"Ethics / Morality" Essays

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Ethics as With Darwin's Theory of Evolution Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



As with Darwin's theory of evolution, gene testing has opened new frontiers in understanding medicine, as it allows us among other things to understand the degree to which we are predisposed to specific diseases and conditions (Miller, 2007). The case of Burlington Northern Railway v. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) marked the first time the law had addressed this issue. The railway had been conducting gene testing on employee for the identification of a specific disorder that in theory predisposed workers to carpal tunnel syndrome (Schafer, 2001). This example illustrates one of the ways in which companies can use genetic information -- in this instance to find ways to opt out of insurance and disability payments. Miller (2007) argues that such abuses of knowledge on the basis of bias have been common since the theory of evolution was put forth. This paper will examine the issue of genetic testing from both a deontological perspective and a utilitarian perspective in order to determine the risks posed by such testing. That genetic testing could be used to deny basic health care or employment opportunities on the basis of their genetic makeup is a frightening thought, but one that could occur.

Deontological Perspective

The deontological perspective holds that the ethics of a situation can be determined by weighing the inputs of the decision against a categorical imperative. This provides the situation with an absolute judgment of right and wrong, regardless of outcome, but deontological ethics only functions if there is a specific categorical imperative. Under normal circumstances in the United States or any other secular democracy is that the laws of the land reflect the prevailing ethical standards of the society. Thus, they are a good guidepost for the categorical imperative. Prior to the Burlington Northern case, the issue of genetic testing and the use of genetic testing in workplace situations had not been addressed in U.S. law. As the case was settled out of court, there remains no clear precedent in the U.S. legal system. Therefore, the deontological perspective lacks a categorical imperative in the form of legal guidance on which to draw.

American society as a whole does have some other potential sources of categorical imperative. It is not as though society is rudderless in the absence of clear laws governing an issue. The sense of right and wrong is vaguer, but there are guidelines in both the secular and religious spheres. At its core, deontological ethics is focused on the motivations behind the actions, rather than the actions themselves (Cline, 2011). In the case of genetic testing, this creates a conflict. There conflict arises because firms offer insurance and related protections are in business to earn profit, which means that they are focused on minimizing risk. A company may choose not to hire somebody if that person is likely to have an increased risk of a condition that will ultimately prove expensive to the company's health care plan. Likewise, insurance companies may deny coverage based on risks… [read more]

Utilitarianism Utilitarian Ethics Was First Invented Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Utilitarian ethics was first invented by David Hume and later expanded by Jeremy Bentham (Rosenstand, 230). What this involves is that, when measured, the consequences of a certain action must follow the principle of the greatest possible good for all involved. When either choice has undesirable consequences, this principle dictates that whichever sacrifice is smaller should be made. This… [read more]

Draft to Be Improved on Corporate Ethics and Responsibility Article

Article  |  10 pages (3,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Corporate Ethics / Responsibility

Over the last several years, the issue of corporate ethics and responsibility has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this is from: a host of different disasters and events that would have a major impact upon public policy. At which point, a backlash occurred against the corporation in question and their… [read more]

Euthanasia Moral Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,027 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Utilitarian thought follows the pleasure vs. pain principle, but there is not a simple answer to the question even where they are concerned. A possible argument for euthanasia could be that the person in question has no quality of life (a big consideration to make with regard to the utilitarian line of thought). Since they are enduring the pain of existence in whatever form that has taken, then they should be allowed the merciful option of euthanasia. This will release them from the pain that they feel, and deliver them to oblivion or whatever else awaits people after death. It is a very humanistic point-of-view, and seemingly a merciful one. The decision would have to be the person's who is most affected by it. They would have to decide whether they were going to die because of their pain or remain in that state for some other reason.

Of course, lately, the advent of drugs which can reduce the suffering of individuals obfuscates the question even more. It may seem that if people are able to live without pain then they would want to live instead of die. But this is not always the case. There are several problems here. The pain medications are expensive, they do not take away the problem (they only mask it), and they can have deadly side effects. So, it would seem that modern science cannot take away the importance of the personal decision.

It seems that Kant's arguments are the sounder of the two. It is understandable that a caring society would always want to relieve the suffering of individuals, but who is going to make that ultimate choice? If a person decides to do something just because they feel that their life is useless, they could be missing a seminal experience in which they are meant to help someone. Taking Kant's view, since suicide and homicide are morally wrong, there is no question as to the right action.

It is often the case that the person embroiled in a fight for life is the worst person to make the decision. And, if not the afflicted person, then who? No one, least of all elected officials, wants the government to be making these decisions. The family of the person may just want their money, and do not want the burden of having to go see them every Sunday afternoon. The person themselves has clouded judgment because all they see is their present suffering. Kant would say that since decisions are either moral or not, a person should always follow the moral imperative. Euthanasia would seem correct in some instances, but every case is different. Given that people have no idea what awaits them after death, there is no possible way to make the correct decision. So, it should be left to moral law. Meaning, if they are meant to die, they will.


Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2006). The Right Thing to do: Basic Readings in Moral Philosophy, (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill,…… [read more]

Ethics Has Always Been a Rather Complex Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethics has always been a rather complex word -- or concept, rather -- to understand as, in the past, I have thought that ethics were different depending on the individual; that is, if a person thought that ethics had to do with their feeling of right and wrong or whatever, then that was their ethical code; if another person thought that ethics had to do with their religion, then that was their personal ethical code, and so on… However, after the first lecture, I understand that ethics is not either of those things (or other), and it does not change depending on the individual. The lecture stated that ethics is two things: "well-based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do…" and, secondly, ethics is about "the study and development of one's ethical standards."

While ethics do not change depending on the individual, it is interesting to note from chapter one that there is no "analytical method" sufficient for any ethical choice if a person (policymaker in the example) is not a sensible person (Bluhm & Heineman 2007, p. 4). Today, we have an abundance of new issues that need to be dealt with from an ethical perspective that have never needed to be dealt with before. There has been a lot of research and studies done on the typical whistle-blowing and lying, as noted in chapter one, but there are so many new issues like cloning and stem-cell research and the manipulation of genes (2007, p. 4) that are becoming more and more pressing because the possibility of all those things is very real in this day and age, while in the past they may have been only a figment of the scientific imagination. The main point here is that public policy is social and political (Bardach 2008, xv).

Chapter one notes the typical methods of ethical analysis: Kantianism (deontology), utilitarianism (consequentialism), and prudent pragmatism (Bluhm & Heineman 2007, p. 4). The book states that prudent pragmatism is by far the best ethical formulation of public policy as it "reflects both the American disdain for disembodied abstractions and our recognition that the world of values is multifaceted and untidy 2007, (p. 22).

Today it seems like the most popular method of ethical analysis is utilitarianism. The fundamental ideal of utilitarianism is that the greatest good is the greatest amount. This is one of the fundamental aspects of democracy. Utilitarianism seems all about trying to detach the individual from the action. Kantianism would argue against this, saying that an action can't be a moral action unless the motives themselves are moral (Fischer & Miller 2006, p. 36).

To act in an utilitarian way means that we act so as to always consider the social benefit of the act. This is to say that to live life in a way that always benefited others it to live a very ethical life. So, to be ethical in a utilitarian manner means that we must also act so that… [read more]

Sociology 120 Ethics and Social Responsibility Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Ethics & Social Responsibility

People begin to develop their internal beliefs from the time they are small children. Factors such as the conditions that a person grows up in affect the way that they see the world. If a child was raised in a household with a lot of violence, they might feel that fighting is acceptable. The beliefs… [read more]

Ethics in Mechanical Engineering Ethical Conflicts Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethics in Mechanical Engineering

Ethical conflicts for mechanical engineers usually rest in a discrepancy between the personal ethical values of the individual, and the values their profession represents. The field of mechanical engineering in general is based on the design and development of machines or machinery operated production equipment. However, according to StateUniversity.com (2010, p. 1), "Within each branch of mechanical engineering there are specific jobs. Some engineers design products. They must determine the needs of the user, the physical problems of building the equipment, the cost of the equipment, and its effect on the environment. Other mechanical engineers supervise the production and installation"

Just as the field of mechanical engineering can entail a variety of functions, it can also produce many different types of ethical dilemmas. For example, in Mike W. Martin & Roland Schinzinger's 2004 book Ethics in Engineering, a case study is presented in which an engineer, Bob, is struggling with his function in working for a company that manufactures bombs. Bob is faced with an ethical dilemma that pits his values of being committed to his employer and financially supporting his family against his value of human life and the avoidance of contribution to human suffering. Although Bob does not directly handle the bombs that his company produces, "he enables the factory to run efficiently" (p. 267).

Bob is able to rationalize his conflict of values by telling himself that basically, someone has to produce the bombs, and if he did not do his job, then someone else would. In other words, no matter what decisions he makes, the bombs will still be produced, so he might as well just do his job to the best of his ability and reap the rewards. This is a common and rather effective rationale for people facing ethical dilemmas, in that it not only helps to ease some of the guilt associated with doing something that someone like Bob feels in his gut to be unethical, but it also provides a rational motivation to continue the behavior in question.

Also allowing Bob to continue in his position without unbearable guilt is the fact that his commitments to his family and to his employer are indeed legitimate ethical values. Therefore, Bob is essentially trading one ethical value for another, which in his mind, serves to 'even out' the imbalance and eliminate any feelings of wrongdoing. Then again, the first tenet of the 2000 Australian Code of Ethics for Engineers states that "Members shall at all times place their responsibility for the welfare, health and safety of the community before their responsibility to sectional or private interests, or to other members." Taking that into consideration, Bob must then decide if weapons production is good for the community in terms of protection and income, or harmful to the community because weapons have the single purpose of violence.

The fifth tenet of the 2000 Australian Code of Ethics for Engineers states that "Members shall apply their skill and knowledge in the interest of… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Personal differences and preferences can impact organizational ethics because often the leadership of the firm dictates ethics for the remaining employees. For example, the ethical culture at Wisson is in part dictated by the actions of Waters. The preferences of different managers with respect to ethical standards impact both the organization's written ethical code and its ethical norms. Within… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Get Book Hellriegel Slocum Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (1,920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Personal Can Ethics Get?

Discuss fully how personal differences and preferences can impact organizational ethics. The scholarly journal Organizational Dynamics (Schminke, et al., 2007, p. 173) published a research piece called "The Power of Ethical Work Climates" that delves into the post-Enron corporate accountability legislation called the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX). In referencing SOX Schminke explains that while external… [read more]

Ethics in Administration Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethics in Administration

Terry L. Cooper's book the Responsible Administrator: An Approach to Ethics for the Administrative Role examines the problem of maintaining responsible conduct from the manager's viewpoint. Managers oftentimes are left feeling confused when it comes to their inability to achieve the results that they want when changes in rules occurs -- as well as policies, training, laws… [read more]

Search for Universal Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (826 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Natural Law and Morality

"The Search for Universal Ethics" recommends a reconsideration of natural law as a path toward a universal ethics. The key features of natural laws theories unify divine providence, human rationality, and morality. In brief, the view is that God has endowed us with the ability to recognize the moral truth, and this truth affords a place for all of nature and a cherished place for human rationality. As "The Search for Universal Ethics" says:

The vision of the world within which the doctrine of natural law developed and still finds its meaning today, involves therefore the reasoned conviction that there exists a harmony between the three substances which are God, man, and nature. (3.3)

This paper is dedicated to understanding this harmony in its broadest outline; I shall dwell on each of the three central features of the harmony -- God, persons, and nature. We shall see that the harmony is also a mutual reinforcing: for each, the better we understand it, the more we see the others in it.

