"Ethics / Morality" Essays

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Code of Ethics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


A code that has been democratically produced is more likely to be accepted and honored by those subscribing to it than one that is delivered. It is strongly recommended that a process of consultation and feedback in developing a code be followed (Stephen, Robbins, & A., 2008). This will entail following the idea of enabling spaces for discussion (Collins, 2011).

When developing a code of conduct for an organization it is important to consider the following steps. Addressing and articulating the problem clearly; agreeing on objectives; identifying all stakeholders; identifying a range of solutions and potential costs and benefits. Hold Preliminary discussions with major stakeholders, test preliminary findings and options with major stakeholders.

Select working group members who will decide how the group is to function. Identify specific implementation functions, roles and responsibilities. contact the appropriate professional authorities who will facilitate evaluation of the preliminary draft created. Consult with those most likely to be directly affected and already aware of the initiative; disseminate information to members of the organization and the public. Make arrangements for the publication of the code of conduct by developing a communication plan to ensure all parties are aware of, and receive the code. Ensure effective code compliance by involving all code participants and stakeholders. Upon successful implementation, the process is complete by allowing regular reviews of the code of conducts throughout the organization in order to facilitate improvements (Stephen et al., 2008).


Collins, D. (2011). Business Ethics New York John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Stephen, P., Robbins, & A., T. (2008). Judge, Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Stuart, C., & Gilman, P.D. (2005). Ethics Codes And Codes Of Conduct As Tools For Promoting An Ethical And Professional Public Service: Comparative Successes…… [read more]

Ethics in the Workplace Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Although it may seem as something which lacks any negative consequence such as a dinner invitation and bill paying for a friend that is also the customer of the company, but if thought of from an ethical filter, it may seem un-ethical to cater for a customer outside office hours. A clear example in this sense can be a decision maker inviting a good friend out for dinner during a procurement process in which the friend is a decision maker and the payee is part of the company that is bidding in the procurement process. Although it may seem that this is just an occasion for catching up, it can also be seen as a means to influence the procurement process. This is the reason for which in most cases, the ethics code bans such afterhours meetings or get-togethers.

In order to avoid situations in which employees are not even suspected of unethical behavior, all corporations have a code of ethical conduct. However, "corporate codes of conduct are completely voluntary. They can take a number of formats and address any issue -- workplace issues and workers' rights being just one possible category. Also, their implementation depends totally on the company concerned" (Hamilton, 2011). It must be pointed out that ethical issues are crucial for the way in which a company operates; at the same time, these elements are standard in the sense that they are common sense issues that vary very little depending on the corporation and other policies that the corporation considers mandatory. More precisely, it the company is focused on IT services, the ethical issues will focus on the non-disclosure of information and therefore the use of IT products would be more sensitive and would be part of the ethical code of conduct. For example, the use of the corporate email on non-secure shopping website may be seen as non-ethical because it puts at risk resources of the company the employee may have access to.

Overall, it can be concluded that the issue of ethics at the workspace depends on several key aspects. On the one hand, on the severity of the "breach" of the ethical conduct. On the other hand, on the level at which this breach of ethical conduct is done (see the example of bribery); finally, the nature of the workspace is also significant in determining the degree to which this breach of ethical conduct is done. Regardless, if a workspace has in place an ethical code of conduct, it should be respected, no matter the level or the nature of the position, as it may, at one point, endanger both one's position as well as the workplace as a whole.


Bush, Cathy. "Work-Place Ethics." N.d. Available at http://www.chsbs.cmich.edu/leader_model/development/media/Targeted%20Lessons/workplace_ethics.htm

Hamilton, Diane. "Top 10 Companies' Code of Ethics and Conduct" 2011. Available at http://drdianehamilton.wordpress.com/2011/09/13/top-10-companies%E2%80%99-code-of-ethics-and-conduct-2011/

Putman, Mark. "Company Assets and Occasional Use.."Global Ethics University. 2005 Available at http://www.character-ethics.org/articles/assetsandoccasionaluse.htm… [read more]

Social Work Values Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  5 pages (1,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Learning in social work succeeds through interactions between people. How I learnt through my experience, readings and lectures matters most because it demonstrate how I adopted change through my conducts and mindset while dealing with disabled individuals. The experience of learning confirms a change in comprehension that becomes located within the broader social communities or unit of practice. My learning in a greater extend affects my profession, and has allowed me to understand how to overcome challenges and perfect my practice.

In light of this learning, I will constantly assess new ideas, my actions, and how these ideas and my actions affect people in my field of practice. I will strive to adopt a positive mindset and belief that all human beings are equal regardless of their health, economic and social status. No human being deserves marginalization or oppression. In this regard, I will offer social work services to all, and empower them through making them achieve their goals and participate in activities that promote nation building.


Beckett, C., & Maynard, A. (2012).Values and ethics in social work. London: SAGE.

Blau, J. (2007). The dynamics of social welfare policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dimopoulos, A. (2010). Issues in human rights protection of intellectually disabled persons. Ney York: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Reamer, F. (2013). Social work values and ethics. Columbia: Columbia…… [read more]

Ethics, Values, and Foundational Principles Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Intellectual freedom represents a key aspect of the American Library Association's code of ethics, considering that the institution has gone through great efforts throughout time with the purpose to prevent diverse influential bodies in the state from censoring information that is especially important for particular persons. Through time, there has been a great deal of efforts made with the purpose of preventing people from having access to certain information. This has influenced the library to acknowledge the role it plays and to fight in order to make information widely accessible, regardless of the bodies it harmed as a result of making this respective data public.

The Freedom to Read statement actually reinforces the idea that democracy, as an ideology, supports people as they want to access information. Private groups and public authorities in many areas have fought with libraries across long periods of time with the intent to censor certain information. These respective actors virtually wanted to close the public's ability to become acquainted with particular information and did not care that they were breaking one of the most treasured values in the contemporary society in order to achieve their goals. The American Library Association stepped in and underlined that one of the most important principles of democracy states that ordinary individuals are likely to put across positive thinking when presented with the opportunity to choose between good and evil.

Works cited:

"Code of Ethics of the American Library Association," Retrieved August 23, 2013, from the American Library Association Website: http://www.ala.org/advocacy/proethics/codeofethics/codeethics

"The Freedom to Read Statement," Retrieved August 23, 2013, from the American Library Association Website: http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/statementspols/freedomreadstatement… [read more]

Ethical Standards in Research Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,506 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Ethical Standards in Research

Research has become a part of the modern educational system. In all fields of study, research data and papers are used to test a pupil's knowledge and assess their skills to deal and grip a specific scenario that is presented to them. These scenarios can be in various forms, one such being case studies and research-based… [read more]

Aristotle to Answer Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



To answer the question of "what does Aristotle understand by ethics and how important is his view of humanity to ethics," let us first consider some definitions and concepts around ethics and ponder on some details regarding Aristotle himself. It is important to remember that the term "ethics" can be hard to pin down, as opinions often vary from… [read more]

Similarities and Differences Between Virtue Theory Utilitarianism and Deontological Ethics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Virtue Ethics

Virtue Theory, Utilitarianism, and Deontological Ethics

Acceptable social behavior and the formation of social behaviors can be analyzed through the application of various theories. Theories that can be analyzed to explain or define acceptable social behaviors are virtue theories, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. While no single theory can be used to explain or define acceptable social behavior, each of these theories provides meaningful insight into the development social behavior.

Virtue theories aim to emphasize the importance of an individual's character and morals over duty. Many virtue theories are based on Aristotle's teachings. Aristotle believed that a "virtuous person is someone who has ideal character traits" (Athanassoulis, 2004). Virtue theories are based on a belief of universality, that principles and virtues can be applied to different situations without prejudice. Virtue theories include concepts of Eudemonism, agent-based theories, and ethics of care (Athanassoulis, 2004). Eudemonism holds that virtues are found in individual flourishing, "where flourishing is equated with performing one's distinctive function well" (Athanassoulis, 2004). On the other hand, agent-based theories are based on the belief that individuals will try to mimic the virtuous qualities they see in other people based on intuition, and the ethics of care hold that virtue is also found in caring and the nurturing of others.

Utilitarianism defines morality in "terms of the maximization of net expectable utility for all parties affected by a decision or action," that is to say, that this theory seeks to determine if an action is virtuous based on how many people benefit from a specific decision or action (Day, 1997). John Stuart Mill (1863) further argued, "Actions are right to the degree that they tend to promote the greatest good for the greatest number." Additionally, Jeremy Bentham (1776), the father of modern utilitarianism, argued "It is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong," which further emphasizes the belief that the greatest good can be quantified by the amount of people that are helped. In utilitarianism, focus is shifted from how one's actions affect an individual to how one's actions affect those around said individual.

On the other hand, deontological…… [read more]

Relativism and Mortality Goodman Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (726 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Goodman uses examples of mass destruction and murder as a way to highlight how this concept cannot be accepted in an international community. For example, a genocide or the 9/11 attacks have often seen as the right thing to do by the very cultures that are performing the horrific deeds, yet this does not make them right or acceptable. Osama bin Laden really thought the 9/11 attacks were right for his people and their fundamentalist ideas, and from a relativist perspective he should be allowed to do what is right for his society. Yet, this is clearly wrong. No culture should be able to justify the mass murder of members from another, no matter what that justification may be. This's also the same concept when looking at human rights around the world, especially in regards to how some cultures treat some of the more vulnerable populations like children and women. Despite a particular culture's own views, the subjugation and exploitation of women is still universally wrong. Allowing relativism to make excuses for such treatment of women is also wrong. As such, relativism can only serve to isolate individuals and take away their basic human rights in such regards. Moreover, Goodman is stating that relativism is simply impractical in regards to how it could be actually practiced in the modern world. Even here in the United States, a country with its own diverse cultures that differ dramatically from region to region, relativism would prove too broad to function properly, as "American courts will overturn a statute for unconstitutional vagueness, and ethical principles, as well, if framed too broadly" (Goodman 2010). The idea here is that relativism is too broad and flexible to serve as a foundation for successful structures of law and order. Without some universal ideas, laws would not be strong enough to protect those vulnerable populations who need protection, and to punish those who clearly violate basic and universal moral and ethical concepts. Overall, Goodman presents a strong argument that relativism cannot be taken as a foundation for international law and relations because it fails to ensure equality and protection for all involved.


Goodman, Lenn E. (2010). Some…… [read more]

Ethics Issues Presenting in This Scenario. First Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,059 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … ethics issues presenting in this scenario. First, the patient who is to be admitted has cancer and a tumor which involves several major organs of the patient's body. The chances for the patient's survival are already greatly reduce in addition to the hospital already having a reputation for incompetence and the patient's chances of surviving the surgery are very low. The hospital administrator's decision to conduct the experimental surgery is more focused on the large donation that is promised if the surgery is performed presenting an ethics issue related to placing more importance on hospital funding than on saving the life of the patient or on doing the right thing for the patient. Finally, this case should have undergone the review of the hospital ethics committee before a decision was made to admit this patient.

How to Resolve the Issue

Ethics committees are reported to have "a long history of serving as a useful resource for hospital staff addressing ethical challenges." (Nelson and Elliott, nd, p.1) the role of the ethics committee in the hospital organization includes: (1) consultation; (2) education; (3) policy and (4) hospital self-evaluation. (, p.2) the ethics consultation is prospective in nature with open access to physicians, nurses, social workers, the patient and the patient's family. The administrative authority of the ethics consultation is the medical staff and administrative staff committees. The ethics consultation involves analysis of the issue which is presented by the physician and the identification of the ethical conflict. The patient's preferences and best interests are identified and the possible alternative or resolution is discussed and justified.

The ethics consultation provides a forum for ethical dilemma or conflict consideration so that any ethical issues relating to social values, law and institutional policy can be considered. The hospital policy and the law must be identified and the question of what is ethical according to the law and the policies of the hospital. (Donovan, nd, paraphrased) Therefore, with this information applied, in this case it is not possible to determine what is ethically appropriate without the review of an ethics committee. The ethics committee has the knowledge and expertise to weigh the facts of the case with the applicable hospital policy matter and the relevant state and federal laws relating to hospital ethics. Therefore, in order for an ethical decision to be made in this case, it is necessary that the hospital ethics committee be contacted on the issue and that the ethics committee call a meeting on this case in order to determine the ethical issues as they relate to hospital policy and relevant and applicable laws. Murphy (1989) examines the role of the nurse on hospital ethics committees and states that the appropriate involvement of the nurse on the ethics committee is one that has a part is "assuring adequate information, multiple perspectives, sufficiently deliberate thought, emotional support for all decision makers and legal acceptability" in that the nurse assists by "helping to assure patient, family and professional participants that they… [read more]

Aristotle Utilitarianism Immanuel Kant Questionnaire

Questionnaire  |  2 pages (799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Aristotle, Utilitarianism, Immanuel Kant

Aristotle, Utilitarianism, and Immanuel Kant

Emmanuel Kant's classification of imperatives and how they are positioned within his brand of deontological ethics

Emmanuel Kant classifies imperatives with respect to the nature of duties performed by people. Fulfilment of duties that are thought to have good ambitions and positions in the ethical world are classified together. As replicated in the deontological ethics, the actions of a person should be in accordance to the norms in order to avoid aspects of becoming immoral.

What defines virtue according to Aristotle and the concept of habit?

According to Aristotle, a continued embrace of character results to a habit. Aristotle perceives the concept of habit as a rudimentary concept that leads to the determination of habits in the world. Aristotle claims that habits are formed through human actions and interventions. With the use of virtues and vices, a person elicits rightful prepositions that lead to the establishment of a habit.

Role of individuals within John Stuart's "s consequentiality system and does personality, character, or virtue get taken into account when rendering a utilitarian judgment"

People are facets that act on various actions in order to have them be determined if they are virtuous or not. According to Stuart's intentions, an act can only be termed virtuous if it has proved happiness to many people. People take after the action of determining whether the results of an act are worth pleasing or not. When rendering a utilitarian judgement, human beings are supposed to have their reactions to the actions of a given characteristic. Without human intervention, not even one can be able to separate between virtues and vices among characteristics that sum up to actions.

