"Family / Dating / Marriage" Essays 1-70

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Shrek: Dating, Marriage, Parenting and Family Interaction Term Paper

… Shrek: Dating, Marriage, Parenting and Family Interaction

In the movies, Shrek 1, 2 & the Third, themes relating to dating, courtship, engagement, marriage, child bearing and family interactions can be found throughout each film. The fairytale couple, Shrek the ogre and Fiona the beautiful princess/turned ogre, eventually lives out the "happily ever after" story, but must first overcome some real-life struggles with each other, friends, family and children.

The first film primarily deals with first love, courtship, engagement and marriage, with Shrek rescuing Fiona, the damsel in distress, and their quest for love despite the many obstacles to their relationship. The complications they face are obvious from the start of the first movie and continue throughout the trilogy. One major stumbling block is Shrek's opinion of himself, as he clearly has poor self-esteem issues. In the first film, Shrek doesn't feel he is worthy of Fiona's love; in the second, he doesn't think of himself as a worthy husband, and in the third, he struggles with worthiness as future king and becoming a father. In the beginning, Shrek is a loner and tries to keep to himself, more out of fear of rejection than anything else. And his friendship with Donkey brings out some critical points about how Shrek views himself. Upon rescuing Fiona, he is supposed to deliver her to Lord Farquaad, and perhaps because of self-esteem issues, never dreams of keeping her for himself.

On the other hand, Fiona has a very clear mindset on how she thinks "true love" is supposed to happen to her. Shrek and Fiona's relationship is seemingly doomed from the start because Fiona believes that upon rescuing her from the dragon-guarded tower she has been locked in for years, her knight is supposed to render "love's first kiss" and they are to be married and live happily ever after. When Shrek delivers none of the elements in Fiona's perfect dream, she begins to wonder if there is something wrong with her that is hampering the start of her first love relationship.

As the two work things out about themselves and each other, Shrek and Fiona are able to come together as a couple and appreciate one another's strengths as well as weaknesses. In marrying Shrek, Fiona's "true form" takes the shape of a female ogre, and the two seem like a match made in heaven.

Of course the underlying theme of friendship with Donkey runs through all three films as well, and he seems to pull the viewer through the inner thoughts and feelings of the romantic couple, even though in the second and third movies he seems to particularly ignore their need for privacy, but in a funny way. The progression of dating/courtship to engagement and marriage continues from the first movie to the second, where the happy couple meets Fiona's royal parents and Shrek must come to terms with "the inlaws." Fiona's parents, King Harold and Queen Lillian, have sent messengers to invite the newlyweds to a royal ball. The royals… [read more]

Family Sociological Theories Essay

… Family and Marriage

Finding the Ideal Mate

What spurs our attraction for others? How do we choose who we love and who we will marry? Such questions have founded many theoretical conceits within the realm of classic and modern sociology.… [read more]

Family and Sociology of Marriage Essay

… While stress about financial concerns may lead to both an increase in spousal hostility and a decrease in spousal "warmth" (Freeman, Carlson, & Sperry. 1993, p. 325), it is important to note that such stress can influence cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses among married couples (Dakin and Wampler, 2008). While financial concerns certainly affect the quality of marriage, Rogers (2004) suggests that money worries may exacerbate an already deficient relationship. In other words, money isn't the only reason couples squabble and divorce; it's only the icing on the cake. With the increases in divorce rates, it is important to consider not only the factors that contribute to divorces, but, perhaps even more importantly, what factors are associated with successful marriages.

Contributing factors to successful marriages

While many resources are available proclaiming to provide the "secret" to a lasting marriage, not all are reliable, less are credible. However, the scholarly literature suggests that successful unions have some commonalities; trust, open communication, humor, physical and sexual intimacy, and ability to compromise, fidelity. Reis and Collins (2000) observe that empathy is strongly correlated with successful marriages. However, with the overwhelming resources available to support marriages and married couples, it seems some factors are strongly associated with the dissolution of marriages.

Contributing factors to failed marriages

A simple review of the online "literature" suggests that there are many factors and contributors to divorces. Each of these entries are more rife with anger, resentment and betrayal than the last. However, several commonalities again emerge in correlation with failed marriages; infidelity, financial concerns, child rearing practices, spending practices, alcohol and drug use, pornography consumption, young age and the birth of a child, young age when first marrying to name a few.

While marriage remains a pursuit for many, it seems that the purpose of marriage, compounded with the ease of divorce, has created an atmosphere of indifference to the once holy sacrament of marriage. The consequences of divorce, of broken families, of broken homes, continue to be of interest to sociologists. However, the impact of increased divorce rates on society and on the individual suggest that marriage, as an institution, is no longer as valued as it once was.


Dankin, J., Wampler, R. (2008). Money Doesn't Buy Happiness, but It Helps: Marital Satisfaction, Psychological Distress, and Demographic Differences Between Low- and Middle-Income Clinic Couples. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 36:300 -- 311.

Freeman, C., Carlson, J., & Sperry, L. (1993). Adlerian marital therapy strategies with middle income couples facing financial stress. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(4), 324 -- 332.

Reis, H.T., and Collins, N. (2000).Measuring relationship properties and interactions relevant to social support. In S. Cohen, L.G. Underwood, & B.H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 136 -- 194). New York: Oxford University Press.

Rogers, S.J. (2004). Dollar, dependency, and…… [read more]

Critique of Debunking Myths About Marriages and Families Essay

… ¶ … Marriage & Family Myths


In Debunking Myths about Marriages and Families, Mary Ann Schwartz and Barbara Marliene Scott argue very effectively against five specific beliefs that dominate American cultural views on the institution of marriage and the nuclear family. In doing so, the authors present very persuasive arguments that are, with perhaps one exception, logically sound, devoid of any obvious logical fallacies, reliance on emotionally loaded terms, or any other apparent faulty reasoning. Instead, the authors simply present five specific conceptual beliefs and undermine their validity by providing the historical context for their evolution and the logical basis for their objective refutation.

The views of Schwartz and Scott are quite consistent with those expressed by contemporary researchers in the field of sociology and human sexual evolution, such as encapsulated by New York Times writer, Sam Roberts, in his 2007 article, "The Shelf Life of Bliss," as well as those of renowned psychologist and family therapist, Nathaniel Branden, as detailed in his 1999 book, the Psychology of Romantic Love. Myth # 1 - the Universal Nuclear Family:

Schwartz and Scott (2000) take on the proverbial notion that the concept of family is necessarily defined only the way it has been presented in the U.S. mainstream culture.

The authors suggest that family is more accurately defined much more broadly than by the image of one man and one woman married for life and raising children together.

Instead, they argue that any survey of cultures worldwide would reveal very different expectations of what a family is and that the description commonly accepted in this particular part of the world represents only one of many models evident in human culture.

Branden (1999) agree wholeheartedly and goes even farther, pointing out that as the human lifespan continues to increase, the expectation that marriage is necessarily a permanent arrangement becomes more and more difficult to maintain. Branden points out that more than half of all marriages end in divorce; that many of the rest are less content than the marital partners would like; and that living up to the cultural image of what many believe marriage is supposed to be may cause tremendous harm within families. Likewise, Roberts (2007) explains that in many respects, the expectations fostered in the modern media about families and, especially, relationships between spouses is extremely unrealistic and at odds with both statistical and anecdotal evidence that most marriages are less harmonious than many believe.

Myth # 2 - the Self-Reliant Family:

Schwartz and Scott (2000) suggest that, contrary to reality, American culture reflects the general belief that families should be entirely self-reliant and that the healthy family should not require any assistance of any kind from anyone outside the family.

They point out, correctly, that this perception belies the fact that American families have traditionally relied on outside help substantially, whether in the form of government programs or merely extended social networks and institutions such as churches and even, prior to… [read more]

Marriage and the Family Term Paper

… Marriage and the Family

The institution of marriage and the family is a contentious topic in contemporary society for a number of reasons. One of the most important issues under debate is the decline of marriage and the family in… [read more]

Solutions to Marriage Debate Essay

… This is an attitude that looks at the question from an entirely different perspective than most. Marriage is not the issue the author says; the issue is that families, no matter what their type, are being denied basic freedoms and benefits that are accorded to other. Since fairness and liberty are doctrines espoused in the United States, it seems that these should apply to family matters such as this, the author states (Polikoff).

These are two studies that look at the question from entirely different viewpoints. The first wants to find out what type of people are more likely to oppose gay marriage and what type of people are likely to support it. The second article offers a possible solution that the author seems to believe is unique and viable. The first piece is quantitative research based on statistically derived results from answers to a survey, while the second is more of an informed opinion piece. Polikoff conducted a great deal of research for her article, but it differs greatly from the quantitative study in that it conducts research into previous articles and attitudes.

However, the two have some items in common. Both articles seek to understand attitudes and provide a platform for them. None of the authors make judgment-based assessments regarding people on either side of the issue. The goal is research and reasoned solutions to a societal problem rather than trying to support an individual view. Polikoff comes closer to this because she does seem to support some means of providing relief to gay families, but she does not denigrate those with opposite views.

The two articles offer much more in contrast that they do in common. However, both the quantitative study and the research paper do seek to demonstrate attitudes regarding gay marriage, and Polikoff offers a solution that is well-researched and stated. The question of whether gay marriage is valid or not is not the question that these two groups of authors want to answer. The goal is academic more than it is solution-oriented. But, Polikoff does offer an adequate attempt to offer a possible solution to a problem that is becoming increasingly divisive.

Works Cited

Brumbaugh, Stacey M, Laura A. Sanchez, Steven L. Nock, and James D. Wright. "Attitudes Toward Gay Marriage in States Undergoing Marriage Law Transformation." Journal of Marriage & Family 70 (2008): 345-359. Print.

Polikoff, Nancy D. "Law that Values all Families: Beyond (Straight and Gay) Marriage." Journal of the American Academy of…… [read more]

Psycho-Educational Models of Family Therapy Research Paper

… Hence, the individual must differentiate between the intellectual self and the emotional self; he focuses on how the recognition of the self must occur first before differentiation can take place. This also engages other separations like from parents, women, friends,… [read more]

Oral History: My Taiwanese Family Through the Generations Essay

… Taiwanese people have a reputation for being superstitious (Culture and etiquette, 2014, Rough Guides). My family members are no exception. For example, no one is supposed to talk about a 'worst case' scenario such as the potential for a car crash or sickness. Even giving a handkerchief is regarded as a bad omen because it means that the person who receives it might become sick or cry. Certain words like four or clock which sound like death are avoided, as are objects associated with those things. When my grandmother plays the lottery she would never play a number four (Culture and etiquette, 2014, Rough Guides).