In the contemporary zeitgeist, the natural order is characterized as impersonal and perhaps even hostile to human ambitions and morality. The cosmos care nothing about us, and we tend to think of ethics as a concern localized to human interests. "Christianity," by contrast, "affirms that the Logos [the "divine founding principle"] is personal, transcendent and creator." (3.3) This is an immediately striking and inspiring feature of "The Search for Universal Ethics." It envisages a universe that has not only been imbued with an "ethical message," but which is itself benevolent, rational, and loving. (3.3) Moreover, we have been provided with free will that transcends this natural order, but also with the rationality to act in accordance with its ethical message. God has done all of this out of love and so that we may live ethical lives. According to Aquinas:

...as God has care of the entire universe, God's choosing to bring into existence beings who can act freely and in accordance with principles of reason is enough to justify our thinking of those principles of reason as law.

As nearly all philosophies of the world recognize, we humans are both embedded in the natural order and in some sense distinct from it or "outside" of it; as Aristotle had it, we are both rational and animal. "The Search for Universal Ethics" is no exception, but it accounts more completely than most other such theories for the unity in…… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (925 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Personal can Ethics get

Valerie is facing an ethical dilemma because she is forced to consider her personal well-being vs. that of the company and other major stakeholders. The performance of the company is struggling as a result of Waters' inept management, so she has an obligation to the shareholders and the other employees to address the situation immediately. Valerie is in a vulnerable position herself, though, if she chooses to become a whistle-blower. She may receive a visa to stay as a student, but only if she can find a way to pay her tuition fees. Valerie has no ethical obligation to Waters at this point.

If I was Valerie, I would take the information to the CEO. The company is suffering as the result of Waters' performance. Moreover, he is breaching the company's code of ethics to suit his own needs. The CEO has a duty to the shareholders as agent to maximize their wealth, and Waters is standing in the way of that happening. The CEO also does not have a specific duty to Waters, who was hired under an old regime.

From a consequentialist perspective, if Valerie withholds this information in order to protect her visa status or to ensure that her education is paid, then she is not behaving any better than Waters -- she is receiving a benefit for her role in this bribery. From a utilitarian perspective, Valerie will benefit the employees, the shareholders and the other perfume companies from blowing the whistle -- thus meeting the principle of providing the greatest good for the greatest number. Taking a deontological stance, the moral imperative is defined by the company's code of ethics and by the laws of the United States, which stand against bribery. Thus by any ethical perspective, Valerie is obligated to report the fraud.

Valerie is facing both personal and professional stressors. She faces personal stressors in the possibility of losing her status in the United States, which would cause her to move. This would create significant upheaval in her personal life, including possibly compromising her relationship. In addition, she risks losing access to her higher education as the result of dismissal should the issue with Waters result in that. Despite some enhancement of whistleblower protections in recent years, there is still the risk of dismissal.

Valerie is also facing a number of professional stressors. She does not know if Waters' acceptance of bribes is standard industry practice or not. Wisson has a code of ethics, but this may be for show rather than something that upper management takes seriously. If that is the case, then Waters may not be dismissed. In such a situation, Valerie would have an unworkable situation. Moreover, she feels some responsibility for the team. She does…… [read more]

Deontological Ethics in Vocational Dilemmas Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Deontological Ethics in Vocational Dilemmas

The Deontological Ethical Approach

In principle, the deontological ethical approach requires that our actions be dictated by objective reference to formal rules instead of by reference to the motivation of our choices as in virtue ethics or the specific consequences of those choices as in consequentialism or utilitarianism (Rosenstand, 2008). In many respects, the deontological approach often produces undesirable results because it is not flexible enough to adjust to situations where formal rules that may be generally valid and beneficial produce result that are distinctly immoral.

For example, during the Nazi era in Germany or the Slavery era in the southern American states, the formal laws established by the respective governments prohibited assisting or harboring Jews or escaped slaves, even if complying with the law resulted in the unjustified killing or inhumane torture of morally innocent individuals. Other moral systems recognize the value and importance of adhering to formal laws and rules in general, while allowing for exceptions where compliance produces an immoral result (Rosenstand, 2008).

Therefore, deontological ethical systems produce moral results only in so far as the rules to which they require adherence are themselves inherently moral, or inherently capable of adjusting to situations in a flexible manner. Unfortunately, formal rules are tremendously susceptible to being unjustifiable depending on their source and the circumstances in which they are established. Since most rules and laws are necessarily formulated in absolute terms rather than in terms that are adjustable, deontological ethical systems frequently produce poor outcomes (Rosenstand, 2008).

Applying the Deontological Approach to the Vocational Case Study

The case study presumably presents two specific ordinary rules of conduct: (1) that it is morally wrong…… [read more]

Peter Singer Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Poverty Duty

The Ethic of Hunger

The question of a moral or ethical responsibility towards those who are impoverished has been one of the most long standing debates in human society. Every major religion has some doctrine of caring for the poor, though these of course are subject to myriad interpretations depending on the time and culture. From this fact, however, it might be deduced that there is some innate imperative to help others; that it is a fundamental and universal moral principle to assist those on the brink of starvation with the means -- either in the form of direct sustenance or through monetary gifts that allow the individuals to procure their own food -- of survival. Yet this extrapolation is built only on limited observation, and does not necessarily hold up to a rigorous logical examination. It is possible to see an incumbent ethical and moral duty to alleviate hunger, however, using a fairly standard ethical theory.

The basic precept of the Utilitarian ethic is "the greatest good for the greatest number." It should be immediately apparent that this creates an ethical imperative for one who has surplus food -- or means of procuring food -- to give some of that food (or some of the means of procuring food) to an individual that does not have a sufficient amount to eat. If this is not immediately apparent, it can be made so by a brief examination of the utility of various acts. For instance, I will certainly get a great deal of utility from my morning latte, which (with tip included, of course) costs me five dollars. Not only is there caloric value (i.e. It staves off hunger), but I also enjoy it immensely. That same five dollars, however, could be used to buy a fully-cooked roast chicken at the grocery store, which if given to a hungry family of four will provide them with…… [read more]

Ethics Issues Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (535 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Business Ethics

The foundation of business ethics is the definition of morality and the development of a series of cognitive frameworks which can be used in the navigating of business decisions over time. Of the many aspects and theories of ethics, the normative ethics of business are most often relied on for defining shared moral values, often formalized into common law. Ethics also are defined from their application as well, specifically to situations and to judgments people make regarding the direction of their lives and the decisions they make. Finally ethics are often used to define the philosophy of societies, often serving as the basis of their laws and regulations for how business is transacted and rights protected. Ethics then can be tactical in scope, defining how people work with and treat one another, and also strategic to the point of being philosophical as well.

Ethical Issues that Impact the Community in the Pharmaceutical Industry

There are many issues that are influencing the community and pharmaceutical industry. The first and most pervasive is the lack of ethics in the area of financial reporting, specifically where transactions involving government funds are concerned (Verschoor, 2006). The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 did little to alleviate the widespread corruption in the area of pharmaceutical drug company's reporting of revenues so that investors could not readily understand their claims of capturing greater numbers of customers than they actually did (Verschoor, 2006). This lack of financial reporting also has created a lack of visibility into just how the costs of new drugs, often put at $800M to produce, is accurately being reported…… [read more]

International Management Ethics and Values Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (727 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


International Management Ethics & Values

Last month, a Brooklyn man was arrested for his role in brokering the sale of a kidney from an Israeli man to an American recipient, in direct violation of the National Organ Transplant Act (Mullen, 2009). The case has cast a spotlight on the laws prohibiting the sale of donor organs in the United States. Despite these worries in the U.S., the sale of organs is thriving around the world. According to the Organ Watch program at the University of California, Berkeley, some 5-10% of kidneys transplanted worldwide last year involved purchased organs (Ibid). In some societies, there is a high degree of moral outrage against organ sales, but when the issue is viewed objectively, it is clear that the sale of organs should be allowed.

In the United States today, there is a chronic shortage of donor organs. Part of the problem is the opt-in organ donation system, but evidence from New Zealand shows that a more significant contributor to the problem is that death needs to occur from catastrophic consequences, and incidents of such are too low to meet the demand for organ donation (MacDonald, 2005). Given this, the pendulum of the moral argument against live donation swings the other way. By prohibiting live donation, we are in essence condemning to death thousands of Americans every year. We as a people are aware of the organ shortage and we are aware of its consequences and yet, because of moral outrage, we willing choose to allow our friends and neighbors to die. The moralists among us are more outraged about the donation of a kidney than they are about the death of the potential recipient. By the standards of result-based consequentialist ethics, this is a moral fallacy.

There is also the question of the individual rights. Kant would view this issue in terms of the categorical imperative, which is the standard of rationality based on the law of autonomous will (Johnson, 2008). This has direct implications for live organ donation. We as Americans have built our nation on the notion that the government should be as little involved as possible in our lives and affairs, to the…… [read more]

Business Ethics Everybody Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,130 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Business Ethics

Everybody can agree that business needs to be conducted ethically. The problem with business ethics, however, is that there is no clear concept of what precisely is meant by the phrase 'ethical'. Managers have different stakeholders to concern themselves with. They operate businesses that are subject to multiple sets of laws simultaneously. They are subjected to the ethical… [read more]

Ethics According to the Principles of Ethical Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,642 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



According to the principles of ethical relativism, moral decisions are made on the basis of what an individual believes, or what the culture from which the individual comes stands for. There is no general set of principles or morals that applies to all individuals or all cultures.

Martin Luther King operated from the principle of cultural realization and individual… [read more]

Ethics Values and Morals Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,588 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Corporate Ethics and the Age of Scandal: Stewart, Fuld and Madoff

The early millennium was an exceptionally tumultuous time for corporate America. Revelations of major accounting, securities and trading scandals were a regularity during this time, as individuals and organizations of note became embroiled in allegations and indictments. Many such defendants were either accused of or sentenced for concealing or… [read more]

Ethics the Best Practices for Improving Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The best practices for improving an organization's ethical climate are having ethics programs and officers; having realistic objectives; having ethical decision making processes; having codes of conduct; disciplining violators; having oversight from board of directors; conducting ethics audits and risk assessments; communicating effectively; engaging in ethics training; having corporate transparency; and installing whistle-blowing mechanisms. Of these, the most important is oversight from the Board of Directors. Ethical management begins with commitment from the top, and the Board will ensure that the CEO is fully committed. From there, having ethics programs and officers is important, both for its symbolism and for the practical work they will do with respect to many of these other best practices. The next few are all around the same with respect to level of priority - training, communication, audits and codes of conduct. These four all contribute at different stages of the ethical decision making process. Lastly, the reinforcement systems must be in place. They are not as important as doing it right the first time, but they are necessary nonetheless. This refers to whistle-blowing mechanisms and discipline of violators.

3) the two main ethical principles are consequences/results and duty. The…… [read more]

Republican Ethics the Republican Party Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,378 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Republican Ethics

The Republican Party of the United States of America is a very interesting entity. On the one hand, it ostensibly stands for small government and reduced intervention into people's lives, yet at the same time it intervenes quite heavily in such issues as abortion and religion (RNC.org). Initially, this seems like a paradox -- a party that speaks of less government and greater individual freedom appears to be limiting freedom, which would be a violation of its own ethics. Yet Republicans have persisted in much the same way, at least in regards to these matters, for several decades, and arguably much further back in the history of this nation. How is it that the Republican Party can maintain any sense of ethical rectitude when manages to spend so much time expounding the virtues of individual liberty while at the same time appearing to limit those liberties? Is this truly unethical, or is the situation more complex than it appears?

First, it is essential to get the facts straight. The Republican Party truly has been the party of freedom and equality for much of its history, during far different and more controversial times than the present era. Not only is it the party of Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery, but such sentiments extend even farther back in American history. Frank Abial Flower, a Republican historian of the nineteenth century, recalled the Republican reaction to the Dred Scott decision as an abhorrence at the "barbarism of the majority of the court" for upholding principles of "slavocracy" as a "divine institution" (Flower, 110). Such rhetoric makes it clear what the Republican attitude towards slavery was; this party's identity since its early days has been that of a protector of liberties and an arbiter of equality. These are identities that the party still claims today (RNC.org). One might reasonably wonder, then, why such groups as the Log Cabin Republicans must exist with the stated purpose "to achieve a more inclusive GOP" (Logcabin.org).

