in this case. Another objection against insider trading is that the practice is "morally wrong" and "unfair" to most of the players in the market who do not have the inside information. Since the principle of Utilitarianism is only concerned with the end result or the consequence of an action, the "morally wrong" argument is almost irrelevant while the argument of unfairness is only relevant if it results in increasing the unhappiness of the market players.


Our discussion of Insider Trading from a Utilitarian point-of-view shows that it is not possible to determine with certainty whether trading on the stock market with inside information is ethically wrong or right. The main reason for this in-conclusiveness cannot be attributed to any inherent weakness in the theory of Utility but the inability of the economists to agree on whether insider trading is harmful or beneficial to the security markets. There is, therefore, a need for much more serious and meaningful research on the behavior of free market, the mechanics of competition, capitalism, and the economic impact of insider trading.


"Insider Trading." (n.d.) Notes from Werhane. Retrieved on February 26, 2002 from

"Insider Trading." U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Web site. Retrieved on February 26, 2002 from

La Monica, Paula R.(February 15, 2002). Insiders are chickening out. CNN / Money Magazine Web site. Retrieved on February 26, 2002 from

Newkirk, Thomas C. (September 19, 1998). Speech by SEC Staff: Insider Trading

AU.S. Perspective. Retrieved on February 26,… [read more]

Research Proposal Related to Food Safety Research Proposal

… Food contamination can happen at any stage, from farm to table. It is important to understand the risk factors evident at every stage of food production because many food-borne illnesses are preventable. In spite of the abundance of knowledge related to preventing food safety, one in six Americans still get sick from contaminated food, amounting to millions of people (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015; United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2016). The most common culprits in food poisoning cases are bacteria, viruses, parasites, molds, toxins, contaminants, and allergies.

Unfortunately, contamination can occur at every stage of food production. It can therefore be difficult in many cases to locate the precise causes of a food-borne illness. For example, if contaminated water is used for crop irrigation, those crops could contain contaminants that cause illness. The people consuming those crops might be located in various regions of the country or even the world. It may be difficult to trace the root cause of the bacterial or viral infection.

Foods that are processed or stored improperly prior to distribution might be exposed to contaminants or be exposed to temperatures that foster the growth of bacteria. These types of food safety issues may be easier to research given the fact that processed foods are somewhat traceable, but it still can be hard to find the common source of a food-related illness in diverse populations.

Sick staff can contaminate the food they work with, or facilities that are not cleaned properly can also promote bacterial or viral growth. In cases like these, a group of people eating at the same restaurant who all became ill can point to that restaurant as the culprit.

Finally, food safety continues in the home as undercooking food or leaving food out for long periods can lead to the growth of illness-causing bacteria and these may be relatively easy cases to identity. Therefore, closer scrutiny must be paid to the earlier stages of food production in which contamination occurs during harvesting or production or during handling, processing, or storage.

Food safety is relatively simple to learn, but because of the multiple stages involved in food production and preparation, it may be hard to trace the origins of a breakout. Globalized food production and delivery services complicate matters, as it is difficult to carefully control or monitor food safety practices in all source and production countries. This research seeks to clarify the stage at which contamination is most likely to occur, and thereby helps policymakers to devote more funding to improving food safety in that area.


In spite of the fact that they are entirely preventable, food-borne illnesses affect one in six Americans. Most of the causes of food-borne illnesses are well-known, including specific bacteria,… [read more]

Ego Human Beings Are Capable Essay

… Ego

Human beings are capable of both incredibly selfish and amazingly altruistic acts. In fact, sometimes it may be impossible to distinguish between selfishness and altruism because much altruism is motivated by selfish goals like fame, respect, or recognition. Instances of ethical egoism aside, there are certainly examples of persons who do have a saintly demeanor, and who seem psychologically conditioned toward absolute altruism. On the other end of the spectrum are the sociopaths, who seem psychologically conditioned toward absolute egoism or in some cases, something worse: complete misanthropy.

Therefore, the human condition seems to allow for a gamut of behaviors and psychological makeups. Most individuals would reside somewhere in the middle of a continuum between sociopath and saint. Many act selfishly throughout most of their daily behaviors, thinking first of themselves and their immediate family members and only then turning their attention toward humanity at large. Bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility are terms used to describe the complexity of human egoism. In some situations, human beings stand by while others are injured or hurt, expecting that someone else will come to the victim's rescue. Reasons for not intervening are generally going to be egotistical in nature, such as fear for one's own safety, embarrassment, or being personally inconvenienced. When people donate money to a charity, they are often motivated by guilt and other egotistical emotions rather than a genuine desire to help. For example, commercials depicting sad hungry children in Africa will tug on the heartstrings, making the wealthy person with a television and Internet feel guilty with their possessions while others suffer. In some cases, religion is also used in commercials like these to suggest that the person is not being "Christian" enough if they do not give money to the charity. Fearing for one's soul or wanting to do things that create belonging in a social organization are not altruistic motives. Thus, not all behavior that appears altruistic… [read more]

Human Quality Essay

… This requires the consciousness of ones egocentric tendency in order to identify the immediate perceptions of ones longstanding thoughts or beliefs. It correlates with the ability of reconstructing accuratelyothers viewpoints and their reasoning and hence conforms to their ideas and assumptions as opposed to our own. The corresponding vice intellectual empathy is intellectual apathy. This is thinking that is centered on one self. When one thinks from a self-centered perspective then they will not be able to understand how others think or feel.

Another example of intellectual virtue is intellectual courage. This involves having consciousness of the need to face and address ideas fairly, beliefs or viewpoints towards which one can have strong negative emotions and to which normally one is not given a serious hearing. The courage is connected to recognizing that ideas termed as dangerous or even absurd are at times justified in a rational manner. And the conclusions and beliefs are inculcated are at times misleading or false. So as to determine for one, which one is which then we are required to not passively and uncritically accept everything that we have learned. Intellectual courage is used here since inevitably come to see some truth in the ideas which are termed as absurd or dangerous and falsity in some of the ideas that are held strongly in some of the social groups one is part of. Courage is required so as to be true to ones own thinking in these kinds of circumstances. The corresponding vice to this virtue is intellectual cowardice involves putting forward a claim as a claim and not standing by it. It is the fear of ideas which do not conform to those that an individual holds. This vice is motivated by fear of being shown to be wrong but at the same time having the desire to achieving something (, 2013).

References (2013).Valuable Intellectual Traits. Retrieved August 18, 2014 from http://www.critical

Boyd, C.&Timpe, K. (2014). Virtues and their vices. [read more]

Extraordinary Examples of Human Cognitive Misperception Term Paper

… 3. Define Altruism and give an example.

