"Ethics / Morality" Essays

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Legislating Morality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (5,191 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


The Supreme Court claimed that when upholding the Roe vs. Wade decision that they were not legislating morality by making abortions legal. However, it is clear that in their decision by legalizing abortion the Supreme Court has essentially declared that abortion is right. As such, this is certainly a statement of morality and legalized abortions represent an example of the… [read more]

Ethics Is a Moral Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Ethics is a moral philosophy that attempts to discover a systematic understanding of the nature of morality and what it requires of people -- which, in Socrates's words, would simply come down to "how we ought to live" -- and why (Rachels & Rachels 2009). But, who is to say how one ought to live? Every person or group has… [read more]

Vamc Ethics the Lincolnville Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (633 words)
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The strict code of conduct and the well-understood hierarchy that exists at al levels of the military makes it quite easy to remain within ethical guidelines both as medical professionals and as members of the military, and deviance in such behavior is not looked upon lightly, holding individuals strongly to this applied code of ethics. Another ethical leg-up that the VA system as a whole and the Lincolnville VAMC in particular is in the recent technological growth and expansion that has radically changed the way certain processes are carried out within the system and its individual institutions (Kizer et al. 2009). With better integrated information networks and a variety of treatment- and administrative-related equipment and software, care within the VA system has been made far more efficient and effective, as well as presenting a cost savings to all paying parties (Kizer & Dudley 2009).

There are certainly some ethical issues that the Lincolnville VAMC needs to address, and indeed that the entire VA system must examine. The institution and the wider system have also greatly improved in some areas, and appears to be performing fairly strongly from an ethical viewpoint. Addressing the problems the institution has will lead to more effective and accessible care.


Howlader, N., Ries, L. & Edwards, B. (2009). The Impact of Underreported Veterans Affairs Data on National Cancer Statistics: Analysis Using Population-Based SEER Registries. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 101(7): 533-6.

Hunter, L. & Schmidt, N. (2010). Anxiety psychopathology in African-American adults: Literature review and development of an empirically informed sociocultural model. Psychological Bulletin 136(2): 211-35.

Kizer, K. & Dudley, A. (2009). Extreme Makeover: Transformation of the Veterans Health Care System. Annual Review of Public Health.

Layman, E. (2008). Ethical Issues and the Electronic Health Record. Health Care Manager 27(2):165-76.

Upahyay, S., Beck, A. & Rishi,…… [read more]

Wikileaks Ethics Issues Raised Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,491 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


America's treatment of Assange seems to be costing the government a great deal of credibility throughout the world. A cost benefit analysis would allow the stakeholders to improve the reputation they have acquire as a result of the way this ordeal was handled The primary stakeholder in a cost benefit analysis is the American government and some of her allies.… [read more]

Morality in the Magus Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Morality in the Magus

Probably the most interesting thing about ethics theories is that they are not only numerous, but also significantly divergent. This appears to suggest that human beings differ in terms of what they consider moral, good, and even true. The value of truth itself is indeed generally more subjective than many would like to admit or even consider. Particularly where political upheaval and violent disagreement are concerned, what is considered "true" by both sides is used as the basis for violence and conflict, whereas moral and ethical decisions use completely contrasting platforms to take effect. In John Fowles's novel, the Magus, while the ethical theories of utilitarianism and ethical subjectivism might be applied in varying degrees to the situations, decisions and actions described by Conchis, the specific outcomes suggest that the most relevant theory is subjectivism.

The basis of ethical subjectivism is the premise that perception, whether individual or collective, dictates moral decisions and actions, and particularly where such decisions and actions concern judgments about human conduct. In other words, these judgments are based upon a fundamentally arbitrary viewpoint that can vary among nations, individuals and time periods. The reason for this is that ethical statements are based upon feelings, beliefs, preferences, and attitudes. All these tend to be subjective to the individuals or collectives that hold these attitudes. It then follows that an ethical theory is constructed on the basis of personal experiences that are generalized to become judgments about the world and how the individual should respond to the world and other human beings. According to this view, an ethical belief is a personal opinion or perception regarding what is true that is expanded to a collective belief regarding generally held truths. These beliefs are not necessarily in fact true. However, they are an accurate representation of an individual's or number of individuals' perception of what the world is and how individuals should live in this world.

When applied to the extract from Fowles's work here, ethical subjectivism can be applied to both Conchis personally and the Nazis collectively.

Where Conchis is concerned, his personal values are temporarily overridden by the Nazi ideal, and specifically by Colonel Wimmel. Indeed, the collective Nazi ideal is so strong that he initially believes that he has no choice in terms of actions that, under normal circumstances, might be questionable. When the colonel, for example, orders Conchis to make a hostage provide information, he does this not out of a sense of personal duty, but rather out of a sense of being trapped within a certain moral paradigm. This is evident in his words: "…I begged the man to give all the information he could. & #8230;I felt passionately that it was my duty to stop any more of this atrocious degradation of human intelligence." (p. 391).

For Conchis, the moral decision-making process did not extend beyond his own horror at the torture he had witnessed. His ethical subjectivism was therefore based upon a reaction towards what had been… [read more]

Moral Philosophy What Moral Compass Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Moral Philosophy

What moral compass do you use: Kohlberg's Moral Reasoning, a professional Code of Ethics, or God's word?

The most important moral guidance in my life are God's principles more so than their literal interpretations by man. Since entering Kohlberg's post-conventional stage of moral reasoning, it has become more difficult for me to accept interpretations of God's words that seem to conflict with fundamental principles of God's love. Where such conflicts seem to exist, I apply my most genuine attempt to reconcile the apparent discrepancies and I do what seems to be most consistent with God's principles.

What is your trump card?

My trump card is the principle of do unto others. In my experience, this is the most important of God's principles with respect to human relations and also to the way we treat all living things. In every respect, I try to remember to reverse situations in my mind and imagine circumstances as though I were on the receiving end of my contemplated behavior.

3. What governs your behavior?

In principle, the Golden Rule governs my behavior more than any other concept in human affairs. I try to be truthful and considerate, and as fair as possible to my fellow man at all times and to remind myself that none of us is perfect or above making mistakes. I try to treat others as I would have them treat me at all times.

4. What reasons do you give for your choices?

Generally, I try to make sure that my choices are the product of objective principles and never the product of self-interest. Likewise, I try to uphold any values or standards that I expect of others and I try to understand the same failings in others of which I am capable as well.

5. Why do you think an Evangelical University has such a huge problem with blatant cheating and plagiarism?

If I had to guess (without passing judgment), I would imagine that plagiarism is a problem because students rationalize their behavior. They may figure that "everyone else is doing it" or they may rationalize that their plagiarism is "not hurting anybody." More generally, I would imagine that students who cheat in any way have lost sight of the fact that the main purpose of their education is to learn and that grades are secondary to that goal.

6. What moral code might those students be following?

I would hesitate to assume that their cheating is necessarily a function of their moral code. I would imagine that many of them subscribe generally to the same moral code as mine but that,…… [read more]

Business Ethics: Personal Moral Intelligence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Integrity I know is "doing what we think is right" (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 7). The authors say that this quality is the most important and that it is at the foundation of moral intelligence. Responsibility means that a person is willing to answer honestly for their actions; they know what is right (they have integrity) and they do what is right (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 7). Maybe the most important ones for me, personally, to pay attention to are compassion and forgiveness. I have a difficult time forgiving myself for problems that I cause others. Since "compassion and forgiveness operate on two levels: first how we relate to ourselves and second, in how we relate to others" (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 8), I first need to learn how to forgive myself for the mistakes I make. If I cannot forgive myself then how am I going to learn to forgive, and be compassionate with, others? Discovering what these four traits mean to me is the most important part of writing a personal ethical code.

The first question I answer is why I need to be moral in the first place. I believe that being a moral person, someone who the four qualities outlined in the text, will allow me to be a more successful person. I define success not as a monetary standard, but as a person who can go to sleep at night and rest peacefully. If I deal with myself and others with integrity, responsibility, compassion and forgiveness every day, then I will be successful.

Next I need to determine what my principles, values and beliefs are. From the MCI, I believe that integrity is the principle that I value most. I also find that I value telling the truth more than any other trait. The final part of the statement has to do with beliefs. Beliefs are a condensed statement of principles and values (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 49). My personal statement is that I will act with integrity and truth in all dealings with myself and other people.

Discovering my purpose has been a difficult pursuit. After reading the book, I think that discovering that may actually be easier than I thought. Oprah Winfrey said that purpose was like a finger print (Lennick & Kiel, 2007, 54), meaning that it is unique to every person. I believe that my purpose involves helping people perhaps in a business capacity. I like working with people, and I like trying to assist them with their problems, so that has to be a piece of my purpose.

All of the previous discussion leads to a moral compass statement. Having found out more about myself from the exercises in the class and the readings, I believe that my moral compass entails maintaining all of my moral strengths and strengthening my weaknesses through a conscious effort in every decision that I make. I mean that some things are habits, but others are not. For those good qualities that are not inherent,… [read more]

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,319 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Kohlberg's Theory Of Moral Development

Domestic Violence

There is the growing belief that business activity, especially managerial work, involves ethical problems. With the growing belief that ethics is a very important part of business and corporate activity, "business ethics" had come to be a significant area of study in determining what is ethical in business -- and, of course, what is not. An ethical code of conduct in business is becoming more and more commonplace today. The point of these ethical codes are to reassure everyone involved in the business (in different areas -- from customers to employees, managers to suppliers) that the business and its people has a certain belief system in place. But how does one come about developing this ethical system? Where do these ethics come from? Kohlberg's theory of moral development helps us understand how people come to possess their morals, which affect the way that we behave on many different levels. Kohlberg's theory offers us an important orientation to not only the field of ethics, but it also offers us a framework in which to understand how ethics are developed beyond the simple "rule following" behavior.

Kohlberg's theory of moral development focused on the thought that human beings development both philosophically and psychologically in a progressive fashion -- that is, people progress in their moral reasoning (which translates into ethical behavior) through a series of stages. Kohlberg believed that there were six different stages, which can be classified into three distinct levels, in which people progressed. The first level, "pre-conventional," is made up of stage one and stage 2, "obedience and punishment," and "individualism, instrumentalism, and exchange," respectively. Level two, the "conventional" level, is made up of stage 3, "good boy/girl," and stage 4, "law and order." The third and final level, or the "post-conventional" level, encompasses stage 5, "social contract," and stage six, "principled conscience" (Barger 2000). Kohlberg's theory of moral development can be related to all sorts of ethics -- including administrative ethics -- as the stages are important for understanding how an individual comes to their moral reasoning, which then prompts them to act or behave in a certain way. Kohlberg believed that individuals must progress through the stages one at a time; in other words, there is no way to jump over a level. Though people may progress at different speeds through the levels, all people, if they are to reach the highest level of moral development, must go through each and every stage.

The first stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development - the pre-conventional level -- is found in young, elementary school-aged children. In this stage, Kohlberg believed that individuals act depending on the socially acceptable norms (Barger 2000). They learn these norms through authoritative figures such as teachers and parents who tell them what is "right" and what is "wrong." Individuals learn to behave because of the threat of punishment if they do not behave obediently. The second stage of level one is all about gaining the perspective… [read more]

Business Ethics Every Individual Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (875 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Business Ethics

Every individual is constantly presented with both moral and ethical issues in society and the workplace. This paper will address the difference between ethical and moral issues as well as the applications of each in the workplace.

In determining the proper course of action, each individual must access and apply both his personal ideals and the rules of the societal system in which he lives. These two systems used to determine appropriate action illuminate the subtle difference between morals and ethics. Morals are a personal code of right and wrong that defines one's character, while ethics point to standards of behavior expected by the societal group to which the individual belongs (Desnoyer, 2010). This difference can create conflict because a person's moral code is often unchanging (having been developed though the course of the his lifetime), while the ethics he practices are dependant on the applicable group to which he belongs (national, familial, business, scholastic etc.) and such points are likely to exist where these two systems diverge.

Such conflicts between personal morals and societal ethics can at times lead to positive change. For example, consider slavery. Until the late 1800's it was socially acceptable and nationally ethical to own slaves in America. However, as a growing number of individual's personal morals recognized the harm that such accepted slavery caused to may people, the anti-slavery movement gained strength and the eventual result was that slavery was no longer considered ethical and became outlawed by the 13th Amendment to the U.S., constitution.

However, a discussion of slavery requires a more detailed description of individual differences in personal moral philosophies. Forsynth gives insight to help one understand more clearly how some individuals did not find slavery morally reprehensible, while others were so revolted by the concept that a civil war was eventually fought to determine whether slavery would continue to be a socially acceptable action. According to Forsynth (Forsyth, 1980) such differences are due to the concepts of idealism and relativism. Idealism, describes the degree to which an acting individual is affected by the consequences of his action on the welfare of others. High idealistic individuals believe that it is always unnecessary or wrong to harm others, and that moral actions should and do lead to good or positive consequences. A low idealistic individual believes that harmful consequences may sometimes be necessary to produce a greater good (Forsyth, 1980; Forsyth, 1992). Relativism, describes the degree to which an individual rejects universal moral principles. High relativistic individuals feel that moral actions depend on the nature of the specific situation and the circumstances of the individuals involved. Low idealistic…… [read more]

Morals and Ethics What Makes Actions Right and Wrong Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Ethics

Ethical decision-making paradigms are often presented as a contrast between situational ethics, or individuals who make ethical decisions on a case-by-case basis, and ethics based upon sweeping moral systems (Hursthouse 2007). In general, I favor the latter schema, but I also see value in the former. I think that overall is too easy to rationalize bad behavior based upon situational needs. That is why I stated that 'it is always wrong to kill innocents during wartime,' even though I fully acknowledge that even in just wars, innocents are killed. If everyone upheld the higher moral standard of not killing innocent non-combatants, there would perhaps be no wars, or at least less costly wars. Setting ethical standards, in my view, should be about setting ethical ideals, even though we live in an imperfect world, and can never uphold any ethical system in its entirety.

