"Ethics / Morality" Essays

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Happiness in Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Thus, "unlike the pursuit of things like money and valor (which is a kind of honor)" the pursuit of happiness has no extrinsic rewards, rather, Aristotle argues, one pursues it because it is good, in and of itself, and one pursues it for its own perfection and with the desire to perfect one's own soul or self. (I: 5)

Here, in his emphasis on the moral and individual goals of virtue, and its existence as a singular thing, Aristotle shows his platonic influence. He assumes because a thing has unity of purpose, it must be better than something that lacks unity of purpose, as do pleasure in its many varieties (from starring in a play, to soccer, to being elected to Congress, to ice creme). Vague social impulses, for instance, to give back to the community in exchange for the community conferring power, acclaim, and money upon one's shoulders may provoke sensations of pleasure that contain the semblance of virtue, but they are not virtue itself, even if the social community calls such military or political service virtue. And merely because sensations of feeling good are provoked does not mean the sensations have their roots in virtuous acts -- in fact, far from it, as one can feel pleasure eating a 1,400 calorie burger for the moment or pleasure at hearing applause yet emerge a poorer person from feeling bloated or arrogant afterwards from both experiences of pure pleasure.

Rather, virtue and the happiness that is synonymous with virtue seems to be for Aristotle more of a sense of doing what is right, of fulfilling one's obligations as a person, whatever they may be -- whether being a good wife for a woman, or thinking well for a philosophical man. The obligations may vary, but the pursuit of the thing itself is the…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The emphasis on filial piety and the need to observe organizational hierarchies within Confucianism arose from a society in which collectivism more than individualism was the predominant value. Ethical systems are often created by a single or several human intelligences, versus the collective creation of a sense of right and wrong that is generated by 'morality.' However, human beings, even philosophers, are inevitably affected by the culture that produced and educated them.

Morality is different from religion: "religion differs from morality or a moral system in that it includes stories about events in the past, usually about supernatural beings, that are used to explain or justify the behavior that it prohibits or requires" (Gert 2011). Religion also differs from ethics in the sense that it uses such events to justify the demands of its followers, versus logic, although ethical systems may be generated from religions traditions. Morality likewise is affected by religion, based upon the life experiences of believers and their cultures.

However, moral codes are not always explicitly stated, unlike ethical codes. For example, in our society it is generally considered wrong to 'cut' someone in line or to offer an official a bribe. However, in other societies, where corruption and fighting for scarce resources is part of life, these actions may be viewed in a less censorious manner. Even though both societies may have ethical systems that deem such actions wrong, the moral actions of most individuals in the societies are profoundly different.

Different moral codes can also coexist in societies. "Many religions condemn homosexual behavior as immoral, but those who hold that morality is primarily concerned with avoiding and preventing harm condemn religious discrimination against homosexuals as immoral" (Gert 2011). Of course, ethical systems can… [read more]

Ethics Awareness Inventory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Nevertheless, I have noticed that such an approach can backfire, as what is good for the majority often neglects the needs of minority groups that may not have the political power or sufficient numbers to stand up for their needs. Therefore, I advocate a balanced approach to making ethical decisions, one that accounts for the needs of any minority groups, and one that addresses the needs of each and every person in the organization; but an approach that in the end produces the most reliable results.

Educational experiences have a huge impact on ethical thinking. Classroom learning, I believe is a small step towards true ethical awareness. Academic instruction in ethics and ethical theory does help categorize people so that we can be more aware of why we may have conflicts with other people. For instance, completing this inventory alerted me to some potential problems I may have with other people within organizations for which I worked. In fact, I have already noticed that the conflicts I have had in the past probably stem from conflict in our core ethical belief systems. In some cases, I may mistrust the cost-benefit analyses that organizations use, and often I will become frustrated with the inability of an organization to address the needs of all its members. However, I have also noticed through experience that we can never satisfy everyone; at some point an organization needs to make decisions using utilitarian principles.

My scoring high on both categories related to duty and to results shows that I can potentially have a positive impact on an organization that runs into an ethical dilemma. While I may become frustrated and overwhelmed with the wide range of diverse ethical opinions and styles, in the end I appreciate and respect diversity and the needs of all individuals.… [read more]

Religion, Libertarianism and Virtue Ethics Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



This is stealing or taking property belonging to another person or business, often in the form of money (Moore, 2012). If it is property, it involves stealing while the property is in entrusted to the person who embezzles (Moore).

Bribery and Blackmail

Bribery is offering money, goods or services to secure the favorable decision or action of another person who is in an official position or capacity to give it (Moore, 2012). Examples of bribe-takers or givers are a public official and police officer. Blackmail, also called extortion, means obtaining money or gods with the use of force or by threat (Moore).


Frauds are deceptive acts often committed in healthcare, taxes, credit cards, insurance and the internet (Moore, 2012).

Judicial Process

Obstruction of justice means interference in the criminal process, such as through perjury (Moore, 2012).

Other types of white collar crime are identity theft, counterfeiting, forgery, price fixing to influence free market operations, and insider trading (Moore, 2012).

Sexual Harassment and Hostile Environment

Sexual Harassment

This comes in different forms, such as physical sexual gestures, crude jokes, written letters or emails, and even direct sexual comments about one's body or clothing (Tolle, 2012). It is physical sexual harassment to be touched or rubbed against in an uncomfortable way, being stared at in a sexually suggestive way or subjected to a clearly sexual gesture (Tolle).

A Hostile Work Environment

This is an environment where occurrences are not welcome or comfortable, repetitious, and disrupt the performance of one's work (Tolle, 2012). Sexual harassment is one of those occurrences. Any threat to the performance of one's job puts the person in a hostile work environment. Not all situations create a hostile work environment, however, Being teased by someone on occasion or an occasional unpleasant comment creates a hostile work environment (Tolle).

Unfriendly and uncomfortable comments and gestures should be stopped from escalating into a hostile work environment (Tolle, 2012). The offended person should note down the incident and place the date and then notify her supervisor immediately. If there is no sufficient relief of the situation or the hostile environment persists, the offended person should secure help from the Equal Employment Opportunity counselor within six weeks from the incident (Tolle). If the person harassing is the supervisor, the offended employee should report the incident to the next higher official (Carabelli, 2012) If there no action, legal action should be taken. The offended employee should present all the documentary evidence needed to meet the preponderance requirement (Carabelli). #


Carabelli, C. (2012). About sexual harassment in the workplace. eHow: Demand Media,

Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8180410_sexual-harassment-workplace.html

Frazier, L. (2012). What is the difference between teleological and deontological ethics?

eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8286914_difference-between-teleological-deontological-ethics.html

Hursthouse, R. (2008). Virtue ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue

Moore, S. (2012). What is white collar crime? eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on http://www.ehow.com/facts_4866619_what-white-collar-crime.html

McGonigal, S.(2012). Conflict theory and religion. eHow: Demand… [read more]

Ethics Since 1900 by Mary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,172 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


.. We must accept either that the word 'good' denotes a simple unanalysable property or that it denotes a complex and analyzable property, or that it denotes nothing at all" (24). Applied in the context of identifying one's path towards self-realization, it cannot be said that self-realization is good, simply because, as Moore argued, goodness is an unanalyzable concept. However, like the concept of goodness, self-realization is best identified and determined by experiencing rather than rationalizing on it -- in effect, like goodness, self-realization is only known when one experiences it.

Indeed, succeeding studies on the moral philosophy among humans showed an inclination towards equating morality with self-realization. Or more specifically, these discussions of succeeding philosophies on morality focused on the utilization of a moral standard in order to attain self-realization. In her discussion, Warnock includes intuition, emotive theory, and moral psychology as philosophies that proved her belief that 20th moral philosophy is coursing its path towards a more individualist notion of morality.

Intuitionism is vital to the development of moral philosophy of the 20th century because it is through intuition that an individual learns to identify what is good for them; thus, similarly, it is through intuition that one learns to identify that s/he is experiencing self-realization. Intuitionism is in fact a version of Moore's philosophy, wherein he posited that one knows goodness when one 'sees' it -- that is, goodness is witnessed if the individual feels that s/he had indeed experienced or did an act of goodness. In the same vein, emotive theory posits that morality is not so much based on rationality alone, but instead, has a lot to do with an individual's expression of his/her feelings. That is, under the emotive theory, one's sense of morality is spurred from expression to action, a process wherein one becomes motivated to act upon towards self-realization. Thus, under the emotive theory, "ethical terms do not serve only to express feeling. They are calculated also to arouse feeling, and so to stimulate action" (83). From intuition to emotive theory, Warnock goes on to moral psychology, where moral philosophy becomes more deterministic and individualistic: " ... It is not clear that there could ever be a time when the idea of free choice was useless, whatever further discoveries in psychology ... were made. For although it might be possible to regard other people as wholly causally determined it would be very difficult if not impossible to regard oneself in the same light" (155). From this passage, it became apparent that the path towards self-realization is solely based on the individual himself/herself. These philosophies are best integrated with Sartre's focus on individual expression as the path towards self-realization: "The fact that things could be looked at from another viewpoint would escape me, and therefore I might fail to realize that I myself occupied some particular viewpoint which I could change at will, and by thus being unaware of my freedom I would be less than human" (185).

Integration of these developments in… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Virtue-Based vs. Duty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



One of the reflections given in this short story is that the quest towards morality is never-ending. Perhaps what Hawthorne wanted to extend to his readers is that, despite the evident morality that emerged from a duty-based ethic, this does not mean that one is absolutely moral. As with the other individuals who had been given the privilege and honor of resembling the Great Stone Face, Ernest and these people are just representations of the multiple facets of morality. Thus, Ernest represents duty-based ethic, and the statement "still hoping that some wiser and better man than himself would by and by appear" suggests that there is another facet of morality that humanity has yet to ponder and determine. Thus, morality is an infinite concept devoid of any absolute definition or meaning.

Victor Hugo in "Les Miserables" had also expressed agreement over the claim that morality is a never-ending conquest for humanity. However, he has shown a stronger position of believing in duty-based ethic than Hawthorne. In his novel, Hugo represents through the character of Bishop Bienvenu the embodiment of an individual who has not expressed belief in moral and ethical principles, yet manifests these beliefs through his good works. Bienvenu is best portrayed through Mdlle. Baptistine, who described the Bishop's character as "something truly evangelical in this delicacy which abstains from sermonizing, moralizing and making allusions ... " From these reflections, it became apparent that one need not have known moral and ethical principles, and that by doing moral and ethical acts does one only and truly achieve morality. In effect, Hugo's belief in duty-based ethic is sufficiently exemplified in Bienvenu's character.

From the analyses of Mayo, Hawthorne, and Hugo's works, it is shown that morality is, at best, a real concept that can only be recognized and determined if one sees it. Unlike virtue-based ethics, one need not go into details, enumerating his/her moral and ethical beliefs for people to believe that he or she is moral; rather, doing good works are proof already of one's morality.

Aristotle and Frankena, meanwhile, offers a "middle ground" in understanding morality. Rather than arguing that there is indeed a difference between virtue- and duty-based ethics, or choosing one over the other, they instead asserted that both virtue- and duty-based ethics complement each other. That is, one cannot exist without the other. This position is elucidated further in their philosophical works.

