Study "Ethics / Morality" Essays 111-165

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Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle's Own Work Term Paper

… Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics

The concept of ethics can mean many different things, depending on the person asked to describe or discuss it. However, there are specific issues that can be examined to help determine whether something is actually ethical or… [read more]


Ethics in Nursing Article Review

… This is the essence of Bishop's attempt to redefine ethics and ethical approaches in modern 21st century organizations. By using ethics as a tool and not a reward or thing itself, a new understanding of the ideals that lie behind ethics can be revealed to assist the organization in performing its duties in a professional and agreeable manner.

Ethical Nursing

The role of nursing is unique within the healthcare industry, and the pivotal role that this profession plays is largely underrated in the healing process. The core values of nursing need to be examined for ethical quality and to align them with the practices and clinical approaches that are being used by any given nurse. Vanlaere & Gastmans (2007) wrote "nursing is essentially concerned with the care of vulnerable fellow human beings. Patients view nurses as skilled companions who discern the care needs of patients, wanting to provide these needs in a professional fashion. The essence of nursing is the precise integration of expert activity and caring; nursing can therefore be considered to be a moral practice."

The idea of synthesizing caring and skill is the baseline premise for an ethical approach to nursing. The idea of caring is subjective. Care is attune to such emotions as love and happiness, suggesting that the ethical approach of any nurse must include a human and empathetic approach. Care must also be balanced with practical skill, or any loving person could be qualified as a nurse. The basic tenets of professionalism suggest that skill and practical knowledge must be balanced with the more artistic qualities of any person.

Applying ethical ideals in nursing requires both an inductive and deductive approach. Wisdom gained through experience can provide much ethical guidance when tough and difficult decisions must be made in short amounts of time. Wisdom requires failure and disharmony, which is often not accepted readily within the healthcare environment.

Conclusions

Auditing one's own ethical structure becomes the obvious first step for any nurse or professional that practices within the healthcare issue. The alignment of these ethical values must correspond to the larger organizational values if there is to be any professional harmony and resultant success. Keeping an open mind and understanding the larger goals in the organization are helpful at putting one's own ethical views in the correct perspective.

Healthcare is about healing. Patients expect to be healed in an ethical manner. The subjective ideas of caring, love, success and health all play into a very complex and sophisticated equation that causes real problems and allow for real solutions. Treating ethics as a fluid tool that can be used to practically manipulate an outcome becomes a useful approach to adopt for nurses within this complex environment.

References

Bishop, W.H. (2013). The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organizations. Journal of business ethics, 118(3), 635-637.

Ells, C., & MacDonald, C. (2002, November). Implications of organizational ethics to healthcare. In Healthcare Management Forum (Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 32-38). Elsevier.

Lutzen, K. (1997). Nursing ethics into the… [read more]


Group Should Have Intimate Knowledge Essay

… Instead, feminists hold "traditional ethics overrates culturally masculine traits like "independence, autonomy, intellect, will, wariness, hierarchy, domination, culture, transcendence, product, asceticism, war, and death," while underrating feminine ideas like "interdependence, community, connection, sharing, emotion, body, trust, absence of hierarchy, nature, immanence, process, joy, peace, and life" (Tong & Williams (2014). Rather than objective moral "rightness" feminist ethics have tended to stress community, reinforcing harmony, and the relationship between the ethical actor and the exterior world, rather than establishing a singular principle of consequences vs. intentions which will last for all time.

Reference

Tong, R. & Williams, N. Feminist ethics. (2014) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/feminism-ethics

Discussion 3

A number of methods exist for an organization to raise capital. The first, most direct method is through contributions by individuals, either in the form of donations or in the form of "angel" investors, who may expect a return on their contribution if the venture is successful. The advantage of this is such donations or investments do not need to be paid back in the case of financial failure; the downside is that such contributors often want some say in how the funds are used. The other option is taking out a loan from a bank: this must be paid back regardless of success of failure ("How U.S. corporations raise capital," 2014). However, the bank has no "say so" over how the funds are to be used once the loan is extended.

Managers must be aware of the nature of the project, its budget, and the suitability of different financing options, including their downsides. Funding often affects how the project's trajectory is managed in a critical fashion. For-profit institutions can also issue shares but for most nonprofit healthcare entities, this is not an acceptable strategy ("How U.S. corporations raise capital," 2014). Managers in healthcare must be particularly sensitive to the needs of the organization to serve the public as well as the financial demands of investors.

Reference

How U.S. corporations raise capital. (2014). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from:

http://economics.about.com/od/smallbigbusiness/a/corp_capital.htm… [read more]


Ethics a Number of Differences Essay

… However, chances are that with such a move, ISIS would be pacified - given our country's superior military capabilities. Given the atrocities the terror formation continues to visit on the people of Iraq, the loss of a few lives would be a small price to pay for the huge benefits that would accrue, i.e. with regard to the neutralization of the group's ability to continue its criminal activities.

Assignment Details: Health Care Finance

The most beneficial method a manager would make use of in seeking to evaluate the utilization of the Ocean View Diabetic Clinic's money is present value analysis. One of the key advantages of this particular method, in comparison to such methods as IRR, is that it takes into consideration the time value of money. However, in comparison to IRR and the payback period methods, this method happens to be much more complicated.

The four key financial statements an organization makes use of include: the balance sheet, statement of revenue and expense, statement of changes in fund balance/net worth, and statement of cash flows. All these statements come in handy in not only the determination of an entity's financial performance, but also in the evaluation of its financial health and stability. While the balance sheet gives us a fair picture of an entity's worth and what it owes, the income statement tells us what the business managed to rake in during a specified financial period. The cash flow statement, on the other hand, is critical in both the coordination and planning of an entity's financial operations; while the statement of changes in fund balance/net worth, as Baker and Baker (2013, p. 117) points out, is "the mechanism… [read more]


Fair Trade Ethics Term Paper

… There are things that society defines as right and wrong -- societies set the bounds for their behavior, and this is Kantian deontological ethics (Johnson 2008). Another system argues that outcomes matter, and this consequentialist philosophy is the roots of distributive justice (Sinnott-Armstrong 2011).

International distributive justice was actually developed after Friedman's article was published, its ideas heavily influenced by John Rawls' A Theory of Justice, which was published in 1971. The concept of international distributive justice rests on the idea of the social contract, wherein human societies have implicit contracts, and in these there is an implied need for fairness in dealings and in allocations (Blake & Smith 2013). Fair trade is this idea applied to the real world, where the profits from enterprise are distributed relatively equally on the basis of contribution. Thinking of the coffee example, coffee farming is hard work in often grueling conditions, so there is genuine need for farmers to earn a reasonable living from this enterprise. The default system captures profits predominantly for the end retailer and a series of middlemen who perform relatively simple transportation and warehousing tasks. It is their markups that are responsible for the high price of coffee relative to what the producer is paid.

The producer's low pay reflects a lack of knowledge on the part of the market, however. Where the market understands the outcomes of the system, the market has today in keeping with the principle of distributive justice demanded changes to the system that will emphasize better distribution of the profits from enterprise. Thus, end sellers are forced to make changes in their supply chains in order to ensure that farmers are being paid a living wage for their efforts. Fair trade can also be applied, for example, to sweatshop workers -- it is not strictly an agricultural concept.