I do not retain all of the superstitions of the older people of my family, but I am a superstitious person in the sense that I do not like to tempt fate with my actions. Some of the superstitions I observe, for example, I have learned in America and are not part of my culture but the care with which I observe them are very Taiwanese, such as not walking under ladders and becoming upset when a black cat crosses my path. Many people have been surprised by the emphasis on superstition and folk religion in Taiwanese culture, given the society seems so modern otherwise (Culture and etiquette, 2014, Rough Guides). But it is important to remember the modern history of Taiwan: when mainland China became communist, the anti-communists fled to Taiwan and thus felt much more comfortable retaining their traditions and beliefs vs. In communist China, where there was an effort to eradicate them.

Another very important philosophy in Taiwanese culture is Daoism, for example, which stresses being in harmony with the world rather than resisting it. This is completely contrary to the Western notion of being a 'captain of one's fate and a master of one's soul.' Instead, the stress is to follow 'the way of the Dao,' bending with the currents of life, rather than attempting to break them. I see this influence in the stress upon harmonizing my attitudes with others while I was growing up, rather than engaging in open conflict. In many Western families, debating is seen as the best way to resolve a problem. The Daoist philosophy would suggest that this often simply makes people unhappy and polarizes them further. Daoism is founded on a concept of compromise and I see that in my own actions with my friends as well as my family. I try to be the peacemaker rather than take sides, and this attitude has always been very beneficial for me, I believe.

When interviewing my mother and grandmother, I became more conscious about how my attitudes and personality are still constantly being shaped by my family, as are my core values. While certain beliefs and practices may have changed with the times and because of my location, there can be no doubt that my heritage continues to affect me. I see my family as my greatest source of strength and know that will not… [read more]

Counseling Family Counseling Approach Research Paper

… The counselor has a key role in facilitating families to achieve change hence he is the 'hero' of the change story. Having said that, this hero requires a suitable entry as well as exit point. The counselor needs to motivate… [read more]

For Gay Marriage Term Paper

… ¶ … Gay Marriage

In many countries, marriage is a sacred entity. Opposite sex marriages and divorce is acceptable in the society with same sex marriages exceptionally condemned because they would reduce the sacred touch aspect of marriages. My interest… [read more]

Marriage and Intimacy Research Paper

… For minor stresses that are daily occurrences, a couple may want to seek a therapists help for some objective advice in what each partner feels is a stressful daily event (is it something small, like always having to drive the… [read more]

Genogram Significant Family Events Dolly Research Proposal

… Genogram

Significant Family Events

Dolly is a Punjabi Muslim woman from Malaysia. When Dolly was 16 her family moved to Singapore, where she was raised. Dolly's genogram reveals a lot about the impact of family history, cultural values, class conflict,… [read more]

Family Relationships Reaction Paper

… ¶ … expertly and historically into the matter of "Family Characteristics." Going back to the sixteenth century, Stone writes that in order to understand what the family values were, it is necessary to forget about modern Western assumptions. As for the values in the sixteenth century, looking back with today's values it was "morally reprehensible" to marry for money, or for status and power. Nevertheless, it happened; marriage wasn't a decision the bride or groom made; marriage was a "collective decision" made by "family and kin, not an individual" (70). Property was important and romance was not, Stone points out, alluding to the 16th century values.

The "patrimonial bureaucracy" meant that power (regarding property, marriage, and social position) fell into the hands "of the oldest males" and as a result there often ensued fights and struggles to "win the approval of, or establish some reciprocal claim upon… an old man… [that] controlled the levers of power" (Stone, 73). Reading Stone's narrative one cannot help but interject that there are families in today's society that pretty much arrange marriages for their sons and daughters. It may not be quite as frequent as it was in the sixteenth century, but certainly in some Muslim societies, and elsewhere, such as India, the parents make decisions regarding whom their daughters and sons should marry. Money is indeed part of the decision, as well.

That having been said, for the American society, it would be rare for a young women of marrying age to be dictated to by her parents as to whom she should marry. The United States is a place of many subcultures, but in general people show independence in their marital decision-making. So it is fascinating to learn about England's social values in the periods previously discussed in this paper. It would be extremely uncommon for a grandfather in America to be the one to decide -- in a patrimonial context -- to decide for a young couple if they qualify for marriage.

As for the 16th century society in England, Stone (77) asserts that tempers were very short and the courts will "clogged with cases of assault and battery" because casual violence was a common way of behavior when there were disagreements. "The most trivial disagreements tended to lead rapidly to blows" and most people packed weapons for that eventually, Stone continues (77). In 18th century London "brutal and unprovoked attacks by gangs" were common, Stone explains. Earlier, in the 17th century, horrible as it sounds in 2011, "children were often neglected, brutally treated, and even killed" (Stone, 80). After describing the horrors of those centuries, Stone (80) does admit there were "cheerful and affectionate" wives and families. As far as sexual attitudes in the sixteenth to early seventeenth centuries, in Chapter Twelve Stone writes that there was a "possible decline" in premarital and extramarital sex, however there was a notable spike ("striking increase") in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in both premarital and extramarital sex. Why? Stone says "changing… [read more]

Family Values in Urban America Term Paper

… These ideologies have been mixed with propagandas, which have weakened the urban America's conscience and this has resulted to creation of an environment in which there is breakdown of the traditional family values.

Referring to studies done by (Michael 143-154)[footnoteRef:10]… [read more]

Marriages in Taming Essay

… Marriage in Taming

Shakespeare and the dramatic media in which he worked were both stark social commentary that was meant to be humorous and highlight social issues that demonstrate concepts and concerns associated with social change and social problems. The… [read more]

Sociology of Families Making Families in the New Millennium Term Paper

… Sociology of Families: Making Families in the New Millennium

There is little doubt that the nature, shape and form of the modern family has changed and is still changing in new and radical ways. The family has in the last… [read more]

Family and Marriage Experience Term Paper

… ¶ … 13-year marriage as it is held against the Kolb model. The writer uses the six model categories to present an exploration of the marriage and the raising of three children during that marriage. The Kolb model assists in… [read more]

Black Churches / New Pastors the Influences Term Paper

… Black Churches / New Pastors

The Influences and Issues of the Black Church, the Black Family, and Faith-Based Ministries in the 21st Century

What are the key issues surrounding the African-American Church in the year 2005? What should new pastors… [read more]

Family Break Up Term Paper

… The inevitability of crisis in the family life cannot be avoided; however, the effective efforts of strong families include facing of the crisis as effectively as possible in order to have a minimum harm simultaneously focusing on the growth avenues.… [read more]

Diverse and Changing Term Paper

… Some fundamentalist groups consider that Western media is the cause of the moral decline in America, leading to the diversity of the family structure and the growing trend towards feminism. But the media is part of the overall change in social dynamics and parallels the fluidity of history, unable to be swayed by political opinion. Thus family diversity will continue to evolve and the model of the traditional family will be influenced by time, just as nature adapts and diversifies.

But the question still remains, is family diversity the best version of the family structure? Sociologists, politicians, and the medical profession agree that a functional, supportive family best meets the needs of children and reduces social problems. But forcing the fixed-form ideology of the nuclear family will not account for the diversity that historically develops. It is proven that the traditional family upholds high social values, but some alternatives to the family structure can still constitute a functional family and have not been demonstrated to contribute to social problems. For instance, same-sex parenting, while non-traditional and morally questionable, can also provide a form of stable home-life and has not demonstrated to contribute to crime or other socially aberrant behavior. The growing trend towards single parenting, however, has seen a destabilization of the family structure and an increase in domestic violence.

The changing face of the family structure will follow a natural course of evolution, and social and political opinions will continue to be argued. The fact is that family diversity is becoming the norm, as opposed to the nuclear family, and any sense of family where home support can be provided should be encouraged.


Harms, William. (1999, Nov. 24). "Marriage wanes as American families enter new century,

University of Chicago research shows." The University of Chicago News Office.

Herbst, Matthew T. (2003, July). "Do Family Values Lead to Family Violence?: A Consideration

of the Idea of Family." Quodlibet: Online Journal of Christian Theology and Philosophy. 5:2-3. Retrieved February 17, 2004. http://www.quodlibet.net/herbst-family.shtml

Smith, Tom W. (1999). "The Emerging 21st Century American Family." National Opinion

Research Center. GSS Social…… [read more]

Victims of Intimate Violence: Laci Essay

… Meadows (2010) assert that six people die each day in the United States under the arms of a spouse or an intimate partner. Twenty seven hundred people or close to a million people annually experience physical assaults from their intimate… [read more]

Jane Austen Quotes Austen Essay

… It is the greatest of favours when Miss de Bourgh comes in." (137)


With a glance, she saw that he had lost none of his recent civility; and, to imitate his politeness, she began, as they met, to admire… [read more]

Hindu Marriage Ceremony Term Paper

… Hindu Marriage, which is considered a deeply sacred social and religious institution, aims to create a bond between the bride and groom's families, and help the couple attain spiritual union. As such, a Hindu marriage is steeped in ritual and tradition. All parts of the marriage, from the selection of the bride and groom, to the after-ceremony rituals, are influenced by centuries of tradition.

Hindu marriage is a sacred institution that is seen as a life-long commitment. In the Hindu tradition, the woman is charged with keeping the marriage together, as Hindu tradition sees women as more emotionally in tune with the needs and demands of the marriage. Hindu scriptures charge women with maintaining domestic peace within the marriage (About.com). In Hindu society, marriage is seen as the strongest social bond between a man and a woman, and viewed as a sacrament. This view of marriage as a deeply sacred social and religious matter contrasts sharply with the west's view of marriage as a simple contract between two individuals (Mypurohith).

Traditionally, one of the most important purposes of Hindu marriage is to foster love for the entire family unit, including the extended family of both the bride and the groom. As a result, the wife and husband are supposed to exercise self-restraint at all times, in order to keep the needs of the family above their own individual desires and goals. The bride and groom take a vow of self-restraint in Vedic marriages, and also pledge to work together for the welfare of the entire family (About.com). Marriage is seen as a blending of the wife's and husband's families (Mypurohith).

Marriage is also seen as a route to spiritual growth. In the Hindu tradition, both the husband and wife are viewed as soul mates that work together to help each other grow spiritually. During the marriage, they take vows to support each other, and remain friends (Mypurohith).

The marriage begins with the selection of the couple, which is usually arranged by parents or elders. The younger bride and groom are often viewed as too immature to make such an important decision about the rest of their lives, and often seen to be too concerned with more trivial matters (Mypurohith).

After the couple is selected by the more experienced members of the families, the engagement takes place. A day is selected for the engagement, which does not normally fall during the months of December, October, Mark, or on Sundays, Tuesdays or Saturdays. The groom's party goes to the bride's house for the betrothal, where a prayer is said, and a ceremony takes place where the young woman's guardian announces that the girl is betrothed to the boy (Mypurohith).