It is all too easy to shrug one's shoulders and say that it is impossible to live an ethically pure life regarding other people, the environment, and even in terms of the standards we set for our individual self-improvement. Without high goals, change is impossible. That is why I believe it is important to have some kinds of general moral rules, even if they are not able to be obeyed at all times in the 'real world.' Instead of thinking up exceptions, we must do all we can to make these rules 'work.'

I am not inflexible -- far from it. I think self-defense is morally permissible when physically attacked, and to steal when starving is acceptable, even though under most circumstances I believe violence and stealing is wrong. However, that is because I uphold the principle…… [read more]

Personal and Organizational Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,505 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Personal and Professional Ethics

A focus on ethical decision making is vitally important for the organizational leader of today and in the future. In accordance with ethical standards, every person in an organization is responsible to those whom his or her actions directly affect. As individuals progress through their careers and their role continues to evolve into one… [read more]

Values and Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,454 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Values and Ethics

Values, morals, and ethics are part of a system on which people base their conduct related to themselves or other people. Their actions are based on this code of conduct that incorporates a series of values, morals, and ethics that people consider to be the most suitable for them and for the situations they are confronting with.… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,833 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Virtue Ethics

Over the centuries philosophers have argued about the most ethical ways that humankind should interact with the world around them. Where, number of different theories have emerged to help guide everyone as to the most appropriate way to act within a society. In some cases, these theories have often been reliant on rules to set the most appropriate… [read more]

Defend the Ethics of Your Values Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (991 words)
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Defend the Ethics of Your Values by Using One or More of the Four Kinds of Ethical Theories

Personal values development

Although it may sound strange, given that religious values have not formed the core of my moral development, the ethical theory with which I most identify is that of Kantian deontological or duty-based ethical theory. I believe that certain moral values are absolute, and cannot be distilled with situational variables. These moral values include tolerance, respect for other human beings, and the need to make meaning out of one's existence beyond merely serving one's material desires and needs. While some aspects of various ethical systems may vary between cultures, for a human being or a society to be ethically functional, there must be some core of moral values to support its rules and tenants. This is why, over the course of my moral development, I have defined my moral identity as a search for absolute truths. My beliefs in the value of anti-materialism, tolerance of gays and lesbians, and other issues have changed over time, but they changed and grew more sound and certain as I created a more coherent ethical code for myself.

One of the reasons I am less sympathetic to utilitarianism or consequential ethics than other philosophical theories is because utilitarianism stresses satisfying the needs of the greatest number of individuals, in a material sense. While this may sound democratic in theory, the question always arises -- what majority, of what group of people? The majority of one's own group or one's own nation or all humanity? For example, the individuals who orchestrated some of the deals that gave rise to the current credit crisis might have rationalized that their actions served a common good, because they served the majority of their shareholders, families, and colleagues. Yet the majority needs of all of society were not upheld, and many innocent individuals were hurt because of the subsequent recession that occurred. It is not in human nature to fairly perceive 'the majority' as the whole of humanity -- we pick and choose what majority we satisfy, when we are engaged in utilitarian thinking.

Kant would respond to these utilitarian bankers that to take risks with other people's money and to encourage financially ignorant individuals to take out mortgages was a violation of the principles of trust and ethics that must underlie every professional transaction. I agree with such an estimation, and also believe the current recession illustrates how satisfying material wants and desire is never enough to sustain a functional society: I have defined materialism very low upon my personal list of priorities as a result of a great deal of soul-searching.

The banking crisis is an excellent example of how people rationalized that 'the ends justifies the means,' namely that high levels of risk and unethical practices were acceptable, if a large profit could be incurred. The results of actions are unpredictable, advised Kant, therefore the rightness of the action must…… [read more]

Morality and Ethnics of Frankenstein's Daemon and Shakespeare's Richard III Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,398 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethics & Morality in Frankenstein & Richard III

Ethics and Morality in Frankenstein and Richard III

Literature has provided mankind with entertainment for centuries. Through literature, authors were able to express their thoughts. What Frankenstein and Richard III convey about morality and ethics?

According to a presentation about Ethical Decision-Making in the California State University, Northridge website, "ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality." On the other hand, morality is defined as behaviors and beliefs about human decency, right and wrong, good and evil, proper and improper. An analogy with music and musicology helps explain the difference between the definition of ethics and morality. Morality is said to be comparable to music and ethics is comparable to musicology. According to the California State University, musicology is "a conscious reflection on music"; following the analogy, ethics is therefore a conscious reflection of morality.

In order to analyze how ethics and morality is embodied in Frankenstein and Richard III, a recollection of both stories is necessary.

Frankenstein, written by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, is a story about the life of Dr. Victor Frankenstein who is an intelligent young man. The quest for scientific knowledge was Victor Frankenstein's obsession. He was particularly fixated with the mystery of giving life. Working hard in his laboratory alone, he spent all his time in isolation in creating a being out of the organs of dead men. Not realizing the full extent of the consequences of his experiment, Victor Frankenstein created a monstrous being. Victor Frankenstein ended up abandoning the monstrous being he created because he was so appalled by his creation's repulsive appearance.

The daemon that Frankenstein created was gentle and sensitive at the beginning. Just like any child, it was curious about everything there is in the world. It yearned to be loved. However, all of these initial characteristics changed largely because of its isolation. Having experienced only cruel encounters with humans, Frankenstein's daemon became bitter and revengeful. And because of its hideous appearance which all human feared, the monster was forced to hide itself, away from people. Frankenstein's daemon yearned most for nothing else but to feel that it belongs to a group or to someone. However, its hideous appearance prevented Frankenstein's daemon to establish any meaningful connection with another human being. This drove the monster to become vengeful to its creator. It ended up killing the people who are most dear to Victor Frankenstein.

The desire to make its creator feel the loneliness and isolation that it feels drove Frankenstein's daemon to kill the important people in his creator's life. Looking at the world from the daemon's perspective, the daemon considered taking revenge against its creator as right and proper. To Frankenstein's daemon, what it did was only right. In doing what it did, the daemon remained true to its morals and ethics. However, Frankenstein's daemon knows nothing much about human ethics and morality precisely because nobody taught the daemon what is right and wrong, and what is proper and improper.… [read more]

Individual Project - Ethics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,965 words)
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Individual Project - Ethics

Ethics Individual Project

The Hon. Justice Potter Stewart once wrote: "There is a big difference between what we have the right to do and what is right." While this may seem immoral to some people, the reality is that American law protects individual liberties first and foremost, which can make it more difficult to legislate ethical… [read more]

Ethics of Care Serve as a Clever Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,280 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethics of care serve as a clever alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so poorly to guide an individual lives. The ethics of care is merely a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinctive moral theory or normative approach to the troubles humans face. It is important to global along with political matters as well as to the individual relations that can most clearly represent care (Virginia Held, 2007). However, the modern literature illustrate that ethics of care can be used as a theoretical basis to add a new, significant surface to social matters. The ethics of care is related to ethical theory to be exact a theory regarding what make an individual actions right as well as wrong. Plus it is one of a group of normative ethical theories that were originated by feminists in the mid of the twentieth century. Despite the fact that consequentialist as well as deontological ethical theories highlight universal values and independence where as ethics of care highlight the significance of relationships. In addition, it should be noted that the ethics of care was originally inspired and motivated by the efforts of psychologist Carol Gilligan who worked with psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg at the same time as he was doing research on his theory of moral development however Gilligan's efforts on women's moral development began in reaction to the apparent male based outcomes that arise from Kohlberg's learning some how Gilligan as well as others have recommended that the history of ethics in Western culture has highlighted the justice vision of morality for the reason that it is the point-of-view that has traditionally and conventionally been sophisticated as well as cultivated plus shared by males where as by marked different females have traditionally and usually been taught a unusual kind of moral outlook that highlights unity, building a community also caring about one's out of the ordinary relationships. So, the care view of morality has been disregarded, ignored, neglected and trivialized for the reason that women were traditionally at point of limited power as well as authority. In fact, justice view of morality emphasizes on doing the precise thing although if it need personal cost or forfeiting the interest of those to whom an individual is close moreover care view would instead indicate that an individual can and must place the interests of individuals who are close to us greater than the interests of total strangers as well as that one should be sophisticated and cultivated to their natural ability to care for others as well as themselves (Gilligan and Carol, 1982).

Furthermore, Proponents of an Ethics of Care highlights the responsibility of Mutual Interdependence along with Emotional Response that play significant part in humans' moral lives. In addition, it should be observed that a lot of human relationships and interactions involve persons who are helpless, reliant, sick as well as weak however the wanted and advantageous moral response is attached thoughtfulness, attentiveness and care to needs so an individual… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Ethics Dilemmas the Ethical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethics and Morality

Ethics Dilemmas

The ethical considerations here are whether someone's right secure property are more valuable than the risk of your own life. Because the dilemma states that you fear you will freeze to death, I do not see that the cost of your own life would be less valuable than another's claim to secure property.

To some it may seem deceitful to the police officers to observe them under these conditions. Yet, it was the police chief's call to tell them the real reason for the observation, or not. The fact that they are acting violently is their choice and you have done nothing wrong in observing it.

The farmer is obligated to pay for income he receives and is not entitled to the medical deduction according to law. His action is clearly illegal, so it undermines all other laws to ignore it. However, it does not hurt anyone directly so I would be more likely to do it than other scenarios.

Ethically, it seems cruel to the actual test subjects to participate in this project. They may be morally incriminating themselves and may feel bad later when they realize what they would have done in a real situation.

5. The ethical dilemma is whether you can kill your son under duress and the threat of indirectly killing another person. Though it is horrible, your son likely understands the situation to know that you must kill him to save another's life. However, whether or not he understands I would choose to save another life because I feel like I should save as many people as I can in a bad situation.

6. Depending on the law, many psychiatrists have a duty to warn if they think that someone is in actual danger, regardless of confidentiality. If…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Case Analysis Morality Pertains Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,271 words)
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Ethics and Morality Case Analysis

Morality pertains to moral conduct or standards, which in turn, determine the rightness or wrongness of one's conduct (Perle 2004). Ethics is the study of standards of conduct. It is also called moral philosophy. Ethics and morality are often used interchangeably because of their connectedness. It is generally believed that morality is ethics in action.… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


VIRTUE ETHICS' refers to the theory or a system of philosophical belief that focuses on entire personality or disposition of a person instead of actions alone. Virtue ethics arose in response to the prevalent theories of deontology and utilitarianism that often failed to provide satisfactory answers for a variety of questions connected with ethics in certain situations especially where emotions and human connections were involved. Virtue ethics were developed by ancient thinkers Plato and Aristotle and for this reason, it is not something new. It has its roots in ancient times however the reason it is considered a modern moral philosophy is precisely because its rebirth is a fairly new phenomenon. It was in 1950s that interest in virtue ethics was renewed by Anscombe's famous paper titled: Modern Moral philosophy. This theory was developed to distinguish a set of beliefs that focused on moral character of a person instead of its individual actions.

In other words, virtue ethicist maintains that it is the entire disposition of the person that makes him virtuous or not, instead of his individual actions in isolated cases. They argue that virtue is ingrained in one's personality and is a person of sum of his beliefs, values and actions instead of simply his actions and reactions. A good way to explain this would be to take an example. If we are in a situation where someone needs our help and we extend it, the deontologist would think that help should be offered because it is a moral dirty, utilitarian would argue that this kind of action would maximize happiness of everyone involved, while a virtue ethicist would feel benevolent and thus extend help. In other words, virtue ethics is a logical way of thinking. We help others because that's the kind thing to do. We may not be overly concerned about or moral duties or maximization of happiness, but this is something that comes naturally to us. We see someone in distress and extend help because we know that we expect the same from others in such a situation. Virtue ethics is also on the sense of empathy.

Prior to 1960s, the field of normative ethics was largely dominated by deontology, which was based on the values and beliefs of eighteenth-century philosopher Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism, which was based on the views of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century philosophers Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill. In most of the books published up until thirty years ago, virtue was discussed in terms of deontology or utilitarianism. Gradually a change was witnessed as people began searching for something beyond deontology and utilitarianism as it was found that these two theories did not encompass many important issues or had no answers for some modern problems. This gave rise to virtue ethics, which was not exactly…… [read more]

Moral Phenomenology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Moral Phenomenology

Sensibility theory enables us to understand morality and ethics from the perspective of the phenomenological depth of a situation. This view or perception transcends the rational and intellectual modes of understanding the phenomenon of morality within the complex context of human experience. The subtle relationship between the body and emotional and intellectual factors in the experience of ethics… [read more]

Business Ethics at One Time Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Then I add: The first and most important decision in one's success is carefully choosing the people who will surround you. Make sure they share your values, make certain their character defaults to high moral ground in times of stress, ensure they are bright and comprehend results, and be confident of their loyalty. (Freeman, 2005, np).

A also have to be careful that I always keep abreast of my own personal ethics standards. Sometimes, I will not have any doubt about how I should respond or act in a situation. I will know, from my own ethics goals, what is right and wrong. Other times, however, the situation will be in shades of grey. There will be no exact right or wrong, different people will have varying advice, or the situation will be new to me and require more thought. In such cases, it is important to get input from a variety of sources with different ethical considerations, and carefully make a decision that will fit my standards and the needs of others best.

