Study "Ethics / Morality" Essays 166-220

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Ethics Has Always Been a Rather Complex Research Paper

… Ethics has always been a rather complex word -- or concept, rather -- to understand as, in the past, I have thought that ethics were different depending on the individual; that is, if a person thought that ethics had to do with their feeling of right and wrong or whatever, then that was their ethical code; if another person thought that ethics had to do with their religion, then that was their personal ethical code, and so on… However, after the first lecture, I understand that ethics is not either of those things (or other), and it does not change depending on the individual. The lecture stated that ethics is two things: "well-based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do…" and, secondly, ethics is about "the study and development of one's ethical standards."

While ethics do not change depending on the individual, it is interesting to note from chapter one that there is no "analytical method" sufficient for any ethical choice if a person (policymaker in the example) is not a sensible person (Bluhm & Heineman 2007, p. 4). Today, we have an abundance of new issues that need to be dealt with from an ethical perspective that have never needed to be dealt with before. There has been a lot of research and studies done on the typical whistle-blowing and lying, as noted in chapter one, but there are so many new issues like cloning and stem-cell research and the manipulation of genes (2007, p. 4) that are becoming more and more pressing because the possibility of all those things is very real in this day and age, while in the past they may have been only a figment of the scientific imagination. The main point here is that public policy is social and political (Bardach 2008, xv).

Chapter one notes the typical methods of ethical analysis: Kantianism (deontology), utilitarianism (consequentialism), and prudent pragmatism (Bluhm & Heineman 2007, p. 4). The book states that prudent pragmatism is by far the best ethical formulation of public policy as it "reflects both the American disdain for disembodied abstractions and our recognition that the world of values is multifaceted and untidy 2007, (p. 22).

Today it seems like the most popular method of ethical analysis is utilitarianism. The fundamental ideal of utilitarianism is that the greatest good is the greatest amount. This is one of the fundamental aspects of democracy. Utilitarianism seems all about trying to detach the individual from the action. Kantianism would argue against this, saying that an action can't be a moral action unless the motives themselves are moral (Fischer & Miller 2006, p. 36).

To act in an utilitarian way means that we act so as to always consider the social benefit of the act. This is to say that to live life in a way that always benefited others it to live a very ethical life. So, to be ethical in a utilitarian manner means that we must also act so that… [read more]

Sociology 120 Ethics and Social Responsibility Research Paper

… Sociology

Ethics & Social Responsibility

People begin to develop their internal beliefs from the time they are small children. Factors such as the conditions that a person grows up in affect the way that they see the world. If a… [read more]

Ethics in Mechanical Engineering Ethical Conflicts Essay

… Ethics in Mechanical Engineering

Ethical conflicts for mechanical engineers usually rest in a discrepancy between the personal ethical values of the individual, and the values their profession represents. The field of mechanical engineering in general is based on the design and development of machines or machinery operated production equipment. However, according to (2010, p. 1), "Within each branch of mechanical engineering there are specific jobs. Some engineers design products. They must determine the needs of the user, the physical problems of building the equipment, the cost of the equipment, and its effect on the environment. Other mechanical engineers supervise the production and installation"

Just as the field of mechanical engineering can entail a variety of functions, it can also produce many different types of ethical dilemmas. For example, in Mike W. Martin & Roland Schinzinger's 2004 book Ethics in Engineering, a case study is presented in which an engineer, Bob, is struggling with his function in working for a company that manufactures bombs. Bob is faced with an ethical dilemma that pits his values of being committed to his employer and financially supporting his family against his value of human life and the avoidance of contribution to human suffering. Although Bob does not directly handle the bombs that his company produces, "he enables the factory to run efficiently" (p. 267).

Bob is able to rationalize his conflict of values by telling himself that basically, someone has to produce the bombs, and if he did not do his job, then someone else would. In other words, no matter what decisions he makes, the bombs will still be produced, so he might as well just do his job to the best of his ability and reap the rewards. This is a common and rather effective rationale for people facing ethical dilemmas, in that it not only helps to ease some of the guilt associated with doing something that someone like Bob feels in his gut to be unethical, but it also provides a rational motivation to continue the behavior in question.

Also allowing Bob to continue in his position without unbearable guilt is the fact that his commitments to his family and to his employer are indeed legitimate ethical values. Therefore, Bob is essentially trading one ethical value for another, which in his mind, serves to 'even out' the imbalance and eliminate any feelings of wrongdoing. Then again, the first tenet of the 2000 Australian Code of Ethics for Engineers states that "Members shall at all times place their responsibility for the welfare, health and safety of the community before their responsibility to sectional or private interests, or to other members." Taking that into consideration, Bob must then decide if weapons production is good for the community in terms of protection and income, or harmful to the community because weapons have the single purpose of violence.

The fifth tenet of the 2000 Australian Code of Ethics for Engineers states that "Members shall apply their skill and knowledge in the interest of… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Term Paper

… Ethics

Personal differences and preferences can impact organizational ethics because often the leadership of the firm dictates ethics for the remaining employees. For example, the ethical culture at Wisson is in part dictated by the actions of Waters. The preferences… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Get Book Hellriegel Slocum Case Study

… ¶ … Personal Can Ethics Get?

Discuss fully how personal differences and preferences can impact organizational ethics. The scholarly journal Organizational Dynamics (Schminke, et al., 2007, p. 173) published a research piece called "The Power of Ethical Work Climates" that… [read more]

Ethics in Administration Book Report

… Ethics in Administration

Terry L. Cooper's book the Responsible Administrator: An Approach to Ethics for the Administrative Role examines the problem of maintaining responsible conduct from the manager's viewpoint. Managers oftentimes are left feeling confused when it comes to their… [read more]

Search for Universal Ethics Term Paper

… Natural Law and Morality

"The Search for Universal Ethics" recommends a reconsideration of natural law as a path toward a universal ethics. The key features of natural laws theories unify divine providence, human rationality, and morality. In brief, the view is that God has endowed us with the ability to recognize the moral truth, and this truth affords a place for all of nature and a cherished place for human rationality. As "The Search for Universal Ethics" says:

The vision of the world within which the doctrine of natural law developed and still finds its meaning today, involves therefore the reasoned conviction that there exists a harmony between the three substances which are God, man, and nature. (3.3)

This paper is dedicated to understanding this harmony in its broadest outline; I shall dwell on each of the three central features of the harmony -- God, persons, and nature. We shall see that the harmony is also a mutual reinforcing: for each, the better we understand it, the more we see the others in it.

In the contemporary zeitgeist, the natural order is characterized as impersonal and perhaps even hostile to human ambitions and morality. The cosmos care nothing about us, and we tend to think of ethics as a concern localized to human interests. "Christianity," by contrast, "affirms that the Logos [the "divine founding principle"] is personal, transcendent and creator." (3.3) This is an immediately striking and inspiring feature of "The Search for Universal Ethics." It envisages a universe that has not only been imbued with an "ethical message," but which is itself benevolent, rational, and loving. (3.3) Moreover, we have been provided with free will that transcends this natural order, but also with the rationality to act in accordance with its ethical message. God has done all of this out of love and so that we may live ethical lives. According to Aquinas: God has care of the entire universe, God's choosing to bring into existence beings who can act freely and in accordance with principles of reason is enough to justify our thinking of those principles of reason as law.