Hindu marriage ceremony can be divided into three main parts: the pre-ceremony, the ceremony proper, and the conclusion of the ceremony. The pre-ceremony includes a reception that is held by the bride's parents for the groom and his parents at the entrance of the marriage hall. After this first reception, the bride's father… [read more]

Family and Kinship in Village India Term Paper

… Women

Wolf, Margery. "Uterine Families and the Women's Community." Chapter 23 Questions

According to Wolf, a uterine society is a society characterized by a patriarchal system of linage, whereby authority is passed down from father to son. Women are subsumed within the identity of a family upon marriage, and are primarily valued for their childbearing function, specifically their ability to bear sons. Women exist as placeholders in such a world, of continued male identity, rather than as legitimate beings themselves of value because they pose no practical, long-lasting value to their parental families, only to families they marry into as the bearers of sons.

Thus, producing children is extremely important to women in uterine societies. In such a system of lineage, the only status and identity is conferred upon the females in question by society is in terms of their abilities to produce sons in the village schema of values. Moreover, all women lose their previous, albeit lower and tangential status as a member of a kinship structure as a daughter when they marry. Their marital alliance thus forms their only social status -- there is no safety network for them to fall back on, if they fail in the uterine society's requirements to produce sons, and have little sense of self-worth, as the family has no incentive to connect with daughters emotionally, or to put much financial effort into their physical worth, other than to pass them on as a wife and a bearer of sons to another family.

Question 3 woman's relationship is entirely dependant in her new family, on her ability to produce sons, given that daughters are no more valued in this new family than they were in her old familial structure. Even her mother in law, the new, main female…… [read more]

Psychology Salvador Minuchin's System Term Paper

… Salvador Minuchin was one of the psychological "giants" who founded family therapy in the 1950's. He envisioned the family as a system with a structure that tended to be self-maintaining under changing internal and external conditions. According to Minuchin, some… [read more]

Judith Stacy Is a Professor Book Report

… The justice of supreme court Anthony Kennedies legalize the same sex marriage on appeal of one person but Stacy does not like the idea of going to court for this matter. Stacy also focuses on the idea of redefining the faithful relationship. Stacy told that she know many of couples who turn disloyal from integrity. Many couples decided to agree on an open relationship so that they could stay together without any unfaithfulness as it could give them more happiness.

Stacy forces the audience to reconsider the idea of typical marriage life and refresh their ideas about polygamy. In her travel and research she pokes and prods and eagerly calls the questions that came into our mind about love, marriages and relationships. The book covers all family or marriages discussion by challenging conservative, feminists and proponents of same sex marriage.

In my opinion Unhitched is really an incredible and interesting book. The writer has almost cover all the questions in order to challenge the myth that children need both mother and father to become a happy family or that the only way of caring your lover is to get married. She makes an original approach in unhitched which is emerged out as a deep journey to three different cultures which covers gay men in Los Angeles, South African families with an emphasis on polygamy and a non-marrying chine's tribe. She finds out the stress between desires and domesticity and the outcomes can a relationship assumes. It is a complete research but Stacey writes all this with verbenas and witness.

It is surprising that Stacey did not hesitate to ask questions on conventional wisdoms. This book has changed many of my views about plural marriages and gay fatherhood did not have an idea that gay men easily adopt children of any race, class and even health status. writer just redefine the term polygeny by comparing the situations of United States (where same sex marriage is restricted) to south Africa (where people got legal right for same sex marriage). She takes the polygeny as a good deal offered to and by the people who are agreed to take social and economic responsibilities for their sexual urges and privileges.

On the other hand, why one should not like about the Mosuo, where sex and love separated from economic and parental obligations that exists in our society? The mother and family of the mother is the centre of life where all others care for kids. This is the place where men live, work and eat but at night they are free to visit any women they want. There is no concept of unfaithfulness women can freely refuse the men. There is no concept of conflicts with in-laws as male has to face few allegations from the family. Also no fatherlessness as children from one women are treated as full siblings, but still marriage is not forbidden. Stacy points out that to establish such society it requires great comfort level to carry out such cultural… [read more]

Waifs in Literature Research Paper

… Waifs in Literature

In the three novels Oliver Twist, Joseph Andrews and Moll Flanders, all three of the main characters were brought up by people other than their natural parents. The lack of parental love, guidance and supervision affected their… [read more]

Decline of the Institution of Marriage Divorce Thesis

… Decline of the Institution of Marriage

Anti-Divorce Roots and Rationale

The family revolution in the last half-century has been characterized by a decline in social power, functions and moral authority within the family (Wilcox 2007). It has been followed by… [read more]

American Culture the Effects of Divorce Thesis

… ¶ … divorce on American culture. Divorce is never easy on a family, and it affects every member of the family in many ways. It breaks down family ties, splits families apart, and can create poverty and despair in single… [read more]

War's Effect Term Paper

… War's Effects

The traumas and deficiencies of war inflict unpredictable and disastrous effects on the family. Roles and responsibilities are often dramatically altered (Victorian Foundation for Survivors of Torture and Trauma 1996). Traumatized parents become less able to emotionally support… [read more]

Kinship Categories Are Fundamental Essay

… In most European cultures, descent is bilateral, or cognatic, meaning that lineage is traced both through the mother's and father's line.

Common kinship classification systems used by anthropologists also take into account the nature of the marriage and family structures within a given society. Definitions and practices of marriage vary widely but can be broadly placed into two categories: exogamy and endogamy. Exogamy dictates that marriages must be with individuals that fall outside the immediate circle of family kin; exogamy rules are a result of incest taboos. However exogamy also ensures that a society's kinship ties will continually expand with each successive generation: new kinship ties will be formed as the result of a marriage union. The marriage union will result in new family kinship ties as well as social kinship ties unrelated to the family.

Generally marriages are defined as heterosexual unions that result in offspring, but in many cultures, marriage is not so cut-and-dry. For example, anthropologists include polygamy, polyandry, and marriages without offspring as specific classifications of marriage-based kin relationships. Kinship classifications also change according to the nature of the marriage institution within a society. If, as in a patrilineal culture, the wife relocates to the community or home of the husband, kinship ties will be primarily formed in relation with the father's family. Community relationships will therefore be determined by the father's family: not only will familial relations include relatives that are unrelated by genes, but also the kinship ties within the culture will expand to include friendships and other social bonding.

Works Cited

Murphy, Michael Dean. "A Kinship Glossary: Symbols, Terms, and Concepts." The University of Alabama. Online at .

Schwimmer, Brian. "Kinship and Social Organization." University of Manitoba. Online at .… [read more]

Autobiographical Term Paper

… As a Christian, I don't have a necessarily unique religious heritage although many aspects of the Christianity I was taught does differ significantly from the more secularized version taught to many Americans of European descent. I have particularly found that religion does not play as central a role in the dominant culture in America as it does within Puerto Rican society. Moreover, as a visible minority I do experience dissonance with American culture on certain occasions, a dissonance that has made me increasingly aware of the impact of my ethnicity on my personality and identity.

The dominant culture has different views toward family and marriage than my cultures of origin. Divorces are very common in the dominant culture for instance; families are small and many people do not take care of their elder relatives as they do in Puerto Rican society. As a result, I have been keenly aware of the problems facing American seniors and have vowed to always take care of my mother especially as she has done so much for me. I also feel that the dominant American culture values money more than many other things, whereas I grew up knowing that in spite of poverty we had everything we really needed. Comparing my personal experiences with what I witness in the world around me has led to some fruitful realizations about myself and about the world around me.

These realizations in part led to my interest in social work. My desire to help others stems directly from my Christian and Hispanic background. Both cultures emphasize social work and service. As a minority, I will be extremely supportive and empathetic with all clients. Moreover, I will relate well to the specific needs of people in the Hispanic community. In my job as a social worker, I intend to help others to communicate their needs in a supportive, tolerant environment that respects all cultures and backgrounds.… [read more]

Anthropology Term Paper


Uterine families in Taiwan are those who are characterized to be made up of female members, which may range from women belonging to the same lineage to women who have become part of a family through marriage. Thus, the uterine family includes all women who have familial connections, whether these are direct or indirect relations.

The uterine family is vital to Chinese women because it is through this family that they feel belonged, primarily because of the temporariness of her role as a daughter for her own family and as a wife of her husband. The uterine family serves as her social network wherein she can assume the role of a mother, daughter, wife, and friend.

Within the uterine family, a woman gains power and feels solidarity with her 'family' -- that is, other women as well. Within her husband's family, a woman feels a temporary sense of both power and powerlessness -- power for being her husband's wife, but also powerless because she feels her role as wife is but temporary, and may be subjected to scrutiny by her husband's family should conflict ever arise between her and the family.

The uterine family, since it considers even the most distant female relative or family relation as family, results to the division of the family into smaller constituent parts.

The cultivation of a uterine family promotes reproduction of children, which will help strengthen women's roles as mother and wife, which also leads to the strengthening of the mother/wife's uterine family as well.… [read more]

Role Model Maya Angelou Essay

… Role Model

Maya Angelou

The way we live our lives is an expression of our world view. The choices and decisions we make, while involving some aspects of volition is deeply influenced by the experiences and situation we pass through as individuals. People who have passed through fiery trials in childhood may be destroyed or become deeply insightful. The latter is the condition of Maya Angelou. Her childhood challenges of abuse and parental divorce combined with a life of privation and hardship produced one of the most insightful and powerful women in modern America. A role model for many women and men she stands shoulders above many others in society. Her music, poetry and books form a tapestry of beauty and human expression that inevitably influences how we live our lives.

The understanding of Maya Angelou's view of family can be derived from her multiple relationships as well as her experiences from her family of origin. Maya Angelou clearly believes in family. The strong bonds she has with her brother are demonstrated in her decision to tell her brother about the abuse she endured. Additionally, the name that she uses Maya is a nickname given to her by her brother (Maya Angelou 2012). She is monogamous and tends towards the traditional western model of family life. Her monogamy is noted because she engaged in a romantic relationship with a Ghanaian national and moved to Ghana for a time. This action suggests that she is willing to make sacrifices for the success of her relationships. Family is important to her. She was married at one time to a young sailor but the marriage ended in divorce. These events and her subsequent actions suggest that while family is important she is wary of marriage as an institution. This is very harmonious with my own world view about family and marriage. Marriage is important but not a necessity. I think that if relationships are not working couples need to make decisions to have them work or terminate the unhappy unions. I could not conceive of living life in a continuous state of unhappiness.

The career of Ms. Angelou is phenomenal. She is a poet, actor,…… [read more]

Application of a Literary Critical Model to the Dead by James Joyce Research Paper

… James Joyce / "The Dead"

James Joyce's "The Dead"

Gabriel as the Dead Man in "The Dead": A Take on Narcissism

James Joyce's "The Dead" is a story about individuals and their relationships with others. Gabriel Conroy and his wife… [read more]

Strength of Women Explored in Hansberry Thesis

… Strength of Women Explored in Hansberry's

A Raisin in the Sun


It takes all kinds of strong women to help make the world go round.

