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Ethics and Morality the Ethical Decision Making Research Proposal

… Ethics and Morality

The ethical decision making framework includes the concepts of ethical issues intensity, organizational factors, individual factors and opportunity. Discuss how these concepts influence the ethical decision making process.

Ethical issues intensity is one of the key aspects of how an organization defines its cultural norms, values and beliefs as they relate to how ethics are interpreted and acted upon. The interpretation of opportunities is also defined by the ethical issues intensity of a given organizations' culture as well. In turn organizational factors and individual factors frame or put into context the specific ethical questions an organization confronts over time. The ethical judgment of any opportunity then is more governed by the ethical issues intensity of a given culture first and further clarified by organizational and individualized factors as well. In total, these factors create a cultural baseline of ethics that in turn define the overall framework by which an organization will define itself through its ethical decisions and choices over time. In fact the nature of just what is and is not an opportunity will be interpreted through the use of a given organizations' ethical framework. While there are many different aspects to the development of an ethics framework, the most pervasive is a reliance on utilitarianism that centers on putting the collective good of all in front of the good of just a few. The need for creating an ethics framework to ensure a high level of compliance to ethical standards and values is also crucial. The bottom line is that all these factors contribute to the development of a sustainable and strong ethics framework over time.

What are the three levels of ethical concern found…… [read more]

Euthanasia Morality and Ethics in Cases Term Paper

… Euthanasia Morality & Ethics

In cases of extreme suffering, people could use a variety of moral and ethical traditions to justify euthanasia. Already, many countries in Europe have more tolerant social policies than the United States, and the policy of euthanasia is no exception. In February 2001, after two decades of being practiced underground, the Dutch government enacted a law legalizing euthanasia, or physician-assisted suicide.

The law had popular support and, like the health workers who worked with AIDS patients, it had the best intentions. Strict criteria were put in place, limiting physician-assisted suicides to terminally ill patients who possessed adequate mental capacity to decide and make an explicit request for euthanasia.

Peter Singer, the foremost proponent of utilitarianism, argues that there would be cases where euthanasia is perfectly moral and ethical. A person suffering from pain, especially those who are terminally ill, have a strong interest to be free from pain. This should be weighed against the…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality: Integrity Term Paper

… III. Values in Relation to Law

Carter (1996) addresses the subject area of law in relation to individual value and principle development in the individual. Salzman (2001)

IV. Values in Relation to Religion

Salzman addresses this realm of value formation as he tells the story of Sister John, a cloistered nun who has experienced divine visions which are followed by an extremely excruciating headache. It is discovered that this nun in actuality has a brain tumor which is probably causing the visions. Sister John has to make the difficult decision whether to risk herself and continue receiving visions knowing all the while they may be false and as well to do so may even cost her very life. Her 'visitations' with God were influenced by her value and belief system that underwent its' formation under the tutelage of her teacher at the convent.

V. The Importance of Integrity and Ethics

The importances of integrity and of ethics are clear themes in both the work of Salzman (2001) and Carter (1996). Without the critical factor of integrity throughout this would have been a much duller work and would have carried much less import for the individual's perusal. Integrity is what the individual's word is actually worth and is a measure by which an individual might be judged as to their character.

VI. Examples of The Source Material

Sister John literally takes upon herself the literal burden borne by Christ as she begins her day and "dropped to her knees on the floor of her cell, and offered the day to God .[praying]: "Let these clothes remind me of my consecration to this life of enclosure, silence, and solitude. It is interesting that the 'mystical' life of Carmel resided in mundane everyday things and indeed within that everyday realm was the discovery of things so special. Salzman writes,

"Pure awareness stripped her of everything. She became an ember carried upward by the heat of an invisible flame. Higher and higher she rose, away from all she knew. "

Carter states that, "because of the difficulty of trying to raise children with good social values in a nation that talks about values but often can't live up to its aspirations. "Integrity is the crucial element of good citizenship. It's more important to know if someone has integrity than to know whether I agree or disagree with him. If you lack integrity, nothing else you say you believe matters." Integrity is more than honesty, writes Carter.

VII. Summary and Conclusion

Both of the works have a clear message relating to integrity and choices in life or the lack of them and how these values are formed within the realm of family, law and religion.

Works Cited

Salzman,…… [read more]

Ethics Consider the Three Purposes Term Paper

… However, virtue-based ethics stresses characters, rather than upon rules people should follow, like religious systems of ethics tend to, or even the notion of Kant's categorical imperative or utilitarian principles of majority goods.

Instead, virtue-based ethics stress helping people develop good character traits, such as kindness and generosity. Theoretically such character traits will, in turn, allow a person to make moral and selfless decisions later on in life, decisions that will benefit the vast majority of people yet still allow for some good actions that benefit the individual through the exercise of a moral good will, as well as the majority of all individuals. By instilling good characters within individuals, correspondingly negative character traits may be eschewed. Rather than asking the question 'what do I do,' virtue-based ethics call upon the ethical student in question to ask what sort of a moral individual does he or she wish to be, assuming that if this question can be answered, good actions will, by definition, follow.

The problem with virtue-based ethics stress upon good character, however, is that quite often good people make bad ethical choices, for a variety of reasons, including bad environmental pressures, imperfect information, and confusion. To place virtue-based ethics in the context of contemporary American society as well; one could also argue that the intense individualism and self-centeredness of America could only be exacerbated in a negative fashion by such a schema of virtue-based ethics. Lastly, societies that are less individualistically oriented than America, and do not come from the Western tradition of individualism, might find such a schema confusing at best. Consider Buddhist and Shinto influenced Japan, to take one example, where coherent societal obligations and acts, rather than the nebulous notion of 'character' are at the heart of such society's philosophies.… [read more]

Business Ethics and Morality Term Paper

… An example of the latter is the continuation of utilizing immigrant and migrant workers to pick harvests in the South west. The illegal immigrants need money, and to employ them picking crops benefits them. If farmers were to pay standard wages for crop harvesting, the price of some foods would skyrocket. Thus the community at large benefits from the presence of migrant workers. However, employing illegal immigrants encourages more laborers to enter our country illegally, creating a number of problems in the Southwest. These workers labor for little more than slave wages, which does not help them build a positive economic future, or break the cycle of poverty. Thus, although utilitarian reasons support the presence of low wage immigrant laborers, the harm caused to this small group does not justify the practice.

C3 Kant is one of the philosophers who attempted to take a non-religious perspective on life, and create a universal set of laws which could apply to create an ethical basis for decisions. A Kantian decision would be to limit the treatment to critically ill people in order to spend limited resources on those who show a higher potential for recovery.

C4. The nursing profession is more than a doctor's helper. Nurses are trained and desire to provide emotional and non-technical care in order to meet the social, emotional, esteem, as well as the physical needs of their patients. By treating the entire patient, studies show greater recovery rates. However when hospitals have to make decisions of the basis of budgets, such as limiting the care to patients, or limiting the number of staff to adequately meet patient needs, nurse professionals are some of the first to feel the strain, and become discouraged.… [read more]

Value of Moral Ethics Term Paper

… Many magazines printed this story when Lewinsky made her allegations as a way to prove that Clinton has had an eye for extra-marital affairs.

Although the Willey case went by unnoticed by many the only one to take this seriously was the president himself who felt that he needed to part ways with Lewinsky because of the mess the Willey story would create for him and his administration.

The Lewinsky story exploded the President in a way that he never thought it would because if the fact that the president's behavior was not just sexual but it translated into criminal with questions of false swearing and violation of justice.

Historian Thomas Reeves believes that, despite the media's reluctance to look into Kennedy's private life, if he had lived to have a second term: "[T]he realities of his lechery and his dealings with Sam Giancana might have leaked out while he was still in office, gravely damaging the presidency.... Impeachment might well have followed such public disclosure." In other words, the careless only stay lucky for so long

There are many books on ethics in public administration; one of them is Terry Cooper's "The Responsible Administrator." This book is about how the administrator plays a crucial role in shaping the future for many other people that look up to him as the role model. The book also focuses on the common ethical problems faced by the administrators and managers and how these problems can be handled through studying various cases, analysis and theories provided in the book.

To an extent, I agree with what the author has to say about the role of an administrator but if one thinks about the role of the president of the United States, one definitely agrees how important it is to be a good role model because the millions who elect the candidate to such a prestigious position also expect that person to be fit for the seat in every way possible. What Kennedy and Clinton did during their term[s] as President is obviously not pardonable but keeping in mind that they are normal human beings and above all they are men, so I suppose with the way American culture is and how Americans are with relationships, why should Clinton be charged for something that almost every American is doing everyday? Is this justified? Just because he was the president does not make it necessary that he will also have a good character he was elected to run the country and from what I see I believe he did the best job he could have done in all the public sectors and otherwise. Besides being famous means that people will pry into one's life and talk about that person as much as they possibly can.


Terry L. Cooper, The Responsible Administrator, 4th edition.

NANCY BENAC, Former intern's account gains credibility with Clinton's admission, The Associated Press, Tuesday 18 August, 1998, Website:

Linda K.Trevino, Katherine A.Nelson, Managing Business Ethics, 2nd edition, pp.12

Stuart Taylor… [read more]

Ethics Research Paper

… Ethics and Behavior

Ethics and morality

The discussion between the ethical can the moral has been going on for a long time and the philosophers tend to agree that these two terms most of the time are use interchangeably and at times may have a thin line between these two terms. There are issues that can be considered moral yet are unethical, and there are acts that also be considered ethical yet they are immoral. Morality is widely considered as the code of conduct that that is accepted by a given society and for those who can understand it, there is no universal standards to it. On the other hand, ethics are more general and have the aspect of general laws that guide them (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002). This paper hence makes the difference between these two terms by the use of a case study derived from a real happening within the U.S.A.

