Study "Family / Dating / Marriage" Essays 56-110

1234. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Dating Culture in 1950 Research Paper

… Dating Culture in the 1950s

While dating has been part of American popular culture for several generations, the dating culture has changed from one generation to another. Prior to the 1940s and World War II, most dating was actually in… [read more]

Sociology Family Violence Unfortunately, in Our Society Term Paper

… Sociology

Family Violence

Unfortunately, in our society there are many different types of family violence, from Battered Child Syndrome (BCS) to dating violence and domestic violence. Family violence also includes neglect, abuse, and even parental abuse of aged parents. Perhaps the most important thing to remember about family violence is that it affects the entire family, not just the people involved in the violence. One researcher writes, "It not only affects the victims, it touches the lives of their parents, children, co-workers, and friends. It emotionally and physically influences so much more than we ever thought" (Dalpiaz xv). Thus, when a family is involved in family violence, the ripples from that violence spread farther than many people recognize or acknowledge.

Family violence may be defined as violence against another family member or loved one, but it can also occur during dating, and it includes forms of abuse that some people do not think about, such as neglect or mental abuse. Family violence does not have to have physical violence as a component, mental abuse and neglect can be just as damaging as physical abuse, and because this type of abuse can go unrecognized much longer, it can be even more damaging to the victim and the entire family.

Some of the hardest violence to contemplate is physical and mental violence against a child, and yet it occurs all too frequently. Battered child syndrome, shaken baby syndrome and child abuse of any sort is difficult to understand, as the victims are young and incapable of fighting back or defending themselves at all. Family violence is difficult to comprehend, but violence against children seems to be the most heinous form of violence, and it should be the type of violence punished most heavily by the law. However, any form of family violence is wrong, and it tears families apart.

The biggest question about family violence is what causes it to begin with. Statistics indicate that many people involved in family violence experienced it themselves at some point in their lives. It is hard to understand how someone who was a victim of family violence becomes an abuser, and that is the biggest question it seems, that remains unanswered about family violence.

Another question is why so many victims do not report family violence. Some are afraid, certainly, but others seem to make up stories or excuses for the abusers, as if they, the victims, somehow "deserve" the abuse. This can affect mediation and reconciliation, if that is possible. Another writer notes, "[M]ediators are often unaware of the subtle power imbalances that exist between abuser and abused, mediations can be captured by the manipulative abuser to place pressure on the abused" (Woolford). These power balances explain why so much abuse goes unreported, but does not help explain why so many victims seem to feel as if they deserve the abuse, and keep on taking it because of these feelings.

Another writer notes, "The cyclical nature of family violence dictates that most battered women… [read more]

Defining Family Essay

… There seem to be a number of contradictory impulses underlying these statistics. For a start, it is worth noting that a majority is always willing to extend the defintion as broadly as possible -- even the case of the 54% who are willing to extend the definition to an unmarried couple with no children, this is still a small majority (although it is the smallest percentage of those recorded in the 2010 poll). I think this indicates a good start, as I personally would be willing to extend the definition as broadly as possible. But the other impulses seem to be conflicted -- certainly an element of bigotry enters into the 36% of people who would deny the word "family" to a gay or lesbian couple raising a child. But overall it would seem that people in general are willing to acknowledge that any household which contains children would seem, functionally, to be a family -- yet the largest percentage, 88%, wish to extend the definition to cover a married couple without stigmatizing childlessness. I think the most reasonable conclusion to reach is that all of these social groupings are recognized as families by over half of the respondents in the poll.