How Golden Mean works with Aristotle theory on virtue ethics, how subjective and objective judgment relate to this concept

The theory, Golden Mean, and Aristotle have similar perceptions and meanings as regard the theory of ethics in the human society. Virtue is beauty. The concept of virtue ethics has been reiterated by Golden theory as exemplified by Aristotle in his writings. According to Aristotle and the Golden theory, virtues are actions that yield universal products of positivity to human and animal life. Golden theory emphasises Aristotle's perceptions when it claims that not everything virtuous can be exchanged with the wrong or vice.

Dielectric that exists between consequentiality/utilitarian ethical system and deontological ethical system in terms of their…… [read more]

Ethical Dilemma Confronting Unjust Authority Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,159 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethical Dilemma: Confronting Unjust Authority Case Study

Ethical dilemma

An ethical dilemma denotes a case in where one experiences a mental conflict whereby ethical obligations conflict in a way that any resolution is ethically intolerable. This implies that all the available options cannot be determined by guiding moral principles. An example is a situation whereby one has to decide between not to steal and to provide for a family that you cannot be able to provide for without stolen money (Garber, 2008). In such a case, stealing might be considered to be wrong by one person because of the fact that this person is using a wrong way to provide for his family. Conversely, someone else might consider it differently since this man has a family which is looking up to him for food.


In the case of situation one in Pollack's book, police officers have developed a routine of going to the restaurant on the corner. This is a place whereby they have their meals during their patrols (Harding, 2010). None of them ever pays for meals and therefore making this restaurant their favorite meal point. Moreover, the restaurant does not also request for payment from these officers. Officers tend to order for food that could cost them a lot if at all they were going to pay.

The restaurant owner has also encouraged these officers to visit his restaurant because he does not request for any payment from the police officers (Garber, 2008). The officers too have made an assumption that their presence at the restaurant is highly welcomed. They have also not been limited to the kind of food they can order and thus the wide variety of food they can order for.

It is also uncertain whether the owner would accept to take money from the new officer. This complicates the situation more since no officer usually pays and how the new officer will be viewed if at all he is going to offer any payment to the owner. The owner of the business is obviously in business to make profits and to sustain his investment (Harding, 2010). He spends money on all the inputs to his business and would therefore expect to earn returns from his expenditure.

With these facts in mind, it would be considered that the police officers should pay for the food offered to them even with the fact that they are allowed to eat for free. Even if meals are cheap enough for them to be offered freely, the officers are supposed to pay for them.


The new officer is torn between paying for the meals and having it for free. He does not know whether to follow in the footsteps of the experienced officers or to follow the moral code. The owner seems not to be having any problem with the officers taking free meals and the new officer is also told that the restaurant owner likes to have them around (Harding, 2010). It is also not known… [read more]

Personal Ethics Theory for Me Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


If we choose the utilitarian approach, we give the order to shoot the sniper and hope the child is safe -- if we use deontology we stand down and try to find another approach because the child's life is as important as the public good. Clearly, neither is 100% right or wrong, but situational and dependent on variables. What if that child grows up to find the cure for cancer and save millions? Or what if that child grows up to be a serial killer? What if the person who might be the next President to develop a global peace accord is killed by the sniper? Using ethics, though, helps us make difficult decisions by having a tool box of potential ideas.


Act Utilitarianism is the view that the morally right action is the one that will yield the highest amount of social good under the conditions of the moment.

Act Utilitarianism considered only the results or consequences of that single act.

Act Utilitarianism thus measures the consequences of a single "act," while Rule Utilitarianism measures the consequences of the act as if were repeated over time as a "rule." For the utilitarian model, nothing is right or wrong in and of itself -- it all depends on the consequences -- it is the results that matter, not the cause.

Actions have quantitative outcomes and the ethical choices that lead to the "greatest good for the greatest number" are the appropriate decisions, even if that means subsuming the rights of certain individuals. It is considered to be a consequential outlook in the sense that while outcomes cannot be predicted the judgment of an action is based on the outcome -- or, "the ends justify the means."


Gutman, P., & Thompson, S. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton, NJ:

Robinson, D. And J. Groves. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York:

Icon Books.

White, T. (2009, January). Ethics Toolbox. Retrieved from Center for Ethics and Business at Loyola Marymount University: http://www.ethicsandbusiness.org…… [read more]

Clinical, Ethical and Legal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (856 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fir each of the ethical principles sated above, laws exist to ascertain that medicine and sconce does not cross its boundaries. Aside from which, there are also laws about how to conduct research and experimentation on both human and animal subjects in an ethical, responsible manner. These are complex. Let us take just one such instance to instantiate how complex this is:

In 1997, the Council of Europe established the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine which dealt with developments in modern biology and medicine. The same council also established the Biomedicine Convention (2000), which was a framework treaty establishing certain universal principles relevant to biomedicine. At this moment, only three such Protocols have been opened for signature. Many are still in the making. These incude the basic concepts and leading principles of biomedicine; the provision of services; the rights of patients; research; human tissue and genetics; and the implementation of the Convention. (Gevers et al. 2005)

Other examples of principles of biomedicine that cross in international law include the following: Intellectual property implications (I.e. regarding invention); Use of embryonic stem cells and cloning; Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; and Issues in HIV / AIDS. These are just some of the issues.

Biomedical decision-making in regards to the law presents us with numerous challenges that have universal impact and that have both EU conventions and national laws. (Biomedicine - Legal and Ethical Issues)

As administrator it is not only obligatory but also crucial that I am aware of each of these distinctions as well as the legal and ethical minutia in each punctilio of my job. This is due to the fact that I have a responsible job in a supremely complicated and responsible field which impacts human life in so many intimate, life-involving matters. Biomedicine can literally create as well as destruct lives. I am in charge of seeing that the workers under my supervision optimally fulfill their tasks. To do so well, they have to do so within the jurisdiction of legal conventions and ethical standards. I, therefore, have to be supremely in the know of all of these details and keep myself engage in current research on contemporary relevant debate and discussion and on all matters connected with biomedicine.


Biomedicine - Legal and Ethical Issues


Biomedical Sciences: Job Options, Duties and Requirements


Georgetown univ. Biomedicine http://courses.georgetown.edu/index.cfm?Action=View&CourseID=WGST-268&AcademicYear=2011&AcademicTerm=FallSpring

Gevers, J et al. (2005) Health Law, Human Rights And the Biomedicine Convention:

Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Holland… [read more]

Solving Throughout This Term Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This decree is a categorical imperative that must be fulfilled regardless of personal sentiments.

Utilitarian ethics proposes that actions are considered right or wrong according to the greatest amount of people that they help and/or make happy. Utilitarianism takes the happiness and consequences of the many into account as opposed to the pleasure of the one or the few.

As connected to this situation, Utilitarian's may consider which amount of people would suffer more by trees being displaced. If more people would gain a greater amount of pleasure by the presence of the lollipop trees, than his canopy trees would be felled. (Deontological ethics however would focus on the principle of the matter: whether or not it is wrong to fell these trees in the first place).

Neither resolution is preferable since both have their problems. Deontological is too inflexible. Whilst it is good to a have a standardized system of rules, the canopy trees may actually be dangerous in some places, or at times certain trees may need to be felled. Kantian ethics may actually be harmful and detrimental by being too rigid.

Utilitarianism on the other hand also has its problems which include the fact that sometimes short-term happiness needs to be surrendered in order to obtain a greater degree of happiness in the long-term. This can be seen here where we pointed out the long-term privileges that the tree accords. Similarly, consequences are unknowable; therefore Utilitarianism is at basis an irrational and impractical philosophy since one cannot calculate utility and mass of consequences. Utilitarianism also demands a level of impartiality that does not exist. Deontological ethics, arguably, may possess this, but I would use neither ethical principle in this case.


Williams, Bernard (1993). Morality: An Introduction to Ethics. Cambridge University Press.

Siegle L (26 July 2008 ) How can we save our trees from the chop? The Guardian http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/27/ethicalliving.carbonemissions… [read more]

Ethical Philosophies Ethics Utilitarianism Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (765 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Aristotle believed that happiness comes from developing moral virtues such as courage. This allows for a more flexible approach to decision-making, given that it is assumed that a good character can make intelligent moral judgments on a situational basis without adhering to a strict formula. But it can be very subjective as to what constitutes a 'good character' in any given society. Aristotle believed that certain virtues transcended the specifics of different situations and were universal: these virtues were both moral (such as patience) and intellectual (such as wisdom). Temperance, courage, wisdom, and justice must all be cultivated and in balance for the ideal moral actor, but wisdom was the most necessary, given without wisdom the moral actor would not be able to understand what that 'golden mean' was, balancing all the virtues within his or her character (Aristotle: Virtue ethics, 2012).

While utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, and virtue ethics are all largely Western systems, Confucianism is an ethical system that has had a powerful impact upon non-Western cultures. Confucianism stresses filial obligations and the need for ethical actors to honor their obligations based upon the moral actor's place on a hierarchy. The ethical requirements of a father may be different from those of a son, or of a ruler vs. A subject. Confucianism is a relationship-driven ethical system, both in personal and political terms (Confucianism, 2009). When these ethical obligations are broken, the whole social order breaks down. Confucianism is thus a situational ethical system like utilitarianism, but it focuses upon 'doing good' rather than on consequences. Unlike Kant, a moral actor does not behave as if he or she is setting a moral law for all persons for all time, but merely for him or herself based upon his or her position. As in Aristotle, there is a focus on cultivating moral virtues of character, but these may be different for different persons.


Aristotle: Virtue ethics. (2012). Retrieved at:


Confucianism. (2009). Retrieved at:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=O -- AFCI4HCU#!

Ethics 5: Utilitarianism. (2008). Retrieved at:


Three minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. (2009).

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw… [read more]

Deontology and Consequentialism an Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,027 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


It is here, however, in the face of the argument of the deontological theorist, that one might reasonably defend Wolf's distaste for such strict adherence. Indeed, there seems to be a kind of Puritanical strain in an unthinking, rigid adherence, without deference to "intention," "consequence," or fruit. One of the core tenets of Christian ethics, after all, is the idea… [read more]

Ethical Dilemma Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,216 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


From the company's perspective, the shareholdres are only going to be served if the lobbying effort succeeds, and only for the short run. If the effort does not succeed, then the company is likely to be subject to backlash thar harms it..

Society at large is not likely to see any particular adverse outcomes. Evidence from places with a drinking age of 18 shows that there is no reason why young adults of that age cannot be allowed to consume beer. Indeed, in Eureop the countries with the biggest binge drinkning problems tend to be those with nanny-state policies like those in the United States . By making alcohol a forbidden fruit, its consumption is encouraged and worse yet this consumption must be clandestine. This is not a positive development, so lowering the drinking age to 18 might actually help to deal with the problems associated with binge drinking, contrary to what the anti-alcohol lobby has to say on the matter.

In areas where there is a strong moral sense -- places that are very religious, for example -- it could be argued that the actions of the brewery would be immoral, to the extent that those morals span the entire society. However, it is worth noting that the separation of church and state results in having those morals outside of the legal system. Society can wring its hands all it wants -- the laws should be based on facts and reason. Therefore, fi the likelihood of success is high, the greatest good for the greatest number of served by engaging in this lobbying effort.

Part II. In this scenario, the legal implications cannot be more clear. This is an illegal act that the boss is asking for. If this accounting practice that is being requested was part of GAAP, it would not be controversial. Any accounting practice in the preparation of financial statements that is not GAAP is not allowed by the SEC. That the real income will be reported to the IRS is not relevant, because it is fraud to report a false income to the SEC.

From an ethical perspective, we can understand why this is illegal. The financial statements exist to provide an accurate picture of the company's financial condition. That is why the GAAP rules exist, to ensure that statements are compiled in a transparent, consistent manner. Deception of any kind is not allowed, because if investors lose faith in the accuracy of financial statements they might lose faith in capital markets altogether. The outcomes would be devastating for the economy. Therefore, the greatest good for the greatest number holds that this request should be rejected. The small handful of beneficiaries would not gain nearly enough to balance out the devastation to the financial system.

Deontological ethics is in agreement here as well. There is no standard in our society by which fraud would be considered to be in alignment with a categorical imperative. Clearly the impervative against fraud and dishonesty exists, and it is… [read more]

Ethics in Social Science Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Why would a code of ethics be important for social scientists?

A code of ethics is important for social scientists because they generally focus on people and use many individuals for research. While a physicist might be free to destroy the particles they are working on, social scientist do not have the same kind of leeway with their subjects. They must avoid harming the people they interact with in any way either mentally or physically. Thus having a detailed code of ethics prepared can be a valuable asset. By preparing such a code of ethics beforehand, this ensures that it is well thought out and relevant to many underlying ethical issues that one might face by working in the field.

Another advantage of having an official code of ethics is that it is easily shared. By sharing the code of ethics with a large group of people, feedback can be provided and the code can be strengthened by having more people participate in its development. A single person who created a code of ethics by themselves and did not receive feedback may have emitted or overlook many aspects of ethics that should have been included. However, by having a community of people that develop such a code then the final product will undoubtedly be more comprehensive. Furthermore, by having a stated code it also adds a level of integrity to the research process. The stated code can be shared with anyone who is relevant to any particular project and this serves as a basis in which people can be held accountable to.… [read more]

Aristotle's Ethics Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,257 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Aristotle and Relationships at Work

Work in the 21st Century

For centuries, work defined what it meant to be human. We see this again and again, even in television and motion pictures. The hit cable show Mad Men, for instance, is set in a 1960s advertising agency in which the employees can never find enough work -- or relationship drama… [read more]

Ethics in the Workplace Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Articles published on the website helps business leaders overcome some of the critical and ethical issues that most organizations face. The articles give insights on workplace misconduct through the examination of existing corporate strategies and promoting internal reporting when employees show some unethical behaviors.

Ethics in public organizations is an extremely wide topic. Essentially, ethics is a philosophical branch seeking to address issues of morality. In most public organizations, ethics is used to address the fundamental department of public administration as a public servant sector. This is the moral consideration and justification for actions and decisions made in the process of implementing of day-to-day activities during work to provide the obvious services of nonprofits and public organizations. Ethics is the basis used to scrutinize the degree of accountability of employees in these organizations. In public organizations, decisions are made based on ethical principles, which are viewed by the public as being correct. Such a distinction promotes an organizational culture where administrators have to act on a set of ethical principles by questioning whether those principles are holding on to public scrutiny. These principles have also been used to monitor the conduct of public administrators including their personal lives. Evidently, public organizations strive to create open environments in government operations (Craig, 2006).