The classic example that can be used to discuss the two terms is the well know issue of corrections officers pregnant by inmate Tavon White. According to Fuchs E., (2013) of National Post, the inmate manipulated several vulnerable female guards into not only being accomplices to his criminal acts behind bars but also to sleep with him and gave birth to five children with the four female guards. The manipulation of these guards into submission resulted in perpetuation of the very same crimes that the guards are supposed to be fighting and also the casting of doubt over the work ethics of the guards that were involved in this criminality and breach of work ethics either directly or indirectly. The fact that by so compromising their working conditions and guidelines and perpetuating drug trafficking and even some of the officers being beneficiaries to the fruits of these illegal acts in the prison gang, there are obviously significant ethical and moral issues that arise from the entire act.

The cultural issues that arise from this case is the intentional targeting of the female guards and manipulating them with the intention of having them agree and do what the criminals want. This was both unethical in that the female guards were made to break the law but also immoral since they intentionally targeted the female gender hence gender-based discrimination. The other cultural aspect that was involved here was the race issue since the inmate involved was a black and what makes it more of a race issue was the fact that he ran and operated a gang called the Black Guerilla Family (BGF). This portrayed him and other blacks as being involved in the criminal acts taking advantage of their race grouping as an institution.

There was also politics involved in the entire saga since the female guards agreed to work with the gang and by implication they agreed to be recruited into the BGF knowing well that this was an organization that ran criminal activities. They, as law enforcement officers agreed to take a part and play… [read more]

Ethics Are Often Stronger Essay

… 6. Sustainability is not a viable concept for America's businesses. Businesses seek growth. Growth cannot be sustainable forever. Many businesses contribute nothing useful to society and can only be sustainable or responsible by going out of business. Would the world really miss Taco Bell? Anyway, while it is good to be less destructive, that is about all that can be hoped for when companies are rewarded for growth, and the world's non-renewable resources are a zero sum game.

Chapter 9.

1. DSS and marketing research are two completely different concepts that have nothing to do with one another. It would take a novel to explain how many differences they have.

2. Knowledge can make these exchanges more efficient, and more frequent.

3. 1) you learn about who your customers are, 2) you learn what they need, 3) you learn what they will need.

4. It was never true that marketing research was only associated with manufacturing firms. That's a funny thing to say. Everybody has always used it, so I don't think there is some great trend here -- it's always been done.

5. Sometimes secondary data has already been processed, so it is more efficient to use it.

6. Aggregators process data, which saves companies time and effort -- they pay the money and get useful research right away.

7. Ethnographic research tries to find out how people live their lives (Anderson, 2009). It's a good idea for marketers, including for product development. Not sure what a "wave of the future" is. Most waves are fairly predictable, as surfers already know.

8. It depends on how the survey is created and administered -- online surveys are not created alike. Give me a specific example and I will tell you its advantages and disadvantages.

9. Scanner-based research is a neat idea because marketers can learn more about buying patterns and responses to advertising through such research. One evident disadvantage is that people behave differently when they know they are being watched, and that will skew the results.


Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from

Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from

Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.

Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business…… [read more]

Marketing Product Safety, and Intellectual Essay

… PharmaCare is not socially responsible for their actions towards the community in Colberia. According to the moral compass, individuals or organizations should operate under guidelines and principles of ethics in conducting their duties and to determine what is right and… [read more]

Ethics and Leadership, Forming Research Paper

… ¶ … ethics and leadership, forming a set of principles that can be applied in my particular leadership role. The paper is organized according to the principles that I have learned. This paper is divided into 3 three sections. The… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Is a Conjecture Research Paper

… One of them being ethical sensitivity has on various occasions, required increasing the size circle of neighbors to include cultures and races. However, the widening circles do not end with the reciprocation of moral agents. A communication ethics locates enlarging… [read more]

Labor Ethics Essay

… Bringing a change to an environment that is highly deterrent to ethically-driven whistleblowing is critical to our shared economic future.

Chapter 2

Following the contextualization provided by Chapter 1, Chapter 2 offers a more detailed look into the ethical implications of the various legal and organizational constructs relating to business practice and labor. Entitled "An Historical Perspective on Business Ethics, the chapter offers an exhaustive look into the evolution of business practices, private enterprising and worker's rights.

With respect to the evolution of business practices, the author illustrates that in no uncertain terms, ethical practice was scarcely a consideration in the earliest stages of American profiteering. From Columbus and Jamestown through to the voyage of the Mayflower, Collins details events of grotesque abuse by European settlers in search of personal advancement or even mere economic survival. For instance, "the Mayflower eventually anchored in southeaster Massachusetts, near corn fields that had been harvested by indigenous tribes for thousands of years. Peaceful relations with indigenous tribes ended when, following a harsh winter, Pilgrims violated fur trading pacts and land agreements, stole food, and failed in an effort to broker hostilities between warring indigenous tribes." (p. 43)

This would, sadly, initiate something of the exploitive practices that have helped to define capitalism in the fledgling colonies. And yet, this same spirit for independent economic advancement that led to the slaughter of countless Native Americans and Carribean Islanders would also be the force responsible for the revolutionary fervor that birthed the United States. According to Collins, economic independence was chief cause of the effort for independence. The text reports that "by 1774, more than 2.3 million European colonists participated in highly regulated business activities among several generations of English settlers who had experienced life only in America and felt limited loyalty to England." (p. 43)

As the British began to impose harsher taxation on the flourishing colonies, resistance began to taken on a decidedly militant form. And this militancy would be underscored by a clear sense of ethical entitlement to self-determination, independence and delegated representation in affairs of commerce and taxation. These are some of the core ethical values that would come to define the commerce of the fledgling United States.

This evolution would, of course, be of especially great value to private enterprisers going forward. But as the text by Collins would also show, the path toward the ethical treatment of laborers would be a far longer one. And certainly, the subject of worker's rights serves as a way of demonstrating the high level of correlation between the improvement of labor conditions and adherence to true and meaningful ethical standards. Collins note that "the failure of owners and managers to heed Adam Smith's appeal to treat laborers ethically led to the formation of unions." (p. 50)

This would also set off a conflict between competing interests that lasts even to present day.


What is notable about this discussion is its simultaneous demonstration of the evolution of ethical practices in business and labor… [read more]

Morality and the Claims of Utilitarian Essay

… ¶ … morality and the claims of utilitarian moral philosophy, and discusses the question of whether moral sacrifice can be justified. Much has been written by myriad scholars and philosophers about morality and utilitarianism, and the best way to sort… [read more]

Business Ethics in the Fire Service Research Paper

… Business Ethics in the Fire Service

The fire service in most countries is held in high esteem and widely regarded as a paragon of ethical business practices. Because the fire service is funded with scarce taxpayer resources, though, it is… [read more]

Hh Ethics Essay

… Virtue is not necessarily an innate state, and it can be cultivated. "Happiness arises from virtuous causes. If we truly desire to be happy, there is no other way to proceed but by way of virtue," (His Holiness the Dalai Lama 121). The Dalai Lama adds that the foundation of virtue is "ethical discipline," (121). Thus, the ethic of restraint and the ethic of virtue are both linked with self-discipline. Happiness cannot be created without self-discipline, which is required to cultivate the virtuous character. Moreover, the ethic of virtue requires "consciously, actively and continuously cultivating and reinforcing our positive qualities, namely basic human, or spiritual, qualities," (Los Altos Study Group 20). The Dalai Lama offers specific "antidotes" to negative emotions, which can be focused on to create a positive, virtuous state of mind (Los Altos Study Group 20). For example, the feeling of anger may be countered by the cultivation of patience, and the feeling of humility counteracts pride.

Compassion is central to the Dalai Lama's teachings. In Chapter 8 of Ethics for a New Millennium, the Dalai Lama discusses compassion in detail. At its most basic level, according to His Holiness, compassion is "empathy," (123). However, compassion is much more than that. Compassion is not an "end in itself," but rather, is "the springboard to a love still greater," according to the Dalai Lama (121). The ethic of compassion is innate, but is combined with a deeper sense of responsibility towards other human beings to alleviate suffering. Being compelled to help alleviate the suffering of others is known as the "great compassion" in Tibetan philosophy (His Holiness the Dalai Lama 124). Compassion has one important component from an ethical perspective: that is, it must be universal and unconditional. A person cannot be greatly compassionate when only identifying with the suffering of his or her own people, or his or her own loved ones. Genuine compassion sees beyond such superficial levels and to the interconnectedness of humanity. There is also "little to be gained from being kind and generous because we hope to win something in return," (His Holiness the Dalai Lama 125). The intent behind the act, and not the act itself, is the foundation of the ethic of compassion. Kindness and universal love promote happiness.

The basis of the Dalai Lama's Ethics for the New Millennium is that human beings are deeply interconnected. Compassion and other ethics "break down barriers of every kind and in the end destroys the notion of my interest as independent from others' interest," (His Holiness the Dalai Lama131). Unconditional love is the basis of ethical action, and can be cultivated through simple acts of self-discipline and self-awareness. Self-interest is therefore the antithesis of ethics.

Works Cited

His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Ethics for the New Millennium. New York: Hudson, 1999.