Altruism is a practice that focuses on the welfare or well-being of others, and is separate from any expectation of a reciprocal benefit. Altruism is thought to have a sacrificial quality in that something is given up by the altruistic person in order to benefit the other. An example of altruistic behavior is when someone pays it forward: all the way from paying for the beverage of the person in the rear car in a line-up at the coffee drive-thru to making a charitable donation for the construction of a major public building that will benefit the civic affairs of a metropolis -- while requiring that no plaque be placed on the building identifying the donor, or no mention is made of the donor's name in the roll of charitable givers, typically categorized by the amount of their monetary of in-kind donation. The key aspects of altruism, then, are that something of value is given to someone to be put to good purpose, which can be as simple as putting bread on the table, without any expectation of acknowledgement, gain, or return.

4. Comment on Our Human Capacity for Adaptation.

The human capacity for adaptation is driven by our ability to adjust or judgments based on the most recent or most neutral of our past experience. There exists a recency factor in our memory that tends to exploit that which has just happened or that which is most salient because it was exceptional in some way. The entire process is iterative, in that, it is continually changing in a relativistic manner. It is as though our experience is conducted within a static band that ranges from very positive to very negative, and we are aware that we carom from one boundary of this band to another depending on events that have befallen us or experiences that we have been able to maximize. We acclimatize. We adapt. We accommodate. It seems that it is in our nature not to accept homeostasis, at least over the long-term. Since we are not good at predicting what will make us happy or bring us satisfaction, it is perhaps a good thing that we do easily content ourselves with the status quo. By changing our expectations and desires, we may be keeping ourselves on our toes, so to speak, evolutionary wise. If we are dissatisfied, and seek other experiences, then do we not work more steadily to accumulate various experiences -- any one [read more]

Existentialism and Sartre Essay

… As a consequence, these people can act in bad faith in spite of the fact that they are well-acquainted with the nature of their actions.

Society has the tendency to put pressure on individuals as they struggle to be liked. This leads to people coming to put across behaviors they know to be wrong and thus makes them feel that it would only be natural for them to act in bad faith -- as this is something that one needs to do in order to be an active member of the social order.

3. In addition to relating to the idea of bad faith, Sartre also concentrated on addressing the concept of people constantly being in charge of their lives. The French philosopher virtually wanted to demonstrate that acting in bad faith and being free should not necessarily need to be considered as two distinct concepts. Furthermore, being free should not be regarded as a good thing, as people often perform acts that can harm both themselves and the rest of the world as a result of having the freedom to choose.

As they exercise their freedom, individuals can risk making decisions that have a negative impact on a series of people including themselves. As a consequence, a person who chooses to work in a company performing actions in disagreement with his or her principles is actually free to do whatever he or she wants. The fact that he or she chooses to do this in spite of knowing it is immoral directly proves that he or she exercises his or her freedom.

Works cited:

"Existentialism Is a Humanism," Retrieved July 20, 2014, from [read more]

Theory Checklist as a Guide Essay

… Grounded theory slights the processes whereby data are assembled, processes that build concepts into the data from the start in the very process of writing field notes" (LaRossa 2005: 854). Theory only seems to 'leap' from the page because of preexisting notions of the researcher even though no experience 'naturally' gives rise to a theory in the absence of guiding research intelligence. However, LaRossa argues that, far from an imposition on experience, certain common phrases often do arise as a result of the research process, such as one study of parents in which the parent's resentment of being "on duty" and "on call" for their children and having to deal with so many activities was a reoccurring theme (LaRossa 2005: 854). There may be research bias, but provided the analysis is grounded in the data, this is no more of a problem than in quantitative research.


LaRossa, R. (2005). Grounded theory methods and qualitative family research. Journal of Marriage and Family,837-857.

First Response:

In the article "Employee alignment with strategic change: A study of strategy-supportive behavior among blue-collar employees," the article was quantitative because the article placed the theory as the framework for the entire study (Creswell, 2009). The article has a deductive base with an objective to test or verify a theory by questioning the theory and hypotheses, defining the theory through a construct, and reflecting the results as positive or negative through scoring derived from the construct. In the study, the researchers introduced the theory at the beginning of the study and the theory and hypotheses was clearly stated and gave identification on the type of study the [read more]

Corruption on Capitalism and Foreign Investment Research Paper

… ¶ … Corruption on Capitalism and Foreign Investment

There are several problems that most countries' governments struggle with. One of the most important problems that affect national economies, companies, and individuals is represented by corruption. The phenomenon of corruption is mostly met in poor countries in comparison with developed companies. This is because the political, economic, and legislative environments in such countries are more permissive for corruption to take place. In addition to this, the bureaucracy in these countries basically invites certain institutions to involve in corruption actions that facilitate their activity.

In order to understand the importance of the phenomenon, it is important to identify the different types of corruption. Economic theory has identified three basic types of corruption. These are represented by achieving or speeding up materialization of certain rights that citizens or companies are entitled to, corruption against legal rules, and corruption intended to change certain rules and regulations (Begovic, 2005). The type of corruption that refers to achieving or speeding up materialization of certain rights that individuals and companies are entitled to can be most frequently observed in less developed countries. This is because in these countries the state authorities are not able to provide these rights when and how individuals and companies need them (OECD, 2012). As a consequence, companies must provide financial or other types of incentives in order to benefit from their rights. This is usually the case of states with high levels of bureaucracy.

Corruption intended to violate legal rules is different. This type of corruption is somewhat the opposite of corruption intended to speed up the materialization of rights. Corruption against legal rules is intended to help companies develop their activity while not playing by the rules. The rules and regulations of the countries in case do not allow certain companies to develop their activity as they want to (Kwok & Tadesse, 2006). Therefore, they provide incentives to state authorities in order to permit them to break the rules.

This type of corruption can also be applied between companies. In other words, members of certain companies bribe members of other companies in order to provide inside information, to persuade superiors of taking certain actions, or to join efforts in the attempt of addressing competition. Such practices are against national and international rules and regulations regarding fair competition. Therefore, it is important to identify the objective of the action that refers to corruption in order to determine the type of corruption, and its implications.