4. Conclusion

At its heart, the fair trade issue can be distilled down to the rightness of distributive justice. Consequentialism would most certainly support this -- as many people as possible should be able to earn a living from that proverbial cup of coffee, given a certain price that consumers are willing to pay, and that living should be roughly commensurate with the effort made in contribution to the production of that product. The moral goodness of fair trade, however, is not only supported by consequentialism, even if the principle of distributive justice makes the strongest case in its favor. Kantian ethics also support this ethic, because it is what the majority of society supports. There are a few, certainly, who for the sake of personal convenience support the Friedman view that they should not worry about other human beings, but their ethics are not supported by the majority of the people in our society. In general, our society values people being paid a living wage for their labors -- there might be less support for distributive justice among those who don't put in a hard day's work, but that cannot be said of, say, coffee… [read more]


Ethics in Business Has Become a Hot Essay

… Ethics in business has become a hot button issue in recent years, in light of a number of scandals in the early 2000s, but also with the whole issue of corporate social responsibility. There are different dimensions to ethics, some… [read more]


Ethics There Are Several Different Essay

… Sexual Behavior

Virtue ethics tends to hold that the major moral flaw here is that the people are not married, since adultery is a selfish act that only harms others. Virtuous people do not focus their energies on selfish behavior, thus the act is wrong. Kantian ethics would not only point to prevailing moral codes against adultery, which are near-universal in human society, but against the use of the company boardroom as well. The company's prevailing code of ethics should set the standard here, and unless the company is Stratton Oakmont, in which case such behavior is accepted. In most companies, however, sex in the boardroom would violate the categorical imperative.

Consequentialist ethics would hold the consequences of the action to be the determinant of its morality. There are a lot of ways that this could play out. If nobody sees the act and it does not cause any disruption to anybody, then there is no moral prohibition against this act from the consequentialist perspective. Thus, context matters. If the employees are caught, and this leads to disorder in the company, or if their actions destroy pre-existing relationships, then by the consequentialist standard this act would be wrong. The utilitarian argument is going to be similar, except that because the benefits of the sex go to two people, it is highly unlikely that the balance of goodness will fall on the side of this being an ethical act. For that to happen, the act would have to produce a baby that grows up to make a great contribution to society. Odds are that won't happen.

Drinking

In virtue ethics, drinking is itself a neutral act. Virtue goes to deep levels far beyond habits (Hursthouse, 2012). As a result, the act of drinking is itself a neutral act, and it is only those acts which occur as the result of the drinking that can be negative under virtue ethics -- they must be evaluated on their own, however, as a distinct issue.

The Kantian perspective on drinking is going to be relative to the prevailing standards of the culture. Kant sought to define the categorical imperative as a law of nature, and arguably drunkenness is not favored in nature. The inebriated state is not natural, nor is it enlightened. Kantian ethics may not have any real position on drunkenness, but if it does it would not be in favor of it.

From a consequentialist perspective, again context is required. In general, someone who drinks to excess is probably a liability, and if they aren't their habit may induce others to follow suit, though perhaps those actions should be evaluated on their own merits. For the individual, unless they happen to perform better drunk than sober (like a lot of famous writers, or even somebody who gets drunk while conducting business that is worth a lot of money) this will be a negative act. There could be extenuating circumstances that make the drunkenness favorable, but this is highly unlikely.

From a utilitarian… [read more]


Baird's Everyday Ethics and the Idea of "Deontology Essay

… Suffering has an effect on his stomach, perhaps, but not on his brain.

I dwell at such length on this example because, when I think about my own ethical learning curve, I can remember first being exposed to this particular idea while watching an interview with Alice Von Hildebrand, and realizing that it really did take some serious thought on my part to understand the point. (I will also be honest, I was not expecting something that is essentially told as a joke to be part of a televised interview about Catholic ethics.) The simplistic way of making the point would be to see it about hypocrisy -- someone who makes a show of caring about the poor, and says the right things, while has actions that directly undercut this lip-service. But that was not the more complicated point that Von Hildebrand was trying to address: the concept she was trying to elucidate was sentimentality and its ethical problems. In reality, I don't think I really fully understood it until I was watching a different television program and saw the same principle illustrated a different way: on "The Sopranos," the crime boss Tony Soprano has a sentimental reaction to hearing about animals suffering (like when a horse is killed in an arson incident done for insurance purposes) but will shoot a human being without a second thought.

What this represents, of course, is a redirection of priorities, or possible a virtue carried over into the excess of a vice. This is something that Baird captures in his text fairly well, as when he presents various four-part grids, which demonstrate that there can be a "higher" or a "lower" version of the same ethical response. Baird presents "Wilber's matrix," for example, which basically maps these realms of ethical response in terms of how much distance they go outside the self (Baird 149). In Wilber's model, the lower version is the one that restricts human behavior inside the self (rather than extending it out into action) and that looks at human interaction on the smallest possible level (the individual in one-on-one relationships rather than the individual at the level of society or culture). It is no accident that for Wilber the ethically "descended" or inferior stance is the one that is focused on the "exterior side of development." In other words, it is possible to keep up appearances while being rotten to the core.

So this returns me to the idea of "deontology" that Baird refers to in the textbook. In the "Path to Maturity" diagram, Baird summarizes the central question and the central statement of deontology as being "What are my rights and responsibilities? I am responsible" (Baird 146). This is certainly a handy approach to ethics because in this case all a person has to do is play by the rules, and the automatic result is ethical behavior. It may be comforting in some sense, insofar as it does not require a lot of complicated thoughts and actions. However, I… [read more]


Virtual Research Ethics Question Term Paper

… In her estimation, ethical conduct is nothing more than a basic human principle or moral, and Buchanan believes that each individual researcher should hold themselves to the highest standard.

2.) Read Snapshot: Google: Tracking Search Patterns. Find more details of this study since the text's Snapshot was printed and discuss the study including any updates.

The "Snapshot: Google: Tracking Search Patterns" feature found on page 32 of the textbook Introduction to Business Research begins by informing readers that "according to Nielsen/NetRatings and SearchEngineWatch.com, Internet users in the United States spent about 26.5 hours a month online and executed 214 million searches a day, 91 million of them on Google." The feature goes on to explain that Google tracks usage data in seemingly innumerable ways, listing time of day, originating IP address and website destinations as the most common methods of sorting and analyzing user data. According to the "Snapshot" piece, "what makes Google tracking a researcher's goldmine is its ability to predict future trends as well as mirror current trends & #8230; (because) businesses are interested not only in these predictive capabilities but also because searches reveal things about individuals that they wouldn't willingly talk about." More recent studies on this subject have observed that Google processes over 100 billion search queries per month, which would indicate that the rate of internet search use is rising at a steady rate.

References

Buchanan, E.A. (Ed.). (2004). Readings in virtual research…… [read more]


Company Having Strong Ethics Case Study

… For example, the code should be focused on either deontological or consequentialist ethics, rather than cribbing sloppily from both, which could lead to an incoherent code that is tough to apply.

The code of ethics should then be tested for a few traits. One trait is clarity. It is important that the code is easy to understand. It should be consistent as well, because that is important -- a code that doesn't make sense it not going to work for most people. Furthermore, the code should be convertible to action. If the ethical code does not help people to make better ethical decisions than they otherwise would make, and does not ensure that all stakeholders understand the organization's ethical perspective, then the code is not of much value. It must be something that can be translated into action to genuinely have value.

3.

I'm not sure what a "pro" rebuttal would be, given that a rebuttal is "offering a contrary contention or argument" according to Dictionary.com. I agree with the statement. A code of ethics is something that many businesses seem to have, without any real understanding of why it is important. This statement highlights precisely why a code of ethics is important. There needs to be a code that defines the behaviors accepted and practiced in the workplace. This seems self-evident, but even when there is a strong ethical culture, the code provides further clarity and elaboration for what is expected. Also, the code is good as a defense, should legal action be filed against the company. The code, especially when trained and adequately communicated to the employees, provides a means for the company to distance itself from rogue employees.

Top level management should actually write the code, not just influence it. There needs to be total buy-in from top level management in order for the code to be effective. The top level leaders need to be leaders in ethics as well. Their ethical standards are the most likely to be followed throughout the organization, so they need to be highly involved in the development and implementation of the code of ethics. A code of ethics without buy-in from the top level management is not likely to be effective at all.