Los Altos Study Group. "Study Guide for Ethics for the New…… [read more]

Ethics Are "An Individual's Personal Essay

… CEOs and other managers acted as stewards for the de facto owners of the company. They were not supposed to put their personal beliefs and morals ahead of the need to engage in profit-making. Yet today, this concept has fallen out of favor somewhat. Scandals at organizations such as Enron and WorldCom have caused concern that an overly profit-driven emphasis can lead to legal violations that ultimately destroy the company. Yet proponents of the classical view of firm ethics would counter that such CEOs placed their own interests above those of making money for the firm and were thus 'unethical.' It does not necessarily hold that this means that ethical concerns such as environmentalism and the social welfare of workers must be of paramount concern. Conversely, firms such as GE and Ford which had substantially invested in generous benefits to workers began to lag behind foreign automotive firms without such generous, seemingly 'ethical' arrangements.

However, when firms treat customers or even employees unethically, it often comes back to haunt them. Ford's calculated construction of a cheap but unsafe vehicle known as the Pinto resulted in a series of lawsuits and terrible publicity for the company (Dowie 1977). The revelation that firms use sweatshops to manufacture their goods (such as Nike and Apple) has likewise been public relations disasters. This is why so many firms today have entire sections of their websites devoted to ethical concerns. Some firms, such as Whole Foods and The Body Shop, have seemingly merged capitalism and caring in a manner to generate more sales. This does not mean less aggressive behavior, necessarily, since ultimately even the most ethical firm must be profitable to remain in business and sustain shareholders and employees to thrive -- which may sometimes mean taking actions that cause displeasure amongst those who would insist upon 'purity' rather than profits in ethical behavior (Field 2006).


Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (20080). Deontological ethics. The Stanford

Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved:


Dowie, Mark. (1977). Pinto madness. Mother Jones Magazine. Retrieved at:

Maloney, Field. (2006). The dark secrets of Whole Foods. Slate. Retrieved:… [read more]

Utilitarian Perspective on Ethics Essay

… This Freud dies. The only way that his theories will become known is by publication of the e-mails. Countless -- in fact, an infinite amount of people -- will profit by release of these e-mails. When compared to the one individual, namely Freud, it is more important (utilitarians argue) that the mass receive advantage.

E-mail too can be compared to a first class letter and the utilitarian import of publicizing the letter can be seen from a precedent where In re Mc-Cormick's Estate a military serviceman, who was later killed in action, sent a letter to his minor children. That the letter was valuable only came to light when a motion picture company and a music publishing company contracted for the rights to use the letter. The money was divided between the mother and the children with the children gaining the greater part and the court determining that the proceeds from the sale of the physical letters, should that occur in the future, would belong to the children alone. Many people, in this case, benefitted from one letter. One person may suffer (in that he may not wish his correspondence to be publicized). This, however, is outrivaled by the fact that many others have been made happy.

Utilitarianism takes the happiness and consequences of the many into account as opposed to the pleasure of the one or the few. In that way, it can prove advantageous since it calculates the greatest good for the many. However, there are many problems with Utilitarianism and these famously consist in the facts that it is difficult to define 'happiness' and 'pleasure'. The famous example is that many people in Germany were able to expand their territory by slaughtering a minority. Should this be done even though a greater amount of people profit as compared to the relative few who suffer? Utilitarianism, therefore, is said to be a philosophy that ignored justice.

Secondly, sometimes short-term happiness needs to be surrendered in order to obtain a greater degree of happiness in the long-term. How does one determine which kind of happiness is better, and perhaps the many should suffer here for the few or for a happiness that will prove itself to more intense and substantial? In a similar way, consequences are unknowable; therefore Utilitarianism is at basis an irrational and impractical philosophy since one cannot calculate utility and mass of consequences. Furthermore, the act of calculating utility may be self-defeating because, by that time, the opportunity has disappeared.

Criticism also centers on act utilitarianism which, critics say, is unreal since it demands a level of impartiality that does not exist. Ideal though it sounds at first glance, therefore, Utilitarianism poses many problems when one examines it further.


Darrow, JJ & Ferrara, G (2005)WHO OWNS A DECEDENT'S E-MAILS:



Williams, Bernard (1993). Morality: An Introduction to Ethics. Cambridge University Press.

Harwood, Sterling, "Eleven Objections to Utilitarianism," in Louis P. Pojman, ed., Moral… [read more]

Ethics in an Organization Essay

… In conclusion, the role of ethics to organizations in the society of today has been able to come a long way and will endure to be a significant subject going ahead. Consumers have more material at their fingertips than ever before and are able to get access to more media than they have ever been able to get. Information regarding establishments is willingly accessible and without high ethical standards of ethics establishments will see their collapse. As mentioned in this essay there are a lot of different concepts for governments to impart appropriate standards in their employees and to safeguard achievement and future growth. It is up to separate governments to take the proper stages to guarantee that they are running morally and providing the essential chances for their staffs to follow suit.

Works Cited

Anders, G. (2005, May 2). Inside Amazon's Idea Machine: How Bezos Decodes The Customer. Forbes. Chicago.

Covey, S. (2007). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Simon and Shuster.

O'Connor, C. (2008, May 2). Undercover Billionaire: Sara Blakely Joins The Rich List Thanks To Spanx. Forbes.

Rorty, M.V. (2009). The rashomon effect: Organization ethics in health care. HEC Forum, 16(9), 75-94.

Soltani, I., & Joneghani, R.B. (2008). Operational Model of Cascading Values…… [read more]

Ethics in a Computerized Society Research Paper

… Ethics in a Computerized Society

Ethics are extremely important in our society since they help to determine whether an action is right or wrong. There are different types of ethical systems that are used to determine whether the action is… [read more]

Religion, Libertarianism and Virtue Ethics Essay

… Embezzlement

This is stealing or taking property belonging to another person or business, often in the form of money (Moore, 2012). If it is property, it involves stealing while the property is in entrusted to the person who embezzles (Moore).

Bribery and Blackmail

Bribery is offering money, goods or services to secure the favorable decision or action of another person who is in an official position or capacity to give it (Moore, 2012). Examples of bribe-takers or givers are a public official and police officer. Blackmail, also called extortion, means obtaining money or gods with the use of force or by threat (Moore).


Frauds are deceptive acts often committed in healthcare, taxes, credit cards, insurance and the internet (Moore, 2012).

Judicial Process

Obstruction of justice means interference in the criminal process, such as through perjury (Moore, 2012).

Other types of white collar crime are identity theft, counterfeiting, forgery, price fixing to influence free market operations, and insider trading (Moore, 2012).

Sexual Harassment and Hostile Environment

Sexual Harassment

This comes in different forms, such as physical sexual gestures, crude jokes, written letters or emails, and even direct sexual comments about one's body or clothing (Tolle, 2012). It is physical sexual harassment to be touched or rubbed against in an uncomfortable way, being stared at in a sexually suggestive way or subjected to a clearly sexual gesture (Tolle).

A Hostile Work Environment

This is an environment where occurrences are not welcome or comfortable, repetitious, and disrupt the performance of one's work (Tolle, 2012). Sexual harassment is one of those occurrences. Any threat to the performance of one's job puts the person in a hostile work environment. Not all situations create a hostile work environment, however, Being teased by someone on occasion or an occasional unpleasant comment creates a hostile work environment (Tolle).

Unfriendly and uncomfortable comments and gestures should be stopped from escalating into a hostile work environment (Tolle, 2012). The offended person should note down the incident and place the date and then notify her supervisor immediately. If there is no sufficient relief of the situation or the hostile environment persists, the offended person should secure help from the Equal Employment Opportunity counselor within six weeks from the incident (Tolle). If the person harassing is the supervisor, the offended employee should report the incident to the next higher official (Carabelli, 2012) If there no action, legal action should be taken. The offended employee should present all the documentary evidence needed to meet the preponderance requirement (Carabelli). #


Carabelli, C. (2012). About sexual harassment in the workplace. eHow: Demand Media,

Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from

Frazier, L. (2012). What is the difference between teleological and deontological ethics?

eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from

Hursthouse, R. (2008). Virtue ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from

Moore, S. (2012). What is white collar crime? eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on

McGonigal, S.(2012). Conflict theory and religion. eHow: Demand… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Essay

… The emphasis on filial piety and the need to observe organizational hierarchies within Confucianism arose from a society in which collectivism more than individualism was the predominant value. Ethical systems are often created by a single or several human intelligences, versus the collective creation of a sense of right and wrong that is generated by 'morality.' However, human beings, even philosophers, are inevitably affected by the culture that produced and educated them.

Morality is different from religion: "religion differs from morality or a moral system in that it includes stories about events in the past, usually about supernatural beings, that are used to explain or justify the behavior that it prohibits or requires" (Gert 2011). Religion also differs from ethics in the sense that it uses such events to justify the demands of its followers, versus logic, although ethical systems may be generated from religions traditions. Morality likewise is affected by religion, based upon the life experiences of believers and their cultures.

However, moral codes are not always explicitly stated, unlike ethical codes. For example, in our society it is generally considered wrong to 'cut' someone in line or to offer an official a bribe. However, in other societies, where corruption and fighting for scarce resources is part of life, these actions may be viewed in a less censorious manner. Even though both societies may have ethical systems that deem such actions wrong, the moral actions of most individuals in the societies are profoundly different.