A consideration of the facts as they stand today reveals a party that is far less inclusive and liberty-loving than the old Republican Party. It is not necessarily that Republican values have changed, however, but rather it is equally possible that American and global society has changed in ways that do not align with Republican values. A large part of the Republican Party's opposition to slavery and desire for increased liberty and equality stems from moral considerations of decent human behavior (RNC.org). In the modern era, as certain societal mores -- particularly those having to do with restrictions on sexuality and other issues of the human body -- have become more lax or disappeared entirely, The Republican Party has been faced with the dilemma of shifting its values. On the one hand, the party still stood (and stands) for individual liberty; on the other hand, the party also strongly believes in a societal mandate for morality.

The party's decisions in the latter half of the twentieth century and… [read more]

Ethics Within the Field of Economic Research Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (887 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … ethics within the field of economic research. The first step will be to introduce the topic of ethics. This introduction will explain the basic definition of ethics and some of the fundamental concepts. It will outline why the issue of ethics is so controversial. The thesis, which concludes the introduction, is that economic researchers will tend to reach conclusions that support the views of their financial backers.

The paper will begin with an overview of a few recent cases where economic researchers appear to tread on ethical violations. These cases will allow for in-depth discussion of the issue. The cases will illustrate some of the dilemmas, each of which will be covered in the body of the paper. In particular, the issue of disclosure will be analyzed. It is reasonable that researchers will have bias, but economic researchers seldom disclose their biases publicly, preferring to take the appearance of impartiality.

Such lack of disclosure may well be legal, but it does point to an ethical dilemma surrounding the motivation. If the motivation for conducting the research is suspect, or the motivation for the hypotheses tested is suspect, this calls into question the very validity of the research.

After the in-depth explanation of the ethical dilemmas that are raised, conclusions will be drawn. Multiple examples will be sought out, regardless of whether or not they support my hypothesis. The findings will then be analyzed and some conclusions reached about the ethics of producing economic research that supports the views of your financial backers.


The issue of ethics has become one of the most controversial topics in the public sphere in the past several years. Waves of corporate scandals in the earlier part of this decade, the subprime crisis, and money-losing banks spending bailout funds on bonuses are among the most prominent debates surrounding ethics. Yet, ethics impact all aspects of our lives. Ethics represent the moral codes by which a society governs itself. Ethics are specifically applied to interactions with others. From each action we take flows a reaction. The topic of ethics reflects society's concern with how the actions of one actor affect other actors in our society.

Each action we take in our personal lives and each action we take in the workplace is guided by an internal code of ethics, a moral compass that tells us whether the action is "right" or "wrong." Yet, there is no definition of right and wrong. Our laws and religious texts will attempt to codify rules by which to live, but they cannot codify our ethics. Ethics reflect individual choices, but ones that are guided by the norms in our given society…… [read more]

Integrity Moral Obligation of Role Models Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,499 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethics - Role Model Integrity


Defining Personal Integrity:

Personal integrity is a relatively rare quality for several specific reasons: it denotes obligations that are often contrary to our natural impulses; it is more likely to complicate personal affairs than to facilitate them; it comes with no tangible reward; and it is usually somewhat… [read more]

Ethics in the Study of Philosophy Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (318 words)
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In the study of philosophy, it is perhaps the study of ethics that is considered most interesting among all its branches, primarily because of the great variance and randomness in interpretation that it gives, whether one is thinking consciously of ethics as a form of philosophy or not.

As a branch of philosophy, ethics is considered interesting because it does not have a set of rules, and if there are rules, these are loosely interpreted and subject to the individual's interpretation and highly dependent on his/her eventual behavior after interpreting an event to be ethical or unethical, based on his/her beliefs and values. As defined formally, ethics is the "study of...standards as we use or propose to judge such things." It is different from morality, which is defined as the determination of the rightness or wrongness of an action or behavior (Newall, 2005). Ethics is more complex than morality because it is not a concept that can be…… [read more]

Three Challenges to Ethics Essay

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¶ … Ethics

Sterba, James P. Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

The title of James P. Sterba's work Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism, refers to what Sterba considers the three major new paradigms offered to oppose 'traditional' forms of ethical thought. Environmentalists, feminists and multiculturalists, according to Sterba, all argue that the traditional, that is to say, universalizing methods of reckoning ethical norms are in error. Each new theoretical ethical system charges that what seems universal is in fact ridden with bias. Environmentalism demands that the anthropocentric nature of traditional ethics that places humans in the center of the universe be shifted, feminism suggests that traditional ethics unjustly prioritize what is sexed as male over what is sexed as female, and multiculturalism questions the entire paradigm of Westernization in general.

Although the paradigm shifts suggested by environmentalists, feminists, and multiculturalists are radical, Sterba attempts to take a more balanced perspective and find a truce between traditional ethical norms and these ideals. Sterba first begins his book with a definition of traditional, Western, universalizing ethics in the form of the debates between Aristotelianism, Kantianism, and utilitarianism. To some extent, other than their universalizing schema, Sterba is faced with a challenge of suggesting that all of these ethical systems are somehow the 'same,' although other than the fact that the three modern paradigms he cites are responding to the philosophers of the past, they seem to have little in common. Kantian categorical imperatives and utilitarian 'the best for the greatest number' ideals seem inexorably opposed.

However, Sterba does make an important point that many new philosophies have injected new concepts into old ethical debates, like the rights of non-human entities such as the planets. Environmentalism requires humans not to see their concerns and needs, even their ethical needs, as the center of the universe. It can be difficult to think of the future of the planet when coming to a moral calculus of a situation, when traditionally only the rights of human actors might be called into question by an ethicist. Taking a more future-oriented strategy in general is required of an environmentalist approach to ethics. But Sterba believes that fundamentally the ethical concept of proportionality is consistent with both traditional ethics and the new environmentalist ethics. For example, hunting for ivory does proportionately far more harm to all living beings than it does to help poor humans, while using animals in other ways might be ethically justified and thus permissible for either an environmentalist or a traditional ethicist who places human rights before animal rights (Sterba 37). Banning the hunting of ivory thus is the greatest good for the greatest number of current and future human and animals and the planet. It also serves a moral categorical imperative of doing what is good, obeying the law.

But examples such as these can somewhat frustrating, for Sterba selects his examples very carefully, rather than raises real-world challenges to his merging… [read more]

Ethics and Integrity in the Workplace Thesis

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Bibliography Sources: 6


Ethics and Integrity in the Workplace

The focus of this paper is ethical integrity in the workplace. Workplace ethics and integrity encompasses more than one might think and in fact, ethics and integrity it will be noted in this study, are either intentionally woven into the fabric and composition of the organization or alternatively, not integral to the organization's makeup… [read more]

Ethics in Management Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  55 pages (17,336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Ethics and Management

Management and Ethics

In this paper, the author investigates the ethics of business management. After reviewing the literature to determine the concerns mentioned by business ethicists, the author compares those concerns with the concerns of a small business man, as revealed in a case study. The first part of the case study involves a covert participant observation… [read more]

Personal Code of Ethics Thesis

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Personal Code of Ethics is much like the human brain. Everyone already has one but some people tend to use it to better effect than others. Moreover, just like the human brain, a personal code of ethics tends to grow and learn from its sometimes-painful mistakes through a refinement process that extends over an individual's lifetime. Because everyone is different,… [read more]

Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Research Proposal

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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is the philosopher's treatise on virtue ethics, teleological ethics, and human happiness. The Greek philosopher presents virtue as an essential component of good character: as a state of mind and a state of being. Virtue inspires individuals to act righteously, to treat others well, and to follow moral and ethical codes. However, Aristotle does not offer a deontological ethical code that assumes universal behavioral standards of right or wrong. The Nicomachean Ethics encourage flexible ethical decision-making based on the context of an event. Aristotle therefore places a large degree of confidence in the human actor, noting that from virtue and good character stem ethical actions. Acting ethically and virtually in turn lead to happiness. Happiness, according to Aristotle, is the ultimate aim of human life. The Nicomachean Ethis is composed of ten books. Aristotle stresses the concepts that virtue is the foundation of ethical behavior, and that ethical behavior is essential for achieving the goal of happiness.

Although Aristotle does not proscribe behavior, the philosopher does outline the core elements of virtue. As the foundation of ethical behavior, virtue is that which inspires the individual to act in a righteous fashion. Aristotle emphasizes free will and the power of the individual to make ethical decisions. In Book One, Aristotle underscores the importance of taking action and of employing free will in the pursuit of happiness. The philosopher claims that virtue alone is insufficient for morality. A virtuous character is full of potential: the potential to act and to choose actions that result in happiness. A virtuous character that does not act is not necessarily ethical. Actions are what determine ethics. In this sense, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics form the foundation of utilitarianism. Happiness is the end that justifies the means. Happiness is the goal of every action, the ultimate goal of all decisions. Every ethical dilemma can be settled by determining whether the act brings pleasure or pain to all individuals involved. Therefore, Aristotle's most prominent messages that demonstrated his belief in man's potential to be good include the following. First, a character steeped in virtue is one most capable of acting ethically. Second, each human being is endowed with free will and the opportunity to choose an ethical or virtuous action over an unethical or sinful one. Third, all human beings desire happiness, and happiness stems from virtuous action.

In Chapter 12 of Book One, Aristotle distinguishes between justice and happiness as well as between virtue and happiness. The whole of Book One seems to be devoted to Aristotle's thesis that happiness is the end goal toward which all rational beings reach. In Chapter 12 of Book One, Aristotle claims that happiness is prized as if it were a divine state. Happiness is always considered the ultimate objective of human behavior and of human life. An individual can be the best runner in his city-state and the most he can hope to receive or to achieve is praise and admiration. Happiness may still elude him no matter… [read more]

Business - Ethics Personal Thesis

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Business - Ethics


Personal Moral Perspective in Relation to Classical Moral Systems:

Human ethical values derive from numerous different perspectives with very different bases of their philosophical origin. Character/virtue ethics emphasize the attributes of the underlying motivation of the individual rather than the ultimate result of choices and actions. Deontological ethics in its absolute form requires strict adherence to rules without regard to whether the effect of those rules accomplishes good or causes harm. Utilitarianism focuses exclusively on the effect of human action and on the greatest relative good wherever the outcome of moral choices is ambiguous. Moral relativism conceives of all moral values as subjective rather than objective and as exclusive functions of societal norms and values.

My personal ethical perspective absolutely rejects moral relativism in principle, precisely because it allows virtually anything that is condoned by society, including actions that violate every other mechanism of moral decision making. According to moral relativism, the Christians who sheltered Jews in Nazi Germany and occupied Europe to prevent their murder were committing immoral acts because they violated the social values of the Nazis and the laws then in place in that society.

Similarly, I reject the absolute deontological perspective for the same reason, as well as because even formal rules that ordinarily achieve moral results are sometimes completely inadequate to address moral issues, such as when strict adherence to them actually contradicts objective aspects of morality. For example, an absolute moral rule against lying ordinarily prevents deceptive and dishonest conduct designed to take unfair advantage of others. However, in certain situations, such as shielding someone from heartbreaking knowledge, deception may serve a moral purpose. Character/virtue ethics are usually consistent with objective moral values, but because they emphasize motivation rather than the effect of human choices and actions, may sometimes lead to contradictory results where motivation is less meaningful than results. Utilitarianism is closest to my own philosophical moral perspective because it values the ultimate effect of moral decisions and because it offers a logical approach to weighing competing interests where moral choices result in some harm in addition to moral good.

Personal Ethical Perspective and Potential Problems in the Workplace:

Because I reject moral absolutism completely, I would anticipate that this might present a conflict in many work environments by virtue of the fact that vocational environments, much like larger human societies, tend to feature institutionalized values.