The other thing that I would add is that the code of ethics should ideally go beyond the laws -- things like fraud are clearly illegal and therefore should be a given in any code of ethics. The code should be useful for dealing with genuine ethical dilemmas, which are far more subtle and complex than issues where the law already defines the standard…… [read more]


ACA Code of Ethics Essay

… ACA Code of Ethics

A Brief Profile of the Client

Deborah is the client. She is a 45 years old housewife who suffers from manic depression. She is highly educated with a law degree and used to practice it until… [read more]


Counselors Need to Study Ethics Questionnaire

… ¶ … counselors need to study ethics in relation to research? (Hauser, p. 87)

Just like in other fields including medicine, nursing, engineering and much other, counseling research also involves the observation of ethics. Ethics in research is very significant… [read more]


Nasw Code of Ethics Sociology Case Study

… I thought about the importance of articulation of relationships and declaration of boundaries with respect to social workers and their clients. I have not had a social worker assigned to me or someone in my family, but I have known people who have. I have also not seen a therapist or counselor professionally in my life, but I have known people who have and who do. This aspect of the code made me think about these instances in my life and compare them. I realize that social workers, in a way, can be a kind of therapist for individuals and families. Just as much as it is important to have clear boundaries between psychologist and patient, it is critical to the success of the social work practice for the social worker to have clear boundaries with the clients.

It is very easy to get caught up in the personal dramas of those that we help, whether in a professional capacity, such as a social worker, or a personal capacity, such as a friend or family member. Social workers might not be the healthiest people in the world, or not have their lives in complete order -- so it does not benefit a client to have an over-involved social worker in their lives in a greater capacity or outside the capacity of their job descriptions. Certainly, the people who need social workers, need assistance, and are often underprepared for life's challenges. Therefore, it behooves social workers to respect the boundaries between them and their clients. It is dangerous for social workers and clients alike if boundaries within that relationship are not respected or adhered to. My personal experiences, as they relate to this reflection, tell me that the relationship between social worker and client is in some ways fragile, with the ability to grow quite strong. It is also a relationship that demands care and respect or else it will fail miserable or otherwise go horribly wrong.

Step 3: Articulate Learning

I learned that the practice of ethics is active. We must actively be aware of and practice ethics as part of social work. Practicing ethics is a multifaceted experience that includes several key aspects, including establishing and respecting boundaries, and understanding the fine line between ethics and lack of ethics. I learned this from observations of my own studies and practice. I learned this from calling on my long-term and short-term memories of experiences that might apply to what I am learning. I also learned this through comparison and analysis of my studies, personal experiences, professional experiences and studies. What I learned matters because without an active practice of ethics, I would be disoriented as a social worker and as an individual. In light of my learning I will follow my interest in ethics and see if it leads me to a specific topic of field of study in which I…… [read more]


Ethics and CSR President Barack Term Paper

… Organizations of all sizes and types require effective leadership in order to formulate a corporate vision and make informed day-to-day decisions as well as strategically oriented ethical planning (Sussan, 2006). Finally, I thank you for your attention in this important matter and hope that you will keep the following in mind as you work with legislation and initiatives over the next few months. We must all remember that the new need for organizations to integrate values and ethics in their decision-making remains buttressed by these three trends, which I also encourage you to integrate into your own planning:

1. Effective leaders in the modern area are transformation and envision action which begins with ethics and values;

2. All organizations -- private and governmental, must become more robustly ethical in word and deed, and,

3. Ethics as a practice has a strong, persistent voice in the world's communication channels (Burke, 1999).

Thank you in advance.

Works Cited

ASHE-ERIC. (2002). Understaning and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 28(4), 1-162.

Burke, F. (1999). Ethical Decision-Making: Global Concerns, Frameworks and Approaches. Public Personnel Management, 28(4), 529-31.

Jahdi, K., et al. (2009). Marketing Communications and CSR. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(1), 103-13.

Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University press.

Lewis, C., & Gilman, S. (2005). The Ethics Challenge in Public Service (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. (2004). Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing: An Integrative Framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(1), 3-19.

Mayer, R.C., et al. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-34.

Robinson,…… [read more]


Social Psychology 2nd Morality Term Paper

… Specifically, the research question was to see if competence, when examined alongside morality, might affect ingroup behaviors and the perceived level of threats for individuals within the group.

Study Design

This transition in the design of the study resulted in… [read more]


Ethics Research the Role Creative Writing

… Ethics Research

The role of research and science is very important in today's society. In many ways, this social class dictates much of what is accepted as truth. With this burden, comes a great responsibility that requires those who do… [read more]


Nietzsche and Morality Research Paper

… Nietzsche and Morality

Friedrich Nietzsche and Morality

Nietzsche is one of the most renowned philosophers and lived between 1844 and 1900. He is regarded differently according to the perspectives that the individual successive philosophers take on him. To some, Nietzsche… [read more]


Moral Sentiment Philosophy Morality Essay

… Therefore exercising moral judgment revolve around taking an evaluative perspective that filters out the experienced distorting effects of personal prejudice and self-interest even on involving affective modes of consciousness. Hume argues that on considering an action or a character in general, failing to refer from our specific interest, it creates that sentiment or feeling, just as denominating it as morally good or evil. In terms of judging quality of character or an action, empathy inform us the pain or pleasure that is generated by the object for the individual that is in possession of it as well as individuals affected by it, (Krause, Sharon, 2013). As pleasure continue to stimulate a positive affective response, or approval; the stimulation of pain is aversion, or disapproval.

Is this account of morality convincing?

Yes, it is convincing in that it makes sure that human being's judgment has been shaped just through sentiments that are capable of endorsement in a correct structured generalized standpoint. Likewise, to register the pleasures and pains of the affected individuals, it is important to ask about their merit such as whether the sentiments have a reflection of an exact understanding of the available facts. Moral sentiments, of course, need a decisive evaluation of its own sources via the reflective stance of the generalized standpoint (iterative). Therefore, the moral sentiment exercise provide a platform for reaching an impersonal assessments of right as well as wrong in terms of a reflective, impartial lay down feelings. What can be endorsed inside this generalized standpoint is what is supposed to be done.

Conclusion

In summary, critics term Hume as an unmitigated moral relativist due to the fact that he believes that morality is founded on personal feelings, which widely vary from one person to the other. However, this does not form Hume's perspective since moral sentiments tend to be a special feeling.

References

David Fate "Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy" (1990). Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/cavalier/80130/part1/sect4/texts/Norton.html

Frank DeVita "Hume's Theory of Moral Sentiments as a Phenomenological Account of Morality" (2012). Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://frankdevita.wordpress.com/2012/08/06/humes-theory-of-moral-sentiments/

Krause, Sharon, "Moral Sentiment and the Politics of Human Rights," The Art of Theory, Jason Swadley (ed.), October 2010, Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://www.artoftheory.com/moral-sentiment-and-the-politics-of-human-rights-sharon-krause… [read more]


Ethics and the Criminal Justice System Essay

… Ethics and the Criminal Justice System

In most professions, there is a Code of Conduct that addresses ethical and moral issues that surround that particular activity. These standards of practice help the public feel confident that professionals (doctors, lawyers, judges, police officers, etc.) are bound by an honor code individually and as a profession. However, it is within the context of the day-to-day activities that ethical ambiguity occurs, and the Code then becomes a toolbox to help the professional navigate their dilemma (IIT, 2012).