It is my own belief that there are now too many changes in society to restrict the definition of family to a narrow definition. When we consider the number of complications that have entered into our consideration of what constitutes a family -- and any survey would have to include not only the expansion of gay and lesbian rights, but also issues related to reproductive and fertility technology including surrogate births, open adoptions, and the increased divorce rate with the increase in the number of "blended families" -- we realize that technology and social change have conspired to make a narrow definition untenable. But the larger question, in my opinion, involves what purpose a definition serves. When we consider the AIDS crisis of the 1980s and 1990s, we learn that a number of people who ended up dying were those who had been rejected by their birth families because of sexual identity, but they did not die alone because their own community in essence stepped in to provide the kind of support (and indeed affection) that we would associate with a family. This seems to indicate that a family can, in essence, be any kind of meaningful elective social support structure: if gays and lesbians find a "family" in their social structure, likewise churches and religious organizations provide a sort of "family" to their members. My own cultural background is secular humanist, pluralist, and committed to the notion of tolerance as the chief virtue on which America was founded. In some sense, it is worth recalling that tolerance requires disagreement: it is not possible to tolerate something of which we already approve, we can only tolerate what we disapprove of. This principle applies to religions -- I am not a Mormon, but I do not believe Mormonism should… [read more]

Law Politics and Marriage Essay

… ¶ … Politics, and Marriage

Discuss two types of marriage that you think should be legally prohibited. Use the course materials to evaluate both the pros and cons of not tolerating or recognizing these marital practices.

One type of marriage that should be prohibited is one in which there can be physical consequences for any of the children that such a marriage might produce. An obvious example of this would be two people that would stand a high likelihood of passing down a genetic disease to their offspring. While it was once believed that family, such as closely related individuals, stood a significantly higher likelihood that their offspring could suffer from genetically transmitted conditions, scientists today have largely discredited this myth.Although there is an increased likelihood that cousins can pass down birth defects to their children, this risk is not as strong as formerly perceived. The risk of birth defects in children born to first cousins is increased from a baseline of 3-4% to 4-7% according to the National Society of Genetic Councilors (NSGC) (Younus, 2013).

Furthermore, with the advantages of modern technology and genetic understanding, this risk could be mitigated through pre-marital genetic testing yet the NSGC, however, considers the risk to be so insignificant that it does not recommend additional testing or screening. Therefore, although there is certainly a social stigma surrounding cousin marriages in many circles, there doesn't seem to be the necessary evidence to make this a criminal activity. Yet it is likely that closer relationships, such as siblings, would be subject to a greater risk and justify a protectionist marriage policy. I believe the same could be said about unrelated couples as well that have certain genetic risk factors. Although I don't think it would be practical to implement such a policy, it could be argued that genetic testing should be a requirement for all marriages.

I also support their being age requirements for entering into marriage however I'm unsure if I agree with the current requirements. I believe that a person should have fully developed mental capabilities to ensure that they are making the best decision that they possibly can and be entitled to do so. In cultures that promote arranged marriages amongst young children this act violates the individuals personal freedom. Not only the freedom to choose their partners by themselves, but also the freedom of making a decision when their mental capabilities are sufficient to fully understand the type of relationship that they are entering into. Children should therefore be prohibited from making such a decision. However, I am not sure that the current popular requirement of being eighteen years old is necessarily the correct limitation. If the raised was raised to twenty-one or even higher, then this would likely reduce the divorce rate. However, I think such a decision should be based off the latest research in fields such as psychology to establish the minimum age in which such a competency would be fully developed.

2. Give examples of marital practices… [read more]

Has Marriage Changed in the USA? Term Paper

… Marriage

"Enormous changes have occurred in family life not only in the United States but also throughout the Western world in the past half century," (Cherlin, 2010, p. 15). Moreover, the changes have manifested differently in Western Europe vs. The United States. These differences are related to culture, values, and social norms. Religion has become more integrated, ironically, into modern American lifestyles compared with Europe, where religious affiliation and religious values have declined steadily in recent generations (Cherlin, 2010). The greater interest in religion has prompted resurgence in interest in the institution of marriage in the United States. Divorce rates have also risen in conjunction with marriage and re-marriage rates. The paradox of high divorce rates in a self-proclaimed religious society is resolved in light of the underlying cultural norms related to individuality. Whereas in Europe, concerns over the future of the family focus on keeping birthrates steady, American concerns are more related to the institution of marriage and its role in society.