Title of Work: A Raisin in the Sun

Lena and Ruth are illustrations of the many types of strong women it takes to move humanity forward.

Type of Theme: Universal

Significance of Theme: Everyone, at some point in his or her life, has been influenced by a strong female. This does not necessarily need to be a mother; it can be a wife, a sister, friend, or relative.

Lena is the stronger, older, wiser patriarchal figure that provides the anchor for the family. She reminds her children to mind their manners and she even argues with Walter over what to do with the money.

Ruth is a strong woman but not in the same way as Lena. She is not as old and wise as Lena but she still has a good amount of strength to help her get through the tough times with Walter. She does not want to leave him and tried literally everything she can to make him happy. Even when she realizes that what he needs she cannot give him, she still wants to make things work with him.

Thesis: Lena and Ruth demonstrate the power of women is limitless and priceless.

A. Lena is the strong patriarchal figure in the play.

1. She is full of hope and she sees greater hope in a new home for her family.

2. She forgives Walter after he has been duped, allowing him to approach manhood and responsibility.

B. Ruth is strong like Lena but in a different way.

1. She loves Walter enough to let him treat her badly and she never considers leaving him.

2. She demonstrates her love by expressing hope that her marriage can survive.

Conclusion: Lena and Ruth are examples of the modern-day women and how their strength is essential to their family's survival.

Strong women make the world go round. One play that demonstrates this point is Lorraine Hansberry's, a Raisin in the Sun. Lena Younger emerges as the strong patriarchal figure of the family because she is the glue that holds the family together, keeps it from unraveling at the ends, and rescues the family at the end of the play. She is wise and she knows that her son is just like his father in that he has pipe dreams that will get him nowhere. Ruth Younger is less dominant than Lena and this is best demonstrated with her relationship with Walter. She allows him to treat her badly sometimes and this has worn her down over they years. However, she is like Lena in that she is strong and does not give up on the people that she loves. Without these two women in his life, Walter would have ended up in a place far worse than where he was without any stability on which to fall back. These two characters demonstrate the… [read more]

Five Ways Women Were Treated as Second Class People in Greek Society Term Paper

… ¶ … Greek women were treated as second-Class people in Greek society

Evidence of women's subjugation and status as second-class people in Greek society were primarily indicated in legal and philosophical writings. In general, women were not given the privilege to take part in Greek public life, thus limiting their activities and opportunities in life within the domain of domesticity.

The cultivation of a Greek woman's second-class status is reflected in her relationship with her family. Early on in her life, a girl is almost always under the control of a male guardian, either her father, brother, or a male relative. Increased dependence occurs when the woman reaches the age of eighteen, wherein she undergoes arranged marriage with a man who is in his 30s. This large age discrepancy reflects the fact that women are not given the chance to enjoy and make the most out of their singlehood, while males are given the privilege to not only enjoy singlehood, but has the choice to choose the woman he is going to marry through arranged marriage. Dowry and gifts given to the bride are under the control of her father or brother. At the event of a divorce, a woman is return to her family and the dowry given back to her ex-husband. These family and marriage arrangements leave women at a disadvantage, showing how the people closest to them actually contribute to the perpetuation of their second-class status in Greek society.

Evidence that shows women as second-class citizens in Greek society is people's regard for them as only child-bearers. They are only valued for their ability to reproduce; however, despite this unique capability, women are still considered as commodities, to be passed on as wife of one male to…… [read more]

Chinese Wives the Treatment of Women Term Paper

… Chinese Wives

The treatment of women in China has long been a subject of debate. The strict traditional views have restricted the rights and privileges of Chinese women form many years. For the purposes of this discussion, we will focus… [read more]

Book of Ruth Term Paper

… But more importantly, her decision is to remain faithful to her promise. She does not consider that she has another option. Even though she has been raised in a land apart from the law, and the direct influences of YHWH, her heart is tender to his purpose.

The story continues of discovering Boaz, the nearest relative of Naomi who is an age which maybe interested in marrying Ruth. He is a wealthy land owner, and through a series of ceremonial customs, Boaz expressed his desire to wed Ruth, after Ruth displays her humble and servant hearted character by reaping food for her step mother in obedience to her step mothers requests. We do not know ho much time has passed since Naomi and Ruth have returned dot Israel in search of a family. Often as we turn the pages of scripture, we are not award of how much time or effort has gone into a particular endeavor. In Ruth 3.11 the reader is given a picture of the passage of time. Boaz has expressed his appreciation for Ruth's kindness to him, and he says "The whole city of my people knows that you are a virtuous woman." God is at work in Ruth's life although his name is not present. He is working to weave a future for a virtuous and caring woman to whom life had been exceedingly unkind.

Family lineage was important in Israel, as the tribes kept written records of their ancestors for generations, from the time they were deposited in Egypt until the destruction of the temple in 70 AD. The final 2 points of Ruth's story are related to lineage. Ruth and Boaz are wed. They give birth to Obed. Obed is the father of Jesse, who in turn is the father of David, the king. From David the king, the everlasting King is descendent, Jesus of Nazareth.

The next important lesson to find in Ruth's story is that the traits of the parents are passed along to the children, who then often repeat the patterns. Ruth and Boaz had an exceptional relationship which was birthed out of respecting traditions, and vows, and being faithful to ones commitments. The character of these two parents was undoubtedly passed along thorough training and example to Obed, and Jesse, who became the father of a king. We cannot see the day-to-day lessons which were passed along within this family, but the bachelor Boaz and the widow Ruth both found god's grace in the events of their lives. Certainly these lessons were passes along to their children.

Secondly, and of greater importance, Ruth's presence in David's lineage, and therefore in Jesus line of human ancestors, casts an important shadow onto the life of the King of kings. Jesus was sent for the salvation of all people, Jew and gentile. Although he was born as a Jew, his message of eternal life was for all men. When his great-great-great... grandmother is from a gentile tribe, the presence of god's message… [read more]

Family Systems and Marriage Preparation Literature Review chapter

… Family system theory does not only include aspects of dealing with the family of origin of eth couples but it also deals with the structure of the new family that the couple will want to engage in . Hence, another… [read more]

Marriage and Family Experience Approaches Term Paper

… ¶ … Marriage and Family Experience approaches marriage as the one thing that counts in a person's life, making one what one is and providing one with the most loving and intimate experiences, and providing relationships that need to be cherished, honored and supported. In this relationship, says the text, there is no place for jealousy. Friendship, love and commitment are the strong glue that holds a marriage together.

Marriage begins after a courtship that includes the experience of being single and then paring up with someone and sometimes cohabitation before marriage. Following the wedding, the family process begins, which includes family life cycles, decisions on whether to have children and parenthood, if the choice is made to include children. Many issues bear on the success of a marriage, such as economics, child-rearing, the needs and expectations of the partners and their extended families, caregiving, ethnic issues, work issues and conflicts, the "time bind" and outside forces. Sometimes one or both of the partners are abusive.

Divorce and separation are the results of the above, when a married couple can no longer tolerate the pressures. The effects of divorce on children, no matter how terrible the pressures of other issues may have been on the marriage, are quite large. Experts disagree on the consequences of divorce on children in the family. Wallerstein and Hetherington are two of the experts who have studied the long-term impact of divorce on families.

Mavis Hetherington has found that 10% of children from divorced families have, on the average, more problems in school, with behavior and negative self-concepts that would require some type of professional help. The statistics were 74% of the boys and 66% of the girls were in the normal range, while 26% of the boys and 34% of the girls were in the problematic range. Other researchers found the statistics about the same and some even found that 40% of young adults from divorced families actually did better than those from non-divorcing families (Hughes 1).

Judith Wallerstein found that children from divorced families grow up faster than others, "forfeiting their own childhoods," in order to…… [read more]

Marriage and Dating Term Paper

… Vows were then exchanged, much like we see in marriages today, before the priest then blessed the rings then exchanged by now husband and wife. At this moment they would enter the church and kneel before the altar as the priest offered a prayer, thus concluding the wedding.

Theoretically, no one could force another into marriage, and if a marriage occurred that way, it was invalid. That meant that a lord could not marry off his serfs, daughters, sisters, etc., without their consent. Of course, pressure could be brought to bear on a stubborn woman, and later proving that the consent was coerced could be difficult" (Hunter, 2002).

Nowadays, arranged marriages are rare in the Western world, and forced marriages are punishable by law. Still, not much has changed when it comes to the actual marriage ceremony that undoubtedly is steeped in traditions that stem from practices of the Middle Ages.

Dating in the modern world, on the other hand, has changed compared to the Middle Ages. There are still many qualities, like wealth and property that sadly many people base their 'perfect' marriage partner on.

We generally are more attracted towards someone's physique and 'wallet' before we know what they are like as an individual. Though there are those who are the exception to the rule.

These days there are a variety of 'matchmakers' at our disposal. Whereas during the Middle Ages, the Lord was legally allowed to match up serfs in his kingdom, in this modern age we have everything from blind dates set up by friends to newspaper classifieds, online dating services, and 'mail-order brides'.

Marriage ceremonies today also transcend traditional church ceremonies, and it is not uncommon for cross-cultural marriages and neo-pagan ceremonies occur in their place.

The one factor of marriages that has lasted through the ages is the need of consent from the two people involved.

Traditional aspects of wedding ceremonies, like vows, and the exchange of wedding rings are reminiscent of marriages in the Middle Ages.

Flower girls were also seen in Middle Age marriages, and were usually related sister who would carry wheat before the bride in the procession. Flowers were later used, and the flower girls would throw petals for the bride to walk upon.

The Church, immigration and, more recently, Free Will has molded marriage and dating since the Middle Ages. Sex before marriage isn't considered as forbidden as it was in the Middle Ages, nor does it signify a marriage contract (much to the relief of the moral majority).

Dating has taken the place of family arrangements before a wedding ceremony, and for many people around the world, is not just a means of finding someone to settle down with, but a way of life.

Marriage is no longer the only means to a fulfilling life-long relationship as many people choose Common Law marriages. Others choose a commitment ceremony as they wait for the governing powers to catch up.

Marriage and dating is still fundamentally the way we relate… [read more]

Arranged Marriages v. Traditional Dating Essay

… It would be probably be false to say that partners who opt for an arranged marriage did not consider appearance a factor. A person does not need to be a supermodel, but hardly no one wants a person who is sloppy, dirty and otherwise unkept.