A CBS News Report in 2009 focused on one segment of the criminal justice system that has been increasingly in the news -- Judges who break the law. The case in point was Judge Victor Baron who, after 14 years on the bench, was convicted of taking thousands of dollars in bribes and sentenced to a 3-9-year prison term. While most public officials are scrupulously honest, some watchdog groups find that in some areas of the country, corruption seems to be rife. Critics of the judiciary system note that the political nature of the bench allows for corruption, particularly in areas like New York City. Specifically, "at issues is an arcane system in which voters pick delegates to a judicial nominating convention, but do not pick the judges themselves" (Chery, 2009).

One must ask, though, is it the system that needs changed, or will individuals who lean towards corruption find a way to circumvent legalities anyway? Instead of changing the system, perhaps the curriculum in law school should add additional coursework on ethics, and perhaps public officials (judges, etc.) should be required to take continuing education courses dealing with the problem of ethical behavior in the contemporary arena? Thus, the central idea of a Code of Ethical behavior is to allow individuals to understand the moral and ethical consequences of their actions, to review the basic ethical theories of the past, and to be able to pull from those theories tools to be expressed within professional behavior, while still maintaining the agreed upon legal actions associated with the position held. For example, within the day-to-day actions of law enforcement personnel one might ask: 1) Does the Code of Ethics for my profession give clear advice on x issue? 2) if someone were to endorse the opposite course of action, could they also buttress their argument with the Code? 3) Are there apparent conflicts within the Code regarding x or y? 4) Does the Code conflict with my own individual moral stance? If so, is there a way to make an appropriate compromise? 5)…… [read more]


Ethics in Science Essay

… Ethics in Science

Do the Ends Ever Justify the Means?

We all face ethical dilemmas at some point. Sometimes, we are called upon to choose between several courses of action. However, in some instances, these alternative courses of action could be equally undesirable. This effectively puts us in a moral dilemma as selecting either course of action comes with a cost tag. One of the many examples of ethical dilemmas that has been advanced over time is a scenario whereby as a result of a medical condition, the life of an unborn baby has to be terminated as allowing the pregnancy to proceed to full term could bring about the death of the mother. What would be the best course of action in such a case? Citing various reasons, some could argue that saving the mother's life would be most appropriate. On the other hand, there are those who could be of the opinion that saving the life of the baby would be the best course of action. It is with such scenarios in mind that ethical theorists have in the past developed a number of ethical principles to guide decision making. One such viewpoint is teleological ethics which in its most pure form according to Bradburn "focuses on the 'ends', the results of the decision rather than the method of getting to that result" (3). In such a case, the end according to the author essentially justifies the means. However, do the ends ever justify the means?

In my view, the ends do not at any time ever justify the means. In its most bare form, this ethical system seeks to promote acts that would ordinarily be bad, unjust, immoral, or unethical if such acts in the end lead to good consequences. Such a line of reasoning has a number of fatal flaws. In seeking to further explore the topic, I will make use of an ethical dilemma Trevino and Nelson offer in their book. In the dilemma, five…… [read more]


Is Moral Development Possible? Essay

… ¶ … Moral Development possible?

The concept of moral development is the prime component of the report. The aims and objectives of moral development have elucidated its significance in an individual's life and how the practice of moral development can… [read more]


Corporate Ethics Business - Term Paper

… Corporate Ethics

Business - or corporate -- ethics is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines applied and theoretical ethical principles that occur in the context / format of a business intrusion. It applies to the organization / company as a whole as well as to individuals who work in that company.

Corporate ethics has both normative and descriptive categories:

Normative -- Practical 'ought to' prescriptions, conventions and laws that hedge in practices, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley (mentioned later) that is used to regulate ethical requirements of audits.

Descriptive - more theoretical such as describing (and arguing) whether or not a practice is ethical and should be employed.

Corporate ethics mainly concerns itself with the normative aspect where a cadre of rules and laws exist to ensure that the organization, as a larger whole, practices ethical conduct in each and every one of its practices. At the same time, rules exist to ensure that employee's behavior is ethical too.

Ethical issues include the rights and duties between a company and its employees, suppliers, customers and neighbors. They also include economical duties between the company and its shareholders -- or more correctly, issues of integrity so that shareholders are correctly informed about the circumstances of the company.

Other ethical issues exist too between company and competitors such as hostile take-overs and industrial espionage. And then we have legal ethical issues such as corporate manslaughter; and the marketing of corporations' ethics policies. Other ethical issues include governance; corporate; and political contributions .

Both government and company have formulated policies to implement and maintain ethical behavior. The questions is whether these policies work and are kept. Many observers see a disassociation between the company requirements and actual company behavior. Others however perceive the intransigence and strictness of laws such as the SOX to be sufficient to keep the company in control. No company wants to be bankrupt or run into trouble with the government. Debate therefore varies between whether or not ethical codes can build a true corporate ethics.

Yes:

Ethics codes can build a true 'corporate ethics"

Krell (2010) believes that corporations can build a true ethics environment and he provides an example of how an organization can do so in his essay on How to Conduct an Ethics Audit.

Krell points out that the legal environment during the last few years has compelled organizations to tighten their corporate ethics. Instruments such as the Sarbanes-Oxley and policies such as the Federal Acquisition Regulation and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines have compelled companies to adopt codes of conduct, train their employees on these codes, and create effective audit and reporting mechanisms. HR professionals too play a major part in not only employing ethical staff but in also monitoring and mentoring the practices of the company to ensure the morality of their standards.

The company's ethics is largely seen in its auditing and an ethical audit follows six rules:

1. Start with a detailed foundation…… [read more]


Ethical Perspectives Virtue Ethics Essay

… Deontological Ethics

Generally, deontological ethics prohibits violating rules, irrespective of the actual consequences or the justice of adhering to rules in exceptional circumstances (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). Unlike virtue ethics and utilitarian ethics, strict deontology would prohibit lying to the police under any circumstances if that is illegal or if lying is considered immoral. In principle, the idea behind deontological ethics is that society is better off in the aggregate and in the long run when all rules are always obeyed. Under deontological analysis, the fact that strict adherence to rules may sometimes produce undesirable consequences is not sufficient cause to violate an established rule or law (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).

Personal Experience

When I was in high school, I had a friend who lived in my neighborhood who used to hide from his father at my house. His father was verbally and emotionally abusive and sometimes physically abusive. I was taught never to lie to adults but when his father called my house looking for my friend, I always lied and said that I did not know where he was. I know it was the right thing because my parents also allowed me to do it and sometimes they took the phone calls and lied to his father too.

According to virtue ethics, we did the right thing because our motive was only to help my friend avoid his abusive father. We were not helping him avoid his father for any selfish reasons or to help my friend be delinquent. He used to do his homework at my house. I am confident that in this case, virtue ethics provided a better answer than deontological ethics, because a deontological analysis would have prohibited lying to his father.

References

Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, (6th

Edition). New York: Oxford University Press.

Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.

Hursthouse, R. (1999) On…… [read more]


Public Health Ethics Related Training Article Critique

… ¶ … Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States" by a. Kanekar and a. Bitto (2012)

In this study, Kanekar and Bitto (2012) argue that ethical practices in the workplace do not just fall out of the sky, but are rather the result of the translation of ethical theories and concepts into real-world practice. These researchers conducted a meta-analysis of recent published peer-reviewed journal articles concerning ethics in public health practice or public health training. All told, Kanekar and Bitto (2012) identified 15 studies that satisfied their search and inclusion criteria. Based on the analysis of the aggregated results of these studies, Kanekar and Bitto determined that there was an ongoing and essential need for ethics training and codes of ethics in professional organizations. According to these researchers, "We need ethics to organize our goals and actions and to accomplish our values. In essence, ethics evaluates those actions, and the values that underlie them. It determines which values should be pursued, and which should not" (Kanekar & Bitto, 2012, p. 2). Because different professions have different values and standards, these differences are translated and codified through professional codes of ethics that help business managers resolve ethical dilemmas in the workplace (Kanekar & Bitto, 2012). In this regard, the authors note that, "The need for ethics arises from the fact that different professions have to establish a moral credibility for their field. In the [public health] field this needs to be translated into morally acceptable conduct and efforts to resolve ethical dilemmas related to public health practice" (p. 2).