The other type of corruption that refers to providing incentives in order to modify certain rules and regulations in the favor of the corruptor is also frequent in less developed countries, but also in developed ones. In most cases, this type of corruption is practiced by companies that need the rules and regulations changed in order to help them reach their objectives. However, this requires significant investments, and it is usually large companies that… [read more]

General Prologue of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales Reaction Paper

… Canterbury Tales General Prologue

An Analysis of Chaucer's General Prologue

Chaucer's General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales sets the scene for the numerous stories that follow. By drawing a parallel between the arrival of spring (April showers, the awakening of life) and the desire of English pilgrims to go on a pilgrimage to Canterbury, Chaucer connects the journey of the "palmers" (petitioners, men and women at prayer) to the awakening of a new spirit, of life, of grace in the soul. If the April rains draw flowers from their buds, so too does God's grace seem to draw the English people from their homes (now that winter and March have passed) into the outdoors, where the sun and the fresh air urge them to give thanks to God by visiting England's favorite saint in Canterbury, "the holy blessed martyr," St. Thomas Beckett.

The General Prologue introduces the reader to the various characters whom Chaucer will depict throughout the Tales. There is the Knight and Squire, the members of the clergy (the Prioress, the Monk, the Friar and the Parson), the laborers (the Cook and Plowman) and many others. Every class and walk of life is represented by Chaucer, who lends his own voice to the General Prologue, describing in the first-person how he has arrived at the inn at the same time as this diverse band of pilgrims and how he joins them for the remainder of the journey to Canterbury.

The actual details of the pilgrimage are not the subject of the Prologue nor of the Tales but merely provide the reason for their existence. While the pilgrimage certainly has an objective (and each pilgrim a different goal, some holier than others), Chaucer's idea is to divide the work into individual stories, each one told by a different pilgrim, each one supposed to be edifying, yet some more (or less) edifying than others. The General Prologue sets out the theme of the work, which is… [read more]

Civility by PM Forni Book Report

… ¶ … Social Importance of Choosing Civility: The Twenty-Five Rules of Considerate Conduct by P.M. Forni

To many people, manners are afterthoughts. They are dainty relics that can be done away with when one is with close friends and family.… [read more]

Conflict Policy Conflict of Interest Research Paper

… 5. After Board makes decisions

The director will be responsible for carrying out any decisions made by the board, whether it is communication, removal of the person, or any other action requested by the board.

6. Annual Conflict of Interest Statements

This policy will be reviewed and updated annually. Each representative or member will be required to read and sign a copy each year. The signed copies will be retained by Human Resources for a period of one year when an updated statement would need to be read and signed.

7. Refusal to Comply

Anyone who refuses to comply with this policy will be removed from participation in activities of The Hangout.

8. Confidentiality

Each representative or member should exercise care not to disclose confidential information obtained in connection to the conflict of interest, or potential conflict of interest, which might have adverse effects on The Hangout. Furthermore, representatives or members shall not disclose or use information relating to The Hangout's business for personal profit or advantage or personal profit or advantage of a family member.

Part II: Ethically Questionable Situation

An employee works for The Hangout as a tutor, but has the opportunity to work part time for a competing agency as a mentor in evenings and some weekends. The competing agency offers the same types of services as The Hangout. This situation has the potential to create conflict of interest because of the sharing of business strategies, which creates an intellectual property issue for The Hangout. Regardless of whether the employee is looking for extra income or is just seeking out the experience of mentoring, the conflict of interest potential could be damaging to The Hangout. It is better not to take the offer to avoid the conflict of interest situation.

Part III: Importance of Conflict of Interest Statements

The Conflict of Interest Statement is essential is managing the protection of the organization. It also reflects good governance on behalf of the management. IRS asks questions on this policy in Form1023 (application for 501(c) 3 nonprofit status) and Form 990 (annual financial information filing) (Ball, 2009).


Ball, A. (2009, Oct 21). 9 Essentials to Include in Your Policy and Statement. Retrieved from Ezine Articles:

Conflict of Interest. (n.d.). Retrieved from Business… [read more]

True Altruism Exist? Term Paper

… If no such point can be found, then we must conclude that the claim that empathy evokes altruistic motivation is of no real theoretical significance." Batson et al. additionally states that in the attempt to find a point of "behavioral difference, it is important, first to be clear about the points of conceptual difference." ( )

It is important according to Batson et al. To be "explicit about what we mean by egoistic and altruistic motivation for helping." ( ) The individuals assistance is egoistic "to the degree that he or she helps from a desire for personal gain or a desire to avoid personal pain. That is, egoistically motivated helping is directed toward the end-state goal of increasing the helper's own welfare. In contrast, a person's helping is altruistic to the degree that he or she helps from a desire to reduce the distress or increase the benefit t of the person in need." ( ) In other words, altruism is motivated by the hope of increasing the circumstances of the other person. In order to make a conceptual distinction between egoism and altruism three factors must be addressed according to Batson et al.: (1) helping can be motivated by egoism or atruism; (2) motivation may be a mixture of the two; and (3) making the circumstances of the individual is enough to represent altruistic goals.

Batson et al. believe that individuals help others for reasons that are altruistic and that being altruistic is a result of feeling empathy for others. Batson et al. holds that research findings support the role of empathy in the generation of altruistic helping behavior. However, the work of Cialdini et al. holds that other motivations exist besides altruism to explain assistive behavior and that individuals help others to reduce their own distress. Cialdini et al. also holds that research findings do not conclusively support that individuals help others for purely altruistic reasons.

Summary and Conclusion

Batson et al. (1981) and Cialdini et al. (1987) differ in their beliefs of the behavioral reason that individuals are motivated to assist others as Batson et al. (1981) holds that altruism is the more relevant explanation while Cialdini et al. (1987) do not believe that altruism alone can explain the reason that individuals are motivated to assist others.


Batson, D. et al. (1981) Is Empathic Emotion a Source of Altruistic Motivation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology… [read more]

Chinese Religious and Philosophical Leaders Term Paper

… Zhu Seng Du was true to his convictions and resisted the efforts of Taiohua to get him to come back home and participate in her life, helping to support and protect her. Zhu Seng Du was devoted to his religious beliefs and wanted the best for Taiohua, but he realized that he could not join her. The dedication and resolve that Zhu Seng Du exhibited was certainly laudable. He would inspire any young person who wanted to live a life devoted to piety and spiritualism.

Seng Baozhi exhibited special -- magical -- attributes. He was able to foretell the future about some events and seemed to be able to exist in two places at once. Seng Baozhi performed miracles and often did so in a manner that protected people from harm. He also saw visions and tried to warn people before they would be harmed. From a fairly young age, Seng Baozhi seemed to know that he was different -- when he was still young, he left home and went to study meditation under a monk named Jianwei at the Daolin temple. His behavior at that time was unusual and attracted attention. After a number of years, he began to show extraordinary powers.