In man…… [read more]

Business Ethics Term Paper

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¶ … business ethics are, and what they mean to the organization and the individual. Business ethics mean different things to different people, which is quite clear in the way some unethical organizations do business. Throughout history, a high standard of ethics has been the responsibility of most businesses, but in today's world, the most important aspect of business is… [read more]

Teaching Ethics Term Paper

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Teaching Methods: Ethics in the Military Classroom

Ethics Instruction

Special Considerations for Ethics Instruction in Military Classrooms

Teaching Ethics to U.S. Soldiers in a Classroom Environment

Today, the United States is prosecuting two ground wars in the Middle East with the prospect of a third (or fourth) elsewhere looming on the horizon. The war on terrorism has forced the U.S.… [read more]

Ethics Awareness Inventory Term Paper

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Business - Ethics


Ethics is a set of principles or values that helps us define what courses of action in life are good and distinguishes them from courses of action that are bad. In the workplace environment, certain ethical issues arise that are defined by the rule of law (Daft 2005), but others may require us to apply personal values and ethical standards to determine the right course of action. Different systems of ethical analysis yield distinctly different results because they emphasize different criteria and underlying assumptions of the relative importance of the individual elements comprising ethical issues.

Survey of Ethical Value Systems:

The field of ethics includes several different perspectives, each with its own focus, criteria, advantages, and disadvantages. Virtue ethics emphasizes the character of the individual and addresses the general approach to life as a guide for the ethical analysis of particular circumstances within the framework of that general perspective.

Utilitarianism is an ethical perspective that emphasizes the end result and the good of the many, which conflicts directly with deontological ethical theories that conceive of right and wrong only in terms of the ethics of the means implemented to achieve an end result without equivalent focus on the end results or benefits associated with them (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Finally, the concept of equity emphasizes the principle of fairness and cultural relativism refers to the point-of-view that concepts of right and wrong are artificial constructs determined by cultural values and social mores that may differ substantially among different societies. Under the strictest application of cultural relativism, virtually no human conduct is susceptible to moral judgment because all concepts of morality and justice derive from societal attitudes and beliefs rather than from any objective principles or values. Conversely, under virtue ethical analysis and utilitarianism, the end result of our actions is far more important than the specific methods of implementing the decisions necessary to achieve the most beneficial results. Virtue ethics permits the widest possible range of ethical choices provided only that their underlying motivation is consistent with equitable moral intentions (Hursthouse 1999).

Personal Ethical Perspective for Responding to Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace:

My personal ethical perspective is an attempt to blend what I perceive to be as the strengths of several classical ethical theories while avoiding their corresponding weaknesses in specific circumstances. In the most general sense, I subscribe to the virtue ethics position of setting out to "do the right thing" wherever possible. In that regard, I try to adhere to rules where they do not conflict with other…… [read more]

Philosophy Ethics Term Paper

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Philosophy - Ethics

In the famous Woody Allen movie Broadway Danny Rose, the title character, played by Allen himself, is portrayed as a moral character who must contend with the vices of others as part of his lot in life. According to Gert's conception of morality, Danny Rose would most certainly fit the category of a morally virtuous person. He does not kill anyone in the course of the film, and we can believe easily that he would never kill anyone willfully. Nor does he cause pain to anyone - at least not willfully. There is one scene in the film in which Danny inadvertently causes someone else pain. When he and Mia Farrow's character are on the verge of being killed by two Mafia hit men, lest they reveal the name of the man that Mia Farrow has actually been having an affair with, Danny names a random ventriloquist that he knows. The ventriloquist has not actually been carrying on an affair with Mia Farrow's character - in fact, he does not even know who she is. Yet he winds up being the scapegoat and getting seriously beat up by the two Mafia hit men

It is difficult to determine whether or not this would qualify as an immoral action, according to Gert's theory. It is rational for a person to wish to avoid death. For this reason, Gert justifies the usage of self-defensive killing in the face of the threat of death; when one does this, one is not doing something wrong. In a way, Danny Rose's lie to the Mafia men is thus justified - he is saving the life of himself and Mia Farrow's character, whose name is Tina. But then there is the question as to why he lies and gives them the name of a random, totally innocent person that he happens to know, rather than being honest and giving them the name of the true guilty party, who happens to be his friend and client. Clearly, self-interest is at the heart of Danny Rose's decision - something that Gert also asserts his morally virtuous. What is not morally virtuous about this particular instance of self-interest, however, is that he causes an innocent man pain as a result of this.

It is clear that Danny feels guilty for causing this man pain, because later in the film, he goes to great lengths to help the man. He cannot take back his actions, which in the end only benefited him and no one else, but he can at least attempt to make amends by behaving towards the man in a generous, virtuous fashion.

The two other main characters in Broadway Danny Rose, Lou and Tina, are rather less than virtuous, especially when compared to Danny himself. Tina announces at the outset that her personal philosophy involves doing harm to others before they do harm to you. This assumes that all men are evil, rather than good, and thus attempts to justify evil, selfish behaviors… [read more]

Moral Dilemma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (700 words)
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moral dilemmas saw Julie at a club and she was with a boy other than her boyfriend John. They were kissing and it was obvious she was cheating on him. I knew better than to say something but John is also my friend and he asked me directly whether or not I saw Julie with Garth at the club. He told me that someone saw them together and wanted to hear a second witness's opinion before confronting Julie. I was stuck, torn between my loyalty to two of my best friends. I had known both since high school.

The way I resolved this moral dilemma would have been described both by Kohlberg and by Gilligan as being postconventional. Demonstrating a mature level of moral reasoning and having already internalized conventional rules-based ethics, I decided to first tell Julie that John was concerned. I waited for Julie to confess to me what she and Garth were doing and to what extend they were pursuing an affair with one another. As it turned out, she and Garth were mainly flirting; they had kissed but had not gone beyond that point. Thus, I alleviated a lot of grief had I put Julie on the defensive by accusing her of having a full-blown romantic affair.

Had I been stuck in Kohlberg's or Gilligan's preconventional stage then I might have sought to win favors from either Julie or John. If I thought John would appreciate my loyalty more than Julie then I might have risked losing my friendship with Julie in order to please John; even if Julie were not having the affair it would have impressed John that I cared enough about him to take that chance. The fact that I had a crush on John to begin with would have underscored my preconventional moral reasoning but my behaviors showed that I had matured far beyond that stage. Similarly, I might have felt like it was my moral duty to help John -- or that it was my moral duty to preserve Julie's privacy. At a conventional stage of moral reasoning, I would still…… [read more]

Code of Ethics in the Academic World Term Paper

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Code of Ethics

In the academic world, as well as in the business world, as an essential part in the conduct of activities and actions there is an increasing need for the existence of a code of ethics, due to the fact that students and staff alike must take into account certain moral guidelines in order to increase the efficiency… [read more]

Ethics Has Been Regarded as Fundamental Practice Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 7


Ethics has been regarded as fundamental practice with reference to the all design research procedures, and it the responsibility of the research to ensure that the contents and the scope of the research is ethical and moral, the design research shall be conducted 'within an ethic of respect for persons, respect for knowledge, respect for democratic values, and respect for… [read more]

Moral Relativism Term Paper

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Moral Relativism is a point-of-view, which holds that the truth or justification of moral judgments, is not absolute but determined by society or its culture (Gowan 2004). It flourished in ancient times when moral diversity was the prevailing and accepted thought. It grew from moral skepticism, which holds that there is no moral knowledge (Gowan).

The argument is whether moral… [read more]

Business Ethics in His Book Corporation Term Paper

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Business Ethics

In his book Corporation, Be Good! The Story of Corporate Social Responsibility William C. Frederick (2006) notes that the dichotomy that companies face impacts their ability for ethical decision making. In the 1950s and 1960s, executives relied on their consciences that were founded on religious and family values. However, ethical business problems in the 1960s and 1970s showed… [read more]

Biomedical Ethics: Euthanasia. One Way of Interpreting Term Paper

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¶ … biomedical ethics: euthanasia. One way of interpreting euthanasia from a moral point-of-view is utilitarianism.

Utilitarians interpret the rightness or wrongness of an action based on its consequences alone, this being one of the reasons why utilitarianism has been considered a consequential theory. However, at the same time, such an assumption, of judging actions mainly on taking into consideration the consequences has been considered a limitation and a weak point in this theory. Utilitarianism is based on the principle that we ought to do the greatest good for the greatest number of persons involved (the person requesting euthanasia, dependents, relatives, health care providers, or society). In the case of incurable disease, like cancer for instance, utilitarianism may be a way of providing ethical decision-making. From such a perspective, many patients probably consider that the greatest good for all people involved is their own death. Death implies absence of pain for the patient, and absence of suffering and concern, work and assistance in the relatives. Euthanasia is favored in detriment of a life enmeshed in incurable and fatal physical suffering.

However, when considered closely the problem is extremely complex. Richard Gula (1991) thinks that it is more difficult from a moral standpoint to justify letting somebody die a slow and hard death, dehumanized, than it is to justify helping him to escape from such…… [read more]

Moral Theology Term Paper

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Moral Theology

In today's economically driven world where the placement of focus and personal achievement is determined by the size of one's bank account or net worth, churches and theologians have had to come to issue with how one can balance a traditionally moral life in today's often immoral world. Out of this struggle arose the theories of economic justice… [read more]

Organizational Ethics Issues Resolution Term Paper

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Organizational Ethics Issues Resolution

The Enron debacle that occurred in late 2001 illustrated how an ethically unsound business can have devastating and widespread effects on the international business community. At the core of the collapse of Enron was an absence of ideation and practice of ethical values. Market failure occurred due to information asymmetries, in which unfairness of the imbalance… [read more]

Ethics in Psychology Academic Fraud Term Paper

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Academic Fraud - Psychology

Ethics in Psychology: Academic Fraud

A Notorious Case of Academic Fraud

This paper discusses the "notorious" case of academic fraud by Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt as presented by Beloff (1980). The research will focus on the ethical problem presented, the ethical principles breached according to the Australian codes of ethics, the motives and justifications of a… [read more]

Importance of Good Business Ethics Term Paper

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Importance of Good Business Ethics in Business
There's been a crisis of confidence in corporate ethics in the last ten
years, and as a result, legislation continues to be used as the mechanism
to bring trust back into business. Many argue that Sarbanes-Oxley (2002)
legislation has actually taken the price of doing business significantly
up, enriching Indian Business Process… [read more]

Ethics Policies on 3 Companies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,159 words)
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Ethics Policies on 3 companies.

Ethics Policies

Memo of transmittal

Ethics policies within companies

Microsoft Corporation


Intel Corporation

Memo of transmittal

The current ethics policies are the outcome of years of debates as to what should define morality and fair and appropriate behavior. Nowadays, most institutions in the fields of economy, politics, medicine and law guide their activities by… [read more]

Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Term Paper

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Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is one of the classical and most cited philosophical works treating of morality. In the second book of the Ethics, Aristotle defines the relation between character and virtue as being mediated by or depending on the two antagonist feelings of pleasure and pain. Aristotle supports his affirmation with a few basic arguments: first of all, according to… [read more]

Ethics and Foreign Workers Term Paper

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Ethics and Foreign Workers

Ethics can be different for each person making a decision, but there are certain moral laws that should be followed in dealing with foreign workers working for U.S. companies overseas. The moral and ethical decision should be to treat these workers just the same as if they were working inside the United States. They are employees of a U.S. company, and the rules should not be different for different employees in different countries. A lawyer who specializes in these types of decisions writes, "The moral rights approach concerns itself with moral principles, regardless of the consequences. Under this view, some actions are simply considered to be right or wrong" (Poznak). Thus, even if paying foreign workers lower wages and benefits than U.S. workers get results in higher profits, it is morally wrong to differentiate between workers, and the ethical choice is to treat all employees the same.

Another consideration in this ethical debate is the practice of foreign companies doing business in the United States, and their standards for employment. For example, many foreign automakers have built plants in the United States…… [read more]

Ethics in the Accounting Profession Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
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Brian Strugats

Accounting Ethics

Dr. Nathan Slavin

The Role of College Ethics Classes in the Reduction of Professional Accounting Scandals

Ethical values provide the foundation on which a civilized society exists. Without the foundation, civilization collapses." (Smith)

The ability to choose right or wrong, or good vs. evil, is a part of the human condition. While some decisions are smaller… [read more]

Moral Theories Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … personal theory of good and evil, right and wrong moral agent is a person capable of rational understanding. An entity such as a nation, a group or a corporation is not such an entity. Rather, these constructions are human-created institutions made up of conglomerates of human beings. Unlike a single, moral human individual, a person cannot be overthrown, like a country, and then reformulated under a new constitution. A person cannot be merged with another entity, like a corporation. The human individual is the fundamental unit of every society or social bond, like the family.