Ethical dilemmas in the workplace, like change, are inevitable and managers at all levels are faced with an enormous range of situations that call for an immediate decision. It is therefore important to provide managers…… [read more]


Ethics in Group Counselling Term Paper

… Given that the discussion regarding whether or not morality has been about facts, individual therapy views or group therapy perceptions has raged for such a long time, we are not going to engage in this paper. It has been essential;… [read more]


Business Ethics Article Critique

… That is because there will be "social consequences" when the company does something that goes against the "moral values" in that host country. For example, a local employee that works for an international company will be offended on the one hand when unethical behaviors shown by the company offend his or her own cultural values.

Given the above-mentioned globalized reality for an international company, it is vital that a code of ethics be established. And that code of ethics must be based on "social responsibility" because a code of ethics (clearly written and fully explained by the human relations department to each new employee) is the official statement of the organization vis-a-vis how employees are expected to act and perform (Gokmen, 86).

The United Nations' Global Compact provides a good guide for any global company that wishes to project ethical values in whatever country it operates within. Any human relations leader can use the UN Global Compact as a map to guide its approach to ethics, Gokmen continues (87). The UN Global Compact provides ethical leadership in the following contexts: a) protecting "universally accepted human rights"; b) avoiding the violation of human rights; c) allowing collective bargaining; d) avoiding forced / compulsory labor and child labor; e) providing "occupational safety" with no discrimination in opportunities; d) adopting "environmentally friendly policies"; and f) taking action against corruption (Gokmen, 87).

In conclusion, in this era of globalization, organizations at home and abroad must always be conscious of the need to promote ethical behaviors based on moral values. Ethics must be very strong when operating in a foreign country and the values the company espouses and demonstrates must be in line with local cultural values and ethics.

Works Cited

Gokmen, Aytac, and Ozturk, A. Turan. (2012). Issues of Business Ethics in Domestic and International…… [read more]


Professional Ethics and Laws in Behavioral Term Paper

… PROFESSIONAL ETHICS & LAWS in BEHAVIORAL & BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH

Ethics Assignment 3: Professional Ethics & Laws in Behavioral and Biomedical Research

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study of 1932-1972 gave rise to the Belmont report. This report was intended to promote human… [read more]


Engineering Code of Ethics Asme. ) Annotated Bibliography

… Engineering Code of Ethics

ASME. (2012). Code of Ethics of Engineers. Accessed 18 June 2012 from:

http://files.asme.org/asmeorg/governance/3675.pdf

This source is the current version of the ethical code of conduct of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). The ASME Engineering… [read more]


Sociology: Ethics and Responsibility Essay

… Rather, when it comes to ethics, Cooper cites the work of Preston who most succinctly describes what ethics means as manifested by the Humane Society: "ethics is concerned about what is right, fair, just or good; about what we ought to do, not just about what is the case or what is most acceptable or expedient" (2012). Clearly all the effort, time, energy and money exerted by the Humane Society are in the name of rightness and justice to animals, as it would be faster and save more money in many respects to just allow the animals to suffer.

Ethics go hand in hand with responsibility as responsibility honored exhibits and inherent sense of virtue (utm.edu/resp, 2009). The Humane Society of America exhibits the necessary three components of responsibility as these components are necessary for the organization to function effectively, make a real difference and yet be accountable to their inner guidelines of right and wrong, high priority and low priorities. When it comes to responsibility the following components need to be displayed: "With regard to moral agency, it will require good internal organization, so that the body is aware of its situation, capacities, actions and impacts. With regard to retrospective responsibility, it involves a willingness and ability to deal with failings and omissions, and to learn from these. In terms of prospective responsibility, the collective's activities and policies must be aptly chosen, conformable to wider moral norms, and properly put into effect" (utm.edu/resp, 2009). Thus, the Humane Society embodies all of the qualities of responsibility so that they can operate with success and yet have their ethical scaffolding act as guide for current and future actions.

References

Cooper, T. (2012). The Responsible Administrator. San Francisco: John Wiley.

Utm.edu/ethics. (2009, May 10). Ethics. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from Internet Encyclopedia:

http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/

Utm.edu/resp. (2009, march 9). Responsibility. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from Internet

Encyclopedia: http://www.iep.utm.edu/responsi/#SH4a… [read more]


Legal and Ethical Issues Literature Review

… ¶ … Business leadership and ethics should be joined at the hip, should be effectively partnering in every company and organization, but unfortunately for some companies, for their employees, their stakeholders and customers, ethics plays only a secondary role. This… [read more]


Ethics the Nineteenth Century German Essay

… Now, it is considered morally wrong to do the same. Kant did not account for the changes that occur over time, or throughout different cultures.

Kant's deontological ethics are often compared with the ethics of utilitarianism. Basically, the deontological ethics of Kant are the opposite of utilitarian ethics of John Stuart Mills. For the utilitarian, the consequences of an action are what are important, and it does not matter if an action itself should be labeled as right or wrong. If the action creates the greatest good for the greatest number of people in any given situation, then that action can be considered morally just. Of course, there are weaknesses with utilitarian ethics too. It is too easy to overlook some of the minority of people being harmed by something that benefits the masses.

The categorical imperative is similar to Aristotle's virtue ethics in that both believed in essential or absolute ethical categories. However, Kant's ethics are most similar to those of Confucius. According to Confucius, there are categories of behavior. These categories are usually based on social roles for Confucius. Yet Confucius did believe that there are absolute rights and wrongs in human behavior. Like many other philosophers, Kant believed in the potential of human beings to act rationally. Kant believed that using reason, a person could determine what actions are right and what actions are wrong and make the appropriate decisions. Confucius and Aristotle both also believed in the rational nature of human beings, and that ethical choices are rational ones and not emotional ones. Although I do not fully agree with Kant's deontological ethics and the categorical imperative, I appreciate the way the philosophy can promotes universal natural moral laws.

References

Davis, S.P. (n.d.). Three-minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. [video] Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw

"Ethics." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/kant.html

Johnson, R. "Kant's Moral Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved online: .… [read more]


Ethics in Decision-Making Clegg Research Paper

… "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).

For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.

What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and…… [read more]


Darwin and Determinism All Theory Essay

… " This argument was used by Clarence Darrow in the famous criminal case of Leopold and Loeb. Leopold and Loeb, the teenage sons of two wealthy Chicago families, were accused of kidnapping and killing a 14-year-old boy for their own amusement in 1924. Darrow based his argument on the claim that his clients were not morally responsible for their actions, but was ultimately the product of casual variables beyond their control. In the end, Darrow was able to successfully commute the sentences of Leopold and Loeb from the death penalty to life in prison. In demonstrating that the experience of conscious will is an evolutionary adaptation that allows for the modification of particular behavioral algorithms similar arguments for behavioral determinism become difficult to defend. A discussion of the origins of morality is beyond the scope of this paper; however, it is clear that certain social organisms such as humans do have the ability to modify their behavior in response to ecological or social constraints (i.e. A moral code). Wegner articulates this understanding in The Illusion of Conscious Will when he writes, "Illusory or not, conscious will is the person's guide to his or her own moral responsibility for action." Through demonstrating that the experience of conscious will is an evolutionary adaptation rather than an epiphenomenon or a memetic construct a functional understanding of moral choice can be established based on solid evolutionary reasoning. In conclusion, the experience of free will is a complex behavioral algorithm that evolved in the face of intra-group competition and allows an organism to analyze its own behavior in the light of how other members of its own social group might behave in a dynamic environment in regards to cooperation, maintenance of pair bonds and reciprocity.