Different moral codes can also coexist in societies. "Many religions condemn homosexual behavior as immoral, but those who hold that morality is primarily concerned with avoiding and preventing harm condemn religious discrimination against homosexuals as immoral" (Gert 2011). Of course, ethical systems can… [read more]

Moral Environment Ayn Rand Essay

… However, as Rand also states in her book, sometimes after we have rationally set our own hierarchy based on self-interest, helping someone else might also serve our self-interest. Most importantly, Rand mentions the fact that "concern for the welfare of those one loves is a rational part of one's selfish interests" (Rand, The Ethics of Emergencies, 1964, p. 51). If our loved one's welfare is part of our self-interest, then helping them does not violate self-interest, as long as the act of helping them does not violate our hierarchy. Extending that to other people, if helping other people -- whether or not they are strictly our "loved ones" -- also serves our self-interest and doesn't violate our rational hierarchy, then helping them is perfectly fine. Using Rand's rational self-interest and the well-developed hierarchy of values developed from it, an individual or a community or nation could help another person or community or nation -- during an emergency or otherwise - in a "win-win" situation and still be perfectly in line with Rand's ideas.


A moral person could be tempted to reject the ideas in Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies, until that person examines Rand's explanation. For Rand, the moral purpose of life is to achieve one's own happiness and an individual should rationally establish a hierarchy of values based on self-interest and adhere to that hierarchy. In some cases, that would mean "live and let die" because helping the other person will conflict with our self-interest. In other cases, that would mean helping another person because his/her well-being serves our self-interest. Applying that to today's moral environment, it is possible for any rational person or community or nation to help another person or community or nation and still be approved by Ayn Rand's moral philosophy.

Works Cited LLC. (2012). Altruism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from Web site:

Peikoff, L. (2012). Malevolent universe premise. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from Web site:

Rand, A. (1964). The Ethics of Emergencies. In A. Rand, & N. Branden, The Virtue of Selfishness (pp. 49-56). New York, NY: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group (USA), Inc.

Rand, A. (2012). Introducing Objectivism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from Web site:… [read more]

Ethics in the Sciences Essay

… ¶ … ethics in the sciences has become a focus of debate during the last century. Many scientists and statisticians have deviated from the more formal view of science as only being concerned with objective results and measurement. There is a growing consensus that science and the scientist, or statistician, has an ethical and moral responsibility to the society in which they function and to humanity as a whole. This paper will explore these views with regard to ethics and statistics. This will include a personal assessment of these views. This paper will also emphasize the personal view that ethics are an important and integral part of the discipline of statistics.

Ethics and Statistics

The issue of ethics in statistics is one that has become extremely relevant in our contemporary environment. The reason for this is clearly stated in an article by Ostapski and Superville entitled Reflection Before Action: the Statistical Consultant Confronts Ethical Issues. In this article the authors state that; "Statisticians have become integral members of research and consulting teams that conduct projects for industry and government. They face a number of ethical issues that are somewhat unique to their profession" (Ostapski and Superville). This view therefore implies that the discipline of statistics is not exempt from ethical considerations. This is the view that I also adopt in this paper, both from a personal and professional standpoint

However, the more orthodox view of the role of statistics and science in general tend to oppose this view. For example, Geertsema in a Christian View of the Foundations of Statistics refers to the more traditional stance taken by science with regard to ethics;

… because of their so-called exactness, they are often thought to be neutral from a philosophical or religious point-of-view. This tendency is strengthened by a traditional view of science as a whole, known as the standard view of science" (Geertsema, 1987).

This refers to the view that scientific objectivity and exactness takes precedence over ethical and other issues. From this perspective all scientific and mathematical disciplines are in essence exempt from social responsibility or ethical considerations. However, Geertsema and others argue against this stance and put forward the view that science and statistics in particular does have an ethical responsibility towards the society and humanity in general and therefore cannot be considered to be ethically neutral, as the statistician also has to take various ethical decisions in the course of his or her work. As Geertsema states, "The result is that the human aspect of science comes to the fore and that it becomes clear that science cannot be seen in isolation-it must be seen in context" (Geertsema, 1987).

Personal Reflections

I would tend to agree with the above assessment by Geertsema in that the actual practice of statistics should always be seen in context and in relation to the actual implications of the statistical work. To view the practice of statistics in isolation or out of context would mean that one ignores or turns a blind… [read more]

Ethics William J. Bennett Assumes Essay

… Friendship can be the core of all ethical understanding. When we care about our friends, we are willing to learn about them, and listen to them. We stop thinking only of ourselves, and care about others for no other reason than we like them. With family, we do not have to like the person to feel responsible for them. With friends, we make a conscious choice, and that act is powerful. Friendship takes courage, which is the next ethical topic discussed in the Book of Virtues. It is important to have the courage to tell other people how I feel, and to be completely honest with them. Courage means having the courage to cut people off, such as when they are unhealthy for me. For example, if I am trying to do better in school but my friend is trying to talk me into going to a party, I have to have the courage to say no. If I say no, it means I am taking responsibility for my actions.

Although the entire Book of Virtues is meaningful for me, the chapter on honesty is the one I need to learn from the most. I have had trouble with honesty in my life. It seems like, I can lie and get away with it, and thereby avoid problems. I want to tell people what they want to hear, which to me is more important than the truth. Bennett shows that honesty is important even if it means shocking people or assuming the consequences. Telling the truth is difficult sometimes, because it might mean getting into trouble or getting punished. This is where taking responsibility comes into play, because it is important to be mature enough to face up to the facts and deal with whatever punishment or consequences arise.

I appreciated what Bennett stated about honesty, as being "developed, and exercised in harmony with others," (Bennett 600). This puts honesty into perspective. It is not about me. Honesty means thinking of other people first, and then worrying about myself. If I am honest, other people can trust me. As Bennett states, "honesty is a fundamental condition for human intercourse and exchange, for friendship, for all genuine community," (600). If any of these things are important to me, then I will learn how to be honest in my daily life. This is as true for white lies as for big lies, in which I might experience severe consequences. It is better to learn how to be honest by wanting to be a good person, rather than by trying to avoid punishment or consequences. This is why concepts like loyalty, courage, and friendship are also discussed by Bennett. If we are loyal to our friends and even to all of humanity, we will not want to lie. If we have the courage to accept the consequences for our mistakes or our deliberate manipulation, then we will also not be afraid to lie. If we have friendships that matter, we would certainly not… [read more]

Morality and Culture Essay

… ¶ … culture and morality. In other words it deals with the question: Is morality relative to culture? Proponents of so called "cultural relativism," sometimes also called "moral relativism" or "ethical relativism" argue that different cultures obtain varying moral codes.… [read more]

Ethical Theory Ethics in Law Term Paper

… What is moral behavior for a father in disciplining a child may not be the same as the moral behavior expected of the child.

It is virtually impossible to predict every situation an ethical actor may find him or herself confronting or to devise rules that are transcendent across all situations and relationships. Given this challenge, following the 'Golden Rule,' or trying to be a virtuous person at all times seems more reasonable. One does not necessarily have to subscribe the hierarchical system prescribed by Confucius to believe in the concept of 'the Golden Rule' and the belief that a moral character is the primary determinant of moral agency.

When I am making a moral decision, I try to 'put myself in the other person's shoes' and ask myself how the affected person would see the world. However, I also acknowledge there are different perspectives than my own, and agree with Confucius that the ethical responsibilities of an older person to a child may be different than the child's obligations to an adult. This sense of relativism underlines the lack of absolutes when making moral decision. Even under the law, children are treated different than adults, and depending upon your relationships with others you may have different ethical responsibilities. A policeman is supposed to place the safety of the public above his own personal safety unlike an ordinary citizen; members of the public are supposed to extend added deference to the police, when dealing with the law on an everyday basis.

The notion of what constitutes 'good character' is to some degree relative, of course, which is a predominant criticism of other ethical theories, including utilitarianism and deontology. Just as concepts of who constitutes the majority may be and what rules are correct are culturally determined, ideas such as honesty, thrift, and compassion that are thought to make up a good character may be emphasized to different degrees, in different societies. In some societies, such as that of Confucius, an obedient child was considered to be 'better' than a child who acted upon his or her individual convictions to foster social justice, while this moral valuation would be the opposite in contemporary America. Not even virtue-based or character-based ethics can be appealed to as transcendent.

Still, despite this caveat, I find the Golden Rule to be the only rule which I can say that I try to follow on a daily basis. In some scenarios, I may focus on the consequences of actions, in others upon principles. Usually, that is based upon my judgment about how certain I am what the consequences may be, balanced by the moral seriousness of my action and its potential harms. But I believe that my ability to weigh deontological principles against utilitarian calculus in an effective manner ultimately lies in my moral character and adherence to my personal sense of the virtue-based ethics.


Velasquez, Manuel Dennis Moberg, Michael J. Meyer, Thomas Shanks, Margaret R. McLean,

David DeCosse, Claire Andre, and Kirk O. Hanson.… [read more]

Legislating Morality Research Paper

… The Supreme Court claimed that when upholding the Roe vs. Wade decision that they were not legislating morality by making abortions legal. However, it is clear that in their decision by legalizing abortion the Supreme Court has essentially declared that… [read more]

Ethics Is a Moral Philosophy Term Paper

… Ethics is a moral philosophy that attempts to discover a systematic understanding of the nature of morality and what it requires of people -- which, in Socrates's words, would simply come down to "how we ought to live" -- and… [read more]

Vamc Ethics the Lincolnville Essay

… The strict code of conduct and the well-understood hierarchy that exists at al levels of the military makes it quite easy to remain within ethical guidelines both as medical professionals and as members of the military, and deviance in such behavior is not looked upon lightly, holding individuals strongly to this applied code of ethics. Another ethical leg-up that the VA system as a whole and the Lincolnville VAMC in particular is in the recent technological growth and expansion that has radically changed the way certain processes are carried out within the system and its individual institutions (Kizer et al. 2009). With better integrated information networks and a variety of treatment- and administrative-related equipment and software, care within the VA system has been made far more efficient and effective, as well as presenting a cost savings to all paying parties (Kizer & Dudley 2009).