Workplace ethics describes the way employees of a company interact with each other and outsiders. In the recent years, managers in organizations have been involved in theft, lying and data manipulation thus costing the organization billions of dollars. Such immoral behaviors called for the implementation of comprehensive workplace ethics. However, up-to-date, it is not yet clear what workplace ethics should be (Craig, 2006).

In my view, the current state of ethics in place may be considered as… [read more]

Philosophy of Pleasure Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,610 words)
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For even if the deed is out of place, the pleasure at any rate is worth choosing for its own sake and good" (45). Individual enjoyment is the only thing that matters, even if it means that the action defies the ethical or moral distinctions of the society.

In his writing On Moral Ends, Cicero too discusses the question of pain and pleasure and the importance that this plays in everyday life. He writes: "Some, then, consider that our basic desire is for pleasure and our basic aversion is to pain. Others hold that it is freedom from pain that we are first drawn to, and pain that we first shun" (123). Here he discusses two different perspectives on the same topic. For some people, they choose to perform ethical or moral behaviors in order to enjoy life and to avoid pain. The other type of person is more considered with simply avoiding pain and is less concerned with achieving pleasure.

Each of these three men has a distinct impression of what the most important aspect of life entails: either pain or pleasure. Cicero and Bentham both believed that the pleasure of the masses was the most important thing. They felt that ethical and moral distinctions were defined by what would be most pleasurable, and thus best, for the largest population. Contrary to this perspective was Epicurus who believed that people should endeavor to do in this world what would make them happiest, that gives them to most pleasure even if that meant that other people would have to suffer and be unhappy.

Works Cited:

Bentham, Jeremy. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, Volume 1. 1789.


Carneade. Cicero de Finibus. 5. Print. 15-17.

Cicero. On Moral Ends. Ed. Julia Annas. Cambridge.…… [read more]

Ethics of Decision-Making of Downsizing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,091 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



The Ethics of Downsizing: Organizational and Individual Implications

A variety of business practices and events over the past several decades have led to an increasing scrutiny of many different applications and incarnations of business ethics, from a variety of academic, philosophical, and pragmatic perspectives. The recent economic shrinkage did not only call major issues of fraud, security, and conflicts of interest into question, but also highlight certain social, financial, and psychological problems associated with firm downsizing and job loss. Significant amounts of research have been devoted to the ethicality of downsizing and how it can be enhanced, if indeed such enhancement is necessary or possible. The following pages present a synthesis and analysis of current research in the area, providing a discourse on current perspective on downsizing and business ethics.

Current Research

The research is fairly conclusive in at least one area of the effects on individuals of business decisions to downsize -- whatever these exact effects may be, they are not well-accounted for in the businesses' decision-making processes (Applebaum & Labib, 1993; Lamsa & Takala, 2000). This is true both of individuals that actually experience job loss as a result of downsizing and of "survivors" who remain with the company following downsizing, who are often left with inadequate and frustration- or fear-building understandings of how the downsizing decision and specific layoff decisions were made (Applebaum & Labib, 1993). Clear, appropriate, and well-publicized criteria for selection are a necessary element of making the downsizing decision an ethical one, according to this research (Applebaum & Labib, 1993).

The manner in which employees are told of the decision to downsize and of how these decisions are handled at the managerial level has also been cited as a major component of ethicality in downsizing decisions (Lamsa & Takala, 2000). Several different "roles" have been typified and defined by researchers to describe how managers tend to interact with employees in regards to downsizing decision, namely a rational and independent managerial role, a marionette role, and an emotional individual (Lamsa & Takala, 2000). None of these roles define a specific set of actions but rather a set of attitudes and approaches to the decisions that must be made in a larger downsizing decision, and how these managers interact with individuals immediately affected by downsizing decisions, i.e. employees (Lamsa & Takala, 2000). No specific role is singled out as more ethical, however increased empathy -- seen primarily in emotional individuals -- does seem to reduce the negative effects on individuals during downsizing and should be further researched (Lamsa & Takala, 2000).

An entirely theoretical or philosophical approach is selected by some researchers, and one unique conclusion in this regard is that any action a company takes must inherently be ethical, and in fact cannot rely on potential outcomes or pre-established ethical rules if it hopes to full accept moral responsibility for its actions (Clegg et al., 2007). This work draws on other modern philosophers such as Derrida, using arguments of undecidability to demonstrate that it… [read more]

Ethical Systems Ethical Formalism Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
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35). John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and many of the Founders of the United States believed that the social contract with the state also guaranteed certain basic natural rights such as life, liberty and poverty. Modern theorists might also add housing, health care and education to the list as well, such as the Economic Bill of Rights proposed by Franklin Roosevelt. Natural law supporters, from St. Augustine to Gandhi to Martin Luther King would argue that "an unjust law is no law at all," and indeed that the individual has a moral duty to disobey (Pollock, p. 66).

Ethics of virtue. What is good is that which conforms to the Golden Mean. Aristotle defined virtue in a teleological rather than a deontological way when he stated that the goal of life was to develop virtuous habits and excellence of character, which would also mean a life of happiness. Among these virtues, he listed honesty, courage, integrity, sobriety, generosity and wisdom. These were almost always found in the happy medium, such as courage being the mean between cowardice and recklessness or self-control located somewhere between hedonism and puritanism. All normal persons who are not sociopaths acquire at least some of these traits and "we all are moral to the extent that we possess moral virtues, but some of us are more moral than others by having more virtues" (Pollock, p. 38).

Ethics of care. What is good is that which meets the needs of those concerned. Sometimes described as feminist ethics, it is basically a teleological system that does not depend on universal norms, rules or rights, but guiding individuals to care about each other. This type of ethics is often pacifist, opposed to capital punishment and favors the rehabilitation of criminals over punishment. Jean Jacques Rousseau was arguably one of the founders of this school of thought when he asserted that "humans' natural compassion that is the basis of human action" (Pollock, p. 39).

Egoism. What is good is that which benefits me. This is perhaps the simplest system of ethics to understand, since it is based purely on individual self-interest. It is teleological and consequentialist since it has a goal or end in mind, if only a purely selfish one. Many scholars would deny that this is an ethical system at all since "others become solely the means to ensure happiness; there is no recognition of the rights of others under this system" (Pollock, p. 39). Adam Smith, Bernard Mandeville and other supporters of early capitalism "promoted a type of practical egoism, arguing that individuals pursuing their own personal good would lead to nations prospering as well" (Pollock, p. 40). In the 20th Century, libertarians and laissez faire advocates like Ayn Rand also defended the principle that human beings are naturally egotistical and self-centered, and that the state or the collective should interfere with them as little as…… [read more]

Public Administration and Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (966 words)
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S. is based on the utilitarian cost benefit analysis (CBA) approach." (p.1)

Implications of environmental value categories are stated in the work of Baker (2008) with instrumental, aesthetic, and intrinsic assigned values. For example, natural objects are resources and value is realized through use of those resources with ideal management as the goal. The aesthetic values include that natural objects are the loci of admirable qualities or traits with value being realized through perception with ideal management as the goal through maximizing aesthetic perception through education and training. Intrinsically assigned values include that natural objects are 'good' in their own right with value realized through the fulfillment of the moral obligation relating to the natural objects. Again, ideal management is the goal through maximizing the objects well being and continuance through the provision and protection of the natural object. (2009, paraphrased)

The problem with cost-benefit analysis in the area of environmental protection is that cost benefit analysis "concerns itself with only one value: efficiency." (Baker, 2009, p.3) The inherent problem with this is the inequity and the ignoring of critically important values including "justice and liberty." (Baker, 2009, p.3) In addition, a problem related to ethics with cost benefit analysis is the fact that the data used must be derived from somewhere and this means, "interest groups on both sides have strong incentives to create and interpret that data in different ways." (p.6)

Summary and Conclusion

Cost benefit analysis appears to be an efficient method for comparing and analyzing policy related matters however, when attempting to assign values to priceless objects such as human lives, coral reefs, and the disappearing forests throughout the world, the realization that cost benefit analysis is inadequate is noted clearly in the literature reviewed in this study. Another problem with cost-benefit analysis are the competing partisan interests which have historically and traditionally manipulated the numbers to reflect their most desired position which is in reality a misrepresentation of the actual costs vs. benefits of policy related matter. A new method of calculation is critically needed in many areas of policy related analysis in order to truly reflect what is lost and what is gained in the area of public policy matters.


Ackerman, F. (2008) Critique of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Alternative Approaches to Decision-Making: A report to Friends of the Earth England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Jan 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/Ack_UK_CBAcritique.pdf

Baker, N. (2009) The Ethics of Using Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy. Policy Symposium Analysis. Retrieved from: http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~nbaker/documents/cost_benefit_analysis.pdf

Clowney, S. (2006) Environmental Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis. Fordham Environmental Law Review. Fall 2006. Retrieved from: https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=18+Fordham+Envtl.+Law+Rev.+105&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=a796a2bc39fa06cced41b71eb9f65c0d… [read more]

Ethics and Plagiarism Essay

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Some argue, especially given the repeated unethical definitions above, that a website that provides papers, be they term papers, short assignments or otherwise, for students to see and utilize as models truly helps students write well and may lead to professors creating more challenging assignments. Though the people who own the websites providing these models are doing something good, as they are trying to further education by showing well-written examples on sometimes complex topics, there is no way to monitor what a student does with a purchased paper. Thus, the question of ethics should not focus on the people supplying these papers, but rather on the students purchasing them and the way in which they utilize them.

Of course, there are many students who utilize these papers to improve their writing and become better thinkers, and of course there are many teachers who will be challenged by such actions, but one must also think of those who do commit plagiarism, or utilize one's work as their own, as a result of the existence of such websites. Such actions must be discouraged, and teachers should be aware that such websites exist, and not try to shut them down, but rather check religiously that no plagiarism was committed. It is only in this way that students can benefit from these websites.

Velasquez et. al. (2010). What is Ethics? Santa Clara University. Retrieved, .

Staff Writers. (2011). Looking at Values: Being Ethical. Parenting Press, Inc. Retrieved, .

Plagiarism Checker. (2012). Plagiarisma.net. Retrieved, .

Staff Writers. (2012). What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism.org. Retrieved, .… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,282 words)
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Similarly, if we injure others seriously, we could be committed to jail. Hence it would be in our best interests not to harm other people. Further, if we habitually lie to others, it will be impossible for them to trust us. In such a case, telling the truth would be in our best interests. Yet another example that can be cited in this case regards entering into arrangements that are mutually beneficial and ensuring that we keep our promises. In this case, it can be noted that to benefit, individuals sometimes have to rely on others. It is impossible to benefit from others if the individuals we seek to benefit from fail to keep their promises. However, we cannot expect others to keep their promises if we on our part do not keep ours. In the final analysis and from the self-interest point-of-view, the relevance of keeping promises cannot be overstated. Hence from this perspective, we should at all times do unto others what we would ordinarily expect them to do unto us.

Dissenting Views/Arguments

It is important to note that though the above arguments are relatively convincing when it comes to presenting ethical egoism as a well-founded morality theory, there exists some objections regarding the same. To begin with, ethical egoism seems to advocate for a clear distinction between two groups of people, that is, the rest of the populace and ourselves. In so doing, the theory prescribes the preferential treatment of the second group i.e. ourselves as opposed to the first group i.e. The rest of the populace. However, the question that ought to be asked in this case is; what makes the second category of individuals more important than the first category? Why should the second category be given preferential treatment? When looked at from a critical point-of-view, these questions in one way or the other present ethical egoism as a doctrine that is rather arbitrary. These questions can however be answered by reverting to an earlier argument I presented earlier on. According to that argument, it is an individual who in perfectly aware of his or her needs and wants. This awareness makes the needs of such an individual (and hence the individual) more important than those of others which he or she is only imperfectly aware of.

Next, although ethical egoism does not expressly call for agents to harm others as they seek to maximize their self-interest, there are some scenarios where harming someone else could be in the best interest of the agent. For instance, it could be in the best interest of a business person to kill a rival. Such an action cannot be justified regardless of the motivation behind it. However, in my opinion, individuals need not harm others so as to maximize their self-interest.

Strict observance of ethical egoism could also bring about disorder and conflict in the world. For instance, if everyone were to maximize his or her own self-interest, this would be a sure recipe for disorder and in… [read more]

Ethics in Decision-Makings Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (586 words)
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Ethics in Decision Making

Charnchai Tangpong and James G. Pesek commence by recognizing the multitude of problems encountered within the business community and generated by the mixed application of ethics and morals in decision making. The two authors then assess the issue of ethics and moral conduct within the modern day business context through the lenses of the shareholder value ideology and reciprocity.

The shareholder value ideology argues that the stock owners are the ones financing the business operations and that the economic agent has the obligation to maximizes their investments. On the other hand, the reciprocity concept argues that the economic agent should decide in a manner in which their actions are beneficial for the stakeholders, who are important for the overall support and success of the firm.

Based on gradual research, Tangpong and Pesek find that there is no direct relationship which could universally explain the moral reasoning of the economic agents.

"From the experiment, the ideology of shareholder value significantly increased the likelihood of participants' decision outcome to increase profits at the expense of suppliers (not customers and employees), while the norm of reciprocity significantly decreased the likelihood of participants' decision outcome to increase profits at the expense of suppliers and employees (not customers). This provides mixed support for our ideology of shareholder value and norm of reciprocity hypotheses" (Tangpong and Pesek).

Within the overall field of research on the moral and ethical decision making of economic agents, the article by Charnchai Tangpong and James G. Pesek is situated in a more specific manner. Particularly, most of the research conducted is generic, with emphasis falling on rather universal issues and on case studies of previous situations. Still, the work of the two authors is focused on a particular direction.

In…… [read more]

Ethical Theory Essay

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The proper course of action is what one's character tells him it is. Acting in accordance with one's character will render the proper decision. Followers of Kant are more concerned with moral imperatives while egotists with self-interest. Virtue ethics is concerned with the development of good character because as good character develops the correct choices are also made.