This will not always be easy to do, since conflicts will arise between what I believe and what others do, between what I feel is best and what actually perhaps will be best, and between what I believe and what is actually decided. It is most important, however, that I am honest to myself and where I stand in life. At all times, I should be able to look in the mirror and like what I see. I should be proud of my behavior and know that I am doing what is right by my highest standards of ethical behavior.

Resources Cited

Asacker, Tom. (2004) "Ethics in the workplace; The best strategy: start with honesty with others." Business Mexico 14(11), 40-42.

Do the right thing.(work ethics)." (2005) Management Today, 54.

Freeman, R. Edward. (2005) "Create a new story about business: we have a unique moment to make a lasting difference in corporate practice. This is a moment we must seize "Directors & Boards 29(3),…… [read more]

Ethics and the Legal Term Paper

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On the flipside, should more people be ultimately injured by the contaminants set free by nighttime emissions at the Hondo plant, George should report the company to the EPA and let it move to Mexico, ensuring that there would be minimal upwind chemical repercussions to the people of his community.

Rights-based ethical decision-making would proffer the same conclusion: George Mackee… [read more]

Ethics and Decision Making Values Term Paper

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In short, even if I disagree with the decision personally, I feel that I can justify and account for my decision. This is again linked with my level of moral development, where I make decisions based on wanting to live up to the expectations of others. In this case, it is not about being accepted by others, but more about not being rejected by others. I feel that I am justified by referring to the morality of the actual organization and that this prevents personal rejection. This links particularly to cultural values, since I think it is considered important to show loyalty to the organization that pays you.

It has now been seen that the process of making decisions is impacted by personal values, organizational values, and cultural values. In any given situation, all of these value systems will often be playing a role. The difference is which one takes precedence in the specific situation. As also noted, this is also closely linked with the need to act based on meeting the expectations of others, which is a major motivation factor in many cases. This includes meeting the expectations of individuals within the organization as well as meeting the larger social expectations. However, in some cases, personal values will override the need for acceptance and will be the prime motivation factor.


Graham, J.W. (1995). Leadership, moral development and citizenship behavior. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(1), 43-54.

Janis, I.L. (2000). Groupthink. In J. Billsberry (Ed.), The effective manager: Perspectives and illustrations (pp. 166-178). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jansen, E., & Von Gilnow, M.A. (1985). Ethical ambivalence and organizational reward systems. Academy of Management Review, 10, 814-822.

Woodman, R., & Pasmore, W. (1990). Research and…… [read more]

Ethics According to the Dictionary Term Paper

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However, as an adult, individuals are free to leave behind the ethics of their parents to create a unique set of ethics. The development of ethics later in life can be based on personal experience and wisdom as much as from standardized codes of behavior. In the business world, ethics develop as a diversity of individuals tries to work together towards a common goal. Ethical business standards are based on several factors, including profitability. Many experts believe that ethical businesses are successful businesses because companies want to do business with companies with high moral standards. If a company is known to have unethical standards, clients will drop off in droves. No one wants to get cheated out of money or humiliated. Thus, ethics develop over time, in response to business environments, to the demands of the consumer and to the demands of the market. A diverse workforce also influences the development of ethics, as the wider the range of voices in an organization, the more complex and multifaceted its ethical code will be.

Ethics are one of the primary factors influencing personal and professional decision making. From pricing to hiring workers, from making a deal with a contractor to dealing with the government, all executive decisions are done with at least some attention to ethics. Whether to lie a little, a lot or not at all will be a decision determined by ethics. Whether to skim some money at the top, pad an account, charge a round of drinks to the company credit card: all of these are ethical decisions. When a company designs its business and marketing plans, it does so with attention to ethics. If an organization wants to become a market leader, how far is it willing to go? Is a giant retail company willing to edge out small mom-and-pop businesses in a local community? Does the company CEO hire his nephew? Professional decisions like these reflect the ethical code of the individual as well as of the organization as a whole.

When companies make collective decisions, they will often refer to official company codes of ethics. Drafting a code of ethics can therefore be one of the most intelligent steps an organization can make because it offers a set of clear guidelines for behavior and decision-making. In case of a dispute, an employee can open up the ethical code and make a decision based on it. While some decisions will be too complex for a simple ethical code to handle, general values and beliefs will be reflected in the code of ethics. This is exactly where critical thinking comes into play in terms of ethical standards.

Critical thinking is the core of effective professional decision-making. Creative thinking, the ability to synthesize various points-of-view or concepts, also impacts decision-making. Critical and creative thinking processes in turn reflect ethics. When the CEO deliberates over whether to promote his nephew, he will consider many options: the ethical obligation to avoid nepotism; the ethical obligation to help his family succeed… [read more]

Virtue Ethics Virtue-Based vs. Duty Term Paper

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One of the reflections given in this short story is that the quest towards morality is never-ending. Perhaps what Hawthorne wanted to extend to his readers is that, despite the evident morality that emerged from a duty-based ethic, this does not mean that one is absolutely moral. As with the other individuals who had been given the privilege and honor of resembling the Great Stone Face, Ernest and these people are just representations of the multiple facets of morality. Thus, Ernest represents duty-based ethic, and the statement "still hoping that some wiser and better man than himself would by and by appear" suggests that there is another facet of morality that humanity has yet to ponder and determine. Thus, morality is an infinite concept devoid of any absolute definition or meaning.

Victor Hugo in "Les Miserables" had also expressed agreement over the claim that morality is a never-ending conquest for humanity. However, he has shown a stronger position of believing in duty-based ethic than Hawthorne. In his novel, Hugo represents through the character of Bishop Bienvenu the embodiment of an individual who has not expressed belief in moral and ethical principles, yet manifests these beliefs through his good works. Bienvenu is best portrayed through Mdlle. Baptistine, who described the Bishop's character as "something truly evangelical in this delicacy which abstains from sermonizing, moralizing and making allusions ... " From these reflections, it became apparent that one need not have known moral and ethical principles, and that by doing moral and ethical acts does one only and truly achieve morality. In effect, Hugo's belief in duty-based ethic is sufficiently exemplified in Bienvenu's character.

From the analyses of Mayo, Hawthorne, and Hugo's works, it is shown that morality is, at best, a real concept that can only be recognized and determined if one sees it. Unlike virtue-based ethics, one need not go into details, enumerating his/her moral and ethical beliefs for people to believe that he or she is moral; rather, doing good works are proof already of one's morality.

Aristotle and Frankena, meanwhile, offers a "middle ground" in understanding morality. Rather than arguing that there is indeed a difference between virtue- and duty-based ethics, or choosing one over the other, they instead asserted that both virtue- and duty-based ethics complement each other. That is, one cannot exist without the other. This position is elucidated further in their philosophical works.

In "Nicomachean Ethics," Aristotle asserts that "[t]he function of man then is activity of soul in accordance with reason, or not apart from reason ... By human virtue or excellence we mean not that of the body, but that of the soul, and by happiness we mean an activity of the soul ... " From this passage, the philosopher's stance becomes clear: while he believes that one must have moral beliefs in order to become a moral individual, he does not take for granted the fact that with being comes doing, which is an inevitable human act that must be accomplished.… [read more]

Ethics Since 1900 by Mary Term Paper

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.. We must accept either that the word 'good' denotes a simple unanalysable property or that it denotes a complex and analyzable property, or that it denotes nothing at all" (24). Applied in the context of identifying one's path towards self-realization, it cannot be said that self-realization is good, simply because, as Moore argued, goodness is an unanalyzable concept. However, like the concept of goodness, self-realization is best identified and determined by experiencing rather than rationalizing on it -- in effect, like goodness, self-realization is only known when one experiences it.

Indeed, succeeding studies on the moral philosophy among humans showed an inclination towards equating morality with self-realization. Or more specifically, these discussions of succeeding philosophies on morality focused on the utilization of a moral standard in order to attain self-realization. In her discussion, Warnock includes intuition, emotive theory, and moral psychology as philosophies that proved her belief that 20th moral philosophy is coursing its path towards a more individualist notion of morality.

Intuitionism is vital to the development of moral philosophy of the 20th century because it is through intuition that an individual learns to identify what is good for them; thus, similarly, it is through intuition that one learns to identify that s/he is experiencing self-realization. Intuitionism is in fact a version of Moore's philosophy, wherein he posited that one knows goodness when one 'sees' it -- that is, goodness is witnessed if the individual feels that s/he had indeed experienced or did an act of goodness. In the same vein, emotive theory posits that morality is not so much based on rationality alone, but instead, has a lot to do with an individual's expression of his/her feelings. That is, under the emotive theory, one's sense of morality is spurred from expression to action, a process wherein one becomes motivated to act upon towards self-realization. Thus, under the emotive theory, "ethical terms do not serve only to express feeling. They are calculated also to arouse feeling, and so to stimulate action" (83). From intuition to emotive theory, Warnock goes on to moral psychology, where moral philosophy becomes more deterministic and individualistic: " ... It is not clear that there could ever be a time when the idea of free choice was useless, whatever further discoveries in psychology ... were made. For although it might be possible to regard other people as wholly causally determined it would be very difficult if not impossible to regard oneself in the same light" (155). From this passage, it became apparent that the path towards self-realization is solely based on the individual himself/herself. These philosophies are best integrated with Sartre's focus on individual expression as the path towards self-realization: "The fact that things could be looked at from another viewpoint would escape me, and therefore I might fail to realize that I myself occupied some particular viewpoint which I could change at will, and by thus being unaware of my freedom I would be less than human" (185).

Integration of these developments in… [read more]

Ethics Awareness Inventory Term Paper

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Nevertheless, I have noticed that such an approach can backfire, as what is good for the majority often neglects the needs of minority groups that may not have the political power or sufficient numbers to stand up for their needs. Therefore, I advocate a balanced approach to making ethical decisions, one that accounts for the needs of any minority groups, and one that addresses the needs of each and every person in the organization; but an approach that in the end produces the most reliable results.

Educational experiences have a huge impact on ethical thinking. Classroom learning, I believe is a small step towards true ethical awareness. Academic instruction in ethics and ethical theory does help categorize people so that we can be more aware of why we may have conflicts with other people. For instance, completing this inventory alerted me to some potential problems I may have with other people within organizations for which I worked. In fact, I have already noticed that the conflicts I have had in the past probably stem from conflict in our core ethical belief systems. In some cases, I may mistrust the cost-benefit analyses that organizations use, and often I will become frustrated with the inability of an organization to address the needs of all its members. However, I have also noticed through experience that we can never satisfy everyone; at some point an organization needs to make decisions using utilitarian principles.

My scoring high on both categories related to duty and to results shows that I can potentially have a positive impact on an organization that runs into an ethical dilemma. While I may become frustrated and overwhelmed with the wide range of diverse ethical opinions and styles, in the end I appreciate and respect diversity and the needs of all individuals.… [read more]

Happiness in Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics Term Paper

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Thus, "unlike the pursuit of things like money and valor (which is a kind of honor)" the pursuit of happiness has no extrinsic rewards, rather, Aristotle argues, one pursues it because it is good, in and of itself, and one pursues it for its own perfection and with the desire to perfect one's own soul or self. (I: 5)

Here, in his emphasis on the moral and individual goals of virtue, and its existence as a singular thing, Aristotle shows his platonic influence. He assumes because a thing has unity of purpose, it must be better than something that lacks unity of purpose, as do pleasure in its many varieties (from starring in a play, to soccer, to being elected to Congress, to ice creme). Vague social impulses, for instance, to give back to the community in exchange for the community conferring power, acclaim, and money upon one's shoulders may provoke sensations of pleasure that contain the semblance of virtue, but they are not virtue itself, even if the social community calls such military or political service virtue. And merely because sensations of feeling good are provoked does not mean the sensations have their roots in virtuous acts -- in fact, far from it, as one can feel pleasure eating a 1,400 calorie burger for the moment or pleasure at hearing applause yet emerge a poorer person from feeling bloated or arrogant afterwards from both experiences of pure pleasure.

Rather, virtue and the happiness that is synonymous with virtue seems to be for Aristotle more of a sense of doing what is right, of fulfilling one's obligations as a person, whatever they may be -- whether being a good wife for a woman, or thinking well for a philosophical man. The obligations may vary, but the pursuit of the thing itself is the…… [read more]

Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle's Own Work Term Paper

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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics

The concept of ethics can mean many different things, depending on the person asked to describe or discuss it. However, there are specific issues that can be examined to help determine whether something is actually ethical or not. Aristotle used certain mail concepts to show how ethics can be turned into something tangible that everyone can agree… [read more]

Ethics in Nursing Article Review

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This is the essence of Bishop's attempt to redefine ethics and ethical approaches in modern 21st century organizations. By using ethics as a tool and not a reward or thing itself, a new understanding of the ideals that lie behind ethics can be revealed to assist the organization in performing its duties in a professional and agreeable manner.

Ethical Nursing

The role of nursing is unique within the healthcare industry, and the pivotal role that this profession plays is largely underrated in the healing process. The core values of nursing need to be examined for ethical quality and to align them with the practices and clinical approaches that are being used by any given nurse. Vanlaere & Gastmans (2007) wrote "nursing is essentially concerned with the care of vulnerable fellow human beings. Patients view nurses as skilled companions who discern the care needs of patients, wanting to provide these needs in a professional fashion. The essence of nursing is the precise integration of expert activity and caring; nursing can therefore be considered to be a moral practice."

The idea of synthesizing caring and skill is the baseline premise for an ethical approach to nursing. The idea of caring is subjective. Care is attune to such emotions as love and happiness, suggesting that the ethical approach of any nurse must include a human and empathetic approach. Care must also be balanced with practical skill, or any loving person could be qualified as a nurse. The basic tenets of professionalism suggest that skill and practical knowledge must be balanced with the more artistic qualities of any person.