The appeal of Seng Baozhi was not only that he was mysterious, but also that he was out and about in the world in a way that connected the spiritual to the tangible. Seng Baozhi seemed to be able tap into some other realm and common people found this very appealing. His capacity was so great and so mysterious that he was able to roam in and out of the forbidden palace areas at will. As the emperor in the narrative said, "Though the trace of Master Bzozhi's body is within this world, his spirit roves in the mysteries" (Ebrey, 1993, p. 101).


Ebrey, P.B. (1993). Chinese civilization: A sourcebook. (2nd ed. rev.). New York, NY: The Free Press.

Nylan, M. And Wilson, T. (2010). Lives of Confucius: Civilization's greatest sage through the ages. New York, NY:… [read more]

Rigor Purpose and Methodology Essay

… ¶ … Correctly Determining a Sample for Research

The prudent researcher must consider a plethora of factors when it comes to developing a sample for a research study. Although sample selection is one of the most important aspects of a… [read more]

Mill's Views on Higher and Lower Pleasure Term Paper

… ¶ … Mill's views on higher and lower pleasure. What is his argument for his view? Develop two objections to his argument, and explain whether Mill's view can be defended in light of those objections.

John Stuart Mill's work as a philosopher has had a significant effect on the world as a whole and on utilitarianism in particular. While most individuals are inclined to think about utilitarianism as being based on the principle of maximizing happiness, Mill considered that this theory needed to be even more explicit and that it needed to assist individuals in being able to differentiate between lower and higher happiness. From his perspective, intellectual happiness is more important and should be provided with more attention while physical happiness is less important and should generally be provided with lesser attention. While utilitarianism was considered to be a strict philosophy previous to Mill, he managed to raise public awareness regarding the importance of turning it into a more complex science by influencing people to direct their resources at experiencing higher happiness.

While the masses are typically inclined to associate happiness with concepts like food, drink, sleep, and intercourse, Mill emphasizes that there is something more important than these values and that it is actually what individuals should look for in their struggle to achieve happiness. He considers that one is more likely to experience satisfaction as a result of reading a good book or as a result of watching an educational play.

1. Mill failed to understand that he expressed a subjective point in devising his theory of higher and lower happiness. As a consequence, it would be wrong for him… [read more]

Altruism and Human Reciprocity Term Paper

… Altruism and Human Reciprocity

The purpose of the present study is to explore, both conceptually and empirically, the relationship between human connectedness to nature dimensions, various conservation behaviors, and altruism. This study is unique in that while attempting to explore… [read more]

Population or Pool of Possible Subjects Term Paper

… ¶ … population or pool of possible subjects for this project, because the population is too large for that type of study. Therefore, the study must focus on a sample of the population. "When determining which potential subjects from a large population to include in our study there are several approaches to choose from. Each of these sampling techniques have its own strengths and, of course, its own weaknesses. The idea behind adequate sampling, however, remains the same: to gather a sample of subjects that is representative of the greater population. The ideal research sample is therefore often referred to as a representative sample" (AllPsych, 2003).

In order to get a representative sample for this project, it is important to get a random sample. However, the population is sufficiently large that a simple random sample might be difficult to attain. Therefore, using a random number sample might be the best way to get an actual representative sample of the population. "A random number table is a computer generated list of numbers placed in random order" (AllPsych, 2003). The population is assigned random numbers, and those numbers are selected using a random number generator to determine the subjects for the survey. Because the population size for questioning is manageable, this use of random number survey should ensure a sufficiently random sample. The only significant problem with the selection of a random sample from a random number table is that it might not adequately reflect the members of different subgroups within the population. However, because I do not anticipate that subgroups will have a significant impact on the research questions, I am not concerned about having representative sections of different subgroups.

I do plan on sampling human beings, rather than attempting to gather data in another format. The study that I have planned does not present any ethical issues that would preclude using human subjects for the research. When determining whether it is… [read more]

Rick Blaine in Casablanca Essay

… Ultimately, Rick is an both an altruist and an utilitarian. Rick's altruism allows him to let go of Ilsa so that she may rejoin Victor and help him to bring an end to Nazi rule. Rick's utilitarianism comes into play as his decision to stay behind not only benefits Victor and his political aim, but also the people in Casablanca who may seek help in getting away; by staying behind and helping Victor flee will benefit the most people; had Rick left with Ilsa then the French Resistance would have lost a powerful ally.

Renault, on the other hand, is indifferent to Rick's business, legal and illegal, and can often be found at Rick's Cafe. It is only when he is pressured by his superiors to take action against Rick does he take action against the illegal casino. Furthermore, while Rick's loyalty lies with those that he believes will have the greatest impact against Nazism, Renault's loyalty, regardless if he agrees with their policies, lies with the Vichy government. Renault is passive-aggressive against the Vichy government and though he must follow their orders, he does not act upon his orders in a timely manner and loosely enforces laws and regulations. Because he has pledged his loyalty to the Vichy government, Renault is not as free to act out against Nazism as Rick is, however, his attitudes and beliefs are slowly transformed to match those of Rick's. At the end of the film, an utilitarian relationship is formed between Rick and Renault as they successfully worked together to help Ilsa and Victor escape. Realizing the result of their joint effort, Rick states, "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship."

Rick and Renault's relationship may seem unconventional at best, but their collaboration will help to ensure that justice is served and that innocent people do not lose their lives. The utilitarian nature of their relationship will ensure that the greatest good is achieved for the greatest number of people; this is only possible through Rick and Renault's selflessness -- it is important to not confuse altruism with utilitarianism at this point as it is unclear if Rick and Renault personally, politically, and/or emotionally benefit from their actions or if their actions are… [read more]

Positive and Negative Observations Five Positive Judgment Essay

… Positive and Negative Observations

Five Positive Judgment and Observations

Apparent politeness and consideration for others.

Apparent humility

Apparent absence of preoccupation with trendiness

Apparent respect for authority

Apparent benevolence

Five Negative Judgment and Observations

Apparent impoliteness and inconsideration for others.

Apparent self-centeredness and need for attention from others

Apparent preoccupation with trendiness

Apparent lack of respect for authority

Apparent malevolence

Possible Relevance to my Responses to others as a Teacher

I recognize that some of my instinctive reactions to others based on my observations of them could potentially affect the way I respond to people in the educational environment. When I observe people who are impolite or inconsiderate to others, it annoys me and as a teacher, I imagine that I would respond by providing guidance about why politeness and consideration are important in society. Likewise, because I admire and respect people who have appropriate respect for authority and who exhibit benevolence in general, I imagine that I would also respond to instances of apparent lack of respect and inconsideration by providing guidance in that regard.