References:

Pereboom, D. Living Without Free Will. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Sharpe, K. 1992. Biology Intersects Religion and Morality. Biology and Philosophy. 7(1): 77-88.

Skinner, B.F. Science and Human Behavior. (New York: Macmillian, 1953).

Skinner, B.F. Beyond Freedom and Dignity. (New York, NY: Bantage/Vintage Publishers, 1972).

Wegner, D. The Illusion of Conscious Will.…… [read more]


Business Ethics Is Your Answer Essay

… This is why we are offering the bandits large sums of money to leave the town alone.

However, there is a matter of personal safety that is taken into account. This is because the bandits are known for robbing and beating the citizens when they are conducting raids. To protect everyone in the community the large amount of money is a way of buying the community's safety and peace of mind. This will help to improve happiness and the quality of life for everyone. As a result, our approach is focused on using a certain amount of prudence by appealing to the bandits' greed.

Does this week's reading reaffirm the moral intuitions you expressed last week; or dies it qualify or even undermine them?

This week's readings reaffirm the moral institutions. The way that this is accomplished is by having flexibility in our approach and seeking out solutions that will deal with the problems over the long-term. In the case of the community, this is important for establishing a foundation for economic growth to occur. The only way that this can take place is to eliminate these raids.

Moreover, the bandits have demands to leave the town alone, provided that I give them one child that will be beaten and tortured. This is an obvious sign that they are frustrated and want to seek out some kind of negotiated solution. If the initial offer is rejected and we appeal to their greed is when we can have peace. This approach has been tried by other cities in the region with a certain degree of success. Therefore, we need to be able to use a similar strategy in dealing with this issue.

References

Consequentialism / Utilitarianism, n.d.

Deontology, n.d.

Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/… [read more]


Code of Ethics: Malpractice Creative Writing

… 2. Public disclosures enjoy no such immunity. It is unclear how confidentiality is applied to disclosures made to clergy during home visits if there is more than one person present (p. 85).

How the standards and guidelines on confidentiality conflict or reinforce one another.

1. Across the board, professional codes of conduct or ethics reinforce one another by emphasizing the need for confidentiality; however, there are some different views concerning what steps must or should be taken by professionals in cases where certain types of criminal or other legal issues are involved (Allen, 2011).

2. In addition, there is an initiative underway to standardize the wording in various professional codes of ethics or conduct because of current inconsistencies between them (Allen, 2011).

How to avoid potential conflicts, if any, between religious group's policies and state's laws.

Section C.2.e of the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics, "Consultation on Ethical Obligations," stipulates that when professionals faced these types of conflicts, they should seek clarification to identify appropriate courses of action: "Counselors take reasonable steps to consult with other counselors or related professionals when they have questions regarding their ethical obligations or professional practice."

Resolution of conflicts if and when they arise.

The general guidelines set forth in the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics states that, "When counselors are faced with ethical dilemmas that are difficult to resolve, they are expected to engage in a carefully considered ethical decision-making process" (ACA Code of Ethics, 2005, p. 1).

References

ACA code of ethics. (2005). American Counseling Association. Retrieved from http://www.

counseling.org/Resources/CodeOfEthics/TP/Home/CT2.aspx.

Allen, C. (2011). Improving the code of professional conduct: Revised structure, wording will make ethics standards more consistent. Journal of Accountancy, 211(6), 38-39.

Audette, E. (1998, January 28). Confidentiality in the church: What the pastor knows and tells.

Christian…… [read more]


Business Ethics and Ethical Purchasing Research Paper

… Business Ethics and Ethical Purchasing

Business ethics can be defined as systems of principles and values that direct choices and dealings within a company. In the business world, a company's culture often sets the values for determining the distinction between good and bad decision making and actions. In the most fundamental terms, business ethics comes down to knowing the difference between right and wrong and deciding to do what is right. "The phrase business ethics can be used to describe the actions of individuals within an organization, as well as the organization as a whole" (White, 2012). Core ethical values and responsibilities are typically expressed through an ethics policy. This is followed by a code of ethics, setting down the way the institution aims to conduct its business, including promises to stakeholders and guidance for staff. A standard of ethics may envelop issues not covered by law concerning a specific function like procurement (Procurement and business ethics, 2008).

Because purchasing is money driven activity ethics has tough battle with everything else that is in play. Therefore the importance of ethics is a mark elevated in purchasing than other fields where money in not the main driving instrument. It is not an easy job to keep the ethics elevated and fair in procurement. It needs exact concentration, perseverance and motivated people to keep up the ethics with in the procurement process (Ethical Buying or Ethics in Purchasing, 2011).

Ethical purchasing helps business in a lot of ways including the feel good feature of everyone concerned. It aids in driving fair competition sowing improvement for enhanced cost effective ways of doing things. This in the end leads to more importance for the money being spent. On the other hand, unethical purchasing leads to less value for the money being spent, or the money is being wasted leading to an increase in inflation. Overall, one gets less than what they paid for, causing a drain in their over cash (Ethical Buying or Ethics in Purchasing, 2011).

Ethics in the circumstance of procurement concerns the standards of conduct which make sure that individuals and organizations are trusted and appreciated by those with whom they deal. The organization or institution should be thought of as a good customer. Poor relations with suppliers can cause long-term harm to the status and credibility of the organization or institution. An organization or institution must make sure of regulatory compliance and propriety in the handling of public funds. There are some simple rules that if followed will allow procurement people to stay out of trouble:

"do not bend or break the rules follow procedure if approve is needed, get it first do not allow a conflict of interest to affect or appear to affect decisions do not use the organizations or institutions…… [read more]


Business Ethics a Contradiction in Terms? Case Study

… ¶ … Business Ethics" a Contradiction in Terms?

"Business Ethics" is not at all a contradiction in terms. Sometimes it may seem that way, but that is only because business dealings often present opportunities to pursue profit in ways that… [read more]


Ethical Theories: In Philosophy, Ethics Essay

… Ethical Theories:

In philosophy, ethics is described as the systematic analysis of how people should behave toward themselves and others. It's also explained as the study of what character traits, things, or types of people are good, admirable, and estimable as well as those that are bad, worthy of condemnation, and at fault. While this field deals with general principles or rules, it also deals with specific cases. Some of the most common ethical perspectives that are used when analyzing the morality of various controversial topics include the Act and Rule Utilitarianism, virtue theory, and Kant's Categorical Imperative.

Approaches to Ethics:

The three major concerns in ethics is the certainty of correct moral beliefs, the process of deciding moral hard questions, and how to have a good life. These concerns are the basis of several approaches or perspectives of ethics that have been developed by various ethical theorists. According to Kant, the actual ethical concern is not the process of deciding what is right but it's the constant struggle to apply what is right regardless of the temptations and distractions.

The theory of ethical relativism states that the probability of an act to be right or wrong is dependent on the particular society that an individual lives in. In opposition to this theory, Kant argues that ethical principles are experienced as Categorical Imperatives or commands that order people to do something unconditionally despite of their aims, purposes, and wants. The other approach to ethics is the Utilitarianism theory which states that all people should always attempt to create the greatest happiness for a huge number of people. While it's also known as the Greatest Happiness Theory, the main doctrine behind Utilitarianism is the total identification of pleasure with good and pain with evil.

This doctrine is subdivided into the Act Utilitarianism and the Rule Utilitarianism with the former emphasizing that people should use the utility principle in deciding their actions despite of their position in the society. On the contrary, the Rule Utilitarianism states that governments should use utility principle in enacting general laws while treating everyone fairly. The virtue ethical principle focuses on character i.e. The kind of person an individual is instead of behavior i.e. The actions of a person (Wolff, 2012).

