"Ethics / Morality" Essays

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Ethical Theory and Moral Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Therefore, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice will have been influenced by trends in economic development; the ethics of nation-building; and same-sex marriage. The increasing secularization of Western states and the decreasing significance of the nation-state are key points that can be addressed in the context of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. At the same time, specific issues such as euthanasia, animal rights, and abortion can be analyzed in terms of global needs and global norms.

Research in psychology, neuropsychology, and biopsychology has also had strong impacts on the development of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. Issues such as the evolution of belief in God, and criminological theory can all be discussed within the framework of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. Many of the topics that help shape a cohesive Ethical Theory and Moral Practice can be addressed in other fields, but not with as rich a scope. "The conditions for moral behaviour in a rapidly changing, globalising world are not sustained automatically but demand our continuous attention," ("What Makes us Moral? 2011). In other words, a moral and ethical framework, one grounded in policy and application, is essentially fruitful as well as practical. The problems that plague planet earth ranging from overpopulation to climate change are multidisciplinary in nature. They are oversimplified by corporate-controlled media, which itself raises ethical concerns. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice can tackle a single issue like climate change from a multitude of perspectives, incorporating scientific fact with the ethics of economics.


"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links/special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

"What Makes Us Moral?" (2011). VU University Amsterdam. Retrieved online: http://www.ph.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/secties/praktische-filosofie/conference-what-makes-us-moral/index.asp… [read more]

Company X Code of Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Company X Code of Ethics

Company X: Comprehensive Code of Ethics in the Workplace

Company X is a privately owned small business that seeks to provide one-stop shopping for customers by providing both groceries and pharmaceuticals in one convenient location. In order to operate to the best of its ability in an ethical manner, Company X has established a code… [read more]

Code of Ethics Response Personal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Code of Ethics Response

Personal Code of Ethics:

Independence -- I will always value my independence. I will accept love and friendship from others, but I will always value my independence as a woman.

Integrity -- I believe that a person's own set of moral is important and I will always strive to live up to mine.

Kindness -- I will always try to help people without expecting something in return from them.

Caring -- I will never harm any person or animal. I will always promote the ethical treatment of animals.

Attitude -- I will keep a positive attitude and encourage goodness in myself -- which includes never lying or gossiping -- and I will encourage this in others (especially my children)

Professional Code of Ethics:

Honesty -- I will always conduct my business honestly and ethically in whatever area of work I choose.

Quality -- I will always strive to maintain the highest level of work quality and work diligently to improve myself and the job that I do every day.

Respect -- I will respect others, which includes being fair and responsible when it comes to other people.

Personal Integrity -- I will always keep in mind my ethical standards while working and I will promote personal integrity in others in view of the fact that a company is the sum of ethics of the people who work there.

Both my personal code of ethics and my professional code of ethics include the word 'integrity.' Integrity is such an important quality in a person no matter whether one is at work or at home. Integrity means that one is honest and has strong moral principles.…… [read more]

Ethics Awareness Inventory (Eai) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


According to the results perspective, ethics involve more than duty. This means that the O. perspective and the R. perspective are difficult to reconcile, which explains why my scores on these two measures are opposites.

The equity perspective focuses on the inherent value and dignity of others, rather than focusing on the individual characteristics of the actors. In many ways, this perspective involves the rejection of traditional moral theories. Rather than suggesting that people adhere to a particular moral view, those who adhere to the equity principle are likely to believe that one must be pragmatic and not commit to a particular moral perspective, because morality is circumstance-dependent. To me, this perspective most strongly conflicts with the idea of character being critical in morality, and I was not surprised to find it was my lowest score.

I think it is important to understand my own personal ethical perspective because my ethical perspective helps me determine my perception of the moral value of other's actions. It is very easy to respond with emotion to someone's behavior, and not even necessarily understand why those reactions are occurring. To me, I have always been puzzled by why I would react negatively to someone who seemed to always do the right thing, but knowing that I look at intention rather than results helps explain those feelings to me.

The relationship between personal and professional ethics in any field is a difficult one, and in the field of psychology it is particularly difficult. For me, a person who believes that intentions and character are more important than results, professional ethics, which are very limited by rules, can seem intimidating or confining to someone with my personal ethical perspective. However, taking this inventory helped me understand how much diversity there is in the way that individuals approach ethics. I understand that clients have to be able to look at consistent guidelines and know what to expect from their psychologist's ethical behavior. Therefore, I understand the need for rules where character is not as important as following the specific rules to create the specific…… [read more]

Professional Ethics in the Fitness Industry Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,825 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Professional Ethics in the Fitness Industry

There are various approaches and views towards the human behavior and how each behavior should be treated. The ultimate goal of these behavior system controls is to ensure that the people can coexist in peace and there is maintenance of order throughout the society. The varying views of behavior patterns and the way they… [read more]

Ethics the American Public Health Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Bodies that rely on membership can use the threat of removing membership as a mechanism for enforcement. Some bodies may even have the ability to fine members or otherwise discipline them. Most professional bodies use enforcement to maintain the ethical standards within the industry. Any violation of those standards is seen as something that could diminish the profession as a whole, so for the most part professional bodies take their codes of ethics seriously.

There is also a strong motivation to have solid internal ethical standards and enforcement. If bodies fail in self-enforcement, they may find that they are subject to external enforcement. This threat has undoubtedly at times resulted in changes to ethical guidelines for some industry bodies. The APHA, because its ethical principles are not enforced, acts as an advocate but does not come under direct threat from the outside. Membership in the APHA is not mandatory for those seeking employment in public health, so the association does not have much more than moral authority to convince people to behave in an ethical manner.

For an issue such as domestic abuse, there are substantial ethical issues that practitioners may be faced with. The public health ethics principles can help guide practitioners to making the right choices for their patients, no matter how difficult the situation in which they find themselves is. The collaboration principle can help in dealing with law enforcement and policies can be formed on the basis of human dignity, regardless of scientific knowledge. Such guideposts are essential for those in the industry, and it is just as important that external stakeholders are also aware of the guiding ethical principles of the public health sector, so that they can understand what to expect from the sector, especially on a sensitive issue like domestic abuse.

Those involved in public health are likely to be subject to multiple ethical codes. It is important to understand the principles that underlie these codes, and they tend to revolve around knowledge and compassion. The APHA provides a good set of principles with which to work, and this sets the foundation for handling the difficult situations that arise with those who work with domestic abuse victims.

Works Cited:

Article: American Public Health Association (2010). Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.apha.org/membergroups/primary/aphaspigwebsites/ethics/

PHLS. (2002). Principles of ethical practice of public health. Public Health Leadership Society. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/1CED3CEA-287E-4185-9CBD-BD405FC60856/0/ethicsbrochure.pdf… [read more]

Ethics While All Ethical Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Therefore, I also do not believe there are absolute moral rules governing human behavior in any realm.

My worldviews also reflect a utilitarian ethic. For instance, I believe in the legalization of all drugs including but not limited to cannabis. This is because drugs of all sorts help people. If some drugs are made illegal, then their potential to help people is eliminated. Interestingly, as I muse on the subject of legalizing drugs, I realize that the duty ethic is also involved. We have a duty to make sure that the greatest number of people in the world is as happy as they possibly can be. Here, I can easily fuse Kant's duty ethics with Mill's utilitarian ethics.

Aristotle makes a great point about the importance of cultivating human virtue. This is an important act that will foster improved human relations. If more people acted out of ethical integrity, then we would have fewer problems in the world. I can combine this with my fundamental belief in utilitarianism in a simple way. When it comes to politics and economics, I do notice that the wealth and power is concentrated into the hands of a few. Most people can see this is morally wrong, and from each of the ethical perspectives we are studying, this scenario is wrong. From a utilitarian perspective, the way governments and corporations work, fewer people are benefitting. The greatest good is not occurring for the greatest number of people. From a Kantian perspective, the will to be greedy and exploit labor from people is categorically wrong and impermissible by all accounts. From a virtue ethics perspective too, there is no moral virtue in committing the white collar crimes that are committed on a daily basis. Therefore, there are many issues on which all the normative ethical positions can converge. This is why, although I am mostly a utilitarian that I also feel that some situations call for either a duty or a virtue ethics perspective.… [read more]

Ethical Theories: In Philosophy, Ethics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Ethical Theories:

In philosophy, ethics is described as the systematic analysis of how people should behave toward themselves and others. It's also explained as the study of what character traits, things, or types of people are good, admirable, and estimable as well as those that are bad, worthy of condemnation, and at fault. While this field deals with general principles or rules, it also deals with specific cases. Some of the most common ethical perspectives that are used when analyzing the morality of various controversial topics include the Act and Rule Utilitarianism, virtue theory, and Kant's Categorical Imperative.

Approaches to Ethics:

The three major concerns in ethics is the certainty of correct moral beliefs, the process of deciding moral hard questions, and how to have a good life. These concerns are the basis of several approaches or perspectives of ethics that have been developed by various ethical theorists. According to Kant, the actual ethical concern is not the process of deciding what is right but it's the constant struggle to apply what is right regardless of the temptations and distractions.

The theory of ethical relativism states that the probability of an act to be right or wrong is dependent on the particular society that an individual lives in. In opposition to this theory, Kant argues that ethical principles are experienced as Categorical Imperatives or commands that order people to do something unconditionally despite of their aims, purposes, and wants. The other approach to ethics is the Utilitarianism theory which states that all people should always attempt to create the greatest happiness for a huge number of people. While it's also known as the Greatest Happiness Theory, the main doctrine behind Utilitarianism is the total identification of pleasure with good and pain with evil.

This doctrine is subdivided into the Act Utilitarianism and the Rule Utilitarianism with the former emphasizing that people should use the utility principle in deciding their actions despite of their position in the society. On the contrary, the Rule Utilitarianism states that governments should use utility principle in enacting general laws while treating everyone fairly. The virtue ethical principle focuses on character i.e. The kind of person an individual is instead of behavior i.e. The actions of a person (Wolff, 2012).

The Morality of Stem Cell Research:

One of the most controversial and hot button freedom limiting issues in today's society is the morality of stem cell research because it involves the destruction of a fetus or embryo. Stem cell research has generated a huge debate because some people consider it as the destruction of a potential human being. On the contrary, other people consider it as a significant discovery that could help…… [read more]

Business Ethics a Contradiction in Terms? Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Business Ethics" a Contradiction in Terms?

"Business Ethics" is not at all a contradiction in terms. Sometimes it may seem that way, but that is only because business dealings often present opportunities to pursue profit in ways that are unethical. The term "loop hole" describes situations in which the applicable laws are not fully capable of ensuring against… [read more]

Business Ethics and Ethical Purchasing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Business Ethics and Ethical Purchasing

Business ethics can be defined as systems of principles and values that direct choices and dealings within a company. In the business world, a company's culture often sets the values for determining the distinction between good and bad decision making and actions. In the most fundamental terms, business ethics comes down to knowing the difference between right and wrong and deciding to do what is right. "The phrase business ethics can be used to describe the actions of individuals within an organization, as well as the organization as a whole" (White, 2012). Core ethical values and responsibilities are typically expressed through an ethics policy. This is followed by a code of ethics, setting down the way the institution aims to conduct its business, including promises to stakeholders and guidance for staff. A standard of ethics may envelop issues not covered by law concerning a specific function like procurement (Procurement and business ethics, 2008).

Because purchasing is money driven activity ethics has tough battle with everything else that is in play. Therefore the importance of ethics is a mark elevated in purchasing than other fields where money in not the main driving instrument. It is not an easy job to keep the ethics elevated and fair in procurement. It needs exact concentration, perseverance and motivated people to keep up the ethics with in the procurement process (Ethical Buying or Ethics in Purchasing, 2011).

Ethical purchasing helps business in a lot of ways including the feel good feature of everyone concerned. It aids in driving fair competition sowing improvement for enhanced cost effective ways of doing things. This in the end leads to more importance for the money being spent. On the other hand, unethical purchasing leads to less value for the money being spent, or the money is being wasted leading to an increase in inflation. Overall, one gets less than what they paid for, causing a drain in their over cash (Ethical Buying or Ethics in Purchasing, 2011).

Ethics in the circumstance of procurement concerns the standards of conduct which make sure that individuals and organizations are trusted and appreciated by those with whom they deal. The organization or institution should be thought of as a good customer. Poor relations with suppliers can cause long-term harm to the status and credibility of the organization or institution. An organization or institution must make sure of regulatory compliance and propriety in the handling of public funds. There are some simple rules that if followed will allow procurement people to stay out of trouble:

"do not bend or break the rules follow procedure if approve is needed, get it first do not allow a conflict of interest to affect or appear to affect decisions do not use the organizations or institutions…… [read more]

Code of Ethics: Malpractice Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


2. Public disclosures enjoy no such immunity. It is unclear how confidentiality is applied to disclosures made to clergy during home visits if there is more than one person present (p. 85).

How the standards and guidelines on confidentiality conflict or reinforce one another.

1. Across the board, professional codes of conduct or ethics reinforce one another by emphasizing the need for confidentiality; however, there are some different views concerning what steps must or should be taken by professionals in cases where certain types of criminal or other legal issues are involved (Allen, 2011).

2. In addition, there is an initiative underway to standardize the wording in various professional codes of ethics or conduct because of current inconsistencies between them (Allen, 2011).

How to avoid potential conflicts, if any, between religious group's policies and state's laws.

Section C.2.e of the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics, "Consultation on Ethical Obligations," stipulates that when professionals faced these types of conflicts, they should seek clarification to identify appropriate courses of action: "Counselors take reasonable steps to consult with other counselors or related professionals when they have questions regarding their ethical obligations or professional practice."