Cherlin (2010) notes that cohabitation rates are higher in Europe than in the United States, but that Americans are more likely to cohabit sooner than their European counterparts. Moreover, Americans are more likely to marry than Europeans. Marriage has simply fallen out of favor as a social priority in Western Europe; whereas it remains integral to the social and cultural fabric of American society. Marriage is an important component of social, cultural, religious, and individual identity in the United States but not in Europe. Yet Europe retains a more stable and cohesive vision of family life and cohabiting relationships than the United States. If Americans marry more often than Europeans, they also divorce more often. "Family life in the United States involves more transitions than anywhere else," (Cherlin, 2010, p. 19). The transitions impact the spouses and their children, if any.

Cohabitation…… [read more]

Marriage and Divorce Interview Term Paper

… As Liz explains, "When I was in my 20s I thought of only the romance and having a family. It was a perfect world and we were going to live happily ever after. Today a woman in my 40s I think of marriage as a partnership, security, a companion to share my days with. Two people that have the same values and basic ideology." She clearly has a companionate view of marriage.

Even though Liz has gotten a divorce herself, she still feels it should be the last option and reserved for relationships which are physically and mentally unhealthy.

Unlike Philo, Liz believes that the culture of divorce has impacted relationships in current society by becoming more acceptable. "It was acceptable for us to divorce so we did what was easiest and moved on. I came from a divorced family. I grew up around women (sisters) that had all been divorced and were raising the children alone with the support of each other. The men had left them and abandoned their responsibilities as husband and father." The culture of divorce means that people give up on their relationships too soon, and it becomes more normal to leave the person that you're with than to work on the relationship. Thus, Liz is a big believer in couples therapy. "It is important to understand the other person's view even if you do not agree with it. Acknowledge when you are wrong and work on not making the same mistakes over and over again." Making the same mistakes over and over again can damage the relationship and wear down the foundation; apologizing is also important.

When Liz went through her own divorce, she cites that the biggest turmoil came from not understanding what had happened and having to move from one home to another. However, as Liz acknowledges, her daughter was able to grow up in a household where yelling and fighting were absent: "I think because we were divorced parents and felt guilt, Danielle had more attention than most children with married parents. She knew she was our priority and very much loved."

Fundamentally, both Philo and Liz demonstrate the wisdom of life experience. They don't hold any fairy tale notions about what marriage is. They see it as a partnership that needs to be treated with love and respect, and a respect for the differences of another person. They both see communication as fundamental for a happy relationship (Schnebly, 2001) and mutual respect and self-respect as essential for a happy union (Owen, 2009). Finally all these interviews have demonstrated the multi-faceted needs that go into have a health relationship (LaMotte, 2008).


LaMotte, E.J. (2008). Overcoming Your Parents' Divorce. Far Hills: New Horizon Press.

Owen, H. (2009). Get Selfish, Get Happy. Australia: A&A Book Publishing

Schnebly, L. (2001) Being Happy Being Married.…… [read more]

Films as Expression of Asian Values Research Paper

… Films as Expression of Asian Values

Film is one of the most popular form of media utilized today, for the simple fact that it allows filmmakers and directors a variety of tools with which to not only convey a story, but also to convey the mores and markers of culture that provide narrative background. Due to its popularity, one could argue that film has become one of the most viable forms of transmission of culture, with its values displayed for all the world to see and gain a better understanding of. This paper proposes that individuals can learn a significant amount about a specific culture simply by watching a plethora of films pertaining to it. Asian culture in particular has been well documented in movies, demonstrating the role of conventional family values in Asian heritage. Traditional family values that are decreasing throughout the Western world still hold true throughout most of Asia and for Asian-American citizens, as a study of Asian films indicates.