There are certainly some ethical issues that the Lincolnville VAMC needs to address, and indeed that the entire VA system must examine. The institution and the wider system have also greatly improved in some areas, and appears to be performing fairly strongly from an ethical viewpoint. Addressing the problems the institution has will lead to more effective and accessible care.


Howlader, N., Ries, L. & Edwards, B. (2009). The Impact of Underreported Veterans Affairs Data on National Cancer Statistics: Analysis Using Population-Based SEER Registries. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 101(7): 533-6.

Hunter, L. & Schmidt, N. (2010). Anxiety psychopathology in African-American adults: Literature review and development of an empirically informed sociocultural model. Psychological Bulletin 136(2): 211-35.

Kizer, K. & Dudley, A. (2009). Extreme Makeover: Transformation of the Veterans Health Care System. Annual Review of Public Health.

Layman, E. (2008). Ethical Issues and the Electronic Health Record. Health Care Manager 27(2):165-76.

Upahyay, S., Beck, A. & Rishi,…… [read more]

Wikileaks Ethics Issues Raised Term Paper

… America's treatment of Assange seems to be costing the government a great deal of credibility throughout the world. A cost benefit analysis would allow the stakeholders to improve the reputation they have acquire as a result of the way this… [read more]

Morality in the Magus Essay

… Morality in the Magus

Probably the most interesting thing about ethics theories is that they are not only numerous, but also significantly divergent. This appears to suggest that human beings differ in terms of what they consider moral, good, and even true. The value of truth itself is indeed generally more subjective than many would like to admit or even consider. Particularly where political upheaval and violent disagreement are concerned, what is considered "true" by both sides is used as the basis for violence and conflict, whereas moral and ethical decisions use completely contrasting platforms to take effect. In John Fowles's novel, the Magus, while the ethical theories of utilitarianism and ethical subjectivism might be applied in varying degrees to the situations, decisions and actions described by Conchis, the specific outcomes suggest that the most relevant theory is subjectivism.

The basis of ethical subjectivism is the premise that perception, whether individual or collective, dictates moral decisions and actions, and particularly where such decisions and actions concern judgments about human conduct. In other words, these judgments are based upon a fundamentally arbitrary viewpoint that can vary among nations, individuals and time periods. The reason for this is that ethical statements are based upon feelings, beliefs, preferences, and attitudes. All these tend to be subjective to the individuals or collectives that hold these attitudes. It then follows that an ethical theory is constructed on the basis of personal experiences that are generalized to become judgments about the world and how the individual should respond to the world and other human beings. According to this view, an ethical belief is a personal opinion or perception regarding what is true that is expanded to a collective belief regarding generally held truths. These beliefs are not necessarily in fact true. However, they are an accurate representation of an individual's or number of individuals' perception of what the world is and how individuals should live in this world.

When applied to the extract from Fowles's work here, ethical subjectivism can be applied to both Conchis personally and the Nazis collectively.

Where Conchis is concerned, his personal values are temporarily overridden by the Nazi ideal, and specifically by Colonel Wimmel. Indeed, the collective Nazi ideal is so strong that he initially believes that he has no choice in terms of actions that, under normal circumstances, might be questionable. When the colonel, for example, orders Conchis to make a hostage provide information, he does this not out of a sense of personal duty, but rather out of a sense of being trapped within a certain moral paradigm. This is evident in his words: "…I begged the man to give all the information he could. & #8230;I felt passionately that it was my duty to stop any more of this atrocious degradation of human intelligence." (p. 391).

For Conchis, the moral decision-making process did not extend beyond his own horror at the torture he had witnessed. His ethical subjectivism was therefore based upon a reaction towards what had been… [read more]

Moral Philosophy What Moral Compass Research Paper

… ¶ … Moral Philosophy

What moral compass do you use: Kohlberg's Moral Reasoning, a professional Code of Ethics, or God's word?

The most important moral guidance in my life are God's principles more so than their literal interpretations by man. Since entering Kohlberg's post-conventional stage of moral reasoning, it has become more difficult for me to accept interpretations of God's words that seem to conflict with fundamental principles of God's love. Where such conflicts seem to exist, I apply my most genuine attempt to reconcile the apparent discrepancies and I do what seems to be most consistent with God's principles.

What is your trump card?

My trump card is the principle of do unto others. In my experience, this is the most important of God's principles with respect to human relations and also to the way we treat all living things. In every respect, I try to remember to reverse situations in my mind and imagine circumstances as though I were on the receiving end of my contemplated behavior.

3. What governs your behavior?

In principle, the Golden Rule governs my behavior more than any other concept in human affairs. I try to be truthful and considerate, and as fair as possible to my fellow man at all times and to remind myself that none of us is perfect or above making mistakes. I try to treat others as I would have them treat me at all times.

4. What reasons do you give for your choices?

Generally, I try to make sure that my choices are the product of objective principles and never the product of self-interest. Likewise, I try to uphold any values or standards that I expect of others and I try to understand the same failings in others of which I am capable as well.

5. Why do you think an Evangelical University has such a huge problem with blatant cheating and plagiarism?

If I had to guess (without passing judgment), I would imagine that plagiarism is a problem because students rationalize their behavior. They may figure that "everyone else is doing it" or they may rationalize that their plagiarism is "not hurting anybody." More generally, I would imagine that students who cheat in any way have lost sight of the fact that the main purpose of their education is to learn and that grades are secondary to that goal.

6. What moral code might those students be following?

I would hesitate to assume that their cheating is necessarily a function of their moral code. I would imagine that many of them subscribe generally to the same moral code as mine but that,…… [read more]

Business Ethics: Personal Moral Intelligence Research Paper

… Integrity I know is "doing what we think is right" (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 7). The authors say that this quality is the most important and that it is at the foundation of moral intelligence. Responsibility means that a person is willing to answer honestly for their actions; they know what is right (they have integrity) and they do what is right (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 7). Maybe the most important ones for me, personally, to pay attention to are compassion and forgiveness. I have a difficult time forgiving myself for problems that I cause others. Since "compassion and forgiveness operate on two levels: first how we relate to ourselves and second, in how we relate to others" (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 8), I first need to learn how to forgive myself for the mistakes I make. If I cannot forgive myself then how am I going to learn to forgive, and be compassionate with, others? Discovering what these four traits mean to me is the most important part of writing a personal ethical code.

The first question I answer is why I need to be moral in the first place. I believe that being a moral person, someone who the four qualities outlined in the text, will allow me to be a more successful person. I define success not as a monetary standard, but as a person who can go to sleep at night and rest peacefully. If I deal with myself and others with integrity, responsibility, compassion and forgiveness every day, then I will be successful.

Next I need to determine what my principles, values and beliefs are. From the MCI, I believe that integrity is the principle that I value most. I also find that I value telling the truth more than any other trait. The final part of the statement has to do with beliefs. Beliefs are a condensed statement of principles and values (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 49). My personal statement is that I will act with integrity and truth in all dealings with myself and other people.

Discovering my purpose has been a difficult pursuit. After reading the book, I think that discovering that may actually be easier than I thought. Oprah Winfrey said that purpose was like a finger print (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 54), meaning that it is unique to every person. I believe that my purpose involves helping people perhaps in a business capacity. I like working with people, and I like trying to assist them with their problems, so that has to be a piece of my purpose.

All of the previous discussion leads to a moral compass statement. Having found out more about myself from the exercises in the class and the readings, I believe that my moral compass entails maintaining all of my moral strengths and strengthening my weaknesses through a conscious effort in every decision that I make. I mean that some things are habits, but others are not. For those good qualities that are not inherent,… [read more]

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Research Paper

… Kohlberg's Theory Of Moral Development

Domestic Violence

There is the growing belief that business activity, especially managerial work, involves ethical problems. With the growing belief that ethics is a very important part of business and corporate activity, "business ethics" had come to be a significant area of study in determining what is ethical in business -- and, of course, what is not. An ethical code of conduct in business is becoming more and more commonplace today. The point of these ethical codes are to reassure everyone involved in the business (in different areas -- from customers to employees, managers to suppliers) that the business and its people has a certain belief system in place. But how does one come about developing this ethical system? Where do these ethics come from? Kohlberg's theory of moral development helps us understand how people come to possess their morals, which affect the way that we behave on many different levels. Kohlberg's theory offers us an important orientation to not only the field of ethics, but it also offers us a framework in which to understand how ethics are developed beyond the simple "rule following" behavior.

Kohlberg's theory of moral development focused on the thought that human beings development both philosophically and psychologically in a progressive fashion -- that is, people progress in their moral reasoning (which translates into ethical behavior) through a series of stages. Kohlberg believed that there were six different stages, which can be classified into three distinct levels, in which people progressed. The first level, "pre-conventional," is made up of stage one and stage 2, "obedience and punishment," and "individualism, instrumentalism, and exchange," respectively. Level two, the "conventional" level, is made up of stage 3, "good boy/girl," and stage 4, "law and order." The third and final level, or the "post-conventional" level, encompasses stage 5, "social contract," and stage six, "principled conscience" (Barger 2000). Kohlberg's theory of moral development can be related to all sorts of ethics -- including administrative ethics -- as the stages are important for understanding how an individual comes to their moral reasoning, which then prompts them to act or behave in a certain way. Kohlberg believed that individuals must progress through the stages one at a time; in other words, there is no way to jump over a level. Though people may progress at different speeds through the levels, all people, if they are to reach the highest level of moral development, must go through each and every stage.