In "Nicomachean Ethics," Aristotle asserts that "[t]he function of man then is activity of soul in accordance with reason, or not apart from reason ... By human virtue or excellence we mean not that of the body, but that of the soul, and by happiness we mean an activity of the soul ... " From this passage, the philosopher's stance becomes clear: while he believes that one must have moral beliefs in order to become a moral individual, he does not take for granted the fact that with being comes doing, which is an inevitable human act that must be accomplished.… [read more]

Ethics According to the Dictionary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, as an adult, individuals are free to leave behind the ethics of their parents to create a unique set of ethics. The development of ethics later in life can be based on personal experience and wisdom as much as from standardized codes of behavior. In the business world, ethics develop as a diversity of individuals tries to work together towards a common goal. Ethical business standards are based on several factors, including profitability. Many experts believe that ethical businesses are successful businesses because companies want to do business with companies with high moral standards. If a company is known to have unethical standards, clients will drop off in droves. No one wants to get cheated out of money or humiliated. Thus, ethics develop over time, in response to business environments, to the demands of the consumer and to the demands of the market. A diverse workforce also influences the development of ethics, as the wider the range of voices in an organization, the more complex and multifaceted its ethical code will be.

Ethics are one of the primary factors influencing personal and professional decision making. From pricing to hiring workers, from making a deal with a contractor to dealing with the government, all executive decisions are done with at least some attention to ethics. Whether to lie a little, a lot or not at all will be a decision determined by ethics. Whether to skim some money at the top, pad an account, charge a round of drinks to the company credit card: all of these are ethical decisions. When a company designs its business and marketing plans, it does so with attention to ethics. If an organization wants to become a market leader, how far is it willing to go? Is a giant retail company willing to edge out small mom-and-pop businesses in a local community? Does the company CEO hire his nephew? Professional decisions like these reflect the ethical code of the individual as well as of the organization as a whole.

When companies make collective decisions, they will often refer to official company codes of ethics. Drafting a code of ethics can therefore be one of the most intelligent steps an organization can make because it offers a set of clear guidelines for behavior and decision-making. In case of a dispute, an employee can open up the ethical code and make a decision based on it. While some decisions will be too complex for a simple ethical code to handle, general values and beliefs will be reflected in the code of ethics. This is exactly where critical thinking comes into play in terms of ethical standards.

Critical thinking is the core of effective professional decision-making. Creative thinking, the ability to synthesize various points-of-view or concepts, also impacts decision-making. Critical and creative thinking processes in turn reflect ethics. When the CEO deliberates over whether to promote his nephew, he will consider many options: the ethical obligation to avoid nepotism; the ethical obligation to help his family succeed… [read more]

Ethics and the Legal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,866 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


On the flipside, should more people be ultimately injured by the contaminants set free by nighttime emissions at the Hondo plant, George should report the company to the EPA and let it move to Mexico, ensuring that there would be minimal upwind chemical repercussions to the people of his community.

Rights-based ethical decision-making would proffer the same conclusion: George Mackee… [read more]

Ethics and Decision Making Values Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In short, even if I disagree with the decision personally, I feel that I can justify and account for my decision. This is again linked with my level of moral development, where I make decisions based on wanting to live up to the expectations of others. In this case, it is not about being accepted by others, but more about not being rejected by others. I feel that I am justified by referring to the morality of the actual organization and that this prevents personal rejection. This links particularly to cultural values, since I think it is considered important to show loyalty to the organization that pays you.

It has now been seen that the process of making decisions is impacted by personal values, organizational values, and cultural values. In any given situation, all of these value systems will often be playing a role. The difference is which one takes precedence in the specific situation. As also noted, this is also closely linked with the need to act based on meeting the expectations of others, which is a major motivation factor in many cases. This includes meeting the expectations of individuals within the organization as well as meeting the larger social expectations. However, in some cases, personal values will override the need for acceptance and will be the prime motivation factor.


Graham, J.W. (1995). Leadership, moral development and citizenship behavior. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(1), 43-54.

Janis, I.L. (2000). Groupthink. In J. Billsberry (Ed.), The effective manager: Perspectives and illustrations (pp. 166-178). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jansen, E., & Von Gilnow, M.A. (1985). Ethical ambivalence and organizational reward systems. Academy of Management Review, 10, 814-822.

Woodman, R., & Pasmore, W. (1990). Research and…… [read more]

Business Ethics at One Time Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Then I add: The first and most important decision in one's success is carefully choosing the people who will surround you. Make sure they share your values, make certain their character defaults to high moral ground in times of stress, ensure they are bright and comprehend results, and be confident of their loyalty. (Freeman, 2005, np).

A also have to be careful that I always keep abreast of my own personal ethics standards. Sometimes, I will not have any doubt about how I should respond or act in a situation. I will know, from my own ethics goals, what is right and wrong. Other times, however, the situation will be in shades of grey. There will be no exact right or wrong, different people will have varying advice, or the situation will be new to me and require more thought. In such cases, it is important to get input from a variety of sources with different ethical considerations, and carefully make a decision that will fit my standards and the needs of others best.

This will not always be easy to do, since conflicts will arise between what I believe and what others do, between what I feel is best and what actually perhaps will be best, and between what I believe and what is actually decided. It is most important, however, that I am honest to myself and where I stand in life. At all times, I should be able to look in the mirror and like what I see. I should be proud of my behavior and know that I am doing what is right by my highest standards of ethical behavior.

Resources Cited

Asacker, Tom. (2004) "Ethics in the workplace; The best strategy: start with honesty with others." Business Mexico 14(11), 40-42.

Do the right thing.(work ethics)." (2005) Management Today, 54.

Freeman, R. Edward. (2005) "Create a new story about business: we have a unique moment to make a lasting difference in corporate practice. This is a moment we must seize "Directors & Boards 29(3),…… [read more]

Moral Phenomenology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Moral Phenomenology

Sensibility theory enables us to understand morality and ethics from the perspective of the phenomenological depth of a situation. This view or perception transcends the rational and intellectual modes of understanding the phenomenon of morality within the complex context of human experience. The subtle relationship between the body and emotional and intellectual factors in the experience of ethics… [read more]

Ethics in a Computerized Society Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Ethics in a Computerized Society

Ethics are extremely important in our society since they help to determine whether an action is right or wrong. There are different types of ethical systems that are used to determine whether the action is right or wrong. The first is ethical relativism whereby there are no morally right or wrong actions. Instead, right and… [read more]

Business Ethics in the Fire Service Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Business Ethics in the Fire Service

The fire service in most countries is held in high esteem and widely regarded as a paragon of ethical business practices. Because the fire service is funded with scarce taxpayer resources, though, it is vitally important that the lofty perceptions of ethical practices in the fire service are supported by consistent applications of ethical… [read more]

Ethics in an Organization Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In conclusion, the role of ethics to organizations in the society of today has been able to come a long way and will endure to be a significant subject going ahead. Consumers have more material at their fingertips than ever before and are able to get access to more media than they have ever been able to get. Information regarding establishments is willingly accessible and without high ethical standards of ethics establishments will see their collapse. As mentioned in this essay there are a lot of different concepts for governments to impart appropriate standards in their employees and to safeguard achievement and future growth. It is up to separate governments to take the proper stages to guarantee that they are running morally and providing the essential chances for their staffs to follow suit.

Works Cited

Anders, G. (2005, May 2). Inside Amazon's Idea Machine: How Bezos Decodes The Customer. Forbes. Chicago.

Covey, S. (2007). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Simon and Shuster.

O'Connor, C. (2008, May 2). Undercover Billionaire: Sara Blakely Joins The Rich List Thanks To Spanx. Forbes.

Rorty, M.V. (2009). The rashomon effect: Organization ethics in health care. HEC Forum, 16(9), 75-94.

Soltani, I., & Joneghani, R.B. (2008). Operational Model of Cascading Values…… [read more]

Labor Ethics Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,041 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Bringing a change to an environment that is highly deterrent to ethically-driven whistleblowing is critical to our shared economic future.

Chapter 2

Following the contextualization provided by Chapter 1, Chapter 2 offers a more detailed look into the ethical implications of the various legal and organizational constructs relating to business practice and labor. Entitled "An Historical Perspective on Business Ethics, the chapter offers an exhaustive look into the evolution of business practices, private enterprising and worker's rights.

With respect to the evolution of business practices, the author illustrates that in no uncertain terms, ethical practice was scarcely a consideration in the earliest stages of American profiteering. From Columbus and Jamestown through to the voyage of the Mayflower, Collins details events of grotesque abuse by European settlers in search of personal advancement or even mere economic survival. For instance, "the Mayflower eventually anchored in southeaster Massachusetts, near corn fields that had been harvested by indigenous tribes for thousands of years. Peaceful relations with indigenous tribes ended when, following a harsh winter, Pilgrims violated fur trading pacts and land agreements, stole food, and failed in an effort to broker hostilities between warring indigenous tribes." (p. 43)

This would, sadly, initiate something of the exploitive practices that have helped to define capitalism in the fledgling colonies. And yet, this same spirit for independent economic advancement that led to the slaughter of countless Native Americans and Carribean Islanders would also be the force responsible for the revolutionary fervor that birthed the United States. According to Collins, economic independence was chief cause of the effort for independence. The text reports that "by 1774, more than 2.3 million European colonists participated in highly regulated business activities among several generations of English settlers who had experienced life only in America and felt limited loyalty to England." (p. 43)

As the British began to impose harsher taxation on the flourishing colonies, resistance began to taken on a decidedly militant form. And this militancy would be underscored by a clear sense of ethical entitlement to self-determination, independence and delegated representation in affairs of commerce and taxation. These are some of the core ethical values that would come to define the commerce of the fledgling United States.

This evolution would, of course, be of especially great value to private enterprisers going forward. But as the text by Collins would also show, the path toward the ethical treatment of laborers would be a far longer one. And certainly, the subject of worker's rights serves as a way of demonstrating the high level of correlation between the improvement of labor conditions and adherence to true and meaningful ethical standards. Collins note that "the failure of owners and managers to heed Adam Smith's appeal to treat laborers ethically led to the formation of unions." (p. 50)

This would also set off a conflict between competing interests that lasts even to present day.


What is notable about this discussion is its simultaneous demonstration of the evolution of ethical practices in business and labor… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Is a Conjecture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


One of them being ethical sensitivity has on various occasions, required increasing the size circle of neighbors to include cultures and races. However, the widening circles do not end with the reciprocation of moral agents. A communication ethics locates enlarging concentric circles around the moral self. This includes family, human kind, local community, nation, and animals (in an environment though… [read more]

Ethics and Leadership, Forming Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … ethics and leadership, forming a set of principles that can be applied in my particular leadership role. The paper is organized according to the principles that I have learned. This paper is divided into 3 three sections. The first section discusses philosophical and historical background of ethics. The second section fashions the role of educational leadership and its… [read more]

Marketing Product Safety, and Intellectual Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,675 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


PharmaCare is not socially responsible for their actions towards the community in Colberia. According to the moral compass, individuals or organizations should operate under guidelines and principles of ethics in conducting their duties and to determine what is right and wrong. Although moral compasses vary from one individual to another depending on cultural differences, morality bears that all humans are… [read more]

Morality and the Claims of Utilitarian Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,428 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … morality and the claims of utilitarian moral philosophy, and discusses the question of whether moral sacrifice can be justified. Much has been written by myriad scholars and philosophers about morality and utilitarianism, and the best way to sort through those approaches is to carefully recount and critique what has been written and how one philosopher's viewpoint contradicts or… [read more]

Hh Ethics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Virtue is not necessarily an innate state, and it can be cultivated. "Happiness arises from virtuous causes. If we truly desire to be happy, there is no other way to proceed but by way of virtue," (His Holiness the Dalai Lama 121). The Dalai Lama adds that the foundation of virtue is "ethical discipline," (121). Thus, the ethic of restraint and the ethic of virtue are both linked with self-discipline. Happiness cannot be created without self-discipline, which is required to cultivate the virtuous character. Moreover, the ethic of virtue requires "consciously, actively and continuously cultivating and reinforcing our positive qualities, namely basic human, or spiritual, qualities," (Los Altos Study Group 20). The Dalai Lama offers specific "antidotes" to negative emotions, which can be focused on to create a positive, virtuous state of mind (Los Altos Study Group 20). For example, the feeling of anger may be countered by the cultivation of patience, and the feeling of humility counteracts pride.