While other ethic systems require a complicated decision making process that requires either a complicated balancing of options or adherence to a system of moral imperatives, virtual ethics involves attempting to become the best person that one can become. All decisions are based on what will enable someone to develop the features in one's character that lead to goodness. Other theories, however, are more concerned with right or wrong, what is best one's self-interest, or the general good. Virtue ethics eschew these goals and concentrates on the development of the individual.

Unlike the other ethical approaches virtue ethics also takes into account that humans are emotional beings and that ethical decision making is not a static process. Nearly every ethical decision is accompanied by an emotional aspect or motive. In other ethical approaches the motivation is a complicated system of right and wrong; self-interest; or common good. Virtue ethics requires only that one possess correct motives. Therein, however, lies the greatest criticism of virtue ethics and, that is, who is to determine what the correct or proper motives might be. For proponents of virtue ethics this is not a problem as they will argue that such motives should be obvious either through prior experience of self-examination.

In the final analysis, all the ethical theories have their value and, at times, each seems to be most valid. In reviewing them, all should be viewed as merely suggestions or ideas and not rigid approaches to making decisions or leading one's life. Life is a process and a journey and along the way each individual is faced with a multitude of decisions, some easy and some complicated and there is no one right way of making decisions. This is the beauty of virtue ethics. Virtue ethics recognizes that morals and ethics are personal and that the journey toward attaining goodness will eventually provide the answers as to how to conduct one's life. Once that state of goodness is obtained ethical decision making is no longer a problem. One's character will dictate what to do and how to do it. Aristotle was right thousands of years ago and nothing in the interim offered by the world's greatest thinkers has done anything to invalidate Aristotle's basic ideas. As long as an individual makes every attempt to be as good as person as he can be the correct decision will ultimately be made.… [read more]

Humility and Moral Pluralism Humble Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (660 words)
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Humility is also fairly important in the setting and allowance of moral pluralism. The concept of moral pluralism can best be defined as the notion that multiple truths do exist, although they may not be necessarily independent of one another (Mason 2011). Such truths may occasionally conflict, while others simply elucidate a different aspect of truth. The truth typically referenced by moral pluralism, of course, if that which is deemed to be morally or ethically correct. Humility's part in the allowance of moral pluralism's existence and use to judge moral dilemmas is based upon the acknowledgement that multiple points-of-views may contain a degree of rectitude, and that there is not a single, categorical definition of what is ethically permissible. Similar to the ethical decision making process, humility in moral pluralism acknowledges the fact that other people's opinions and viewpoints may be just as correct, or in certain instances possibly even more correct, than that of a particular individual.

Additionally, humility is one of the central components involved in setting the limits of moral pluralism, which can largely be considered distinct from moral relativism primarily due to the setting of limitations. While moral relativism contends that all things can be considered ethically right or wrong depending upon the particular viewpoint of a subject (Boghossian, 2011), moral pluralism holds that there can be more than one form of ethical behavior or viewpoint. The amount of self-effacement involved in accepting this fact and distinguishing it from moral relativism, can be attributed to the acknowledgement that multiple truths do exist and co-exist with one another. Individuals must humble themselves in order to set such limits and be accepting of the manifest moral rectitude that ensues.


Boghossian, P. (2011). "The Maze of Moral Relativism." The New York Times. Retrieved from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/07/24/the-maze-of-moral-relativism/

Mason, E. (2011). "Value Pluralism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2011/entries/value-pluralism/.

Mill, J.S. (1863). Utilitarianism. Retrieved from http://www.utilitarianism.com/mill1.htm… [read more]

Competence in Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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For just one example, Seligman's Diagnosis and treatment planning in counseling, 3rd Edition, synthesizes the ethical models set forth by Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel in 1998 and Forest-Miller & Davis in 1995 to form a 10-step process for ethical decision-making (Seligman, 2004, p. 363). In 2009 development, Kocet, McCauley and Thompson further synthesize steps used by Seligman and others to set forth a 12-step process for ethical decision-making regarding student affairs which, with very little alteration, can be applied to counseling for all individuals. Kocet set forth the 12 steps in a 2011 Power Point presentation and, modified for counseling all individuals, the steps are:

"Develop an ethical worldview; identify the ethical dilemma/problem; weigh competing ethical principles; select relevant ethical guidelines/professional standards; examine potential cultural/contextual issues impacting the ethical dilemma; investigate applicable laws, policies, procedures, websites, etc., search for ethical/legal/professional precedence; collaborative consultation and brainstorming; evaluate possible consequences and options of action/inaction; choose a course of action; implement selected course of action; reflect on the experience as it relates to future ethical decisions" (Kocet, 2011, pp. 17-18).

The time, effort, knowledge, skill and collaboration involved in effectively applying these 12 steps shows the difficult-yet-vital job of developing ethical competence. Reviewing Kocet's 12 steps, the first step of "developing an ethical worldview" is acceptable provided it is based on a thorough knowledge of the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics (American Counseling Association, 2012). It is incumbent on professional counselors to develop that "ethical worldview" according to the Ethics Code governing our profession; consequently, if there is dissonance between the ACA Ethics Code and the worldview we have already developed, we must defer to the Code, so long as we intend to remain professional American counselors. Thorough knowledge… [read more]

Morality and Disgust Research Paper

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Morality Disgust

Disgust and Moral Judgments

This research study examined levels of morality and disgust in a series of paired photographs. Pairs of individuals with different moral cues were presented to subjects via computerized surveys and rated for perceived morality; the five highest and lowest rated pictures were then paired with control pictures and second population of respondents were asked to assess whom they would prefer sharing a toothbrush with. The results indicate that perceptions of morality have a strong correlation with perceptions of physical cleanliness and reactions of physical disgust. Implications in light of contemporary research are examined.

Human judgments of each other are known to be highly subjective, nearly instantaneous, and largely involuntary. A variety of factors, including previous experience in combination with certain chemical and nervous reactions to the sight or presence of another person, lead to various perceptions or conclusions being drawn often without the individual being fully conscious or aware of the judgments he or she is making. Cultural influences also have a large impact on these judgments, with certain styles of dress, occupational cues, and other visual elements of a person's appearance affecting the manner in which they are first judged perhaps more than anything else. Understanding exactly what information goes into these judgments has formed a somewhat controversial yet highly fascinating area of research, with a number of studies providing further clues into the complexities of human interaction.

This research set out to measure the levels of moral judgments and, to some degree, the manner in which these judgments are made, based on images of certain individuals. Specifically, the link between levels of physical disgust and morality in reactions to a series of paired photographs were assessed, and the results examined to determine which of the specifically identified factors examined contributed to these judgments. Coming to new understandings regarding the way human judgment works and how individuals are perceived and interacted with by others can lead to directly practical recommendations for individuals dealing with a variety of personal and professional situations, and also creates more detailed and solid academic knowledge related to the psychology of perception and judgment.


The methodology of this study employed fairly straightforward survey techniques in order to achieve its results. Two different populations were utilized in the study; both were predominantly female (75.23% and 68.47%, respectively) yet contained significant male populations. Gender was not studied as a correlative factor in this study, but the population mix was still desired in order to achieve greater validity and generalizability of the results. Both populations were instructed to complete the computerized survey in private, and anonymity of responses and results was guaranteed throughout the study and was ensured through the privacy and computerization of the surveys themselves. A total of 220 subjects participated in the study, in one study population of 109 and one population of 111.

The first population of 109 individuals (27 males and 82 females) completed moral judgments of individuals presented in paired pictures. Each pair consisted of… [read more]

Christian Moral Philosophy, H. Richard Essay

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Though he does not delve into an examination of moral issues like civil disobedience, there is an underlying acknowledgement that the responsible man, by striving to do the things he knows are right and to include acknowledgment of others in his calculations of right and wrong, may find himself in situations where he must have the flexibility to break rules.

While Niebuhr's approach cannot be labeled deontological, it also resists being labeled ontological. Ontological philosophy is very focused on studying the nature of existence. For the most part, Niebuhr's writings are beyond the nature of existence; his focus is on the moral and ethical, rather than the existential. That is not to say that Niebuhr ignores all traces of ontology in his analysis. For example, he suggests that Natural law makes human beings have the will to destroy and have animosity towards God. "It is not the law of our physical dying only or primarily, but the law in things, the ontological law as it were, by which the self and its communities and all that it prizes, all its labors, worthy and unworthy, its good deeds and its evil ones must be relativized, be restricted, an finally come to nothing" (Niebuhr 1999, 140). He labels these feelings as the source of anxiety for humans, because they perceive a power greater than themselves that makes them a relative nothing in the universe. Moreover, Niebuhr suggests that it is against this ontological backdrop that human beings have developed the study of ethics, because it allows them to compartmentalize people into categories, the most basic of which is good/evil. However, Niebuhr uses an ontological approach as his own backdrop; while he may believe in that ontological law, his focus on personal responsibility does not require humans to relate their actions to the desires of a Creator, despite being Christian morality. Instead, if they focus on their responsibilities towards other people, Niebuhr seems to suggest that they will act in moral ways.


Niebuhr, H. Richard. 1999. The responsible self: An essay in Christian moral philosophy.

Louisville:…… [read more]

Ethical Case Using the Applied Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (828 words)
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Moreover, this alliance could also fall into the realm of objectivity. The bias that was created for Julia through the construction of this regrettable relationship circumvented her ability to be truly objective with her clients.

Personal and Organizational Value

Without question, Julia's actions in this situation certainly discredited her personal value, both from a moral perspective and for future clients. By acting completely on behalf of her own self-interest, she completely ignored and disrespected numerous fundamentals of morality and ethical principles. Being that ethical conduct is so critical, especially in the world of finance, she has certainly tarnished her personal reputation for the greater future.

From an organizational perspective, Julia's actions have also negatively reflected upon the organization that employs her. After experiences with an individual that behaves dishonorably, customers may begin to believe that this type of behavior is tolerated at a given firm. Thus, unethical behavior on behalf of any employee will ultimately come back to bite the organization and its collective reputation.

Make a Decision and Test It

Personally, I believe that Julia's primary responsibility is to her clients. Therefore, as an executive decision-maker, considering her complete disregard for the welfare of these clients and her exploitation of their trust, I would certainly make a case for the termination of her employment. Also taking into account her highly unethical relationship with the securities salesman and the creation of an exploitive situation whereby she is awarded compensation for dishonesty, the executive decision in this case seems quite clear.

Presumably, her clients would be relieved by this decision after learning about the true risks associated with their investment package and the unethical actions taken by Julia. Furthermore, this decision will set an example for future employees in the consequences of unethical behavior. Ideally, this action will help to dissuade future employees for taking unethical actions.

Act and Reflect on the Outcome

Unfortunately, this situation would ultimately end with the termination of an employee. However, the actions outlined above would also hopefully result in the renewal of a client's trust. By specifically explaining the details of the situation to the clients in question, the organization would be actively highlighting its dedication to its clients and its ethical protocols. In doing so, these clients will feel reassured and comfortable in conducting further business with…… [read more]

Health Nursing Healthcare Perspectives Deontology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Early theorists include Wollstonecraft, Catherine and Harriet Beecher, and Perkins, who helped distinguish the moral development of care ethics (Cherry & Jacob, 2005). Other distinguished models included Gilligan and Kohlberg (Cherry & Jacob, 2005).

Diana Meyers is noted for writing one of the more well-known anthologies in care ethics today, providing philosophical idealisms including those of autonomy, universality, feminist moral… [read more]

Moral? When Considering the Ever-Changing Essay

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This type of moral temptation and immorality also showed itself in classrooms and religious institutions. Several stories have recently been made public regarding abusive teachers and priests. That is, individuals who are trusted with the task of caring for innocent and developing children. Yet immorality and its deviancy trump honor once again in our modern world. That is, ultimately, each individual is ever more likely to act in a way that will advance his or her status on the pyramid of material power and influence. And as has been illustrated, these modalities are always (with very few exceptions) highly immoral and unethical.

Thus with all of the aforementioned morality occurring in our world, a revolution is long overdue. A moral revolution. In my mind, the aforementioned immorality that is abundantly present in countless aspects of our society represents the greatest reason to be moral. Changing the current state of our world is absolutely essential if we would like to survive and prosper. I know that I have become increasingly hesitant about bringing a child into this world because I fear for its safety and well-being. I was lucky enough to be given the opportunity to have an education, which enlightened me about all of these immoral deeds. I was also fortunate enough to develop a strong sense of right and wrong through my spiritual beliefs and my personal education. That is, lucky for me, my parents were able to spend enough time with me (despite the fact that they both worked), that they were able to successfully instill some significant values in me at a very young age.

Thus, I believe that while I am somewhat better prepared than most to remain moral in this immoral world, I still believe that my most important objective is to pass this outlook on to other people I encounter and future generations. While this task is obviously more difficult because a moral lifestyle doesn't usually come with guaranteed material rewards, it is still critical for the ultimate survival and sustenance of our world. Even if I can only pass a strong sense of the importance of morality on to one other person, I will feel successful. That is, being that the negative and immoral outlets are constantly promoted in our daily lives, I realize that I am fighting an uphill battle against a much more powerful adversary. Nevertheless, these entities will not be able to convince the masses of their immoral truths when the infrastructure of our current world and society begins to crumble. Eventually, I believe people will start to focus on the next generation and ask themselves what kind of world they are leaving for their children. When these individuals truly begin to realize the atrocities they are forcing upon their children, things will begin to change; morality will be brought back to the forefront. I don't want to wait for that day, which is why I will be…… [read more]

Ethics Interstate -35 West Mississippi Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Furthermore, the monetary costs of the dilapidated structure must also be considered, in addition to the costs required to construct the bridge's replacement. All of these factors seem to indicate that from a utilitarianism perspective, it was ethically incorrect to increase the bridge's dead load to the point in which the structure itself would give way and ultimately break.

However, the very process by which the increased dead load led to the collapse of the Interstate 35 West Mississippi Bridge must be examined to determine other ethical perspectives on this occurrence. A structure's dead load is one of the primary factors responsible for its creep, which is the rate of strain on a particular material and which, in the case of I-35 West, ultimately caused this construction to collapse. By virtue of the ethical perspective of duty-rights, the construction company which built and/or modified Bridge 9340 should have foreseen the consequences of the increased dead load on the lifespan of the bridge. Due to the rapid rate of crack propagation, a thorough examination of the effects of the load on the bridge's vital supports would have shown that the bridge was enduring a greater than reasonable amount of stress. Furthermore, the long history of the structure's insufficiency alluded to in the opening paragraph of this paper should have informed a developer or applicable engineering company that there was a an imminent responsibility to alleviate the strain of the increased dead load for the sake of the many motorists who utilized the bridge daily. Basic concepts of virtue as well as respect for human life should have galvanized some agency or construction specialist to correct this problem, yet the issue was not resolved until it was too late.