The individual has moral obligations to all other human beings. He or she is part of a series of communities that make up the greater world. Although the human obligation to animals might not be equal to humans, because animals are not of the same species and therefore humans are not tied to them with same level of obligation, humans must still treat animals with respect, beyond the level of respect humans might extend to non-sentient property.

Humans have responsibility to treat the persons whom they are tied to with a network of social obligations with the greatest care, like friends and family members. However, this does not mean humans can ignore the needs of other persons who make up other cultures, groups, and nations, even if the obligations to these other person may not be as immediate. Plants and aspects of the non-sentient environment should be treated with respect, because of one does not; the welfare of all persons will be endangered.

The community of individuals largely determines what is right or wrong. For example, it is considered 'right' in our society that a parent support their child until the child is 18 while in other, past societies it was necessary and thus 'right' for a child to be independent at a much earlier age. When human life was shorter, and families were larger and poorer, this was understandable and not necessarily 'wrong,' given the historical context.

While much is relative, however, the integrity of the person to be free and to not be enslaved must not be impinged upon, unless that person transgresses the laws of the community. But there is no good or evil like a divine force, these notions are rooted in social judgments and the evolution of the society.

In contrast to this contextual view of ethics, a Kantian might protest. The…… [read more]

Moral Philosophy Term Paper

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Moral Philosophy

The title 'Moral Philosophy' in itself is suggestive of morality, as connoting the innate difference between good and evil. For example, when one is referring to an individual, one may talk about his intellectual capabilities, or of his achievements, which are quite entirely separate from his basic moral character. In a similar manner, one is generally prone to differentiate between the concept of being under moral obligation to do something, and the idea of being under a legal obligation to perform it. Being morally obliged to do a thing would mean the same as an individual saying, "I ought to do it, or I ought not to do it," for whatever reason, and 'ought to' in general is closely related to the idea of one's 'duty'. What then, is meant by something being 'morally wrong'? (Moore, 1922)

It must be remembered that in moral philosophy, the concepts of systematizing, defending and recommending the ideas of wrong and right and of good and evil are taken into account, and philosophers tend to divide moral philosophy into three distinct areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. While metaethics delves deeply into issues such as, where did we come from and so on, normative ethics is all about investigating the moral standards that generally apply to right and to wrong, while applied ethics deal with specific controversies in life, like for example, is an abortion good or evil, and so on. More often than not, however, the fine line that…… [read more]

Corporate Ethics in the 21st Century Term Paper

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Corporate Ethics in the 21st Century

Corporate ethics has emerged as one of the leading business issues of the Twenty-First century. Scandals at formerly reputable corporations such as Enron have sullied the corporate image for the public, not to mention major shareholders. Transparency and accountability are the new corporate watchwords, as companies from all industries and at all levels of… [read more]

Ethical and Moral Behavior Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … ethical and moral behavior and why such behaviors are necessary in the enforcement of the rules of the criminal justice system

Relationships of Criminal justice system, ethics and morality

The principles of criminal justice lead to acts which are similar to crime in content, and a distinction can be made with crime only if it is understood that… [read more]

University and Morality Term Paper

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Morality in the University

Peter Steinfels in his 2004 article asks whether or not universities should teach aim to teach morality. He explicates several perspectives from those involved in the academic field. On the one hand, there are those that feel it is not the place of the university to try to inculcate morality. "You can't make them into good people...and you shouldn't try" (Steinfels) argues this perspective. On the other hand, there are those that say that morality is so engrained in every aspect of life that one cannot teach anything without teaching it. Trying not to teach morality only teaches a sort of vague "scientific" morality. How can one walk in the footsteps of philosophers like Aristotle and Plato and not at least address morality?

These are both reasonable arguments -- that they are in conflict is due to the fact that for some odd reasons none of these professors are taking full advantage of the English language. Universities ought not aim to teach morality; they should aim to teach ethics. These are distinct principles, though closely related, and if the professors involved would use these terms appropriately and accurately, they would find that they are not so much in conflict as they might think.

Ethics and morality are distinct issues. Morality deals with truth-claims about what is right and wrong, while ethics deal with the principles of conduct which are expected of people in a given field. Morality tends to deal with issues such as faith, sex, gambling, drugs, and so forth. For example, many people feel that premarital sex is immoral. Ethics, however, focus on the standards which are required to act properly towards others. Ethically, premarital sex is not wrong unless it violates certain standards (for example, sleeping with an employee or breaking the law in sexual activity). Sometimes morality and ethics may even disagree -- for example, both priests and psychiatrists have ethical obligationsto keep the confidence of those who confess to them. However, if either heard a confession from an unrepentant serial killer who persisted in their murders, either might legitimately feel have a moral obligation to act to stop this. In short, morality and ethics are significantly different.

The difference between ethics and morality is very significant for this debate because I feel that universities ought to teach their students ethics, but should not impose any morality on them. This is indeed the classic view. Aristotle did not write a book called Morality, after all, but his Ethics have been intensely influential on the development of academics. When schools attempt to teach morality to students, they do indeed risk violating the student' consciences and personal beliefs. A university ought not attempt to teach their students "truth," as Professor Mearsheimer points out quite legitimately. However, universities do have an obligation to ensure that their students understand what their individual professions…… [read more]

Ethics in Accounting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethics in Accounting

Companies are influential bodies whose actions, for superior or shoddier, put a major impression on people, entire communities, and the society as a whole. Their influence is of such proportion that a lot believe they should display greater accountability for their business policies and practices, for the betterment of both companies and society. The latest scams in accounting and auditing, and the mounting concern towards the responsibility of the companies for social and environmental impact have led to promising new researches and deliberations regarding the manner in which companies will be capable of maintaining increased legal, social and ethical standards in the spheres of accounting and auditing. (Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture)

Ethical values give the base on which every cultured society stands. In the absence of the base, society falls apart. The objective of ethics in business is to persuade businessmen and women to follow a code of conduct which assist, if not motivates the trust of the people in their products and services. Whether an individual gets ethical values from religious belief, history and literature, or individual observation and experience, certain fundamental ethical course of action are present to which everybody can consent. James Brackner, member of the IMA Committee on Ethics in the July edition of Management Accounting said: The Universities are taking action with an enhanced importance on ethical training for purposes of decision making. For the major portion, nevertheless, they overlook the purpose of educating values. For moral or ethical education to bear any significance, conformity on the values must be present which are believed to be "appropriate." In Chapter 1 of Ethical Issues in the Practice of Accounting, 1992, Michael Josephson defined the "Ten Universal Values." They are as under: honesty, integrity, living up to promises, loyalty, equality, caring, admiration for other people, dutiful citizenship, quest for quality and answerability. (Business and Accounting Ethics)

In the accounting discipline AICPA maintains and makes it obligatory for a code of professional conduct for public accountants. The Institute of Management Accountants -IMA and the Institute of Internal Auditors -IIA too maintains a code of ethics. Professional accounting establishments appreciate the responsibility of the accounting profession to supply ethical standards to its members. (Business and Accounting Ethics) Comprehending an ethical problem, giving a moral verdict, and building a purpose persuading to conduct are contained in a research on models of ethical reasoning. It reckons that ethical problem identification is a function of the subject's ethical understanding and moral strength of the problem. Interactions founded on stakeholder hypothesis enhanced subject's capability to identify ethical problems but did not modify their degree of moral reasoning. (Research on Accounting Ethics)

One more research discovered that the accountants occupied in tax practice often experience moral and ethical concerns emanating from their twin accountability to their clients as well as to government authorities. The accounting syllabus and textbooks prescribed in the preliminary accounting courses propose that meager or no endeavor has been made for inclusion of the… [read more]

Ethics and the Internet Term Paper

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S. Department of Defense to "provide a distributed, flexible and self-healing command network which would enable the U.S. military to continue operating even if Soviet military missiles took out certain geographical locations on the network." (INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY?) The idea of a network of computers was adopted by the academic community in order to increase research capabilities and… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Significance of Ethics Term Paper

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Thus, every member of an organization must have regard for ethics in order to safeguard the welfare of society in general, the very people whom we, as business practitioners, dedicated to provide service to.

When discussing the influence of technology on work-related stress, meanwhile, it is vital to focus on the effects of technology not on the society or organization as a whole, but on the individual -- how technology will affect the performance and personal (mental) health of the individual. This concern becomes more vital, as elucidated in a study wherein despite the increasing innovations and inventions that help life become comfortable and easier for people, Americans have become more stressed. This makes the U.S., according to the research, the only industrialized country that has not yet learned to combat the negative effects of technology in society (Budimir, 2001).

In fact, technology has become so pervasive in the lives of people that a program called "information technology sustainable development" has been created. This program is geared towards introducing and disseminating the information that ICTs have a role in further stabilizing the socio-economic structure of a country (Sheats, 2000). This asset, however, must be considered under the sustainable development paradigm, wherein the welfare of the society and individual takes the front seat rather than the advantages it can give to the technology's creators.

From these studies, it becomes evident that ICTs must be used with consideration to society's and the individual's welfare. This means that in the same way that people regard technologies with respect and reverence because of its capabilities, people must also consider themselves more important simply because they are the creators of these technologies.

Of course, ethical decision-making is related to this issue: in order to recognize the centrality of society and the individual in the context of today's information-oriented society, one must have the personal values corresponding to this belief. This means that in order to prevent the harmful effects of ICTs on the personal development of an individual, decision-makers responsible to the formulation of solution pertaining to the use of ICTs must have a deep regard and respect for human welfare of all kinds.


Budimir, M. (2001). "Engineers of the world ....relax." Machine Design, 73(9).

Donaldson, W. (2003). "Corporate Governance." Business Economics, 38(3).

Mayer, D. (2001). "Community, Business Ethics, and Global Capitalism." American Business Law Journal, 38(2).

Nonis, S. And C. Swift. (2001). "Personal value profiles and ethical business decisions." Journal of Education for Business, 76(5).

Sheats, J. (2000). "Information technology sustainable development…… [read more]

Ethics a Few Months Ago Term Paper

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In my professional life, I manifest my ethics by analyzing each situation differently. Many of my ethical judgments are also based on utilitarianism: the right course of action is the one that benefits the most people and creates the greatest amount of happiness overall. However, I also know that when applied to large groups of people such as in a place of employment, utilitarianism often neglects a significant number of persons. Therefore, I always rely primarily on critical thinking and judgment when confronted with a complex ethical situation.

Our coursework has introduced me to a vast array of ethical theories. I have since been able to analyze situations with a more broad-minded perspective, able to weigh the pros and cons of each decision more thoroughly. I have also been made more aware and therefore more understanding of different people's codes of ethics. I have noticed that gender, religion and ethnicity all impact people's ethics. For example, certain cultures and religious groups have a far more absolutist ethical perspective than I have. Referring to my friend's example, I know that many people would have immediately confronted the supervisor about the stealing because they would have felt that stealing is wrong under all circumstances.

Since taking this course I have become far more encouraging of people to share their perspectives, and have been more willing to listen and understand why and how people judge situations differently than I do. I no longer blindly make decisions or judgments without considering alternative courses of action. While I will continue to apply my personal brand of situational ethics to my personal and professional life, I will also acknowledge that persons from different backgrounds might perceive situations differently than I do. Learning about different ethical theories has opened my mind to new ways of approaching ethical problems and I believe increases my capacity for…… [read more]

Ethics Term Paper

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Thinking critically seeks to dislodge preconceived notions and beliefs that may, perhaps, possess little empirical backing. It is essential to rational human thought processes.