As nearly all philosophies of the world recognize, we humans are both embedded in the natural order and in some sense distinct from it or "outside" of it; as Aristotle had it, we are both rational and animal. "The Search for Universal Ethics" is no exception, but it accounts more completely than most other such theories for the unity in…… [read more]

How Personal Can Ethics Essay

… ¶ … Personal can Ethics get

Valerie is facing an ethical dilemma because she is forced to consider her personal well-being vs. that of the company and other major stakeholders. The performance of the company is struggling as a result of Waters' inept management, so she has an obligation to the shareholders and the other employees to address the situation immediately. Valerie is in a vulnerable position herself, though, if she chooses to become a whistle-blower. She may receive a visa to stay as a student, but only if she can find a way to pay her tuition fees. Valerie has no ethical obligation to Waters at this point.

If I was Valerie, I would take the information to the CEO. The company is suffering as the result of Waters' performance. Moreover, he is breaching the company's code of ethics to suit his own needs. The CEO has a duty to the shareholders as agent to maximize their wealth, and Waters is standing in the way of that happening. The CEO also does not have a specific duty to Waters, who was hired under an old regime.

From a consequentialist perspective, if Valerie withholds this information in order to protect her visa status or to ensure that her education is paid, then she is not behaving any better than Waters -- she is receiving a benefit for her role in this bribery. From a utilitarian perspective, Valerie will benefit the employees, the shareholders and the other perfume companies from blowing the whistle -- thus meeting the principle of providing the greatest good for the greatest number. Taking a deontological stance, the moral imperative is defined by the company's code of ethics and by the laws of the United States, which stand against bribery. Thus by any ethical perspective, Valerie is obligated to report the fraud.

Valerie is facing both personal and professional stressors. She faces personal stressors in the possibility of losing her status in the United States, which would cause her to move. This would create significant upheaval in her personal life, including possibly compromising her relationship. In addition, she risks losing access to her higher education as the result of dismissal should the issue with Waters result in that. Despite some enhancement of whistleblower protections in recent years, there is still the risk of dismissal.

Valerie is also facing a number of professional stressors. She does not know if Waters' acceptance of bribes is standard industry practice or not. Wisson has a code of ethics, but this may be for show rather than something that upper management takes seriously. If that is the case, then Waters may not be dismissed. In such a situation, Valerie would have an unworkable situation. Moreover, she feels some responsibility for the team. She does…… [read more]

Deontological Ethics in Vocational Dilemmas Case Study

… Deontological Ethics in Vocational Dilemmas

The Deontological Ethical Approach

In principle, the deontological ethical approach requires that our actions be dictated by objective reference to formal rules instead of by reference to the motivation of our choices as in virtue ethics or the specific consequences of those choices as in consequentialism or utilitarianism (Rosenstand, 2008). In many respects, the deontological approach often produces undesirable results because it is not flexible enough to adjust to situations where formal rules that may be generally valid and beneficial produce result that are distinctly immoral.

For example, during the Nazi era in Germany or the Slavery era in the southern American states, the formal laws established by the respective governments prohibited assisting or harboring Jews or escaped slaves, even if complying with the law resulted in the unjustified killing or inhumane torture of morally innocent individuals. Other moral systems recognize the value and importance of adhering to formal laws and rules in general, while allowing for exceptions where compliance produces an immoral result (Rosenstand, 2008).

Therefore, deontological ethical systems produce moral results only in so far as the rules to which they require adherence are themselves inherently moral, or inherently capable of adjusting to situations in a flexible manner. Unfortunately, formal rules are tremendously susceptible to being unjustifiable depending on their source and the circumstances in which they are established. Since most rules and laws are necessarily formulated in absolute terms rather than in terms that are adjustable, deontological ethical systems frequently produce poor outcomes (Rosenstand, 2008).

Applying the Deontological Approach to the Vocational Case Study

The case study presumably presents two specific ordinary rules of conduct: (1) that it is morally wrong…… [read more]

Peter Singer Essay

… Poverty Duty

The Ethic of Hunger

The question of a moral or ethical responsibility towards those who are impoverished has been one of the most long standing debates in human society. Every major religion has some doctrine of caring for the poor, though these of course are subject to myriad interpretations depending on the time and culture. From this fact, however, it might be deduced that there is some innate imperative to help others; that it is a fundamental and universal moral principle to assist those on the brink of starvation with the means -- either in the form of direct sustenance or through monetary gifts that allow the individuals to procure their own food -- of survival. Yet this extrapolation is built only on limited observation, and does not necessarily hold up to a rigorous logical examination. It is possible to see an incumbent ethical and moral duty to alleviate hunger, however, using a fairly standard ethical theory.

The basic precept of the Utilitarian ethic is "the greatest good for the greatest number." It should be immediately apparent that this creates an ethical imperative for one who has surplus food -- or means of procuring food -- to give some of that food (or some of the means of procuring food) to an individual that does not have a sufficient amount to eat. If this is not immediately apparent, it can be made so by a brief examination of the utility of various acts. For instance, I will certainly get a great deal of utility from my morning latte, which (with tip included, of course) costs me five dollars. Not only is there caloric value (i.e. It staves off hunger), but I also enjoy it immensely. That same five dollars, however, could be used to buy a fully-cooked roast chicken at the grocery store, which if given to a hungry family of four will provide them with…… [read more]

Ethics Issues Essay

… Ethics

Business Ethics

The foundation of business ethics is the definition of morality and the development of a series of cognitive frameworks which can be used in the navigating of business decisions over time. Of the many aspects and theories of ethics, the normative ethics of business are most often relied on for defining shared moral values, often formalized into common law. Ethics also are defined from their application as well, specifically to situations and to judgments people make regarding the direction of their lives and the decisions they make. Finally ethics are often used to define the philosophy of societies, often serving as the basis of their laws and regulations for how business is transacted and rights protected. Ethics then can be tactical in scope, defining how people work with and treat one another, and also strategic to the point of being philosophical as well.

Ethical Issues that Impact the Community in the Pharmaceutical Industry

There are many issues that are influencing the community and pharmaceutical industry. The first and most pervasive is the lack of ethics in the area of financial reporting, specifically where transactions involving government funds are concerned (Verschoor, 2006). The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 did little to alleviate the widespread corruption in the area of pharmaceutical drug company's reporting of revenues so that investors could not readily understand their claims of capturing greater numbers of customers than they actually did (Verschoor, 2006). This lack of financial reporting also has created a lack of visibility into just how the costs of new drugs, often put at $800M to produce, is accurately being reported…… [read more]

International Management Ethics and Values Thesis

… International Management Ethics & Values

Last month, a Brooklyn man was arrested for his role in brokering the sale of a kidney from an Israeli man to an American recipient, in direct violation of the National Organ Transplant Act (Mullen, 2009). The case has cast a spotlight on the laws prohibiting the sale of donor organs in the United States. Despite these worries in the U.S., the sale of organs is thriving around the world. According to the Organ Watch program at the University of California, Berkeley, some 5-10% of kidneys transplanted worldwide last year involved purchased organs (Ibid). In some societies, there is a high degree of moral outrage against organ sales, but when the issue is viewed objectively, it is clear that the sale of organs should be allowed.