On the other hand, the issues of humility, superficial preoccupations, and the need for attention from others are issues that matter more to personal psychological development and much less to the manner in which individuals affect others in society. Therefore, whereas when it comes to issues of respect, consideration,… [read more]

Evaluators Term Paper

… Evaluators should also be candid about any potential conflict of interest they may have and evaluators should also be careful to properly represent their findings and should be alert in order to prevent "or correct any substantial misuses of their work by others" (Scheirer).

The keys to evaluators' effectiveness include: a) taking responsibility for the "diversity of interests and values" linked to the public; b) there must always be a legitimate sense of respect for the "dignity," "security" and "self-worth of the respondents, program participants, clients and other stakeholders with whom they interact"; c) evaluators must show competence when relating to stakeholders; d) there must be a "systematic inquiry" presented by evaluators, using the "highest appropriate technical standards" when conducting their research and investigations; and e) integrity and honesty must be adhered to during the entire evaluation process (Scheirer).

Meantime, revisions made to the evaluation standards were approved by the AEA membership in July, 2004. Some of those revisions include a note that introduces some flexibility into the original principles. For example, the 2004 update acknowledges that "…it is impossible to write guiding principles that neatly fit every context in which evaluators work" (AEA). Moreover, because some evaluators will work in contexts in which "…following a guideline cannot be done for good reason," the evaluators should not be constrained but instead those evaluators should "…consult colleagues about how to proceed" (AEA). All stakeholders should be empowered -- and will be -- if there are engaged in the evaluation process.

Works Cited

American Evaluation Association. (2004). American Evaluation Association Guiding

Principles for Evaluators. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from

Scheirer, Mary Ann, Newman, Dianna, Shadish, William, and Wye, Chris. (1994). Guiding

Principles for Evaluators. A Report from the AEA Task Force. Retrieved… [read more]

Milgram's Experiment Response Term Paper


Stanley Milgram's classic experiment into the nature and limits of human obedience to authority was not unethical at the time that it was conducted for several reasons: First, it was not anticipated that the research subjects would exhibit the extremes of behavior that many of them did exhibit by delivering what they believed to be maximum electric shocks. Second, it was not anticipated that the research subjects would continue delivering shocks after the sham research subject began complaining and asking to cease participating in the experiment. Third, the level of acute psychological trauma experienced by the subjects was much greater than expected in advance, largely because of the first two reasons having to do with the expectations of the experimenters.

Detailed Response

At the time of Milgram's classic experiment into the nature and limits of obedience to authority, the experiment was not unethical, mainly because the experts never anticipated the results that could potentially correspond with significant negative consequences for the study's participants. Milgram made a conscientious attempt to mitigate any of those potential harms after the fact, but with the benefit of 20/20 hindsight, the experiment probably should not have been conducted in the first place because it is distinctly possible that residual negative consequences to the subjects defied the experimenter's attempt to minimize them through debriefing. It is also possible that some of those negative consequences occurred at levels of consciousness below the awareness of the participants, thereby invalidating the suggestion that their personal assessments of the effects they may have suffered were inconsequential.

The experiment raises serious ethical issues in several respects. First, it caused the research subjects significant emotional and psychological stress during the experiment. At… [read more]

Presentation on a Country Japan Research Paper

… Japan: Customs and Etiquette

Japan Customs And Etiquette


Customs and Etiquette in Society and the Business World

Japan: Customs and Etiquette in Society and the Business World

When conducting either business or merely oneself successfully in a foreign country, it is imperative to understand the customs and etiquette that is enacted by that country's people. No matter how knowledgeable or business-savvy an individual may be, acting in a manner that is deemed acceptable by the culture around oneself is equally necessary to achieve success. Something as simple as a gesture, acceptable in one country, may be deemed highly inappropriate in another. Such is true for a country as rich in culture and history as Japan, where customs and etiquette such as business conduct and the concept of time vary significantly from customs in Western society.

Customs and Key Themes

Embracing a country's customs and themes is the most crucial step one can take in assimilating into society and business seamlessly. Turner Wright (2008) notes that there are several key customs that are necessary to enact upon arriving in Japan, the most important of all being respect (p. 1). Wright notes, "In Japan, respect is pounded into children's heads from the moment they enter school, but for tourists, a simple inclination of the head or an attempt to boy at the waist will usually suffice" (p. 1). Further, respect includes addressing an individual especially in the business world by their full name and title and assuring that manners are used in conversation and especially at the table.

In mentioning the table, it should also be noted that in Japan, tipping in any situation is considered insulting. Whereas a businessman at a lunch with colleagues in the United States would be frowned upon for leaving a shabby tip, the same individual placed in the same situation in Japan would be frowned upon for leaving a tip at all.

Business Etiquette

Japanese business etiquette can be summed up in one word: formal. It is fair to say that the term "casual Friday" is one that is not tossed around very often in Japanese businesses. The business meeting is considered a structured ritual, full of rules and standards that are nonexistent in the west. Japanese business prides itself on punctuality, professionalism and establishing relationships between interacting companies and individuals, not in merely brokering quick deals. In Japan, business is personal, and relationships are key to developing business… [read more]

How Is Mencius' Theory Different From Confucius Essay

… ¶ … Mencius' theory different than that of Confucius?

Mencius, one of the key formulators of Confucianism, often-considered second only to Confucius himself (Nivison, 1996), differed to Confucius in various aspects. The teaching that he is most famous for is his view on humanity and the rest of his philosophy evolves from that. Confucius' theory revolved around humanity, but he himself never stated whether man was born good or evil. To him man just was, consisting of three key attributes, and experiences, practice, study, and socialization developed these attributes inherent in man. Mencius, however, believed that man was born good and had the capacity to either develop or destruct this goodness (Shun, 1997).

Mencius gave the example of a child falling down a well to show innate goodness. The instinctive response would fall along four trajectories. (a) Individuals would feel instinctive commiseration: this is (ren) humanity; (b) individuals would feel instinctive dislike which represents the attitude of ('li') rules of conduct in social life; (c) onlookers would react with deference and compliance, namely (yi) 'propriety of conduct'; and (d) individuals would react with a feeling of 'zhi' right or wrong; proper direction of heart/mind which is wisdom (Lau, 1970).

Each of these qualities, Mencius entitled the Four Beginnings and, comparing man to a plant (Lau, 1970), said that man could enable these sprouts to grow in the positive environments, but negative environments and one's sensual tendencies would destruct them. The senses, powerful as they are, operate instantly and automatically, whilst zhi -- wisdom has the ability to curb and guide one's conduct in a propitious direction.