Compassion is central to the Dalai Lama's teachings. In Chapter 8 of Ethics for a New Millennium, the Dalai Lama discusses compassion in detail. At its most basic level, according to His Holiness, compassion is "empathy," (123). However, compassion is much more than that. Compassion is not an "end in itself," but rather, is "the springboard to a love still greater," according to the Dalai Lama (121). The ethic of compassion is innate, but is combined with a deeper sense of responsibility towards other human beings to alleviate suffering. Being compelled to help alleviate the suffering of others is known as the "great compassion" in Tibetan philosophy (His Holiness the Dalai Lama 124). Compassion has one important component from an ethical perspective: that is, it must be universal and unconditional. A person cannot be greatly compassionate when only identifying with the suffering of his or her own people, or his or her own loved ones. Genuine compassion sees beyond such superficial levels and to the interconnectedness of humanity. There is also "little to be gained from being kind and generous because we hope to win something in return," (His Holiness the Dalai Lama 125). The intent behind the act, and not the act itself, is the foundation of the ethic of compassion. Kindness and universal love promote happiness.

The basis of the Dalai Lama's Ethics for the New Millennium is that human beings are deeply interconnected. Compassion and other ethics "break down barriers of every kind and in the end destroys the notion of my interest as independent from others' interest," (His Holiness the Dalai Lama131). Unconditional love is the basis of ethical action, and can be cultivated through simple acts of self-discipline and self-awareness. Self-interest is therefore the antithesis of ethics.

Works Cited

His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Ethics for the New Millennium. New York: Hudson, 1999.

Los Altos Study Group. "Study Guide for Ethics for the New…… [read more]

Ethics Are "An Individual's Personal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


CEOs and other managers acted as stewards for the de facto owners of the company. They were not supposed to put their personal beliefs and morals ahead of the need to engage in profit-making. Yet today, this concept has fallen out of favor somewhat. Scandals at organizations such as Enron and WorldCom have caused concern that an overly profit-driven emphasis can lead to legal violations that ultimately destroy the company. Yet proponents of the classical view of firm ethics would counter that such CEOs placed their own interests above those of making money for the firm and were thus 'unethical.' It does not necessarily hold that this means that ethical concerns such as environmentalism and the social welfare of workers must be of paramount concern. Conversely, firms such as GE and Ford which had substantially invested in generous benefits to workers began to lag behind foreign automotive firms without such generous, seemingly 'ethical' arrangements.

However, when firms treat customers or even employees unethically, it often comes back to haunt them. Ford's calculated construction of a cheap but unsafe vehicle known as the Pinto resulted in a series of lawsuits and terrible publicity for the company (Dowie 1977). The revelation that firms use sweatshops to manufacture their goods (such as Nike and Apple) has likewise been public relations disasters. This is why so many firms today have entire sections of their websites devoted to ethical concerns. Some firms, such as Whole Foods and The Body Shop, have seemingly merged capitalism and caring in a manner to generate more sales. This does not mean less aggressive behavior, necessarily, since ultimately even the most ethical firm must be profitable to remain in business and sustain shareholders and employees to thrive -- which may sometimes mean taking actions that cause displeasure amongst those who would insist upon 'purity' rather than profits in ethical behavior (Field 2006).


Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (20080). Deontological ethics. The Stanford

Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved:


Dowie, Mark. (1977). Pinto madness. Mother Jones Magazine. Retrieved at:


Maloney, Field. (2006). The dark secrets of Whole Foods. Slate. Retrieved:

http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/2006/03/is_whole_foods_wholesome.html… [read more]

Utilitarian Perspective on Ethics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,135 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This Freud dies. The only way that his theories will become known is by publication of the e-mails. Countless -- in fact, an infinite amount of people -- will profit by release of these e-mails. When compared to the one individual, namely Freud, it is more important (utilitarians argue) that the mass receive advantage.

E-mail too can be compared to a first class letter and the utilitarian import of publicizing the letter can be seen from a precedent where In re Mc-Cormick's Estate a military serviceman, who was later killed in action, sent a letter to his minor children. That the letter was valuable only came to light when a motion picture company and a music publishing company contracted for the rights to use the letter. The money was divided between the mother and the children with the children gaining the greater part and the court determining that the proceeds from the sale of the physical letters, should that occur in the future, would belong to the children alone. Many people, in this case, benefitted from one letter. One person may suffer (in that he may not wish his correspondence to be publicized). This, however, is outrivaled by the fact that many others have been made happy.

Utilitarianism takes the happiness and consequences of the many into account as opposed to the pleasure of the one or the few. In that way, it can prove advantageous since it calculates the greatest good for the many. However, there are many problems with Utilitarianism and these famously consist in the facts that it is difficult to define 'happiness' and 'pleasure'. The famous example is that many people in Germany were able to expand their territory by slaughtering a minority. Should this be done even though a greater amount of people profit as compared to the relative few who suffer? Utilitarianism, therefore, is said to be a philosophy that ignored justice.

Secondly, sometimes short-term happiness needs to be surrendered in order to obtain a greater degree of happiness in the long-term. How does one determine which kind of happiness is better, and perhaps the many should suffer here for the few or for a happiness that will prove itself to more intense and substantial? In a similar way, consequences are unknowable; therefore Utilitarianism is at basis an irrational and impractical philosophy since one cannot calculate utility and mass of consequences. Furthermore, the act of calculating utility may be self-defeating because, by that time, the opportunity has disappeared.

Criticism also centers on act utilitarianism which, critics say, is unreal since it demands a level of impartiality that does not exist. Ideal though it sounds at first glance, therefore, Utilitarianism poses many problems when one examines it further.


Darrow, JJ & Ferrara, G (2005)WHO OWNS A DECEDENT'S E-MAILS:



Williams, Bernard (1993). Morality: An Introduction to Ethics. Cambridge University Press.

Harwood, Sterling, "Eleven Objections to Utilitarianism," in Louis P. Pojman, ed., Moral… [read more]

Moral Environment Ayn Rand Essay

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However, as Rand also states in her book, sometimes after we have rationally set our own hierarchy based on self-interest, helping someone else might also serve our self-interest. Most importantly, Rand mentions the fact that "concern for the welfare of those one loves is a rational part of one's selfish interests" (Rand, The Ethics of Emergencies, 1964, p. 51). If our loved one's welfare is part of our self-interest, then helping them does not violate self-interest, as long as the act of helping them does not violate our hierarchy. Extending that to other people, if helping other people -- whether or not they are strictly our "loved ones" -- also serves our self-interest and doesn't violate our rational hierarchy, then helping them is perfectly fine. Using Rand's rational self-interest and the well-developed hierarchy of values developed from it, an individual or a community or nation could help another person or community or nation -- during an emergency or otherwise - in a "win-win" situation and still be perfectly in line with Rand's ideas.


A moral person could be tempted to reject the ideas in Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies, until that person examines Rand's explanation. For Rand, the moral purpose of life is to achieve one's own happiness and an individual should rationally establish a hierarchy of values based on self-interest and adhere to that hierarchy. In some cases, that would mean "live and let die" because helping the other person will conflict with our self-interest. In other cases, that would mean helping another person because his/her well-being serves our self-interest. Applying that to today's moral environment, it is possible for any rational person or community or nation to help another person or community or nation and still be approved by Ayn Rand's moral philosophy.

Works Cited

Dictionary.com LLC. (2012). Altruism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from thesaurus.com Web site: http://thesaurus.com/browse/altruism?s=t

Peikoff, L. (2012). Malevolent universe premise. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site: http://aynrandlexicon.com/lexicon/malevolent_universe_premise.html

Rand, A. (1964). The Ethics of Emergencies. In A. Rand, & N. Branden, The Virtue of Selfishness (pp. 49-56). New York, NY: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group (USA), Inc.

Rand, A. (2012). Introducing Objectivism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site: http://aynrandlexicon.com/ayn-rand-ideas/introducing-objectivism.html… [read more]

Ethics William J. Bennett Assumes Essay

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Friendship can be the core of all ethical understanding. When we care about our friends, we are willing to learn about them, and listen to them. We stop thinking only of ourselves, and care about others for no other reason than we like them. With family, we do not have to like the person to feel responsible for them. With friends, we make a conscious choice, and that act is powerful. Friendship takes courage, which is the next ethical topic discussed in the Book of Virtues. It is important to have the courage to tell other people how I feel, and to be completely honest with them. Courage means having the courage to cut people off, such as when they are unhealthy for me. For example, if I am trying to do better in school but my friend is trying to talk me into going to a party, I have to have the courage to say no. If I say no, it means I am taking responsibility for my actions.

Although the entire Book of Virtues is meaningful for me, the chapter on honesty is the one I need to learn from the most. I have had trouble with honesty in my life. It seems like, I can lie and get away with it, and thereby avoid problems. I want to tell people what they want to hear, which to me is more important than the truth. Bennett shows that honesty is important even if it means shocking people or assuming the consequences. Telling the truth is difficult sometimes, because it might mean getting into trouble or getting punished. This is where taking responsibility comes into play, because it is important to be mature enough to face up to the facts and deal with whatever punishment or consequences arise.

I appreciated what Bennett stated about honesty, as being "developed, and exercised in harmony with others," (Bennett 600). This puts honesty into perspective. It is not about me. Honesty means thinking of other people first, and then worrying about myself. If I am honest, other people can trust me. As Bennett states, "honesty is a fundamental condition for human intercourse and exchange, for friendship, for all genuine community," (600). If any of these things are important to me, then I will learn how to be honest in my daily life. This is as true for white lies as for big lies, in which I might experience severe consequences. It is better to learn how to be honest by wanting to be a good person, rather than by trying to avoid punishment or consequences. This is why concepts like loyalty, courage, and friendship are also discussed by Bennett. If we are loyal to our friends and even to all of humanity, we will not want to lie. If we have the courage to accept the consequences for our mistakes or our deliberate manipulation, then we will also not be afraid to lie. If we have friendships that matter, we would certainly not… [read more]

Ethical Theory Ethics in Law Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 3


What is moral behavior for a father in disciplining a child may not be the same as the moral behavior expected of the child.

It is virtually impossible to predict every situation an ethical actor may find him or herself confronting or to devise rules that are transcendent across all situations and relationships. Given this challenge, following the 'Golden Rule,' or trying to be a virtuous person at all times seems more reasonable. One does not necessarily have to subscribe the hierarchical system prescribed by Confucius to believe in the concept of 'the Golden Rule' and the belief that a moral character is the primary determinant of moral agency.

When I am making a moral decision, I try to 'put myself in the other person's shoes' and ask myself how the affected person would see the world. However, I also acknowledge there are different perspectives than my own, and agree with Confucius that the ethical responsibilities of an older person to a child may be different than the child's obligations to an adult. This sense of relativism underlines the lack of absolutes when making moral decision. Even under the law, children are treated different than adults, and depending upon your relationships with others you may have different ethical responsibilities. A policeman is supposed to place the safety of the public above his own personal safety unlike an ordinary citizen; members of the public are supposed to extend added deference to the police, when dealing with the law on an everyday basis.