Resolution of conflicts if and when they arise.

The general guidelines set forth in the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics states that, "When counselors are faced with ethical dilemmas that are difficult to resolve, they are expected to engage in a carefully considered ethical decision-making process" (ACA Code of Ethics, 2005, p. 1).


ACA code of ethics. (2005). American Counseling Association. Retrieved from http://www.


Allen, C. (2011). Improving the code of professional conduct: Revised structure, wording will make ethics standards more consistent. Journal of Accountancy, 211(6), 38-39.

Audette, E. (1998, January 28). Confidentiality in the church: What the pastor knows and tells.

Christian…… [read more]

Legal and Ethical Issues Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Business leadership and ethics should be joined at the hip, should be effectively partnering in every company and organization, but unfortunately for some companies, for their employees, their stakeholders and customers, ethics plays only a secondary role. This paper points to themes and issues regarding the importance of ethical business practices, and to themes vis-a-vis corporate social responsibility.

Ethical Business / Leadership Themes in Peer-Reviewed Articles

"Addressing Possible Conflicts of Ethical Management" -- this article by John Bringinshaw posits that businesses should provide updates to the public and stakeholders not just on the profits, but on the impact that the company's economic performance has had on the environment and on society (Bringinshaw, 2006). The author calls it the "triple bottom line" (social performance; environmental performance; and profit performance); and in the past few years a great deal of attention has been paid to the literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which entails environmental and social activities and actions.

Business schools are promoting CSR, and the message from the Pepperdine University's Graziadio School of Business and Management -- as a theme for truly ethical stewardship -- is that the "…exclusive pursuit of shareholder wealth" is not the highest purpose of business practice (Bringinshaw, 1). In fact the highest purpose today for a business that wishes to be contemporary and ethical is to achieve success in the CSR aspect of business (Bringinshaw, 1).

That is the good news, and there is a bit of bad news in Bringinshaw's article in that some companies go on with their usual business and create the impression that they care about CSR, just to seem to be up to speed with ethics. Those that fake a CSR approach are engaging in "greenwashing," Bringinshaw explains (2). One can't say anything bad about Google when it comes to corporate responsibility to their employees; not every company will be able to afford to offer employees "free food three times a day" and free childcare. But this extra expense provided by Google workers may take away some profit from shareholders, Bringinshaw explains (3). Still, when leadership puts workers and the environment at a high level of importance the chances are that those choices will have a positive ripple effect on profit, as well.

"The Link Between Management Behavior and Ethical Philosophy in the Wake of the Enron Convictions." Author Shane Premeaux posits that while the high-visibility scandals in business (notably Enron's messiness) did not "really impact actual ethical behavior much," but the jail sentences handed down to Enron's executives seemed to make enough of an impression to begin to change attitudes (Premeaux, 2009, 13). Premeaux makes the point several times that notwithstanding the public humiliation -- that results in the incarceration of top executives -- of companies like WorldCom and Enron, and the updated ethical codes being developed, there remains the perception "…that American business executives are not very ethical" (14).

That said, Premeaux offers good information as he suggests that "rule utilitarianism" -- as opposed to "act… [read more]

Ethics Program for a Drivers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, since these manuals are usually designed to address the " do nots" of corporate conduct, it becomes important to design and institute an audit program that monitors whether good ethical practices are being followed. This can easily be done through quarterly reviews of company performance in the areas of customer satisfaction ratings; issues raised by customer and business partner complaints; employee morale levels; employee and customer safety levels; and overall company performance in terms of concrete contributions to the community and environment. In fact, it is interesting to note that many companies are now voluntarily using their public reports to fully explore their total social, economic, and environmental impact.

Benefits of an Ethics Program to Ace Driving Institute

It is evident from the proposed design and implementation of the ethics program that Ace Driving Institute will benefit in several ways. For one, the program will result in a collective commitment towards company goals and values through employing a participatory process. Second, it is likely to increase employee respect and goodwill for the organization. This, in turn, will have a positive impact on productivity and motivation levels. Third, improved employee motivation and commitment is bound to increase customer and supplier satisfaction levels, thereby positively impacting business outcomes and increasing shareholder value. Fourth, company emphasis on community and social responsibility is likely to lead to measures such as designing training programs that help corporate and individual customers to save fuel and reduce greenhouse emissions through enhanced driving skills and knowledge. Besides such efforts, it can also be assumed that the company is likely to gain community goodwill through increased efforts to contribute to and participate in community welfare programs. Thus, it is evident that a well-designed and carefully implemented ethics program will impact Ace Driving Institute in several positive ways.


Blank, D. (2003, February). A matter of ethics: in organizations where honesty and integrity rule, it is easy for employees to resist the many temptations today's business world offers. Internal Auditor. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4153/is_1_60/ai_98009240

Newton, L.H. (1992). The Many Faces of the Corporate Code. The Corporate Code of Ethics: The Perspective of the Humanities, Proceedings of the Conference on Corporate Visions and…… [read more]

Sociology: Ethics and Responsibility Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Rather, when it comes to ethics, Cooper cites the work of Preston who most succinctly describes what ethics means as manifested by the Humane Society: "ethics is concerned about what is right, fair, just or good; about what we ought to do, not just about what is the case or what is most acceptable or expedient" (2012). Clearly all the effort, time, energy and money exerted by the Humane Society are in the name of rightness and justice to animals, as it would be faster and save more money in many respects to just allow the animals to suffer.

Ethics go hand in hand with responsibility as responsibility honored exhibits and inherent sense of virtue (utm.edu/resp, 2009). The Humane Society of America exhibits the necessary three components of responsibility as these components are necessary for the organization to function effectively, make a real difference and yet be accountable to their inner guidelines of right and wrong, high priority and low priorities. When it comes to responsibility the following components need to be displayed: "With regard to moral agency, it will require good internal organization, so that the body is aware of its situation, capacities, actions and impacts. With regard to retrospective responsibility, it involves a willingness and ability to deal with failings and omissions, and to learn from these. In terms of prospective responsibility, the collective's activities and policies must be aptly chosen, conformable to wider moral norms, and properly put into effect" (utm.edu/resp, 2009). Thus, the Humane Society embodies all of the qualities of responsibility so that they can operate with success and yet have their ethical scaffolding act as guide for current and future actions.


Cooper, T. (2012). The Responsible Administrator. San Francisco: John Wiley.

Utm.edu/ethics. (2009, May 10). Ethics. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from Internet Encyclopedia:


Utm.edu/resp. (2009, march 9). Responsibility. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from Internet

Encyclopedia: http://www.iep.utm.edu/responsi/#SH4a… [read more]

Virtue Ethics and Aristotle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The politician still may selfishly cut a fellow representative in the Senate lunch line, and the anonymous dog saver may treat his wife at home with coldness because he no longer loves her or receives satisfaction in return from her presence, but in the moments of performing virtuous acts these ordinary individuals still are virtuous people, even though they may not be virtuous in other contexts. Also, they become virtuous people because according to the definition of virtue, they are not performing what they perform for any external rewards.

Thus, through the careful use of precise definitions of what virtue means, Aristotle's ethics are not tautological. Being a virtuous person is not a permanent, stable state; one must be in the act of performing virtue to be virtuous, and one must perform virtuous actions frequently to garner such a status for one's self. Character is thus not a fixed quantity; rather character is a relationship with a moment in time and with a particular set of circumstances.

The definition of character as flexible is commensurate with other aspects of Aristotelian philosophy, which tends to focus on the specific, observable, and empirical rather than upon the abstract. Character is something that is constantly tested in the world, and the virtue of a character may have roots in the human psyche, but merely performing a virtuous action does not assure a character a constant state of being virtuous for all time. Thus, there is no tautology, because the definition of virtue and character exists outside of the circularity of a virtuous person doing virtuous acts, and virtuous acts being things done by a virtuous person. The nature of virtue is subject to constant testing and retesting by life, and the virtuous life is the active life of virtue, rather than subject to a singular definition.… [read more]

Business Ethics in the 21st Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Even after Enron, the pervading notion in America seems to be that "greed is good is now 'essentially operating in the mainstream of North American society'" (Hunkin, 2002). Until this attitude changes, then corruption of business ethics will continue, and it will not be viewed as something that is bad for society, morals, and our overall good as long as it is allowed to continue.

While many experts paint a rosier picture of business ethics because of the Enron scandal and several others, economist Milton Friedman has another picture. He told authors Berlau and Spun, "A business can't have ethics any more than a building can have ethics. Only people can have ethics. I don't believe the university is the place for that -- family and elementary and secondary schools are. Unfortunately, in elementary and secondary schools, the extent to which [ethical education] is occurring has been very much less'" (Berlau & Spun, 2002). Therefore, Friedman believes if ethics really are going to change in business, morals and ethics must be taught long before the university level. Perhaps, if more ethical education is offered to younger children, future generations can look forward to a more ethical and moral world, especially in the business environment. However today, most businesses' only concern is the bottom line, and how it good it looks is the only thing that matters on the annual report. Ethics might be more of a topic of conversations today because of the Enron scandal and others like it, but it has not really changed the body of American business, it just might have put a little more makeup on the face.


Berlau, J., & Spun, B. (2002, March 18). Is big business ethically bankrupt? A boom in business-ethics courses is likely in the wake of the Enron scandal, but critics say these classes need to focus on moral rather than political, correctness. Insight on the News, 18, 16+.

Hunkin,…… [read more]

Business Ethics Magazine Recently Awarded Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Written codes of ethics are meaningless without actions to back them up. Every company publishes its codes of ethics on their website and in official company literature. However, few of them actually practice what they preach. Similarly, religious communities attempt to codify and canonize ethics; all too often religious people act hypocritically and against their moral codes. I can think of countless examples of ways that individuals have used the Christian Bible to actually support unethical behavior. For example, anti-abortion activists have killed doctors in the name of morality. I have witnessed the discrepancy between written codes of ethics and unwritten ones in more personal situations. For instance, I know a woman who was being sexually harassed by her new boss. The company had a strict sexual harassment policy, and in spite of that and the fact that she had worked there in good standing for five years, she could not prove her case and she eventually quit.

Therefore, in my life, unwritten ethical codes are primary and as my mother would repeat to me on several occasions: actions are far more important than words. My personal values do not ascribe to any specific set of encoded rules but rather reflect a conglomeration of influences. Moreover, my code of ethics is not an innate extension of my personality; rather, I developed my value system over time and with various influences: from my parents to the movies. The way I treat others and myself is a result of what behaviors I value in others. My parents and family members probably instilled in me some of the most basic and fundamental moral concepts. Caring for others, kindness, cooperation, and sharing are some of the basic moral behaviors that I had to learn. Sometimes these behaviors went against my innate tendencies to keep everything for myself. When we witness corporate executives hoard billions of dollars while their hard-working underlings can barely make ends meet, we see a bit of this primitive tendency toward avarice at work in the world.

I have also been powerfully influenced by the example of Mahatma Ghandi. He is quoted as saying, "The essence of non-violent technique is that it seeks to liquidate antagonisms but not the antagonists," ("Non-Violence"). Ghandi's quote loosely reflects the Biblical suggestion to "turn the other cheek." Both suggest that the ideal method of resistance and rebellion is not to resort to violence or act on anger, but rather, to channel that energy constructively to seek change. Any realistic ethical system must incorporate a means to affect change without resorting to violence. In my experience, ethical codes cannot be overly idealistic or else they become impractical.

Works Cited

Corporate Social Responsibility Report." Business Ethics. http://www.business-ethics.com/.

Non-Violence." BBC Online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/war/nonviolence.shtml.… [read more]

Cultural Values and Personal Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,463 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cultural Values and Personal Ethics

There is a close interconnection and relationship between the areas of personal, cultural and organizational values and decision making. Decision making is based on personal values which are influenced and impacted by cultural values, ethical systems and other cardinal aspects. Organizational values, which are often influenced by cultural values in a society, are very important… [read more]

Engineering Code of Ethics Asme. ) Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Engineering Code of Ethics

ASME. (2012). Code of Ethics of Engineers. Accessed 18 June 2012 from:


This source is the current version of the ethical code of conduct of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). The ASME Engineering Code of Ethics of Engineers is organized into ten Fundamental Cannons encompassing three Fundamental Principles: (I) using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare; (II) being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity their clients (including their employers) and the public; and (III) striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession.

The ten canons of ASME engineering ethics code relate to the following concepts: (1) public safety, health, and welfare; (2) limitation of work to areas of competence and fair competition; (3) continual professional development and promotion of ethical development in subordinates; (4) professionalism and conflicts of interest; (5) proprietary information confidentiality; (6) reputable associations; (7) objectivity in public statements and respect for the profession; (8) environmental impact and sustainability; (9) good faith in seeking sanctions against other engineers; and (10) commitment to applicable formal rules and policies and to disclosure of knowledge of related violations by others.

Non-Engineering Ethics Sources

Anderson, S., Ling, P., and Pollay, R. (2006). "Taking Ad-vantage of Consumers:

Advertising Light Cigarettes: Reassuring and Distracting Concerned Smokers."

Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 8 (2006): 1973-1985.

This source is an article that appeared in the peer-reviewed journal, Social Science & Medicine. It detailed the various approaches used by tobacco companies to market cigarettes to consumers by inventing meaningless distinctions supposedly corresponding to the reduction of medical risks and consequences of smoking cigarettes. The authors explain the practical uselessness of concepts such as "low-tar" products. One of the most important revelations in the article pertained to the manner in which cigarette companies exploited the weaknesses in government-funded testing of tar and nicotine yields in cigarettes marketed as "low yield."