Due to the ethical engineering concept of duty rights, were I employed by the engineering company that was responsible for the construction or the maintenance of I-35 West, I would have been prudent enough to inspect the bridge's potential for disaster regularly, and taken appropriate action to deter its collapse and the loss of innocent lives which it caused. Utilitarianism philosophy of ethics would have spurred such a decision on my part, as these preventative measures -- which may have include the removal of some of the additional weight of the bridge's dead load or the buttressing of some of the particularly stressed supports -- would have certainly yielded a greater good by preserving life, freeing it from potential injury, and conserving monetary resources for additional uses. In ideal situations, engineers should primarily consider the safety of those directly affected by their constructs, which would have led me to consider the numerous reports of the problems in I-35…… [read more]

Marketing Ethics in Emerging Markets Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Marketing Ethics; Emerging Markets.

The article by Sele concerns the global tendency today for multinational companies (MNCs) to enter emerging markets such as China, Brazil, and India. The market trend has been that these countries have been moving from cheap manufacturing bases to buyers. However, when entering a foreign market, especially in the emerging sector, there are several things that a company should keep in mind. The foreign environment is sensitive to changes created by market entry. These changes could impact the environment in terms of the social, environmental, and economic paradigms. These work together to create an ethical impact that must be addressed if the foreign market is to be entered not only successfully, but also sustainably.

Sele notes that there are various basic ethical issues that should be taken into account when entering a foreign market. These include the creation of needs as opposed to addressing already existing needs. This is a concern that is particularly poignant in emerging markets, where the buying power is increasing, but poverty prevails for the majority of citizens. Furthermore, there has been increasing global outcry against the exploitation of these markets by means of aggressive marketing techniques and unsustainable practices.

To remedy this, the article suggests that market entrants who wish to do so responsibly and sustainably should take into account the social and environmental paradigms in terms of ethical and sustainable practices. Social and environmental responsibility should, for example, form part of the marketing plant. Particularly, the author notes that there should be a balance between created needs and existing needs. It is undeniable that a business seeking to expand does so with the primary purpose of profit in mind. The article, and worldwide critics, contend that this should, however, be done in a manner that is responsible and sustainable. Hence, a balance is required between the interest of the expanding company, which is profit, and the interests of the market being entered, which is long-term sustainability and the fulfilment of needs.

Two fundamental approaches the author suggests as a solution to this dilemma is Eco-marketing and Societal Marketing. The former focuses on sustainable practice in terms of environmental resources. Eco-marketing is the less complicated of the two, as it generally focuses upon using natural resources in a sustainable manner. Social values and norms usually do not play a part in this, although such complications might arise in terms of political and market rules of entry.

Societal Marketing can be a complicated approach, since it concerns the foreign culture and its social values and norms. Where the target culture is significantly different from the entering culture, much research will be required to ensure that the product and its marketing adheres to and sustains the cultural norms it enters. This could be difficult to determine, since generally assumed values in one…… [read more]

Personnel and Supervision Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Human Resource Management -- Ethical Concepts

What is moral compassing? Does it make sense? What about the six pillars of character? Do you agree that these serve as the template for ethical behavior? Are their other considerations?

Moral compassing is the process through which individuals in human societies and in business organizations learn, internalize, and uphold specific moral and ethical values and ideals promoted in those environments (Berman & West, 2006). It makes sense because it is perfectly consistent with what the fields of sociology and psychology tell us about human behavior and social psychology (Robbins & Judge, 2009). The six pillars of character defined by Michael Josephson (Berman & West, 2006) are trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship. In my opinion, they all have a place within a template of human behavior but some of them (such as fairness and caring) may be more applicable to personal relationships than to the professional workplace environment.

The list provided by Josephson does not include honesty or good faith, both of which are crucially important values in business (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008), although I can anticipate the response that the values of trustworthiness and fairness include honesty and good faith presuppose honesty and good faith. To make the list more complete, I might add appropriateness and flexibility because the concept of appropriateness applies to a wide variety of situations and allows for the optimal application of more specific ethical rules than a blanket approach. Similarly, flexibility implies that the specific application of general principles may vary in different situations without deviating from the general principle or value. Finally, transparency might be another value that should be included based on the idea that actions and decisions that are ethically appropriate need not be concealed from public view or scrutiny.

In your opinion, which of the six pillars do you believe is the most redeeming to have? While principles give an employee more freedom in their workplace, it also makes them more accountable for their actions. Would you prefer to work at a company that taught principles as opposed to policies? If you were a manager, how would you implement the moral compass to make it work for your…… [read more]

Human Resource Management in the Public and Non-Profit Sectors Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Human Resource Management -- Ethical Concepts

Moral Compassing and Pillars of Character

In general, a moral compass is a fundamental internal psychological orientation of individuals to conform to what their society and culture present as admirable qualities and attributes (Stevens, 2008). All of us have a need to feel that we are perceived by others as "good" and to believe that we are good people. However, society determines the actual standards of behavior and defines the expectations associated with goodness in individuals. Stephen Covey (in Berman & West, 2006) provides the example of criminal youth gangs to illustrate that even individuals who are part of deviant groups that reject the dominant values of society still have a need to adhere to specific codes or expectations valued by their groups. While the metaphor of moral compasses has often been used in this regard, a more accurate contemporary metaphor might be moral software, because that includes the aspect of programmability. All human beings have an innate need for group approval; however, we are essentially "blank moral slates" that can be programmed to accept and value almost any notions of morality.

According to Michael Josephson (in Berman & West, 2006), the six pillars of character are trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship. One could argue that those pillars might not include others that are equally important such as integrity, honesty, equality, good faith, and benevolence (Maxwell, 2007) -- but depending only on how narrowly or broadly one defines the six pillars, it could also be argued that they encompass those additional pillars. It is less important exactly where one draws those lines than it is to maintain a general commitment to upholding a set of values whose specific intent and purpose is to promote ethical and moral behavior.

Considering the Value of Specific Pillars

Obviously, all of the six pillars are important and valuable; however, if forced to identify the most important, a strong argument could be made that trustworthiness or fairness is the…… [read more]

Ethics and Technology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (984 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Also, all citizens have moral rights, whether they live in India, Japan, Iran or Mexico. Any actions that violate those rights are "ethically unacceptable" and should be condemned. In the "Virtue Ethics" concept when the individual working for a corporation like Union Carbide -- or any corporation, especially one that has a global presence -- is exhibits good character traits that is considered a virtuous character trait. And when a person takes actions such as Baines' indifference to the health and well-being of Indians that is a bad character trait, or a "vice." This Bhopal exercise points out what kind of person in a corporate context that an newly hired person with upwardly mobile aspirations should not be.

The integrity of a person is measured by how ethically he or she behaves in a situation like this. In many instances, a cover-up of a toxic spill is criminal, for one thing; for another, it can tarnish the reputation of a corporation for years to come. Hence, all the stakeholders involved (including Indian employees and their families) are harmed for generations.

How would I have solved this issue? I would have refused to rework the report, and would have done as the person in this scenario did; I may not have included a memo indicting my supervisor, but I would have made sure the report got into the hands of the proper authority in the company. The responsibility that a person has in this instance goes well beyond just following the chain of command. There is a larger sense of responsibility that an ethical person must adhere to, and taking a chance on going over the head of one's supervisor falls into the category of duty ethics; indeed, it is the moral and ethical duty of the person who knows about a spill like this to be certain it is reported quickly and thoroughly, lest the harm that is done is much greater than need be due to the delay in reporting.

How much value should be placed upon human life? There is nothing more important to a most communities than the health and safety of the people who live, work, and worship there. It is an unconscionable breach of faith to put the lives of innocent people in jeopardy. All citizens have moral rights and the actions taken by Baines violated those moral rights. Moreover, this is a good lesson for human relations departments of global corporations to present to prospective employees: in other words, the value of human life supersedes the chain of…… [read more]

Ethics of Organ Donation Incentives and Mandates Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … ethics of organ donation incentives and mandates continue to challenge the perception and values of healthcare professionals, legislators and lawmakers, and most of all, the general public. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate three quantitatively-based studies that taken together serve to illustrate the paradoxes of the ethics of organ donor and the role of utilitarian ethics specifically. The ethical decision of allowing family members to allow for organ donation once a person has been declared brain dead puts the issue of utilitarian ethics at the forefront of any debate (Siminoff, Burant, Youngner, 2004). The overall trend in medical ethics surrounds a more deontological than utilitarian approach (the means are more important than the result). The combination of ethics of care and virtue ethics support relationships more than philosophical debate (Tschudin, 2003).

The ethical and religious factors from an Islamic perspective are made more complex when cash incentives are offered to organ donors while they are still in good health (Bagheri, 2006). Another aspect of organ donor programs is the perspective of seeing the problem from a supply chain standpoint, with methodologies that reflect a more forecasting-based approach to supply and demand (Guadagnoli, Christiansen, Beasley, 2003). This becomes even more complex when one realizes that the trends in healthcare point more towards a paradigm of inclusion and advocacy for patient's rights and the individual's ability and expectation to not just participate in their own healthcare paradigm, but to take an active role in whatever ethical or moral judgment might affect their ability to do so. The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to make a profit, is a contemporary medical health issue comprising three essential attributes, respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine (Burkhard, et.al., 2007).

Of these three approaches are analyzed from the standpoint of the research question asked, explanation of the research study design, a summarization of the methodology and discussion of results and conclusions. The fact that globally there are organ shortages further forces the issues surrounding ethics and policy direction (Harter, 2008). In response to the multifaceted approach the healthcare industry is taking to resolving this shortage, many healthcare companies are pushing the ethical boundaries and personal choice in this area (Ross, 2006).

Utilitarianism and Deotology - At the very center of the debate on euthanasia lies the core of individual and societal ethics. Philosophically, ethics is a rubric used to understand and explain the way humans morally organize events…… [read more]

Parable of the Sadhu Teaches Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,516 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Though Aristotle doesn't define what constitutes virtue per se, he simply states that a virtuous person is the one who acts virtuously for example a courageous man is the one who " endures and fears the right things, for the right motive, in the right manner, and at the right time, and who displays confidence in a similar way. For a courageous man feels and acts according to the merits of each case and as reason guides him." (Aristotle, Book III 1115 b 15 -- 20)

Based on this, we can say that Ted did not behave in a reasonable manner and hence his personal virtue is weak and he is deficient in that area. However whether this is enough reason to deny someone a job depends on a company's priorities and policy. We can only say that one instance is not enough to offer final judgment on a person's character and virtue.


Aristotle: 1984, Nicomachean Ethics. Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill Educational Publishing, Book III 1115 b 15 -- 20.

Velasquez, Manuel G.: 2002, Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice Hall, p.135.

Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics: Books VIII and IX. Translated, with commentary, by Micael

Pakaluk. Oxford: Clarendon Press,…… [read more]

Ethics and IT Professionals and Users Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Ethical Decision

The role of individual employees

The role of the top management

The issues of workplace ethics in the context of computer technology have been pointed out to be filled with several instances of ethical dilemma (Parker, 1981). Pierce and Henry (1996) pointed out that the issues that are related to the making of ethical decisions in… [read more]

Ethics and Morals Measures Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Researchers have found moral identity is directly related to actions of moral outcomes. Scholars collect the information directly from the participants; however they use scientific methods to validate the research.

Reliability and validity are the two most common tools utilized by researchers and scholars to test theories and validate ethical practices. Reliability and validity are considered necessary components in research (Bannigan & Watson, 2009). Validity refers to the degree in which the test, scale or research method measures what it was intended to measure. Reliability refers to the stability of a measure scale (Bannigan & Watson, 2009). These are all important aspects of ensuring the ethics and morality of research collected. Researchers use repetition method to validate and test theories. Research is conducted, and repeated multiple times to ensure the same steps are repeated and the outcome is similar. Scholars evaluate these practices through the use of ethical committees and establishing ethical rules and principles that practitioners in the field must adhere to. There are established guidelines that practitioners in any field must subscribe to and practice.

In conclusion morals and ethics are an important part of world. It is important for practitioners to operate within the established guidelines. Professionals and scholars in the field utilize instruments such as test of reliability and validity to validate theories and gain information about professional practices pertaining to ethics. These two tools are highly utilized to govern ethics and morality. These two tools are respected in many different fields of profession and are widely recognized by practitioners in many fields and consumers of today's world.


Arnold, D.G., Audi, R. & Zwolinski, M. (2010). Recent work in ethical theory and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly. 20 (4) 559-581.

Bannigan, K., Watson, R. (2009). Reliability and validity in a nutshell. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 18 (23) 3237-3243.

Fisher, C.B. (2003). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Shao, R., Aquino, K. & Freeman, D. (2008). Beyond moral reasoning: A review of moral identity research and…… [read more]

Ethics With Character: Virtues Article Review

Article Review  |  5 pages (1,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


And well, Adams wonders, just what is the "highest standard" of excellence in social work? Social workers can only discover the answer to that question through the teachings and practices of an excellently ethical social worker with a great deal of experience. What are the moral habits that good social workers must "cultivate and acquire" in order to become "effective self-moved participants"? (Adams, 97). They are to be learned by the social worker, not just through attendance in university classes, or by reading books; those ethical values are best learned in the way that an apprentice for a lawyer learns that craft -- through the relationship of "master-craftsman to apprentice" (MacIntyre, 1990, p. 63) (Adams, 97).

Like "…watchmaker apprentices and violin students learn how to identify and correct their mistakes in light of the acknowledged standards of the profession," social work students -- through "instructor feedback, peer assessment, and self-assessment" -- learn how to locate and correct their mistakes as well, relying on the ethical values in social work they are committed to upholding (Adams, 100).