The notion of what constitutes 'good character' is to some degree relative, of course, which is a predominant criticism of other ethical theories, including utilitarianism and deontology. Just as concepts of who constitutes the majority may be and what rules are correct are culturally determined, ideas such as honesty, thrift, and compassion that are thought to make up a good character may be emphasized to different degrees, in different societies. In some societies, such as that of Confucius, an obedient child was considered to be 'better' than a child who acted upon his or her individual convictions to foster social justice, while this moral valuation would be the opposite in contemporary America. Not even virtue-based or character-based ethics can be appealed to as transcendent.

Still, despite this caveat, I find the Golden Rule to be the only rule which I can say that I try to follow on a daily basis. In some scenarios, I may focus on the consequences of actions, in others upon principles. Usually, that is based upon my judgment about how certain I am what the consequences may be, balanced by the moral seriousness of my action and its potential harms. But I believe that my ability to weigh deontological principles against utilitarian calculus in an effective manner ultimately lies in my moral character and adherence to my personal sense of the virtue-based ethics.


Velasquez, Manuel Dennis Moberg, Michael J. Meyer, Thomas Shanks, Margaret R. McLean,

David DeCosse, Claire Andre, and Kirk O. Hanson.… [read more]

Legislating Morality Research Paper

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The Supreme Court claimed that when upholding the Roe vs. Wade decision that they were not legislating morality by making abortions legal. However, it is clear that in their decision by legalizing abortion the Supreme Court has essentially declared that abortion is right. As such, this is certainly a statement of morality and legalized abortions represent an example of the… [read more]

Wikileaks Ethics Issues Raised Term Paper

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America's treatment of Assange seems to be costing the government a great deal of credibility throughout the world. A cost benefit analysis would allow the stakeholders to improve the reputation they have acquire as a result of the way this ordeal was handled The primary stakeholder in a cost benefit analysis is the American government and some of her allies.… [read more]

Business Ethics: Personal Moral Intelligence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Integrity I know is "doing what we think is right" (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 7). The authors say that this quality is the most important and that it is at the foundation of moral intelligence. Responsibility means that a person is willing to answer honestly for their actions; they know what is right (they have integrity) and they do what is right (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 7). Maybe the most important ones for me, personally, to pay attention to are compassion and forgiveness. I have a difficult time forgiving myself for problems that I cause others. Since "compassion and forgiveness operate on two levels: first how we relate to ourselves and second, in how we relate to others" (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 8), I first need to learn how to forgive myself for the mistakes I make. If I cannot forgive myself then how am I going to learn to forgive, and be compassionate with, others? Discovering what these four traits mean to me is the most important part of writing a personal ethical code.

The first question I answer is why I need to be moral in the first place. I believe that being a moral person, someone who the four qualities outlined in the text, will allow me to be a more successful person. I define success not as a monetary standard, but as a person who can go to sleep at night and rest peacefully. If I deal with myself and others with integrity, responsibility, compassion and forgiveness every day, then I will be successful.

Next I need to determine what my principles, values and beliefs are. From the MCI, I believe that integrity is the principle that I value most. I also find that I value telling the truth more than any other trait. The final part of the statement has to do with beliefs. Beliefs are a condensed statement of principles and values (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 49). My personal statement is that I will act with integrity and truth in all dealings with myself and other people.

Discovering my purpose has been a difficult pursuit. After reading the book, I think that discovering that may actually be easier than I thought. Oprah Winfrey said that purpose was like a finger print (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 54), meaning that it is unique to every person. I believe that my purpose involves helping people perhaps in a business capacity. I like working with people, and I like trying to assist them with their problems, so that has to be a piece of my purpose.

All of the previous discussion leads to a moral compass statement. Having found out more about myself from the exercises in the class and the readings, I believe that my moral compass entails maintaining all of my moral strengths and strengthening my weaknesses through a conscious effort in every decision that I make. I mean that some things are habits, but others are not. For those good qualities that are not inherent,… [read more]

Ethics Are Often Stronger Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


6. Sustainability is not a viable concept for America's businesses. Businesses seek growth. Growth cannot be sustainable forever. Many businesses contribute nothing useful to society and can only be sustainable or responsible by going out of business. Would the world really miss Taco Bell? Anyway, while it is good to be less destructive, that is about all that can be hoped for when companies are rewarded for growth, and the world's non-renewable resources are a zero sum game.

Chapter 9.

1. DSS and marketing research are two completely different concepts that have nothing to do with one another. It would take a novel to explain how many differences they have.

2. Knowledge can make these exchanges more efficient, and more frequent.

3. 1) you learn about who your customers are, 2) you learn what they need, 3) you learn what they will need.

4. It was never true that marketing research was only associated with manufacturing firms. That's a funny thing to say. Everybody has always used it, so I don't think there is some great trend here -- it's always been done.

5. Sometimes secondary data has already been processed, so it is more efficient to use it.

6. Aggregators process data, which saves companies time and effort -- they pay the money and get useful research right away.

7. Ethnographic research tries to find out how people live their lives (Anderson, 2009). It's a good idea for marketers, including for product development. Not sure what a "wave of the future" is. Most waves are fairly predictable, as surfers already know.

8. It depends on how the survey is created and administered -- online surveys are not created alike. Give me a specific example and I will tell you its advantages and disadvantages.

9. Scanner-based research is a neat idea because marketers can learn more about buying patterns and responses to advertising through such research. One evident disadvantage is that people behave differently when they know they are being watched, and that will skew the results.


Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1

Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/

Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.

Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business…… [read more]

Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,017 words)
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Ethics and Behavior

Ethics and morality

The discussion between the ethical can the moral has been going on for a long time and the philosophers tend to agree that these two terms most of the time are use interchangeably and at times may have a thin line between these two terms. There are issues that can be considered moral yet are unethical, and there are acts that also be considered ethical yet they are immoral. Morality is widely considered as the code of conduct that that is accepted by a given society and for those who can understand it, there is no universal standards to it. On the other hand, ethics are more general and have the aspect of general laws that guide them (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002). This paper hence makes the difference between these two terms by the use of a case study derived from a real happening within the U.S.A.

The classic example that can be used to discuss the two terms is the well know issue of corrections officers pregnant by inmate Tavon White. According to Fuchs E., (2013) of National Post, the inmate manipulated several vulnerable female guards into not only being accomplices to his criminal acts behind bars but also to sleep with him and gave birth to five children with the four female guards. The manipulation of these guards into submission resulted in perpetuation of the very same crimes that the guards are supposed to be fighting and also the casting of doubt over the work ethics of the guards that were involved in this criminality and breach of work ethics either directly or indirectly. The fact that by so compromising their working conditions and guidelines and perpetuating drug trafficking and even some of the officers being beneficiaries to the fruits of these illegal acts in the prison gang, there are obviously significant ethical and moral issues that arise from the entire act.

The cultural issues that arise from this case is the intentional targeting of the female guards and manipulating them with the intention of having them agree and do what the criminals want. This was both unethical in that the female guards were made to break the law but also immoral since they intentionally targeted the female gender hence gender-based discrimination. The other cultural aspect that was involved here was the race issue since the inmate involved was a black and what makes it more of a race issue was the fact that he ran and operated a gang called the Black Guerilla Family (BGF). This portrayed him and other blacks as being involved in the criminal acts taking advantage of their race grouping as an institution.

There was also politics involved in the entire saga since the female guards agreed to work with the gang and by implication they agreed to be recruited into the BGF knowing well that this was an organization that ran criminal activities. They, as law enforcement officers agreed to take a part and play… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Essay

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¶ … Personal can Ethics get

Valerie is facing an ethical dilemma because she is forced to consider her personal well-being vs. that of the company and other major stakeholders. The performance of the company is struggling as a result of Waters' inept management, so she has an obligation to the shareholders and the other employees to address the situation immediately. Valerie is in a vulnerable position herself, though, if she chooses to become a whistle-blower. She may receive a visa to stay as a student, but only if she can find a way to pay her tuition fees. Valerie has no ethical obligation to Waters at this point.

If I was Valerie, I would take the information to the CEO. The company is suffering as the result of Waters' performance. Moreover, he is breaching the company's code of ethics to suit his own needs. The CEO has a duty to the shareholders as agent to maximize their wealth, and Waters is standing in the way of that happening. The CEO also does not have a specific duty to Waters, who was hired under an old regime.

From a consequentialist perspective, if Valerie withholds this information in order to protect her visa status or to ensure that her education is paid, then she is not behaving any better than Waters -- she is receiving a benefit for her role in this bribery. From a utilitarian perspective, Valerie will benefit the employees, the shareholders and the other perfume companies from blowing the whistle -- thus meeting the principle of providing the greatest good for the greatest number. Taking a deontological stance, the moral imperative is defined by the company's code of ethics and by the laws of the United States, which stand against bribery. Thus by any ethical perspective, Valerie is obligated to report the fraud.

Valerie is facing both personal and professional stressors. She faces personal stressors in the possibility of losing her status in the United States, which would cause her to move. This would create significant upheaval in her personal life, including possibly compromising her relationship. In addition, she risks losing access to her higher education as the result of dismissal should the issue with Waters result in that. Despite some enhancement of whistleblower protections in recent years, there is still the risk of dismissal.

Valerie is also facing a number of professional stressors. She does not know if Waters' acceptance of bribes is standard industry practice or not. Wisson has a code of ethics, but this may be for show rather than something that upper management takes seriously. If that is the case, then Waters may not be dismissed. In such a situation, Valerie would have an unworkable situation. Moreover, she feels some responsibility for the team. She does…… [read more]

Search for Universal Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (826 words)
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Natural Law and Morality

"The Search for Universal Ethics" recommends a reconsideration of natural law as a path toward a universal ethics. The key features of natural laws theories unify divine providence, human rationality, and morality. In brief, the view is that God has endowed us with the ability to recognize the moral truth, and this truth affords a place for all of nature and a cherished place for human rationality. As "The Search for Universal Ethics" says:

The vision of the world within which the doctrine of natural law developed and still finds its meaning today, involves therefore the reasoned conviction that there exists a harmony between the three substances which are God, man, and nature. (3.3)

This paper is dedicated to understanding this harmony in its broadest outline; I shall dwell on each of the three central features of the harmony -- God, persons, and nature. We shall see that the harmony is also a mutual reinforcing: for each, the better we understand it, the more we see the others in it.

In the contemporary zeitgeist, the natural order is characterized as impersonal and perhaps even hostile to human ambitions and morality. The cosmos care nothing about us, and we tend to think of ethics as a concern localized to human interests. "Christianity," by contrast, "affirms that the Logos [the "divine founding principle"] is personal, transcendent and creator." (3.3) This is an immediately striking and inspiring feature of "The Search for Universal Ethics." It envisages a universe that has not only been imbued with an "ethical message," but which is itself benevolent, rational, and loving. (3.3) Moreover, we have been provided with free will that transcends this natural order, but also with the rationality to act in accordance with its ethical message. God has done all of this out of love and so that we may live ethical lives. According to Aquinas:

...as God has care of the entire universe, God's choosing to bring into existence beings who can act freely and in accordance with principles of reason is enough to justify our thinking of those principles of reason as law.

As nearly all philosophies of the world recognize, we humans are both embedded in the natural order and in some sense distinct from it or "outside" of it; as Aristotle had it, we are both rational and animal. "The Search for Universal Ethics" is no exception, but it accounts more completely than most other such theories for the unity in…… [read more]

Organizational Ethics Values, Ethics and Norms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,913 words)
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Organizational Ethics

Values, ethics and norms are part of every society regardless of what culture, religion or geographical boundary it belongs to. These values define how society's draw their lines between what are right and what is wrong. These values and ethics may be written, verbal or implied. It is a general misconception that value and ethics mean the same.… [read more]

Strategy and Corporate Governance and Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
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Strategy & Ethics

Bowden & Smythe's article Theories on Teaching and Training in Ethics examines the ability to strengthen moral behavior through courses on ethics. This article begins with the proposition that ethics cannot be taught to adults expounds upon that concept with a review of the evidence that has been gathered on the subject. This has significant ramifications for strategic management because of the importance of ethical behavior, especially at the leadership level. The prevailing wisdom of recent years is that ethics can be taught, but if the evidence does not support this, then companies need to reform both their hiring and their training policies with respect to ethics.