Confucius, as quoted in the Lunyu (Analects) mentions three qualities 'ren', 'li', and 'yen', and defines them in the following manner. 'Ren' refers to 'humanness' or ' 'benevolence' in the sense that it denotes love and concern for others, but Confucius also extends it to human qualities on a wider scope such as wisdom, courage, diligence, resilience, prudence, conscientiousness, tenacity, self-discipline, and trustworthiness. Li, originally referring to rites of sacrifice, is later extended to social behavior, whilst yi is close to Li in that it refers to proper conduct (Nivison, 1996; Shun, 1997).

Mencius, as said before, adopted Confucius' categorization of men into these three ethical attributes (ren (humanness), li (observance of rites), and yi (propriety)) but he added a fourth, zhi (wisdom), elaborated on these qualities, and extended Confucius' thesis of humanity to denote that man was no neutral creature, but was born with an innate capacity to goodness that could be strengthened or diminished by environment and/or practice (Lau, 1970; Shun, 1997). Mencius also differed in the definitions that he accorded, or the stress that he placed on certain aspects of the four qualities. Whilst Confucius used 'ren' in the broader sense to refer to admirable qualities in general, Mencius restricted himself to the narrower sense of the context to focus on the love or concern for others and on reluctance to cause harm not… [read more]

Experimental vs. Quasi-Experimental Research Evaluating Client Profile Research Paper

… Experimental vs. quasi-Experimental research

Evaluating Client Profile

There are a number of differences between experimental and quasi-experimental research. For experimental research, there are a few basic things that one would need. First of all, a hypothesis for a causal relationship is needed as well as a control group and a treatment group. The next thing needed is a way to eradication confounding variables that could have the potential to ruin the experiment and stop them from illustrating the causal relationship. Larger groups are also important and they should have a carefully sorted constituency -- preferably randomized so that accidental differences will not ruin the experiment.

Trochim (2006) notes that experimental designs are the most rigorous of all the research design methods and all other methods are judged in comparison to the experimental design. If one can implement an experimental design well, and, Trochim (2006) emphasizes the word "if," the experiment has the potential to be the strongest design in regards to internal validity (2006). He states, basically: "If X, then Y" (2006) -- or to put it in much simpler terms: "If the program is given, then the outcome occurs" (2006). Yet, this is still not enough. To really show a causal relationship, one has to address (simultaneously) these two propositions: "If X, then Y" and "If not X, then not Y" (2006). More basic again: "If the program is given, then the outcome occurs" and "If the program is not given, then the outcome does not occur" (2006).

When one or more of these elements is missing, the experiment is not a true experiment, but rather it is considered a quasi-experiment. Quasi-experiments want to find a causal relationship, however, the researcher may not… [read more]

Social Research Effective and Ethical Theoretical Frameworks Research Paper

… Social Research

Effective and Ethical Theoretical Frameworks and Conceptual Underpinnings in Social Research

The scientific method, though not really codified and rendered explicit until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was a feature the investigation of the natural world from the… [read more]

Respect Colloquial Concepts Essay

… ¶ … Respect

Colloquial Concepts of Respect

Respect is one of the phrases most-often referred to in connection with personal attributes and leadership qualities and capabilities. There are various misconceptions about exactly what it means to "command the respect" of others. In the most general sense, respect is a reaction to any accomplishment or achievement that is the product of hard work or ingenuity (Kinicki & Williams, 2005). However, in terms of professional and personal leadership, respect may have a much narrower definition.

Likewise, it is widely repeated that respect is earned, but in several ways, that element of respect is also widely misunderstood. For example, one way that respect of others is commonly understood to be earned is by virtue of measurable or quantifiable achievements: in that regard, one might be said to respect a business mogul for his financial acumen or foresight. For another example, respect is often said to earned by reciprocity, such as where one presumably earns the respect of others by first demonstrating respect for others. Without minimizing the value of knowledge, skills, and achievements, and without contradicting the importance of mutual respect for others in the colloquial sense (Harari, 2002), respect (particularly in the context of professional leadership and management) is much more a concept of objective principle than of personal abilities, achievements, or even interpersonal relationship style.

Respect as a Function of Objective Principles

When it comes to identifying the conceptual basis of the right to respect in principle, specific abilities and achievements are much less important that certain personal qualities. That is substantially (but not exclusively) true simply because neither abilities nor achievements or accomplishments are necessarily guarantees that an individual deserves respect except in the narrowest sense in relation to those factors. Nothing more than a cursory look at news headlines or some of the most high profile recent criminal cases to… [read more]

Self-Reliance From the Book Transcendentalism Thesis

… ¶ … anathema to growth, as both consistency and conformity are the enemies of self-reliance. "The other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them." (paragraph 12)


A person's character may be reflected in words and deeds but also transcends those external signs. "Character teaches above our wills. Men imagine that they communicate their virtue or vice only by overt actions, and do not see that virtue or vice emit a breath every moment." (15)

The approved version of history is a distortion of the truth because only the narratives of kings and wars are included: "In history, our imagination plays us false. Kingdom and lordship, power and estate, are a gaudier vocabulary than private John and Edward in a small house and common day's work." (19)


Prayer should not be used for the petition of materialistic wants; prayer is an outpouring of spiritual joy and gratitude. "Prayer that craves a particular commodity, -- any thing less… [read more]

Tell-Tale Heart Thesis

… Tell-Tale Heart

Poe's the Tell-Tale Heart is a story based around the theme of conscience. The story is told in first person by a narrator who has murdered an old man. The narrator's underlying sanity is reflected in the many ways in which his conscience helps to guide his words and actions.

At the outset of the story, the narrator emphasizes that he is not insane. While his words carry the aura of someone protesting too much, they also illustrate his own conscience. He knows that he is insane and admits such when he writes "The disease has sharpened my senses." However, he excuses the disease, claiming that it has not impaired him but rather enhanced him. The narrator's conscience drives this claim, as the narrator understands that his act was wrong but cannot readily admit it as such. If he admitted that he was mad, then he would need to admit that his act was wrong -- a deranged murder that he committed. As a rational man, however, he feels that he can justify his act. If the act can be rationally justified, then the narrator can have a clear conscience about the crime.

The narrator's desire to be viewed as a rational individual is demonstrated repeatedly throughout the text. The devices the narrator creates to justify his acts, including the evil eye, his superior senses and the beating heart, all reflect his underlying conscience. Underneath the dementia, he still views himself as a rational actor. These devices are all constructs of the narrator that help to create a scenario where his actions are justifiable on a rational basis. His conscience can accept a rational decision, but not an irrational one. This hints that the narrator is struggling with both the self-realization of his illness and also its consequences.