In the United States today, there is a chronic shortage of donor organs. Part of the problem is the opt-in organ donation system, but evidence from New Zealand shows that a more significant contributor to the problem is that death needs to occur from catastrophic consequences, and incidents of such are too low to meet the demand for organ donation (MacDonald, 2005). Given this, the pendulum of the moral argument against live donation swings the other way. By prohibiting live donation, we are in essence condemning to death thousands of Americans every year. We as a people are aware of the organ shortage and we are aware of its consequences and yet, because of moral outrage, we willing choose to allow our friends and neighbors to die. The moralists among us are more outraged about the donation of a kidney than they are about the death of the potential recipient. By the standards of result-based consequentialist ethics, this is a moral fallacy.

There is also the question of the individual rights. Kant would view this issue in terms of the categorical imperative, which is the standard of rationality based on the law of autonomous will (Johnson, 2008). This has direct implications for live organ donation. We as Americans have built our nation on the notion that the government should be as little involved as possible in our lives and affairs, to the…… [read more]

Business Ethics Everybody Research Proposal

… Business Ethics

Everybody can agree that business needs to be conducted ethically. The problem with business ethics, however, is that there is no clear concept of what precisely is meant by the phrase 'ethical'. Managers have different stakeholders to concern… [read more]

Ethics According to the Principles of Ethical Essay

… Ethics

According to the principles of ethical relativism, moral decisions are made on the basis of what an individual believes, or what the culture from which the individual comes stands for. There is no general set of principles or morals… [read more]

Ethics Values and Morals Thesis

… Corporate Ethics and the Age of Scandal: Stewart, Fuld and Madoff

The early millennium was an exceptionally tumultuous time for corporate America. Revelations of major accounting, securities and trading scandals were a regularity during this time, as individuals and organizations… [read more]

Ethics the Best Practices for Improving Thesis

… Ethics

The best practices for improving an organization's ethical climate are having ethics programs and officers; having realistic objectives; having ethical decision making processes; having codes of conduct; disciplining violators; having oversight from board of directors; conducting ethics audits and risk assessments; communicating effectively; engaging in ethics training; having corporate transparency; and installing whistle-blowing mechanisms. Of these, the most important is oversight from the Board of Directors. Ethical management begins with commitment from the top, and the Board will ensure that the CEO is fully committed. From there, having ethics programs and officers is important, both for its symbolism and for the practical work they will do with respect to many of these other best practices. The next few are all around the same with respect to level of priority - training, communication, audits and codes of conduct. These four all contribute at different stages of the ethical decision making process. Lastly, the reinforcement systems must be in place. They are not as important as doing it right the first time, but they are necessary nonetheless. This refers to whistle-blowing mechanisms and discipline of violators.

3) the two main ethical principles are consequences/results and duty. The…… [read more]

Republican Ethics the Republican Party Essay

… Republican Ethics

The Republican Party of the United States of America is a very interesting entity. On the one hand, it ostensibly stands for small government and reduced intervention into people's lives, yet at the same time it intervenes quite heavily in such issues as abortion and religion ( Initially, this seems like a paradox -- a party that speaks of less government and greater individual freedom appears to be limiting freedom, which would be a violation of its own ethics. Yet Republicans have persisted in much the same way, at least in regards to these matters, for several decades, and arguably much further back in the history of this nation. How is it that the Republican Party can maintain any sense of ethical rectitude when manages to spend so much time expounding the virtues of individual liberty while at the same time appearing to limit those liberties? Is this truly unethical, or is the situation more complex than it appears?

First, it is essential to get the facts straight. The Republican Party truly has been the party of freedom and equality for much of its history, during far different and more controversial times than the present era. Not only is it the party of Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery, but such sentiments extend even farther back in American history. Frank Abial Flower, a Republican historian of the nineteenth century, recalled the Republican reaction to the Dred Scott decision as an abhorrence at the "barbarism of the majority of the court" for upholding principles of "slavocracy" as a "divine institution" (Flower, 110). Such rhetoric makes it clear what the Republican attitude towards slavery was; this party's identity since its early days has been that of a protector of liberties and an arbiter of equality. These are identities that the party still claims today ( One might reasonably wonder, then, why such groups as the Log Cabin Republicans must exist with the stated purpose "to achieve a more inclusive GOP" (

A consideration of the facts as they stand today reveals a party that is far less inclusive and liberty-loving than the old Republican Party. It is not necessarily that Republican values have changed, however, but rather it is equally possible that American and global society has changed in ways that do not align with Republican values. A large part of the Republican Party's opposition to slavery and desire for increased liberty and equality stems from moral considerations of decent human behavior ( In the modern era, as certain societal mores -- particularly those having to do with restrictions on sexuality and other issues of the human body -- have become more lax or disappeared entirely, The Republican Party has been faced with the dilemma of shifting its values. On the one hand, the party still stood (and stands) for individual liberty; on the other hand, the party also strongly believes in a societal mandate for morality.

The party's decisions in the latter half of the twentieth century and… [read more]

Ethics Within the Field of Economic Research Thesis

… ¶ … ethics within the field of economic research. The first step will be to introduce the topic of ethics. This introduction will explain the basic definition of ethics and some of the fundamental concepts. It will outline why the issue of ethics is so controversial. The thesis, which concludes the introduction, is that economic researchers will tend to reach conclusions that support the views of their financial backers.

The paper will begin with an overview of a few recent cases where economic researchers appear to tread on ethical violations. These cases will allow for in-depth discussion of the issue. The cases will illustrate some of the dilemmas, each of which will be covered in the body of the paper. In particular, the issue of disclosure will be analyzed. It is reasonable that researchers will have bias, but economic researchers seldom disclose their biases publicly, preferring to take the appearance of impartiality.

Such lack of disclosure may well be legal, but it does point to an ethical dilemma surrounding the motivation. If the motivation for conducting the research is suspect, or the motivation for the hypotheses tested is suspect, this calls into question the very validity of the research.

After the in-depth explanation of the ethical dilemmas that are raised, conclusions will be drawn. Multiple examples will be sought out, regardless of whether or not they support my hypothesis. The findings will then be analyzed and some conclusions reached about the ethics of producing economic research that supports the views of your financial backers.


The issue of ethics has become one of the most controversial topics in the public sphere in the past several years. Waves of corporate scandals in the earlier part of this decade, the subprime crisis, and money-losing banks spending bailout funds on bonuses are among the most prominent debates surrounding ethics. Yet, ethics impact all aspects of our lives. Ethics represent the moral codes by which a society governs itself. Ethics are specifically applied to interactions with others. From each action we take flows a reaction. The topic of ethics reflects society's concern with how the actions of one actor affect other actors in our society.