Thesis -- Traditional family values that are decreasing throughout the Western world still hold true throughout most of Asia and for Asian-American citizens, as a study of Asian film indicates.

A. The Asian family structure is based on the traditional nuclear family model with a wife, a husband, and children.

1. Such images and the perception of the family as a unit, one which is honorable and is regarded as and defended as such, populate a variety of different films.

B. Homogeneity is a powerful part of Asian culture and is reflected in family values by the fact that there is a distinct lack of intermingling and intermarriage with those outside of the Asian heritage.

1. Asian films portray the fact that homogeneity is a key aspect in preserving the strong culture of family value for Asians.

C. Heterosexuality is a principle aspect to preserving the nuclear family. Asians may be tolerant of homosexuals, yet typically do not portray images of homosexuality within their films.

1. This aspect of Asian family values and its reinforcement of the principles of the nuclear family stands in stark contrast with conventional Western films, particularly American ones, which usually allude to homosexuality at some point within them, whether implicitly or implicitly.

One of the core values in Asian culture is the concept of marriage. Like other facets of this culture, the institution of marriage within Asian cultures is immensely revered, particularly due to the fact that it functions as the basis of familial life. In many respects, however, the notion of Asian marriage is deliberately more staid and somewhat more old-fashioned than the concept of marriage in other cultures. The traditional values that Asian marriage typifies are perhaps best expressed in popular culture through the medium of film. Mores related to the different roles of gender are evinced in a wide number of cinema depicting Asians, which both elucidates as well as reinforces the customs associated with the institution of marriage. The convention that the husband fulfills the dominant male provider… [read more]

Logic Behind the Personal Responsibility Essay

… This is confirmed by studies of childhood poverty, which "find no reliable effect from marriage initiatives... [and] address one dimension within the complexity of factors that perpetuate childhood poverty" (Kickham & Ford 2009). The only positive relationship that was found was that as "unemployment rates increase, so does childhood poverty. With respect to divorce, however, the unemployment rate is not a powerful predictor" (Kickham & Ford 2009). Focusing on marriage does not create jobs, reduce child poverty levels, or the social and physical stresses poverty imposes upon children. Focusing on job training, rather than marriage, is likely to be the more empowering emphasis in welfare reforms (Bitler et al. 2004).

Q2. Before the widespread acceptance of no-fault divorce, couples were forced to 'create' reasons for the cause of their divorce, such as providing false evidence of one or both parties' infidelity. Since the widespread adoption of no-fault divorce, many have argued that making marriage easier to dissolve has reduced respect for the institution. There is statistical evidence of this fact. For example, young people are apparently more willing to enter into marriage since the creation of no-fault divorce: "Controlling for state-level heterogeneity and for time trends, the standard deviation of the log age at first marriage drops by approximately 5% with the introduction of no-fault divorce...the mean age at first marriage increases slightly, suggesting that the mean person is slightly worse off with no-fault divorce" if marital stability is presumed to be the goal of public policy (Allen 2006: 547).

No-fault divorce was thought to be a particularly significant development for women, as women tend to fare less well, economically speaking, after a divorce than their male counterparts. While no-fault divorce was heralded by many feminists for its ability to free women from loveless and confining marriages, it can also rob women of the security and protection women with small children may expect from marriage.

The 1960s and the 1970s saw the widespread introduction of no-fault statutes across the country. This did not make much of an impact in some states given the previous "easy availability of no-fault divorces in neighboring states" and because of "a legal system that had already implemented no-fault divorce de facto... [but] for 25 of the 32 states which passed no-fault between 1965 and 1974...divorce rates [were] higher than predicted by reasonable projections from the pre-implementation years" (The cost of no-fault divorce, 2000, Society, 37). This suggests that when no-fault divorce was made available to those who could not obtain it before, it did seem to facilitate the dissolution of marriages.