Applying ethical ideals in nursing requires both an inductive and deductive approach. Wisdom gained through experience can provide much ethical guidance when tough and difficult decisions must be made in short amounts of time. Wisdom requires failure and disharmony, which is often not accepted readily within the healthcare environment.


Auditing one's own ethical structure becomes the obvious first step for any nurse or professional that practices within the healthcare issue. The alignment of these ethical values must correspond to the larger organizational values if there is to be any professional harmony and resultant success. Keeping an open mind and understanding the larger goals in the organization are helpful at putting one's own ethical views in the correct perspective.

Healthcare is about healing. Patients expect to be healed in an ethical manner. The subjective ideas of caring, love, success and health all play into a very complex and sophisticated equation that causes real problems and allow for real solutions. Treating ethics as a fluid tool that can be used to practically manipulate an outcome becomes a useful approach to adopt for nurses within this complex environment.


Bishop, W.H. (2013). The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organizations. Journal of business ethics, 118(3), 635-637.

Ells, C., & MacDonald, C. (2002, November). Implications of organizational ethics to healthcare. In Healthcare Management Forum (Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 32-38). Elsevier.

Lutzen, K. (1997). Nursing ethics into the… [read more]

Group Should Have Intimate Knowledge Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (739 words)
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Instead, feminists hold "traditional ethics overrates culturally masculine traits like "independence, autonomy, intellect, will, wariness, hierarchy, domination, culture, transcendence, product, asceticism, war, and death," while underrating feminine ideas like "interdependence, community, connection, sharing, emotion, body, trust, absence of hierarchy, nature, immanence, process, joy, peace, and life" (Tong & Williams (2014). Rather than objective moral "rightness" feminist ethics have tended to stress community, reinforcing harmony, and the relationship between the ethical actor and the exterior world, rather than establishing a singular principle of consequences vs. intentions which will last for all time.


Tong, R. & Williams, N. Feminist ethics. (2014) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/feminism-ethics

Discussion 3

A number of methods exist for an organization to raise capital. The first, most direct method is through contributions by individuals, either in the form of donations or in the form of "angel" investors, who may expect a return on their contribution if the venture is successful. The advantage of this is such donations or investments do not need to be paid back in the case of financial failure; the downside is that such contributors often want some say in how the funds are used. The other option is taking out a loan from a bank: this must be paid back regardless of success of failure ("How U.S. corporations raise capital," 2014). However, the bank has no "say so" over how the funds are to be used once the loan is extended.

Managers must be aware of the nature of the project, its budget, and the suitability of different financing options, including their downsides. Funding often affects how the project's trajectory is managed in a critical fashion. For-profit institutions can also issue shares but for most nonprofit healthcare entities, this is not an acceptable strategy ("How U.S. corporations raise capital," 2014). Managers in healthcare must be particularly sensitive to the needs of the organization to serve the public as well as the financial demands of investors.


How U.S. corporations raise capital. (2014). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from:

http://economics.about.com/od/smallbigbusiness/a/corp_capital.htm… [read more]

Ethics a Number of Differences Essay

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However, chances are that with such a move, ISIS would be pacified - given our country's superior military capabilities. Given the atrocities the terror formation continues to visit on the people of Iraq, the loss of a few lives would be a small price to pay for the huge benefits that would accrue, i.e. with regard to the neutralization of the group's ability to continue its criminal activities.

Assignment Details: Health Care Finance

The most beneficial method a manager would make use of in seeking to evaluate the utilization of the Ocean View Diabetic Clinic's money is present value analysis. One of the key advantages of this particular method, in comparison to such methods as IRR, is that it takes into consideration the time value of money. However, in comparison to IRR and the payback period methods, this method happens to be much more complicated.

The four key financial statements an organization makes use of include: the balance sheet, statement of revenue and expense, statement of changes in fund balance/net worth, and statement of cash flows. All these statements come in handy in not only the determination of an entity's financial performance, but also in the evaluation of its financial health and stability. While the balance sheet gives us a fair picture of an entity's worth and what it owes, the income statement tells us what the business managed to rake in during a specified financial period. The cash flow statement, on the other hand, is critical in both the coordination and planning of an entity's financial operations; while the statement of changes in fund balance/net worth, as Baker and Baker (2013, p. 117) points out, is "the mechanism… [read more]

Fair Trade Ethics Term Paper

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There are things that society defines as right and wrong -- societies set the bounds for their behavior, and this is Kantian deontological ethics (Johnson 2008). Another system argues that outcomes matter, and this consequentialist philosophy is the roots of distributive justice (Sinnott-Armstrong 2011).

International distributive justice was actually developed after Friedman's article was published, its ideas heavily influenced by John Rawls' A Theory of Justice, which was published in 1971. The concept of international distributive justice rests on the idea of the social contract, wherein human societies have implicit contracts, and in these there is an implied need for fairness in dealings and in allocations (Blake & Smith 2013). Fair trade is this idea applied to the real world, where the profits from enterprise are distributed relatively equally on the basis of contribution. Thinking of the coffee example, coffee farming is hard work in often grueling conditions, so there is genuine need for farmers to earn a reasonable living from this enterprise. The default system captures profits predominantly for the end retailer and a series of middlemen who perform relatively simple transportation and warehousing tasks. It is their markups that are responsible for the high price of coffee relative to what the producer is paid.

The producer's low pay reflects a lack of knowledge on the part of the market, however. Where the market understands the outcomes of the system, the market has today in keeping with the principle of distributive justice demanded changes to the system that will emphasize better distribution of the profits from enterprise. Thus, end sellers are forced to make changes in their supply chains in order to ensure that farmers are being paid a living wage for their efforts. Fair trade can also be applied, for example, to sweatshop workers -- it is not strictly an agricultural concept.

4. Conclusion

At its heart, the fair trade issue can be distilled down to the rightness of distributive justice. Consequentialism would most certainly support this -- as many people as possible should be able to earn a living from that proverbial cup of coffee, given a certain price that consumers are willing to pay, and that living should be roughly commensurate with the effort made in contribution to the production of that product. The moral goodness of fair trade, however, is not only supported by consequentialism, even if the principle of distributive justice makes the strongest case in its favor. Kantian ethics also support this ethic, because it is what the majority of society supports. There are a few, certainly, who for the sake of personal convenience support the Friedman view that they should not worry about other human beings, but their ethics are not supported by the majority of the people in our society. In general, our society values people being paid a living wage for their labors -- there might be less support for distributive justice among those who don't put in a hard day's work, but that cannot be said of, say, coffee… [read more]

Ethics in Business Has Become a Hot Essay

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Ethics in business has become a hot button issue in recent years, in light of a number of scandals in the early 2000s, but also with the whole issue of corporate social responsibility. There are different dimensions to ethics, some of which are obvious like conducting business legally, but other issues create a moral dilemma, which is where a grey… [read more]

Ethics There Are Several Different Essay

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Sexual Behavior

Virtue ethics tends to hold that the major moral flaw here is that the people are not married, since adultery is a selfish act that only harms others. Virtuous people do not focus their energies on selfish behavior, thus the act is wrong. Kantian ethics would not only point to prevailing moral codes against adultery, which are near-universal in human society, but against the use of the company boardroom as well. The company's prevailing code of ethics should set the standard here, and unless the company is Stratton Oakmont, in which case such behavior is accepted. In most companies, however, sex in the boardroom would violate the categorical imperative.

Consequentialist ethics would hold the consequences of the action to be the determinant of its morality. There are a lot of ways that this could play out. If nobody sees the act and it does not cause any disruption to anybody, then there is no moral prohibition against this act from the consequentialist perspective. Thus, context matters. If the employees are caught, and this leads to disorder in the company, or if their actions destroy pre-existing relationships, then by the consequentialist standard this act would be wrong. The utilitarian argument is going to be similar, except that because the benefits of the sex go to two people, it is highly unlikely that the balance of goodness will fall on the side of this being an ethical act. For that to happen, the act would have to produce a baby that grows up to make a great contribution to society. Odds are that won't happen.


In virtue ethics, drinking is itself a neutral act. Virtue goes to deep levels far beyond habits (Hursthouse, 2012). As a result, the act of drinking is itself a neutral act, and it is only those acts which occur as the result of the drinking that can be negative under virtue ethics -- they must be evaluated on their own, however, as a distinct issue.

The Kantian perspective on drinking is going to be relative to the prevailing standards of the culture. Kant sought to define the categorical imperative as a law of nature, and arguably drunkenness is not favored in nature. The inebriated state is not natural, nor is it enlightened. Kantian ethics may not have any real position on drunkenness, but if it does it would not be in favor of it.

From a consequentialist perspective, again context is required. In general, someone who drinks to excess is probably a liability, and if they aren't their habit may induce others to follow suit, though perhaps those actions should be evaluated on their own merits. For the individual, unless they happen to perform better drunk than sober (like a lot of famous writers, or even somebody who gets drunk while conducting business that is worth a lot of money) this will be a negative act. There could be extenuating circumstances that make the drunkenness favorable, but this is highly unlikely.

From a utilitarian… [read more]

Baird's Everyday Ethics and the Idea of "Deontology Essay

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Suffering has an effect on his stomach, perhaps, but not on his brain.

I dwell at such length on this example because, when I think about my own ethical learning curve, I can remember first being exposed to this particular idea while watching an interview with Alice Von Hildebrand, and realizing that it really did take some serious thought on my part to understand the point. (I will also be honest, I was not expecting something that is essentially told as a joke to be part of a televised interview about Catholic ethics.) The simplistic way of making the point would be to see it about hypocrisy -- someone who makes a show of caring about the poor, and says the right things, while has actions that directly undercut this lip-service. But that was not the more complicated point that Von Hildebrand was trying to address: the concept she was trying to elucidate was sentimentality and its ethical problems. In reality, I don't think I really fully understood it until I was watching a different television program and saw the same principle illustrated a different way: on "The Sopranos," the crime boss Tony Soprano has a sentimental reaction to hearing about animals suffering (like when a horse is killed in an arson incident done for insurance purposes) but will shoot a human being without a second thought.

What this represents, of course, is a redirection of priorities, or possible a virtue carried over into the excess of a vice. This is something that Baird captures in his text fairly well, as when he presents various four-part grids, which demonstrate that there can be a "higher" or a "lower" version of the same ethical response. Baird presents "Wilber's matrix," for example, which basically maps these realms of ethical response in terms of how much distance they go outside the self (Baird 149). In Wilber's model, the lower version is the one that restricts human behavior inside the self (rather than extending it out into action) and that looks at human interaction on the smallest possible level (the individual in one-on-one relationships rather than the individual at the level of society or culture). It is no accident that for Wilber the ethically "descended" or inferior stance is the one that is focused on the "exterior side of development." In other words, it is possible to keep up appearances while being rotten to the core.

So this returns me to the idea of "deontology" that Baird refers to in the textbook. In the "Path to Maturity" diagram, Baird summarizes the central question and the central statement of deontology as being "What are my rights and responsibilities? I am responsible" (Baird 146). This is certainly a handy approach to ethics because in this case all a person has to do is play by the rules, and the automatic result is ethical behavior. It may be comforting in some sense, insofar as it does not require a lot of complicated thoughts and actions. However, I… [read more]

Virtual Research Ethics Question Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (479 words)
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In her estimation, ethical conduct is nothing more than a basic human principle or moral, and Buchanan believes that each individual researcher should hold themselves to the highest standard.

2.) Read Snapshot: Google: Tracking Search Patterns. Find more details of this study since the text's Snapshot was printed and discuss the study including any updates.

The "Snapshot: Google: Tracking Search Patterns" feature found on page 32 of the textbook Introduction to Business Research begins by informing readers that "according to Nielsen/NetRatings and SearchEngineWatch.com, Internet users in the United States spent about 26.5 hours a month online and executed 214 million searches a day, 91 million of them on Google." The feature goes on to explain that Google tracks usage data in seemingly innumerable ways, listing time of day, originating IP address and website destinations as the most common methods of sorting and analyzing user data. According to the "Snapshot" piece, "what makes Google tracking a researcher's goldmine is its ability to predict future trends as well as mirror current trends & #8230; (because) businesses are interested not only in these predictive capabilities but also because searches reveal things about individuals that they wouldn't willingly talk about." More recent studies on this subject have observed that Google processes over 100 billion search queries per month, which would indicate that the rate of internet search use is rising at a steady rate.


Buchanan, E.A. (Ed.). (2004). Readings in virtual research…… [read more]

Company Having Strong Ethics Case Study

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For example, the code should be focused on either deontological or consequentialist ethics, rather than cribbing sloppily from both, which could lead to an incoherent code that is tough to apply.

The code of ethics should then be tested for a few traits. One trait is clarity. It is important that the code is easy to understand. It should be consistent as well, because that is important -- a code that doesn't make sense it not going to work for most people. Furthermore, the code should be convertible to action. If the ethical code does not help people to make better ethical decisions than they otherwise would make, and does not ensure that all stakeholders understand the organization's ethical perspective, then the code is not of much value. It must be something that can be translated into action to genuinely have value.


I'm not sure what a "pro" rebuttal would be, given that a rebuttal is "offering a contrary contention or argument" according to Dictionary.com. I agree with the statement. A code of ethics is something that many businesses seem to have, without any real understanding of why it is important. This statement highlights precisely why a code of ethics is important. There needs to be a code that defines the behaviors accepted and practiced in the workplace. This seems self-evident, but even when there is a strong ethical culture, the code provides further clarity and elaboration for what is expected. Also, the code is good as a defense, should legal action be filed against the company. The code, especially when trained and adequately communicated to the employees, provides a means for the company to distance itself from rogue employees.