Mr. Asano assumes the reason for the high divorce rate among Americans is because marriages were entered prematurely. He further assumes that both partners are usually immature and just looking to have fun. Comparing divorce rates among different countries and cultures is like comparing apples to oranges. In America, if a relationship is unhappy, unloving and counterproductive both partners are more likely to dissolve the relationship, if counseling and other methods to keep the couple together fail. However, Japanese may be more likely to stay in relationships even if it compromises their person. The freedom that is exercised by Americans may not be readily exercised in the Japanese culture. As a matter of fact, some Japanese women tolerate or even encourage their husband to visit a Geisha (a glorified prostitute) to "unwind" while most American women will do nothing of the sort. The divorce rates reflect differences in attitudes and beliefs between Japanese and Americans.

Finally, it is presumptive and arrogant to conclude that arranged marriages are better or more successful than marriages resulting from traditional dating as Yumiko Asano has stated. If a person wishes to date traditionally and have fun and have many experiences, then that is that person's decision. If a person chooses to have a matchmaker find him or her a mate, then that method is acceptable as well. Successful marriages are not predetermined by the method in which partners use to find their mate. Each couple should define success in marriage for themselves, whether happiness or financial stability or both be the primary goal. Mr. Asano's narrow-minded view of a successful marriage sheds a blind eye on all the many people who are in successful marriages, by their own definition of the word. Success in marriage as little to do with how one finds a mate, it has to do with how steadfast each partner is in maintaining the ideals and commitment that each have made to one…… [read more]

Cohabitation Non-Traditional Form of Family Research Paper

… Cohabitation

Non-traditional form of family has become more and more dominant in the society. Conventionally, it was a custom for young persons in the society to get married before having children. However, people in the contemporary world form their own… [read more]

Monogamous Nuclear Families, Polygamous Term Paper

… (Jankowiaka; Diderichb, 2000) Children from polygamous systems develop problems. In a study of twenty five Bedouin-Arab children born to senior mothers of polygamous families, the children exhibited "somatic symptoms, economic problems, poor relations with the husband, and competition and jealousy between the co-wives and among the co-wives' children." (Al-Krenawi; Graham; Al-Krenawi, 1997) They also had many behavioural problems, and poor academic achievement. Therefore polygamy may not be conductive to have happy family members; and can retard children's functioning. (Al-Krenawi; Graham; Al-Krenawi, 1997) Though the researchers have pointed out many flaws in the polygamous system, there has been one flaw. No research exists that has compared the monogamy and polygamy and other forms of families using identical variables and background. Therefore the conclusions may not be unbiased.

Critical Analysis

It is inconclusive if the problem complained of does not exist in monogamy as well as polygamy. There is no final proof or evidence to show which is the natural state and which is better. Culture and the geographic background of the communities are responsible for all the systems. Monogamy has been enforced by law in almost all countries. There have been fall outs in the form of extended families, mixed families of divorcees, single parents and so on. On the other hand the communities that have polyandry seem to have attained some form of cohesion in the society both of which may be superficial. It is necessary to research further.


Human society on a global scale seems to have all types of family matrices with intricate benefits and problems. The issue is not clear as to which humankind's natural adaptation is and which must be made universal. The regional society must decide its preference.


Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al-Krenawi, Salem. (1997) "Social Work Practice with Polygamous Families Child and Adolescent" Social Work Journal, vol. 14, no. 6, pp: 445-458.

Al-Krenawi, Alean; Sheva, Beer; Graham, John R. (2006) "A Comparison of Family

Functioning, Life and Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health of Women in Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages" Int J. Soc Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp: 5-17.

Altman, Irwin; Ginat, Joseph. (1996) "Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society"

Jankowiaka, William; Diderichb, Monique. (2000) "Sibling solidarity in a polygamous community in the U.S.A." Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 21, no. 2,…… [read more]

Crisis and Resilience in Family Term Paper

… Marriage & Family

Marriage and Family: China's Response to Stress

The family ecological perspective utilizes a contextual frame of reference that posits the influence on family and family dynamics as it relates to their environment. Through this theoretical lens, practitioners… [read more]

Marriage and Family -- Research Analysis Journal Thesis

… Marriage & Family -- Research Analysis

Journal Article on Marital Happiness: An assessment

For the purpose of this paper, I will be reviewing the work of Shaifali Sandhya entitled the Social Context of Marital Happiness in Urban Indian Couples: Interplay of Intimacy and Conflict which appeared on the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy on January 2009.

This review shall begin with the description of the research problem as well as the research methods utilized in this study. The second and final part of this article will be devoted to the review and assessment of the analysis and interpretation of data.

Sandhya's work (2009) opens with a clear research objective, i.e. To "examine marital happiness in urban Hindu husbands and wives in the context of a globalizing India" (ibid, p. 74). In order to achieve this stated objective, the author outlined five specific questions or problems that this research aims to answer/address: "(1) were Indian husbands and wives happy? (2) whether the processes of conflict and intimacy that led to happiness of American couples also affected the happiness of Indian husbands and wives; (3) the expression and experience of conflict and intimacy in Indian marriages; (4) whether intimacy or conflict was more predictive of their marital happiness; and (5) to investigate whether family living arrangements affected the happiness of Indian couples" (ibid, p. 75). Through these particular questions, the research objective underwent the process of operationalization in order for us, the readers, to see specific parameters and dimensions that the researcher will explore in order to meet the study's main objective.

According to Kroelinger (2002), a good problem statement provides an operational definition such that the variables are defined operationally wherein a concept is defined in terms of the operations or processes that will be utilized to measure the concept. Along these lines, it can be argued that the research problem of Sandhya is a good one because we're able to extract particular variables that are crucial in this study, i.e. "marital happiness" which will be measured in terms of intimacy and conflict, "Indian context" which provides a clear context of the study, "globalization," to be gauged in terms of the changing living arrangements brought about by a globalizing social context.

II. Research Methodology

A research methodology is defined as the "system of explicit rules and procedures upon which research is based and against which claims for knowledge are evaluated" (Nachmias & Nachmias, 1996, p. 13). Clearly, the research methodology details the way a research is to be conducted, the research philosophy or theories it subscribes to which affects the research strategy and instruments that the researcher chooses to employ (City University of Hong Kong Website, n.d.).

The Review of Literature

Sandhya presents two dominant schools of thought in explaining marital happiness. The 'cultural model of happiness' simply argues that an individual's notion of marital happiness is dictated by the social life; one's socio-cultural setting. The 'appraisal theory' on the other hand believes that happiness is defined by the fulfillment… [read more]

Marriage and Family Marriage Term Paper

… Marriage & Family

Marriage and the Family: Creating more effective family dynamics

Fostering effective communication skills to minimize the emotional fallout from the inevitable need for conflict resolution between family members are key to building a more positive household dynamic (Strong, DeVault & Cohen, 2001: 179). However, the relationships in the modern family have grown increasingly complex, as families become more racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. The field of eligibles of possible marital partners means that endogamy (marriage within a particular group) has grown less common and exogamy (marriage outside a particular group) has become the norm. It is a rare family that does not encompass some form of diversity today. The availability of divorce means that families now must embrace stepparents and stepsiblings into their fold and there may be conflict between one family's rules with that of the other family. Furthermore, television has raised the stakes of expected family happiness, as it often depicts ideal family where all problems are solved with a half hour (Strong, DeVault & Cohen, 2001: 224; 5).

In addition to new cultural barriers, there are also the age-old divisions between male and female communication styles, the female "do you love me" versus "be reasonable" approaches to personal expression (Strong, DeVault & Cohen, 2001: 174). Males may prioritize getting things done, and be less sensitive to the female prioritization of emotional satisfaction, and to more indirect female modes of expression. In helping men and women speak the same language, the observations of a martial counselor, who can observe with an outsider's objectivity and sensitivity which partner withdraws and dominates various subjects of discussion, can be helpful. A counselor can…… [read more]

Effectiveness and Future of Marriage Term Paper

… ¶ … Future of Marriage

The Effectiveness and Future of Marriage

Are married people happier than unmarried people?

Married people may indeed be happier than unmarried couples, researchers from Michigan State University have concluded (Nauert 2012). Marriage however does not… [read more]

Marriage Law and Society Essay

… Marriage Law Society

Marriage, Law & Society

Should marriages and families be structured by the political values of the wider society? In societies that value individual freedom and equality, marriages will be based on the mutual consent and social equality of the partners. In societies that believe in natural hierarchies of authority (based on birth caste, gender, and age), as well as the subordination of the individual to the collectivity, rights in marriage will depend on one's gender and caste status, and children will defer to parents and other adults who will determine when and whom they can marry. Because it's unlikely that all societies will come to adopt the same political values and practices, does it make sense to promote one ideal form of marriage for all humanity?

It does make sense to promote an ideal of marriage from an idealistic position. Those who hold personal freedom and mutual consent would be right in trying to spread these ideals. Furthermore, since these ideals can be justified from a human rights perspective, there is a philosophical foundation that can serve as the basis to further these ideals. Although modern western societies are far from perfect, the secular organization of many of the primary institutions has shown many advantages compared to more traditional oriented societies. Therefore, I believe a justification for the promotion of one ideal of marriage could be made along the lines of personal freedoms and mutual consent.

That being the case, I don't think the promotion of one ideal form of marriage will be effective in practice. Many societies have a dogmatic view of marriage based on religious ideals. In many cases these ideals are steadfast and cannot be easily broken or changed in any degree. Even in more liberal western societies there is a strong social sentiment among many members that the institution of marriage is sacred and this perseveres at a political level as well. Although non-traditional marriages are becoming more and more accepted over time, it has been a long an slow process that has required significant amounts of activism to make these groups accepted. In more traditional societies, these sentiments permeate even greater percentages of the population and will take a significant amount of time to attempt to change the culture. Therefore, even though one might be justified and promoting an ideal of marriage the likelihood…… [read more]

Marriage Involves a Natural, Indissoluble Union Essay

… Marriage involves a natural, indissoluble union which is perfected by the sacrament between one man and one woman that is directed towards the purpose of the preservation of the human race through the generation and bringing up of children.it is also ordered for mutual help of spouses as well as remedy for sexual desires. The marriage institution has been constantly undergoing evolution with same sex marriages and polygamy being a common trend in marriages today.

The purpose of marriage in America today is for companionship. Most of the people get into marriages so that they can get companionship from their spouses. The married couples live together and spend a lot of their time together. Couples are seen going out for shopping, going for movies, playing games and virtually doing everything in the company of each other. This means that the purpose of marriage in the U.S. society today is getting the company of another person (Goleman, 1992). This has led to same sex marriages being common since some people get better company from members of their same gender. That is why there are many marriages coming up that involve a man and another man and a woman and another woman. This same purpose has led to an increase in the number of divorce cases .this is because some people might feel as though they are comfortable in their marriage since their partner does not offer the companionship they desire. This leads to divorce so that people can go out there and look for a person they feel is giving them better company

Another purpose of marriage in the U.S. today is the formation of stable institutions where children can be brought up under the guidance of parents. Children who are born within a marriage get appropriate guidance when it comes to discipline. Marriage has reduced the number of juvenile cases since the parents offer appropriate guidance to prevent them from engaging in criminal activities. Marriage gives children a proper background with set up moral standards hence these children will not be of any bother top the society.