But to view this as an unquestioned negative… [read more]

Polygamy on the Surface Term Paper

… Yet in spite of the purely patriarchal form that most plural marriages take, it is easy to see why they should be legal. The women involved in plural marriages are legally free to extricate themselves from the situation. Their decision to join fundamentalist churches is one of free will; if it is proven otherwise, then the courts might step in to protect individual rights and freedoms. The question of whether religious indoctrination should be legal is another question altogether; but the United States Constitution does protect freedom of religion.

There are of course exceptions to what can be protected under the Constitution as a religious practice. Ethics and social norms condemn human sacrifice, for example. No religion could ever claim that human sacrifice should be legal because the sanctity of religious freedom trumps the sanctity of human life. However, there is no reasonable argument against polygamy assuming that the parties involved are mutually consenting to the situation.

Especially in light of the need for more enlightened policy on gay marriage, it is important to reconsider the reasoning behind banning polygamy. If the ban is to protect the rights of women, then there are many other ways to accomplish that goal. Mandating equal pay for equal work would be a good start. Offering women the opportunity to achieve financial independence, rather than become domestic servants, would be another sure way of eliminating patriarchy. Building public awareness campaigns from within the Mormon Church, rather than imposing American law onto that Church, would be more effective ways of educating women about their rights as human beings. To ban polygamy strips the right of choice from women who might actually want to be involved in a polygamous marriage.

However, one question does loom large in the debate over polygamy in the United States: What about the children? This question is a serious one, and must be considered within the context of fundamentalist religious lifestyles. Children who grow up in families that are polygamous in structure are socially indoctrinated into this fundamentalist religious system. Their freedom is restricted; their exposure to the outside world is limited. Likely to be homeschooled because of their family's mistrust of the dominant culture, children in polygamous households, Mormon other otherwise, are at a severe disadvantage. The same cannot be said for the children in gay marriages, which are not undertaken as an expression of religious sentiment but as an exercise of personal freedom.

The issue of plural marriage is a legal and moral conundrum. On the one hand, polygamy is a matter of choice as well as a matter of personal privacy and freedom. These freedoms can and should be protected by the United States Supreme Court under the Constitution. On the other hand, the Supreme Court frequently interprets Constitutional provisions in ways that reflect prevailing social norms. The Supreme Court has determined that plural marriage is "in violation of social duties or subversive of good order," ("Should Polygamy Be Illegal?"). This decision was undoubtedly a difficult one to… [read more]

Modern Christian Beliefs Essay

… Work, Career, And Vocation

In contemporary times, the concept of work has changed radically since the time of Christ. Today, work, career, and vocation typically comprise issues and purposes that can either bring the individual close to God or that… [read more]

Marriage Incest Taboos Essay

… And, the ideals of marriage will continue to change as man continues to change and grow with time.

For now, marriage in many parts of the world is now seen as a communal cause, something that has more to do with gender relations and communal living than the relationship shared between two people. Incest taboos still exist; suggesting the people that live together in a common household should not share sexual relations. Taboos regarding incest will likely continue for an eternity, because there is something that bothers people about certain filial relationships and the sexual nature surrounding them. This still engenders much conflict, and damaging relationships for a number of reasons. Anthropologists will likely continue to examine the causes for these shifts in cultural rituals and reasoning's as people continue to change their values and gender relationships as society changes politically, economically and based on welfare states throughout time. Public awareness regarding attitudes of women's liberty, sexual awareness, and the protection of women's and children's rights may also impact taboos and feelings regarding the universality of marriage and incest taboos from culture to culture. There is much less pressure in modern society to continue certain familial heritages through sexual ties and marriage. That is of course, in most of Western society and in most developed countries. This is not to say however, that at any moment in time things may change. One can never predict the future, nor the heart and core of humankind. As long as man exists, he/she will continue to do things and enact behaviors that defy the laws of nature, if such laws indeed exist and can be defined by any logical means anthropologists can define.


Ember, C.R., & Melvin R. Ember. 2010. Cultural Anthropology. Canada: Pearson Education.