Strategic Decision-Making

Nohria (2004) outlines a number of the strategic decisions that companies make that contribute to corporate success. These include operational execution, maintaining a strong balance sheet, having strong corporate governance, developing superior information technologies, having a clearly communicated strategy and having a clear corporate strategy and/or critical mass. Each of these different strategic areas has a wide range of ethical implications built in. Smith (2003) outlines the obligations that management has towards both shareholders and other stakeholders. Both of these theories argue that ethics are evaluated using a consequentialist framework, wherein the outcomes to the different groups are the arbiter of a firm's ethical policies. Even in cases of outright fraud, it was only that the fraud was detected that made the actions unethical because of the negative impacts on shareholders and/or other stakeholders.

With respect to ethics, the stakeholder view generally dovetails with the shareholder view. The commonly-cited instances where this was not the case -- Enron being one -- are cases of fraud rather than fundamental ethics. As Nohria (2004) notes, at this level corporate governance is a hygiene factor in that it needs to be present in order that the company not fail, but beyond that it offers no real value. The entire governance debate has been sparked by a handful of powerful anecdotes, but there is no empirical evidence that shoddy governance is any more widespread now than in the past. While boards are often concerned only with shareholder outcomes, the correlation between positive shareholder outcomes and positive outcomes for other internal stakeholders is high -- when the firm is making money, everybody benefits.

Ethics Training

This leads to the question of the value of ethical training. If it is taken as a given that ethics cannot be taught, and that strong corporate governance is merely a hygiene factor, then ethics training becomes irrelevant. The most important elements of ethics for a company come at the point where the board is selected, and at the point where management is selected. Good ethical management comes from selecting managers with high ethical standards. If one is to use the primary sources of anecdotal evidence that unethical managers are bad for business, one must consider that most of those managers were not hired. Bernard Ebbers built WorldCom; Jeffrey Skilling built the energy derivatives business at Enron. These… [read more]

Utilitarianism Utilitarian Ethics Was First Invented Book Report

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Utilitarian ethics was first invented by David Hume and later expanded by Jeremy Bentham (Rosenstand, 230). What this involves is that, when measured, the consequences of a certain action must follow the principle of the greatest possible good for all involved. When either choice has undesirable consequences, this principle dictates that whichever sacrifice is smaller should be made. This… [read more]

Ethics as With Darwin's Theory of Evolution Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
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As with Darwin's theory of evolution, gene testing has opened new frontiers in understanding medicine, as it allows us among other things to understand the degree to which we are predisposed to specific diseases and conditions (Miller, 2007). The case of Burlington Northern Railway v. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) marked the first time the law had addressed this issue. The railway had been conducting gene testing on employee for the identification of a specific disorder that in theory predisposed workers to carpal tunnel syndrome (Schafer, 2001). This example illustrates one of the ways in which companies can use genetic information -- in this instance to find ways to opt out of insurance and disability payments. Miller (2007) argues that such abuses of knowledge on the basis of bias have been common since the theory of evolution was put forth. This paper will examine the issue of genetic testing from both a deontological perspective and a utilitarian perspective in order to determine the risks posed by such testing. That genetic testing could be used to deny basic health care or employment opportunities on the basis of their genetic makeup is a frightening thought, but one that could occur.

Deontological Perspective

The deontological perspective holds that the ethics of a situation can be determined by weighing the inputs of the decision against a categorical imperative. This provides the situation with an absolute judgment of right and wrong, regardless of outcome, but deontological ethics only functions if there is a specific categorical imperative. Under normal circumstances in the United States or any other secular democracy is that the laws of the land reflect the prevailing ethical standards of the society. Thus, they are a good guidepost for the categorical imperative. Prior to the Burlington Northern case, the issue of genetic testing and the use of genetic testing in workplace situations had not been addressed in U.S. law. As the case was settled out of court, there remains no clear precedent in the U.S. legal system. Therefore, the deontological perspective lacks a categorical imperative in the form of legal guidance on which to draw.

American society as a whole does have some other potential sources of categorical imperative. It is not as though society is rudderless in the absence of clear laws governing an issue. The sense of right and wrong is vaguer, but there are guidelines in both the secular and religious spheres. At its core, deontological ethics is focused on the motivations behind the actions, rather than the actions themselves (Cline, 2011). In the case of genetic testing, this creates a conflict. There conflict arises because firms offer insurance and related protections are in business to earn profit, which means that they are focused on minimizing risk. A company may choose not to hire somebody if that person is likely to have an increased risk of a condition that will ultimately prove expensive to the company's health care plan. Likewise, insurance companies may deny coverage based on risks… [read more]

Draft to Be Improved on Corporate Ethics and Responsibility Article

Article  |  10 pages (3,536 words)
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Corporate Ethics / Responsibility

Over the last several years, the issue of corporate ethics and responsibility has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this is from: a host of different disasters and events that would have a major impact upon public policy. At which point, a backlash occurred against the corporation in question and their… [read more]

Ethics Has Always Been a Rather Complex Research Paper

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Ethics has always been a rather complex word -- or concept, rather -- to understand as, in the past, I have thought that ethics were different depending on the individual; that is, if a person thought that ethics had to do with their feeling of right and wrong or whatever, then that was their ethical code; if another person thought that ethics had to do with their religion, then that was their personal ethical code, and so on… However, after the first lecture, I understand that ethics is not either of those things (or other), and it does not change depending on the individual. The lecture stated that ethics is two things: "well-based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do…" and, secondly, ethics is about "the study and development of one's ethical standards."

While ethics do not change depending on the individual, it is interesting to note from chapter one that there is no "analytical method" sufficient for any ethical choice if a person (policymaker in the example) is not a sensible person (Bluhm & Heineman 2007, p. 4). Today, we have an abundance of new issues that need to be dealt with from an ethical perspective that have never needed to be dealt with before. There has been a lot of research and studies done on the typical whistle-blowing and lying, as noted in chapter one, but there are so many new issues like cloning and stem-cell research and the manipulation of genes (2007, p. 4) that are becoming more and more pressing because the possibility of all those things is very real in this day and age, while in the past they may have been only a figment of the scientific imagination. The main point here is that public policy is social and political (Bardach 2008, xv).

Chapter one notes the typical methods of ethical analysis: Kantianism (deontology), utilitarianism (consequentialism), and prudent pragmatism (Bluhm & Heineman 2007, p. 4). The book states that prudent pragmatism is by far the best ethical formulation of public policy as it "reflects both the American disdain for disembodied abstractions and our recognition that the world of values is multifaceted and untidy 2007, (p. 22).

Today it seems like the most popular method of ethical analysis is utilitarianism. The fundamental ideal of utilitarianism is that the greatest good is the greatest amount. This is one of the fundamental aspects of democracy. Utilitarianism seems all about trying to detach the individual from the action. Kantianism would argue against this, saying that an action can't be a moral action unless the motives themselves are moral (Fischer & Miller 2006, p. 36).

To act in an utilitarian way means that we act so as to always consider the social benefit of the act. This is to say that to live life in a way that always benefited others it to live a very ethical life. So, to be ethical in a utilitarian manner means that we must also act so that… [read more]

Sociology 120 Ethics and Social Responsibility Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Ethics & Social Responsibility

People begin to develop their internal beliefs from the time they are small children. Factors such as the conditions that a person grows up in affect the way that they see the world. If a child was raised in a household with a lot of violence, they might feel that fighting is acceptable. The beliefs… [read more]

Ethics in Mechanical Engineering Ethical Conflicts Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethics in Mechanical Engineering

Ethical conflicts for mechanical engineers usually rest in a discrepancy between the personal ethical values of the individual, and the values their profession represents. The field of mechanical engineering in general is based on the design and development of machines or machinery operated production equipment. However, according to StateUniversity.com (2010, p. 1), "Within each branch of mechanical engineering there are specific jobs. Some engineers design products. They must determine the needs of the user, the physical problems of building the equipment, the cost of the equipment, and its effect on the environment. Other mechanical engineers supervise the production and installation"

Just as the field of mechanical engineering can entail a variety of functions, it can also produce many different types of ethical dilemmas. For example, in Mike W. Martin & Roland Schinzinger's 2004 book Ethics in Engineering, a case study is presented in which an engineer, Bob, is struggling with his function in working for a company that manufactures bombs. Bob is faced with an ethical dilemma that pits his values of being committed to his employer and financially supporting his family against his value of human life and the avoidance of contribution to human suffering. Although Bob does not directly handle the bombs that his company produces, "he enables the factory to run efficiently" (p. 267).

Bob is able to rationalize his conflict of values by telling himself that basically, someone has to produce the bombs, and if he did not do his job, then someone else would. In other words, no matter what decisions he makes, the bombs will still be produced, so he might as well just do his job to the best of his ability and reap the rewards. This is a common and rather effective rationale for people facing ethical dilemmas, in that it not only helps to ease some of the guilt associated with doing something that someone like Bob feels in his gut to be unethical, but it also provides a rational motivation to continue the behavior in question.

Also allowing Bob to continue in his position without unbearable guilt is the fact that his commitments to his family and to his employer are indeed legitimate ethical values. Therefore, Bob is essentially trading one ethical value for another, which in his mind, serves to 'even out' the imbalance and eliminate any feelings of wrongdoing. Then again, the first tenet of the 2000 Australian Code of Ethics for Engineers states that "Members shall at all times place their responsibility for the welfare, health and safety of the community before their responsibility to sectional or private interests, or to other members." Taking that into consideration, Bob must then decide if weapons production is good for the community in terms of protection and income, or harmful to the community because weapons have the single purpose of violence.

The fifth tenet of the 2000 Australian Code of Ethics for Engineers states that "Members shall apply their skill and knowledge in the interest of… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,464 words)
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Personal differences and preferences can impact organizational ethics because often the leadership of the firm dictates ethics for the remaining employees. For example, the ethical culture at Wisson is in part dictated by the actions of Waters. The preferences of different managers with respect to ethical standards impact both the organization's written ethical code and its ethical norms. Within… [read more]

Ethics in Administration Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,477 words)
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Ethics in Administration

Terry L. Cooper's book the Responsible Administrator: An Approach to Ethics for the Administrative Role examines the problem of maintaining responsible conduct from the manager's viewpoint. Managers oftentimes are left feeling confused when it comes to their inability to achieve the results that they want when changes in rules occurs -- as well as policies, training, laws… [read more]

Ethics Theory Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,039 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethical Theory


Given what you've learned about ethical theory, give some thought to how you might create your own ethical theory. What would be the central principle by which you would measure right and wrong action? What kinds of limitations do you think your theory might have?

As a healthcare provider, I believe that wellness promotion should be at the core of every ethical system: the promotion of physical, psychological, and environmental wellness. Wellness promotion is defined according to each patient's specific needs. Wellness promotion for a child might include providing nurturing and care, while for an adolescent it might involve the promotion of autonomy. The types of heroic medical interventions appropriate for the promotion of wellness at the end of life are different than those appropriate for a mature adult.

Wellness promotion is an important value to uphold in one's day-to-day life. For example, while it is important to be honest, telling everyone 'the truth' in a harsh and blunt fashion does not necessarily promote change and positive growth and can simply hurt an individual's feelings. If a friend needs to lose weight, encouraging them to exercise and making it easy for them to diet by not tempting them is more promoting of wellness than 'nagging.'