Specifically, the tobacco manufacturers deliberately manipulated the placement of the holes in the filters to increase outside air circulated into the cigarette when the cigarettes were being tested by mechanical "smoking" machines. Those holes reduced the concentration of smoke during mechanical tests but not when smokers smoked them because they were designed to be placed in the areas that smokers almost always cover with their fingers, completely negating any reduction in yield because smokers prefer to buy higher yield cigarettes.

Boje, D. "Nike, Greek Goddess of Victory or Cruelty? Women's Stories of Asian Factory

Life." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 11, No. 6 (1998):

461 -- 480.

This source is an article that appeared in the peer-reviewed Journal of Organizational Change Management. It details the many ways that workers were exploited and abused in the factories and plants producing some Nike products overseas. By the time the article was written, Nike had begin implementing sweeping changes in its policy by requiring overseas companies and facilities to comply with employment condition standards that are standard in the United States. This marked… [read more]

Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thinking critically seeks to dislodge preconceived notions and beliefs that may, perhaps, possess little empirical backing. It is essential to rational human thought processes.

Beliefs, by contrast, require no explicit logical progressions to be reached. A belief is often trusted to faith; and faith, by its very nature, requires the suspension of logic. For instance, it is possible for someone to believe that they can throw a football a hundred yards -- however, the odds are that there is no justification for such a belief. Still, beliefs are not always groundless. I believe that if I let my pencil fall from my hand it will land on the ground. This belief is not based upon any scientific law, but it would be in accordance with every other occasion that I have witnessed similar occurrences. The rather broad definition of beliefs makes their application to the world of ethics and morality complicated. Generally, philosophers attempt to only assert beliefs that are rooted in rigorous argument. These beliefs can imply moral or ethical laws.

Values on the other hand are, for most people, strongly associated with one's personal social, psychological, and moral standpoint. Values, like beliefs, are not always based upon evidence. The notion of "family values," for example, asserts that the traditional familial organization with a mother, father, and children is somehow superior to other organizational structures for rearing children. There is little sound backing for such standpoints; yet, they lay the foundation for a large number of people's beliefs.

Many beliefs and values can be discarded through the process of critical thinking. Morals are people's attempts at reaching logical conclusions regarding specific instances of human behavior. And ethics are the broad guidelines by which most individuals strive to adhere.


1. Feinberg, Joel and Russ Schafer-Landau. (1999). Reason and Responsibility. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.

2. Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. (2003). The Miniature Guide to Understanding the Foundations of Ethical Reasoning. Dillon Beach: The Foundation for Critical Thinking.

3. Ruggiero. (2004). Thinking…… [read more]

Ethics a Few Months Ago Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
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In my professional life, I manifest my ethics by analyzing each situation differently. Many of my ethical judgments are also based on utilitarianism: the right course of action is the one that benefits the most people and creates the greatest amount of happiness overall. However, I also know that when applied to large groups of people such as in a place of employment, utilitarianism often neglects a significant number of persons. Therefore, I always rely primarily on critical thinking and judgment when confronted with a complex ethical situation.

Our coursework has introduced me to a vast array of ethical theories. I have since been able to analyze situations with a more broad-minded perspective, able to weigh the pros and cons of each decision more thoroughly. I have also been made more aware and therefore more understanding of different people's codes of ethics. I have noticed that gender, religion and ethnicity all impact people's ethics. For example, certain cultures and religious groups have a far more absolutist ethical perspective than I have. Referring to my friend's example, I know that many people would have immediately confronted the supervisor about the stealing because they would have felt that stealing is wrong under all circumstances.

Since taking this course I have become far more encouraging of people to share their perspectives, and have been more willing to listen and understand why and how people judge situations differently than I do. I no longer blindly make decisions or judgments without considering alternative courses of action. While I will continue to apply my personal brand of situational ethics to my personal and professional life, I will also acknowledge that persons from different backgrounds might perceive situations differently than I do. Learning about different ethical theories has opened my mind to new ways of approaching ethical problems and I believe increases my capacity for…… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Significance of Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (854 words)
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Thus, every member of an organization must have regard for ethics in order to safeguard the welfare of society in general, the very people whom we, as business practitioners, dedicated to provide service to.

When discussing the influence of technology on work-related stress, meanwhile, it is vital to focus on the effects of technology not on the society or organization as a whole, but on the individual -- how technology will affect the performance and personal (mental) health of the individual. This concern becomes more vital, as elucidated in a study wherein despite the increasing innovations and inventions that help life become comfortable and easier for people, Americans have become more stressed. This makes the U.S., according to the research, the only industrialized country that has not yet learned to combat the negative effects of technology in society (Budimir, 2001).

In fact, technology has become so pervasive in the lives of people that a program called "information technology sustainable development" has been created. This program is geared towards introducing and disseminating the information that ICTs have a role in further stabilizing the socio-economic structure of a country (Sheats, 2000). This asset, however, must be considered under the sustainable development paradigm, wherein the welfare of the society and individual takes the front seat rather than the advantages it can give to the technology's creators.

From these studies, it becomes evident that ICTs must be used with consideration to society's and the individual's welfare. This means that in the same way that people regard technologies with respect and reverence because of its capabilities, people must also consider themselves more important simply because they are the creators of these technologies.

Of course, ethical decision-making is related to this issue: in order to recognize the centrality of society and the individual in the context of today's information-oriented society, one must have the personal values corresponding to this belief. This means that in order to prevent the harmful effects of ICTs on the personal development of an individual, decision-makers responsible to the formulation of solution pertaining to the use of ICTs must have a deep regard and respect for human welfare of all kinds.


Budimir, M. (2001). "Engineers of the world ....relax." Machine Design, 73(9).

Donaldson, W. (2003). "Corporate Governance." Business Economics, 38(3).

Mayer, D. (2001). "Community, Business Ethics, and Global Capitalism." American Business Law Journal, 38(2).

Nonis, S. And C. Swift. (2001). "Personal value profiles and ethical business decisions." Journal of Education for Business, 76(5).

Sheats, J. (2000). "Information technology sustainable development…… [read more]

Ethics and the Internet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Department of Defense to "provide a distributed, flexible and self-healing command network which would enable the U.S. military to continue operating even if Soviet military missiles took out certain geographical locations on the network." (INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY?) The idea of a network of computers was adopted by the academic community in order to increase research capabilities and… [read more]

Ethics in Accounting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethics in Accounting

Companies are influential bodies whose actions, for superior or shoddier, put a major impression on people, entire communities, and the society as a whole. Their influence is of such proportion that a lot believe they should display greater accountability for their business policies and practices, for the betterment of both companies and society. The latest scams in accounting and auditing, and the mounting concern towards the responsibility of the companies for social and environmental impact have led to promising new researches and deliberations regarding the manner in which companies will be capable of maintaining increased legal, social and ethical standards in the spheres of accounting and auditing. (Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture)

Ethical values give the base on which every cultured society stands. In the absence of the base, society falls apart. The objective of ethics in business is to persuade businessmen and women to follow a code of conduct which assist, if not motivates the trust of the people in their products and services. Whether an individual gets ethical values from religious belief, history and literature, or individual observation and experience, certain fundamental ethical course of action are present to which everybody can consent. James Brackner, member of the IMA Committee on Ethics in the July edition of Management Accounting said: The Universities are taking action with an enhanced importance on ethical training for purposes of decision making. For the major portion, nevertheless, they overlook the purpose of educating values. For moral or ethical education to bear any significance, conformity on the values must be present which are believed to be "appropriate." In Chapter 1 of Ethical Issues in the Practice of Accounting, 1992, Michael Josephson defined the "Ten Universal Values." They are as under: honesty, integrity, living up to promises, loyalty, equality, caring, admiration for other people, dutiful citizenship, quest for quality and answerability. (Business and Accounting Ethics)

In the accounting discipline AICPA maintains and makes it obligatory for a code of professional conduct for public accountants. The Institute of Management Accountants -IMA and the Institute of Internal Auditors -IIA too maintains a code of ethics. Professional accounting establishments appreciate the responsibility of the accounting profession to supply ethical standards to its members. (Business and Accounting Ethics) Comprehending an ethical problem, giving a moral verdict, and building a purpose persuading to conduct are contained in a research on models of ethical reasoning. It reckons that ethical problem identification is a function of the subject's ethical understanding and moral strength of the problem. Interactions founded on stakeholder hypothesis enhanced subject's capability to identify ethical problems but did not modify their degree of moral reasoning. (Research on Accounting Ethics)

One more research discovered that the accountants occupied in tax practice often experience moral and ethical concerns emanating from their twin accountability to their clients as well as to government authorities. The accounting syllabus and textbooks prescribed in the preliminary accounting courses propose that meager or no endeavor has been made for inclusion of the… [read more]

University and Morality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (955 words)
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Morality in the University

Peter Steinfels in his 2004 article asks whether or not universities should teach aim to teach morality. He explicates several perspectives from those involved in the academic field. On the one hand, there are those that feel it is not the place of the university to try to inculcate morality. "You can't make them into good people...and you shouldn't try" (Steinfels) argues this perspective. On the other hand, there are those that say that morality is so engrained in every aspect of life that one cannot teach anything without teaching it. Trying not to teach morality only teaches a sort of vague "scientific" morality. How can one walk in the footsteps of philosophers like Aristotle and Plato and not at least address morality?

These are both reasonable arguments -- that they are in conflict is due to the fact that for some odd reasons none of these professors are taking full advantage of the English language. Universities ought not aim to teach morality; they should aim to teach ethics. These are distinct principles, though closely related, and if the professors involved would use these terms appropriately and accurately, they would find that they are not so much in conflict as they might think.

Ethics and morality are distinct issues. Morality deals with truth-claims about what is right and wrong, while ethics deal with the principles of conduct which are expected of people in a given field. Morality tends to deal with issues such as faith, sex, gambling, drugs, and so forth. For example, many people feel that premarital sex is immoral. Ethics, however, focus on the standards which are required to act properly towards others. Ethically, premarital sex is not wrong unless it violates certain standards (for example, sleeping with an employee or breaking the law in sexual activity). Sometimes morality and ethics may even disagree -- for example, both priests and psychiatrists have ethical obligationsto keep the confidence of those who confess to them. However, if either heard a confession from an unrepentant serial killer who persisted in their murders, either might legitimately feel have a moral obligation to act to stop this. In short, morality and ethics are significantly different.

The difference between ethics and morality is very significant for this debate because I feel that universities ought to teach their students ethics, but should not impose any morality on them. This is indeed the classic view. Aristotle did not write a book called Morality, after all, but his Ethics have been intensely influential on the development of academics. When schools attempt to teach morality to students, they do indeed risk violating the student' consciences and personal beliefs. A university ought not attempt to teach their students "truth," as Professor Mearsheimer points out quite legitimately. However, universities do have an obligation to ensure that their students understand what their individual professions…… [read more]

Ethical and Moral Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … ethical and moral behavior and why such behaviors are necessary in the enforcement of the rules of the criminal justice system

Relationships of Criminal justice system, ethics and morality

The principles of criminal justice lead to acts which are similar to crime in content, and a distinction can be made with crime only if it is understood that… [read more]

Corporate Ethics in the 21st Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Corporate Ethics in the 21st Century

Corporate ethics has emerged as one of the leading business issues of the Twenty-First century. Scandals at formerly reputable corporations such as Enron have sullied the corporate image for the public, not to mention major shareholders. Transparency and accountability are the new corporate watchwords, as companies from all industries and at all levels of… [read more]

Moral Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (499 words)
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Moral Philosophy

The title 'Moral Philosophy' in itself is suggestive of morality, as connoting the innate difference between good and evil. For example, when one is referring to an individual, one may talk about his intellectual capabilities, or of his achievements, which are quite entirely separate from his basic moral character. In a similar manner, one is generally prone to differentiate between the concept of being under moral obligation to do something, and the idea of being under a legal obligation to perform it. Being morally obliged to do a thing would mean the same as an individual saying, "I ought to do it, or I ought not to do it," for whatever reason, and 'ought to' in general is closely related to the idea of one's 'duty'. What then, is meant by something being 'morally wrong'? (Moore, 1922)

It must be remembered that in moral philosophy, the concepts of systematizing, defending and recommending the ideas of wrong and right and of good and evil are taken into account, and philosophers tend to divide moral philosophy into three distinct areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. While metaethics delves deeply into issues such as, where did we come from and so on, normative ethics is all about investigating the moral standards that generally apply to right and to wrong, while applied ethics deal with specific controversies in life, like for example, is an abortion good or evil, and so on. More often than not, however, the fine line that…… [read more]

Moral Theories Term Paper

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¶ … personal theory of good and evil, right and wrong moral agent is a person capable of rational understanding. An entity such as a nation, a group or a corporation is not such an entity. Rather, these constructions are human-created institutions made up of conglomerates of human beings. Unlike a single, moral human individual, a person cannot be overthrown, like a country, and then reformulated under a new constitution. A person cannot be merged with another entity, like a corporation. The human individual is the fundamental unit of every society or social bond, like the family.

The individual has moral obligations to all other human beings. He or she is part of a series of communities that make up the greater world. Although the human obligation to animals might not be equal to humans, because animals are not of the same species and therefore humans are not tied to them with same level of obligation, humans must still treat animals with respect, beyond the level of respect humans might extend to non-sentient property.

Humans have responsibility to treat the persons whom they are tied to with a network of social obligations with the greatest care, like friends and family members. However, this does not mean humans can ignore the needs of other persons who make up other cultures, groups, and nations, even if the obligations to these other person may not be as immediate. Plants and aspects of the non-sentient environment should be treated with respect, because of one does not; the welfare of all persons will be endangered.