The purpose of marriage today differs considerably with that in the past. The primary purpose of marriage in the past was procreation. People went into marriages so that they could get children for the continuity of their generations. This explains why in instances where a couple could not get children another wife was married so that they could be able to get children in that family. This is quite different from marriages today for instance in the case of same sex marriages they do not necessarily purpose to get children (Magnus Hirschfield Archive for sexology, 2010). Such couples adopt a child if and when it is necessary otherwise most same sex marriages do not lead to child bearing.in the past another primary purpose of marriage was bringing tow families together. People got married so that they could strengthen ties between two families that have come together. This is quite different today in that… [read more]

Network Dating Sites Essay

… This paradox is actually one of the fundamental characteristics of the internet. Because it is accessible from anywhere, to anyone, there is less accountability for those who choose to employ it. On the internet, people can be whoever they want to be -- which, in the case of network dating sites is usually an ideal self, or an exaggeration of a person's actual attributes.

Yet even this aspect of network dating sites can yield positive attributes as well. In some instances, people can use these sites and the internet as a means of embarking on changes that benefit them. There are some instances in which women may have indicated that there weight is less than it actually is -- which is a fairly common occurrence on these sites. However, it is possible that women can utilize such hyperbole to actually help themselves lose weight (Rosenbloom). In this case, network dating sights can actually provide the inspiration for people to better themselves. Men who may exaggerate their financial bracket have them much more incentive to earn money to make their fibs turn into reality. Therefore, it allowing people to misrepresent themselves, these sites also provide the inspiration for such people to actually become their ideal selves -- which is a definite boon.

One of the most exacting detriments that one can attribute to the development of network dating sites, however, is the fact that it fosters -- and actually thrives upon -- the culture of instant gratification that consumes much of contemporary society. Such sites allow people to date who they want when they want to. As such, there is little room for error and an exceedingly high level of intolerance. Traditional virtues of patience, problem solving, and just plain caring about someone enough to attempt to get through difficult times or moments is now unnecessary, for the simple fact that singles can readily replace someone with scores of other eligible singles -- who all meet their highly specified criteria. ____ addresses this aspect of online dating in the following quotation.

"We already have a commitment problem in America, one of several reasons why roughly half of first marriages and about two thirds of second marriages here end in divorce. Online dating is probably making things worse. If someone is & #8230;wrong…it is a simple matter to go back and click…to fill the void.

Of course, there are many of people who would argue that this ability to go back and replace someone or simply to find someone in the first place via network dating sites is the principle benefit of this medium. Despite the odds and the divorce rate, there are people who have met their true love via these web sites, and who can readily attest to their value. Yet the mere presence of these sites themselves is no panacea for dating -- long-term relationships will almost always take hard work and some sacrifice, no matter how many other potential suitors are waiting as replacements in the wings. The… [read more]

Human Life, Family Term Paper

… ¶ … human life, family is on of the most prominent and lasting relationships we will have. This is also why the idea of systems theory has been particularly applied to create what is now known as family systems theory.… [read more]

Film: Family Prays Together Stays Essay

… From this point-of-view the action is complete and takes into account the development of all the characters involved.

The complexity of the story line as well as the artistic performance of the characters manages to keep the interest of the audience. It must be pointed out that the audience for this type of story is specific in the sense that the producers of the film take into consideration a segment of the general audience that is familiar with this genre of artistic creation. In effect, given all elements, the film is a drama in its purest sense. Therefore, the targeted audience is the melodrama lovers spectators. With due consideration for this fact, the plot is complex and at the same time sufficiently intriguing for the targeted audience. The characters are depicted in such a manner that it ensures the attention of the audience through their tragic moments in certain parts and the racial insertions and class leveling rhetoric in other parts.

The plot and the film itself is a proper result of its main characters. Out of the many characters the film has, the character of Andrea is rather significant because, it may appear, that her story is central for the entire development of the plot and the film. Her character was created in such a manner that the audience can relate to and identify with. She is a beautiful African-American young woman, middle class, that would eventually have a strike of luck and would prove her worth once this luck is supported by confidence and wits. The makes the racial cross over when she becomes involved with a white rich married business man that had offered the chance for her to strive. It may appear, as a stretch, to relate to the Cinderella story. This type of character however is essential for giving credibility to the plot and for providing the actual essence of the plot. Even if maybe the audience may not relate to all of the features of Andrea's character, her own character may resemble to the wishes the audience that is melodrama fan may have.

Overall, the film "The family that preys" has a well constructed, rather complex plot that is determined by characters resembling real life to the extent in which a melodrama may resemble everyday life. Indeed, the events that take place in the film may not necessarily happen to every person, but as they have been depicted in the film, are credible as potential real life…… [read more]

Marriage Over the Past 50 Introduction Chapter

… If Bowen's theory holds true, using those emotional connections and integrating them into a marriage could benefit both parties. This study will look to include these emotional ties into the educational program in order to enhance the viability of the overall study. After all, as Bowen states "a change in one person's functioning is predictably followed by reciprocal changes in the functioning of others" (2011). Adding an individual to the family mix is a definite change of function; employing that change in a positive manner will likely lead to positive changes in reciprocal fashion.


Amato, P.R., & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital instability across generations:Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 63, pp. 1038 -- 1051

Bennett, J. & Ellison, J.; (2010) I don't, Newsweek, Vol. 155, Issue 25, pp. 42 -- 45

Bowen, M, Dr.; (2011) Bowen theory, accessed on December 21, 2011 at http://www.thebowencenter.org/pages/theory.html

Burgoyne, C.B.; Reibstein, J.; Edmunds, A.M.; Routh, D.A.; (2010) Marital commitment, money and marriage preparation: What changes after the wedding?, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 390 -- 403

Celello, K.; (2010) Therapeutic culture and marriage equality, Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 41-48

McGeorge, C. & Carlson, T.; (2006) Premarital education: An assessment of program efficacy, Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, Vol. 28, Issue 1, pp. 165 -- 190

Silliman, B.; (2003) Building healthy marriages through early and extended outreach with youth, Journal of Psychology &…… [read more]

Dating Culture in 1950 Research Paper

… Dating Culture in the 1950s

While dating has been part of American popular culture for several generations, the dating culture has changed from one generation to another. Prior to the 1940s and World War II, most dating was actually in… [read more]

Sociology Family Violence Unfortunately, in Our Society Term Paper

… Sociology

Family Violence

Unfortunately, in our society there are many different types of family violence, from Battered Child Syndrome (BCS) to dating violence and domestic violence. Family violence also includes neglect, abuse, and even parental abuse of aged parents. Perhaps the most important thing to remember about family violence is that it affects the entire family, not just the people involved in the violence. One researcher writes, "It not only affects the victims, it touches the lives of their parents, children, co-workers, and friends. It emotionally and physically influences so much more than we ever thought" (Dalpiaz xv). Thus, when a family is involved in family violence, the ripples from that violence spread farther than many people recognize or acknowledge.

Family violence may be defined as violence against another family member or loved one, but it can also occur during dating, and it includes forms of abuse that some people do not think about, such as neglect or mental abuse. Family violence does not have to have physical violence as a component, mental abuse and neglect can be just as damaging as physical abuse, and because this type of abuse can go unrecognized much longer, it can be even more damaging to the victim and the entire family.

Some of the hardest violence to contemplate is physical and mental violence against a child, and yet it occurs all too frequently. Battered child syndrome, shaken baby syndrome and child abuse of any sort is difficult to understand, as the victims are young and incapable of fighting back or defending themselves at all. Family violence is difficult to comprehend, but violence against children seems to be the most heinous form of violence, and it should be the type of violence punished most heavily by the law. However, any form of family violence is wrong, and it tears families apart.

The biggest question about family violence is what causes it to begin with. Statistics indicate that many people involved in family violence experienced it themselves at some point in their lives. It is hard to understand how someone who was a victim of family violence becomes an abuser, and that is the biggest question it seems, that remains unanswered about family violence.

Another question is why so many victims do not report family violence. Some are afraid, certainly, but others seem to make up stories or excuses for the abusers, as if they, the victims, somehow "deserve" the abuse. This can affect mediation and reconciliation, if that is possible. Another writer notes, "[M]ediators are often unaware of the subtle power imbalances that exist between abuser and abused, mediations can be captured by the manipulative abuser to place pressure on the abused" (Woolford). These power balances explain why so much abuse goes unreported, but does not help explain why so many victims seem to feel as if they deserve the abuse, and keep on taking it because of these feelings.

Another writer notes, "The cyclical nature of family violence dictates that most battered women… [read more]

Defining Family Essay

… There seem to be a number of contradictory impulses underlying these statistics. For a start, it is worth noting that a majority is always willing to extend the defintion as broadly as possible -- even the case of the 54% who are willing to extend the definition to an unmarried couple with no children, this is still a small majority (although it is the smallest percentage of those recorded in the 2010 poll). I think this indicates a good start, as I personally would be willing to extend the definition as broadly as possible. But the other impulses seem to be conflicted -- certainly an element of bigotry enters into the 36% of people who would deny the word "family" to a gay or lesbian couple raising a child. But overall it would seem that people in general are willing to acknowledge that any household which contains children would seem, functionally, to be a family -- yet the largest percentage, 88%, wish to extend the definition to cover a married couple without stigmatizing childlessness. I think the most reasonable conclusion to reach is that all of these social groupings are recognized as families by over half of the respondents in the poll.

It is my own belief that there are now too many changes in society to restrict the definition of family to a narrow definition. When we consider the number of complications that have entered into our consideration of what constitutes a family -- and any survey would have to include not only the expansion of gay and lesbian rights, but also issues related to reproductive and fertility technology including surrogate births, open adoptions, and the increased divorce rate with the increase in the number of "blended families" -- we realize that technology and social change have conspired to make a narrow definition untenable. But the larger question, in my opinion, involves what purpose a definition serves. When we consider the AIDS crisis of the 1980s and 1990s, we learn that a number of people who ended up dying were those who had been rejected by their birth families because of sexual identity, but they did not die alone because their own community in essence stepped in to provide the kind of support (and indeed affection) that we would associate with a family. This seems to indicate that a family can, in essence, be any kind of meaningful elective social support structure: if gays and lesbians find a "family" in their social structure, likewise churches and religious organizations provide a sort of "family" to their members. My own cultural background is secular humanist, pluralist, and committed to the notion of tolerance as the chief virtue on which America was founded. In some sense, it is worth recalling that tolerance requires disagreement: it is not possible to tolerate something of which we already approve, we can only tolerate what we disapprove of. This principle applies to religions -- I am not a Mormon, but I do not believe Mormonism should… [read more]

Law Politics and Marriage Essay

… ¶ … Politics, and Marriage

Discuss two types of marriage that you think should be legally prohibited. Use the course materials to evaluate both the pros and cons of not tolerating or recognizing these marital practices.