Each action we take in our personal lives and each action we take in the workplace is guided by an internal code of ethics, a moral compass that tells us whether the action is "right" or "wrong." Yet, there is no definition of right and wrong. Our laws and religious texts will attempt to codify rules by which to live, but they cannot codify our ethics. Ethics reflect individual choices, but ones that are guided by the norms in our given society…… [read more]

Integrity Moral Obligation of Role Models Essay

… Ethics - Role Model Integrity


Defining Personal Integrity:

Personal integrity is a relatively rare quality for several specific reasons: it denotes obligations that are often contrary to our natural impulses; it is more… [read more]

Ethics in the Study of Philosophy Essay

… Ethics

In the study of philosophy, it is perhaps the study of ethics that is considered most interesting among all its branches, primarily because of the great variance and randomness in interpretation that it gives, whether one is thinking consciously of ethics as a form of philosophy or not.

As a branch of philosophy, ethics is considered interesting because it does not have a set of rules, and if there are rules, these are loosely interpreted and subject to the individual's interpretation and highly dependent on his/her eventual behavior after interpreting an event to be ethical or unethical, based on his/her beliefs and values. As defined formally, ethics is the "study of...standards as we use or propose to judge such things." It is different from morality, which is defined as the determination of the rightness or wrongness of an action or behavior (Newall, 2005). Ethics is more complex than morality because it is not a concept that can be…… [read more]

Three Challenges to Ethics Essay

… ¶ … Ethics

Sterba, James P. Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

The title of James P. Sterba's work Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism, refers to what Sterba considers the three major new paradigms offered to oppose 'traditional' forms of ethical thought. Environmentalists, feminists and multiculturalists, according to Sterba, all argue that the traditional, that is to say, universalizing methods of reckoning ethical norms are in error. Each new theoretical ethical system charges that what seems universal is in fact ridden with bias. Environmentalism demands that the anthropocentric nature of traditional ethics that places humans in the center of the universe be shifted, feminism suggests that traditional ethics unjustly prioritize what is sexed as male over what is sexed as female, and multiculturalism questions the entire paradigm of Westernization in general.

Although the paradigm shifts suggested by environmentalists, feminists, and multiculturalists are radical, Sterba attempts to take a more balanced perspective and find a truce between traditional ethical norms and these ideals. Sterba first begins his book with a definition of traditional, Western, universalizing ethics in the form of the debates between Aristotelianism, Kantianism, and utilitarianism. To some extent, other than their universalizing schema, Sterba is faced with a challenge of suggesting that all of these ethical systems are somehow the 'same,' although other than the fact that the three modern paradigms he cites are responding to the philosophers of the past, they seem to have little in common. Kantian categorical imperatives and utilitarian 'the best for the greatest number' ideals seem inexorably opposed.

However, Sterba does make an important point that many new philosophies have injected new concepts into old ethical debates, like the rights of non-human entities such as the planets. Environmentalism requires humans not to see their concerns and needs, even their ethical needs, as the center of the universe. It can be difficult to think of the future of the planet when coming to a moral calculus of a situation, when traditionally only the rights of human actors might be called into question by an ethicist. Taking a more future-oriented strategy in general is required of an environmentalist approach to ethics. But Sterba believes that fundamentally the ethical concept of proportionality is consistent with both traditional ethics and the new environmentalist ethics. For example, hunting for ivory does proportionately far more harm to all living beings than it does to help poor humans, while using animals in other ways might be ethically justified and thus permissible for either an environmentalist or a traditional ethicist who places human rights before animal rights (Sterba 37). Banning the hunting of ivory thus is the greatest good for the greatest number of current and future human and animals and the planet. It also serves a moral categorical imperative of doing what is good, obeying the law.

But examples such as these can somewhat frustrating, for Sterba selects his examples very carefully, rather than raises real-world challenges to his merging… [read more]

Ethics and Integrity in the Workplace Thesis

… Ethics and Integrity in the Workplace

The focus of this paper is ethical integrity in the workplace. Workplace ethics and integrity encompasses more than one might think and in fact, ethics and integrity it will be noted in this study,… [read more]

Ethics in Management Research Proposal

… Ethics and Management

Management and Ethics

In this paper, the author investigates the ethics of business management. After reviewing the literature to determine the concerns mentioned by business ethicists, the author compares those concerns with the concerns of a small… [read more]

Personal Code of Ethics Thesis

… Personal Code of Ethics is much like the human brain. Everyone already has one but some people tend to use it to better effect than others. Moreover, just like the human brain, a personal code of ethics tends to grow… [read more]

Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Research Proposal

… Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is the philosopher's treatise on virtue ethics, teleological ethics, and human happiness. The Greek philosopher presents virtue as an essential component of good character: as a state of mind and a state of being. Virtue inspires individuals to act righteously, to treat others well, and to follow moral and ethical codes. However, Aristotle does not offer a deontological ethical code that assumes universal behavioral standards of right or wrong. The Nicomachean Ethics encourage flexible ethical decision-making based on the context of an event. Aristotle therefore places a large degree of confidence in the human actor, noting that from virtue and good character stem ethical actions. Acting ethically and virtually in turn lead to happiness. Happiness, according to Aristotle, is the ultimate aim of human life. The Nicomachean Ethis is composed of ten books. Aristotle stresses the concepts that virtue is the foundation of ethical behavior, and that ethical behavior is essential for achieving the goal of happiness.

Although Aristotle does not proscribe behavior, the philosopher does outline the core elements of virtue. As the foundation of ethical behavior, virtue is that which inspires the individual to act in a righteous fashion. Aristotle emphasizes free will and the power of the individual to make ethical decisions. In Book One, Aristotle underscores the importance of taking action and of employing free will in the pursuit of happiness. The philosopher claims that virtue alone is insufficient for morality. A virtuous character is full of potential: the potential to act and to choose actions that result in happiness. A virtuous character that does not act is not necessarily ethical. Actions are what determine ethics. In this sense, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics form the foundation of utilitarianism. Happiness is the end that justifies the means. Happiness is the goal of every action, the ultimate goal of all decisions. Every ethical dilemma can be settled by determining whether the act brings pleasure or pain to all individuals involved. Therefore, Aristotle's most prominent messages that demonstrated his belief in man's potential to be good include the following. First, a character steeped in virtue is one most capable of acting ethically. Second, each human being is endowed with free will and the opportunity to choose an ethical or virtuous action over an unethical or sinful one. Third, all human beings desire happiness, and happiness stems from virtuous action.

In Chapter 12 of Book One, Aristotle distinguishes between justice and happiness as well as between virtue and happiness. The whole of Book One seems to be devoted to Aristotle's thesis that happiness is the end goal toward which all rational beings reach. In Chapter 12 of Book One, Aristotle claims that happiness is prized as if it were a divine state. Happiness is always considered the ultimate objective of human behavior and of human life. An individual can be the best runner in his city-state and the most he can hope to receive or to achieve is praise and admiration. Happiness may still elude him no matter… [read more]

Business - Ethics Personal Thesis

… Business - Ethics


Personal Moral Perspective in Relation to Classical Moral Systems:

Human ethical values derive from numerous different perspectives with very different bases of their philosophical origin. Character/virtue ethics emphasize the attributes of the underlying motivation of the individual rather than the ultimate result of choices and actions. Deontological ethics in its absolute form requires strict adherence to rules without regard to whether the effect of those rules accomplishes good or causes harm. Utilitarianism focuses exclusively on the effect of human action and on the greatest relative good wherever the outcome of moral choices is ambiguous. Moral relativism conceives of all moral values as subjective rather than objective and as exclusive functions of societal norms and values.