The community of individuals largely determines what is right or wrong. For example, it is considered 'right' in our society that a parent support their child until the child is 18 while in other, past societies it was necessary and thus 'right' for a child to be independent at a much earlier age. When human life was shorter, and families were larger and poorer, this was understandable and not necessarily 'wrong,' given the historical context.

While much is relative, however, the integrity of the person to be free and to not be enslaved must not be impinged upon, unless that person transgresses the laws of the community. But there is no good or evil like a divine force, these notions are rooted in social judgments and the evolution of the society.

In contrast to this contextual view of ethics, a Kantian might protest. The…… [read more]

Professional Ethics &amp Laws in Behavioral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8



Ethics Assignment 3: Professional Ethics & Laws in Behavioral and Biomedical Research

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study of 1932-1972 gave rise to the Belmont report. This report was intended to promote human subjects protection in behavioral and biomedical research. The Belmont report provided a framework, which could be used by others when… [read more]

Public Health Ethics Related Training Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States" by a. Kanekar and a. Bitto (2012)

In this study, Kanekar and Bitto (2012) argue that ethical practices in the workplace do not just fall out of the sky, but are rather the result of the translation of ethical theories and concepts into real-world practice. These researchers conducted a meta-analysis of recent published peer-reviewed journal articles concerning ethics in public health practice or public health training. All told, Kanekar and Bitto (2012) identified 15 studies that satisfied their search and inclusion criteria. Based on the analysis of the aggregated results of these studies, Kanekar and Bitto determined that there was an ongoing and essential need for ethics training and codes of ethics in professional organizations. According to these researchers, "We need ethics to organize our goals and actions and to accomplish our values. In essence, ethics evaluates those actions, and the values that underlie them. It determines which values should be pursued, and which should not" (Kanekar & Bitto, 2012, p. 2). Because different professions have different values and standards, these differences are translated and codified through professional codes of ethics that help business managers resolve ethical dilemmas in the workplace (Kanekar & Bitto, 2012). In this regard, the authors note that, "The need for ethics arises from the fact that different professions have to establish a moral credibility for their field. In the [public health] field this needs to be translated into morally acceptable conduct and efforts to resolve ethical dilemmas related to public health practice" (p. 2).

Ethical dilemmas in the workplace, like change, are inevitable and managers at all levels are faced with an enormous range of situations that call for an immediate decision. It is therefore important to provide managers…… [read more]

Ethical Perspectives Virtue Ethics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Deontological Ethics

Generally, deontological ethics prohibits violating rules, irrespective of the actual consequences or the justice of adhering to rules in exceptional circumstances (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). Unlike virtue ethics and utilitarian ethics, strict deontology would prohibit lying to the police under any circumstances if that is illegal or if lying is considered immoral. In principle, the idea behind deontological ethics is that society is better off in the aggregate and in the long run when all rules are always obeyed. Under deontological analysis, the fact that strict adherence to rules may sometimes produce undesirable consequences is not sufficient cause to violate an established rule or law (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).

Personal Experience

When I was in high school, I had a friend who lived in my neighborhood who used to hide from his father at my house. His father was verbally and emotionally abusive and sometimes physically abusive. I was taught never to lie to adults but when his father called my house looking for my friend, I always lied and said that I did not know where he was. I know it was the right thing because my parents also allowed me to do it and sometimes they took the phone calls and lied to his father too.

According to virtue ethics, we did the right thing because our motive was only to help my friend avoid his abusive father. We were not helping him avoid his father for any selfish reasons or to help my friend be delinquent. He used to do his homework at my house. I am confident that in this case, virtue ethics provided a better answer than deontological ethics, because a deontological analysis would have prohibited lying to his father.


Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, (6th

Edition). New York: Oxford University Press.

Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.

Hursthouse, R. (1999) On…… [read more]

Corporate Ethics Business - Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (986 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Corporate Ethics

Business - or corporate -- ethics is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines applied and theoretical ethical principles that occur in the context / format of a business intrusion. It applies to the organization / company as a whole as well as to individuals who work in that company.

Corporate ethics has both normative and descriptive categories:

Normative -- Practical 'ought to' prescriptions, conventions and laws that hedge in practices, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley (mentioned later) that is used to regulate ethical requirements of audits.

Descriptive - more theoretical such as describing (and arguing) whether or not a practice is ethical and should be employed.

Corporate ethics mainly concerns itself with the normative aspect where a cadre of rules and laws exist to ensure that the organization, as a larger whole, practices ethical conduct in each and every one of its practices. At the same time, rules exist to ensure that employee's behavior is ethical too.

Ethical issues include the rights and duties between a company and its employees, suppliers, customers and neighbors. They also include economical duties between the company and its shareholders -- or more correctly, issues of integrity so that shareholders are correctly informed about the circumstances of the company.

Other ethical issues exist too between company and competitors such as hostile take-overs and industrial espionage. And then we have legal ethical issues such as corporate manslaughter; and the marketing of corporations' ethics policies. Other ethical issues include governance; corporate; and political contributions .

Both government and company have formulated policies to implement and maintain ethical behavior. The questions is whether these policies work and are kept. Many observers see a disassociation between the company requirements and actual company behavior. Others however perceive the intransigence and strictness of laws such as the SOX to be sufficient to keep the company in control. No company wants to be bankrupt or run into trouble with the government. Debate therefore varies between whether or not ethical codes can build a true corporate ethics.


Ethics codes can build a true 'corporate ethics"

Krell (2010) believes that corporations can build a true ethics environment and he provides an example of how an organization can do so in his essay on How to Conduct an Ethics Audit.

Krell points out that the legal environment during the last few years has compelled organizations to tighten their corporate ethics. Instruments such as the Sarbanes-Oxley and policies such as the Federal Acquisition Regulation and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines have compelled companies to adopt codes of conduct, train their employees on these codes, and create effective audit and reporting mechanisms. HR professionals too play a major part in not only employing ethical staff but in also monitoring and mentoring the practices of the company to ensure the morality of their standards.

The company's ethics is largely seen in its auditing and an ethical audit follows six rules:

1. Start with a detailed foundation…… [read more]

Is Moral Development Possible? Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,751 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Moral Development possible?

The concept of moral development is the prime component of the report. The aims and objectives of moral development have elucidated its significance in an individual's life and how the practice of moral development can shape the individual's life and his personality. Moreover, few theories on moral development have also been explained in order to… [read more]

Ethics in Science Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethics in Science

Do the Ends Ever Justify the Means?

We all face ethical dilemmas at some point. Sometimes, we are called upon to choose between several courses of action. However, in some instances, these alternative courses of action could be equally undesirable. This effectively puts us in a moral dilemma as selecting either course of action comes with a cost tag. One of the many examples of ethical dilemmas that has been advanced over time is a scenario whereby as a result of a medical condition, the life of an unborn baby has to be terminated as allowing the pregnancy to proceed to full term could bring about the death of the mother. What would be the best course of action in such a case? Citing various reasons, some could argue that saving the mother's life would be most appropriate. On the other hand, there are those who could be of the opinion that saving the life of the baby would be the best course of action. It is with such scenarios in mind that ethical theorists have in the past developed a number of ethical principles to guide decision making. One such viewpoint is teleological ethics which in its most pure form according to Bradburn "focuses on the 'ends', the results of the decision rather than the method of getting to that result" (3). In such a case, the end according to the author essentially justifies the means. However, do the ends ever justify the means?

In my view, the ends do not at any time ever justify the means. In its most bare form, this ethical system seeks to promote acts that would ordinarily be bad, unjust, immoral, or unethical if such acts in the end lead to good consequences. Such a line of reasoning has a number of fatal flaws. In seeking to further explore the topic, I will make use of an ethical dilemma Trevino and Nelson offer in their book. In the dilemma, five…… [read more]

Moral Sentiment Philosophy Morality Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (784 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Therefore exercising moral judgment revolve around taking an evaluative perspective that filters out the experienced distorting effects of personal prejudice and self-interest even on involving affective modes of consciousness. Hume argues that on considering an action or a character in general, failing to refer from our specific interest, it creates that sentiment or feeling, just as denominating it as morally good or evil. In terms of judging quality of character or an action, empathy inform us the pain or pleasure that is generated by the object for the individual that is in possession of it as well as individuals affected by it, (Krause, Sharon, 2013). As pleasure continue to stimulate a positive affective response, or approval; the stimulation of pain is aversion, or disapproval.

Is this account of morality convincing?

Yes, it is convincing in that it makes sure that human being's judgment has been shaped just through sentiments that are capable of endorsement in a correct structured generalized standpoint. Likewise, to register the pleasures and pains of the affected individuals, it is important to ask about their merit such as whether the sentiments have a reflection of an exact understanding of the available facts. Moral sentiments, of course, need a decisive evaluation of its own sources via the reflective stance of the generalized standpoint (iterative). Therefore, the moral sentiment exercise provide a platform for reaching an impersonal assessments of right as well as wrong in terms of a reflective, impartial lay down feelings. What can be endorsed inside this generalized standpoint is what is supposed to be done.


In summary, critics term Hume as an unmitigated moral relativist due to the fact that he believes that morality is founded on personal feelings, which widely vary from one person to the other. However, this does not form Hume's perspective since moral sentiments tend to be a special feeling.


David Fate "Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy" (1990). Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/cavalier/80130/part1/sect4/texts/Norton.html

Frank DeVita "Hume's Theory of Moral Sentiments as a Phenomenological Account of Morality" (2012). Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://frankdevita.wordpress.com/2012/08/06/humes-theory-of-moral-sentiments/

Krause, Sharon, "Moral Sentiment and the Politics of Human Rights," The Art of Theory, Jason Swadley (ed.), October 2010, Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://www.artoftheory.com/moral-sentiment-and-the-politics-of-human-rights-sharon-krause… [read more]

Nietzsche and Morality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Nietzsche and Morality

Friedrich Nietzsche and Morality

Nietzsche is one of the most renowned philosophers and lived between 1844 and 1900. He is regarded differently according to the perspectives that the individual successive philosophers take on him. To some, Nietzsche is just another controversial philosopher in history who does not warrant a lot of attention due to his take on… [read more]

Ethics Research the Role Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  7 pages (1,946 words)
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Ethics Research

The role of research and science is very important in today's society. In many ways, this social class dictates much of what is accepted as truth. With this burden, comes a great responsibility that requires those who do research, on a professional academic level, to exceed normal expectations of ethical behavior. There is simply too much to risk… [read more]

Ethics and the Criminal Justice System Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (854 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethics and the Criminal Justice System

In most professions, there is a Code of Conduct that addresses ethical and moral issues that surround that particular activity. These standards of practice help the public feel confident that professionals (doctors, lawyers, judges, police officers, etc.) are bound by an honor code individually and as a profession. However, it is within the context of the day-to-day activities that ethical ambiguity occurs, and the Code then becomes a toolbox to help the professional navigate their dilemma (IIT, 2012).

A CBS News Report in 2009 focused on one segment of the criminal justice system that has been increasingly in the news -- Judges who break the law. The case in point was Judge Victor Baron who, after 14 years on the bench, was convicted of taking thousands of dollars in bribes and sentenced to a 3-9-year prison term. While most public officials are scrupulously honest, some watchdog groups find that in some areas of the country, corruption seems to be rife. Critics of the judiciary system note that the political nature of the bench allows for corruption, particularly in areas like New York City. Specifically, "at issues is an arcane system in which voters pick delegates to a judicial nominating convention, but do not pick the judges themselves" (Chery, 2009).

One must ask, though, is it the system that needs changed, or will individuals who lean towards corruption find a way to circumvent legalities anyway? Instead of changing the system, perhaps the curriculum in law school should add additional coursework on ethics, and perhaps public officials (judges, etc.) should be required to take continuing education courses dealing with the problem of ethical behavior in the contemporary arena? Thus, the central idea of a Code of Ethical behavior is to allow individuals to understand the moral and ethical consequences of their actions, to review the basic ethical theories of the past, and to be able to pull from those theories tools to be expressed within professional behavior, while still maintaining the agreed upon legal actions associated with the position held. For example, within the day-to-day actions of law enforcement personnel one might ask: 1) Does the Code of Ethics for my profession give clear advice on x issue? 2) if someone were to endorse the opposite course of action, could they also buttress their argument with the Code? 3) Are there apparent conflicts within the Code regarding x or y? 4) Does the Code conflict with my own individual moral stance? If so, is there a way to make an appropriate compromise? 5)…… [read more]

Ethics in Group Counselling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,405 words)
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Given that the discussion regarding whether or not morality has been about facts, individual therapy views or group therapy perceptions has raged for such a long time, we are not going to engage in this paper. It has been essential; nevertheless, to understand that there have been these types of fundamentally distinct perspectives concerning the nature associated with morality contributing… [read more]

Business Ethics Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


That is because there will be "social consequences" when the company does something that goes against the "moral values" in that host country. For example, a local employee that works for an international company will be offended on the one hand when unethical behaviors shown by the company offend his or her own cultural values.

Given the above-mentioned globalized reality for an international company, it is vital that a code of ethics be established. And that code of ethics must be based on "social responsibility" because a code of ethics (clearly written and fully explained by the human relations department to each new employee) is the official statement of the organization vis-a-vis how employees are expected to act and perform (Gokmen, 86).

The United Nations' Global Compact provides a good guide for any global company that wishes to project ethical values in whatever country it operates within. Any human relations leader can use the UN Global Compact as a map to guide its approach to ethics, Gokmen continues (87). The UN Global Compact provides ethical leadership in the following contexts: a) protecting "universally accepted human rights"; b) avoiding the violation of human rights; c) allowing collective bargaining; d) avoiding forced / compulsory labor and child labor; e) providing "occupational safety" with no discrimination in opportunities; d) adopting "environmentally friendly policies"; and f) taking action against corruption (Gokmen, 87).