After spending nearly twenty pages covering the history of the emergence of ethics and morality in human experiences -- linking those values and precepts to social work -- Adams concludes by suggesting that "Much conceptual as well as empirical work" is going to be required prior to the full "implications of the virtues of social work become clear" (101). He adds that because social work is "an applied profession" it holds the possibility "and need" to be integrating the…… [read more]

Aasw Code of Ethics the Australian Association Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (417 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


AASW Code of Ethics

The Australian Association of Social Workers developed a code of ethics designed to guide workers in the ethical responsibilities of their profession and protect both social workers and their clients from ethical violations. This is important because social work is a complex and often confusing field and workers are often faced with making decisions that are not black-and-white.

The following passage is from the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW) (2010) and clearly describes and defines the motivations and objectives of their code of ethics:

"In carrying out their professional tasks and duties, social workers strive to acct in ways that give equal priority to respect for human dignity and worth and the pursuit of social justice. This commitment is demonstrated through service to humanity, integrity and competence, which characterise professional social work practice. Social work principals are derived from the values; together, they underpin ethical social work practice."

The code of ethics then further defines the terms used in this passage, including human dignity and worth, social justice, service to humanity, integrity, and competence.

The Code of Ethics was first released in 1999 and updated in 2010. It is a 56-page document that is organized in chapters in the following manner: Chapter 1…… [read more]

Tim Randall if Ethics Is Correctly Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (990 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Tim Randall

If ethics is correctly defined "as the values that guide us to do the 'right thing' even when no one is looking" (Plotczyk, P.N.D.), then the dilemma facing the Global Investment Banking employee (Bill Smith) is one of deciding whether to cash the $2,500 American Express credit check, in absence of any indication that the company is aware of the discrepancy. There would be no ethical issue had the company been cognizant of the credit error, however; their lack of knowledge on the subject creates the functional equivalent of no one looking at Bill's actions. In this context Bill must utilize the tools in his ethical toolbox to correctly ascertain whether cashing the check is in fact stealing company property, or if based on the circumstances the cashing of the check constitutes a "right decision" which balances out a significant grievous error by the company in misleading Smith on his job status.

Salient Moral Issues and Ethical Options

The scenario playing out asks the difficult question of whether cashing the check and not informing Global Investment Bank is a breach of ethical and moral behavior. The blueprint for arriving at an ethical decision relies on understanding and utilizing a set of ethical lenses: utilitarianism, deontological, and virtue. The Utilitarianism Lens prescribes choices as ethical, if according to Jeremy Bentham "it is the greatest good to the greatest number of people which is the measure of right and wrong" (Brainy Quote. N.D.). The Deontological Lens probes the concept of socially recognized and accepted values "honesty, promise keeping, fairness, and loyalty" (Trevino, L.K. 2006) as the cornerstones of ethical decisions. The Virtue Ethics Lens relies on the decision maker's own personal set of beliefs in formulating an ethical decision. This model considers the "character, motivation, and intentions" (Trevino, L.K. 2006) of the actor in arriving at an ethical choice.

For Bill Smith the actions of the company in effectively promising him a job, only to subsequently rescind the offer and serve him his walking papers must be taken into account. The fact that Smith cut off interviews with other firms was a direct result of the company's promise and their statement that the "bank valued him as an employee" (Case Study. N.D.). The acceptance of a competitor's job offer would have provided Smith with financial security, something that Global had promised him, but then took away. Smith acknowledges that "normally I would have informed the human resources staff about this discrepancy and returned the money to the bank, but now however; I felt that the bank had misled me regarding my job status" (Case Study. N.D.).

External and Internal Stakeholders

The stakeholders in this scenario are straightforward: Bill Smith and Global Investment Banking. Global's position would be that the money rightfully belongs to them as they paid for the ticket. Circumstances such as the layoffs and "promises" of a European sales group position play no part in the ethical construct of Smith returning the money.…… [read more]

How Are We to Live? Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,400 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Life: A Philosophical Perspective

The concept of self-interest which is central to many of the themes in Peter Singer's work of non-fiction, How Are We To Live?, has been existent for several hundred years and influenced many previous philosophers and their principles. This particular doctrine simply states that mankind is primarily motivated by an inherent interest in one's own self,… [read more]

Moral Skepticism and Knowledge Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The is-ought problem, as articulated by David Hume, states the problem or whether there is truth and fact in moral statements. How does the statement go from "is" to "ought" and vice versa? Hume says the two words are impossible to merge (Hume). Where egoism is concerned, the "is" philosophical statement follows a more rigid, factual pace; thus ethical egoism does not follow the "is" statement. Ethical egoism can still harmonize with the idea of "ought." Demarcation is another problem. How does one define the boundaries drawn between science and religion, science and philosophy, science and non-science? Like the is-ought problem, there is the problem of where one ponders over the existence of moral facts. Here, psychological egoism becomes a part of the boundaries in philosophy; in this type of thinking, it is agreed that a person will always act in self-interest. Here a scientific principle is being methodically used in order to come up with the answer.

3. Love and Altruism

Lastly, we come to the matter of love, or eros. The problem with the eros-agape model is that both terms are used to refer to two different spectrums of love. For the most part, philosophy refers to "eros" as "love," and connotes one's sexual desires and longing for a person or object. Agape refers to a fraternal or filial love, not desirous or sexual in nature (Blackburn). This becomes ingrained within the discussion of morality because agape can be easily linked to altruism (though not necessarily exclusive to altruistic thought), whereas eros is more closely related to the nature of ethical egoism. After all, the nature of self-interest can be synonymous to one's desire; whereas the nature of solidarity and brotherly love shows the face of altruism.

If the argument then stands that ethical egoism is undesirable, then there is a full fusion of agape and altruism. A caring for one's brothers, one's family, and the sacrifice one sets out to achieve in said morals become a desirable and moral comfort for that specific individual. On the other hand, should one find ethical egoism to be the vessel of morality, then altruism is impossible with agape. Agape and eros, however, can be reconciled within ethical egoism in this case. One can still show agape and self-interest when one's actions help to preserve and protect one's loves -- brother or family, etc. Regardless of moral decisions, there will be beliefs that become irreconcilable, and other beliefs that are anything but.


Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature,. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1911. Print.

Jefferson, Thomas. "Letter from Jefferson to Thomas Law." The Founding Faith Archive. 13 June 1814. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. .

Rand, Ayn, and Leonard Peikoff. Atlas Shrugged. New York, NY: Signet, 2007. Print.… [read more]

Ethical Treatment of Animals Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,045 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Ethical Treatment of Animals

The way we treat animals says a lot about our moral character. The issue of the ethical treatment of animals is an important one and also one that many people are passionate about because it gives a voice to animals who are not capable of speaking for themselves. It is noble and right to be for… [read more]

Divergent Decisions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


It what follows, I will attempt to demonstrate that there is a middle ground to be taken for the purpose of considering what ethical decision is appropriate in a given circumstance when conducting business practices. Donaldson (1996) has formulated a calculus that can be performed by the business manager in order to render ethical decisions in scenarios where the business decision affects a developing country that lacks the same ethical standards as the more advanced country in which the business manager has been socialized to possess ethical codes of conduct:

To resolve a conflict a relative development, a manager must ask the following question: Would the practice be acceptable at home if my country were in a similar stage of economic development (Donaldson, p. 11).

As an example, Donaldson uses the hypothetical of Angola and an American petroleum company, which wants to invest in the developing, African country. Of course, the wage levels for the Angolans would be lower than they would be if they were United States workers. However, since Angola is a developing country that is in desperate need of foreign investment, the decision on the part of the manager is not difficult. One would surely think it appropriate to invest in Angola and exploit the cheaper labor, because if America was in a similar stage of industrial development, it would be advantageous for America to procure the same foreign investment despite the disparities in compensation for laborers.

To conclude, Donaldson offers us a compromise between absolutist ethical standards that are applicable in all cases irrespective of the particular circumstances and moral relativism which lends itself to any form of activity as long as it is in par with the native rules and morals of the country that is to be economically exploited. While Donaldson model might not stand up to critical philosophical scrutiny, he does offer a pragmatic solution for business managers who wish to temper their profit…… [read more]

Occupational Therapy Literature Review Ot Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Occupational Therapy Literature Review

OT Therapy Review

The two articles reviewed for the purpose of this paper are Occupational Therapy, Professional Development and Ethics by Morten Dige and Does Moral Judgement Improve in Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy Students Over the Course of Their Pre-Licensure Training? By E. Lynn Geddes, Penny Salvatori and Kevin W. Eva. Both articles discuss the professional of occupational therapy as it relates to morals and ethics. Although each article takes a different view of the topic, there are slight similarities which will be discussed. The authors give us their point-of-view on the role of ethics in occupational therapy, but have varying views on how a person's ethics are developed.

The main theme that both articles have in common is the notion of ethics and its importance in the field of occupational therapy. Both articles let the reader know their stance on the topic and that it is extremely important because the medical field is constantly growing and as such, those who have chosen to work in this field are expected to behave in a manner that is considered ethical. The way in which ethics is defined is where the authors differ. Dige places the burden of ethical training on the professional organizations related to occupational therapy and Geddes et al. place the burden of ethical teaching on the college and universities that have occupational therapy programs.

In his article, Dige infers that the defining of ethics is the responsibility of professional occupational therapy associations. He states that in the past these associations have failed at this task because the concept of ethics has been too vague because those in this profession have not looked closely at what defines the profession in itself. In order to develop ethics, Dige says that the job that occupational therapists actually and what their duties are comprise of is what defines how ethics in this profession should be determined (2008).

Geddes et al. state that the issue of ethics is something that should be learning…… [read more]

Integral Approach for Counseling Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … applying the counselors' code of ethics to real-life dilemmas. The author is concerned that traditional codes of ethics do not address the full complexity of the issues at hand, nor do they acknowledge the different developmental levels of counselors themselves. The key question the author is addressing is: How can we use Wilber's AQAL integral model of the four quadrants in practice to more effectively approach and tackle ethical issues in the counseling profession?

The most important information in this article is the step-by-step guidance provided on how to follow the integral approach. This involves the four viewpoints to address in the order given: the video camera view for objective information gathering; the systems-regulatory view to consider laws, policies, and formal ethical codes; the relational-contextual, cultural view for considering the effects for all parties involved based on race, gender, sexuality, etc., as well as developmental level and issues of self-identity and the "shadow"; and the moral virtues view to "take full responsibility for oneself as the primary moral agent, and to be fully integrated within oneself in order to serve as a stable moral compass for others. This involves addressing any disowned thoughts or feelings that may be affecting the counselor's "unconscious agency" and affecting his or her ability to effectively treat clients and tackle ethical issues. The "fragmented self" can be addressed through Morelli et al.'s structured journaling process, or through consultation with a supervisory therapist.

The main inferences drawn in this article are that Wilber's model for integration will provide a more effective approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas and concerns in the counseling profession, and dissecting ethical issues by the four quadrants will provide an "important reflective tool" for counselors. The key concepts readers need to understand are the four quadrants: the UL for morals; LL for ethics; LR for legal concerns and functional fit; and the UR for the subjective self, body, individual behavior of the counselor, and inner truth. The author states that too much attention is given to the lower quadrants; more needs to be paid to the upper quadrants for inclusion of moral concerns and the overall health and well-being of the counselor. By these concepts, the author means that when tackling ethical dilemmas, counselors must consider the issue from multiple and integrated perspectives, including the law, what is right, what is good, and what his or her own…… [read more]

Comparison of Ethical Theories Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,982 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Ethical Theories

Ethics is an elusive concept that refers to the standards of what is right and what is wrong. Ethics is based on what people should do in terms of fairness, values and obligations. Ethics theory provides the framework for better understanding the rationale behind ethics as a concept. This paper will compare some of the more… [read more]

Ethics and Persuasion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethical Behavior and Persuasion

Persuasion is the communications process (or "art") of convincing others of the correctness of your position or situational analysis, particularly in circumstances where they do not share your views at the outset of the exchange. There are many different types of tactical approaches to persuasion, but one of the most fundamental distinctions in that between ethical (or "good-faith") approaches and unethical (or "bad-faith") and the difference between honest argument dishonest argument.

Another important issue is the theoretical characterization of the purpose of argument. In that regard, some theories condone (even require) unethical argument tactics where necessary to achieve that which is objectively "good" in principle (Mihaly, 2007). Conversely, other theoretical characterizations prohibit unethical approaches to argument even when adhering to objective ethical rules results in that which is objectively "bad" (Mihaly, 2007). Unfortunately, the contemporary American political landscape and much of the big business community have become a natural laboratory for studying the depths of moral turpitude to which the strategy and tactics of persuasive argument can sink when individuals and groups take a "win-at-all-costs" approach at the expense of any semblance of ethics in persuasion (Stevens, 2008).

Ethical Theories in Persuasion

Virtue Ethics

According to virtue ethicists, the moral character of the mechanisms and means of accomplishing goals depends largely on the objective moral quality of the underlying purpose or objective sought through those means (Mihaly, 2007). In general, that means that lying may be perfectly moral (and telling the truth decidedly immoral) in circumstances where lying furthers moral "good" and where telling the truth furthers immorality. As applied to persuasion, that suggests that to the extent the purpose of a particular argument is to accomplish moral good (defined objectively), any persuasive tactic in argument is morally acceptable. Typical situations in which virtue ethics are actually applied would include the proverbial murderer asking for the whereabouts of his innocent intended victim.

According to virtue ethics, lying to the murder would be moral and providing the information by answering honestly would be immoral (Mihaly, 2007). Another example might be lying to a kidnapper in negotiations to free his hostages safely (Mihaly, 2007). While there are infinite logical complexities involved in determining exactly which specific goals justify dishonest or otherwise unethical approaches to persuasive argument, most would agree that virtue ethics analysis is appropriate in many situations.