Wellness promotion is also important on a personal level -- taking care of one's self and not being a burden to others is important. It is personally empowering and satisfying to honor your responsibilities, to strive to be independent, and to take positive control over your life, striving to be the 'best you can be.' Wellness means peace of mind and living in harmony with others, and only by exhibiting compassion is a state of wellness achieved within the self and within society.

Wellness also means taking care of the environment. Not polluting, trying to live a sustainable life, and making the environment healthy so others will not suffer negative consequences now or in years to come is a moral obligation. Unless we honor this principle as a species, the earth as well as human beings will suffer.

The main problem with wellness promotion as an ethical system is one which is similar to care-based ethics: the definition of wellness will vary from person to person. However, the need to take care of others and the earth to promote wellness is an important limitation upon defining wellness too broadly, and using the pursuit of wellness as justification for self-serving behaviors. Wellness means promoting social and environmental values, and if the exterior world is suffering, the individual will suffer as well. Wellness is also a more broadly-defined value than health: a person can be physically healthy but mentally unwell because of depression. The definition of wellness will be different at different stages of life and differ depending on the needs and values of the individual -- even though all definitions must fit into a larger, social context of holistic wellness.

Question 2: Of the ethical theories discussed (Kantian, Utilitarian, Casuistry, Virtue, and Care)… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Get Book Hellriegel Slocum Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (1,920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Personal Can Ethics Get?

Discuss fully how personal differences and preferences can impact organizational ethics. The scholarly journal Organizational Dynamics (Schminke, et al., 2007, p. 173) published a research piece called "The Power of Ethical Work Climates" that delves into the post-Enron corporate accountability legislation called the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX). In referencing SOX Schminke explains that while external… [read more]

Deontological Ethics in Vocational Dilemmas Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Deontological Ethics in Vocational Dilemmas

The Deontological Ethical Approach

In principle, the deontological ethical approach requires that our actions be dictated by objective reference to formal rules instead of by reference to the motivation of our choices as in virtue ethics or the specific consequences of those choices as in consequentialism or utilitarianism (Rosenstand, 2008). In many respects, the deontological approach often produces undesirable results because it is not flexible enough to adjust to situations where formal rules that may be generally valid and beneficial produce result that are distinctly immoral.

For example, during the Nazi era in Germany or the Slavery era in the southern American states, the formal laws established by the respective governments prohibited assisting or harboring Jews or escaped slaves, even if complying with the law resulted in the unjustified killing or inhumane torture of morally innocent individuals. Other moral systems recognize the value and importance of adhering to formal laws and rules in general, while allowing for exceptions where compliance produces an immoral result (Rosenstand, 2008).

Therefore, deontological ethical systems produce moral results only in so far as the rules to which they require adherence are themselves inherently moral, or inherently capable of adjusting to situations in a flexible manner. Unfortunately, formal rules are tremendously susceptible to being unjustifiable depending on their source and the circumstances in which they are established. Since most rules and laws are necessarily formulated in absolute terms rather than in terms that are adjustable, deontological ethical systems frequently produce poor outcomes (Rosenstand, 2008).

Applying the Deontological Approach to the Vocational Case Study

The case study presumably presents two specific ordinary rules of conduct: (1) that it is morally wrong…… [read more]

Peter Singer Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Poverty Duty

The Ethic of Hunger

The question of a moral or ethical responsibility towards those who are impoverished has been one of the most long standing debates in human society. Every major religion has some doctrine of caring for the poor, though these of course are subject to myriad interpretations depending on the time and culture. From this fact, however, it might be deduced that there is some innate imperative to help others; that it is a fundamental and universal moral principle to assist those on the brink of starvation with the means -- either in the form of direct sustenance or through monetary gifts that allow the individuals to procure their own food -- of survival. Yet this extrapolation is built only on limited observation, and does not necessarily hold up to a rigorous logical examination. It is possible to see an incumbent ethical and moral duty to alleviate hunger, however, using a fairly standard ethical theory.

The basic precept of the Utilitarian ethic is "the greatest good for the greatest number." It should be immediately apparent that this creates an ethical imperative for one who has surplus food -- or means of procuring food -- to give some of that food (or some of the means of procuring food) to an individual that does not have a sufficient amount to eat. If this is not immediately apparent, it can be made so by a brief examination of the utility of various acts. For instance, I will certainly get a great deal of utility from my morning latte, which (with tip included, of course) costs me five dollars. Not only is there caloric value (i.e. It staves off hunger), but I also enjoy it immensely. That same five dollars, however, could be used to buy a fully-cooked roast chicken at the grocery store, which if given to a hungry family of four will provide them with…… [read more]

Ethics Issues Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (535 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Business Ethics

The foundation of business ethics is the definition of morality and the development of a series of cognitive frameworks which can be used in the navigating of business decisions over time. Of the many aspects and theories of ethics, the normative ethics of business are most often relied on for defining shared moral values, often formalized into common law. Ethics also are defined from their application as well, specifically to situations and to judgments people make regarding the direction of their lives and the decisions they make. Finally ethics are often used to define the philosophy of societies, often serving as the basis of their laws and regulations for how business is transacted and rights protected. Ethics then can be tactical in scope, defining how people work with and treat one another, and also strategic to the point of being philosophical as well.

Ethical Issues that Impact the Community in the Pharmaceutical Industry

There are many issues that are influencing the community and pharmaceutical industry. The first and most pervasive is the lack of ethics in the area of financial reporting, specifically where transactions involving government funds are concerned (Verschoor, 2006). The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 did little to alleviate the widespread corruption in the area of pharmaceutical drug company's reporting of revenues so that investors could not readily understand their claims of capturing greater numbers of customers than they actually did (Verschoor, 2006). This lack of financial reporting also has created a lack of visibility into just how the costs of new drugs, often put at $800M to produce, is accurately being reported…… [read more]

International Management Ethics and Values Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (727 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


International Management Ethics & Values

Last month, a Brooklyn man was arrested for his role in brokering the sale of a kidney from an Israeli man to an American recipient, in direct violation of the National Organ Transplant Act (Mullen, 2009). The case has cast a spotlight on the laws prohibiting the sale of donor organs in the United States. Despite these worries in the U.S., the sale of organs is thriving around the world. According to the Organ Watch program at the University of California, Berkeley, some 5-10% of kidneys transplanted worldwide last year involved purchased organs (Ibid). In some societies, there is a high degree of moral outrage against organ sales, but when the issue is viewed objectively, it is clear that the sale of organs should be allowed.

In the United States today, there is a chronic shortage of donor organs. Part of the problem is the opt-in organ donation system, but evidence from New Zealand shows that a more significant contributor to the problem is that death needs to occur from catastrophic consequences, and incidents of such are too low to meet the demand for organ donation (MacDonald, 2005). Given this, the pendulum of the moral argument against live donation swings the other way. By prohibiting live donation, we are in essence condemning to death thousands of Americans every year. We as a people are aware of the organ shortage and we are aware of its consequences and yet, because of moral outrage, we willing choose to allow our friends and neighbors to die. The moralists among us are more outraged about the donation of a kidney than they are about the death of the potential recipient. By the standards of result-based consequentialist ethics, this is a moral fallacy.

There is also the question of the individual rights. Kant would view this issue in terms of the categorical imperative, which is the standard of rationality based on the law of autonomous will (Johnson, 2008). This has direct implications for live organ donation. We as Americans have built our nation on the notion that the government should be as little involved as possible in our lives and affairs, to the…… [read more]

Business Ethics Everybody Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,130 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Business Ethics

Everybody can agree that business needs to be conducted ethically. The problem with business ethics, however, is that there is no clear concept of what precisely is meant by the phrase 'ethical'. Managers have different stakeholders to concern themselves with. They operate businesses that are subject to multiple sets of laws simultaneously. They are subjected to the ethical… [read more]

Ethics According to the Principles of Ethical Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,642 words)
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According to the principles of ethical relativism, moral decisions are made on the basis of what an individual believes, or what the culture from which the individual comes stands for. There is no general set of principles or morals that applies to all individuals or all cultures.

Martin Luther King operated from the principle of cultural realization and individual… [read more]

Ethics Values and Morals Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,588 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Corporate Ethics and the Age of Scandal: Stewart, Fuld and Madoff

The early millennium was an exceptionally tumultuous time for corporate America. Revelations of major accounting, securities and trading scandals were a regularity during this time, as individuals and organizations of note became embroiled in allegations and indictments. Many such defendants were either accused of or sentenced for concealing or… [read more]

Ethics the Best Practices for Improving Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (392 words)
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The best practices for improving an organization's ethical climate are having ethics programs and officers; having realistic objectives; having ethical decision making processes; having codes of conduct; disciplining violators; having oversight from board of directors; conducting ethics audits and risk assessments; communicating effectively; engaging in ethics training; having corporate transparency; and installing whistle-blowing mechanisms. Of these, the most important is oversight from the Board of Directors. Ethical management begins with commitment from the top, and the Board will ensure that the CEO is fully committed. From there, having ethics programs and officers is important, both for its symbolism and for the practical work they will do with respect to many of these other best practices. The next few are all around the same with respect to level of priority - training, communication, audits and codes of conduct. These four all contribute at different stages of the ethical decision making process. Lastly, the reinforcement systems must be in place. They are not as important as doing it right the first time, but they are necessary nonetheless. This refers to whistle-blowing mechanisms and discipline of violators.

3) the two main ethical principles are consequences/results and duty. The…… [read more]

Republican Ethics the Republican Party Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,378 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Republican Ethics

The Republican Party of the United States of America is a very interesting entity. On the one hand, it ostensibly stands for small government and reduced intervention into people's lives, yet at the same time it intervenes quite heavily in such issues as abortion and religion (RNC.org). Initially, this seems like a paradox -- a party that speaks of less government and greater individual freedom appears to be limiting freedom, which would be a violation of its own ethics. Yet Republicans have persisted in much the same way, at least in regards to these matters, for several decades, and arguably much further back in the history of this nation. How is it that the Republican Party can maintain any sense of ethical rectitude when manages to spend so much time expounding the virtues of individual liberty while at the same time appearing to limit those liberties? Is this truly unethical, or is the situation more complex than it appears?

First, it is essential to get the facts straight. The Republican Party truly has been the party of freedom and equality for much of its history, during far different and more controversial times than the present era. Not only is it the party of Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery, but such sentiments extend even farther back in American history. Frank Abial Flower, a Republican historian of the nineteenth century, recalled the Republican reaction to the Dred Scott decision as an abhorrence at the "barbarism of the majority of the court" for upholding principles of "slavocracy" as a "divine institution" (Flower, 110). Such rhetoric makes it clear what the Republican attitude towards slavery was; this party's identity since its early days has been that of a protector of liberties and an arbiter of equality. These are identities that the party still claims today (RNC.org). One might reasonably wonder, then, why such groups as the Log Cabin Republicans must exist with the stated purpose "to achieve a more inclusive GOP" (Logcabin.org).

A consideration of the facts as they stand today reveals a party that is far less inclusive and liberty-loving than the old Republican Party. It is not necessarily that Republican values have changed, however, but rather it is equally possible that American and global society has changed in ways that do not align with Republican values. A large part of the Republican Party's opposition to slavery and desire for increased liberty and equality stems from moral considerations of decent human behavior (RNC.org). In the modern era, as certain societal mores -- particularly those having to do with restrictions on sexuality and other issues of the human body -- have become more lax or disappeared entirely, The Republican Party has been faced with the dilemma of shifting its values. On the one hand, the party still stood (and stands) for individual liberty; on the other hand, the party also strongly believes in a societal mandate for morality.