In conclusion, in this era of globalization, organizations at home and abroad must always be conscious of the need to promote ethical behaviors based on moral values. Ethics must be very strong when operating in a foreign country and the values the company espouses and demonstrates must be in line with local cultural values and ethics.

Works Cited

Gokmen, Aytac, and Ozturk, A. Turan. (2012). Issues of Business Ethics in Domestic and International…… [read more]

Ethics the Nineteenth Century German Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (705 words)
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Now, it is considered morally wrong to do the same. Kant did not account for the changes that occur over time, or throughout different cultures.

Kant's deontological ethics are often compared with the ethics of utilitarianism. Basically, the deontological ethics of Kant are the opposite of utilitarian ethics of John Stuart Mills. For the utilitarian, the consequences of an action are what are important, and it does not matter if an action itself should be labeled as right or wrong. If the action creates the greatest good for the greatest number of people in any given situation, then that action can be considered morally just. Of course, there are weaknesses with utilitarian ethics too. It is too easy to overlook some of the minority of people being harmed by something that benefits the masses.

The categorical imperative is similar to Aristotle's virtue ethics in that both believed in essential or absolute ethical categories. However, Kant's ethics are most similar to those of Confucius. According to Confucius, there are categories of behavior. These categories are usually based on social roles for Confucius. Yet Confucius did believe that there are absolute rights and wrongs in human behavior. Like many other philosophers, Kant believed in the potential of human beings to act rationally. Kant believed that using reason, a person could determine what actions are right and what actions are wrong and make the appropriate decisions. Confucius and Aristotle both also believed in the rational nature of human beings, and that ethical choices are rational ones and not emotional ones. Although I do not fully agree with Kant's deontological ethics and the categorical imperative, I appreciate the way the philosophy can promotes universal natural moral laws.


Davis, S.P. (n.d.). Three-minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. [video] Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw

"Ethics." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/kant.html

Johnson, R. "Kant's Moral Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved online: .… [read more]

Ethics in Decision-Making Clegg Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (537 words)
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"In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).

For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.

What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and…… [read more]

Darwin and Determinism All Theory Essay

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" This argument was used by Clarence Darrow in the famous criminal case of Leopold and Loeb. Leopold and Loeb, the teenage sons of two wealthy Chicago families, were accused of kidnapping and killing a 14-year-old boy for their own amusement in 1924. Darrow based his argument on the claim that his clients were not morally responsible for their actions, but was ultimately the product of casual variables beyond their control. In the end, Darrow was able to successfully commute the sentences of Leopold and Loeb from the death penalty to life in prison. In demonstrating that the experience of conscious will is an evolutionary adaptation that allows for the modification of particular behavioral algorithms similar arguments for behavioral determinism become difficult to defend. A discussion of the origins of morality is beyond the scope of this paper; however, it is clear that certain social organisms such as humans do have the ability to modify their behavior in response to ecological or social constraints (i.e. A moral code). Wegner articulates this understanding in The Illusion of Conscious Will when he writes, "Illusory or not, conscious will is the person's guide to his or her own moral responsibility for action." Through demonstrating that the experience of conscious will is an evolutionary adaptation rather than an epiphenomenon or a memetic construct a functional understanding of moral choice can be established based on solid evolutionary reasoning. In conclusion, the experience of free will is a complex behavioral algorithm that evolved in the face of intra-group competition and allows an organism to analyze its own behavior in the light of how other members of its own social group might behave in a dynamic environment in regards to cooperation, maintenance of pair bonds and reciprocity.


Pereboom, D. Living Without Free Will. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Sharpe, K. 1992. Biology Intersects Religion and Morality. Biology and Philosophy. 7(1): 77-88.

Skinner, B.F. Science and Human Behavior. (New York: Macmillian, 1953).

Skinner, B.F. Beyond Freedom and Dignity. (New York, NY: Bantage/Vintage Publishers, 1972).

Wegner, D. The Illusion of Conscious Will.…… [read more]

Business Ethics Is Your Answer Essay

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This is why we are offering the bandits large sums of money to leave the town alone.

However, there is a matter of personal safety that is taken into account. This is because the bandits are known for robbing and beating the citizens when they are conducting raids. To protect everyone in the community the large amount of money is a way of buying the community's safety and peace of mind. This will help to improve happiness and the quality of life for everyone. As a result, our approach is focused on using a certain amount of prudence by appealing to the bandits' greed.

Does this week's reading reaffirm the moral intuitions you expressed last week; or dies it qualify or even undermine them?

This week's readings reaffirm the moral institutions. The way that this is accomplished is by having flexibility in our approach and seeking out solutions that will deal with the problems over the long-term. In the case of the community, this is important for establishing a foundation for economic growth to occur. The only way that this can take place is to eliminate these raids.

Moreover, the bandits have demands to leave the town alone, provided that I give them one child that will be beaten and tortured. This is an obvious sign that they are frustrated and want to seek out some kind of negotiated solution. If the initial offer is rejected and we appeal to their greed is when we can have peace. This approach has been tried by other cities in the region with a certain degree of success. Therefore, we need to be able to use a similar strategy in dealing with this issue.


Consequentialism / Utilitarianism, n.d.

Deontology, n.d.

Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/… [read more]

Literacy on Ethics Meta Research Paper

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" Philosophical Perspectives.

University of Illinois: Chicago, IL. 6.

Shelly Kagan explains that normative ethics is actually the basis for the entire social structure of society. The normative branch of ethical decision making is often the basis for the laws and legislation of the society. The rules that a society sets for itself are based on what the government hopes its citizens will do in a certain situation. Behaviors will be dictated based on what the society as a whole agrees should be done.

Applied Ethics:

Beauchamp, Tom (2008). "The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics."


Beauchamp argues that being benevolent or beneficent is how a person effectively uses applied ethics. Whereas many forms of ethics relate to hypothetical situations, the applied system of ethics more refers to how these things work in real-world situations. The author traces the link between beneficence and applied ethics throughout history and determines that the two are intricately linked.

Chadwick, Ruth E. (1998). "Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics." Academic Press: San Diego, CA.

The book discusses all the way in which society requires people to behave ethically in real-world situations. In the real world, things are hardly ever black and white. Most often what the right or wrong thing to do is in a given situation can be difficult to determine. The encyclopedic entries allows the reader to see a pattern of behavior and a pattern of choices.… [read more]

Ethics in Criminal Justice Outline Case Study

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Duty -- Is duty something that is expedient and morally required? Is there a conflict between duty and self-interest? Can duty make you do what is good and yet you feel bad?

f. Social Utility -- Is social utility something that only exceptional individuals or heroes can accomplish?

g. Justice As Fairness -- Is justice always fair and right? What is the dividing line between what is just and fair and what one can do to correct wrong behaviors? Can you force someone to do something?

h. The Moral Relationships Of Leaders and Followers -- What obligations do leaders have to set an example?

III. Conclusion -- Ethics in the criminal justice system is a complex phenomenon involving power, duty, virtue, character, an understanding of the relationship of self-interest to social justice and more. It is critical to understand how to identify immoral behavior and address it.… [read more]

Relativity of Moral Truth Essay

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A further discussion to Li's arguments against cultural relativism leads up to that of Nagel's relative moral position. Nagel owes his philosophy on moral truths to that of the "paradoxicality of the human condition" (Mulhall, 2007). That is, an individual's moral values are subject to that individual's objective outlook on the decisions made. It coincides with his puzzlement over the "randomness" (Mulhall, 2007) of the human moral ethics, and more than explains the arguments over an individual's breaking from his or her moral and religious leanings -- though Nagel does not dismiss either position from being a variable of moral decision. "An action may have multiple causes or diverse sources of impetus" (Li, 2007), which can or cannot be explained through cultural relativism and/or divine command theory.

The strongest argument, therefore, lies within Nagel's position on moral philosophy. Of the three, Nagel's position poses upon itself the argument of humanity, of the individual mind and the processes that the individual undergoes to make that moral and ethical realization. It allows for the certain freedom of explanation to a person's deviation from religious and cultural standpoint. Morality is not dependent upon an existence of God or traditions, but a combination or lack thereof, with the human self.


Austin, Michael W. (2006). Divine Command Theory. Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/

Blackburn, Simon. (2005). The oxford dictionary of philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Li, X. (2007). 7 A Cultural Critique of Cultural Relativism. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 66(1), 151-171. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.2007.00502.x

Mulhall, S. (2007). Luck, Mystery and Supremacy D.Z. Phillips Reads Nagel and Williams on Morality. Philosophical Investigations,…… [read more]

Euthanasia Moral Philosophy Term Paper

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Utilitarian thought follows the pleasure vs. pain principle, but there is not a simple answer to the question even where they are concerned. A possible argument for euthanasia could be that the person in question has no quality of life (a big consideration to make with regard to the utilitarian line of thought). Since they are enduring the pain of existence in whatever form that has taken, then they should be allowed the merciful option of euthanasia. This will release them from the pain that they feel, and deliver them to oblivion or whatever else awaits people after death. It is a very humanistic point-of-view, and seemingly a merciful one. The decision would have to be the person's who is most affected by it. They would have to decide whether they were going to die because of their pain or remain in that state for some other reason.

Of course, lately, the advent of drugs which can reduce the suffering of individuals obfuscates the question even more. It may seem that if people are able to live without pain then they would want to live instead of die. But this is not always the case. There are several problems here. The pain medications are expensive, they do not take away the problem (they only mask it), and they can have deadly side effects. So, it would seem that modern science cannot take away the importance of the personal decision.

It seems that Kant's arguments are the sounder of the two. It is understandable that a caring society would always want to relieve the suffering of individuals, but who is going to make that ultimate choice? If a person decides to do something just because they feel that their life is useless, they could be missing a seminal experience in which they are meant to help someone. Taking Kant's view, since suicide and homicide are morally wrong, there is no question as to the right action.

It is often the case that the person embroiled in a fight for life is the worst person to make the decision. And, if not the afflicted person, then who? No one, least of all elected officials, wants the government to be making these decisions. The family of the person may just want their money, and do not want the burden of having to go see them every Sunday afternoon. The person themselves has clouded judgment because all they see is their present suffering. Kant would say that since decisions are either moral or not, a person should always follow the moral imperative. Euthanasia would seem correct in some instances, but every case is different. Given that people have no idea what awaits them after death, there is no possible way to make the correct decision. So, it should be left to moral law. Meaning, if they are meant to die, they will.


Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2006). The Right Thing to do: Basic Readings in Moral Philosophy, (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill,…… [read more]

Social Psychology 2nd Morality Term Paper

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Specifically, the research question was to see if competence, when examined alongside morality, might affect ingroup behaviors and the perceived level of threats for individuals within the group.

Study Design

This transition in the design of the study resulted in the researchers once again showing an image of an Italian and an Indian male, and presenting the participants with a… [read more]

Ethics and CSR President Barack Term Paper

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Organizations of all sizes and types require effective leadership in order to formulate a corporate vision and make informed day-to-day decisions as well as strategically oriented ethical planning (Sussan, 2006). Finally, I thank you for your attention in this important matter and hope that you will keep the following in mind as you work with legislation and initiatives over the next few months. We must all remember that the new need for organizations to integrate values and ethics in their decision-making remains buttressed by these three trends, which I also encourage you to integrate into your own planning:

1. Effective leaders in the modern area are transformation and envision action which begins with ethics and values;

2. All organizations -- private and governmental, must become more robustly ethical in word and deed, and,

3. Ethics as a practice has a strong, persistent voice in the world's communication channels (Burke, 1999).

Thank you in advance.

Works Cited

ASHE-ERIC. (2002). Understaning and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 28(4), 1-162.

Burke, F. (1999). Ethical Decision-Making: Global Concerns, Frameworks and Approaches. Public Personnel Management, 28(4), 529-31.

Jahdi, K., et al. (2009). Marketing Communications and CSR. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(1), 103-13.

Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University press.

Lewis, C., & Gilman, S. (2005). The Ethics Challenge in Public Service (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. (2004). Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing: An Integrative Framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(1), 3-19.

Mayer, R.C., et al. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-34.

Robinson,…… [read more]

Nasw Code of Ethics Sociology Case Study

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I thought about the importance of articulation of relationships and declaration of boundaries with respect to social workers and their clients. I have not had a social worker assigned to me or someone in my family, but I have known people who have. I have also not seen a therapist or counselor professionally in my life, but I have known people who have and who do. This aspect of the code made me think about these instances in my life and compare them. I realize that social workers, in a way, can be a kind of therapist for individuals and families. Just as much as it is important to have clear boundaries between psychologist and patient, it is critical to the success of the social work practice for the social worker to have clear boundaries with the clients.

It is very easy to get caught up in the personal dramas of those that we help, whether in a professional capacity, such as a social worker, or a personal capacity, such as a friend or family member. Social workers might not be the healthiest people in the world, or not have their lives in complete order -- so it does not benefit a client to have an over-involved social worker in their lives in a greater capacity or outside the capacity of their job descriptions. Certainly, the people who need social workers, need assistance, and are often underprepared for life's challenges. Therefore, it behooves social workers to respect the boundaries between them and their clients. It is dangerous for social workers and clients alike if boundaries within that relationship are not respected or adhered to. My personal experiences, as they relate to this reflection, tell me that the relationship between social worker and client is in some ways fragile, with the ability to grow quite strong. It is also a relationship that demands care and respect or else it will fail miserable or otherwise go horribly wrong.