Beliefs, by contrast, require no explicit logical progressions to be reached. A belief is often trusted to faith; and faith, by its very nature, requires the suspension of logic. For instance, it is possible for someone to believe that they can throw a football a hundred yards -- however, the odds are that there is no justification for such a belief. Still, beliefs are not always groundless. I believe that if I let my pencil fall from my hand it will land on the ground. This belief is not based upon any scientific law, but it would be in accordance with every other occasion that I have witnessed similar occurrences. The rather broad definition of beliefs makes their application to the world of ethics and morality complicated. Generally, philosophers attempt to only assert beliefs that are rooted in rigorous argument. These beliefs can imply moral or ethical laws.

Values on the other hand are, for most people, strongly associated with one's personal social, psychological, and moral standpoint. Values, like beliefs, are not always based upon evidence. The notion of "family values," for example, asserts that the traditional familial organization with a mother, father, and children is somehow superior to other organizational structures for rearing children. There is little sound backing for such standpoints; yet, they lay the foundation for a large number of people's beliefs.

Many beliefs and values can be discarded through the process of critical thinking. Morals are people's attempts at reaching logical conclusions regarding specific instances of human behavior. And ethics are the broad guidelines by which most individuals strive to adhere.


1. Feinberg, Joel and Russ Schafer-Landau. (1999). Reason and Responsibility. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.

2. Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. (2003). The Miniature Guide to Understanding the Foundations of Ethical Reasoning. Dillon Beach: The Foundation for Critical Thinking.

3. Ruggiero. (2004). Thinking…… [read more]

Cultural Values and Personal Ethics Term Paper

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Cultural Values and Personal Ethics

There is a close interconnection and relationship between the areas of personal, cultural and organizational values and decision making. Decision making is based on personal values which are influenced and impacted by cultural values, ethical systems and other cardinal aspects. Organizational values, which are often influenced by cultural values in a society, are very important… [read more]

Business Ethics Magazine Recently Awarded Term Paper

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Written codes of ethics are meaningless without actions to back them up. Every company publishes its codes of ethics on their website and in official company literature. However, few of them actually practice what they preach. Similarly, religious communities attempt to codify and canonize ethics; all too often religious people act hypocritically and against their moral codes. I can think of countless examples of ways that individuals have used the Christian Bible to actually support unethical behavior. For example, anti-abortion activists have killed doctors in the name of morality. I have witnessed the discrepancy between written codes of ethics and unwritten ones in more personal situations. For instance, I know a woman who was being sexually harassed by her new boss. The company had a strict sexual harassment policy, and in spite of that and the fact that she had worked there in good standing for five years, she could not prove her case and she eventually quit.

Therefore, in my life, unwritten ethical codes are primary and as my mother would repeat to me on several occasions: actions are far more important than words. My personal values do not ascribe to any specific set of encoded rules but rather reflect a conglomeration of influences. Moreover, my code of ethics is not an innate extension of my personality; rather, I developed my value system over time and with various influences: from my parents to the movies. The way I treat others and myself is a result of what behaviors I value in others. My parents and family members probably instilled in me some of the most basic and fundamental moral concepts. Caring for others, kindness, cooperation, and sharing are some of the basic moral behaviors that I had to learn. Sometimes these behaviors went against my innate tendencies to keep everything for myself. When we witness corporate executives hoard billions of dollars while their hard-working underlings can barely make ends meet, we see a bit of this primitive tendency toward avarice at work in the world.

I have also been powerfully influenced by the example of Mahatma Ghandi. He is quoted as saying, "The essence of non-violent technique is that it seeks to liquidate antagonisms but not the antagonists," ("Non-Violence"). Ghandi's quote loosely reflects the Biblical suggestion to "turn the other cheek." Both suggest that the ideal method of resistance and rebellion is not to resort to violence or act on anger, but rather, to channel that energy constructively to seek change. Any realistic ethical system must incorporate a means to affect change without resorting to violence. In my experience, ethical codes cannot be overly idealistic or else they become impractical.

Works Cited

Corporate Social Responsibility Report." Business Ethics. http://www.business-ethics.com/.

Non-Violence." BBC Online. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/war/nonviolence.shtml.… [read more]

Virtue Ethics and Aristotle Term Paper

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The politician still may selfishly cut a fellow representative in the Senate lunch line, and the anonymous dog saver may treat his wife at home with coldness because he no longer loves her or receives satisfaction in return from her presence, but in the moments of performing virtuous acts these ordinary individuals still are virtuous people, even though they may not be virtuous in other contexts. Also, they become virtuous people because according to the definition of virtue, they are not performing what they perform for any external rewards.

Thus, through the careful use of precise definitions of what virtue means, Aristotle's ethics are not tautological. Being a virtuous person is not a permanent, stable state; one must be in the act of performing virtue to be virtuous, and one must perform virtuous actions frequently to garner such a status for one's self. Character is thus not a fixed quantity; rather character is a relationship with a moment in time and with a particular set of circumstances.

The definition of character as flexible is commensurate with other aspects of Aristotelian philosophy, which tends to focus on the specific, observable, and empirical rather than upon the abstract. Character is something that is constantly tested in the world, and the virtue of a character may have roots in the human psyche, but merely performing a virtuous action does not assure a character a constant state of being virtuous for all time. Thus, there is no tautology, because the definition of virtue and character exists outside of the circularity of a virtuous person doing virtuous acts, and virtuous acts being things done by a virtuous person. The nature of virtue is subject to constant testing and retesting by life, and the virtuous life is the active life of virtue, rather than subject to a singular definition.… [read more]

Business Ethics in the 21st Term Paper

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Even after Enron, the pervading notion in America seems to be that "greed is good is now 'essentially operating in the mainstream of North American society'" (Hunkin, 2002). Until this attitude changes, then corruption of business ethics will continue, and it will not be viewed as something that is bad for society, morals, and our overall good as long as it is allowed to continue.

While many experts paint a rosier picture of business ethics because of the Enron scandal and several others, economist Milton Friedman has another picture. He told authors Berlau and Spun, "A business can't have ethics any more than a building can have ethics. Only people can have ethics. I don't believe the university is the place for that -- family and elementary and secondary schools are. Unfortunately, in elementary and secondary schools, the extent to which [ethical education] is occurring has been very much less'" (Berlau & Spun, 2002). Therefore, Friedman believes if ethics really are going to change in business, morals and ethics must be taught long before the university level. Perhaps, if more ethical education is offered to younger children, future generations can look forward to a more ethical and moral world, especially in the business environment. However today, most businesses' only concern is the bottom line, and how it good it looks is the only thing that matters on the annual report. Ethics might be more of a topic of conversations today because of the Enron scandal and others like it, but it has not really changed the body of American business, it just might have put a little more makeup on the face.


Berlau, J., & Spun, B. (2002, March 18). Is big business ethically bankrupt? A boom in business-ethics courses is likely in the wake of the Enron scandal, but critics say these classes need to focus on moral rather than political, correctness. Insight on the News, 18, 16+.

Hunkin,…… [read more]

Ethics Program for a Drivers Term Paper

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However, since these manuals are usually designed to address the " do nots" of corporate conduct, it becomes important to design and institute an audit program that monitors whether good ethical practices are being followed. This can easily be done through quarterly reviews of company performance in the areas of customer satisfaction ratings; issues raised by customer and business partner complaints; employee morale levels; employee and customer safety levels; and overall company performance in terms of concrete contributions to the community and environment. In fact, it is interesting to note that many companies are now voluntarily using their public reports to fully explore their total social, economic, and environmental impact.

Benefits of an Ethics Program to Ace Driving Institute

It is evident from the proposed design and implementation of the ethics program that Ace Driving Institute will benefit in several ways. For one, the program will result in a collective commitment towards company goals and values through employing a participatory process. Second, it is likely to increase employee respect and goodwill for the organization. This, in turn, will have a positive impact on productivity and motivation levels. Third, improved employee motivation and commitment is bound to increase customer and supplier satisfaction levels, thereby positively impacting business outcomes and increasing shareholder value. Fourth, company emphasis on community and social responsibility is likely to lead to measures such as designing training programs that help corporate and individual customers to save fuel and reduce greenhouse emissions through enhanced driving skills and knowledge. Besides such efforts, it can also be assumed that the company is likely to gain community goodwill through increased efforts to contribute to and participate in community welfare programs. Thus, it is evident that a well-designed and carefully implemented ethics program will impact Ace Driving Institute in several positive ways.


Blank, D. (2003, February). A matter of ethics: in organizations where honesty and integrity rule, it is easy for employees to resist the many temptations today's business world offers. Internal Auditor. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4153/is_1_60/ai_98009240

Newton, L.H. (1992). The Many Faces of the Corporate Code. The Corporate Code of Ethics: The Perspective of the Humanities, Proceedings of the Conference on Corporate Visions and…… [read more]

Moral Decisions in Business Term Paper

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As such, rule utilitarianism allows for the creation of rules that are considered to be morally right. There may be specific acts where these rules do not produce the most good for everyone involved, but over time, the rule over time has more favorable than unfavorable consequences. In rule utilitarianism, "actions are justified to the extent that conform to a rule which would maximize utility for everyone who followed it" (Buschert).

As such, rule utilitarianism would see the action of executives in falsifying profits and reducing debt on balance sheets to be a morally wrong action. This action would be morally wrong since it would violate the moral rule against falsifying financial information in business. Overall, a rule against falsifying financial information produces more good for everyone than bad.

While the short-term impact of an individual act financial falsification can provide increased profits for shareholders, job stability for employees, and increase executive pay, the wider impact of incorporating financial falsification can be negative on a large number of individuals. If financial irregularities become widespread within corporations, it is inevitable that many will be revealed. This is exactly what happened in the widespread accounting scandals of companies like Enron and WorldCom in the early 2000s. When these irregularities became public knowledge, the negative impact was staggering. First, investors lost faith in the U.S. stock market, potentially causing drops in the market, and damaging the financial health of untold corporations and investors. Wrote Justin Lahart of CNN.com, just after the Enron and WorldCom scandals occurred, "many investors may decide to exit the U.S. stock market. And not come back." Second, the employees and shareholders of corporations that are found to have given financially misleading results will suffer tremendously. This was seen in the case of Enron, where employees lost their jobs, and shareholders lost tremendous amounts of money when Enron stock plummeted.

In conclusion, rule utilitarianism provides a useful and powerful ethical framework for business. Rule utilitarianism allows businesses to prevent long-term damage to society and business by considering the importance of ethical rules over the short-term gain of individual business acts.


Buschert, Will. Notes on Utilitarianism. PHIL 235.3 - Ethical Issues in Business and the Professions. 09 May 2004. http://duke.usask.ca/~wjb289/PHL235/transparencies/Utilitarianism.PDF

Lahart, Justin. The death of confidence: WorldCom's gigantic fraud may send investors to the exits for a long, long time. CNN.com, July 8, 2002: 10:20 AM EDT. 09 May 2004. http://money.cnn.com/2002/06/26/news/worldcom_shoedrops/

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ethics. 09 May 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/e/ethics.htm… [read more]

Ethics the Divine Command Theory Term Paper

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Question 5:

There is a fairly clear and easily establishable distinction between the positions known as ethical absolutism and ethical relativism. Indeed, it is perhaps easiest to define ethical absolutism before we define ethical relativism: ethical absolutism is the philosophical idea by which one argues that there is one singular ethical system that exists by which all other ethical systems can be judged, although, indeed, one must be certain to include the idea that this one true ethical system need not be the one that the person even holds. In ethical absolutism, a person contends that we can then proceed to judge the moral systems of other countries and nations by using the standards as they are explicitly defined in this moral system. In this system then, there is an absolute morality and an absolute moral standard against which other standards can be judged.