The party's decisions in the latter half of the twentieth century and… [read more]

Ethics Within the Field of Economic Research Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (887 words)
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¶ … ethics within the field of economic research. The first step will be to introduce the topic of ethics. This introduction will explain the basic definition of ethics and some of the fundamental concepts. It will outline why the issue of ethics is so controversial. The thesis, which concludes the introduction, is that economic researchers will tend to reach conclusions that support the views of their financial backers.

The paper will begin with an overview of a few recent cases where economic researchers appear to tread on ethical violations. These cases will allow for in-depth discussion of the issue. The cases will illustrate some of the dilemmas, each of which will be covered in the body of the paper. In particular, the issue of disclosure will be analyzed. It is reasonable that researchers will have bias, but economic researchers seldom disclose their biases publicly, preferring to take the appearance of impartiality.

Such lack of disclosure may well be legal, but it does point to an ethical dilemma surrounding the motivation. If the motivation for conducting the research is suspect, or the motivation for the hypotheses tested is suspect, this calls into question the very validity of the research.

After the in-depth explanation of the ethical dilemmas that are raised, conclusions will be drawn. Multiple examples will be sought out, regardless of whether or not they support my hypothesis. The findings will then be analyzed and some conclusions reached about the ethics of producing economic research that supports the views of your financial backers.


The issue of ethics has become one of the most controversial topics in the public sphere in the past several years. Waves of corporate scandals in the earlier part of this decade, the subprime crisis, and money-losing banks spending bailout funds on bonuses are among the most prominent debates surrounding ethics. Yet, ethics impact all aspects of our lives. Ethics represent the moral codes by which a society governs itself. Ethics are specifically applied to interactions with others. From each action we take flows a reaction. The topic of ethics reflects society's concern with how the actions of one actor affect other actors in our society.

Each action we take in our personal lives and each action we take in the workplace is guided by an internal code of ethics, a moral compass that tells us whether the action is "right" or "wrong." Yet, there is no definition of right and wrong. Our laws and religious texts will attempt to codify rules by which to live, but they cannot codify our ethics. Ethics reflect individual choices, but ones that are guided by the norms in our given society…… [read more]

Integrity Moral Obligation of Role Models Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,499 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethics - Role Model Integrity


Defining Personal Integrity:

Personal integrity is a relatively rare quality for several specific reasons: it denotes obligations that are often contrary to our natural impulses; it is more likely to complicate personal affairs than to facilitate them; it comes with no tangible reward; and it is usually somewhat… [read more]

Ethics in the Study of Philosophy Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (318 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



In the study of philosophy, it is perhaps the study of ethics that is considered most interesting among all its branches, primarily because of the great variance and randomness in interpretation that it gives, whether one is thinking consciously of ethics as a form of philosophy or not.

As a branch of philosophy, ethics is considered interesting because it does not have a set of rules, and if there are rules, these are loosely interpreted and subject to the individual's interpretation and highly dependent on his/her eventual behavior after interpreting an event to be ethical or unethical, based on his/her beliefs and values. As defined formally, ethics is the "study of...standards as we use or propose to judge such things." It is different from morality, which is defined as the determination of the rightness or wrongness of an action or behavior (Newall, 2005). Ethics is more complex than morality because it is not a concept that can be…… [read more]

Three Challenges to Ethics Essay

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¶ … Ethics

Sterba, James P. Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

The title of James P. Sterba's work Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism, refers to what Sterba considers the three major new paradigms offered to oppose 'traditional' forms of ethical thought. Environmentalists, feminists and multiculturalists, according to Sterba, all argue that the traditional, that is to say, universalizing methods of reckoning ethical norms are in error. Each new theoretical ethical system charges that what seems universal is in fact ridden with bias. Environmentalism demands that the anthropocentric nature of traditional ethics that places humans in the center of the universe be shifted, feminism suggests that traditional ethics unjustly prioritize what is sexed as male over what is sexed as female, and multiculturalism questions the entire paradigm of Westernization in general.

Although the paradigm shifts suggested by environmentalists, feminists, and multiculturalists are radical, Sterba attempts to take a more balanced perspective and find a truce between traditional ethical norms and these ideals. Sterba first begins his book with a definition of traditional, Western, universalizing ethics in the form of the debates between Aristotelianism, Kantianism, and utilitarianism. To some extent, other than their universalizing schema, Sterba is faced with a challenge of suggesting that all of these ethical systems are somehow the 'same,' although other than the fact that the three modern paradigms he cites are responding to the philosophers of the past, they seem to have little in common. Kantian categorical imperatives and utilitarian 'the best for the greatest number' ideals seem inexorably opposed.

However, Sterba does make an important point that many new philosophies have injected new concepts into old ethical debates, like the rights of non-human entities such as the planets. Environmentalism requires humans not to see their concerns and needs, even their ethical needs, as the center of the universe. It can be difficult to think of the future of the planet when coming to a moral calculus of a situation, when traditionally only the rights of human actors might be called into question by an ethicist. Taking a more future-oriented strategy in general is required of an environmentalist approach to ethics. But Sterba believes that fundamentally the ethical concept of proportionality is consistent with both traditional ethics and the new environmentalist ethics. For example, hunting for ivory does proportionately far more harm to all living beings than it does to help poor humans, while using animals in other ways might be ethically justified and thus permissible for either an environmentalist or a traditional ethicist who places human rights before animal rights (Sterba 37). Banning the hunting of ivory thus is the greatest good for the greatest number of current and future human and animals and the planet. It also serves a moral categorical imperative of doing what is good, obeying the law.

But examples such as these can somewhat frustrating, for Sterba selects his examples very carefully, rather than raises real-world challenges to his merging… [read more]

Ethics and Integrity in the Workplace Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,524 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Ethics and Integrity in the Workplace

The focus of this paper is ethical integrity in the workplace. Workplace ethics and integrity encompasses more than one might think and in fact, ethics and integrity it will be noted in this study, are either intentionally woven into the fabric and composition of the organization or alternatively, not integral to the organization's makeup… [read more]

Ethics in Management Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  55 pages (17,336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Ethics and Management

Management and Ethics

In this paper, the author investigates the ethics of business management. After reviewing the literature to determine the concerns mentioned by business ethicists, the author compares those concerns with the concerns of a small business man, as revealed in a case study. The first part of the case study involves a covert participant observation… [read more]

Personal Code of Ethics Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (2,323 words)
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Personal Code of Ethics is much like the human brain. Everyone already has one but some people tend to use it to better effect than others. Moreover, just like the human brain, a personal code of ethics tends to grow and learn from its sometimes-painful mistakes through a refinement process that extends over an individual's lifetime. Because everyone is different,… [read more]

Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,196 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is the philosopher's treatise on virtue ethics, teleological ethics, and human happiness. The Greek philosopher presents virtue as an essential component of good character: as a state of mind and a state of being. Virtue inspires individuals to act righteously, to treat others well, and to follow moral and ethical codes. However, Aristotle does not offer a deontological ethical code that assumes universal behavioral standards of right or wrong. The Nicomachean Ethics encourage flexible ethical decision-making based on the context of an event. Aristotle therefore places a large degree of confidence in the human actor, noting that from virtue and good character stem ethical actions. Acting ethically and virtually in turn lead to happiness. Happiness, according to Aristotle, is the ultimate aim of human life. The Nicomachean Ethis is composed of ten books. Aristotle stresses the concepts that virtue is the foundation of ethical behavior, and that ethical behavior is essential for achieving the goal of happiness.

Although Aristotle does not proscribe behavior, the philosopher does outline the core elements of virtue. As the foundation of ethical behavior, virtue is that which inspires the individual to act in a righteous fashion. Aristotle emphasizes free will and the power of the individual to make ethical decisions. In Book One, Aristotle underscores the importance of taking action and of employing free will in the pursuit of happiness. The philosopher claims that virtue alone is insufficient for morality. A virtuous character is full of potential: the potential to act and to choose actions that result in happiness. A virtuous character that does not act is not necessarily ethical. Actions are what determine ethics. In this sense, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics form the foundation of utilitarianism. Happiness is the end that justifies the means. Happiness is the goal of every action, the ultimate goal of all decisions. Every ethical dilemma can be settled by determining whether the act brings pleasure or pain to all individuals involved. Therefore, Aristotle's most prominent messages that demonstrated his belief in man's potential to be good include the following. First, a character steeped in virtue is one most capable of acting ethically. Second, each human being is endowed with free will and the opportunity to choose an ethical or virtuous action over an unethical or sinful one. Third, all human beings desire happiness, and happiness stems from virtuous action.

In Chapter 12 of Book One, Aristotle distinguishes between justice and happiness as well as between virtue and happiness. The whole of Book One seems to be devoted to Aristotle's thesis that happiness is the end goal toward which all rational beings reach. In Chapter 12 of Book One, Aristotle claims that happiness is prized as if it were a divine state. Happiness is always considered the ultimate objective of human behavior and of human life. An individual can be the best runner in his city-state and the most he can hope to receive or to achieve is praise and admiration. Happiness may still elude him no matter… [read more]

Business - Ethics Personal Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (808 words)
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Business - Ethics


Personal Moral Perspective in Relation to Classical Moral Systems:

Human ethical values derive from numerous different perspectives with very different bases of their philosophical origin. Character/virtue ethics emphasize the attributes of the underlying motivation of the individual rather than the ultimate result of choices and actions. Deontological ethics in its absolute form requires strict adherence to rules without regard to whether the effect of those rules accomplishes good or causes harm. Utilitarianism focuses exclusively on the effect of human action and on the greatest relative good wherever the outcome of moral choices is ambiguous. Moral relativism conceives of all moral values as subjective rather than objective and as exclusive functions of societal norms and values.

My personal ethical perspective absolutely rejects moral relativism in principle, precisely because it allows virtually anything that is condoned by society, including actions that violate every other mechanism of moral decision making. According to moral relativism, the Christians who sheltered Jews in Nazi Germany and occupied Europe to prevent their murder were committing immoral acts because they violated the social values of the Nazis and the laws then in place in that society.

Similarly, I reject the absolute deontological perspective for the same reason, as well as because even formal rules that ordinarily achieve moral results are sometimes completely inadequate to address moral issues, such as when strict adherence to them actually contradicts objective aspects of morality. For example, an absolute moral rule against lying ordinarily prevents deceptive and dishonest conduct designed to take unfair advantage of others. However, in certain situations, such as shielding someone from heartbreaking knowledge, deception may serve a moral purpose. Character/virtue ethics are usually consistent with objective moral values, but because they emphasize motivation rather than the effect of human choices and actions, may sometimes lead to contradictory results where motivation is less meaningful than results. Utilitarianism is closest to my own philosophical moral perspective because it values the ultimate effect of moral decisions and because it offers a logical approach to weighing competing interests where moral choices result in some harm in addition to moral good.

Personal Ethical Perspective and Potential Problems in the Workplace:

Because I reject moral absolutism completely, I would anticipate that this might present a conflict in many work environments by virtue of the fact that vocational environments, much like larger human societies, tend to feature institutionalized values.

In man…… [read more]

Business Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,692 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … business ethics are, and what they mean to the organization and the individual. Business ethics mean different things to different people, which is quite clear in the way some unethical organizations do business. Throughout history, a high standard of ethics has been the responsibility of most businesses, but in today's world, the most important aspect of business is… [read more]

Teaching Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,199 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Teaching Methods: Ethics in the Military Classroom

Ethics Instruction

Special Considerations for Ethics Instruction in Military Classrooms

Teaching Ethics to U.S. Soldiers in a Classroom Environment

Today, the United States is prosecuting two ground wars in the Middle East with the prospect of a third (or fourth) elsewhere looming on the horizon. The war on terrorism has forced the U.S.… [read more]

Ethics Awareness Inventory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (856 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Business - Ethics


Ethics is a set of principles or values that helps us define what courses of action in life are good and distinguishes them from courses of action that are bad. In the workplace environment, certain ethical issues arise that are defined by the rule of law (Daft 2005), but others may require us to apply personal values and ethical standards to determine the right course of action. Different systems of ethical analysis yield distinctly different results because they emphasize different criteria and underlying assumptions of the relative importance of the individual elements comprising ethical issues.