The theme of conscience is most strongly illustrated by the device of the beating heart. The heart represents the narrator's underlying humanity. The heart speaks to the narrator, both while the old man is alive and after he has been killed. The old man's heart is… [read more]

Public Corruption and Its Effect Term Paper

… TI notes, "Gift-giving is part of negotiating and relationship building in some parts of the world. But cultural relativism ends where the Swiss bank account enters the scene. It is a matter of degree: there are limits in all cultures beyond which an action becomes corrupt and unacceptable" (Editors, 2009). As noted, gift-giving, when it results in bribery or coercion, is still a form of corruption, but there are certainly degrees where it can be acceptable, and degrees where it cannot. There is a great difference between giving a gift of a bottle of wine or a fine cigar in return for consideration and review of a project, to giving money or gifts for extreme financial reward or gain. A culture that traditionally gives gifts for certain items is not bound to be corrupt, but there must be lines that gift-giving does not cross.

Unscrupulous officials could use gift-giving traditions as a basis for their own economic gain, by giving favors and other considerations to those who give the "biggest" or "best" gifts. This takes advantage of people who can afford the best gifts, but it also takes advantage of the other people that are paying the officials' salaries and seeing nothing in return. As they become more corrupt, they require more or bigger bribes, taking advantage of the situation and those that can afford to continue giving lavish gifts. To counter this, "Emphasis must thus be placed on preventing corruption by tackling the root causes that give rise to it through undertaking economic, political and institutional reforms" (Myint, 2000, p. 56). Countries that want to control corruption must weed out unscrupulous public figures, and create rules and reforms that discourage corruption and encourage trust and fairness in their public officials, or their countries will never survive and thrive.


Editors. (2009). Corruption FAQs. Retrieved 10 August 2009 from the Transparency International Web site:

Myint, U. (2000). Corruption: causes, consequences, and cures. Asia-Pacific Development Journal. 7 (2). 33-58.

Spector, B.I. (Ed.). (2005). Fighting corruption in developing countries:… [read more]

Rationalizing in the Augean Stables, Poirot Essay

… Rationalizing

In The Augean Stables, Poirot takes some dramatic action to discredit the X-Ray News. He rationalizes the actions based on two main considerations. One is the outcome of the event and the other is the fact that Percy Perry, the editor of the X-Ray News is a blackmailer. Even though the information that Perry had was the truth, and it was damaging, Poirot rationalized his actions based on the utilitarian virtue of the greatest good for the greatest number. Ferrier was known to be a good man while his opponent in this situation, Perry, was not. Actions that Perry was to undertake to reveal the scandal would have been good for Perry and for the potentially-dictatorial opposition party, but they would not have been good for Britain as a whole. Thus, the majority of the nation benefits from having the truth obfuscated.

There is an element of Kantian thought to Poirot's actions as well, because of the character of… [read more]

Good Judgment Essay

… ¶ … Judgment

Sophocles' Antigone illustrates the consequences of poor judgment. Creon is viewed unfavorably by the gods for his disrespect to Polyneices and Antigone. As the ruler (regent) of Thebes, he is expected to show good judgment in dealing with delicate matters involving both etiquette and the gods. Creon failed to properly recognize the ethical dilemma that he faced. What occurred then was that he made a poor decision regarding Polyneices' body and the treatment of his sisters, particularly Antigone. Thus, the play demonstrates that ethical dilemmas are not always obvious up front. In this situation, it was for Creon to recognize that he may anger the gods by showing this disrespect.

Indeed, the back story of the play should have given Creon the context he needed to show better judgment. He should have understood that as a result of Oedipus' curse, both brothers would have to die. As a result, it was only by the fulfillment of that curse… [read more]

Aristotle and Virtues Research Proposal

… ¶ … Ethical Virtue

The Nature of Virtue:

The process of human socialization involves extensive learning of societal norms, values, and expectations. In addition to teaching specific behaviors and practices, social norms and values also provide a framework for any understanding of what is considered "good" or "bad." Those concepts dominate much of human social relations and the individual begins learning them formally and absorbing them passively in infancy and early childhood.

To Aristotle, virtue was a life-long process that required striving for moderation between the two most extreme excesses and deficiencies in human conduct. He called this doctrine the mean state do denote its intermediate position relative to human excess and human deficiency. Aristotle considered the highest virtue to be intellectual contemplation, because logical contemplation is necessary for any accurate understanding of anything from which virtues can be derived.

Objective Virtue vs. Ethical Relativism:

Because human social learning is culture-specific and so dependent on unconscious absorption of norms, values, and expectations, specific cultural values and social norms differ substantially among different societies. Concepts that are considered to have the most negative (even abhorrent) connotations in one society may be regarded much more positively (even promoted) in others. Typical examples in contemporary human societies might include the way Eastern and Western societies regard certain animal foods; social expectations with respect to appropriate attire in the West and many countries in the Middle East; as well as predominant religious beliefs and values, and myriad other extremely different social practices that are all considered the "norm" in their respective societies.

Those virtues considered the most important by society often generate formal… [read more]

Fortitude the Blue Hotel Illustrates a Pair Essay

… Fortitude

The Blue Hotel illustrates a pair of simple lessons on the subject of fortitude. Essentially, the Swede has the fortitude to stand against the cheater even though he is afforded essentially no protection. In the second bar he oversteps his bounds and ends up killed, but the chain of events that precipitated the entire sequence stemmed from Johnnie cheating.

In that case, both the Easterner and Johnnie lacked fortitude to do the right thing. Either could have admitted the cheating, but neither wished to face the consequences. Johnnie got beaten for his trouble but the Easterner suffered no consequence, save that on his conscience. The lesson of fortitude is most important with respect to the Easterner. In his case, he had little consequence to pay when faced with the ethical dilemma. Without consequence, he chose the path of least resistance. However, there were consequences for this choice. The Easterner, however, did not need to pay these consequences.

That at the end of the story, several months later, he is still wracked with guilt demonstrates that if one knows that he is making the wrong choice from… [read more]

Honesty the Concept of Honesty Is Displayed Essay

… Honesty

The concept of honesty is displayed in Death of a Salesman in Willy Loman's inability to be honest about himself. This causes significant discord in the family, which is the basis of the tragedy. The Willy Loman character is dishonest with himself in a couple of ways. The first is that he refuses to accept that he is fading in terms of his mental capabilities. This causes him pressure at work, since he is unable to produce at a level he considers acceptable, given his myopic pursuit of the American dream.

The second way in which Willy Loman is dishonest is with respect to his own nature and that of his sons. He criticizes Biff for working on a farm, yet that is the type of work for which Biff is best suited, and where he is happiest. Biff tries to teach Happy about the joys of such work, and in the play it is further illustrated that Willy himself would have been happier if he pursued such work.