Step 3: Articulate Learning

I learned that the practice of ethics is active. We must actively be aware of and practice ethics as part of social work. Practicing ethics is a multifaceted experience that includes several key aspects, including establishing and respecting boundaries, and understanding the fine line between ethics and lack of ethics. I learned this from observations of my own studies and practice. I learned this from calling on my long-term and short-term memories of experiences that might apply to what I am learning. I also learned this through comparison and analysis of my studies, personal experiences, professional experiences and studies. What I learned matters because without an active practice of ethics, I would be disoriented as a social worker and as an individual. In light of my learning I will follow my interest in ethics and see if it leads me to a specific topic of field of study in which I…… [read more]

Counselors Need to Study Ethics Questionnaire

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Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … counselors need to study ethics in relation to research? (Hauser, p. 87)

Just like in other fields including medicine, nursing, engineering and much other, counseling research also involves the observation of ethics. Ethics in research is very significant to any investigator regardless of their fields of study. Therefore, the study of ethics in research is very important. Counselors… [read more]

Ethics the Divine Command Theory Term Paper

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Question 5:

There is a fairly clear and easily establishable distinction between the positions known as ethical absolutism and ethical relativism. Indeed, it is perhaps easiest to define ethical absolutism before we define ethical relativism: ethical absolutism is the philosophical idea by which one argues that there is one singular ethical system that exists by which all other ethical systems can be judged, although, indeed, one must be certain to include the idea that this one true ethical system need not be the one that the person even holds. In ethical absolutism, a person contends that we can then proceed to judge the moral systems of other countries and nations by using the standards as they are explicitly defined in this moral system. In this system then, there is an absolute morality and an absolute moral standard against which other standards can be judged.

Ethical relativism, on the other hand, is the system by which one accepts the different moral and ethical systems held by different societies and cultures around the world and, in this system, one asserts that all of these moralities are right in respect to their differing cultural milieus. Indeed, it is important to make a distinction between this view and another separate view, which is that of cultural relativism. Cultural relativism holds that different cultures around the earth all possess a different series of ethical systems and that these systems are all held to be equally correct by the different societies that believe in them. Indeed, given the overwhelming data that has been presented to us by sociology and anthropology, it is very easy to say that cultural relativism is, quite simply, a fact about the world.

Ethical relativism, on the other hand, is different than cultural relativism and actually a more stringent concept, which asserts that not only do different cultures have different ideas of morality but that these different ethical systems are correct for each culture. Thus an act that may be wrong according to the ethical system contained by the United States might be correct according to the morality held by a different nation or country. In extreme example this would mean that even the worst acts committed here, such as murder, might be defensible and even legal acts in other countries where the societal construction of ethical systems was such that murder was allowed in certain tolerated instances.

This view, of course, is exceptionally problematic for a whole variety of reasons. One of the most obvious problems, of course, is a simple epistemological problem in which it is exceptionally difficult, if not, in fact, impossible, to state whether or not a given culture can be said to support a specific ethical belief. While this might be obvious in certain cases, such as how, In the United States, murder is clearly punishable by law, other issues would be less clear. Would abortion or euthanasia fall under the rubric of murder? Certainly, these issues are hotly debated currently right now and some people would… [read more]

Moral Decisions in Business Term Paper

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As such, rule utilitarianism allows for the creation of rules that are considered to be morally right. There may be specific acts where these rules do not produce the most good for everyone involved, but over time, the rule over time has more favorable than unfavorable consequences. In rule utilitarianism, "actions are justified to the extent that conform to a rule which would maximize utility for everyone who followed it" (Buschert).

As such, rule utilitarianism would see the action of executives in falsifying profits and reducing debt on balance sheets to be a morally wrong action. This action would be morally wrong since it would violate the moral rule against falsifying financial information in business. Overall, a rule against falsifying financial information produces more good for everyone than bad.

While the short-term impact of an individual act financial falsification can provide increased profits for shareholders, job stability for employees, and increase executive pay, the wider impact of incorporating financial falsification can be negative on a large number of individuals. If financial irregularities become widespread within corporations, it is inevitable that many will be revealed. This is exactly what happened in the widespread accounting scandals of companies like Enron and WorldCom in the early 2000s. When these irregularities became public knowledge, the negative impact was staggering. First, investors lost faith in the U.S. stock market, potentially causing drops in the market, and damaging the financial health of untold corporations and investors. Wrote Justin Lahart of CNN.com, just after the Enron and WorldCom scandals occurred, "many investors may decide to exit the U.S. stock market. And not come back." Second, the employees and shareholders of corporations that are found to have given financially misleading results will suffer tremendously. This was seen in the case of Enron, where employees lost their jobs, and shareholders lost tremendous amounts of money when Enron stock plummeted.

In conclusion, rule utilitarianism provides a useful and powerful ethical framework for business. Rule utilitarianism allows businesses to prevent long-term damage to society and business by considering the importance of ethical rules over the short-term gain of individual business acts.


Buschert, Will. Notes on Utilitarianism. PHIL 235.3 - Ethical Issues in Business and the Professions. 09 May 2004. http://duke.usask.ca/~wjb289/PHL235/transparencies/Utilitarianism.PDF

Lahart, Justin. The death of confidence: WorldCom's gigantic fraud may send investors to the exits for a long, long time. CNN.com, July 8, 2002: 10:20 AM EDT. 09 May 2004. http://money.cnn.com/2002/06/26/news/worldcom_shoedrops/

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ethics. 09 May 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/e/ethics.htm… [read more]

ACA Code of Ethics Essay

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ACA Code of Ethics

A Brief Profile of the Client

Deborah is the client. She is a 45 years old housewife who suffers from manic depression. She is highly educated with a law degree and used to practice it until 20-year ago. This is when she decided to stay at home and take care of her two sons. During this time, Deborah had frequent headaches and is taking cortisone shots to control her headaches. Moreover, she is also using anti-depressants which induced from her deteriorating mental condition and inactivity. ("ACA Code of Ethics," 2013)

Recently, Deborah has been seeking out the assistance of a mental health professional named Dr. Franklin. He is a friend of her husband (Steve) who works at the same hospital and plays on the squash team with him. Deborah was sent to Dr. Franklin at Steve's urging. During the sessions, she reveals how out of control her life is and the various disappointments. The two continue to build strong patient -- therapist relationship over the course of many months. ("ACA Code of Ethics," 2013)

The Ethical Issue

The ethical issue is the relationship that has continued to evolve between Deborah and Dr. Franklin. What happened is the two cultivated a connection which has developed into an extra marital affair. Deborah's feelings of anger and Dr. Franklin's, wanting to help; have resulted in them having several different sexual encounters on numerous occasions. ("ACA Code of Ethics," 2013)

No one inside the hospital is aware of what is happening. While Steve continues to believe that everything is normal and commented about how he noticed an improvement in Deborah's attitude. This has led him to support her going to visit Dr. Franklin even more. The situation is becoming complicated, with Deborah wanting to tell her husband about what is happening. Dr. Franklin is reluctant, as he wants to remain in control and is having various sessions where he will push her into following his directions. ("ACA Code of Ethics," 2013)

Site of the Code that is Violated

The actions that were taken by Dr. Franklin are a violation of Sections A4 and A5 of the ACA Code of Ethics. It says, "When counselors learn that their clients are in a professional relationship with another mental health professional, they request release from clients to inform the other professionals and strive to establish positive and collaborative professional relationships. Counselors act to avoid harming their clients, trainees, and research participants and to minimize or to remedy unavoidable or unanticipated harm. They are aware of their own values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors and avoid imposing values that are inconsistent with counseling goals. Mental health professionals will respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants. Sexual or romantic counselor -- client interactions or relationships with current clients, their romantic partners, or their family members are prohibited." This is illustrating how Dr. Franklin has clearly overstepped his authority and placed added amounts of pressure on his client. His primary objectives are to allow this… [read more]

Company Having Strong Ethics Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (932 words)
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For example, the code should be focused on either deontological or consequentialist ethics, rather than cribbing sloppily from both, which could lead to an incoherent code that is tough to apply.

The code of ethics should then be tested for a few traits. One trait is clarity. It is important that the code is easy to understand. It should be consistent as well, because that is important -- a code that doesn't make sense it not going to work for most people. Furthermore, the code should be convertible to action. If the ethical code does not help people to make better ethical decisions than they otherwise would make, and does not ensure that all stakeholders understand the organization's ethical perspective, then the code is not of much value. It must be something that can be translated into action to genuinely have value.


I'm not sure what a "pro" rebuttal would be, given that a rebuttal is "offering a contrary contention or argument" according to Dictionary.com. I agree with the statement. A code of ethics is something that many businesses seem to have, without any real understanding of why it is important. This statement highlights precisely why a code of ethics is important. There needs to be a code that defines the behaviors accepted and practiced in the workplace. This seems self-evident, but even when there is a strong ethical culture, the code provides further clarity and elaboration for what is expected. Also, the code is good as a defense, should legal action be filed against the company. The code, especially when trained and adequately communicated to the employees, provides a means for the company to distance itself from rogue employees.

Top level management should actually write the code, not just influence it. There needs to be total buy-in from top level management in order for the code to be effective. The top level leaders need to be leaders in ethics as well. Their ethical standards are the most likely to be followed throughout the organization, so they need to be highly involved in the development and implementation of the code of ethics. A code of ethics without buy-in from the top level management is not likely to be effective at all.

The other thing that I would add is that the code of ethics should ideally go beyond the laws -- things like fraud are clearly illegal and therefore should be a given in any code of ethics. The code should be useful for dealing with genuine ethical dilemmas, which are far more subtle and complex than issues where the law already defines the standard…… [read more]

Virtual Research Ethics Question Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (479 words)
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In her estimation, ethical conduct is nothing more than a basic human principle or moral, and Buchanan believes that each individual researcher should hold themselves to the highest standard.

2.) Read Snapshot: Google: Tracking Search Patterns. Find more details of this study since the text's Snapshot was printed and discuss the study including any updates.

The "Snapshot: Google: Tracking Search Patterns" feature found on page 32 of the textbook Introduction to Business Research begins by informing readers that "according to Nielsen/NetRatings and SearchEngineWatch.com, Internet users in the United States spent about 26.5 hours a month online and executed 214 million searches a day, 91 million of them on Google." The feature goes on to explain that Google tracks usage data in seemingly innumerable ways, listing time of day, originating IP address and website destinations as the most common methods of sorting and analyzing user data. According to the "Snapshot" piece, "what makes Google tracking a researcher's goldmine is its ability to predict future trends as well as mirror current trends & #8230; (because) businesses are interested not only in these predictive capabilities but also because searches reveal things about individuals that they wouldn't willingly talk about." More recent studies on this subject have observed that Google processes over 100 billion search queries per month, which would indicate that the rate of internet search use is rising at a steady rate.


Buchanan, E.A. (Ed.). (2004). Readings in virtual research…… [read more]

Baird's Everyday Ethics and the Idea of "Deontology Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,364 words)
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Suffering has an effect on his stomach, perhaps, but not on his brain.

I dwell at such length on this example because, when I think about my own ethical learning curve, I can remember first being exposed to this particular idea while watching an interview with Alice Von Hildebrand, and realizing that it really did take some serious thought on my part to understand the point. (I will also be honest, I was not expecting something that is essentially told as a joke to be part of a televised interview about Catholic ethics.) The simplistic way of making the point would be to see it about hypocrisy -- someone who makes a show of caring about the poor, and says the right things, while has actions that directly undercut this lip-service. But that was not the more complicated point that Von Hildebrand was trying to address: the concept she was trying to elucidate was sentimentality and its ethical problems. In reality, I don't think I really fully understood it until I was watching a different television program and saw the same principle illustrated a different way: on "The Sopranos," the crime boss Tony Soprano has a sentimental reaction to hearing about animals suffering (like when a horse is killed in an arson incident done for insurance purposes) but will shoot a human being without a second thought.

What this represents, of course, is a redirection of priorities, or possible a virtue carried over into the excess of a vice. This is something that Baird captures in his text fairly well, as when he presents various four-part grids, which demonstrate that there can be a "higher" or a "lower" version of the same ethical response. Baird presents "Wilber's matrix," for example, which basically maps these realms of ethical response in terms of how much distance they go outside the self (Baird 149). In Wilber's model, the lower version is the one that restricts human behavior inside the self (rather than extending it out into action) and that looks at human interaction on the smallest possible level (the individual in one-on-one relationships rather than the individual at the level of society or culture). It is no accident that for Wilber the ethically "descended" or inferior stance is the one that is focused on the "exterior side of development." In other words, it is possible to keep up appearances while being rotten to the core.

So this returns me to the idea of "deontology" that Baird refers to in the textbook. In the "Path to Maturity" diagram, Baird summarizes the central question and the central statement of deontology as being "What are my rights and responsibilities? I am responsible" (Baird 146). This is certainly a handy approach to ethics because in this case all a person has to do is play by the rules, and the automatic result is ethical behavior. It may be comforting in some sense, insofar as it does not require a lot of complicated thoughts and actions. However, I… [read more]

Ethics There Are Several Different Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Sexual Behavior

Virtue ethics tends to hold that the major moral flaw here is that the people are not married, since adultery is a selfish act that only harms others. Virtuous people do not focus their energies on selfish behavior, thus the act is wrong. Kantian ethics would not only point to prevailing moral codes against adultery, which are near-universal in human society, but against the use of the company boardroom as well. The company's prevailing code of ethics should set the standard here, and unless the company is Stratton Oakmont, in which case such behavior is accepted. In most companies, however, sex in the boardroom would violate the categorical imperative.