The Morality of Stem Cell Research:

One of the most controversial and hot button freedom limiting issues in today's society is the morality of stem cell research because it involves the destruction of a fetus or embryo. Stem cell research has generated a huge debate because some people consider it as the destruction of a potential human being. On the contrary, other people consider it as a significant discovery that could help…… [read more]


Literacy on Ethics Meta Research Paper

… " Philosophical Perspectives.

University of Illinois: Chicago, IL. 6.

Shelly Kagan explains that normative ethics is actually the basis for the entire social structure of society. The normative branch of ethical decision making is often the basis for the laws and legislation of the society. The rules that a society sets for itself are based on what the government hopes its citizens will do in a certain situation. Behaviors will be dictated based on what the society as a whole agrees should be done.

Applied Ethics:

Beauchamp, Tom (2008). "The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics."

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/principle-beneficence/

Beauchamp argues that being benevolent or beneficent is how a person effectively uses applied ethics. Whereas many forms of ethics relate to hypothetical situations, the applied system of ethics more refers to how these things work in real-world situations. The author traces the link between beneficence and applied ethics throughout history and determines that the two are intricately linked.

Chadwick, Ruth E. (1998). "Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics." Academic Press: San Diego, CA.

The book discusses all the way in which society requires people to behave ethically in real-world situations. In the real world, things are hardly ever black and white. Most often what the right or wrong thing to do is in a given situation can be difficult to determine. The encyclopedic entries allows the reader to see a pattern of behavior and a pattern of choices.… [read more]


Ethics While All Ethical Theories Term Paper

… Therefore, I also do not believe there are absolute moral rules governing human behavior in any realm.

My worldviews also reflect a utilitarian ethic. For instance, I believe in the legalization of all drugs including but not limited to cannabis. This is because drugs of all sorts help people. If some drugs are made illegal, then their potential to help people is eliminated. Interestingly, as I muse on the subject of legalizing drugs, I realize that the duty ethic is also involved. We have a duty to make sure that the greatest number of people in the world is as happy as they possibly can be. Here, I can easily fuse Kant's duty ethics with Mill's utilitarian ethics.

Aristotle makes a great point about the importance of cultivating human virtue. This is an important act that will foster improved human relations. If more people acted out of ethical integrity, then we would have fewer problems in the world. I can combine this with my fundamental belief in utilitarianism in a simple way. When it comes to politics and economics, I do notice that the wealth and power is concentrated into the hands of a few. Most people can see this is morally wrong, and from each of the ethical perspectives we are studying, this scenario is wrong. From a utilitarian perspective, the way governments and corporations work, fewer people are benefitting. The greatest good is not occurring for the greatest number of people. From a Kantian perspective, the will to be greedy and exploit labor from people is categorically wrong and impermissible by all accounts. From a virtue ethics perspective too, there is no moral virtue in committing the white collar crimes that are committed on a daily basis. Therefore, there are many issues on which all the normative ethical positions can converge. This is why, although I am mostly a utilitarian that I also feel that some situations call for either a duty or a virtue ethics perspective.… [read more]


Ethics the American Public Health Essay

… Bodies that rely on membership can use the threat of removing membership as a mechanism for enforcement. Some bodies may even have the ability to fine members or otherwise discipline them. Most professional bodies use enforcement to maintain the ethical standards within the industry. Any violation of those standards is seen as something that could diminish the profession as a whole, so for the most part professional bodies take their codes of ethics seriously.

There is also a strong motivation to have solid internal ethical standards and enforcement. If bodies fail in self-enforcement, they may find that they are subject to external enforcement. This threat has undoubtedly at times resulted in changes to ethical guidelines for some industry bodies. The APHA, because its ethical principles are not enforced, acts as an advocate but does not come under direct threat from the outside. Membership in the APHA is not mandatory for those seeking employment in public health, so the association does not have much more than moral authority to convince people to behave in an ethical manner.

For an issue such as domestic abuse, there are substantial ethical issues that practitioners may be faced with. The public health ethics principles can help guide practitioners to making the right choices for their patients, no matter how difficult the situation in which they find themselves is. The collaboration principle can help in dealing with law enforcement and policies can be formed on the basis of human dignity, regardless of scientific knowledge. Such guideposts are essential for those in the industry, and it is just as important that external stakeholders are also aware of the guiding ethical principles of the public health sector, so that they can understand what to expect from the sector, especially on a sensitive issue like domestic abuse.

Those involved in public health are likely to be subject to multiple ethical codes. It is important to understand the principles that underlie these codes, and they tend to revolve around knowledge and compassion. The APHA provides a good set of principles with which to work, and this sets the foundation for handling the difficult situations that arise with those who work with domestic abuse victims.

Works Cited:

Article: American Public Health Association (2010). Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.apha.org/membergroups/primary/aphaspigwebsites/ethics/

PHLS. (2002). Principles of ethical practice of public health. Public Health Leadership Society. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/1CED3CEA-287E-4185-9CBD-BD405FC60856/0/ethicsbrochure.pdf… [read more]


Professional Ethics in the Fitness Industry Essay

… Professional Ethics in the Fitness Industry

There are various approaches and views towards the human behavior and how each behavior should be treated. The ultimate goal of these behavior system controls is to ensure that the people can coexist in… [read more]


Ethics Awareness Inventory (Eai) Research Paper

… According to the results perspective, ethics involve more than duty. This means that the O. perspective and the R. perspective are difficult to reconcile, which explains why my scores on these two measures are opposites.

The equity perspective focuses on the inherent value and dignity of others, rather than focusing on the individual characteristics of the actors. In many ways, this perspective involves the rejection of traditional moral theories. Rather than suggesting that people adhere to a particular moral view, those who adhere to the equity principle are likely to believe that one must be pragmatic and not commit to a particular moral perspective, because morality is circumstance-dependent. To me, this perspective most strongly conflicts with the idea of character being critical in morality, and I was not surprised to find it was my lowest score.

I think it is important to understand my own personal ethical perspective because my ethical perspective helps me determine my perception of the moral value of other's actions. It is very easy to respond with emotion to someone's behavior, and not even necessarily understand why those reactions are occurring. To me, I have always been puzzled by why I would react negatively to someone who seemed to always do the right thing, but knowing that I look at intention rather than results helps explain those feelings to me.

The relationship between personal and professional ethics in any field is a difficult one, and in the field of psychology it is particularly difficult. For me, a person who believes that intentions and character are more important than results, professional ethics, which are very limited by rules, can seem intimidating or confining to someone with my personal ethical perspective. However, taking this inventory helped me understand how much diversity there is in the way that individuals approach ethics. I understand that clients have to be able to look at consistent guidelines and know what to expect from their psychologist's ethical behavior. Therefore, I understand the need for rules where character is not as important as following the specific rules to create the specific…… [read more]


Company X Code of Ethics Term Paper

… Company X Code of Ethics

Company X: Comprehensive Code of Ethics in the Workplace

Company X is a privately owned small business that seeks to provide one-stop shopping for customers by providing both groceries and pharmaceuticals in one convenient location.… [read more]


Ethics in Criminal Justice Outline Case Study

… Duty -- Is duty something that is expedient and morally required? Is there a conflict between duty and self-interest? Can duty make you do what is good and yet you feel bad?

f. Social Utility -- Is social utility something that only exceptional individuals or heroes can accomplish?

g. Justice As Fairness -- Is justice always fair and right? What is the dividing line between what is just and fair and what one can do to correct wrong behaviors? Can you force someone to do something?

h. The Moral Relationships Of Leaders and Followers -- What obligations do leaders have to set an example?