The first stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development - the pre-conventional level -- is found in young, elementary school-aged children. In this stage, Kohlberg believed that individuals act depending on the socially acceptable norms (Barger 2000). They learn these norms through authoritative figures such as teachers and parents who tell them what is "right" and what is "wrong." Individuals learn to behave because of the threat of punishment if they do not behave obediently. The second stage of level one is all about gaining the perspective… [read more]

Business Ethics Every Individual Term Paper

… Business Ethics

Every individual is constantly presented with both moral and ethical issues in society and the workplace. This paper will address the difference between ethical and moral issues as well as the applications of each in the workplace.

In determining the proper course of action, each individual must access and apply both his personal ideals and the rules of the societal system in which he lives. These two systems used to determine appropriate action illuminate the subtle difference between morals and ethics. Morals are a personal code of right and wrong that defines one's character, while ethics point to standards of behavior expected by the societal group to which the individual belongs (Desnoyer, 2010). This difference can create conflict because a person's moral code is often unchanging (having been developed though the course of the his lifetime), while the ethics he practices are dependant on the applicable group to which he belongs (national, familial, business, scholastic etc.) and such points are likely to exist where these two systems diverge.

Such conflicts between personal morals and societal ethics can at times lead to positive change. For example, consider slavery. Until the late 1800's it was socially acceptable and nationally ethical to own slaves in America. However, as a growing number of individual's personal morals recognized the harm that such accepted slavery caused to may people, the anti-slavery movement gained strength and the eventual result was that slavery was no longer considered ethical and became outlawed by the 13th Amendment to the U.S., constitution.

However, a discussion of slavery requires a more detailed description of individual differences in personal moral philosophies. Forsynth gives insight to help one understand more clearly how some individuals did not find slavery morally reprehensible, while others were so revolted by the concept that a civil war was eventually fought to determine whether slavery would continue to be a socially acceptable action. According to Forsynth (Forsyth, 1980) such differences are due to the concepts of idealism and relativism. Idealism, describes the degree to which an acting individual is affected by the consequences of his action on the welfare of others. High idealistic individuals believe that it is always unnecessary or wrong to harm others, and that moral actions should and do lead to good or positive consequences. A low idealistic individual believes that harmful consequences may sometimes be necessary to produce a greater good (Forsyth, 1980; Forsyth, 1992). Relativism, describes the degree to which an individual rejects universal moral principles. High relativistic individuals feel that moral actions depend on the nature of the specific situation and the circumstances of the individuals involved. Low idealistic…… [read more]

Morals and Ethics What Makes Actions Right and Wrong Essay

… ¶ … Ethics

Ethical decision-making paradigms are often presented as a contrast between situational ethics, or individuals who make ethical decisions on a case-by-case basis, and ethics based upon sweeping moral systems (Hursthouse 2007). In general, I favor the latter schema, but I also see value in the former. I think that overall is too easy to rationalize bad behavior based upon situational needs. That is why I stated that 'it is always wrong to kill innocents during wartime,' even though I fully acknowledge that even in just wars, innocents are killed. If everyone upheld the higher moral standard of not killing innocent non-combatants, there would perhaps be no wars, or at least less costly wars. Setting ethical standards, in my view, should be about setting ethical ideals, even though we live in an imperfect world, and can never uphold any ethical system in its entirety.

It is all too easy to shrug one's shoulders and say that it is impossible to live an ethically pure life regarding other people, the environment, and even in terms of the standards we set for our individual self-improvement. Without high goals, change is impossible. That is why I believe it is important to have some kinds of general moral rules, even if they are not able to be obeyed at all times in the 'real world.' Instead of thinking up exceptions, we must do all we can to make these rules 'work.'

I am not inflexible -- far from it. I think self-defense is morally permissible when physically attacked, and to steal when starving is acceptable, even though under most circumstances I believe violence and stealing is wrong. However, that is because I uphold the principle…… [read more]

Personal and Organizational Ethics Term Paper

… ¶ … Personal and Professional Ethics

A focus on ethical decision making is vitally important for the organizational leader of today and in the future. In accordance with ethical standards, every person in an organization is responsible to those whom… [read more]

Values and Ethics Term Paper

… Values and Ethics

Values, morals, and ethics are part of a system on which people base their conduct related to themselves or other people. Their actions are based on this code of conduct that incorporates a series of values, morals,… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Essay

… Virtue Ethics

Over the centuries philosophers have argued about the most ethical ways that humankind should interact with the world around them. Where, number of different theories have emerged to help guide everyone as to the most appropriate way to… [read more]

Defend the Ethics of Your Values Essay

… Defend the Ethics of Your Values by Using One or More of the Four Kinds of Ethical Theories

Personal values development

Although it may sound strange, given that religious values have not formed the core of my moral development, the ethical theory with which I most identify is that of Kantian deontological or duty-based ethical theory. I believe that certain moral values are absolute, and cannot be distilled with situational variables. These moral values include tolerance, respect for other human beings, and the need to make meaning out of one's existence beyond merely serving one's material desires and needs. While some aspects of various ethical systems may vary between cultures, for a human being or a society to be ethically functional, there must be some core of moral values to support its rules and tenants. This is why, over the course of my moral development, I have defined my moral identity as a search for absolute truths. My beliefs in the value of anti-materialism, tolerance of gays and lesbians, and other issues have changed over time, but they changed and grew more sound and certain as I created a more coherent ethical code for myself.

One of the reasons I am less sympathetic to utilitarianism or consequential ethics than other philosophical theories is because utilitarianism stresses satisfying the needs of the greatest number of individuals, in a material sense. While this may sound democratic in theory, the question always arises -- what majority, of what group of people? The majority of one's own group or one's own nation or all humanity? For example, the individuals who orchestrated some of the deals that gave rise to the current credit crisis might have rationalized that their actions served a common good, because they served the majority of their shareholders, families, and colleagues. Yet the majority needs of all of society were not upheld, and many innocent individuals were hurt because of the subsequent recession that occurred. It is not in human nature to fairly perceive 'the majority' as the whole of humanity -- we pick and choose what majority we satisfy, when we are engaged in utilitarian thinking.

Kant would respond to these utilitarian bankers that to take risks with other people's money and to encourage financially ignorant individuals to take out mortgages was a violation of the principles of trust and ethics that must underlie every professional transaction. I agree with such an estimation, and also believe the current recession illustrates how satisfying material wants and desire is never enough to sustain a functional society: I have defined materialism very low upon my personal list of priorities as a result of a great deal of soul-searching.

The banking crisis is an excellent example of how people rationalized that 'the ends justifies the means,' namely that high levels of risk and unethical practices were acceptable, if a large profit could be incurred. The results of actions are unpredictable, advised Kant, therefore the rightness of the action must…… [read more]

Morality and Ethnics of Frankenstein's Daemon and Shakespeare's Richard III Thesis

… Ethics & Morality in Frankenstein & Richard III

Ethics and Morality in Frankenstein and Richard III

Literature has provided mankind with entertainment for centuries. Through literature, authors were able to express their thoughts. What Frankenstein and Richard III convey about morality and ethics?

According to a presentation about Ethical Decision-Making in the California State University, Northridge website, "ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality." On the other hand, morality is defined as behaviors and beliefs about human decency, right and wrong, good and evil, proper and improper. An analogy with music and musicology helps explain the difference between the definition of ethics and morality. Morality is said to be comparable to music and ethics is comparable to musicology. According to the California State University, musicology is "a conscious reflection on music"; following the analogy, ethics is therefore a conscious reflection of morality.

In order to analyze how ethics and morality is embodied in Frankenstein and Richard III, a recollection of both stories is necessary.

Frankenstein, written by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, is a story about the life of Dr. Victor Frankenstein who is an intelligent young man. The quest for scientific knowledge was Victor Frankenstein's obsession. He was particularly fixated with the mystery of giving life. Working hard in his laboratory alone, he spent all his time in isolation in creating a being out of the organs of dead men. Not realizing the full extent of the consequences of his experiment, Victor Frankenstein created a monstrous being. Victor Frankenstein ended up abandoning the monstrous being he created because he was so appalled by his creation's repulsive appearance.

The daemon that Frankenstein created was gentle and sensitive at the beginning. Just like any child, it was curious about everything there is in the world. It yearned to be loved. However, all of these initial characteristics changed largely because of its isolation. Having experienced only cruel encounters with humans, Frankenstein's daemon became bitter and revengeful. And because of its hideous appearance which all human feared, the monster was forced to hide itself, away from people. Frankenstein's daemon yearned most for nothing else but to feel that it belongs to a group or to someone. However, its hideous appearance prevented Frankenstein's daemon to establish any meaningful connection with another human being. This drove the monster to become vengeful to its creator. It ended up killing the people who are most dear to Victor Frankenstein.