Strict Rule Utilitarianisms

The diametrically opposite approach from virtue ethics is strict rule utilitarianism in which the principal determining factor distinguishing ethical from unethical conduct is whether following a particular course of action (or rule) by everyone at all time leads to an outcome that is objectively better than ignoring…… [read more]

Plato the Allegory and the Cave Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,025 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Plato's Allegory of the Cave is one of the central episodes of the Republic. In the Republic, Socrates teaches Glaucon about reason, human perception, ethics, and justice. The allegory of the cave is one such episode in the Republic, in which Socrates uses a story to illustrate his main philosophical points. A group of human beings are kept as prisoners in a cave. The cave therefore symbolizes darkness and ignorance, and is also an apt metaphor because human beings as cave men are the evolutionary precursor to the modern, enlightened human being like Socrates or Plato. The state of ignorance is also portrayed as a type of psychological imprisonment. Moreover, the human beings living in the cave are fascinated by the images dancing on the walls. Those images are technically shadows that shift form and shape when figures move before the fire. However, to the prisoners, the images on the wall are real. Like watching television, the viewers mistake the show for reality. They are so captivated by the shadow play that the people inside the cave do not even question whether the images are real, and what they might mean. The same can be said for people who watch too much television. When one prisoner is set free, the initial reaction is disbelief and shock. The prisoner must be dragged to the outside of the cave to understand how narrow the worldview of the cave-dwellers actually is.

The prisoners inside the cave are like prisoners of the consumer culture, always driven to earn more money in order to buy more things. Yet the pursuit of material wealth is an empty endeavor. Those who pursue wealth for its own sake are rarely happy, and rarer yet they are enlightened. Depending on the material world for one's highest moral values is detrimental to ethical behavior. Like the people living in the cave, the person who depends on the material world would develop a distorted worldview. Ethics that are shaped by narrow-mindedness, illusion, and the false images portrayed on television or newspapers are not shaped by reality at all. Plato shows that only by facing the sun, a symbol for truth and enlightenment, can human beings truly develop an ethical worldview and act ethically.

Materialism enables an illusory ethic. The ways shadows behave on walls, or the ways characters behave in television shows, is not the way human beings should be designing their ethical codes. Without truth, no ethics are meaningful. Ethics must be grounded in reality. Furthermore, ethics cannot be based on the shallow, illusory, and one-dimensional reality of the material world. Just as there is more to life than the cave, there is also more to life than what can be purchased with a credit card. If materialism and the quest for wealth subsume all other ethical quests, then the result is the modern capitalist system in which the pursuit of profit is more important than human rights. Materialism is a false ethic.

Human beings can still derive pleasure from… [read more]

Learning From a Class Essay

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Ethics Learning

Changmai Corporation

The in-class discussion regarding the corruption in the Chagmai Corportion case was very revealing regarding the ways in which different people from different backgrounds view not only the issues of corruption at the heart of the case, but also how they perceive other individual's perceptions on these issues. It was somewhat startling to here from some members of the class that this behavior was considered standard or normative where they were from, and the degree o personal resistance but general acceptance that they seemed to have towards this corruption. Branka's belief that opening a country to trade would automatically lead to an adjustment of values that would then limit the corrupt practices that have become so entrenched in certain developing nations struck me as especially naive, but at the same time it had major implications for individuals such as myself that come from more "developed" countries with longer histories of codified rules and practices.

Essentially, the misunderstandings that occur in the developing world regarding the supposed lack of corruption in the developed world is the fault of the media produced by developed countries; we attempt to whitewash the goings-on in our businesses and politics to the point that many in class seemed to believe that this type of corruption simply couldn't take place in their own countries. In my own native France, I am well aware that there are large amounts of corruption likely taking place behind closed doors, and am not naive enough to think that money has no effect in politics or that all business practices are entirely above-board. I find it hard to believe that other individuals truly feel that their own countries are free from the dangers of such corruption, but from the class discussions this actually seems likely.

In order to truly put an end to corruption -- or rather, to put truly strict limits on corruption, though it will almost certainly never be fully eradicated -- people need to be honest with themselves regarding the corruption and potential corruption they perceive. It is through secrecy and the aura of disbelief that corrupt practices are able to continue, and neither the simple acceptance nor the nonchalant denials of corruption that were exhibited as the primary strains of thought during the discussion promise to truly bring issues of corruption to light. There must be a full honesty and openness regarding corruption if it is actually to be ended, and this is something that cannot happen…… [read more]

Biomedical Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Whether paternalism is correct or not in legal application, the state uses this thinking in the assurance of the soundness of individuals with disabilities. It is not fair, however, the state feels that state paternalism is unobjectionable in the medical context, and feels more confident in their state certified medical persons then external doctors (Munson, 1979, pg 170). In 'I Am Sam', the state certified therapist asked Sam if he understood his rights that confidentiality is null in light of his case. Since he could not accurate answer the question to the liking of the doctor, and seen as a mark against his case.

Dependency of individuals on the medical arena only show how much power the medical world has over an individuals life. Whether individuals implicitly or explicitly agree to allow a doctor to make decisions for them, the power of the relationship resides in the medical advisor (Munson, 1979, pg 170). The ethical responsibility of the physician is vast considering that the patient under advisement believes the physician will act in an autonomic way. In the case of Sam, he only saw the doctor as someone whom he could talk to about his situation, not that the separatist mentality would be relevant. Sam believed that the doctor would be truthful, as he knew he was being truthful. Truth and confidentiality play a vital role in this film. When Sam asked the foster mother, that if he admitted he needed help would she tell on him in court, he trusted her ability to keep confidence between them, as he was trying to foster a relationship.

In conclusion, ethically the state has an obligation of upholding individual rights. Without the focus of supporting a person's best interests on a case-by-case basis, then individuals like Sam will have their individual rights infringed upon, and the utilitarian efforts by social workers will be futile.


Munson, R. (1979). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in medical ethics. The Wadsworth series in social philosophy. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Nelson, J. (Director). (2002). "I Am Sam"…… [read more]

Ethics Biomedical Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (950 words)
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A wonderful case study of ethics, which addresses all of these topics, is the book, and subsequent movie, "Awakenings." For a short description, Dr. Sacks (who wrote the book) had a number of patients who had suffered during an epidemic of encephalitis in the early part of the twentieth century. The doctor heard about a drug that had been somewhat successful with Parkinson's and wondered what affect it would have with his catatonic patients. In the book, he chronicles what occurred when he administered the drug and the eventual consequences of that decision (Sacks, 1973).

As relates to biomedical ethics, this book violated many of the concepts listed. The doctor was interested in two elements associated with the administration of L-DOPA. He had been with the patients in an asylum for many years, and he wanted to see if the drug would actually benefit them. This thought of benefit was often overshadowed by a personal quest for knowledge that had little to do with the patients. This is where the ethical dilemma comes in. Is it better to potentially benefit the patients when knowledge of the effects of the drug are not necessarily known? Or is it better to conduct the trials that would be required and delay the action? Normally, no procedure or drug is introduced without extensive testing. First animals are used, and then when it is deemed safe, people volunteer. Sacks related in the book that he was able to communicate with his first patient (Sacks, 1973). However, he never gained specific permission to try the drug. Many would think that the patient would jump at the chance to leave the prison of the catatonia, but that decision must be left to the patient. It speaks to the concepts of autonomy, dignity and respect. The doctor in the book gained knowledge of the procedure's adverse affects after the fact. There was no thought to testing or protecting the patient from an experience which could be dangerous. The drug did work for a certain period of time and then the effects diminished and eventually the drug failed. Since, ethically, the medical professional has a responsibility to follow all of these concepts, Dr. Sacks failed to maintain an ethical stance. It does not matter that the procedure did little harm.

A nurse must understand how all of the concepts listed in the text relate to every patient that they treat. Biomedical ethics speaks to the personhood of the patient, and every medical professional's responsibility to maintain that, but it is also about a nurse remaining in a position. Ethical violations, no matter the supposed benefit to the patient, are still wrong.


Munson, R. & Munson, M. (2000). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in medical ethics. Ann Arbor, MI: Wadsworth.

O'Neill, O. (2001). Autonomy and trust in bioethics. The Gifford Lectures. Cambridge University,…… [read more]

Research Ethics Is Construed Differently Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (627 words)
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Research ethics is construed differently by different authors. According to Resnik (2010), ethics in research have to do with "norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior." Randall & Gibson (1990) view ethics more in terms of presenting valid evidence from authentic research methodologies. Werhane & Doering (1997) focus on conflicts of interest and conflicts of commitment in their evaluation of what research ethics entails. Each of these points-of-view presents a unique and compelling piece in the puzzle that comprises research ethics.

In business, research ethics are often as complex as they might be in the medial or social sciences. Resnik (2010) points out that different disciplines have unique sets of norms and values that characterize their research ethics. These norms and values underwrite the approach to research and empirical investigations. Because business often interfaces with science, medicine, and social science, ethics in all these areas may relate to business research ethics as well. For example, if a company depends on an empirical study to market a product, then the ethical validity of that study must be taken into consideration. As Resnik (2010) points out, various professional organizations are in charge of establishing the ethical codes that their members must follow. Some of the core qualities that these organizations agree on include honesty, objectivity, integrity, carefulness, openness, and social responsibility (Resnik 2010). Resnik (2010) offers case studies to elucidate how research ethics play out in the real world.

The meta-analysis compiled by Randall & Gibson (1990) offers a review of nearly a hundred studies on research ethics. The authors found great discrepancies among the research, noting that many did not provide an ethical framework. Researchers frequently offered "no concern for the reliability or validity of measures, were characterized by low response rates, used convenience samples, and did not offer a theoretic framework, hypotheses, or a definition of ethics." What makes the…… [read more]

Business Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,073 words)
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¶ … business ethics has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this is because of the large scandals that have been occurring, which are highlighting the lack of ethics in the business world. A good example of this can be seen with Enron and the Dabhol Power Plant in India. What happened was India began… [read more]

Business Dining Mechanics of Table Manners and Restaurant Etiquette Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ethics and Morality

The Art and Etiquette of Business Dining

Dining etiquette and table manners are thought to be more significant to a person's career triumph then one thinks. Proper table manners are connected with professionalism. Bad table manners are related to a lack of professionalism. On any given day, a business professional might have to know how to seat… [read more]

Aristotle States That There Is a Difference Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,557 words)
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¶ … Aristotle states that there is a difference between intellectual and moral virtues. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss his view regarding moral virtue and moderation, insisting upon issues such as the reasons which could prevent people from respecting their own behavior standards, or why both those who practice and who do not practice virtue are… [read more]

Objections to Virtue Ethics My Ethical Philosophy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (667 words)
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Objections to Virtue Ethics

My ethical philosophy could be said to be defined by what is known as 'virtue ethics' -- or the idea that a good person is more likely to make good ethical decisions, based upon his or her character. Character is more important than adhering to a dogmatic ethical system or engaging in the unpredictable activity of trying to predict every likely consequence of a specific action. Of course, some philosophers might object that the concept of virtue ethics is situational in nature, and is thus very similar to that of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill's utilitarianism, which advocates a consequence-focused ethical theory. However, virtue ethicists do not focus on consequences alone: they do stress the need for a moral decision-making process. They believe that both the process and the consequences are important to consider when judging a particular position to be 'ethical' or not, and that a moral person is better able to balance the need for objective morality and the consequences of enforcing a moral system. That is why character of the individual is so important when selecting what principles to apply to a given situation, and deciding how to judge a situation, more so than either emphasizing results (utilitarianism) or eternal laws (like the Kantian categorical imperative).

Objections to virtue ethics

Virtue ethics has come under scrutiny ever since was conceptualization in the mind of great thinkers like the Greek philosopher Aristotle. "Aristotle argued that our distinctive function is reasoning, and so the life 'worth living' is one in which we reason well" (Athanassoulis, 2010). Many have seen this as a kind of self-centered justification to virtue ethics -- it over-emphasizes the personal benefits of giving to the giver. The focus, they argue, should be upon the effects of the receiver, or upon society at large, depending on whether they are deontological or utilitarian (respectively) in their focus

Another objection, one which is most vehemently articulated by philosopher Peter Singer, is that emphasizing the character of…… [read more]

Care Ethics Essay

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Care Ethic and the Invisible Children

The plight of the Ugandan children forced to hide or risk abduction by the rebel army for conscription as young soldiers is almost unimaginable in a country like the United States. Not only the fear and brutality with which these children and their families must contend, but also the absolute lack of a rule of law or any effective means of stopping these child abductions -- or the training and brainwashing of children into merciless and brutal killers themselves -- seem too extreme to really exist anywhere when one is insulated by the security and safety of a more solid government. Yet this places the problem in the context of an ethics of justice, which has been the prevailing ethical view for millennia but is not, according to many contemporary philosophers and theorists, the only means by which to judge the goings-on in the world. Though the abduction of children for the purposes of turning them into soldiers is an abhorrent act no matter what ethical perspective it is viewed from, using a different ethical approach entirely leads to an understanding of the central problems that is entirely new and possibly more practical in some regards.

The ethics of care refers to a broad range of ethical theories emphasizing human relationships and emotions as both measures of and means to ethicality, much as the ethics of judgment refers to a broad range of ethics that have right/wrong determinations based on logic and intellectual calculations. Largely associated with feminist schools of thought (while resoundingly rejected by other feminists), the ethics of care understands the world as a network of individuals that are…… [read more]

Gallipoli the Ethics of Gallipoli the Campaign Essay

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The Ethics of Gallipoli

The campaign at Gallipoli is not one of the better-known features of the First World War, especially outside Australia and Turkey. Historians and scholars have different opinions regarding the purpose, chances for success, and reasons for ultimate failure in this campaign, some of which are tangentially touched on in the Per Weir film, Gallipoli. Several of the battles as depicted in this film and according to many accounts of the true history of World War One were engaged in by battalions of Australian soldiers not because they were especially important in and of themselves, or because a high degree of success was perceived, but rather because a diversion was needed for more important maneuvers by British troops elsewhere in the region. The exact nature of these battles and the campaign as a whole has profound effects on the way this campaign is perceived in various ethical frameworks.

As John Stuart Mill eloquently and succinctly explains in, "What Utilitarianism Is," utilitarian ethics are derived form the principle that the greatest good to the greatest number of individuals is the hallmark of an ethical act or decision. As such, the diversionary tactics and sacrifices of the Australians at Gallipoli might be said to have been ethical, if it contributed to the saving of lives elsewhere and the overall success of the war effort (assuming that the Allies are fighting an ethically just war in the first place, of course). The film depicts the battles as largely senseless and the sacrifices as useless, however, meaning that the only people really affected by these battles were those that died and the ones they loved and were loved by, meaning that the…… [read more]

Ethics of Administration Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,403 words)
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Cooper, Terry L. (2006). The responsible administrator. Jossey-Bass.