Survey of Ethical Value Systems:

The field of ethics includes several different perspectives, each with its own focus, criteria, advantages, and disadvantages. Virtue ethics emphasizes the character of the individual and addresses the general approach to life as a guide for the ethical analysis of particular circumstances within the framework of that general perspective.

Utilitarianism is an ethical perspective that emphasizes the end result and the good of the many, which conflicts directly with deontological ethical theories that conceive of right and wrong only in terms of the ethics of the means implemented to achieve an end result without equivalent focus on the end results or benefits associated with them (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Finally, the concept of equity emphasizes the principle of fairness and cultural relativism refers to the point-of-view that concepts of right and wrong are artificial constructs determined by cultural values and social mores that may differ substantially among different societies. Under the strictest application of cultural relativism, virtually no human conduct is susceptible to moral judgment because all concepts of morality and justice derive from societal attitudes and beliefs rather than from any objective principles or values. Conversely, under virtue ethical analysis and utilitarianism, the end result of our actions is far more important than the specific methods of implementing the decisions necessary to achieve the most beneficial results. Virtue ethics permits the widest possible range of ethical choices provided only that their underlying motivation is consistent with equitable moral intentions (Hursthouse 1999).

Personal Ethical Perspective for Responding to Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace:

My personal ethical perspective is an attempt to blend what I perceive to be as the strengths of several classical ethical theories while avoiding their corresponding weaknesses in specific circumstances. In the most general sense, I subscribe to the virtue ethics position of setting out to "do the right thing" wherever possible. In that regard, I try to adhere to rules where they do not conflict with other…… [read more]

Philosophy Ethics Term Paper

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Philosophy - Ethics

In the famous Woody Allen movie Broadway Danny Rose, the title character, played by Allen himself, is portrayed as a moral character who must contend with the vices of others as part of his lot in life. According to Gert's conception of morality, Danny Rose would most certainly fit the category of a morally virtuous person. He does not kill anyone in the course of the film, and we can believe easily that he would never kill anyone willfully. Nor does he cause pain to anyone - at least not willfully. There is one scene in the film in which Danny inadvertently causes someone else pain. When he and Mia Farrow's character are on the verge of being killed by two Mafia hit men, lest they reveal the name of the man that Mia Farrow has actually been having an affair with, Danny names a random ventriloquist that he knows. The ventriloquist has not actually been carrying on an affair with Mia Farrow's character - in fact, he does not even know who she is. Yet he winds up being the scapegoat and getting seriously beat up by the two Mafia hit men

It is difficult to determine whether or not this would qualify as an immoral action, according to Gert's theory. It is rational for a person to wish to avoid death. For this reason, Gert justifies the usage of self-defensive killing in the face of the threat of death; when one does this, one is not doing something wrong. In a way, Danny Rose's lie to the Mafia men is thus justified - he is saving the life of himself and Mia Farrow's character, whose name is Tina. But then there is the question as to why he lies and gives them the name of a random, totally innocent person that he happens to know, rather than being honest and giving them the name of the true guilty party, who happens to be his friend and client. Clearly, self-interest is at the heart of Danny Rose's decision - something that Gert also asserts his morally virtuous. What is not morally virtuous about this particular instance of self-interest, however, is that he causes an innocent man pain as a result of this.

It is clear that Danny feels guilty for causing this man pain, because later in the film, he goes to great lengths to help the man. He cannot take back his actions, which in the end only benefited him and no one else, but he can at least attempt to make amends by behaving towards the man in a generous, virtuous fashion.

The two other main characters in Broadway Danny Rose, Lou and Tina, are rather less than virtuous, especially when compared to Danny himself. Tina announces at the outset that her personal philosophy involves doing harm to others before they do harm to you. This assumes that all men are evil, rather than good, and thus attempts to justify evil, selfish behaviors… [read more]

Moral Dilemma Term Paper

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moral dilemmas saw Julie at a club and she was with a boy other than her boyfriend John. They were kissing and it was obvious she was cheating on him. I knew better than to say something but John is also my friend and he asked me directly whether or not I saw Julie with Garth at the club. He told me that someone saw them together and wanted to hear a second witness's opinion before confronting Julie. I was stuck, torn between my loyalty to two of my best friends. I had known both since high school.

The way I resolved this moral dilemma would have been described both by Kohlberg and by Gilligan as being postconventional. Demonstrating a mature level of moral reasoning and having already internalized conventional rules-based ethics, I decided to first tell Julie that John was concerned. I waited for Julie to confess to me what she and Garth were doing and to what extend they were pursuing an affair with one another. As it turned out, she and Garth were mainly flirting; they had kissed but had not gone beyond that point. Thus, I alleviated a lot of grief had I put Julie on the defensive by accusing her of having a full-blown romantic affair.

Had I been stuck in Kohlberg's or Gilligan's preconventional stage then I might have sought to win favors from either Julie or John. If I thought John would appreciate my loyalty more than Julie then I might have risked losing my friendship with Julie in order to please John; even if Julie were not having the affair it would have impressed John that I cared enough about him to take that chance. The fact that I had a crush on John to begin with would have underscored my preconventional moral reasoning but my behaviors showed that I had matured far beyond that stage. Similarly, I might have felt like it was my moral duty to help John -- or that it was my moral duty to preserve Julie's privacy. At a conventional stage of moral reasoning, I would still…… [read more]

Code of Ethics in the Academic World Term Paper

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Code of Ethics

In the academic world, as well as in the business world, as an essential part in the conduct of activities and actions there is an increasing need for the existence of a code of ethics, due to the fact that students and staff alike must take into account certain moral guidelines in order to increase the efficiency… [read more]

Ethics Has Been Regarded as Fundamental Practice Term Paper

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Ethics has been regarded as fundamental practice with reference to the all design research procedures, and it the responsibility of the research to ensure that the contents and the scope of the research is ethical and moral, the design research shall be conducted 'within an ethic of respect for persons, respect for knowledge, respect for democratic values, and respect for… [read more]

Moral Relativism Term Paper

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Moral Relativism is a point-of-view, which holds that the truth or justification of moral judgments, is not absolute but determined by society or its culture (Gowan 2004). It flourished in ancient times when moral diversity was the prevailing and accepted thought. It grew from moral skepticism, which holds that there is no moral knowledge (Gowan).

The argument is whether moral… [read more]

Business Ethics in His Book Corporation Term Paper

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Business Ethics

In his book Corporation, Be Good! The Story of Corporate Social Responsibility William C. Frederick (2006) notes that the dichotomy that companies face impacts their ability for ethical decision making. In the 1950s and 1960s, executives relied on their consciences that were founded on religious and family values. However, ethical business problems in the 1960s and 1970s showed… [read more]

Biomedical Ethics: Euthanasia. One Way of Interpreting Term Paper

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¶ … biomedical ethics: euthanasia. One way of interpreting euthanasia from a moral point-of-view is utilitarianism.

Utilitarians interpret the rightness or wrongness of an action based on its consequences alone, this being one of the reasons why utilitarianism has been considered a consequential theory. However, at the same time, such an assumption, of judging actions mainly on taking into consideration the consequences has been considered a limitation and a weak point in this theory. Utilitarianism is based on the principle that we ought to do the greatest good for the greatest number of persons involved (the person requesting euthanasia, dependents, relatives, health care providers, or society). In the case of incurable disease, like cancer for instance, utilitarianism may be a way of providing ethical decision-making. From such a perspective, many patients probably consider that the greatest good for all people involved is their own death. Death implies absence of pain for the patient, and absence of suffering and concern, work and assistance in the relatives. Euthanasia is favored in detriment of a life enmeshed in incurable and fatal physical suffering.

However, when considered closely the problem is extremely complex. Richard Gula (1991) thinks that it is more difficult from a moral standpoint to justify letting somebody die a slow and hard death, dehumanized, than it is to justify helping him to escape from such…… [read more]

Moral Theology Term Paper

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Moral Theology

In today's economically driven world where the placement of focus and personal achievement is determined by the size of one's bank account or net worth, churches and theologians have had to come to issue with how one can balance a traditionally moral life in today's often immoral world. Out of this struggle arose the theories of economic justice… [read more]

Organizational Ethics Issues Resolution Term Paper

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Organizational Ethics Issues Resolution

The Enron debacle that occurred in late 2001 illustrated how an ethically unsound business can have devastating and widespread effects on the international business community. At the core of the collapse of Enron was an absence of ideation and practice of ethical values. Market failure occurred due to information asymmetries, in which unfairness of the imbalance… [read more]

Ethics in Psychology Academic Fraud Term Paper

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Academic Fraud - Psychology

Ethics in Psychology: Academic Fraud

A Notorious Case of Academic Fraud

This paper discusses the "notorious" case of academic fraud by Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt as presented by Beloff (1980). The research will focus on the ethical problem presented, the ethical principles breached according to the Australian codes of ethics, the motives and justifications of a… [read more]

Importance of Good Business Ethics Term Paper

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Importance of Good Business Ethics in Business
There's been a crisis of confidence in corporate ethics in the last ten
years, and as a result, legislation continues to be used as the mechanism
to bring trust back into business. Many argue that Sarbanes-Oxley (2002)
legislation has actually taken the price of doing business significantly
up, enriching Indian Business Process… [read more]

Ethics Policies on 3 Companies Term Paper

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Ethics Policies on 3 companies.

Ethics Policies

Memo of transmittal

Ethics policies within companies

Microsoft Corporation


Intel Corporation

Memo of transmittal

The current ethics policies are the outcome of years of debates as to what should define morality and fair and appropriate behavior. Nowadays, most institutions in the fields of economy, politics, medicine and law guide their activities by… [read more]

Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Term Paper

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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is one of the classical and most cited philosophical works treating of morality. In the second book of the Ethics, Aristotle defines the relation between character and virtue as being mediated by or depending on the two antagonist feelings of pleasure and pain. Aristotle supports his affirmation with a few basic arguments: first of all, according to… [read more]

Ethics and Foreign Workers Term Paper

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Ethics and Foreign Workers

Ethics can be different for each person making a decision, but there are certain moral laws that should be followed in dealing with foreign workers working for U.S. companies overseas. The moral and ethical decision should be to treat these workers just the same as if they were working inside the United States. They are employees of a U.S. company, and the rules should not be different for different employees in different countries. A lawyer who specializes in these types of decisions writes, "The moral rights approach concerns itself with moral principles, regardless of the consequences. Under this view, some actions are simply considered to be right or wrong" (Poznak). Thus, even if paying foreign workers lower wages and benefits than U.S. workers get results in higher profits, it is morally wrong to differentiate between workers, and the ethical choice is to treat all employees the same.

Another consideration in this ethical debate is the practice of foreign companies doing business in the United States, and their standards for employment. For example, many foreign automakers have built plants in the United States…… [read more]

Ethics in the Accounting Profession Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
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Brian Strugats

Accounting Ethics

Dr. Nathan Slavin

The Role of College Ethics Classes in the Reduction of Professional Accounting Scandals

Ethical values provide the foundation on which a civilized society exists. Without the foundation, civilization collapses." (Smith)

The ability to choose right or wrong, or good vs. evil, is a part of the human condition. While some decisions are smaller… [read more]

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