Ethical relativism, on the other hand, is the system by which one accepts the different moral and ethical systems held by different societies and cultures around the world and, in this system, one asserts that all of these moralities are right in respect to their differing cultural milieus. Indeed, it is important to make a distinction between this view and another separate view, which is that of cultural relativism. Cultural relativism holds that different cultures around the earth all possess a different series of ethical systems and that these systems are all held to be equally correct by the different societies that believe in them. Indeed, given the overwhelming data that has been presented to us by sociology and anthropology, it is very easy to say that cultural relativism is, quite simply, a fact about the world.

Ethical relativism, on the other hand, is different than cultural relativism and actually a more stringent concept, which asserts that not only do different cultures have different ideas of morality but that these different ethical systems are correct for each culture. Thus an act that may be wrong according to the ethical system contained by the United States might be correct according to the morality held by a different nation or country. In extreme example this would mean that even the worst acts committed here, such as murder, might be defensible and even legal acts in other countries where the societal construction of ethical systems was such that murder was allowed in certain tolerated instances.

This view, of course, is exceptionally problematic for a whole variety of reasons. One of the most obvious problems, of course, is a simple epistemological problem in which it is exceptionally difficult, if not, in fact, impossible, to state whether or not a given culture can be said to support a specific ethical belief. While this might be obvious in certain cases, such as how, In the United States, murder is clearly punishable by law, other issues would be less clear. Would abortion or euthanasia fall under the rubric of murder? Certainly, these issues are hotly debated currently right now and some people would… [read more]

Codes of Ethics in Business Research Paper

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Code of Ethics

The organization, XYZ company, is a start-up company that develops supply chain software. The software is intended to provide real time updates about any aspect of a company's supply chain, on any device, through a simple platform. The tracking functions and interface are the key elements of the product/service offering. The company is marketing its software to… [read more]

Codes of Ethics in Business Essay

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Organizational Integrity in a Global Environment

Ethics are a normative code of behaviors in a society, or in the case of business, in an organization. Because of the inherent vagueness of the concept of business ethics, each organization operates with its own definitions, underlying philosophies, and in the ways that it operationalizes the idea of business ethics. The topics covered… [read more]

Schools of Ethics: Questionnaire Questionnaire

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Schools of Ethics: Questionnaire

The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be allowed simply at the patient's direction reflects what type of ethics?

The concept of conscience, which was established by Thomas Aquinas, states that conscience should be used in judging actions. He states that when one is choosing between good and evil, God's idea of human nature and what is needed according to this idea have to be first considered.

What is the moral ideal of temperance?

This is the ability of an individual to restrain themselves from impulses. It encourages people to manage their desires, temptations, and preferences and to exercise self-control when making decisions.

One of the common errors in Ethics is that of the hasty conclusions. Hasty conclusions consist of what?

Hasty conclusions are arrived at when one does not assess the evidence presented before them thoroughly, which may make them jump into false conclusions about a particular issue.

4. Prescriptive language is commonly used in ethics for what reason?

Prescriptive language describes the way words should be and it is used in ethics to show language or words that are not allowed, or that violate the code of conduct. For example, some words are considered racist and should not be uttered in a particular setting.

5. Ethical Egoism proposes that all decisions should be made to?

Ethical egoism proposes that human beings should make decisions that are aimed at fulfilling their needs and interests.

6. Free people are motivated toward forming social structures according to a social contract in order to overcome what problem identified by Thomas Hobbes?

Thomas Hobbes believed that a never ending state of warfare was responsible for people forming social structures as they decided to put an end to the fighting and confusion by forming social contrasts (Hobbes, 2009).

7. Agricultural bio-fuels are not properly a renewable source of energy in the environmental ethics debate. Which of the following also is not a renewable?

Biomass waste systems are not considered as being 100% renewable as sometimes, forests are cleared for fuel and the trees that are replanted cannot offer the full benefits of natural forests.

8. The notion that the only thing good without qualification is a good will is attributed to whom?

This notion was suggested by Immanuel Kant, and it means that the intentions of an individual determine whether their actions can be termed as good or bad.

9. Which ethical concept is organized and directed toward following the greatest happiness principle?

This is the principle of utility, which states that…… [read more]

Ethics Code Research Paper

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Code of Ethics

Application of the Code

Structure of the Code

Statement of Values

Sources of Ethical Values

Other Important Principles

Training and Communication Plan

Implementation Plan

Plan for the Role of Leadership

Corporate Social Issues

Code of Ethics

In order to survive in the present business world, it is necessary for the organizations to comply with a set of… [read more]

Ethics Plan on Alarm Fatigue Research Paper

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Unfortunately, there are problems with caring for people when alarm fatigue sets in (Blum & Tremper, 2010). The lack of ability to notice the alarms and handle them when they are important can put patients at risk (Blum & Tremper, 2010). While most patients are not harmed by the staff's alarm fatigue, there have been cases of serious harm and even death reported due to medical staff tuning out alarms and not responding to them in a timely manner (Bustamante, Bliss, & Anderson, 2007).

Resolution Implementation

In truly implementing a solution to the problem, there are issues that must be addressed. These include a proper time limit for getting something done, and ways in which alarm fatigue can truly be reduced. One of the best options is to change the way the alarms sound, so that they are not so similar to one another and so easily ignored (Blum & Tremper, 2010). Additionally, alarms with different sounds can be beneficial because it is possible to distinguish one from another much more easily. That can help medical personnel determine what is truly an emergency and what is less urgent, which can lead to better patient care and faster response times (McNeer, et al., 2007). Another way to help avoid alarm fatigue is through the use of a more centralized system for alarms (McNeer, et al., 2007). If the alarms are constantly going off in patient rooms it can be very fatiguing for the medical personnel, but a centralized location where the alarms can go off and personnel can be dispatched from is a much better choice for reducing fatigue and stress (Blum & Tremper, 2010).


Overall, there are many ways to reduce alarm fatigue. It is vital that this is done, because patients are being put at risk. Additionally, medical personnel are being overstressed and overtaxed because they are not getting the assistance they really need to fight alarm fatigue properly. They need better options, so they can do their jobs more effectively and efficiently. In turn, that will help them be more prepared to help patients, who will benefit from having caring personnel who respond to alarms quickly. It can save lives, and also protect the medical institution from the potential for legal problems related to a lack of response to alarms and related emergencies.


Blum, J.M., & Tremper, K.K. (2010). Alarms in the intensive care unit: Too much of a good thing is dangerous: Is it time to add some intelligence to alarms? Critical Care Medicine, 38(2): 702 -- 703.

Bustamante, E.A., Bliss, J.P., & Anderson, B.L. (2007). Effects of varying the threshold of alarm systems and workload on human performance. Ergonomics, 50(7):1127-1147.

McNeer, R.R., Bohorquez, J., Ozdamar, O., Varon, A.J., & Barach, P. (2007). A new paradigm for the design of…… [read more]

Ethics and Noncompliance in Health Care Essay

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The complications behind this concept of malfeasance create an environment where ethics will continually be violated due to the nature of allopathic treatment and the structure of our medical system which places an emphasis on secret knowledge and processes.

This problem is most severely exacerbated by malfeasance within the medical research efforts. This is the starting point for the doctrine that is eventually practiced by the doctors and if this information is created with poor standards and a lack of ethical clarity, the end product will reflect this attitude. Haberman et al. (2011) agreed when they argued that "Research coordinators hold a unique position in the research team and are often the ones who identify breaches of scientific integrity. All study personnel should be well-educated regarding misconduct, clear mechanisms for reporting should exist, feedback loops about evidence review should exist, and integrity should be valued in the culture of the research environment."


The idea of beneficence in regards to the ethical treatment of patients who do not comply with doctors orders suggests that it is the opposite of malfeasance and is used to counter balance the idea of harm in a positive manner. While malfeasance is a negative way to approach the subject, beneficence is the polar opposite of that idea. Regardless the emphasis on this idea suggests that the doctors' intentions are extremely important when treating a patient and that his or her subjective and personal goals need to be put aside in order for the patient to demonstrate his or her own individual will on the situation.


In many ways justice is a very dangerous term as it suggests that a moral high ground may be accomplished by certain actions. Morals are indeed important but they should not lead professional doctors around by the nose. Ethics are more important as they relieve both the doctor and patient of any individual responsibility or emotional attachment to the exchange. Since medicine has become highly regulated and associated with public policy, the idea of justice has become distorted and problematic for many within the medical industry.

Vermeire et al. (2001) suggested that this problem is deep and requires some new ways of thinking about how or even if justice may be played out in an ethical manner in any doctor-patient exchange. They wrote " the patient's perspective on health and illness has only recently begun to be taken into account in traditional compliance research. It is important to know what sense individuals make of the advice given to them. Compliance seems to be related to the quality, duration and frequency of interaction between the patient and doctor, (p.355). Justice may be attained only when the patient is satisfied with their own decision on whether or not to comply with a doctors' suggestion.


Ethics are not intended to be ignored for practical reasons and the more they are adhered to in a disciplined manner, the more successful the organization may become. Those in the medical field need to humble… [read more]

Ethics in Health Care Self-Assessment Essay

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Ethics permeate not only mine, but everyone's behavior. The things we do, act and say are all a direct reflection of our individual ethical standpoint and in reality are very hard to disguise. Dishonesty does not always mean that an ethical fault has occurred. In some rare cases lying and deception are needed to accomplish a task and the truth may need to be altered to reach a goal. This ethical approach requires a strong self-confidence and self-awareness to understand that many people, especially those who are seeking medical assistance, cannot take care of themselves and the truth may be too powerful for their limited understanding of the situation.

Since it is necessary to use dishonesty and deception within the medical profession an ethical strategy needs to address this issue. Professionals are entrusted to use their best judgment, ethical and otherwise. This trust is sacred and all actions should relate to a greater ethical purpose. The leadership of the medical organization and its ability to fuse ethics into the greater organizational strategy are extremely important in regulating those within that organization and how they practice their profession.

My ethical decision making process is best maintained by remaining open minded and flexible towards new ideas and new understandings of problems. Emotions tend to distort our decision making process and our ethical purity is in jeopardy if those emotions are not kept in check. Staying depolarized and above the fray in tough situations allows for the right decisions based on invested principles to manifest. This approach will no doubt serve me well in the future as the trials and tribulations of the medical profession are filled with these issues where emotions run high and lives are at stake.

Knowing myself becomes my best approach in dealing with ethical issues. The more I know about myself and how I perceive the world around me, the more I may be allowed to understand others and offer empathetic support. This ethical strategy is something I am comfortable with and can serve me well in the future of my career. I learned much during this ethical investigation into my behavior and the time spent contemplating these issues has made me more aware of myself and my subjective tendencies that truly dictate my ethical approach both in life and professionally.


American College of Healthcare Executives. Ethics Self-Assessment.… [read more]

Ethics: Tera Model Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,522 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The consequences of each ethics are; ethics of justice; procedures, standards and rules are not always followed in the hiring process. Such departures pose a risk of awkward situations that could damage the reputation of an organization or lead to financial losses. Ethics of care; the lack of empathy and understanding for the woman who is affected directly by this failure of respecting the procedures and the unfairness that rises. This can lead to others leaving the organization and seeking employment elsewhere.for the ethics of critique the establishment of other hiring processes that follow procedures in order to eliminate injustice is a great demonstration of transparency when it comes to the allocation of positions.

For Williamson taking one action only means that he is conforming to the unethical and irresponsible pattern of the behavior in the organization. It is on the basis of ethics of critique that William will reveal his ethical dilemma and take action.

The TERA model is a very helpful one especially when it comes to getting out of a situation that involves an ethical dilemma. The TERA model helps organizations in fostering corporate social responsibility since it gives a basis for ethical responsibility in the organization. It guides organizations on their ethical responsibility and hence they carry out their operations based on ethics.… [read more]

Closely Examining Police Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It also means that he doesn't have to be a team player when a police colleague has committed wrongdoing and asks to "cover me" (lie for me). That doesn't mean he needs to be a "snitch" but he has to have strong values and if his fellow officers know that about him, they are not as likely to ask him to do unethical things.

Should we admit to doing wrong?