My personal ethical perspective absolutely rejects moral relativism in principle, precisely because it allows virtually anything that is condoned by society, including actions that violate every other mechanism of moral decision making. According to moral relativism, the Christians who sheltered Jews in Nazi Germany and occupied Europe to prevent their murder were committing immoral acts because they violated the social values of the Nazis and the laws then in place in that society.

Similarly, I reject the absolute deontological perspective for the same reason, as well as because even formal rules that ordinarily achieve moral results are sometimes completely inadequate to address moral issues, such as when strict adherence to them actually contradicts objective aspects of morality. For example, an absolute moral rule against lying ordinarily prevents deceptive and dishonest conduct designed to take unfair advantage of others. However, in certain situations, such as shielding someone from heartbreaking knowledge, deception may serve a moral purpose. Character/virtue ethics are usually consistent with objective moral values, but because they emphasize motivation rather than the effect of human choices and actions, may sometimes lead to contradictory results where motivation is less meaningful than results. Utilitarianism is closest to my own philosophical moral perspective because it values the ultimate effect of moral decisions and because it offers a logical approach to weighing competing interests where moral choices result in some harm in addition to moral good.

Personal Ethical Perspective and Potential Problems in the Workplace:

Because I reject moral absolutism completely, I would anticipate that this might present a conflict in many work environments by virtue of the fact that vocational environments, much like larger human societies, tend to feature institutionalized values.

In man…… [read more]

Business Ethics Term Paper

… ¶ … business ethics are, and what they mean to the organization and the individual. Business ethics mean different things to different people, which is quite clear in the way some unethical organizations do business. Throughout history, a high standard… [read more]

Teaching Ethics Term Paper

… Teaching Methods: Ethics in the Military Classroom

Ethics Instruction

Special Considerations for Ethics Instruction in Military Classrooms

Teaching Ethics to U.S. Soldiers in a Classroom Environment

Today, the United States is prosecuting two ground wars in the Middle East with… [read more]

Ethics Awareness Inventory Term Paper

… Business - Ethics


Ethics is a set of principles or values that helps us define what courses of action in life are good and distinguishes them from courses of action that are bad. In the workplace environment, certain ethical issues arise that are defined by the rule of law (Daft 2005), but others may require us to apply personal values and ethical standards to determine the right course of action. Different systems of ethical analysis yield distinctly different results because they emphasize different criteria and underlying assumptions of the relative importance of the individual elements comprising ethical issues.

Survey of Ethical Value Systems:

The field of ethics includes several different perspectives, each with its own focus, criteria, advantages, and disadvantages. Virtue ethics emphasizes the character of the individual and addresses the general approach to life as a guide for the ethical analysis of particular circumstances within the framework of that general perspective.

Utilitarianism is an ethical perspective that emphasizes the end result and the good of the many, which conflicts directly with deontological ethical theories that conceive of right and wrong only in terms of the ethics of the means implemented to achieve an end result without equivalent focus on the end results or benefits associated with them (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Finally, the concept of equity emphasizes the principle of fairness and cultural relativism refers to the point-of-view that concepts of right and wrong are artificial constructs determined by cultural values and social mores that may differ substantially among different societies. Under the strictest application of cultural relativism, virtually no human conduct is susceptible to moral judgment because all concepts of morality and justice derive from societal attitudes and beliefs rather than from any objective principles or values. Conversely, under virtue ethical analysis and utilitarianism, the end result of our actions is far more important than the specific methods of implementing the decisions necessary to achieve the most beneficial results. Virtue ethics permits the widest possible range of ethical choices provided only that their underlying motivation is consistent with equitable moral intentions (Hursthouse 1999).

Personal Ethical Perspective for Responding to Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace:

My personal ethical perspective is an attempt to blend what I perceive to be as the strengths of several classical ethical theories while avoiding their corresponding weaknesses in specific circumstances. In the most general sense, I subscribe to the virtue ethics position of setting out to "do the right thing" wherever possible. In that regard, I try to adhere to rules where they do not conflict with other…… [read more]

Philosophy Ethics Term Paper

… Ethics

Philosophy - Ethics

In the famous Woody Allen movie Broadway Danny Rose, the title character, played by Allen himself, is portrayed as a moral character who must contend with the vices of others as part of his lot in life. According to Gert's conception of morality, Danny Rose would most certainly fit the category of a morally virtuous person. He does not kill anyone in the course of the film, and we can believe easily that he would never kill anyone willfully. Nor does he cause pain to anyone - at least not willfully. There is one scene in the film in which Danny inadvertently causes someone else pain. When he and Mia Farrow's character are on the verge of being killed by two Mafia hit men, lest they reveal the name of the man that Mia Farrow has actually been having an affair with, Danny names a random ventriloquist that he knows. The ventriloquist has not actually been carrying on an affair with Mia Farrow's character - in fact, he does not even know who she is. Yet he winds up being the scapegoat and getting seriously beat up by the two Mafia hit men

It is difficult to determine whether or not this would qualify as an immoral action, according to Gert's theory. It is rational for a person to wish to avoid death. For this reason, Gert justifies the usage of self-defensive killing in the face of the threat of death; when one does this, one is not doing something wrong. In a way, Danny Rose's lie to the Mafia men is thus justified - he is saving the life of himself and Mia Farrow's character, whose name is Tina. But then there is the question as to why he lies and gives them the name of a random, totally innocent person that he happens to know, rather than being honest and giving them the name of the true guilty party, who happens to be his friend and client. Clearly, self-interest is at the heart of Danny Rose's decision - something that Gert also asserts his morally virtuous. What is not morally virtuous about this particular instance of self-interest, however, is that he causes an innocent man pain as a result of this.

It is clear that Danny feels guilty for causing this man pain, because later in the film, he goes to great lengths to help the man. He cannot take back his actions, which in the end only benefited him and no one else, but he can at least attempt to make amends by behaving towards the man in a generous, virtuous fashion.

The two other main characters in Broadway Danny Rose, Lou and Tina, are rather less than virtuous, especially when compared to Danny himself. Tina announces at the outset that her personal philosophy involves doing harm to others before they do harm to you. This assumes that all men are evil, rather than good, and thus attempts to justify evil, selfish behaviors… [read more]

Moral Dilemma Term Paper

… moral dilemmas saw Julie at a club and she was with a boy other than her boyfriend John. They were kissing and it was obvious she was cheating on him. I knew better than to say something but John is also my friend and he asked me directly whether or not I saw Julie with Garth at the club. He told me that someone saw them together and wanted to hear a second witness's opinion before confronting Julie. I was stuck, torn between my loyalty to two of my best friends. I had known both since high school.

The way I resolved this moral dilemma would have been described both by Kohlberg and by Gilligan as being postconventional. Demonstrating a mature level of moral reasoning and having already internalized conventional rules-based ethics, I decided to first tell Julie that John was concerned. I waited for Julie to confess to me what she and Garth were doing and to what extend they were pursuing an affair with one another. As it turned out, she and Garth were mainly flirting; they had kissed but had not gone beyond that point. Thus, I alleviated a lot of grief had I put Julie on the defensive by accusing her of having a full-blown romantic affair.