Top level management should actually write the code, not just influence it. There needs to be total buy-in from top level management in order for the code to be effective. The top level leaders need to be leaders in ethics as well. Their ethical standards are the most likely to be followed throughout the organization, so they need to be highly involved in the development and implementation of the code of ethics. A code of ethics without buy-in from the top level management is not likely to be effective at all.

The other thing that I would add is that the code of ethics should ideally go beyond the laws -- things like fraud are clearly illegal and therefore should be a given in any code of ethics. The code should be useful for dealing with genuine ethical dilemmas, which are far more subtle and complex than issues where the law already defines the standard…… [read more]

ACA Code of Ethics Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


ACA Code of Ethics

A Brief Profile of the Client

Deborah is the client. She is a 45 years old housewife who suffers from manic depression. She is highly educated with a law degree and used to practice it until 20-year ago. This is when she decided to stay at home and take care of her two sons. During this time, Deborah had frequent headaches and is taking cortisone shots to control her headaches. Moreover, she is also using anti-depressants which induced from her deteriorating mental condition and inactivity. ("ACA Code of Ethics," 2013)

Recently, Deborah has been seeking out the assistance of a mental health professional named Dr. Franklin. He is a friend of her husband (Steve) who works at the same hospital and plays on the squash team with him. Deborah was sent to Dr. Franklin at Steve's urging. During the sessions, she reveals how out of control her life is and the various disappointments. The two continue to build strong patient -- therapist relationship over the course of many months. ("ACA Code of Ethics," 2013)

The Ethical Issue

The ethical issue is the relationship that has continued to evolve between Deborah and Dr. Franklin. What happened is the two cultivated a connection which has developed into an extra marital affair. Deborah's feelings of anger and Dr. Franklin's, wanting to help; have resulted in them having several different sexual encounters on numerous occasions. ("ACA Code of Ethics," 2013)

No one inside the hospital is aware of what is happening. While Steve continues to believe that everything is normal and commented about how he noticed an improvement in Deborah's attitude. This has led him to support her going to visit Dr. Franklin even more. The situation is becoming complicated, with Deborah wanting to tell her husband about what is happening. Dr. Franklin is reluctant, as he wants to remain in control and is having various sessions where he will push her into following his directions. ("ACA Code of Ethics," 2013)

Site of the Code that is Violated

The actions that were taken by Dr. Franklin are a violation of Sections A4 and A5 of the ACA Code of Ethics. It says, "When counselors learn that their clients are in a professional relationship with another mental health professional, they request release from clients to inform the other professionals and strive to establish positive and collaborative professional relationships. Counselors act to avoid harming their clients, trainees, and research participants and to minimize or to remedy unavoidable or unanticipated harm. They are aware of their own values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors and avoid imposing values that are inconsistent with counseling goals. Mental health professionals will respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants. Sexual or romantic counselor -- client interactions or relationships with current clients, their romantic partners, or their family members are prohibited." This is illustrating how Dr. Franklin has clearly overstepped his authority and placed added amounts of pressure on his client. His primary objectives are to allow this… [read more]

Counselors Need to Study Ethics Questionnaire

Questionnaire  |  8 pages (2,249 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … counselors need to study ethics in relation to research? (Hauser, p. 87)

Just like in other fields including medicine, nursing, engineering and much other, counseling research also involves the observation of ethics. Ethics in research is very significant to any investigator regardless of their fields of study. Therefore, the study of ethics in research is very important. Counselors… [read more]

Nasw Code of Ethics Sociology Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,007 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I thought about the importance of articulation of relationships and declaration of boundaries with respect to social workers and their clients. I have not had a social worker assigned to me or someone in my family, but I have known people who have. I have also not seen a therapist or counselor professionally in my life, but I have known people who have and who do. This aspect of the code made me think about these instances in my life and compare them. I realize that social workers, in a way, can be a kind of therapist for individuals and families. Just as much as it is important to have clear boundaries between psychologist and patient, it is critical to the success of the social work practice for the social worker to have clear boundaries with the clients.

It is very easy to get caught up in the personal dramas of those that we help, whether in a professional capacity, such as a social worker, or a personal capacity, such as a friend or family member. Social workers might not be the healthiest people in the world, or not have their lives in complete order -- so it does not benefit a client to have an over-involved social worker in their lives in a greater capacity or outside the capacity of their job descriptions. Certainly, the people who need social workers, need assistance, and are often underprepared for life's challenges. Therefore, it behooves social workers to respect the boundaries between them and their clients. It is dangerous for social workers and clients alike if boundaries within that relationship are not respected or adhered to. My personal experiences, as they relate to this reflection, tell me that the relationship between social worker and client is in some ways fragile, with the ability to grow quite strong. It is also a relationship that demands care and respect or else it will fail miserable or otherwise go horribly wrong.

Step 3: Articulate Learning

I learned that the practice of ethics is active. We must actively be aware of and practice ethics as part of social work. Practicing ethics is a multifaceted experience that includes several key aspects, including establishing and respecting boundaries, and understanding the fine line between ethics and lack of ethics. I learned this from observations of my own studies and practice. I learned this from calling on my long-term and short-term memories of experiences that might apply to what I am learning. I also learned this through comparison and analysis of my studies, personal experiences, professional experiences and studies. What I learned matters because without an active practice of ethics, I would be disoriented as a social worker and as an individual. In light of my learning I will follow my interest in ethics and see if it leads me to a specific topic of field of study in which I…… [read more]

Ethics and CSR President Barack Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,804 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Organizations of all sizes and types require effective leadership in order to formulate a corporate vision and make informed day-to-day decisions as well as strategically oriented ethical planning (Sussan, 2006). Finally, I thank you for your attention in this important matter and hope that you will keep the following in mind as you work with legislation and initiatives over the next few months. We must all remember that the new need for organizations to integrate values and ethics in their decision-making remains buttressed by these three trends, which I also encourage you to integrate into your own planning:

1. Effective leaders in the modern area are transformation and envision action which begins with ethics and values;

2. All organizations -- private and governmental, must become more robustly ethical in word and deed, and,

3. Ethics as a practice has a strong, persistent voice in the world's communication channels (Burke, 1999).

Thank you in advance.

Works Cited

ASHE-ERIC. (2002). Understaning and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 28(4), 1-162.

Burke, F. (1999). Ethical Decision-Making: Global Concerns, Frameworks and Approaches. Public Personnel Management, 28(4), 529-31.

Jahdi, K., et al. (2009). Marketing Communications and CSR. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(1), 103-13.

Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University press.

Lewis, C., & Gilman, S. (2005). The Ethics Challenge in Public Service (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. (2004). Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing: An Integrative Framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(1), 3-19.

Mayer, R.C., et al. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-34.

Robinson,…… [read more]

Social Psychology 2nd Morality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,970 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Specifically, the research question was to see if competence, when examined alongside morality, might affect ingroup behaviors and the perceived level of threats for individuals within the group.

Study Design

This transition in the design of the study resulted in the researchers once again showing an image of an Italian and an Indian male, and presenting the participants with a… [read more]

Ethics Research the Role Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  7 pages (1,946 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Ethics Research

The role of research and science is very important in today's society. In many ways, this social class dictates much of what is accepted as truth. With this burden, comes a great responsibility that requires those who do research, on a professional academic level, to exceed normal expectations of ethical behavior. There is simply too much to risk… [read more]

Nietzsche and Morality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Nietzsche and Morality

Friedrich Nietzsche and Morality

Nietzsche is one of the most renowned philosophers and lived between 1844 and 1900. He is regarded differently according to the perspectives that the individual successive philosophers take on him. To some, Nietzsche is just another controversial philosopher in history who does not warrant a lot of attention due to his take on… [read more]

Moral Sentiment Philosophy Morality Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Therefore exercising moral judgment revolve around taking an evaluative perspective that filters out the experienced distorting effects of personal prejudice and self-interest even on involving affective modes of consciousness. Hume argues that on considering an action or a character in general, failing to refer from our specific interest, it creates that sentiment or feeling, just as denominating it as morally good or evil. In terms of judging quality of character or an action, empathy inform us the pain or pleasure that is generated by the object for the individual that is in possession of it as well as individuals affected by it, (Krause, Sharon, 2013). As pleasure continue to stimulate a positive affective response, or approval; the stimulation of pain is aversion, or disapproval.

Is this account of morality convincing?

Yes, it is convincing in that it makes sure that human being's judgment has been shaped just through sentiments that are capable of endorsement in a correct structured generalized standpoint. Likewise, to register the pleasures and pains of the affected individuals, it is important to ask about their merit such as whether the sentiments have a reflection of an exact understanding of the available facts. Moral sentiments, of course, need a decisive evaluation of its own sources via the reflective stance of the generalized standpoint (iterative). Therefore, the moral sentiment exercise provide a platform for reaching an impersonal assessments of right as well as wrong in terms of a reflective, impartial lay down feelings. What can be endorsed inside this generalized standpoint is what is supposed to be done.


In summary, critics term Hume as an unmitigated moral relativist due to the fact that he believes that morality is founded on personal feelings, which widely vary from one person to the other. However, this does not form Hume's perspective since moral sentiments tend to be a special feeling.


David Fate "Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy" (1990). Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/cavalier/80130/part1/sect4/texts/Norton.html

Frank DeVita "Hume's Theory of Moral Sentiments as a Phenomenological Account of Morality" (2012). Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://frankdevita.wordpress.com/2012/08/06/humes-theory-of-moral-sentiments/

Krause, Sharon, "Moral Sentiment and the Politics of Human Rights," The Art of Theory, Jason Swadley (ed.), October 2010, Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://www.artoftheory.com/moral-sentiment-and-the-politics-of-human-rights-sharon-krause… [read more]

Ethics and the Criminal Justice System Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (854 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethics and the Criminal Justice System

In most professions, there is a Code of Conduct that addresses ethical and moral issues that surround that particular activity. These standards of practice help the public feel confident that professionals (doctors, lawyers, judges, police officers, etc.) are bound by an honor code individually and as a profession. However, it is within the context of the day-to-day activities that ethical ambiguity occurs, and the Code then becomes a toolbox to help the professional navigate their dilemma (IIT, 2012).

A CBS News Report in 2009 focused on one segment of the criminal justice system that has been increasingly in the news -- Judges who break the law. The case in point was Judge Victor Baron who, after 14 years on the bench, was convicted of taking thousands of dollars in bribes and sentenced to a 3-9-year prison term. While most public officials are scrupulously honest, some watchdog groups find that in some areas of the country, corruption seems to be rife. Critics of the judiciary system note that the political nature of the bench allows for corruption, particularly in areas like New York City. Specifically, "at issues is an arcane system in which voters pick delegates to a judicial nominating convention, but do not pick the judges themselves" (Chery, 2009).

One must ask, though, is it the system that needs changed, or will individuals who lean towards corruption find a way to circumvent legalities anyway? Instead of changing the system, perhaps the curriculum in law school should add additional coursework on ethics, and perhaps public officials (judges, etc.) should be required to take continuing education courses dealing with the problem of ethical behavior in the contemporary arena? Thus, the central idea of a Code of Ethical behavior is to allow individuals to understand the moral and ethical consequences of their actions, to review the basic ethical theories of the past, and to be able to pull from those theories tools to be expressed within professional behavior, while still maintaining the agreed upon legal actions associated with the position held. For example, within the day-to-day actions of law enforcement personnel one might ask: 1) Does the Code of Ethics for my profession give clear advice on x issue? 2) if someone were to endorse the opposite course of action, could they also buttress their argument with the Code? 3) Are there apparent conflicts within the Code regarding x or y? 4) Does the Code conflict with my own individual moral stance? If so, is there a way to make an appropriate compromise? 5)…… [read more]

Ethics in Science Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethics in Science

Do the Ends Ever Justify the Means?

We all face ethical dilemmas at some point. Sometimes, we are called upon to choose between several courses of action. However, in some instances, these alternative courses of action could be equally undesirable. This effectively puts us in a moral dilemma as selecting either course of action comes with a cost tag. One of the many examples of ethical dilemmas that has been advanced over time is a scenario whereby as a result of a medical condition, the life of an unborn baby has to be terminated as allowing the pregnancy to proceed to full term could bring about the death of the mother. What would be the best course of action in such a case? Citing various reasons, some could argue that saving the mother's life would be most appropriate. On the other hand, there are those who could be of the opinion that saving the life of the baby would be the best course of action. It is with such scenarios in mind that ethical theorists have in the past developed a number of ethical principles to guide decision making. One such viewpoint is teleological ethics which in its most pure form according to Bradburn "focuses on the 'ends', the results of the decision rather than the method of getting to that result" (3). In such a case, the end according to the author essentially justifies the means. However, do the ends ever justify the means?

In my view, the ends do not at any time ever justify the means. In its most bare form, this ethical system seeks to promote acts that would ordinarily be bad, unjust, immoral, or unethical if such acts in the end lead to good consequences. Such a line of reasoning has a number of fatal flaws. In seeking to further explore the topic, I will make use of an ethical dilemma Trevino and Nelson offer in their book. In the dilemma, five…… [read more]

Is Moral Development Possible? Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,751 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Moral Development possible?

The concept of moral development is the prime component of the report. The aims and objectives of moral development have elucidated its significance in an individual's life and how the practice of moral development can shape the individual's life and his personality. Moreover, few theories on moral development have also been explained in order to… [read more]

Corporate Ethics Business - Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (986 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Corporate Ethics

Business - or corporate -- ethics is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines applied and theoretical ethical principles that occur in the context / format of a business intrusion. It applies to the organization / company as a whole as well as to individuals who work in that company.