Consequentialist ethics would hold the consequences of the action to be the determinant of its morality. There are a lot of ways that this could play out. If nobody sees the act and it does not cause any disruption to anybody, then there is no moral prohibition against this act from the consequentialist perspective. Thus, context matters. If the employees are caught, and this leads to disorder in the company, or if their actions destroy pre-existing relationships, then by the consequentialist standard this act would be wrong. The utilitarian argument is going to be similar, except that because the benefits of the sex go to two people, it is highly unlikely that the balance of goodness will fall on the side of this being an ethical act. For that to happen, the act would have to produce a baby that grows up to make a great contribution to society. Odds are that won't happen.


In virtue ethics, drinking is itself a neutral act. Virtue goes to deep levels far beyond habits (Hursthouse, 2012). As a result, the act of drinking is itself a neutral act, and it is only those acts which occur as the result of the drinking that can be negative under virtue ethics -- they must be evaluated on their own, however, as a distinct issue.

The Kantian perspective on drinking is going to be relative to the prevailing standards of the culture. Kant sought to define the categorical imperative as a law of nature, and arguably drunkenness is not favored in nature. The inebriated state is not natural, nor is it enlightened. Kantian ethics may not have any real position on drunkenness, but if it does it would not be in favor of it.

From a consequentialist perspective, again context is required. In general, someone who drinks to excess is probably a liability, and if they aren't their habit may induce others to follow suit, though perhaps those actions should be evaluated on their own merits. For the individual, unless they happen to perform better drunk than sober (like a lot of famous writers, or even somebody who gets drunk while conducting business that is worth a lot of money) this will be a negative act. There could be extenuating circumstances that make the drunkenness favorable, but this is highly unlikely.

From a utilitarian… [read more]

Ethics in Business Has Become a Hot Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,102 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ethics in business has become a hot button issue in recent years, in light of a number of scandals in the early 2000s, but also with the whole issue of corporate social responsibility. There are different dimensions to ethics, some of which are obvious like conducting business legally, but other issues create a moral dilemma, which is where a grey… [read more]

Fair Trade Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


There are things that society defines as right and wrong -- societies set the bounds for their behavior, and this is Kantian deontological ethics (Johnson 2008). Another system argues that outcomes matter, and this consequentialist philosophy is the roots of distributive justice (Sinnott-Armstrong 2011).

International distributive justice was actually developed after Friedman's article was published, its ideas heavily influenced by John Rawls' A Theory of Justice, which was published in 1971. The concept of international distributive justice rests on the idea of the social contract, wherein human societies have implicit contracts, and in these there is an implied need for fairness in dealings and in allocations (Blake & Smith 2013). Fair trade is this idea applied to the real world, where the profits from enterprise are distributed relatively equally on the basis of contribution. Thinking of the coffee example, coffee farming is hard work in often grueling conditions, so there is genuine need for farmers to earn a reasonable living from this enterprise. The default system captures profits predominantly for the end retailer and a series of middlemen who perform relatively simple transportation and warehousing tasks. It is their markups that are responsible for the high price of coffee relative to what the producer is paid.

The producer's low pay reflects a lack of knowledge on the part of the market, however. Where the market understands the outcomes of the system, the market has today in keeping with the principle of distributive justice demanded changes to the system that will emphasize better distribution of the profits from enterprise. Thus, end sellers are forced to make changes in their supply chains in order to ensure that farmers are being paid a living wage for their efforts. Fair trade can also be applied, for example, to sweatshop workers -- it is not strictly an agricultural concept.

4. Conclusion

At its heart, the fair trade issue can be distilled down to the rightness of distributive justice. Consequentialism would most certainly support this -- as many people as possible should be able to earn a living from that proverbial cup of coffee, given a certain price that consumers are willing to pay, and that living should be roughly commensurate with the effort made in contribution to the production of that product. The moral goodness of fair trade, however, is not only supported by consequentialism, even if the principle of distributive justice makes the strongest case in its favor. Kantian ethics also support this ethic, because it is what the majority of society supports. There are a few, certainly, who for the sake of personal convenience support the Friedman view that they should not worry about other human beings, but their ethics are not supported by the majority of the people in our society. In general, our society values people being paid a living wage for their labors -- there might be less support for distributive justice among those who don't put in a hard day's work, but that cannot be said of, say, coffee… [read more]

Ethics a Number of Differences Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, chances are that with such a move, ISIS would be pacified - given our country's superior military capabilities. Given the atrocities the terror formation continues to visit on the people of Iraq, the loss of a few lives would be a small price to pay for the huge benefits that would accrue, i.e. with regard to the neutralization of the group's ability to continue its criminal activities.

Assignment Details: Health Care Finance

The most beneficial method a manager would make use of in seeking to evaluate the utilization of the Ocean View Diabetic Clinic's money is present value analysis. One of the key advantages of this particular method, in comparison to such methods as IRR, is that it takes into consideration the time value of money. However, in comparison to IRR and the payback period methods, this method happens to be much more complicated.

The four key financial statements an organization makes use of include: the balance sheet, statement of revenue and expense, statement of changes in fund balance/net worth, and statement of cash flows. All these statements come in handy in not only the determination of an entity's financial performance, but also in the evaluation of its financial health and stability. While the balance sheet gives us a fair picture of an entity's worth and what it owes, the income statement tells us what the business managed to rake in during a specified financial period. The cash flow statement, on the other hand, is critical in both the coordination and planning of an entity's financial operations; while the statement of changes in fund balance/net worth, as Baker and Baker (2013, p. 117) points out, is "the mechanism… [read more]

Group Should Have Intimate Knowledge Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (739 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Instead, feminists hold "traditional ethics overrates culturally masculine traits like "independence, autonomy, intellect, will, wariness, hierarchy, domination, culture, transcendence, product, asceticism, war, and death," while underrating feminine ideas like "interdependence, community, connection, sharing, emotion, body, trust, absence of hierarchy, nature, immanence, process, joy, peace, and life" (Tong & Williams (2014). Rather than objective moral "rightness" feminist ethics have tended to stress community, reinforcing harmony, and the relationship between the ethical actor and the exterior world, rather than establishing a singular principle of consequences vs. intentions which will last for all time.


Tong, R. & Williams, N. Feminist ethics. (2014) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/feminism-ethics

Discussion 3

A number of methods exist for an organization to raise capital. The first, most direct method is through contributions by individuals, either in the form of donations or in the form of "angel" investors, who may expect a return on their contribution if the venture is successful. The advantage of this is such donations or investments do not need to be paid back in the case of financial failure; the downside is that such contributors often want some say in how the funds are used. The other option is taking out a loan from a bank: this must be paid back regardless of success of failure ("How U.S. corporations raise capital," 2014). However, the bank has no "say so" over how the funds are to be used once the loan is extended.

Managers must be aware of the nature of the project, its budget, and the suitability of different financing options, including their downsides. Funding often affects how the project's trajectory is managed in a critical fashion. For-profit institutions can also issue shares but for most nonprofit healthcare entities, this is not an acceptable strategy ("How U.S. corporations raise capital," 2014). Managers in healthcare must be particularly sensitive to the needs of the organization to serve the public as well as the financial demands of investors.


How U.S. corporations raise capital. (2014). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from:

http://economics.about.com/od/smallbigbusiness/a/corp_capital.htm… [read more]

Ethics in Nursing Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,039 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This is the essence of Bishop's attempt to redefine ethics and ethical approaches in modern 21st century organizations. By using ethics as a tool and not a reward or thing itself, a new understanding of the ideals that lie behind ethics can be revealed to assist the organization in performing its duties in a professional and agreeable manner.

Ethical Nursing

The role of nursing is unique within the healthcare industry, and the pivotal role that this profession plays is largely underrated in the healing process. The core values of nursing need to be examined for ethical quality and to align them with the practices and clinical approaches that are being used by any given nurse. Vanlaere & Gastmans (2007) wrote "nursing is essentially concerned with the care of vulnerable fellow human beings. Patients view nurses as skilled companions who discern the care needs of patients, wanting to provide these needs in a professional fashion. The essence of nursing is the precise integration of expert activity and caring; nursing can therefore be considered to be a moral practice."

The idea of synthesizing caring and skill is the baseline premise for an ethical approach to nursing. The idea of caring is subjective. Care is attune to such emotions as love and happiness, suggesting that the ethical approach of any nurse must include a human and empathetic approach. Care must also be balanced with practical skill, or any loving person could be qualified as a nurse. The basic tenets of professionalism suggest that skill and practical knowledge must be balanced with the more artistic qualities of any person.

Applying ethical ideals in nursing requires both an inductive and deductive approach. Wisdom gained through experience can provide much ethical guidance when tough and difficult decisions must be made in short amounts of time. Wisdom requires failure and disharmony, which is often not accepted readily within the healthcare environment.


Auditing one's own ethical structure becomes the obvious first step for any nurse or professional that practices within the healthcare issue. The alignment of these ethical values must correspond to the larger organizational values if there is to be any professional harmony and resultant success. Keeping an open mind and understanding the larger goals in the organization are helpful at putting one's own ethical views in the correct perspective.

Healthcare is about healing. Patients expect to be healed in an ethical manner. The subjective ideas of caring, love, success and health all play into a very complex and sophisticated equation that causes real problems and allow for real solutions. Treating ethics as a fluid tool that can be used to practically manipulate an outcome becomes a useful approach to adopt for nurses within this complex environment.


Bishop, W.H. (2013). The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organizations. Journal of business ethics, 118(3), 635-637.

Ells, C., & MacDonald, C. (2002, November). Implications of organizational ethics to healthcare. In Healthcare Management Forum (Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 32-38). Elsevier.

Lutzen, K. (1997). Nursing ethics into the… [read more]

MLK Jr. On Morality, Utilitarianism, Socrates Martin Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


MLK Jr. On Morality, Utilitarianism, Socrates

Martin Luther King Jr.'s Morality, Utilitarianism, and Socrates

Martin Luther King, Jr. was perhaps the most prominent civil rights activist in U.S. history. His work spanned many issues of social justice and pushed him tirelessly to combat such varied problems as racial segregation, poverty, and worker's rights. He was a theologian and activist, not a moral theorist, but his work and speeches make clear his most important views on morality.

At the core of his moral beliefs was the idea that systemic social inequality of any kind must be eradicated. At the time in the U.S., racial segregation was a rule of law. Whites and blacks were forced to ride different buses, attend different schools, and use different facilities. King deplored segregation because it implied that African-Americans were lesser citizens, relegated to a lower sphere on the ladder of status. In addition, African-Americans were often mistreated violently, looked down upon, mired in poverty, and disabled in freedom due to oppressive social restraints. All of this was encompassed in his idea of moral injustice. He sought to raise consciousness, claiming that "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere."

Injustice he claimed was "any law that degrades human personality,"

which meant it was out of harmony with divine moral law.

King believed it was the government's moral duty to guarantee the liberty and equality of its citizens. If the government failed, he thought it was a person's moral duty to demand freedom and equality, and to disobey unjust laws. In a letter from jail, he wrote, "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed."

Yet he was profoundly convinced, because of the influence of Gandhi, that freedom and social equality must be demanded through peaceful means. King repudiated violent methods. He promoted the principle of non-violent civil disobedience, which meant such things as peaceful marches, passive resistance, boycotts, and protests against injustice. In his Nobel Award speech, he states that the award is "a profound recognition that nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral questions of our time --…… [read more]

Identification Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,981 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



You have been given a central ethical issue to use throughout the paper ?"What should General Barry Norman do about Afghanistan's poppy plants?

In this section you must identify (list) as many OTHER ethical issues, questions, or problems as you can find in the scenario. All issue should be in question form (Should….. Or Is it morally right to…… [read more]

Ethical Integrity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Ethics and Morality:

Ethics is basically about what we do and not about what we say or what we intend to do. Ethics is the core of integrity which is demonstrating steadiness between the ethical principles and ethical practices. On the other hand, integrity is the essential measure of character ("How do I Maintain," n.d.). It's important to note that… [read more]

Ethical Decision Making Media Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Ethical Decision Making

Media are faced with a number of ethical dilemmas in the course of their business. One of the many dilemmas that could potentially be faced is with respect to reporting on criminal activity. A member of the media may come into possession of information that is relevant to the story but, if published, could compromise the legal… [read more]

Business Code of Ethics Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Business Code of Ethics

Wells Fargo Ethical Statement

Ethical Violations

Culture Speculations

This paper discusses the ethical code and policy of Wells Fargo financial institution. Wells Fargo is a major player in the financial services industry and offers six thousand six hundred fifty retail branches; which are comprised of banking and mortgage establishments that service over forty eight million customers. Wells Fargo is also considered to be one of the big four banks in the United States; the other three are Bank of America, Citigroup, and JP Morgan Chase.

Wells Fargo foregoes the standard mission statement in the "about us" section of their website. Instead, they choose to focus on the vision statement and where they are going. Wells Fargo vision statement is fairly lengthy when compared to other organizations and reads like an article than the more conventional approaches. It seems however that Wells Fargo's vision can be condensed into this one basic statement; "We want to satisfy all our customers' financial needs and help them succeed financially." Furthermore, the organizations basic strategy seems to be position themselves in all of the market segments related to financial services and continue growing through both expansion and acquisition.

Wells Fargo Ethical Statement

Wells Fargo publishes several different versions of its ethical codes that are targeted for different roles within the organization. For example, there is one detailed ethical code provided for all Wells Fargo's employees and there is another for the company's directors. The most general statement about ethics that Wells Fargo publishes is this statement:

Wells Fargo expects its team members to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethics and business conduct with customers, team members, stockholders and the communities it serves, and to comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations that govern our businesses. The Code of Ethics and Business Conduct sets forth Wells Fargo's policy and standards concerning ethical conduct for all team members. Our aim is to promote an atmosphere in which ethical behavior is well recognized as a priority and practiced.