Had I been stuck in Kohlberg's or Gilligan's preconventional stage then I might have sought to win favors from either Julie or John. If I thought John would appreciate my loyalty more than Julie then I might have risked losing my friendship with Julie in order to please John; even if Julie were not having the affair it would have impressed John that I cared enough about him to take that chance. The fact that I had a crush on John to begin with would have underscored my preconventional moral reasoning but my behaviors showed that I had matured far beyond that stage. Similarly, I might have felt like it was my moral duty to help John -- or that it was my moral duty to preserve Julie's privacy. At a conventional stage of moral reasoning, I would still…… [read more]

Ethics Has Been Regarded as Fundamental Practice Term Paper

… Ethics has been regarded as fundamental practice with reference to the all design research procedures, and it the responsibility of the research to ensure that the contents and the scope of the research is ethical and moral, the design research… [read more]

Moral Relativism Term Paper

… Moral Relativism is a point-of-view, which holds that the truth or justification of moral judgments, is not absolute but determined by society or its culture (Gowan 2004). It flourished in ancient times when moral diversity was the prevailing and accepted… [read more]

Business Ethics in His Book Corporation Term Paper

… Business Ethics

In his book Corporation, Be Good! The Story of Corporate Social Responsibility William C. Frederick (2006) notes that the dichotomy that companies face impacts their ability for ethical decision making. In the 1950s and 1960s, executives relied on… [read more]

Biomedical Ethics: Euthanasia. One Way of Interpreting Term Paper

… ¶ … biomedical ethics: euthanasia. One way of interpreting euthanasia from a moral point-of-view is utilitarianism.

Utilitarians interpret the rightness or wrongness of an action based on its consequences alone, this being one of the reasons why utilitarianism has been considered a consequential theory. However, at the same time, such an assumption, of judging actions mainly on taking into consideration the consequences has been considered a limitation and a weak point in this theory. Utilitarianism is based on the principle that we ought to do the greatest good for the greatest number of persons involved (the person requesting euthanasia, dependents, relatives, health care providers, or society). In the case of incurable disease, like cancer for instance, utilitarianism may be a way of providing ethical decision-making. From such a perspective, many patients probably consider that the greatest good for all people involved is their own death. Death implies absence of pain for the patient, and absence of suffering and concern, work and assistance in the relatives. Euthanasia is favored in detriment of a life enmeshed in incurable and fatal physical suffering.

However, when considered closely the problem is extremely complex. Richard Gula (1991) thinks that it is more difficult from a moral standpoint to justify letting somebody die a slow and hard death, dehumanized, than it is to justify helping him to escape from such…… [read more]

Moral Theology Term Paper

… Moral Theology

In today's economically driven world where the placement of focus and personal achievement is determined by the size of one's bank account or net worth, churches and theologians have had to come to issue with how one can… [read more]

Organizational Ethics Issues Resolution Term Paper

… Organizational Ethics Issues Resolution

The Enron debacle that occurred in late 2001 illustrated how an ethically unsound business can have devastating and widespread effects on the international business community. At the core of the collapse of Enron was an absence… [read more]

Ethics in Psychology Academic Fraud Term Paper

… Academic Fraud - Psychology

Ethics in Psychology: Academic Fraud

A Notorious Case of Academic Fraud

This paper discusses the "notorious" case of academic fraud by Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt as presented by Beloff (1980). The research will focus on the… [read more]

Importance of Good Business Ethics Term Paper

… Importance of Good Business Ethics in Business
There's been a crisis of confidence in corporate ethics in the last ten
years, and as a result, legislation continues to be used as the mechanism
to bring trust back into business.… [read more]

Ethics Policies on 3 Companies Term Paper

… Ethics Policies on 3 companies.

Ethics Policies

Memo of transmittal

Ethics policies within companies

Microsoft Corporation


Intel Corporation

Memo of transmittal

The current ethics policies are the outcome of years of debates as to what should define morality and… [read more]

Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Term Paper

… Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is one of the classical and most cited philosophical works treating of morality. In the second book of the Ethics, Aristotle defines the relation between character and virtue as being mediated by or depending on the two… [read more]

Ethics and Foreign Workers Term Paper

… Ethics and Foreign Workers

Ethics can be different for each person making a decision, but there are certain moral laws that should be followed in dealing with foreign workers working for U.S. companies overseas. The moral and ethical decision should be to treat these workers just the same as if they were working inside the United States. They are employees of a U.S. company, and the rules should not be different for different employees in different countries. A lawyer who specializes in these types of decisions writes, "The moral rights approach concerns itself with moral principles, regardless of the consequences. Under this view, some actions are simply considered to be right or wrong" (Poznak). Thus, even if paying foreign workers lower wages and benefits than U.S. workers get results in higher profits, it is morally wrong to differentiate between workers, and the ethical choice is to treat all employees the same.

Another consideration in this ethical debate is the practice of foreign companies doing business in the United States, and their standards for employment. For example, many foreign automakers have built plants in the United States…… [read more]

Ethics in the Accounting Profession Term Paper

… Brian Strugats

Accounting Ethics

Dr. Nathan Slavin

The Role of College Ethics Classes in the Reduction of Professional Accounting Scandals

Ethical values provide the foundation on which a civilized society exists. Without the foundation, civilization collapses." (Smith)

The ability to… [read more]

Moral Theories Term Paper

… ¶ … personal theory of good and evil, right and wrong moral agent is a person capable of rational understanding. An entity such as a nation, a group or a corporation is not such an entity. Rather, these constructions are human-created institutions made up of conglomerates of human beings. Unlike a single, moral human individual, a person cannot be overthrown, like a country, and then reformulated under a new constitution. A person cannot be merged with another entity, like a corporation. The human individual is the fundamental unit of every society or social bond, like the family.

The individual has moral obligations to all other human beings. He or she is part of a series of communities that make up the greater world. Although the human obligation to animals might not be equal to humans, because animals are not of the same species and therefore humans are not tied to them with same level of obligation, humans must still treat animals with respect, beyond the level of respect humans might extend to non-sentient property.

Humans have responsibility to treat the persons whom they are tied to with a network of social obligations with the greatest care, like friends and family members. However, this does not mean humans can ignore the needs of other persons who make up other cultures, groups, and nations, even if the obligations to these other person may not be as immediate. Plants and aspects of the non-sentient environment should be treated with respect, because of one does not; the welfare of all persons will be endangered.

The community of individuals largely determines what is right or wrong. For example, it is considered 'right' in our society that a parent support their child until the child is 18 while in other, past societies it was necessary and thus 'right' for a child to be independent at a much earlier age. When human life was shorter, and families were larger and poorer, this was understandable and not necessarily 'wrong,' given the historical context.

While much is relative, however, the integrity of the person to be free and to not be enslaved must not be impinged upon, unless that person transgresses the laws of the community. But there is no good or evil like a divine force, these notions are rooted in social judgments and the evolution of the society.