III. Conclusion -- Ethics in the criminal justice system is a complex phenomenon involving power, duty, virtue, character, an understanding of the relationship of self-interest to social justice and more. It is critical to understand how to identify immoral behavior and address it.… [read more]


Code of Ethics Response Personal Essay

… Code of Ethics Response

Personal Code of Ethics:

Independence -- I will always value my independence. I will accept love and friendship from others, but I will always value my independence as a woman.

Integrity -- I believe that a person's own set of moral is important and I will always strive to live up to mine.

Kindness -- I will always try to help people without expecting something in return from them.

Caring -- I will never harm any person or animal. I will always promote the ethical treatment of animals.

Attitude -- I will keep a positive attitude and encourage goodness in myself -- which includes never lying or gossiping -- and I will encourage this in others (especially my children)

Professional Code of Ethics:

Honesty -- I will always conduct my business honestly and ethically in whatever area of work I choose.

Quality -- I will always strive to maintain the highest level of work quality and work diligently to improve myself and the job that I do every day.

Respect -- I will respect others, which includes being fair and responsible when it comes to other people.

Personal Integrity -- I will always keep in mind my ethical standards while working and I will promote personal integrity in others in view of the fact that a company is the sum of ethics of the people who work there.

Both my personal code of ethics and my professional code of ethics include the word 'integrity.' Integrity is such an important quality in a person no matter whether one is at work or at home. Integrity means that one is honest and has strong moral principles.…… [read more]


Ethical Theory and Moral Thesis

… Therefore, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice will have been influenced by trends in economic development; the ethics of nation-building; and same-sex marriage. The increasing secularization of Western states and the decreasing significance of the nation-state are key points that can be addressed in the context of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. At the same time, specific issues such as euthanasia, animal rights, and abortion can be analyzed in terms of global needs and global norms.

Research in psychology, neuropsychology, and biopsychology has also had strong impacts on the development of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. Issues such as the evolution of belief in God, and criminological theory can all be discussed within the framework of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. Many of the topics that help shape a cohesive Ethical Theory and Moral Practice can be addressed in other fields, but not with as rich a scope. "The conditions for moral behaviour in a rapidly changing, globalising world are not sustained automatically but demand our continuous attention," ("What Makes us Moral? 2011). In other words, a moral and ethical framework, one grounded in policy and application, is essentially fruitful as well as practical. The problems that plague planet earth ranging from overpopulation to climate change are multidisciplinary in nature. They are oversimplified by corporate-controlled media, which itself raises ethical concerns. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice can tackle a single issue like climate change from a multitude of perspectives, incorporating scientific fact with the ethics of economics.

References

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links/special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

"What Makes Us Moral?" (2011). VU University Amsterdam. Retrieved online: http://www.ph.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/secties/praktische-filosofie/conference-what-makes-us-moral/index.asp… [read more]


Ethics Theory Research Proposal

… Ethical Theory

Ethics

Given what you've learned about ethical theory, give some thought to how you might create your own ethical theory. What would be the central principle by which you would measure right and wrong action? What kinds of… [read more]


Relativity of Moral Truth Essay

… A further discussion to Li's arguments against cultural relativism leads up to that of Nagel's relative moral position. Nagel owes his philosophy on moral truths to that of the "paradoxicality of the human condition" (Mulhall, 2007). That is, an individual's moral values are subject to that individual's objective outlook on the decisions made. It coincides with his puzzlement over the "randomness" (Mulhall, 2007) of the human moral ethics, and more than explains the arguments over an individual's breaking from his or her moral and religious leanings -- though Nagel does not dismiss either position from being a variable of moral decision. "An action may have multiple causes or diverse sources of impetus" (Li, 2007), which can or cannot be explained through cultural relativism and/or divine command theory.

The strongest argument, therefore, lies within Nagel's position on moral philosophy. Of the three, Nagel's position poses upon itself the argument of humanity, of the individual mind and the processes that the individual undergoes to make that moral and ethical realization. It allows for the certain freedom of explanation to a person's deviation from religious and cultural standpoint. Morality is not dependent upon an existence of God or traditions, but a combination or lack thereof, with the human self.

Resources

Austin, Michael W. (2006). Divine Command Theory. Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/

Blackburn, Simon. (2005). The oxford dictionary of philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Li, X. (2007). 7 A Cultural Critique of Cultural Relativism. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 66(1), 151-171. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.2007.00502.x

Mulhall, S. (2007). Luck, Mystery and Supremacy D.Z. Phillips Reads Nagel and Williams on Morality. Philosophical Investigations,…… [read more]


Organizational Ethics Values, Ethics and Norms Term Paper

… Organizational Ethics

Values, ethics and norms are part of every society regardless of what culture, religion or geographical boundary it belongs to. These values define how society's draw their lines between what are right and what is wrong. These values… [read more]


Strategy and Corporate Governance and Ethics Research Paper

… Strategy & Ethics

Bowden & Smythe's article Theories on Teaching and Training in Ethics examines the ability to strengthen moral behavior through courses on ethics. This article begins with the proposition that ethics cannot be taught to adults expounds upon… [read more]


Ethics as With Darwin's Theory of Evolution Article Review

… Ethics

As with Darwin's theory of evolution, gene testing has opened new frontiers in understanding medicine, as it allows us among other things to understand the degree to which we are predisposed to specific diseases and conditions (Miller, 2007). The… [read more]


Utilitarianism Utilitarian Ethics Was First Invented Book Report

… Utilitarianism

Utilitarian ethics was first invented by David Hume and later expanded by Jeremy Bentham (Rosenstand, 230). What this involves is that, when measured, the consequences of a certain action must follow the principle of the greatest possible good for… [read more]


Draft to Be Improved on Corporate Ethics and Responsibility Article

… Corporate Ethics / Responsibility

Over the last several years, the issue of corporate ethics and responsibility has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this is from: a host of different disasters and events that would… [read more]


Euthanasia Moral Philosophy Term Paper

… Utilitarian thought follows the pleasure vs. pain principle, but there is not a simple answer to the question even where they are concerned. A possible argument for euthanasia could be that the person in question has no quality of life (a big consideration to make with regard to the utilitarian line of thought). Since they are enduring the pain of existence in whatever form that has taken, then they should be allowed the merciful option of euthanasia. This will release them from the pain that they feel, and deliver them to oblivion or whatever else awaits people after death. It is a very humanistic point-of-view, and seemingly a merciful one. The decision would have to be the person's who is most affected by it. They would have to decide whether they were going to die because of their pain or remain in that state for some other reason.

Of course, lately, the advent of drugs which can reduce the suffering of individuals obfuscates the question even more. It may seem that if people are able to live without pain then they would want to live instead of die. But this is not always the case. There are several problems here. The pain medications are expensive, they do not take away the problem (they only mask it), and they can have deadly side effects. So, it would seem that modern science cannot take away the importance of the personal decision.

It seems that Kant's arguments are the sounder of the two. It is understandable that a caring society would always want to relieve the suffering of individuals, but who is going to make that ultimate choice? If a person decides to do something just because they feel that their life is useless, they could be missing a seminal experience in which they are meant to help someone. Taking Kant's view, since suicide and homicide are morally wrong, there is no question as to the right action.

It is often the case that the person embroiled in a fight for life is the worst person to make the decision. And, if not the afflicted person, then who? No one, least of all elected officials, wants the government to be making these decisions. The family of the person may just want their money, and do not want the burden of having to go see them every Sunday afternoon. The person themselves has clouded judgment because all they see is their present suffering. Kant would say that since decisions are either moral or not, a person should always follow the moral imperative. Euthanasia would seem correct in some instances, but every case is different. Given that people have no idea what awaits them after death, there is no possible way to make the correct decision. So, it should be left to moral law. Meaning, if they are meant to die, they will.

Reference

Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2006). The Right Thing to do: Basic Readings in Moral Philosophy, (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill,…… [read more]

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