When we are wrong, yes of course we should admit that candidly and thoroughly. In the first place coming right out and revealing culpability for an act is the ethically correct thing to do. Taking responsibility shows courage, but on the other hand, as the author points out on page 172, "guilty feelings" for things we did that are wrong stay with us for a long time. Christians understand that making mistakes is quite human, but after the fact of an error in judgment, an honest apology or a candid owing up to responsibility for the wrongdoing is the absolute right thing to do. Living with guilt can be hell, so knowing that out in front should cause all those who espouse Christian attitudes and attend church services to owe up to responsibility.

What is the difference between a mistake of the mind and a mistake of the heart?

A mistake can be made when the mind is cluttered with responsibilities, deadlines, and when a huge amount of pressure and stress invades a person's mind. No one is above making mental mistakes -- not President Barack Obama, not his Attorney General Eric Holder, not the Speaker of the House John Boehner, and certainly not the mayor in a small town in Mississippi -- and people accept errors of judgment if they are owned up to. But a mistake of the heart involves the human spirit, and that is far more serious and reflects negatively on the individual because it often reveals shallowness where there should be moral strength.

In conclusion, those whose ethics are strong in police work (and in other fields) hope that honesty and humility are not being lost in the dash to achieve success. This paper points out how Christian ethics (and good judgment) can help an officer avoid doing things that are wrong and that will cause guilt later. In the end, it is a personal choice, whether to do the right thing or do the thing that will seem to bring success.

Works Cited

Jones, J.R. (2006). Reputable Conduct: Ethical Issues in Policing and Corrections. Don Mills,

Ontario: Pearson Canada.

Perez-Pena. R. (2012). Studies Find More Students Cheating, With High Achievers No

Exception. The New York Times.…… [read more]

Criminal Justice: Morals Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


To this end, unless a person is insane or underage, they can freely choose whether or not to commit a crime, and can consequently be held personally liable. The concept of free will gives people the chance to exercise personal agency in the choices they make.

Determinists have, however, criticized the concept of free will on the grounds that humans have no control over their actions, and that it is the environment, or rather the natural world that drives people to act in a certain way (Williams & Arrigo, 2011). To this end, a person who commits a crime does so not because he/she chooses to, but because of the effect of their biological, social, and psychological environments. The psychological environment, in this case, refers to what an individual has been made to believe all their life (Williams & Arrigo, 2011). The social environment covers the sociological aspect of an individual's surrounding, in which case one who has been brought up in a neighborhood that considers violence pretty normal is highly likely to indulge in violent crime (Williams & Arrigo, 2011). From a biological standpoint, genetic factors determine an individual's behaviors, such that one inherits criminal behavior from their parents or family line (Williams & Arrigo, 2011).

I strongly subscribe to the concept of free will; in my opinion, the uniqueness of human beings cannot be overstated. Humans are able to think for themselves, and determine whether or not something is right. For this reason, I strongly believe that every human being has the ability to control their actions. I would not want to imagine the kind of society we would have if people were allowed to, for instance, argue that they committed a crime because, judging from the trend, members of their family have been programmed to do so. Such an argument is, in my opinion, outrageous.


Williams, C.R. & Arrigo, B.A. (2011). Ethics, Crime, and…… [read more]

Ethics Is a Branch Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, even in some cultures there may be situations in which killing a parent or child is allowable. For instance, in some cultures, if a woman cheats on her husband, she may be killed and the family may be permitted to do so. This is not necessarily utilitarianism, but Singer does address the anthropology of ethics.

4. Kant is a philosopher of what type of ethics?

a. existentialist ethics

b. deontological ethics

c. utilitarian ethics

The answer is B. Kant is the quintessential deontological ethical thinker. According to Kant, there is a categorical imperative to act a certain way in certain situations. This moral righteousness transcends culture. This is why utilitarianism and deontological ethics are polar opposites most of the time. Deontological ethics suggest that there is a moral right and wrong, such as it is always wrong to kill one's parents no matter what. It also does not matter what the consequences of an action are, or the motives of the individual. What matters is the nature of the act itself. Things are categorically right or wrong.

5. John Stuart Mills is what type of ethical philosopher?

a. deontological

b. utilitarian

c. character ethics

The answer is B. John Stuart Mills believed in the ethics of utilitarianism. The utilitarian ethic is partly based on the concept of the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Maximizing happiness is the key to making any moral or ethical decision. It is important to maximize the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This is bad for minority views, but good for everyone else. It is of the highest utility to maximize the greatest good for the…… [read more]

Ethics Starbucks Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (872 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


So, don't violate the FCPA and get the company in trouble is the extent of their ethics (McDonalds, 2014).

There are other steps that need to be undertaken. First, find the right people. You have to have people who are generally ethical as a starting point. A gang of crooks isn't going to be swayed by any code or training. So you have to be able to identify and recruit people who have high ethical standards in the first place. Then, you need to provide some training or guidance with respect to what ethics are expected of them. This may not be extensive, but it is important that there is some framing of ethics within the context of the organization, and that is much easier to do that with training programs. These training programs will also help to make ethics a part of the organizational culture. Having a culture of ethics creates an environment where people are less likely to engage in unethical activity. Having a culture that doesn't care about ethics only invites trouble with respect to unethical behavior.

There also needs to be some ethical infrastructure. An ethics office, a whistleblower hotline and specific whistleblower protections are all things that should be in place as part of the ethics infrastructure. Also, the organization's leaders need to be ethical. That is rather important, because all cultural guidance in an organization relies on leadership.

I have not experienced a breach of ethics in my workplace. I'm sorry but that's a crazy question to ask, assuming that everybody has experienced a breach of ethics. Usually people who do those sorts of things don't brag about it. Maybe management knows of things, but why would I? You can pick up the papers, though, and read about different ethical violations. You can imagine a situation, perhaps, where you have some information that could be important for the company, but damaging to a co-worker, and you don't want to say anything. You are caught between your obligations and loyalties to the company and those to your friend, creating an ethical dilemma. It can be difficult to resolve such dilemmas, because neither apparent option is going to have a positive outcome.


McDonalds. (2014). Standards of business conduct for employees. About McDonalds.com. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/investors/corporate_governance/codes_of_conduct/standards_of_business_conduct.html

Starbucks.com (2014). Starbucks on the issues. Starbucks. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from http://www.starbucks.ca/responsibility/learn-more/policies… [read more]

Ethics and Ethical Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (815 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethics and Ethical Case Study: Abortion

Given what an abortion involves and the parties and values at stake, it is highly likely that abortion will always be treated as a highly controversial subject within the human race. Pro-life supporters put focus on the inherent rights of fetus or embryo in being born; on the other hand, pro-choice supports emphasize the rights of the adult woman in determining whether or not she wants to bring the conceived life to term -- to this camp it's an issue of bodily privacy. The separate camps of those who support pro-life vs. those who support pro-choice doggedly debates these issues, and each seek to sway public opinion in an attempt to bolster legal support for their position -- with some parties even going so far as using threats, intimidation, stalking and violence. Thus, abortion will always be a hot-button issue for the American people. Marta through the dilemma she finds herself in is at a crossroads, placing her in a problem which is characterized by purely ethical issues.

However, the entire agency for the problem is with Marta: she caused all of these things to occur. Purpose Statement: This paper intends to prove the following thesis in terms of virtue ethics to demonstrate the inherent ethical responsibility that Marta has to her unborn child. Thesis Statement: Thus, from a perspective of virtue ethics the responsibility remains with Marta to do the most ethical thing. She should absolutely not abort her unborn child: in fact, allowing the child to come to being is perhaps the most ethically responsible choice that Marta can make.

Virtue ethics is the ideal ethical theory to use in this case, because it places the strongest focus on the moral quality of the person who is engaging in action. Thus, the issue no longer revolves around whether or not an intention is right or wrong, but on whether or not the person acting is expressing good character/moral virtues or not (Garrett, 2005). In the case of Marta, she did not act with good character: she chose to get drunk, she chose to have sex (presumably unprotected sex), and she chose to do that with someone who was virtually a complete stranger. In fact, Marta also chose to never see this person again, something else which does not indicate a strong character, put rather a proclivity for disposable relationships. Thus, carrying the child to term is one thing that…… [read more]

Ayer on the Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,222 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These examples show the inherent sense of subjectivity apparent in moral judgments.

However, some of the most fundamental objections lay in the fact that critics of this theory argue that one simply can't equate an idea like "murder is wrong" to a sentiment like "chocolate ice cream is delicious." These critics argue that these two subjective statements are light-years apart and demonstrate Ayer's problem with the way in which he views the world. As one critic explains, expressing things like "Metallica is the best band" and "Julia Roberts is the best actress" are merely opinions which vary throughout the world. "Murder is wrong" is too an opinion, but this opinion is viewed as almost universal throughout the world and reflects a certain cultural temperature and viewpoint on the sense of universal morality. While it's true that not every single person would agree about the morality of stealing, lying and cheating, most would. These united opinions actually reflect the moral temperature of the times and show that in fact, most people agree on the morality of certain acts, and that these acts are not at all subjective as one might argue. This point naturally contradicts and addresses Ayer's claim that his theory is supported by the notion of disagreement: "Even clear-thinking people commonly disagree about moral issues. These differences reveal differences in subjective attitudes" (Pollard). For example, why the country might be entirely divided on the nature of abortion and whether it is right or wrong, most individuals will be able to agree that murder (in the most general sense) is wrong.

Other main points that Ayer uses to support his argument are as follows. The first pillar of support that he describes is the phenomenon of individual judgment: "Individuals make moral judgments in their own way. We are guided by our own perspective on things, our own moral convictions and conscience" (Pollard). While this is true in most cases, one could argue that most people, when exercising their individual freedom, choose not to kill, this represents a certain underlying truth at work and at stake. The fact that people have free will and most appear to be deterred from killing, finding it objectionable and repulsive, and that most agree in its immorality, appears to demonstrate an inherent moral truth about it. Furthermore, Ayer's point of support regarding emotion can also be refuted. According to Ayer, "Making moral judgments involves having the right emotional responses to things, without which we could not make moral judgments. Emotions are had by individuals"(Pollard). Emotions are had by individuals but many individuals have similar emotions, such as recoiling at the sight of someone being hurt, or feeling a sense of injustice when a child is hurt or wounded. These are all demonstrations of a certain universality of the human condition.

Thus, Ayer's argument on moral judgments is a fascinating, and strong one, but it is inherently flawed. This argument speaks to moral judgments as mere opinions, no more truthful or significant than ideas like strawberry… [read more]

Robert Latimer Case Ethics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Of course, for some people, certain ethical actions are simply wrong because a particular moral creed 'says so.' For example, certain Christian sects forbid any type of mercy killing because it is viewed as playing God. There is also the notion of 'Natural Law' or that certain actions violate natural law, in this case the obligation of the parent to support the life of the child. But vs. The universalizing of Natural Law theory, a more commonly-used theory is that of social contract theory (SCT) which holds that "morality consists in the set of rules governing behavior, that rational people would accept, on the condition that others accept them as well" (Social contract theory, n.d.). Social contract theory suggests that persons give over certain liberties to the state in exchange for security: in this instance, the ability to decide whether a child should live or die based upon the parent's estimations of her quality of life, versus the state which categorically prohibits such behavior for the larger good of the community.

But perhaps the most cogent analysis of the Latimer case is that of principalism, which holds that "four principles including respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice" are at the heart of all ethical actions (Theoretical approaches, n.d., Penn State).In this instance, honoring the Latimer parents' right to make autonomous decisions for their child, their desire to do good and not ill, and above all the injustice of punishing a father who was trying to 'do right' by his child and posed no threat to society seems to support not convicting Latimer. Latimer did not act like someone who wished to deny his daughter life because she was disabled. Rather, he wished to free her from pain after literally devoting every second of his existence to help her previously.


Eckstein, C. (1995). Tracy Lynn Latimer: Better off dead? CHN.

Social contract theory. (n.d.). Retrieved from:


Theoretical approaches. (n.d.) Penn State. Retrieved:

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/d/x/dxm12/n458/theoretical_approaches.htm… [read more]

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