In contrast to this contextual view of ethics, a Kantian might protest. The…… [read more]

Moral Philosophy Term Paper

… Moral Philosophy

The title 'Moral Philosophy' in itself is suggestive of morality, as connoting the innate difference between good and evil. For example, when one is referring to an individual, one may talk about his intellectual capabilities, or of his achievements, which are quite entirely separate from his basic moral character. In a similar manner, one is generally prone to differentiate between the concept of being under moral obligation to do something, and the idea of being under a legal obligation to perform it. Being morally obliged to do a thing would mean the same as an individual saying, "I ought to do it, or I ought not to do it," for whatever reason, and 'ought to' in general is closely related to the idea of one's 'duty'. What then, is meant by something being 'morally wrong'? (Moore, 1922)

It must be remembered that in moral philosophy, the concepts of systematizing, defending and recommending the ideas of wrong and right and of good and evil are taken into account, and philosophers tend to divide moral philosophy into three distinct areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. While metaethics delves deeply into issues such as, where did we come from and so on, normative ethics is all about investigating the moral standards that generally apply to right and to wrong, while applied ethics deal with specific controversies in life, like for example, is an abortion good or evil, and so on. More often than not, however, the fine line that…… [read more]

Corporate Ethics in the 21st Century Term Paper

… Corporate Ethics in the 21st Century

Corporate ethics has emerged as one of the leading business issues of the Twenty-First century. Scandals at formerly reputable corporations such as Enron have sullied the corporate image for the public, not to mention… [read more]

Ethical and Moral Behavior Term Paper

… ¶ … ethical and moral behavior and why such behaviors are necessary in the enforcement of the rules of the criminal justice system

Relationships of Criminal justice system, ethics and morality

The principles of criminal justice lead to acts which… [read more]

University and Morality Term Paper

… Morality in the University

Peter Steinfels in his 2004 article asks whether or not universities should teach aim to teach morality. He explicates several perspectives from those involved in the academic field. On the one hand, there are those that feel it is not the place of the university to try to inculcate morality. "You can't make them into good people...and you shouldn't try" (Steinfels) argues this perspective. On the other hand, there are those that say that morality is so engrained in every aspect of life that one cannot teach anything without teaching it. Trying not to teach morality only teaches a sort of vague "scientific" morality. How can one walk in the footsteps of philosophers like Aristotle and Plato and not at least address morality?

These are both reasonable arguments -- that they are in conflict is due to the fact that for some odd reasons none of these professors are taking full advantage of the English language. Universities ought not aim to teach morality; they should aim to teach ethics. These are distinct principles, though closely related, and if the professors involved would use these terms appropriately and accurately, they would find that they are not so much in conflict as they might think.

Ethics and morality are distinct issues. Morality deals with truth-claims about what is right and wrong, while ethics deal with the principles of conduct which are expected of people in a given field. Morality tends to deal with issues such as faith, sex, gambling, drugs, and so forth. For example, many people feel that premarital sex is immoral. Ethics, however, focus on the standards which are required to act properly towards others. Ethically, premarital sex is not wrong unless it violates certain standards (for example, sleeping with an employee or breaking the law in sexual activity). Sometimes morality and ethics may even disagree -- for example, both priests and psychiatrists have ethical obligationsto keep the confidence of those who confess to them. However, if either heard a confession from an unrepentant serial killer who persisted in their murders, either might legitimately feel have a moral obligation to act to stop this. In short, morality and ethics are significantly different.

The difference between ethics and morality is very significant for this debate because I feel that universities ought to teach their students ethics, but should not impose any morality on them. This is indeed the classic view. Aristotle did not write a book called Morality, after all, but his Ethics have been intensely influential on the development of academics. When schools attempt to teach morality to students, they do indeed risk violating the student' consciences and personal beliefs. A university ought not attempt to teach their students "truth," as Professor Mearsheimer points out quite legitimately. However, universities do have an obligation to ensure that their students understand what their individual professions…… [read more]

Ethics in Accounting Term Paper

… Ethics in Accounting

Companies are influential bodies whose actions, for superior or shoddier, put a major impression on people, entire communities, and the society as a whole. Their influence is of such proportion that a lot believe they should display greater accountability for their business policies and practices, for the betterment of both companies and society. The latest scams in accounting and auditing, and the mounting concern towards the responsibility of the companies for social and environmental impact have led to promising new researches and deliberations regarding the manner in which companies will be capable of maintaining increased legal, social and ethical standards in the spheres of accounting and auditing. (Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture)

Ethical values give the base on which every cultured society stands. In the absence of the base, society falls apart. The objective of ethics in business is to persuade businessmen and women to follow a code of conduct which assist, if not motivates the trust of the people in their products and services. Whether an individual gets ethical values from religious belief, history and literature, or individual observation and experience, certain fundamental ethical course of action are present to which everybody can consent. James Brackner, member of the IMA Committee on Ethics in the July edition of Management Accounting said: The Universities are taking action with an enhanced importance on ethical training for purposes of decision making. For the major portion, nevertheless, they overlook the purpose of educating values. For moral or ethical education to bear any significance, conformity on the values must be present which are believed to be "appropriate." In Chapter 1 of Ethical Issues in the Practice of Accounting, 1992, Michael Josephson defined the "Ten Universal Values." They are as under: honesty, integrity, living up to promises, loyalty, equality, caring, admiration for other people, dutiful citizenship, quest for quality and answerability. (Business and Accounting Ethics)

In the accounting discipline AICPA maintains and makes it obligatory for a code of professional conduct for public accountants. The Institute of Management Accountants -IMA and the Institute of Internal Auditors -IIA too maintains a code of ethics. Professional accounting establishments appreciate the responsibility of the accounting profession to supply ethical standards to its members. (Business and Accounting Ethics) Comprehending an ethical problem, giving a moral verdict, and building a purpose persuading to conduct are contained in a research on models of ethical reasoning. It reckons that ethical problem identification is a function of the subject's ethical understanding and moral strength of the problem. Interactions founded on stakeholder hypothesis enhanced subject's capability to identify ethical problems but did not modify their degree of moral reasoning. (Research on Accounting Ethics)

One more research discovered that the accountants occupied in tax practice often experience moral and ethical concerns emanating from their twin accountability to their clients as well as to government authorities. The accounting syllabus and textbooks prescribed in the preliminary accounting courses propose that meager or no endeavor has been made for inclusion of the… [read more]

Ethics and the Internet Term Paper

… S. Department of Defense to "provide a distributed, flexible and self-healing command network which would enable the U.S. military to continue operating even if Soviet military missiles took out certain geographical locations on the network." (INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY?)… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Significance of Ethics Term Paper

… Thus, every member of an organization must have regard for ethics in order to safeguard the welfare of society in general, the very people whom we, as business practitioners, dedicated to provide service to.

When discussing the influence of technology on work-related stress, meanwhile, it is vital to focus on the effects of technology not on the society or organization as a whole, but on the individual -- how technology will affect the performance and personal (mental) health of the individual. This concern becomes more vital, as elucidated in a study wherein despite the increasing innovations and inventions that help life become comfortable and easier for people, Americans have become more stressed. This makes the U.S., according to the research, the only industrialized country that has not yet learned to combat the negative effects of technology in society (Budimir, 2001).