Honesty is typically represented as an ethical dilemma in terms of being honest with other people, yet in this case the dilemma is more with respect to being honest with oneself. If Willy had been more honest with himself about himself and the keys to happiness,… [read more]

Program Evaluation -- Things Happen Systematic Inquiry Research Proposal

… Program Evaluation -- Things Happen

Systematic Inquiry

The principle of systematic inquiry becomes obvious even before the evaluator took on the responsibility of surveying the program and its effects. Respecting this principle was a complex task due to the existence… [read more]

Entrepreneurial Case Study

… Entrepreneurial Case

Carmine has been unethical in his conduct, in two ways. He has a duty of care to any potential investors to fully disclose all relevant financial information. His selective disclosure violates that duty. Additionally, he is intending to commit insider trading. His intent is to trade on sensitive information that has not been made public yet. It would be illegal if he does it, but even at this point his intention is unethical. Worse, he has essentially encouraged his father and uncles to commit insider trading as well. Should they go through with the transactions, they could face prosecution. It is unethical of Carmine to put his family members in that situation. They are not identified in this case as sophisticated investors. While Carmine may not have a legal fiduciary duty to them, he would still have an ethical one since he is in a position to know their actions are illegal and they are relying on him for advice.

It could be ethical for Carmine to pass along the financial information to… [read more]

Chinese Philosophy Thesis

… Chinese Philosophy

Appropriateness and righteousness in Confucian tradition, as emphasized by the two respective texts, revolves around the idea of humanity and being humane as the most important motivation in any enterprise that an individual embarks himself on. In this sense, the second text is most eloquent, since being humane can sometimes go above the customs or even local laws by which the individual must abide. The ritual (custom, tradition) is that men and women should not touch when handing something to one another, however, when the most precious element in existence, individual life, is in question, all this is put behind. It is as if the primary objective changes with the new premises and humanity takes the place of tradition.

On the other hand, appropriateness and righteousness in Confucian tradition is also strongly related to filial piety and the text in the Analects proves this. Fathers and sons cover for each others mistakes because the family is the fundamental cell of the society and it is natural for them to base their existence on the credibility between one another. Again, such abstract notions as filial piety will take the place of the usual duty towards higher authorities. The duty is first of all towards the family.

2. I think the best answer to this starts with the end and analyzes how nothing can turn into everything. First of all, doing nothing does not necessarily mean an act of inactivity, but more of the individual capacity to be prepared for anything, as a premise and first step towards doing everything. In this sense, if you do nothing, it is virtually a parallel to being constantly… [read more]

Hamlet Tragic Flaw Is His Inability Term Paper

… Hamlet tragic flaw is his inability to deal with problems head on. He has to think about them and find what he thinks is the absolute best solution, and often, he thinks about them so much that he never does come to a conclusion. He cannot act, he has to think, think, think, and it gets in the way of everything else in his life. He is also extremely cynical and negative, which only adds to his ultimate tragic law.

If Claudius were simply evil, he would be a one-dimensional character, and he certainly is not that. He is manipulative, almost paranoid, and power-hungry. However, he, at least at times, seems to genuinely care for Gertrude, and he is certainly wise enough to fear Hamlet when he learns he has killed Polonius. He is not purely evil, he display some characteristics that are not evil, although he does show remorse, and prays for forgiveness, showing that he is not completely evil and without any morals, even though his actions sometimes seem like it.

Gertrude is an intriguing character that challenges the… [read more]

What Is the Difference Between an Actual and an Apparent Conflict of Interest? Term Paper

… Conflict of Interest

From ethical point-of-view, what is the difference between an actual and an apparent conflict of interest? Does it matter?

An actual conflict of interest results when an individual who has a responsibility to protect the public's health will personally benefit if he or she makes a policy decision regarding a particular issue in favor or against an outside entity. An example of a direct conflict of interest is when a member of the NIH is receiving money from the companies producing the drugs the NIH officer is supposed to objectively regulate. A scientist working for the government who owns stock in such medical company also has a clear conflict of interest. If the company profits, he or she will profit, and if a drug the company produces is found to be dangerous, the company will experience a financial 'hit' and the scientist will experience a financial loss.

An apparent conflict of interest might be a scientist who has a relative or spouse working for a scientific or pharmaceutical research company.… [read more]

Pirate Empowerment Term Paper

… Pirate Empowerment

The life of pirates: Pirate empowerment

The myths of pirates and piracy abound in literature in film. It is often difficult to disentangle myth from fact and there are numerous points-of-view about the actual event and the rationale… [read more]

Gender Differences in Altruism Term Paper

… Gender & Altruism

Assessing the relationship between gender and altruism

Independent t-test results from the data showed that generally, there is no established significant relationship between gender of the individual and his/her propensity to commit acts of altruism.

It is interesting to note, however, that looking into each scenario depicted in the survey, statistical results yielded plausible explanations and differences when respondents' responses are assessed not on significance, but on the mean responses for each scenario.

Behavior among women showed that they are more likely to respond and act altruistically in scenarios where they are asked whether to help a classmate catch up or not (M= 4.1) and jumpstart another person's car or not (M= 4.0). Among the five scenarios, it is the situation when one is asked to help another person with a flat tire that generated the least likelihood of assuming an altruistic behavior among female respondents, with only a mean response of M= 1.7.

On the overall, the mean scores of male respondents are relatively lower than females, which means that they assessed their altruistic behavior relatively lower than the women. Male respondents responded similarly to the scenario when one is asked whether s/he would help jumpstart another person's car or not, which yielded the highest mean score value among the five scenarios (at M=4.0, similar to the mean score of female respondents' answers). However, it was the first scenario, which asked the individual to assess whether s/he would more likely help an individual struggling to carry a heavy box or not, with a mean response of M= 3.5, the second highest mean score among the scenarios presented. Interestingly, male respondents also responded unfavorably to the third scenario, which asked the respondent to determine whether she will more or less likely help an individual with a flat tire while on the road (M= 2.0).

From these results, both male and female respondents assessed two scenarios in the same manner and level of altruism. The scenarios which asked whether they will help jumpstart another person's car and help an individual with a flat tire, encountered while on the road, are both "car scenarios" that requires relatively greater levels of altruism than the other scenarios. The difference between these two scenarios, however, is that they have different settings. It can be construed that what made the respondents respond favorably to the "jumpstart" scenario is the fact that it takes place at a relatively safe place, unlike that of the "flat tire" scenario, which places the individual at an undetermined place, and greater risk than the "jumpstart" scenario.

The willingness to help out other people while someone is within one's "comfort… [read more]

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