The desire to make its creator feel the loneliness and isolation that it feels drove Frankenstein's daemon to kill the important people in his creator's life. Looking at the world from the daemon's perspective, the daemon considered taking revenge against its creator as right and proper. To Frankenstein's daemon, what it did was only right. In doing what it did, the daemon remained true to its morals and ethics. However, Frankenstein's daemon knows nothing much about human ethics and morality precisely because nobody taught the daemon what is right and wrong, and what is proper and improper.… [read more]

Individual Project - Ethics Research Proposal

… Individual Project - Ethics

Ethics Individual Project

The Hon. Justice Potter Stewart once wrote: "There is a big difference between what we have the right to do and what is right." While this may seem immoral to some people, the… [read more]

Ethics of Care Serve as a Clever Term Paper

… Ethics of care serve as a clever alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so poorly to guide an individual lives. The ethics of care is merely a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinctive moral theory or normative approach to the troubles humans face. It is important to global along with political matters as well as to the individual relations that can most clearly represent care (Virginia Held, 2007). However, the modern literature illustrate that ethics of care can be used as a theoretical basis to add a new, significant surface to social matters. The ethics of care is related to ethical theory to be exact a theory regarding what make an individual actions right as well as wrong. Plus it is one of a group of normative ethical theories that were originated by feminists in the mid of the twentieth century. Despite the fact that consequentialist as well as deontological ethical theories highlight universal values and independence where as ethics of care highlight the significance of relationships. In addition, it should be noted that the ethics of care was originally inspired and motivated by the efforts of psychologist Carol Gilligan who worked with psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg at the same time as he was doing research on his theory of moral development however Gilligan's efforts on women's moral development began in reaction to the apparent male based outcomes that arise from Kohlberg's learning some how Gilligan as well as others have recommended that the history of ethics in Western culture has highlighted the justice vision of morality for the reason that it is the point-of-view that has traditionally and conventionally been sophisticated as well as cultivated plus shared by males where as by marked different females have traditionally and usually been taught a unusual kind of moral outlook that highlights unity, building a community also caring about one's out of the ordinary relationships. So, the care view of morality has been disregarded, ignored, neglected and trivialized for the reason that women were traditionally at point of limited power as well as authority. In fact, justice view of morality emphasizes on doing the precise thing although if it need personal cost or forfeiting the interest of those to whom an individual is close moreover care view would instead indicate that an individual can and must place the interests of individuals who are close to us greater than the interests of total strangers as well as that one should be sophisticated and cultivated to their natural ability to care for others as well as themselves (Gilligan and Carol, 1982).

Furthermore, Proponents of an Ethics of Care highlights the responsibility of Mutual Interdependence along with Emotional Response that play significant part in humans' moral lives. In addition, it should be observed that a lot of human relationships and interactions involve persons who are helpless, reliant, sick as well as weak however the wanted and advantageous moral response is attached thoughtfulness, attentiveness and care to needs so an individual… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Ethics Dilemmas the Ethical Term Paper

… Ethics and Morality

Ethics Dilemmas

The ethical considerations here are whether someone's right secure property are more valuable than the risk of your own life. Because the dilemma states that you fear you will freeze to death, I do not see that the cost of your own life would be less valuable than another's claim to secure property.

To some it may seem deceitful to the police officers to observe them under these conditions. Yet, it was the police chief's call to tell them the real reason for the observation, or not. The fact that they are acting violently is their choice and you have done nothing wrong in observing it.

The farmer is obligated to pay for income he receives and is not entitled to the medical deduction according to law. His action is clearly illegal, so it undermines all other laws to ignore it. However, it does not hurt anyone directly so I would be more likely to do it than other scenarios.

Ethically, it seems cruel to the actual test subjects to participate in this project. They may be morally incriminating themselves and may feel bad later when they realize what they would have done in a real situation.

5. The ethical dilemma is whether you can kill your son under duress and the threat of indirectly killing another person. Though it is horrible, your son likely understands the situation to know that you must kill him to save another's life. However, whether or not he understands I would choose to save another life because I feel like I should save as many people as I can in a bad situation.

6. Depending on the law, many psychiatrists have a duty to warn if they think that someone is in actual danger, regardless of confidentiality. If…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Case Analysis Morality Pertains Term Paper

… Ethics and Morality Case Analysis

Morality pertains to moral conduct or standards, which in turn, determine the rightness or wrongness of one's conduct (Perle 2004). Ethics is the study of standards of conduct. It is also called moral philosophy. Ethics… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Term Paper

… VIRTUE ETHICS' refers to the theory or a system of philosophical belief that focuses on entire personality or disposition of a person instead of actions alone. Virtue ethics arose in response to the prevalent theories of deontology and utilitarianism that often failed to provide satisfactory answers for a variety of questions connected with ethics in certain situations especially where emotions and human connections were involved. Virtue ethics were developed by ancient thinkers Plato and Aristotle and for this reason, it is not something new. It has its roots in ancient times however the reason it is considered a modern moral philosophy is precisely because its rebirth is a fairly new phenomenon. It was in 1950s that interest in virtue ethics was renewed by Anscombe's famous paper titled: Modern Moral philosophy. This theory was developed to distinguish a set of beliefs that focused on moral character of a person instead of its individual actions.

In other words, virtue ethicist maintains that it is the entire disposition of the person that makes him virtuous or not, instead of his individual actions in isolated cases. They argue that virtue is ingrained in one's personality and is a person of sum of his beliefs, values and actions instead of simply his actions and reactions. A good way to explain this would be to take an example. If we are in a situation where someone needs our help and we extend it, the deontologist would think that help should be offered because it is a moral dirty, utilitarian would argue that this kind of action would maximize happiness of everyone involved, while a virtue ethicist would feel benevolent and thus extend help. In other words, virtue ethics is a logical way of thinking. We help others because that's the kind thing to do. We may not be overly concerned about or moral duties or maximization of happiness, but this is something that comes naturally to us. We see someone in distress and extend help because we know that we expect the same from others in such a situation. Virtue ethics is also on the sense of empathy.

Prior to 1960s, the field of normative ethics was largely dominated by deontology, which was based on the values and beliefs of eighteenth-century philosopher Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism, which was based on the views of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century philosophers Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill. In most of the books published up until thirty years ago, virtue was discussed in terms of deontology or utilitarianism. Gradually a change was witnessed as people began searching for something beyond deontology and utilitarianism as it was found that these two theories did not encompass many important issues or had no answers for some modern problems. This gave rise to virtue ethics, which was not exactly…… [read more]

Moral Phenomenology Term Paper

… Moral Phenomenology

Sensibility theory enables us to understand morality and ethics from the perspective of the phenomenological depth of a situation. This view or perception transcends the rational and intellectual modes of understanding the phenomenon of morality within the complex… [read more]

Business Ethics at One Time Term Paper

… Then I add: The first and most important decision in one's success is carefully choosing the people who will surround you. Make sure they share your values, make certain their character defaults to high moral ground in times of stress, ensure they are bright and comprehend results, and be confident of their loyalty. (Freeman, 2005, np).

A also have to be careful that I always keep abreast of my own personal ethics standards. Sometimes, I will not have any doubt about how I should respond or act in a situation. I will know, from my own ethics goals, what is right and wrong. Other times, however, the situation will be in shades of grey. There will be no exact right or wrong, different people will have varying advice, or the situation will be new to me and require more thought. In such cases, it is important to get input from a variety of sources with different ethical considerations, and carefully make a decision that will fit my standards and the needs of others best.

This will not always be easy to do, since conflicts will arise between what I believe and what others do, between what I feel is best and what actually perhaps will be best, and between what I believe and what is actually decided. It is most important, however, that I am honest to myself and where I stand in life. At all times, I should be able to look in the mirror and like what I see. I should be proud of my behavior and know that I am doing what is right by my highest standards of ethical behavior.

Resources Cited

Asacker, Tom. (2004) "Ethics in the workplace; The best strategy: start with honesty with others." Business Mexico 14(11), 40-42.

Do the right thing.(work ethics)." (2005) Management Today, 54.

Freeman, R. Edward. (2005) "Create a new story about business: we have a unique moment to make a lasting difference in corporate practice. This is a moment we must seize "Directors & Boards 29(3),…… [read more]

Ethics and the Legal Term Paper

… On the flipside, should more people be ultimately injured by the contaminants set free by nighttime emissions at the Hondo plant, George should report the company to the EPA and let it move to Mexico, ensuring that there would be… [read more]

Ethics and Decision Making Values Term Paper

… In short, even if I disagree with the decision personally, I feel that I can justify and account for my decision. This is again linked with my level of moral development, where I make decisions based on wanting to live up to the expectations of others. In this case, it is not about being accepted by others, but more about not being rejected by others. I feel that I am justified by referring to the morality of the actual organization and that this prevents personal rejection. This links particularly to cultural values, since I think it is considered important to show loyalty to the organization that pays you.

It has now been seen that the process of making decisions is impacted by personal values, organizational values, and cultural values. In any given situation, all of these value systems will often be playing a role. The difference is which one takes precedence in the specific situation. As also noted, this is also closely linked with the need to act based on meeting the expectations of others, which is a major motivation factor in many cases. This includes meeting the expectations of individuals within the organization as well as meeting the larger social expectations. However, in some cases, personal values will override the need for acceptance and will be the prime motivation factor.


Graham, J.W. (1995). Leadership, moral development and citizenship behavior. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(1), 43-54.

Janis, I.L. (2000). Groupthink. In J. Billsberry (Ed.), The effective manager: Perspectives and illustrations (pp. 166-178). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jansen, E., & Von Gilnow, M.A. (1985). Ethical ambivalence and organizational reward systems. Academy of Management Review, 10, 814-822.