Corporate ethics has both normative and descriptive categories:

Normative -- Practical 'ought to' prescriptions, conventions and laws that hedge in practices, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley (mentioned later) that is used to regulate ethical requirements of audits.

Descriptive - more theoretical such as describing (and arguing) whether or not a practice is ethical and should be employed.

Corporate ethics mainly concerns itself with the normative aspect where a cadre of rules and laws exist to ensure that the organization, as a larger whole, practices ethical conduct in each and every one of its practices. At the same time, rules exist to ensure that employee's behavior is ethical too.

Ethical issues include the rights and duties between a company and its employees, suppliers, customers and neighbors. They also include economical duties between the company and its shareholders -- or more correctly, issues of integrity so that shareholders are correctly informed about the circumstances of the company.

Other ethical issues exist too between company and competitors such as hostile take-overs and industrial espionage. And then we have legal ethical issues such as corporate manslaughter; and the marketing of corporations' ethics policies. Other ethical issues include governance; corporate; and political contributions .

Both government and company have formulated policies to implement and maintain ethical behavior. The questions is whether these policies work and are kept. Many observers see a disassociation between the company requirements and actual company behavior. Others however perceive the intransigence and strictness of laws such as the SOX to be sufficient to keep the company in control. No company wants to be bankrupt or run into trouble with the government. Debate therefore varies between whether or not ethical codes can build a true corporate ethics.


Ethics codes can build a true 'corporate ethics"

Krell (2010) believes that corporations can build a true ethics environment and he provides an example of how an organization can do so in his essay on How to Conduct an Ethics Audit.

Krell points out that the legal environment during the last few years has compelled organizations to tighten their corporate ethics. Instruments such as the Sarbanes-Oxley and policies such as the Federal Acquisition Regulation and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines have compelled companies to adopt codes of conduct, train their employees on these codes, and create effective audit and reporting mechanisms. HR professionals too play a major part in not only employing ethical staff but in also monitoring and mentoring the practices of the company to ensure the morality of their standards.

The company's ethics is largely seen in its auditing and an ethical audit follows six rules:

1. Start with a detailed foundation…… [read more]

Ethical Perspectives Virtue Ethics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Deontological Ethics

Generally, deontological ethics prohibits violating rules, irrespective of the actual consequences or the justice of adhering to rules in exceptional circumstances (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). Unlike virtue ethics and utilitarian ethics, strict deontology would prohibit lying to the police under any circumstances if that is illegal or if lying is considered immoral. In principle, the idea behind deontological ethics is that society is better off in the aggregate and in the long run when all rules are always obeyed. Under deontological analysis, the fact that strict adherence to rules may sometimes produce undesirable consequences is not sufficient cause to violate an established rule or law (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).

Personal Experience

When I was in high school, I had a friend who lived in my neighborhood who used to hide from his father at my house. His father was verbally and emotionally abusive and sometimes physically abusive. I was taught never to lie to adults but when his father called my house looking for my friend, I always lied and said that I did not know where he was. I know it was the right thing because my parents also allowed me to do it and sometimes they took the phone calls and lied to his father too.

According to virtue ethics, we did the right thing because our motive was only to help my friend avoid his abusive father. We were not helping him avoid his father for any selfish reasons or to help my friend be delinquent. He used to do his homework at my house. I am confident that in this case, virtue ethics provided a better answer than deontological ethics, because a deontological analysis would have prohibited lying to his father.


Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, (6th

Edition). New York: Oxford University Press.

Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.

Hursthouse, R. (1999) On…… [read more]

Public Health Ethics Related Training Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States" by a. Kanekar and a. Bitto (2012)

In this study, Kanekar and Bitto (2012) argue that ethical practices in the workplace do not just fall out of the sky, but are rather the result of the translation of ethical theories and concepts into real-world practice. These researchers conducted a meta-analysis of recent published peer-reviewed journal articles concerning ethics in public health practice or public health training. All told, Kanekar and Bitto (2012) identified 15 studies that satisfied their search and inclusion criteria. Based on the analysis of the aggregated results of these studies, Kanekar and Bitto determined that there was an ongoing and essential need for ethics training and codes of ethics in professional organizations. According to these researchers, "We need ethics to organize our goals and actions and to accomplish our values. In essence, ethics evaluates those actions, and the values that underlie them. It determines which values should be pursued, and which should not" (Kanekar & Bitto, 2012, p. 2). Because different professions have different values and standards, these differences are translated and codified through professional codes of ethics that help business managers resolve ethical dilemmas in the workplace (Kanekar & Bitto, 2012). In this regard, the authors note that, "The need for ethics arises from the fact that different professions have to establish a moral credibility for their field. In the [public health] field this needs to be translated into morally acceptable conduct and efforts to resolve ethical dilemmas related to public health practice" (p. 2).

Ethical dilemmas in the workplace, like change, are inevitable and managers at all levels are faced with an enormous range of situations that call for an immediate decision. It is therefore important to provide managers…… [read more]

Ethics in Group Counselling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,405 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Given that the discussion regarding whether or not morality has been about facts, individual therapy views or group therapy perceptions has raged for such a long time, we are not going to engage in this paper. It has been essential; nevertheless, to understand that there have been these types of fundamentally distinct perspectives concerning the nature associated with morality contributing… [read more]

Business Ethics Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


That is because there will be "social consequences" when the company does something that goes against the "moral values" in that host country. For example, a local employee that works for an international company will be offended on the one hand when unethical behaviors shown by the company offend his or her own cultural values.

Given the above-mentioned globalized reality for an international company, it is vital that a code of ethics be established. And that code of ethics must be based on "social responsibility" because a code of ethics (clearly written and fully explained by the human relations department to each new employee) is the official statement of the organization vis-a-vis how employees are expected to act and perform (Gokmen, 86).

The United Nations' Global Compact provides a good guide for any global company that wishes to project ethical values in whatever country it operates within. Any human relations leader can use the UN Global Compact as a map to guide its approach to ethics, Gokmen continues (87). The UN Global Compact provides ethical leadership in the following contexts: a) protecting "universally accepted human rights"; b) avoiding the violation of human rights; c) allowing collective bargaining; d) avoiding forced / compulsory labor and child labor; e) providing "occupational safety" with no discrimination in opportunities; d) adopting "environmentally friendly policies"; and f) taking action against corruption (Gokmen, 87).

In conclusion, in this era of globalization, organizations at home and abroad must always be conscious of the need to promote ethical behaviors based on moral values. Ethics must be very strong when operating in a foreign country and the values the company espouses and demonstrates must be in line with local cultural values and ethics.

Works Cited

Gokmen, Aytac, and Ozturk, A. Turan. (2012). Issues of Business Ethics in Domestic and International…… [read more]

Professional Ethics &amp Laws in Behavioral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8



Ethics Assignment 3: Professional Ethics & Laws in Behavioral and Biomedical Research

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study of 1932-1972 gave rise to the Belmont report. This report was intended to promote human subjects protection in behavioral and biomedical research. The Belmont report provided a framework, which could be used by others when… [read more]

Engineering Code of Ethics Asme. ) Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Engineering Code of Ethics

ASME. (2012). Code of Ethics of Engineers. Accessed 18 June 2012 from:


This source is the current version of the ethical code of conduct of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). The ASME Engineering Code of Ethics of Engineers is organized into ten Fundamental Cannons encompassing three Fundamental Principles: (I) using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare; (II) being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity their clients (including their employers) and the public; and (III) striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession.

The ten canons of ASME engineering ethics code relate to the following concepts: (1) public safety, health, and welfare; (2) limitation of work to areas of competence and fair competition; (3) continual professional development and promotion of ethical development in subordinates; (4) professionalism and conflicts of interest; (5) proprietary information confidentiality; (6) reputable associations; (7) objectivity in public statements and respect for the profession; (8) environmental impact and sustainability; (9) good faith in seeking sanctions against other engineers; and (10) commitment to applicable formal rules and policies and to disclosure of knowledge of related violations by others.

Non-Engineering Ethics Sources

Anderson, S., Ling, P., and Pollay, R. (2006). "Taking Ad-vantage of Consumers:

Advertising Light Cigarettes: Reassuring and Distracting Concerned Smokers."

Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 8 (2006): 1973-1985.

This source is an article that appeared in the peer-reviewed journal, Social Science & Medicine. It detailed the various approaches used by tobacco companies to market cigarettes to consumers by inventing meaningless distinctions supposedly corresponding to the reduction of medical risks and consequences of smoking cigarettes. The authors explain the practical uselessness of concepts such as "low-tar" products. One of the most important revelations in the article pertained to the manner in which cigarette companies exploited the weaknesses in government-funded testing of tar and nicotine yields in cigarettes marketed as "low yield."

Specifically, the tobacco manufacturers deliberately manipulated the placement of the holes in the filters to increase outside air circulated into the cigarette when the cigarettes were being tested by mechanical "smoking" machines. Those holes reduced the concentration of smoke during mechanical tests but not when smokers smoked them because they were designed to be placed in the areas that smokers almost always cover with their fingers, completely negating any reduction in yield because smokers prefer to buy higher yield cigarettes.

Boje, D. "Nike, Greek Goddess of Victory or Cruelty? Women's Stories of Asian Factory

Life." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 11, No. 6 (1998):

461 -- 480.

This source is an article that appeared in the peer-reviewed Journal of Organizational Change Management. It details the many ways that workers were exploited and abused in the factories and plants producing some Nike products overseas. By the time the article was written, Nike had begin implementing sweeping changes in its policy by requiring overseas companies and facilities to comply with employment condition standards that are standard in the United States. This marked… [read more]

Sociology: Ethics and Responsibility Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Rather, when it comes to ethics, Cooper cites the work of Preston who most succinctly describes what ethics means as manifested by the Humane Society: "ethics is concerned about what is right, fair, just or good; about what we ought to do, not just about what is the case or what is most acceptable or expedient" (2012). Clearly all the effort, time, energy and money exerted by the Humane Society are in the name of rightness and justice to animals, as it would be faster and save more money in many respects to just allow the animals to suffer.

Ethics go hand in hand with responsibility as responsibility honored exhibits and inherent sense of virtue (utm.edu/resp, 2009). The Humane Society of America exhibits the necessary three components of responsibility as these components are necessary for the organization to function effectively, make a real difference and yet be accountable to their inner guidelines of right and wrong, high priority and low priorities. When it comes to responsibility the following components need to be displayed: "With regard to moral agency, it will require good internal organization, so that the body is aware of its situation, capacities, actions and impacts. With regard to retrospective responsibility, it involves a willingness and ability to deal with failings and omissions, and to learn from these. In terms of prospective responsibility, the collective's activities and policies must be aptly chosen, conformable to wider moral norms, and properly put into effect" (utm.edu/resp, 2009). Thus, the Humane Society embodies all of the qualities of responsibility so that they can operate with success and yet have their ethical scaffolding act as guide for current and future actions.


Cooper, T. (2012). The Responsible Administrator. San Francisco: John Wiley.

Utm.edu/ethics. (2009, May 10). Ethics. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from Internet Encyclopedia:


Utm.edu/resp. (2009, march 9). Responsibility. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from Internet

Encyclopedia: http://www.iep.utm.edu/responsi/#SH4a… [read more]

Legal and Ethical Issues Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Business leadership and ethics should be joined at the hip, should be effectively partnering in every company and organization, but unfortunately for some companies, for their employees, their stakeholders and customers, ethics plays only a secondary role. This paper points to themes and issues regarding the importance of ethical business practices, and to themes vis-a-vis corporate social responsibility.

Ethical Business / Leadership Themes in Peer-Reviewed Articles

"Addressing Possible Conflicts of Ethical Management" -- this article by John Bringinshaw posits that businesses should provide updates to the public and stakeholders not just on the profits, but on the impact that the company's economic performance has had on the environment and on society (Bringinshaw, 2006). The author calls it the "triple bottom line" (social performance; environmental performance; and profit performance); and in the past few years a great deal of attention has been paid to the literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which entails environmental and social activities and actions.

Business schools are promoting CSR, and the message from the Pepperdine University's Graziadio School of Business and Management -- as a theme for truly ethical stewardship -- is that the "…exclusive pursuit of shareholder wealth" is not the highest purpose of business practice (Bringinshaw, 1). In fact the highest purpose today for a business that wishes to be contemporary and ethical is to achieve success in the CSR aspect of business (Bringinshaw, 1).

That is the good news, and there is a bit of bad news in Bringinshaw's article in that some companies go on with their usual business and create the impression that they care about CSR, just to seem to be up to speed with ethics. Those that fake a CSR approach are engaging in "greenwashing," Bringinshaw explains (2). One can't say anything bad about Google when it comes to corporate responsibility to their employees; not every company will be able to afford to offer employees "free food three times a day" and free childcare. But this extra expense provided by Google workers may take away some profit from shareholders, Bringinshaw explains (3). Still, when leadership puts workers and the environment at a high level of importance the chances are that those choices will have a positive ripple effect on profit, as well.

"The Link Between Management Behavior and Ethical Philosophy in the Wake of the Enron Convictions." Author Shane Premeaux posits that while the high-visibility scandals in business (notably Enron's messiness) did not "really impact actual ethical behavior much," but the jail sentences handed down to Enron's executives seemed to make enough of an impression to begin to change attitudes (Premeaux, 2009, 13). Premeaux makes the point several times that notwithstanding the public humiliation -- that results in the incarceration of top executives -- of companies like WorldCom and Enron, and the updated ethical codes being developed, there remains the perception "…that American business executives are not very ethical" (14).

That said, Premeaux offers good information as he suggests that "rule utilitarianism" -- as opposed to "act… [read more]

Ethics the Nineteenth Century German Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Now, it is considered morally wrong to do the same. Kant did not account for the changes that occur over time, or throughout different cultures.