One type of marriage that should be prohibited is one in which there can be physical consequences for any of the children that such a marriage might produce. An obvious example of this would be two people that would stand a high likelihood of passing down a genetic disease to their offspring. While it was once believed that family, such as closely related individuals, stood a significantly higher likelihood that their offspring could suffer from genetically transmitted conditions, scientists today have largely discredited this myth.Although there is an increased likelihood that cousins can pass down birth defects to their children, this risk is not as strong as formerly perceived. The risk of birth defects in children born to first cousins is increased from a baseline of 3-4% to 4-7% according to the National Society of Genetic Councilors (NSGC) (Younus, 2013).

Furthermore, with the advantages of modern technology and genetic understanding, this risk could be mitigated through pre-marital genetic testing yet the NSGC, however, considers the risk to be so insignificant that it does not recommend additional testing or screening. Therefore, although there is certainly a social stigma surrounding cousin marriages in many circles, there doesn't seem to be the necessary evidence to make this a criminal activity. Yet it is likely that closer relationships, such as siblings, would be subject to a greater risk and justify a protectionist marriage policy. I believe the same could be said about unrelated couples as well that have certain genetic risk factors. Although I don't think it would be practical to implement such a policy, it could be argued that genetic testing should be a requirement for all marriages.

I also support their being age requirements for entering into marriage however I'm unsure if I agree with the current requirements. I believe that a person should have fully developed mental capabilities to ensure that they are making the best decision that they possibly can and be entitled to do so. In cultures that promote arranged marriages amongst young children this act violates the individuals personal freedom. Not only the freedom to choose their partners by themselves, but also the freedom of making a decision when their mental capabilities are sufficient to fully understand the type of relationship that they are entering into. Children should therefore be prohibited from making such a decision. However, I am not sure that the current popular requirement of being eighteen years old is necessarily the correct limitation. If the raised was raised to twenty-one or even higher, then this would likely reduce the divorce rate. However, I think such a decision should be based off the latest research in fields such as psychology to establish the minimum age in which such a competency would be fully developed.

2. Give examples of marital practices… [read more]

Has Marriage Changed in the USA? Term Paper

… Marriage

"Enormous changes have occurred in family life not only in the United States but also throughout the Western world in the past half century," (Cherlin, 2010, p. 15). Moreover, the changes have manifested differently in Western Europe vs. The United States. These differences are related to culture, values, and social norms. Religion has become more integrated, ironically, into modern American lifestyles compared with Europe, where religious affiliation and religious values have declined steadily in recent generations (Cherlin, 2010). The greater interest in religion has prompted resurgence in interest in the institution of marriage in the United States. Divorce rates have also risen in conjunction with marriage and re-marriage rates. The paradox of high divorce rates in a self-proclaimed religious society is resolved in light of the underlying cultural norms related to individuality. Whereas in Europe, concerns over the future of the family focus on keeping birthrates steady, American concerns are more related to the institution of marriage and its role in society.

Cherlin (2010) notes that cohabitation rates are higher in Europe than in the United States, but that Americans are more likely to cohabit sooner than their European counterparts. Moreover, Americans are more likely to marry than Europeans. Marriage has simply fallen out of favor as a social priority in Western Europe; whereas it remains integral to the social and cultural fabric of American society. Marriage is an important component of social, cultural, religious, and individual identity in the United States but not in Europe. Yet Europe retains a more stable and cohesive vision of family life and cohabiting relationships than the United States. If Americans marry more often than Europeans, they also divorce more often. "Family life in the United States involves more transitions than anywhere else," (Cherlin, 2010, p. 19). The transitions impact the spouses and their children, if any.

Cohabitation…… [read more]

Marriage and Divorce Interview Term Paper

… As Liz explains, "When I was in my 20s I thought of only the romance and having a family. It was a perfect world and we were going to live happily ever after. Today a woman in my 40s I think of marriage as a partnership, security, a companion to share my days with. Two people that have the same values and basic ideology." She clearly has a companionate view of marriage.

Even though Liz has gotten a divorce herself, she still feels it should be the last option and reserved for relationships which are physically and mentally unhealthy.

Unlike Philo, Liz believes that the culture of divorce has impacted relationships in current society by becoming more acceptable. "It was acceptable for us to divorce so we did what was easiest and moved on. I came from a divorced family. I grew up around women (sisters) that had all been divorced and were raising the children alone with the support of each other. The men had left them and abandoned their responsibilities as husband and father." The culture of divorce means that people give up on their relationships too soon, and it becomes more normal to leave the person that you're with than to work on the relationship. Thus, Liz is a big believer in couples therapy. "It is important to understand the other person's view even if you do not agree with it. Acknowledge when you are wrong and work on not making the same mistakes over and over again." Making the same mistakes over and over again can damage the relationship and wear down the foundation; apologizing is also important.

When Liz went through her own divorce, she cites that the biggest turmoil came from not understanding what had happened and having to move from one home to another. However, as Liz acknowledges, her daughter was able to grow up in a household where yelling and fighting were absent: "I think because we were divorced parents and felt guilt, Danielle had more attention than most children with married parents. She knew she was our priority and very much loved."

Fundamentally, both Philo and Liz demonstrate the wisdom of life experience. They don't hold any fairy tale notions about what marriage is. They see it as a partnership that needs to be treated with love and respect, and a respect for the differences of another person. They both see communication as fundamental for a happy relationship (Schnebly, 2001) and mutual respect and self-respect as essential for a happy union (Owen, 2009). Finally all these interviews have demonstrated the multi-faceted needs that go into have a health relationship (LaMotte, 2008).


LaMotte, E.J. (2008). Overcoming Your Parents' Divorce. Far Hills: New Horizon Press.

Owen, H. (2009). Get Selfish, Get Happy. Australia: A&A Book Publishing

Schnebly, L. (2001) Being Happy Being Married.…… [read more]

Films as Expression of Asian Values Research Paper

… Films as Expression of Asian Values

Film is one of the most popular form of media utilized today, for the simple fact that it allows filmmakers and directors a variety of tools with which to not only convey a story, but also to convey the mores and markers of culture that provide narrative background. Due to its popularity, one could argue that film has become one of the most viable forms of transmission of culture, with its values displayed for all the world to see and gain a better understanding of. This paper proposes that individuals can learn a significant amount about a specific culture simply by watching a plethora of films pertaining to it. Asian culture in particular has been well documented in movies, demonstrating the role of conventional family values in Asian heritage. Traditional family values that are decreasing throughout the Western world still hold true throughout most of Asia and for Asian-American citizens, as a study of Asian films indicates.

Thesis -- Traditional family values that are decreasing throughout the Western world still hold true throughout most of Asia and for Asian-American citizens, as a study of Asian film indicates.

A. The Asian family structure is based on the traditional nuclear family model with a wife, a husband, and children.

1. Such images and the perception of the family as a unit, one which is honorable and is regarded as and defended as such, populate a variety of different films.

B. Homogeneity is a powerful part of Asian culture and is reflected in family values by the fact that there is a distinct lack of intermingling and intermarriage with those outside of the Asian heritage.

1. Asian films portray the fact that homogeneity is a key aspect in preserving the strong culture of family value for Asians.

C. Heterosexuality is a principle aspect to preserving the nuclear family. Asians may be tolerant of homosexuals, yet typically do not portray images of homosexuality within their films.

1. This aspect of Asian family values and its reinforcement of the principles of the nuclear family stands in stark contrast with conventional Western films, particularly American ones, which usually allude to homosexuality at some point within them, whether implicitly or implicitly.

One of the core values in Asian culture is the concept of marriage. Like other facets of this culture, the institution of marriage within Asian cultures is immensely revered, particularly due to the fact that it functions as the basis of familial life. In many respects, however, the notion of Asian marriage is deliberately more staid and somewhat more old-fashioned than the concept of marriage in other cultures. The traditional values that Asian marriage typifies are perhaps best expressed in popular culture through the medium of film. Mores related to the different roles of gender are evinced in a wide number of cinema depicting Asians, which both elucidates as well as reinforces the customs associated with the institution of marriage. The convention that the husband fulfills the dominant male provider… [read more]

Logic Behind the Personal Responsibility Essay

… This is confirmed by studies of childhood poverty, which "find no reliable effect from marriage initiatives... [and] address one dimension within the complexity of factors that perpetuate childhood poverty" (Kickham & Ford 2009). The only positive relationship that was found was that as "unemployment rates increase, so does childhood poverty. With respect to divorce, however, the unemployment rate is not a powerful predictor" (Kickham & Ford 2009). Focusing on marriage does not create jobs, reduce child poverty levels, or the social and physical stresses poverty imposes upon children. Focusing on job training, rather than marriage, is likely to be the more empowering emphasis in welfare reforms (Bitler et al. 2004).

Q2. Before the widespread acceptance of no-fault divorce, couples were forced to 'create' reasons for the cause of their divorce, such as providing false evidence of one or both parties' infidelity. Since the widespread adoption of no-fault divorce, many have argued that making marriage easier to dissolve has reduced respect for the institution. There is statistical evidence of this fact. For example, young people are apparently more willing to enter into marriage since the creation of no-fault divorce: "Controlling for state-level heterogeneity and for time trends, the standard deviation of the log age at first marriage drops by approximately 5% with the introduction of no-fault divorce...the mean age at first marriage increases slightly, suggesting that the mean person is slightly worse off with no-fault divorce" if marital stability is presumed to be the goal of public policy (Allen 2006: 547).

No-fault divorce was thought to be a particularly significant development for women, as women tend to fare less well, economically speaking, after a divorce than their male counterparts. While no-fault divorce was heralded by many feminists for its ability to free women from loveless and confining marriages, it can also rob women of the security and protection women with small children may expect from marriage.

The 1960s and the 1970s saw the widespread introduction of no-fault statutes across the country. This did not make much of an impact in some states given the previous "easy availability of no-fault divorces in neighboring states" and because of "a legal system that had already implemented no-fault divorce de facto... [but] for 25 of the 32 states which passed no-fault between 1965 and 1974...divorce rates [were] higher than predicted by reasonable projections from the pre-implementation years" (The cost of no-fault divorce, 2000, Society, 37). This suggests that when no-fault divorce was made available to those who could not obtain it before, it did seem to facilitate the dissolution of marriages.

But to view this as an unquestioned negative… [read more]

Polygamy on the Surface Term Paper

… Yet in spite of the purely patriarchal form that most plural marriages take, it is easy to see why they should be legal. The women involved in plural marriages are legally free to extricate themselves from the situation. Their decision to join fundamentalist churches is one of free will; if it is proven otherwise, then the courts might step in to protect individual rights and freedoms. The question of whether religious indoctrination should be legal is another question altogether; but the United States Constitution does protect freedom of religion.