Public administration in modern and postmodern society: The context of administrative ethics

According to Chapter 3 of the responsible administrator by Terry L. Cooper, contemporary society has shifted from a modernist ideal of a melting pot to a more postmodern ethos. In postmodernity, the ways in which we structure administrative life… [read more]

Ethics Program Essay

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Ethics Program

Developing an ethics program

Increased scrutiny on the actions of businesses and organizations has directly necessitated the importance of ethical programs. However, there has been an increase in attention regarding the way businesses undertake their ethical practices. In turn, organizations have come up with meaningful ethical practices encrypted in detailed ethical programs to stipulate whether the actions of… [read more]

Moral Realism and the Sceptical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,011 words)
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The first issue that he addresses is the argument which derives from disagreement. According to Mackie, there are disagreements in all the disciplines. However, while in most disciplines a solution is believed to exist even if at theoretical level only, such is not the case with ethics. Here we can not conceive that a solution is possible in principle only.… [read more]

Accounting Ethics (or Dr. Smith Goes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
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¶ … Accounting Ethics (or Dr. Smith Goes to Washington) by L. Murphy Smith. Specifically, it will contain a summary of the journal article. This article discusses the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act and what the Act means to the accounting world.

After the Enron/Arthur Anderson accounting scandal, there were many worries about the ethics and accountability of accounting firms all around the world. This article discusses the 2002 Act Congress passed in an attempt to control accounting and stock brokerage transactions, and how these companies could gain the confidence of the public. The author notes, "Confidence will be restored only by ethical leadership from the accounting profession, business community, and government" (Smith, 2003). The author testified before Congress during hearings about the Act, and he discusses his experiences and theories about regaining the public trust in the article.

He notes the industry has to act with the utmost integrity to preserve their reputations, and they must consider who could be affected by their actions (besides themselves, they have their clients to consider). He discusses whether ethics can be taught in higher education (he maintains they should be taught, and he talks about the importance of ethics in society. He writes, "Ethical values provide the foundation on which a civilized society exists. Without that foundation, civilization would collapse" (Smith, 2003). Thus, ethics are one of the foundations of society, and they should be the foundation of any accounting practice, large or small. He also believes it is the duty of businesspeople to create ethical operations that help support an ethical society. He continues, "The purpose of ethics in accounting and business is to direct business men and women to abide by a code of conduct that facilitates, indeed encourages, public confidence in their products and services" (Smith, 2003). He talks about what responsibility the government has in ensuring accounting firms act ethically, and the role integrity plays in making the right ethical choices.…… [read more]

Ethics in Educational Research Personal Definition Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (939 words)
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Ethics in Educational Research

Personal definition of ethics

On a personal level, I believe that ethics entails doing all in one's power to maintain a good relationship with other human beings. This is particularly important in academic research, where the ultimate aim is generally to benefit humanity, either in terms of increased understanding or in terms of better service delivery, health effects or some other direct influence. If a proper ethical approach is however not followed to obtain these results, I believe that the research should not be conducted in the first place, regardless of how much benefit it could have for humanity. McMillan and Schumacher (2006, p. 142) appear to disagree with me in this regard, in maintaining that if the benefit to humanity is weighed at a significantly higher level than the cost to the research population, a researcher's decision to proceed would be acceptable. On a personal level, I would not do this.

Ethical dilemmas are however part and parcel of human life. It simply is not always possible to make a decision that ensures no harm to everyone. In such cases, I believe that the best course of action is the one that would ensure at least minimal harm if no harm cannot be guaranteed.

In general, I believe the best ethical approach in any situation is honesty. Both in life, business and academia, honesty is usually, to use the cliche, the best policy. Once again this can be related to research where results would only be valid if certain information is withheld from the subjects of the research. If participants are not harmed by the lack of disclosure, I would not have a problem being involved in such research. If there is potential harm, I would disclose that certain information may be withheld for the purpose of the study, and that this may harm participants, upon which they may choose to terminate their participation. On the other hand, if the potential harm is significant, I may choose to terminate the study altogether.

Because both research and education are such significant parts of human life, I believe that ethics play a most important role in education research. Such research is conducted to improve the educational experience for both professionals in the field and learners. Because of the many persons involved in the field, I believe a strong code of ethics is vital for conducted such research.


The role of ethics in educational research

Ethics would play the most significant part in qualitative educational research designs, and particularly in interactive qualitative methods, as delineated by McMillan and Schumacher (2006, p. 26). Interactive research methods mean that a group of individuals are used as representative of a population in the study design.

The researcher should be familiar with the ethical considerations surrounding the issues that he…… [read more]

Ethics AIG and Ethics: Lessons Learned Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



AIG and Ethics: Lessons Learned

The exceptional lack of ethics during the first years of the 21st century immediately triggered an onslaught of global legislation that sought to enforce governance and compliance across businesses globally. Each nation has enacted their own governance, risk and compliance (GRC) initiatives, with the best known and stringent to adhere to being the Sarbanes-Oxley… [read more]

Deidre Mccloskey, the Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,062 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Deidre McCloskey, the Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006). [HB501 M55341 2006 -- Grad]

Elizabeth Anscombe, "Modern Moral Philosophy," Philosophy, vol. 33 (1958) [B1 p63 grad & ugli]

Rosalind Hursthouse, on Virtue Ethics [BJ 1521 H881 1999 Grad & Ugli]

MW Baron, Kantian Ethics Almost without Apology,

Roger Crisp (ed), How Should One Live [BJ1521 H831 1996) grad & ugli]

Thomas M. Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other [BJ1411 S. 361-1998 ugli]

Scanlon, "Contractualism & Utilitarianism" in Utilitarianism and Beyond, Amartya Sen & Bernard Williams, ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 103-28)

Paul J. Borowski, "Manager-Employee Relationships: Guided by Kant's Categorical Imperative or Dilbert's Business Principle," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 17 no. 15, pp. 1623-32 [HF 5387 J67 grad]

Wallace, R. Jay. 2002. 'Scanlon's Contractualism'. Ethics, 112 (3): 429-470. [BJ1 E87]

Onora O'Neill, "Kant's Virtues" in How Should One Live: Essays on Virtues, Roger Crisp, ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), pp. 77-98.

Michael Slote, "Virtue Ethics, Utiliarianism, and Symmetry in How Should One Live, pp. 99-110

Kantian Ethics and Business Management

The managers of business enterprises could benefit greatly by applying the ethical ideas of Immanuel Kant because following those ideas can promote consistent managerial principles. By the same token, however, those ideas involve some risks for managers because they can lead to overly rigid and inflexible decision-making. Kant's ideas are relevant to business management but they have to be used carefully.

Kant's idea of inner and outer legislation. Inner legislation involves rules that cannot be enforced from outside, often because they involve principles that are unique to oneself or purely personal concerns. Outer legislation is socially imposed. (O'Neill 86-87)

Kant's fundamental principle of ethics was that each person should base his decisions about right and wrong on the answer to the question "would this be right if it were elevated to a general rule that all of humanity would follow" (McCloskey, 263). This principle is known as the "Categorical Imperative." Thus, he believed that duties must be derived from unchanging general principles, through a deductive process of pure reason. (McCloskey 264). Kant thought that the peculiar circumstances of human situations should not determine the right and wrong of moral judgments (McCloskey, 266).

If a manager followed Kant's ideas about how to distinguish right from wrong in the context of the workplace, his decisions would be consistent. Such a manager would formulate uniform policies for making decisions about how to operate the business or manage employees

The prevailing fault of Kantian ethics is to "impose on ethical life some immensely simple model,' such as contract, behind a veil of ignorance, rationality as European bourgeois men might define it, or utility, which seems so measurable." (McCloskey 269) (quoting Williams, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (1985))

Aaron Feuerstien of Malden Mills kept workers on the payroll for months after a fire that destroyed the plant. He seems the opposite of the adversarial boss that so many employees have come to… [read more]

Business Code of Ethics Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,126 words)
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¶ … Business Code of Ethics

Wells Fargo Ethical Statement

Ethical Violations

Culture Speculations

This paper discusses the ethical code and policy of Wells Fargo financial institution. Wells Fargo is a major player in the financial services industry and offers six thousand six hundred fifty retail branches; which are comprised of banking and mortgage establishments that service over forty eight million customers. Wells Fargo is also considered to be one of the big four banks in the United States; the other three are Bank of America, Citigroup, and JP Morgan Chase.

Wells Fargo foregoes the standard mission statement in the "about us" section of their website. Instead, they choose to focus on the vision statement and where they are going. Wells Fargo vision statement is fairly lengthy when compared to other organizations and reads like an article than the more conventional approaches. It seems however that Wells Fargo's vision can be condensed into this one basic statement; "We want to satisfy all our customers' financial needs and help them succeed financially." Furthermore, the organizations basic strategy seems to be position themselves in all of the market segments related to financial services and continue growing through both expansion and acquisition.

Wells Fargo Ethical Statement

Wells Fargo publishes several different versions of its ethical codes that are targeted for different roles within the organization. For example, there is one detailed ethical code provided for all Wells Fargo's employees and there is another for the company's directors. The most general statement about ethics that Wells Fargo publishes is this statement:

Wells Fargo expects its team members to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethics and business conduct with customers, team members, stockholders and the communities it serves, and to comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations that govern our businesses. The Code of Ethics and Business Conduct sets forth Wells Fargo's policy and standards concerning ethical conduct for all team members. Our aim is to promote an atmosphere in which ethical behavior is well recognized as a priority and practiced.

This statement has several interesting items contained in it. Since Wells Fargo operates in the financial services industry, the statement clearly references laws, rules, and regulations. This represents a reactive approach to an ethical system. Although it is important to comply with all laws, rules, and regulations, this represents the minimal level of an ethical system; compliance. Much of the focus is upon not getting in trouble as opposed to upholding a higher ethical code.

Another item that a careful observer might catch is the use of the word aim. This verbiage is incredibly weak. It is reasonable to believe that Wells Fargo's employees put much time and effort into selecting the words for the ethical code. The fact that they chose that particular word could possibly represent an insight into Wells Fargo's level of dedication to the statement. For example, if the statement would have read something like, "we are determined to create and uphold" as opposed to "our aim… [read more]

Ethical Decision Making Media Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,904 words)
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Ethical Decision Making

Media are faced with a number of ethical dilemmas in the course of their business. One of the many dilemmas that could potentially be faced is with respect to reporting on criminal activity. A member of the media may come into possession of information that is relevant to the story but, if published, could compromise the legal… [read more]

Ethical Integrity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Ethics and Morality:

Ethics is basically about what we do and not about what we say or what we intend to do. Ethics is the core of integrity which is demonstrating steadiness between the ethical principles and ethical practices. On the other hand, integrity is the essential measure of character ("How do I Maintain," n.d.). It's important to note that… [read more]

Identification Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,981 words)
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You have been given a central ethical issue to use throughout the paper ?"What should General Barry Norman do about Afghanistan's poppy plants?

In this section you must identify (list) as many OTHER ethical issues, questions, or problems as you can find in the scenario. All issue should be in question form (Should….. Or Is it morally right to…… [read more]

MLK Jr. On Morality, Utilitarianism, Socrates Martin Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (721 words)
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MLK Jr. On Morality, Utilitarianism, Socrates

Martin Luther King Jr.'s Morality, Utilitarianism, and Socrates

Martin Luther King, Jr. was perhaps the most prominent civil rights activist in U.S. history. His work spanned many issues of social justice and pushed him tirelessly to combat such varied problems as racial segregation, poverty, and worker's rights. He was a theologian and activist, not a moral theorist, but his work and speeches make clear his most important views on morality.

At the core of his moral beliefs was the idea that systemic social inequality of any kind must be eradicated. At the time in the U.S., racial segregation was a rule of law. Whites and blacks were forced to ride different buses, attend different schools, and use different facilities. King deplored segregation because it implied that African-Americans were lesser citizens, relegated to a lower sphere on the ladder of status. In addition, African-Americans were often mistreated violently, looked down upon, mired in poverty, and disabled in freedom due to oppressive social restraints. All of this was encompassed in his idea of moral injustice. He sought to raise consciousness, claiming that "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere."

Injustice he claimed was "any law that degrades human personality,"

which meant it was out of harmony with divine moral law.

King believed it was the government's moral duty to guarantee the liberty and equality of its citizens. If the government failed, he thought it was a person's moral duty to demand freedom and equality, and to disobey unjust laws. In a letter from jail, he wrote, "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed."

Yet he was profoundly convinced, because of the influence of Gandhi, that freedom and social equality must be demanded through peaceful means. King repudiated violent methods. He promoted the principle of non-violent civil disobedience, which meant such things as peaceful marches, passive resistance, boycotts, and protests against injustice. In his Nobel Award speech, he states that the award is "a profound recognition that nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral questions of our time --…… [read more]

Pro-Con Neutral Characteristics for Ethical or Conceptual Models Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (365 words)
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Pro/Con/Neutral Characteristics for Ethical or Conceptual Models

Three theories: A philosophical overview

Consequentialism (Egoism or Utilitarianism)

Pro: Often, individuals must choose between two imperfect alternatives. For example, in the current healthcare debate, inevitably there will be some limitations on access to healthcare, even if the system remains the same -- or whether the nation adopts a single-payer model. Choosing the best for the greatest number of people is one equitable way to make difficult moral decisions.

Con: Utilitarianism sacrifices minority rights for the sake of the majority. Simply because there is 'more' of a particular social group does not mean that the minority's interests are less legitimate than that of the majority's: consider the plight of African-Americans in the Southern states during most of American history.

Neutral: Utilitarianism was created by Jeremy Bentham as humane alternative to the more rigid moralistic codes that existed previously, as a rational way of organizing society and allocating punishment.

Rights theory (Social contract or Kant's moral imperative theory)

Pro: This encourages moral scrupulosity and fairness, by acting as if important moral actions set the law for…… [read more]

Environmental Ethical Issues Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,692 words)
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Environmental Ethical Issues

The question of the environment is a topic that has become extremely contentious in our modern world. This is related to a concern in many sectors of society at environmental deterioration and a growing realization of the way that human activities affect the environment and vice versa. This is related to environmental aspects such as damage to… [read more]