In fact, technology has become so pervasive in the lives of people that a program called "information technology sustainable development" has been created. This program is geared towards introducing and disseminating the information that ICTs have a role in further stabilizing the socio-economic structure of a country (Sheats, 2000). This asset, however, must be considered under the sustainable development paradigm, wherein the welfare of the society and individual takes the front seat rather than the advantages it can give to the technology's creators.

From these studies, it becomes evident that ICTs must be used with consideration to society's and the individual's welfare. This means that in the same way that people regard technologies with respect and reverence because of its capabilities, people must also consider themselves more important simply because they are the creators of these technologies.

Of course, ethical decision-making is related to this issue: in order to recognize the centrality of society and the individual in the context of today's information-oriented society, one must have the personal values corresponding to this belief. This means that in order to prevent the harmful effects of ICTs on the personal development of an individual, decision-makers responsible to the formulation of solution pertaining to the use of ICTs must have a deep regard and respect for human welfare of all kinds.


Budimir, M. (2001). "Engineers of the world ....relax." Machine Design, 73(9).

Donaldson, W. (2003). "Corporate Governance." Business Economics, 38(3).

Mayer, D. (2001). "Community, Business Ethics, and Global Capitalism." American Business Law Journal, 38(2).

Nonis, S. And C. Swift. (2001). "Personal value profiles and ethical business decisions." Journal of Education for Business, 76(5).

Sheats, J. (2000). "Information technology sustainable development…… [read more]

Ethics a Few Months Ago Term Paper

… In my professional life, I manifest my ethics by analyzing each situation differently. Many of my ethical judgments are also based on utilitarianism: the right course of action is the one that benefits the most people and creates the greatest amount of happiness overall. However, I also know that when applied to large groups of people such as in a place of employment, utilitarianism often neglects a significant number of persons. Therefore, I always rely primarily on critical thinking and judgment when confronted with a complex ethical situation.

Our coursework has introduced me to a vast array of ethical theories. I have since been able to analyze situations with a more broad-minded perspective, able to weigh the pros and cons of each decision more thoroughly. I have also been made more aware and therefore more understanding of different people's codes of ethics. I have noticed that gender, religion and ethnicity all impact people's ethics. For example, certain cultures and religious groups have a far more absolutist ethical perspective than I have. Referring to my friend's example, I know that many people would have immediately confronted the supervisor about the stealing because they would have felt that stealing is wrong under all circumstances.

Since taking this course I have become far more encouraging of people to share their perspectives, and have been more willing to listen and understand why and how people judge situations differently than I do. I no longer blindly make decisions or judgments without considering alternative courses of action. While I will continue to apply my personal brand of situational ethics to my personal and professional life, I will also acknowledge that persons from different backgrounds might perceive situations differently than I do. Learning about different ethical theories has opened my mind to new ways of approaching ethical problems and I believe increases my capacity for…… [read more]

Ethics Term Paper

… Thinking critically seeks to dislodge preconceived notions and beliefs that may, perhaps, possess little empirical backing. It is essential to rational human thought processes.

Beliefs, by contrast, require no explicit logical progressions to be reached. A belief is often trusted to faith; and faith, by its very nature, requires the suspension of logic. For instance, it is possible for someone to believe that they can throw a football a hundred yards -- however, the odds are that there is no justification for such a belief. Still, beliefs are not always groundless. I believe that if I let my pencil fall from my hand it will land on the ground. This belief is not based upon any scientific law, but it would be in accordance with every other occasion that I have witnessed similar occurrences. The rather broad definition of beliefs makes their application to the world of ethics and morality complicated. Generally, philosophers attempt to only assert beliefs that are rooted in rigorous argument. These beliefs can imply moral or ethical laws.

Values on the other hand are, for most people, strongly associated with one's personal social, psychological, and moral standpoint. Values, like beliefs, are not always based upon evidence. The notion of "family values," for example, asserts that the traditional familial organization with a mother, father, and children is somehow superior to other organizational structures for rearing children. There is little sound backing for such standpoints; yet, they lay the foundation for a large number of people's beliefs.

Many beliefs and values can be discarded through the process of critical thinking. Morals are people's attempts at reaching logical conclusions regarding specific instances of human behavior. And ethics are the broad guidelines by which most individuals strive to adhere.


1. Feinberg, Joel and Russ Schafer-Landau. (1999). Reason and Responsibility. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.

2. Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. (2003). The Miniature Guide to Understanding the Foundations of Ethical Reasoning. Dillon Beach: The Foundation for Critical Thinking.

3. Ruggiero. (2004). Thinking…… [read more]

Cultural Values and Personal Ethics Term Paper

… Cultural Values and Personal Ethics

There is a close interconnection and relationship between the areas of personal, cultural and organizational values and decision making. Decision making is based on personal values which are influenced and impacted by cultural values, ethical… [read more]

Business Ethics Magazine Recently Awarded Term Paper

… Written codes of ethics are meaningless without actions to back them up. Every company publishes its codes of ethics on their website and in official company literature. However, few of them actually practice what they preach. Similarly, religious communities attempt to codify and canonize ethics; all too often religious people act hypocritically and against their moral codes. I can think of countless examples of ways that individuals have used the Christian Bible to actually support unethical behavior. For example, anti-abortion activists have killed doctors in the name of morality. I have witnessed the discrepancy between written codes of ethics and unwritten ones in more personal situations. For instance, I know a woman who was being sexually harassed by her new boss. The company had a strict sexual harassment policy, and in spite of that and the fact that she had worked there in good standing for five years, she could not prove her case and she eventually quit.

Therefore, in my life, unwritten ethical codes are primary and as my mother would repeat to me on several occasions: actions are far more important than words. My personal values do not ascribe to any specific set of encoded rules but rather reflect a conglomeration of influences. Moreover, my code of ethics is not an innate extension of my personality; rather, I developed my value system over time and with various influences: from my parents to the movies. The way I treat others and myself is a result of what behaviors I value in others. My parents and family members probably instilled in me some of the most basic and fundamental moral concepts. Caring for others, kindness, cooperation, and sharing are some of the basic moral behaviors that I had to learn. Sometimes these behaviors went against my innate tendencies to keep everything for myself. When we witness corporate executives hoard billions of dollars while their hard-working underlings can barely make ends meet, we see a bit of this primitive tendency toward avarice at work in the world.

I have also been powerfully influenced by the example of Mahatma Ghandi. He is quoted as saying, "The essence of non-violent technique is that it seeks to liquidate antagonisms but not the antagonists," ("Non-Violence"). Ghandi's quote loosely reflects the Biblical suggestion to "turn the other cheek." Both suggest that the ideal method of resistance and rebellion is not to resort to violence or act on anger, but rather, to channel that energy constructively to seek change. Any realistic ethical system must incorporate a means to affect change without resorting to violence. In my experience, ethical codes cannot be overly idealistic or else they become impractical.

Works Cited

Corporate Social Responsibility Report." Business Ethics.

Non-Violence." BBC Online.… [read more]

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