This statement has several interesting items contained in it. Since Wells Fargo operates in the financial services industry, the statement clearly references laws, rules, and regulations. This represents a reactive approach to an ethical system. Although it is important to comply with all laws, rules, and regulations, this represents the minimal level of an ethical system; compliance. Much of the focus is upon not getting in trouble as opposed to upholding a higher ethical code.

Another item that a careful observer might catch is the use of the word aim. This verbiage is incredibly weak. It is reasonable to believe that Wells Fargo's employees put much time and effort into selecting the words for the ethical code. The fact that they chose that particular word could possibly represent an insight into Wells Fargo's level of dedication to the statement. For example, if the statement would have read something like, "we are determined to create and uphold" as opposed to "our aim… [read more]

Deidre Mccloskey, the Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,062 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Deidre McCloskey, the Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006). [HB501 M55341 2006 -- Grad]

Elizabeth Anscombe, "Modern Moral Philosophy," Philosophy, vol. 33 (1958) [B1 p63 grad & ugli]

Rosalind Hursthouse, on Virtue Ethics [BJ 1521 H881 1999 Grad & Ugli]

MW Baron, Kantian Ethics Almost without Apology,

Roger Crisp (ed), How Should One Live [BJ1521 H831 1996) grad & ugli]

Thomas M. Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other [BJ1411 S. 361-1998 ugli]

Scanlon, "Contractualism & Utilitarianism" in Utilitarianism and Beyond, Amartya Sen & Bernard Williams, ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 103-28)

Paul J. Borowski, "Manager-Employee Relationships: Guided by Kant's Categorical Imperative or Dilbert's Business Principle," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 17 no. 15, pp. 1623-32 [HF 5387 J67 grad]

Wallace, R. Jay. 2002. 'Scanlon's Contractualism'. Ethics, 112 (3): 429-470. [BJ1 E87]

Onora O'Neill, "Kant's Virtues" in How Should One Live: Essays on Virtues, Roger Crisp, ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), pp. 77-98.

Michael Slote, "Virtue Ethics, Utiliarianism, and Symmetry in How Should One Live, pp. 99-110

Kantian Ethics and Business Management

The managers of business enterprises could benefit greatly by applying the ethical ideas of Immanuel Kant because following those ideas can promote consistent managerial principles. By the same token, however, those ideas involve some risks for managers because they can lead to overly rigid and inflexible decision-making. Kant's ideas are relevant to business management but they have to be used carefully.

Kant's idea of inner and outer legislation. Inner legislation involves rules that cannot be enforced from outside, often because they involve principles that are unique to oneself or purely personal concerns. Outer legislation is socially imposed. (O'Neill 86-87)

Kant's fundamental principle of ethics was that each person should base his decisions about right and wrong on the answer to the question "would this be right if it were elevated to a general rule that all of humanity would follow" (McCloskey, 263). This principle is known as the "Categorical Imperative." Thus, he believed that duties must be derived from unchanging general principles, through a deductive process of pure reason. (McCloskey 264). Kant thought that the peculiar circumstances of human situations should not determine the right and wrong of moral judgments (McCloskey, 266).

If a manager followed Kant's ideas about how to distinguish right from wrong in the context of the workplace, his decisions would be consistent. Such a manager would formulate uniform policies for making decisions about how to operate the business or manage employees

The prevailing fault of Kantian ethics is to "impose on ethical life some immensely simple model,' such as contract, behind a veil of ignorance, rationality as European bourgeois men might define it, or utility, which seems so measurable." (McCloskey 269) (quoting Williams, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (1985))

Aaron Feuerstien of Malden Mills kept workers on the payroll for months after a fire that destroyed the plant. He seems the opposite of the adversarial boss that so many employees have come to… [read more]

Occupational Therapy Literature Review Ot Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Occupational Therapy Literature Review

OT Therapy Review

The two articles reviewed for the purpose of this paper are Occupational Therapy, Professional Development and Ethics by Morten Dige and Does Moral Judgement Improve in Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy Students Over the Course of Their Pre-Licensure Training? By E. Lynn Geddes, Penny Salvatori and Kevin W. Eva. Both articles discuss the professional of occupational therapy as it relates to morals and ethics. Although each article takes a different view of the topic, there are slight similarities which will be discussed. The authors give us their point-of-view on the role of ethics in occupational therapy, but have varying views on how a person's ethics are developed.

The main theme that both articles have in common is the notion of ethics and its importance in the field of occupational therapy. Both articles let the reader know their stance on the topic and that it is extremely important because the medical field is constantly growing and as such, those who have chosen to work in this field are expected to behave in a manner that is considered ethical. The way in which ethics is defined is where the authors differ. Dige places the burden of ethical training on the professional organizations related to occupational therapy and Geddes et al. place the burden of ethical teaching on the college and universities that have occupational therapy programs.

In his article, Dige infers that the defining of ethics is the responsibility of professional occupational therapy associations. He states that in the past these associations have failed at this task because the concept of ethics has been too vague because those in this profession have not looked closely at what defines the profession in itself. In order to develop ethics, Dige says that the job that occupational therapists actually and what their duties are comprise of is what defines how ethics in this profession should be determined (2008).

Geddes et al. state that the issue of ethics is something that should be learning…… [read more]

Integral Approach for Counseling Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (796 words)
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¶ … applying the counselors' code of ethics to real-life dilemmas. The author is concerned that traditional codes of ethics do not address the full complexity of the issues at hand, nor do they acknowledge the different developmental levels of counselors themselves. The key question the author is addressing is: How can we use Wilber's AQAL integral model of the four quadrants in practice to more effectively approach and tackle ethical issues in the counseling profession?

The most important information in this article is the step-by-step guidance provided on how to follow the integral approach. This involves the four viewpoints to address in the order given: the video camera view for objective information gathering; the systems-regulatory view to consider laws, policies, and formal ethical codes; the relational-contextual, cultural view for considering the effects for all parties involved based on race, gender, sexuality, etc., as well as developmental level and issues of self-identity and the "shadow"; and the moral virtues view to "take full responsibility for oneself as the primary moral agent, and to be fully integrated within oneself in order to serve as a stable moral compass for others. This involves addressing any disowned thoughts or feelings that may be affecting the counselor's "unconscious agency" and affecting his or her ability to effectively treat clients and tackle ethical issues. The "fragmented self" can be addressed through Morelli et al.'s structured journaling process, or through consultation with a supervisory therapist.

The main inferences drawn in this article are that Wilber's model for integration will provide a more effective approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas and concerns in the counseling profession, and dissecting ethical issues by the four quadrants will provide an "important reflective tool" for counselors. The key concepts readers need to understand are the four quadrants: the UL for morals; LL for ethics; LR for legal concerns and functional fit; and the UR for the subjective self, body, individual behavior of the counselor, and inner truth. The author states that too much attention is given to the lower quadrants; more needs to be paid to the upper quadrants for inclusion of moral concerns and the overall health and well-being of the counselor. By these concepts, the author means that when tackling ethical dilemmas, counselors must consider the issue from multiple and integrated perspectives, including the law, what is right, what is good, and what his or her own…… [read more]

Learning From a Class Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (827 words)
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Ethics Learning

Changmai Corporation

The in-class discussion regarding the corruption in the Chagmai Corportion case was very revealing regarding the ways in which different people from different backgrounds view not only the issues of corruption at the heart of the case, but also how they perceive other individual's perceptions on these issues. It was somewhat startling to here from some members of the class that this behavior was considered standard or normative where they were from, and the degree o personal resistance but general acceptance that they seemed to have towards this corruption. Branka's belief that opening a country to trade would automatically lead to an adjustment of values that would then limit the corrupt practices that have become so entrenched in certain developing nations struck me as especially naive, but at the same time it had major implications for individuals such as myself that come from more "developed" countries with longer histories of codified rules and practices.

Essentially, the misunderstandings that occur in the developing world regarding the supposed lack of corruption in the developed world is the fault of the media produced by developed countries; we attempt to whitewash the goings-on in our businesses and politics to the point that many in class seemed to believe that this type of corruption simply couldn't take place in their own countries. In my own native France, I am well aware that there are large amounts of corruption likely taking place behind closed doors, and am not naive enough to think that money has no effect in politics or that all business practices are entirely above-board. I find it hard to believe that other individuals truly feel that their own countries are free from the dangers of such corruption, but from the class discussions this actually seems likely.

In order to truly put an end to corruption -- or rather, to put truly strict limits on corruption, though it will almost certainly never be fully eradicated -- people need to be honest with themselves regarding the corruption and potential corruption they perceive. It is through secrecy and the aura of disbelief that corrupt practices are able to continue, and neither the simple acceptance nor the nonchalant denials of corruption that were exhibited as the primary strains of thought during the discussion promise to truly bring issues of corruption to light. There must be a full honesty and openness regarding corruption if it is actually to be ended, and this is something that cannot happen…… [read more]

Business Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,073 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … business ethics has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this is because of the large scandals that have been occurring, which are highlighting the lack of ethics in the business world. A good example of this can be seen with Enron and the Dabhol Power Plant in India. What happened was India began… [read more]

Business Dining Mechanics of Table Manners and Restaurant Etiquette Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ethics and Morality

The Art and Etiquette of Business Dining

Dining etiquette and table manners are thought to be more significant to a person's career triumph then one thinks. Proper table manners are connected with professionalism. Bad table manners are related to a lack of professionalism. On any given day, a business professional might have to know how to seat… [read more]

Aristotle States That There Is a Difference Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Aristotle states that there is a difference between intellectual and moral virtues. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss his view regarding moral virtue and moderation, insisting upon issues such as the reasons which could prevent people from respecting their own behavior standards, or why both those who practice and who do not practice virtue are… [read more]

Accounting Ethics (or Dr. Smith Goes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Accounting Ethics (or Dr. Smith Goes to Washington) by L. Murphy Smith. Specifically, it will contain a summary of the journal article. This article discusses the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act and what the Act means to the accounting world.

After the Enron/Arthur Anderson accounting scandal, there were many worries about the ethics and accountability of accounting firms all around the world. This article discusses the 2002 Act Congress passed in an attempt to control accounting and stock brokerage transactions, and how these companies could gain the confidence of the public. The author notes, "Confidence will be restored only by ethical leadership from the accounting profession, business community, and government" (Smith, 2003). The author testified before Congress during hearings about the Act, and he discusses his experiences and theories about regaining the public trust in the article.

He notes the industry has to act with the utmost integrity to preserve their reputations, and they must consider who could be affected by their actions (besides themselves, they have their clients to consider). He discusses whether ethics can be taught in higher education (he maintains they should be taught, and he talks about the importance of ethics in society. He writes, "Ethical values provide the foundation on which a civilized society exists. Without that foundation, civilization would collapse" (Smith, 2003). Thus, ethics are one of the foundations of society, and they should be the foundation of any accounting practice, large or small. He also believes it is the duty of businesspeople to create ethical operations that help support an ethical society. He continues, "The purpose of ethics in accounting and business is to direct business men and women to abide by a code of conduct that facilitates, indeed encourages, public confidence in their products and services" (Smith, 2003). He talks about what responsibility the government has in ensuring accounting firms act ethically, and the role integrity plays in making the right ethical choices.…… [read more]

Care Ethics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Care Ethic and the Invisible Children

The plight of the Ugandan children forced to hide or risk abduction by the rebel army for conscription as young soldiers is almost unimaginable in a country like the United States. Not only the fear and brutality with which these children and their families must contend, but also the absolute lack of a rule of law or any effective means of stopping these child abductions -- or the training and brainwashing of children into merciless and brutal killers themselves -- seem too extreme to really exist anywhere when one is insulated by the security and safety of a more solid government. Yet this places the problem in the context of an ethics of justice, which has been the prevailing ethical view for millennia but is not, according to many contemporary philosophers and theorists, the only means by which to judge the goings-on in the world. Though the abduction of children for the purposes of turning them into soldiers is an abhorrent act no matter what ethical perspective it is viewed from, using a different ethical approach entirely leads to an understanding of the central problems that is entirely new and possibly more practical in some regards.

The ethics of care refers to a broad range of ethical theories emphasizing human relationships and emotions as both measures of and means to ethicality, much as the ethics of judgment refers to a broad range of ethics that have right/wrong determinations based on logic and intellectual calculations. Largely associated with feminist schools of thought (while resoundingly rejected by other feminists), the ethics of care understands the world as a network of individuals that are…… [read more]

Gallipoli the Ethics of Gallipoli the Campaign Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The Ethics of Gallipoli

The campaign at Gallipoli is not one of the better-known features of the First World War, especially outside Australia and Turkey. Historians and scholars have different opinions regarding the purpose, chances for success, and reasons for ultimate failure in this campaign, some of which are tangentially touched on in the Per Weir film, Gallipoli. Several of the battles as depicted in this film and according to many accounts of the true history of World War One were engaged in by battalions of Australian soldiers not because they were especially important in and of themselves, or because a high degree of success was perceived, but rather because a diversion was needed for more important maneuvers by British troops elsewhere in the region. The exact nature of these battles and the campaign as a whole has profound effects on the way this campaign is perceived in various ethical frameworks.

As John Stuart Mill eloquently and succinctly explains in, "What Utilitarianism Is," utilitarian ethics are derived form the principle that the greatest good to the greatest number of individuals is the hallmark of an ethical act or decision. As such, the diversionary tactics and sacrifices of the Australians at Gallipoli might be said to have been ethical, if it contributed to the saving of lives elsewhere and the overall success of the war effort (assuming that the Allies are fighting an ethically just war in the first place, of course). The film depicts the battles as largely senseless and the sacrifices as useless, however, meaning that the only people really affected by these battles were those that died and the ones they loved and were loved by, meaning that the…… [read more]

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