Kant's deontological ethics are often compared with the ethics of utilitarianism. Basically, the deontological ethics of Kant are the opposite of utilitarian ethics of John Stuart Mills. For the utilitarian, the consequences of an action are what are important, and it does not matter if an action itself should be labeled as right or wrong. If the action creates the greatest good for the greatest number of people in any given situation, then that action can be considered morally just. Of course, there are weaknesses with utilitarian ethics too. It is too easy to overlook some of the minority of people being harmed by something that benefits the masses.

The categorical imperative is similar to Aristotle's virtue ethics in that both believed in essential or absolute ethical categories. However, Kant's ethics are most similar to those of Confucius. According to Confucius, there are categories of behavior. These categories are usually based on social roles for Confucius. Yet Confucius did believe that there are absolute rights and wrongs in human behavior. Like many other philosophers, Kant believed in the potential of human beings to act rationally. Kant believed that using reason, a person could determine what actions are right and what actions are wrong and make the appropriate decisions. Confucius and Aristotle both also believed in the rational nature of human beings, and that ethical choices are rational ones and not emotional ones. Although I do not fully agree with Kant's deontological ethics and the categorical imperative, I appreciate the way the philosophy can promotes universal natural moral laws.


Davis, S.P. (n.d.). Three-minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. [video] Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw

"Ethics." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/kant.html

Johnson, R. "Kant's Moral Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved online: .… [read more]

Ethics in Decision-Making Clegg Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


"In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).

For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.

What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and…… [read more]

Darwin and Determinism All Theory Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" This argument was used by Clarence Darrow in the famous criminal case of Leopold and Loeb. Leopold and Loeb, the teenage sons of two wealthy Chicago families, were accused of kidnapping and killing a 14-year-old boy for their own amusement in 1924. Darrow based his argument on the claim that his clients were not morally responsible for their actions, but was ultimately the product of casual variables beyond their control. In the end, Darrow was able to successfully commute the sentences of Leopold and Loeb from the death penalty to life in prison. In demonstrating that the experience of conscious will is an evolutionary adaptation that allows for the modification of particular behavioral algorithms similar arguments for behavioral determinism become difficult to defend. A discussion of the origins of morality is beyond the scope of this paper; however, it is clear that certain social organisms such as humans do have the ability to modify their behavior in response to ecological or social constraints (i.e. A moral code). Wegner articulates this understanding in The Illusion of Conscious Will when he writes, "Illusory or not, conscious will is the person's guide to his or her own moral responsibility for action." Through demonstrating that the experience of conscious will is an evolutionary adaptation rather than an epiphenomenon or a memetic construct a functional understanding of moral choice can be established based on solid evolutionary reasoning. In conclusion, the experience of free will is a complex behavioral algorithm that evolved in the face of intra-group competition and allows an organism to analyze its own behavior in the light of how other members of its own social group might behave in a dynamic environment in regards to cooperation, maintenance of pair bonds and reciprocity.


Pereboom, D. Living Without Free Will. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Sharpe, K. 1992. Biology Intersects Religion and Morality. Biology and Philosophy. 7(1): 77-88.

Skinner, B.F. Science and Human Behavior. (New York: Macmillian, 1953).

Skinner, B.F. Beyond Freedom and Dignity. (New York, NY: Bantage/Vintage Publishers, 1972).

Wegner, D. The Illusion of Conscious Will.…… [read more]

Business Ethics Is Your Answer Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is why we are offering the bandits large sums of money to leave the town alone.

However, there is a matter of personal safety that is taken into account. This is because the bandits are known for robbing and beating the citizens when they are conducting raids. To protect everyone in the community the large amount of money is a way of buying the community's safety and peace of mind. This will help to improve happiness and the quality of life for everyone. As a result, our approach is focused on using a certain amount of prudence by appealing to the bandits' greed.

Does this week's reading reaffirm the moral intuitions you expressed last week; or dies it qualify or even undermine them?

This week's readings reaffirm the moral institutions. The way that this is accomplished is by having flexibility in our approach and seeking out solutions that will deal with the problems over the long-term. In the case of the community, this is important for establishing a foundation for economic growth to occur. The only way that this can take place is to eliminate these raids.

Moreover, the bandits have demands to leave the town alone, provided that I give them one child that will be beaten and tortured. This is an obvious sign that they are frustrated and want to seek out some kind of negotiated solution. If the initial offer is rejected and we appeal to their greed is when we can have peace. This approach has been tried by other cities in the region with a certain degree of success. Therefore, we need to be able to use a similar strategy in dealing with this issue.


Consequentialism / Utilitarianism, n.d.

Deontology, n.d.

Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/… [read more]

Code of Ethics: Malpractice Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


2. Public disclosures enjoy no such immunity. It is unclear how confidentiality is applied to disclosures made to clergy during home visits if there is more than one person present (p. 85).

How the standards and guidelines on confidentiality conflict or reinforce one another.

1. Across the board, professional codes of conduct or ethics reinforce one another by emphasizing the need for confidentiality; however, there are some different views concerning what steps must or should be taken by professionals in cases where certain types of criminal or other legal issues are involved (Allen, 2011).

2. In addition, there is an initiative underway to standardize the wording in various professional codes of ethics or conduct because of current inconsistencies between them (Allen, 2011).

How to avoid potential conflicts, if any, between religious group's policies and state's laws.

Section C.2.e of the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics, "Consultation on Ethical Obligations," stipulates that when professionals faced these types of conflicts, they should seek clarification to identify appropriate courses of action: "Counselors take reasonable steps to consult with other counselors or related professionals when they have questions regarding their ethical obligations or professional practice."

Resolution of conflicts if and when they arise.

The general guidelines set forth in the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics states that, "When counselors are faced with ethical dilemmas that are difficult to resolve, they are expected to engage in a carefully considered ethical decision-making process" (ACA Code of Ethics, 2005, p. 1).


ACA code of ethics. (2005). American Counseling Association. Retrieved from http://www.


Allen, C. (2011). Improving the code of professional conduct: Revised structure, wording will make ethics standards more consistent. Journal of Accountancy, 211(6), 38-39.

Audette, E. (1998, January 28). Confidentiality in the church: What the pastor knows and tells.

Christian…… [read more]

Business Ethics and Ethical Purchasing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Business Ethics and Ethical Purchasing

Business ethics can be defined as systems of principles and values that direct choices and dealings within a company. In the business world, a company's culture often sets the values for determining the distinction between good and bad decision making and actions. In the most fundamental terms, business ethics comes down to knowing the difference between right and wrong and deciding to do what is right. "The phrase business ethics can be used to describe the actions of individuals within an organization, as well as the organization as a whole" (White, 2012). Core ethical values and responsibilities are typically expressed through an ethics policy. This is followed by a code of ethics, setting down the way the institution aims to conduct its business, including promises to stakeholders and guidance for staff. A standard of ethics may envelop issues not covered by law concerning a specific function like procurement (Procurement and business ethics, 2008).

Because purchasing is money driven activity ethics has tough battle with everything else that is in play. Therefore the importance of ethics is a mark elevated in purchasing than other fields where money in not the main driving instrument. It is not an easy job to keep the ethics elevated and fair in procurement. It needs exact concentration, perseverance and motivated people to keep up the ethics with in the procurement process (Ethical Buying or Ethics in Purchasing, 2011).

Ethical purchasing helps business in a lot of ways including the feel good feature of everyone concerned. It aids in driving fair competition sowing improvement for enhanced cost effective ways of doing things. This in the end leads to more importance for the money being spent. On the other hand, unethical purchasing leads to less value for the money being spent, or the money is being wasted leading to an increase in inflation. Overall, one gets less than what they paid for, causing a drain in their over cash (Ethical Buying or Ethics in Purchasing, 2011).

Ethics in the circumstance of procurement concerns the standards of conduct which make sure that individuals and organizations are trusted and appreciated by those with whom they deal. The organization or institution should be thought of as a good customer. Poor relations with suppliers can cause long-term harm to the status and credibility of the organization or institution. An organization or institution must make sure of regulatory compliance and propriety in the handling of public funds. There are some simple rules that if followed will allow procurement people to stay out of trouble:

"do not bend or break the rules follow procedure if approve is needed, get it first do not allow a conflict of interest to affect or appear to affect decisions do not use the organizations or institutions…… [read more]

Business Ethics a Contradiction in Terms? Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,820 words)
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¶ … Business Ethics" a Contradiction in Terms?

"Business Ethics" is not at all a contradiction in terms. Sometimes it may seem that way, but that is only because business dealings often present opportunities to pursue profit in ways that are unethical. The term "loop hole" describes situations in which the applicable laws are not fully capable of ensuring against… [read more]

Ethical Theories: In Philosophy, Ethics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Ethical Theories:

In philosophy, ethics is described as the systematic analysis of how people should behave toward themselves and others. It's also explained as the study of what character traits, things, or types of people are good, admirable, and estimable as well as those that are bad, worthy of condemnation, and at fault. While this field deals with general principles or rules, it also deals with specific cases. Some of the most common ethical perspectives that are used when analyzing the morality of various controversial topics include the Act and Rule Utilitarianism, virtue theory, and Kant's Categorical Imperative.

Approaches to Ethics:

The three major concerns in ethics is the certainty of correct moral beliefs, the process of deciding moral hard questions, and how to have a good life. These concerns are the basis of several approaches or perspectives of ethics that have been developed by various ethical theorists. According to Kant, the actual ethical concern is not the process of deciding what is right but it's the constant struggle to apply what is right regardless of the temptations and distractions.

The theory of ethical relativism states that the probability of an act to be right or wrong is dependent on the particular society that an individual lives in. In opposition to this theory, Kant argues that ethical principles are experienced as Categorical Imperatives or commands that order people to do something unconditionally despite of their aims, purposes, and wants. The other approach to ethics is the Utilitarianism theory which states that all people should always attempt to create the greatest happiness for a huge number of people. While it's also known as the Greatest Happiness Theory, the main doctrine behind Utilitarianism is the total identification of pleasure with good and pain with evil.

This doctrine is subdivided into the Act Utilitarianism and the Rule Utilitarianism with the former emphasizing that people should use the utility principle in deciding their actions despite of their position in the society. On the contrary, the Rule Utilitarianism states that governments should use utility principle in enacting general laws while treating everyone fairly. The virtue ethical principle focuses on character i.e. The kind of person an individual is instead of behavior i.e. The actions of a person (Wolff, 2012).

The Morality of Stem Cell Research:

One of the most controversial and hot button freedom limiting issues in today's society is the morality of stem cell research because it involves the destruction of a fetus or embryo. Stem cell research has generated a huge debate because some people consider it as the destruction of a potential human being. On the contrary, other people consider it as a significant discovery that could help…… [read more]

Literacy on Ethics Meta Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


" Philosophical Perspectives.

University of Illinois: Chicago, IL. 6.

Shelly Kagan explains that normative ethics is actually the basis for the entire social structure of society. The normative branch of ethical decision making is often the basis for the laws and legislation of the society. The rules that a society sets for itself are based on what the government hopes its citizens will do in a certain situation. Behaviors will be dictated based on what the society as a whole agrees should be done.

Applied Ethics:

Beauchamp, Tom (2008). "The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics."


Beauchamp argues that being benevolent or beneficent is how a person effectively uses applied ethics. Whereas many forms of ethics relate to hypothetical situations, the applied system of ethics more refers to how these things work in real-world situations. The author traces the link between beneficence and applied ethics throughout history and determines that the two are intricately linked.

Chadwick, Ruth E. (1998). "Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics." Academic Press: San Diego, CA.

The book discusses all the way in which society requires people to behave ethically in real-world situations. In the real world, things are hardly ever black and white. Most often what the right or wrong thing to do is in a given situation can be difficult to determine. The encyclopedic entries allows the reader to see a pattern of behavior and a pattern of choices.… [read more]

Ethics While All Ethical Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (683 words)
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Therefore, I also do not believe there are absolute moral rules governing human behavior in any realm.

My worldviews also reflect a utilitarian ethic. For instance, I believe in the legalization of all drugs including but not limited to cannabis. This is because drugs of all sorts help people. If some drugs are made illegal, then their potential to help people is eliminated. Interestingly, as I muse on the subject of legalizing drugs, I realize that the duty ethic is also involved. We have a duty to make sure that the greatest number of people in the world is as happy as they possibly can be. Here, I can easily fuse Kant's duty ethics with Mill's utilitarian ethics.

Aristotle makes a great point about the importance of cultivating human virtue. This is an important act that will foster improved human relations. If more people acted out of ethical integrity, then we would have fewer problems in the world. I can combine this with my fundamental belief in utilitarianism in a simple way. When it comes to politics and economics, I do notice that the wealth and power is concentrated into the hands of a few. Most people can see this is morally wrong, and from each of the ethical perspectives we are studying, this scenario is wrong. From a utilitarian perspective, the way governments and corporations work, fewer people are benefitting. The greatest good is not occurring for the greatest number of people. From a Kantian perspective, the will to be greedy and exploit labor from people is categorically wrong and impermissible by all accounts. From a virtue ethics perspective too, there is no moral virtue in committing the white collar crimes that are committed on a daily basis. Therefore, there are many issues on which all the normative ethical positions can converge. This is why, although I am mostly a utilitarian that I also feel that some situations call for either a duty or a virtue ethics perspective.… [read more]

Ethics the American Public Health Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Bodies that rely on membership can use the threat of removing membership as a mechanism for enforcement. Some bodies may even have the ability to fine members or otherwise discipline them. Most professional bodies use enforcement to maintain the ethical standards within the industry. Any violation of those standards is seen as something that could diminish the profession as a whole, so for the most part professional bodies take their codes of ethics seriously.