There are of course exceptions to what can be protected under the Constitution as a religious practice. Ethics and social norms condemn human sacrifice, for example. No religion could ever claim that human sacrifice should be legal because the sanctity of religious freedom trumps the sanctity of human life. However, there is no reasonable argument against polygamy assuming that the parties involved are mutually consenting to the situation.

Especially in light of the need for more enlightened policy on gay marriage, it is important to reconsider the reasoning behind banning polygamy. If the ban is to protect the rights of women, then there are many other ways to accomplish that goal. Mandating equal pay for equal work would be a good start. Offering women the opportunity to achieve financial independence, rather than become domestic servants, would be another sure way of eliminating patriarchy. Building public awareness campaigns from within the Mormon Church, rather than imposing American law onto that Church, would be more effective ways of educating women about their rights as human beings. To ban polygamy strips the right of choice from women who might actually want to be involved in a polygamous marriage.

However, one question does loom large in the debate over polygamy in the United States: What about the children? This question is a serious one, and must be considered within the context of fundamentalist religious lifestyles. Children who grow up in families that are polygamous in structure are socially indoctrinated into this fundamentalist religious system. Their freedom is restricted; their exposure to the outside world is limited. Likely to be homeschooled because of their family's mistrust of the dominant culture, children in polygamous households, Mormon other otherwise, are at a severe disadvantage. The same cannot be said for the children in gay marriages, which are not undertaken as an expression of religious sentiment but as an exercise of personal freedom.

The issue of plural marriage is a legal and moral conundrum. On the one hand, polygamy is a matter of choice as well as a matter of personal privacy and freedom. These freedoms can and should be protected by the United States Supreme Court under the Constitution. On the other hand, the Supreme Court frequently interprets Constitutional provisions in ways that reflect prevailing social norms. The Supreme Court has determined that plural marriage is "in violation of social duties or subversive of good order," ("Should Polygamy Be Illegal?"). This decision was undoubtedly a difficult one to… [read more]

Modern Christian Beliefs Essay

… Work, Career, And Vocation

In contemporary times, the concept of work has changed radically since the time of Christ. Today, work, career, and vocation typically comprise issues and purposes that can either bring the individual close to God or that… [read more]

Marriage Incest Taboos Essay

… And, the ideals of marriage will continue to change as man continues to change and grow with time.

For now, marriage in many parts of the world is now seen as a communal cause, something that has more to do with gender relations and communal living than the relationship shared between two people. Incest taboos still exist; suggesting the people that live together in a common household should not share sexual relations. Taboos regarding incest will likely continue for an eternity, because there is something that bothers people about certain filial relationships and the sexual nature surrounding them. This still engenders much conflict, and damaging relationships for a number of reasons. Anthropologists will likely continue to examine the causes for these shifts in cultural rituals and reasoning's as people continue to change their values and gender relationships as society changes politically, economically and based on welfare states throughout time. Public awareness regarding attitudes of women's liberty, sexual awareness, and the protection of women's and children's rights may also impact taboos and feelings regarding the universality of marriage and incest taboos from culture to culture. There is much less pressure in modern society to continue certain familial heritages through sexual ties and marriage. That is of course, in most of Western society and in most developed countries. This is not to say however, that at any moment in time things may change. One can never predict the future, nor the heart and core of humankind. As long as man exists, he/she will continue to do things and enact behaviors that defy the laws of nature, if such laws indeed exist and can be defined by any logical means anthropologists can define.


Ember, C.R., & Melvin R. Ember. 2010. Cultural Anthropology. Canada: Pearson Education.

Gough, K. 1959. The Nayars and the definition of marriage. Journal of the Royal

Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 89, 23-34.

Haviland, W.A., Prins, H.E.L., McBride, B. & Dana Walrath. 2010. Cultural Anthropology: The

Human Challenges. Cengage Learning.

Whelehan, P. 1985. Review of incest, a biosocial view. American…… [read more]

Family Law Essay

… Family Law

Strictly fault-based divorce has given way to no-fault divorce or some variation thereof, in the vast majority of states. Yet, even in no-fault divorce, states require couples to jump through many hoops to obtain a divorce decree. Many times, these obstacles are intended to lead to reconciliation, for example the requirement that the court finds irreconcilable differences in order to grant a divorce. Do you think that this makes sense or should the court permit people who no longer wish to be married to obtain a divorce?

No, the states making many couples go through different obstacles to obtain a no fault divorce is contradictory. The reason why, is because these kinds of divorces were intended to prevent someone from lying about something that their partner did in the marriage to obtain a divorce. Prior to these laws being enacted during the late 1960's and early 1970's, many people often engaged in what would be considered to be fraud. As, one party in the marriage wants to obtain a divorce. Yet, their partner has done nothing that is considered to be abusive or any type of actions that warranted the court granting such a decision. Instead, they would intentionally deceive the legal system by claiming that this person was abusive in some way. This led to various arguments put forth by one party that their spouse engaged in these kinds of actions. When they know that they never had done anything to them. (Wilcox, 2009, pp. 81 -- 94)

A good example of this is when Jane Wyman wanted a divorce from Ronald Regan in 1948. Despite the fact that he was never abusive to her, she claimed that he engaged in mental cruelty throughout the course of their marriage. This was not based on the actual fact. Instead, it was that Wyman no longer wanted to remain in the marriage. Under the law, she had to have some kind of reason for wanting out of her nuptials with Regan. At which point, she began to say that he was mentally abusive to satisfy these requirements. Once the no fault divorce was introduced, it was designed to allow either party out of the marriage because they did not want to be a part of the union any longer. However, the problem with some of the state laws is that they are making couples go through different obstacles. This goes directly against the intent of the law. Where, this has become a backdoor effort of discouraging these kinds of divorces. As a result, the court should automatically give individuals who no longer wish to remain married a divorce based upon the intent of the law. (Wilcox, 2009, pp. 81 -- 94)

Consider the advantages and disadvantages of presumptions in custody decision making. For example, the historical maternal presumption put fathers at a disadvantage because a father had to prove a mother's unfitness before he could gain custody. How do the current presumptions advantage or disadvantage the mother? The father?… [read more]

Nontraditional Families in America Thesis

… These new programs support the proposition that families can work as same-sex households, mixed race homes, or any other form of nontraditional unit. Similarly, current movies such as The Kids Are All Right do the same on the big screen. To the extent that culture is reflected through its art forms the fact that these television shows and movies are able to present the nontraditional family as normative indicates that the prejudices against nontraditional families are beginning to break down.

Twenty years ago same-sex adoption would have been unthinkable in many social circles; interracial marriage was unthinkable and, in some jurisdictions, illegal; cohabitation a disgrace but these attitudes are all changing. The legal barriers to nearly all nontraditional family lifestyle choices are beginning to be removed and support for the traditional family as the ideal is lessening. With time, broader acceptance of the nontraditional family can be expected. As this occurs, the nontraditional family will become the norm and the traditional family will receive less emphasis as the ideal.


Cherlin, A. (1999). Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science. Demography, 421-428.

Dush, C. & . (2009). Marriage and Family: Perspectives and Complexities. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Gennetian, L. (2005). One or Two Parents? Half or Step Siblings? The Effect of Family on Structure on Young Children's Achievement. Journal of Population Economics, 415-436.

Howe, E. (1988). Social Aspects of Physical Planning. The Practice of Local Government Planning .

Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558, 123 S. Ct. 2472, 156 L. Ed. 2d 508 (U.S. Supreme Court June 26, 2003).

Lerner, R. & . (2001). No Basis: What the Studies Don't Tell Us About Same-sex Parenting. Washington, D.C.: Marriage Law Project.

Meezan, W. & . (2005). Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting and America's Children. The Future of Children, 97-115.

Palmer, S. (2007). Toxic Childhood: How the Modern World is Damaging Our Children and What We Can Do About It. Orion.

Schneider, B. & .…… [read more]

Fear of Marriage Essay

… Fear of marriage is a common feeling that is present in the minds of many people before they take the big step. Also known as gamophobia, this fear is prevalent in every culture and country and the individual has to overcome this feeling before getting married. Otherwise, there is a high possibility that it could end up in a divorce.

Charles is a 25-year-old man with a college degree and a marketing job at a reputed company in Chicago. He has been dating his high school sweet heart for the last eight years and is wondering if he should take the next step and propose to her. He feels his girl friend is ready to move on to the next big stage of life with him and she has dropped numerous hints about how she would like to marry him. As for Charles, he loves his girl friend, but is afraid to get married.

He has prolonged this decision for many months now, he decided to sit down and make a list of things that worries him the most about marriage. A he crossed off every single idea, he particularly kept coming back to one aspect -- his fear of change and compromise. He understood that marriage means a big change in his way of life. Though he has been living with his girl friend for a few years now, it is not the same level of commitment. He still has his life and she has hers and marriage can change the whole scenario. Sooner or later, they will have kids and this can completely alter his life and priorities and he was scared of this change. He wanted things to remain they way they are and this is the primary reason for his fear of marriage. This fear is a part of who he is as a person. He was born and raised in Chicago and he never even thought of moving to a different city because of the fear of a new place and environment.

So, is this the best way for him to react to a fear of change? In a way, he is on the right track because he has identified the root cause of the problem and that is change. The next few steps will depend on whether he wants to overcome it in the first place or continue to remain single for the rest of his life. If he decides to overcome it, then how should he proceed? The first step is to…… [read more]

How Family Really Essay

… Family

How the Family Really Is (and Was)

The 1950s are often depicted as a time where the American family was solid, clearly defined and well-functioning unit that formed the basis of a strong and thriving culture and society stepping cheerfully out of the previous decades of Depression and war and looking with bright eyes towards the horizon (with only a slight worry that a mushroom cloud might there be glimpsed). In reality, however, this family unit was relatively short-lived, if indeed it existed as a widespread phenomenon at all, and the stereotypical 1950s family of Mom, Pop, Brother, Sister, and ever-faithful Fido is certainly not typical of the American family in the twentieth century overall. Both before and after this first decade of the Cold War, changing gender roles, shifting concepts of morality, and a series of economic upheavals created families that were far more dynamic and changeable than the stable system of breadwinners and homemakers depicted in the sitcoms of the era.

In their perennially updated volume Family in Transition, Arlene and Jerome Skolnick assert that since the 1950s there has been a "triple revolution" concerning the move to an information society, increased life expectancy and fertility, and higher educational levels (2004, pp. 10). Women can and do wait until later years to have children, if they decide to have them at all, and this in itself has caused a major revolution in the concept of the family. Increased educational and economic opportunities for women have made it no longer necessary for the home to be the center of their existence, and this has also had an impact on marriage and divorce rates as women gained more social mobility (Skolnick & Skolnick 2004).

It has also been argued…… [read more]

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