Woodman, R., & Pasmore, W. (1990). Research and…… [read more]

Ethics According to the Dictionary Term Paper

… However, as an adult, individuals are free to leave behind the ethics of their parents to create a unique set of ethics. The development of ethics later in life can be based on personal experience and wisdom as much as from standardized codes of behavior. In the business world, ethics develop as a diversity of individuals tries to work together towards a common goal. Ethical business standards are based on several factors, including profitability. Many experts believe that ethical businesses are successful businesses because companies want to do business with companies with high moral standards. If a company is known to have unethical standards, clients will drop off in droves. No one wants to get cheated out of money or humiliated. Thus, ethics develop over time, in response to business environments, to the demands of the consumer and to the demands of the market. A diverse workforce also influences the development of ethics, as the wider the range of voices in an organization, the more complex and multifaceted its ethical code will be.

Ethics are one of the primary factors influencing personal and professional decision making. From pricing to hiring workers, from making a deal with a contractor to dealing with the government, all executive decisions are done with at least some attention to ethics. Whether to lie a little, a lot or not at all will be a decision determined by ethics. Whether to skim some money at the top, pad an account, charge a round of drinks to the company credit card: all of these are ethical decisions. When a company designs its business and marketing plans, it does so with attention to ethics. If an organization wants to become a market leader, how far is it willing to go? Is a giant retail company willing to edge out small mom-and-pop businesses in a local community? Does the company CEO hire his nephew? Professional decisions like these reflect the ethical code of the individual as well as of the organization as a whole.

When companies make collective decisions, they will often refer to official company codes of ethics. Drafting a code of ethics can therefore be one of the most intelligent steps an organization can make because it offers a set of clear guidelines for behavior and decision-making. In case of a dispute, an employee can open up the ethical code and make a decision based on it. While some decisions will be too complex for a simple ethical code to handle, general values and beliefs will be reflected in the code of ethics. This is exactly where critical thinking comes into play in terms of ethical standards.

Critical thinking is the core of effective professional decision-making. Creative thinking, the ability to synthesize various points-of-view or concepts, also impacts decision-making. Critical and creative thinking processes in turn reflect ethics. When the CEO deliberates over whether to promote his nephew, he will consider many options: the ethical obligation to avoid nepotism; the ethical obligation to help his family succeed… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Virtue-Based vs. Duty Term Paper

… "

One of the reflections given in this short story is that the quest towards morality is never-ending. Perhaps what Hawthorne wanted to extend to his readers is that, despite the evident morality that emerged from a duty-based ethic, this does not mean that one is absolutely moral. As with the other individuals who had been given the privilege and honor of resembling the Great Stone Face, Ernest and these people are just representations of the multiple facets of morality. Thus, Ernest represents duty-based ethic, and the statement "still hoping that some wiser and better man than himself would by and by appear" suggests that there is another facet of morality that humanity has yet to ponder and determine. Thus, morality is an infinite concept devoid of any absolute definition or meaning.

Victor Hugo in "Les Miserables" had also expressed agreement over the claim that morality is a never-ending conquest for humanity. However, he has shown a stronger position of believing in duty-based ethic than Hawthorne. In his novel, Hugo represents through the character of Bishop Bienvenu the embodiment of an individual who has not expressed belief in moral and ethical principles, yet manifests these beliefs through his good works. Bienvenu is best portrayed through Mdlle. Baptistine, who described the Bishop's character as "something truly evangelical in this delicacy which abstains from sermonizing, moralizing and making allusions ... " From these reflections, it became apparent that one need not have known moral and ethical principles, and that by doing moral and ethical acts does one only and truly achieve morality. In effect, Hugo's belief in duty-based ethic is sufficiently exemplified in Bienvenu's character.

From the analyses of Mayo, Hawthorne, and Hugo's works, it is shown that morality is, at best, a real concept that can only be recognized and determined if one sees it. Unlike virtue-based ethics, one need not go into details, enumerating his/her moral and ethical beliefs for people to believe that he or she is moral; rather, doing good works are proof already of one's morality.

Aristotle and Frankena, meanwhile, offers a "middle ground" in understanding morality. Rather than arguing that there is indeed a difference between virtue- and duty-based ethics, or choosing one over the other, they instead asserted that both virtue- and duty-based ethics complement each other. That is, one cannot exist without the other. This position is elucidated further in their philosophical works.

In "Nicomachean Ethics," Aristotle asserts that "[t]he function of man then is activity of soul in accordance with reason, or not apart from reason ... By human virtue or excellence we mean not that of the body, but that of the soul, and by happiness we mean an activity of the soul ... " From this passage, the philosopher's stance becomes clear: while he believes that one must have moral beliefs in order to become a moral individual, he does not take for granted the fact that with being comes doing, which is an inevitable human act that must be accomplished.… [read more]

Ethics Since 1900 by Mary Term Paper

… .. We must accept either that the word 'good' denotes a simple unanalysable property or that it denotes a complex and analyzable property, or that it denotes nothing at all" (24). Applied in the context of identifying one's path towards self-realization, it cannot be said that self-realization is good, simply because, as Moore argued, goodness is an unanalyzable concept. However, like the concept of goodness, self-realization is best identified and determined by experiencing rather than rationalizing on it -- in effect, like goodness, self-realization is only known when one experiences it.

Indeed, succeeding studies on the moral philosophy among humans showed an inclination towards equating morality with self-realization. Or more specifically, these discussions of succeeding philosophies on morality focused on the utilization of a moral standard in order to attain self-realization. In her discussion, Warnock includes intuition, emotive theory, and moral psychology as philosophies that proved her belief that 20th moral philosophy is coursing its path towards a more individualist notion of morality.

Intuitionism is vital to the development of moral philosophy of the 20th century because it is through intuition that an individual learns to identify what is good for them; thus, similarly, it is through intuition that one learns to identify that s/he is experiencing self-realization. Intuitionism is in fact a version of Moore's philosophy, wherein he posited that one knows goodness when one 'sees' it -- that is, goodness is witnessed if the individual feels that s/he had indeed experienced or did an act of goodness. In the same vein, emotive theory posits that morality is not so much based on rationality alone, but instead, has a lot to do with an individual's expression of his/her feelings. That is, under the emotive theory, one's sense of morality is spurred from expression to action, a process wherein one becomes motivated to act upon towards self-realization. Thus, under the emotive theory, "ethical terms do not serve only to express feeling. They are calculated also to arouse feeling, and so to stimulate action" (83). From intuition to emotive theory, Warnock goes on to moral psychology, where moral philosophy becomes more deterministic and individualistic: " ... It is not clear that there could ever be a time when the idea of free choice was useless, whatever further discoveries in psychology ... were made. For although it might be possible to regard other people as wholly causally determined it would be very difficult if not impossible to regard oneself in the same light" (155). From this passage, it became apparent that the path towards self-realization is solely based on the individual himself/herself. These philosophies are best integrated with Sartre's focus on individual expression as the path towards self-realization: "The fact that things could be looked at from another viewpoint would escape me, and therefore I might fail to realize that I myself occupied some particular viewpoint which I could change at will, and by thus being unaware of my freedom I would be less than human" (185).

Integration of these developments in… [read more]

Ethics Awareness Inventory Term Paper

… Nevertheless, I have noticed that such an approach can backfire, as what is good for the majority often neglects the needs of minority groups that may not have the political power or sufficient numbers to stand up for their needs. Therefore, I advocate a balanced approach to making ethical decisions, one that accounts for the needs of any minority groups, and one that addresses the needs of each and every person in the organization; but an approach that in the end produces the most reliable results.

Educational experiences have a huge impact on ethical thinking. Classroom learning, I believe is a small step towards true ethical awareness. Academic instruction in ethics and ethical theory does help categorize people so that we can be more aware of why we may have conflicts with other people. For instance, completing this inventory alerted me to some potential problems I may have with other people within organizations for which I worked. In fact, I have already noticed that the conflicts I have had in the past probably stem from conflict in our core ethical belief systems. In some cases, I may mistrust the cost-benefit analyses that organizations use, and often I will become frustrated with the inability of an organization to address the needs of all its members. However, I have also noticed through experience that we can never satisfy everyone; at some point an organization needs to make decisions using utilitarian principles.

My scoring high on both categories related to duty and to results shows that I can potentially have a positive impact on an organization that runs into an ethical dilemma. While I may become frustrated and overwhelmed with the wide range of diverse ethical opinions and styles, in the end I appreciate and respect diversity and the needs of all individuals.… [read more]

Happiness in Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics Term Paper

… Thus, "unlike the pursuit of things like money and valor (which is a kind of honor)" the pursuit of happiness has no extrinsic rewards, rather, Aristotle argues, one pursues it because it is good, in and of itself, and one pursues it for its own perfection and with the desire to perfect one's own soul or self. (I: 5)

Here, in his emphasis on the moral and individual goals of virtue, and its existence as a singular thing, Aristotle shows his platonic influence. He assumes because a thing has unity of purpose, it must be better than something that lacks unity of purpose, as do pleasure in its many varieties (from starring in a play, to soccer, to being elected to Congress, to ice creme). Vague social impulses, for instance, to give back to the community in exchange for the community conferring power, acclaim, and money upon one's shoulders may provoke sensations of pleasure that contain the semblance of virtue, but they are not virtue itself, even if the social community calls such military or political service virtue. And merely because sensations of feeling good are provoked does not mean the sensations have their roots in virtuous acts -- in fact, far from it, as one can feel pleasure eating a 1,400 calorie burger for the moment or pleasure at hearing applause yet emerge a poorer person from feeling bloated or arrogant afterwards from both experiences of pure pleasure.

Rather, virtue and the happiness that is synonymous with virtue seems to be for Aristotle more of a sense of doing what is right, of fulfilling one's obligations as a person, whatever they may be -- whether being a good wife for a woman, or thinking well for a philosophical man. The obligations may vary, but the pursuit of the thing itself is the…… [read more]

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