There is also a strong motivation to have solid internal ethical standards and enforcement. If bodies fail in self-enforcement, they may find that they are subject to external enforcement. This threat has undoubtedly at times resulted in changes to ethical guidelines for some industry bodies. The APHA, because its ethical principles are not enforced, acts as an advocate but does not come under direct threat from the outside. Membership in the APHA is not mandatory for those seeking employment in public health, so the association does not have much more than moral authority to convince people to behave in an ethical manner.

For an issue such as domestic abuse, there are substantial ethical issues that practitioners may be faced with. The public health ethics principles can help guide practitioners to making the right choices for their patients, no matter how difficult the situation in which they find themselves is. The collaboration principle can help in dealing with law enforcement and policies can be formed on the basis of human dignity, regardless of scientific knowledge. Such guideposts are essential for those in the industry, and it is just as important that external stakeholders are also aware of the guiding ethical principles of the public health sector, so that they can understand what to expect from the sector, especially on a sensitive issue like domestic abuse.

Those involved in public health are likely to be subject to multiple ethical codes. It is important to understand the principles that underlie these codes, and they tend to revolve around knowledge and compassion. The APHA provides a good set of principles with which to work, and this sets the foundation for handling the difficult situations that arise with those who work with domestic abuse victims.

Works Cited:

Article: American Public Health Association (2010). Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.apha.org/membergroups/primary/aphaspigwebsites/ethics/

PHLS. (2002). Principles of ethical practice of public health. Public Health Leadership Society. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/1CED3CEA-287E-4185-9CBD-BD405FC60856/0/ethicsbrochure.pdf… [read more]

Professional Ethics in the Fitness Industry Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,825 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Professional Ethics in the Fitness Industry

There are various approaches and views towards the human behavior and how each behavior should be treated. The ultimate goal of these behavior system controls is to ensure that the people can coexist in peace and there is maintenance of order throughout the society. The varying views of behavior patterns and the way they… [read more]

Ethics Awareness Inventory (Eai) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


According to the results perspective, ethics involve more than duty. This means that the O. perspective and the R. perspective are difficult to reconcile, which explains why my scores on these two measures are opposites.

The equity perspective focuses on the inherent value and dignity of others, rather than focusing on the individual characteristics of the actors. In many ways, this perspective involves the rejection of traditional moral theories. Rather than suggesting that people adhere to a particular moral view, those who adhere to the equity principle are likely to believe that one must be pragmatic and not commit to a particular moral perspective, because morality is circumstance-dependent. To me, this perspective most strongly conflicts with the idea of character being critical in morality, and I was not surprised to find it was my lowest score.

I think it is important to understand my own personal ethical perspective because my ethical perspective helps me determine my perception of the moral value of other's actions. It is very easy to respond with emotion to someone's behavior, and not even necessarily understand why those reactions are occurring. To me, I have always been puzzled by why I would react negatively to someone who seemed to always do the right thing, but knowing that I look at intention rather than results helps explain those feelings to me.

The relationship between personal and professional ethics in any field is a difficult one, and in the field of psychology it is particularly difficult. For me, a person who believes that intentions and character are more important than results, professional ethics, which are very limited by rules, can seem intimidating or confining to someone with my personal ethical perspective. However, taking this inventory helped me understand how much diversity there is in the way that individuals approach ethics. I understand that clients have to be able to look at consistent guidelines and know what to expect from their psychologist's ethical behavior. Therefore, I understand the need for rules where character is not as important as following the specific rules to create the specific…… [read more]

Company X Code of Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Company X Code of Ethics

Company X: Comprehensive Code of Ethics in the Workplace

Company X is a privately owned small business that seeks to provide one-stop shopping for customers by providing both groceries and pharmaceuticals in one convenient location. In order to operate to the best of its ability in an ethical manner, Company X has established a code… [read more]

Ethics in Criminal Justice Outline Case Study

Case Study  |  1 pages (346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Duty -- Is duty something that is expedient and morally required? Is there a conflict between duty and self-interest? Can duty make you do what is good and yet you feel bad?

f. Social Utility -- Is social utility something that only exceptional individuals or heroes can accomplish?

g. Justice As Fairness -- Is justice always fair and right? What is the dividing line between what is just and fair and what one can do to correct wrong behaviors? Can you force someone to do something?

h. The Moral Relationships Of Leaders and Followers -- What obligations do leaders have to set an example?

III. Conclusion -- Ethics in the criminal justice system is a complex phenomenon involving power, duty, virtue, character, an understanding of the relationship of self-interest to social justice and more. It is critical to understand how to identify immoral behavior and address it.… [read more]

Code of Ethics Response Personal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (557 words)
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Code of Ethics Response

Personal Code of Ethics:

Independence -- I will always value my independence. I will accept love and friendship from others, but I will always value my independence as a woman.

Integrity -- I believe that a person's own set of moral is important and I will always strive to live up to mine.

Kindness -- I will always try to help people without expecting something in return from them.

Caring -- I will never harm any person or animal. I will always promote the ethical treatment of animals.

Attitude -- I will keep a positive attitude and encourage goodness in myself -- which includes never lying or gossiping -- and I will encourage this in others (especially my children)

Professional Code of Ethics:

Honesty -- I will always conduct my business honestly and ethically in whatever area of work I choose.

Quality -- I will always strive to maintain the highest level of work quality and work diligently to improve myself and the job that I do every day.

Respect -- I will respect others, which includes being fair and responsible when it comes to other people.

Personal Integrity -- I will always keep in mind my ethical standards while working and I will promote personal integrity in others in view of the fact that a company is the sum of ethics of the people who work there.

Both my personal code of ethics and my professional code of ethics include the word 'integrity.' Integrity is such an important quality in a person no matter whether one is at work or at home. Integrity means that one is honest and has strong moral principles.…… [read more]

Ethical Theory and Moral Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (597 words)
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Therefore, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice will have been influenced by trends in economic development; the ethics of nation-building; and same-sex marriage. The increasing secularization of Western states and the decreasing significance of the nation-state are key points that can be addressed in the context of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. At the same time, specific issues such as euthanasia, animal rights, and abortion can be analyzed in terms of global needs and global norms.

Research in psychology, neuropsychology, and biopsychology has also had strong impacts on the development of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. Issues such as the evolution of belief in God, and criminological theory can all be discussed within the framework of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. Many of the topics that help shape a cohesive Ethical Theory and Moral Practice can be addressed in other fields, but not with as rich a scope. "The conditions for moral behaviour in a rapidly changing, globalising world are not sustained automatically but demand our continuous attention," ("What Makes us Moral? 2011). In other words, a moral and ethical framework, one grounded in policy and application, is essentially fruitful as well as practical. The problems that plague planet earth ranging from overpopulation to climate change are multidisciplinary in nature. They are oversimplified by corporate-controlled media, which itself raises ethical concerns. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice can tackle a single issue like climate change from a multitude of perspectives, incorporating scientific fact with the ethics of economics.


"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links/special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

"What Makes Us Moral?" (2011). VU University Amsterdam. Retrieved online: http://www.ph.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/secties/praktische-filosofie/conference-what-makes-us-moral/index.asp… [read more]

Ethics Theory Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,039 words)
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Ethical Theory


Given what you've learned about ethical theory, give some thought to how you might create your own ethical theory. What would be the central principle by which you would measure right and wrong action? What kinds of limitations do you think your theory might have?

As a healthcare provider, I believe that wellness promotion should be at the core of every ethical system: the promotion of physical, psychological, and environmental wellness. Wellness promotion is defined according to each patient's specific needs. Wellness promotion for a child might include providing nurturing and care, while for an adolescent it might involve the promotion of autonomy. The types of heroic medical interventions appropriate for the promotion of wellness at the end of life are different than those appropriate for a mature adult.

Wellness promotion is an important value to uphold in one's day-to-day life. For example, while it is important to be honest, telling everyone 'the truth' in a harsh and blunt fashion does not necessarily promote change and positive growth and can simply hurt an individual's feelings. If a friend needs to lose weight, encouraging them to exercise and making it easy for them to diet by not tempting them is more promoting of wellness than 'nagging.'

Wellness promotion is also important on a personal level -- taking care of one's self and not being a burden to others is important. It is personally empowering and satisfying to honor your responsibilities, to strive to be independent, and to take positive control over your life, striving to be the 'best you can be.' Wellness means peace of mind and living in harmony with others, and only by exhibiting compassion is a state of wellness achieved within the self and within society.

Wellness also means taking care of the environment. Not polluting, trying to live a sustainable life, and making the environment healthy so others will not suffer negative consequences now or in years to come is a moral obligation. Unless we honor this principle as a species, the earth as well as human beings will suffer.

The main problem with wellness promotion as an ethical system is one which is similar to care-based ethics: the definition of wellness will vary from person to person. However, the need to take care of others and the earth to promote wellness is an important limitation upon defining wellness too broadly, and using the pursuit of wellness as justification for self-serving behaviors. Wellness means promoting social and environmental values, and if the exterior world is suffering, the individual will suffer as well. Wellness is also a more broadly-defined value than health: a person can be physically healthy but mentally unwell because of depression. The definition of wellness will be different at different stages of life and differ depending on the needs and values of the individual -- even though all definitions must fit into a larger, social context of holistic wellness.

Question 2: Of the ethical theories discussed (Kantian, Utilitarian, Casuistry, Virtue, and Care)… [read more]

Relativity of Moral Truth Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (649 words)
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A further discussion to Li's arguments against cultural relativism leads up to that of Nagel's relative moral position. Nagel owes his philosophy on moral truths to that of the "paradoxicality of the human condition" (Mulhall, 2007). That is, an individual's moral values are subject to that individual's objective outlook on the decisions made. It coincides with his puzzlement over the "randomness" (Mulhall, 2007) of the human moral ethics, and more than explains the arguments over an individual's breaking from his or her moral and religious leanings -- though Nagel does not dismiss either position from being a variable of moral decision. "An action may have multiple causes or diverse sources of impetus" (Li, 2007), which can or cannot be explained through cultural relativism and/or divine command theory.

The strongest argument, therefore, lies within Nagel's position on moral philosophy. Of the three, Nagel's position poses upon itself the argument of humanity, of the individual mind and the processes that the individual undergoes to make that moral and ethical realization. It allows for the certain freedom of explanation to a person's deviation from religious and cultural standpoint. Morality is not dependent upon an existence of God or traditions, but a combination or lack thereof, with the human self.


Austin, Michael W. (2006). Divine Command Theory. Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/

Blackburn, Simon. (2005). The oxford dictionary of philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Li, X. (2007). 7 A Cultural Critique of Cultural Relativism. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 66(1), 151-171. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.2007.00502.x

Mulhall, S. (2007). Luck, Mystery and Supremacy D.Z. Phillips Reads Nagel and Williams on Morality. Philosophical Investigations,…… [read more]

Organizational Ethics Values, Ethics and Norms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,913 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Organizational Ethics

Values, ethics and norms are part of every society regardless of what culture, religion or geographical boundary it belongs to. These values define how society's draw their lines between what are right and what is wrong. These values and ethics may be written, verbal or implied. It is a general misconception that value and ethics mean the same.… [read more]

Strategy and Corporate Governance and Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Strategy & Ethics

Bowden & Smythe's article Theories on Teaching and Training in Ethics examines the ability to strengthen moral behavior through courses on ethics. This article begins with the proposition that ethics cannot be taught to adults expounds upon that concept with a review of the evidence that has been gathered on the subject. This has significant ramifications for strategic management because of the importance of ethical behavior, especially at the leadership level. The prevailing wisdom of recent years is that ethics can be taught, but if the evidence does not support this, then companies need to reform both their hiring and their training policies with respect to ethics.

Strategic Decision-Making

Nohria (2004) outlines a number of the strategic decisions that companies make that contribute to corporate success. These include operational execution, maintaining a strong balance sheet, having strong corporate governance, developing superior information technologies, having a clearly communicated strategy and having a clear corporate strategy and/or critical mass. Each of these different strategic areas has a wide range of ethical implications built in. Smith (2003) outlines the obligations that management has towards both shareholders and other stakeholders. Both of these theories argue that ethics are evaluated using a consequentialist framework, wherein the outcomes to the different groups are the arbiter of a firm's ethical policies. Even in cases of outright fraud, it was only that the fraud was detected that made the actions unethical because of the negative impacts on shareholders and/or other stakeholders.

With respect to ethics, the stakeholder view generally dovetails with the shareholder view. The commonly-cited instances where this was not the case -- Enron being one -- are cases of fraud rather than fundamental ethics. As Nohria (2004) notes, at this level corporate governance is a hygiene factor in that it needs to be present in order that the company not fail, but beyond that it offers no real value. The entire governance debate has been sparked by a handful of powerful anecdotes, but there is no empirical evidence that shoddy governance is any more widespread now than in the past. While boards are often concerned only with shareholder outcomes, the correlation between positive shareholder outcomes and positive outcomes for other internal stakeholders is high -- when the firm is making money, everybody benefits.

Ethics Training

This leads to the question of the value of ethical training. If it is taken as a given that ethics cannot be taught, and that strong corporate governance is merely a hygiene factor, then ethics training becomes irrelevant. The most important elements of ethics for a company come at the point where the board is selected, and at the point where management is selected. Good ethical management comes from selecting managers with high ethical standards. If one is to use the primary sources of anecdotal evidence that unethical managers are bad for business, one must consider that most of those managers were not hired. Bernard Ebbers built WorldCom; Jeffrey Skilling built the energy derivatives business at Enron. These… [read more]

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