Gough, K. 1959. The Nayars and the definition of marriage. Journal of the Royal

Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 89, 23-34.

Haviland, W.A., Prins, H.E.L., McBride, B. & Dana Walrath. 2010. Cultural Anthropology: The

Human Challenges. Cengage Learning.

Whelehan, P. 1985. Review of incest, a biosocial view. American…… [read more]

Family Law Essay

… Family Law

Strictly fault-based divorce has given way to no-fault divorce or some variation thereof, in the vast majority of states. Yet, even in no-fault divorce, states require couples to jump through many hoops to obtain a divorce decree. Many times, these obstacles are intended to lead to reconciliation, for example the requirement that the court finds irreconcilable differences in order to grant a divorce. Do you think that this makes sense or should the court permit people who no longer wish to be married to obtain a divorce?

No, the states making many couples go through different obstacles to obtain a no fault divorce is contradictory. The reason why, is because these kinds of divorces were intended to prevent someone from lying about something that their partner did in the marriage to obtain a divorce. Prior to these laws being enacted during the late 1960's and early 1970's, many people often engaged in what would be considered to be fraud. As, one party in the marriage wants to obtain a divorce. Yet, their partner has done nothing that is considered to be abusive or any type of actions that warranted the court granting such a decision. Instead, they would intentionally deceive the legal system by claiming that this person was abusive in some way. This led to various arguments put forth by one party that their spouse engaged in these kinds of actions. When they know that they never had done anything to them. (Wilcox, 2009, pp. 81 -- 94)

A good example of this is when Jane Wyman wanted a divorce from Ronald Regan in 1948. Despite the fact that he was never abusive to her, she claimed that he engaged in mental cruelty throughout the course of their marriage. This was not based on the actual fact. Instead, it was that Wyman no longer wanted to remain in the marriage. Under the law, she had to have some kind of reason for wanting out of her nuptials with Regan. At which point, she began to say that he was mentally abusive to satisfy these requirements. Once the no fault divorce was introduced, it was designed to allow either party out of the marriage because they did not want to be a part of the union any longer. However, the problem with some of the state laws is that they are making couples go through different obstacles. This goes directly against the intent of the law. Where, this has become a backdoor effort of discouraging these kinds of divorces. As a result, the court should automatically give individuals who no longer wish to remain married a divorce based upon the intent of the law. (Wilcox, 2009, pp. 81 -- 94)

Consider the advantages and disadvantages of presumptions in custody decision making. For example, the historical maternal presumption put fathers at a disadvantage because a father had to prove a mother's unfitness before he could gain custody. How do the current presumptions advantage or disadvantage the mother? The father?… [read more]

Nontraditional Families in America Thesis

… These new programs support the proposition that families can work as same-sex households, mixed race homes, or any other form of nontraditional unit. Similarly, current movies such as The Kids Are All Right do the same on the big screen. To the extent that culture is reflected through its art forms the fact that these television shows and movies are able to present the nontraditional family as normative indicates that the prejudices against nontraditional families are beginning to break down.

Twenty years ago same-sex adoption would have been unthinkable in many social circles; interracial marriage was unthinkable and, in some jurisdictions, illegal; cohabitation a disgrace but these attitudes are all changing. The legal barriers to nearly all nontraditional family lifestyle choices are beginning to be removed and support for the traditional family as the ideal is lessening. With time, broader acceptance of the nontraditional family can be expected. As this occurs, the nontraditional family will become the norm and the traditional family will receive less emphasis as the ideal.


Cherlin, A. (1999). Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science. Demography, 421-428.

Dush, C. & . (2009). Marriage and Family: Perspectives and Complexities. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Gennetian, L. (2005). One or Two Parents? Half or Step Siblings? The Effect of Family on Structure on Young Children's Achievement. Journal of Population Economics, 415-436.

Howe, E. (1988). Social Aspects of Physical Planning. The Practice of Local Government Planning .

Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558, 123 S. Ct. 2472, 156 L. Ed. 2d 508 (U.S. Supreme Court June 26, 2003).

Lerner, R. & . (2001). No Basis: What the Studies Don't Tell Us About Same-sex Parenting. Washington, D.C.: Marriage Law Project.

Meezan, W. & . (2005). Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting and America's Children. The Future of Children, 97-115.

Palmer, S. (2007). Toxic Childhood: How the Modern World is Damaging Our Children and What We Can Do About It. Orion.

Schneider, B. & .…… [read more]

Fear of Marriage Essay

… Fear of marriage is a common feeling that is present in the minds of many people before they take the big step. Also known as gamophobia, this fear is prevalent in every culture and country and the individual has to overcome this feeling before getting married. Otherwise, there is a high possibility that it could end up in a divorce.

Charles is a 25-year-old man with a college degree and a marketing job at a reputed company in Chicago. He has been dating his high school sweet heart for the last eight years and is wondering if he should take the next step and propose to her. He feels his girl friend is ready to move on to the next big stage of life with him and she has dropped numerous hints about how she would like to marry him. As for Charles, he loves his girl friend, but is afraid to get married.

He has prolonged this decision for many months now, he decided to sit down and make a list of things that worries him the most about marriage. A he crossed off every single idea, he particularly kept coming back to one aspect -- his fear of change and compromise. He understood that marriage means a big change in his way of life. Though he has been living with his girl friend for a few years now, it is not the same level of commitment. He still has his life and she has hers and marriage can change the whole scenario. Sooner or later, they will have kids and this can completely alter his life and priorities and he was scared of this change. He wanted things to remain they way they are and this is the primary reason for his fear of marriage. This fear is a part of who he is as a person. He was born and raised in Chicago and he never even thought of moving to a different city because of the fear of a new place and environment.

So, is this the best way for him to react to a fear of change? In a way, he is on the right track because he has identified the root cause of the problem and that is change. The next few steps will depend on whether he wants to overcome it in the first place or continue to remain single for the rest of his life. If he decides to overcome it, then how should he proceed? The first step is to…… [read more]

How Family Really Essay

… Family

How the Family Really Is (and Was)

The 1950s are often depicted as a time where the American family was solid, clearly defined and well-functioning unit that formed the basis of a strong and thriving culture and society stepping cheerfully out of the previous decades of Depression and war and looking with bright eyes towards the horizon (with only a slight worry that a mushroom cloud might there be glimpsed). In reality, however, this family unit was relatively short-lived, if indeed it existed as a widespread phenomenon at all, and the stereotypical 1950s family of Mom, Pop, Brother, Sister, and ever-faithful Fido is certainly not typical of the American family in the twentieth century overall. Both before and after this first decade of the Cold War, changing gender roles, shifting concepts of morality, and a series of economic upheavals created families that were far more dynamic and changeable than the stable system of breadwinners and homemakers depicted in the sitcoms of the era.

In their perennially updated volume Family in Transition, Arlene and Jerome Skolnick assert that since the 1950s there has been a "triple revolution" concerning the move to an information society, increased life expectancy and fertility, and higher educational levels (2004, pp. 10). Women can and do wait until later years to have children, if they decide to have them at all, and this in itself has caused a major revolution in the concept of the family. Increased educational and economic opportunities for women have made it no longer necessary for the home to be the center of their existence, and this has also had an impact on marriage and divorce rates as women gained more social mobility (Skolnick & Skolnick 2004).

It has also been argued…… [read more]

Family in a Humorous Way, One Cartoonist Research Paper

… Family

In a humorous way, one cartoonist showed a very large auditorium with only one attendee. As the reader looks to the podium, we see that the title of this convention is "Adult Children of Functional Families." This brief, but powerful statement, implies that despite the Leave it to Beaver and Ozzie and Harriett syndrome, most families are, in some ways dysfunctional -- that is to say "human," with the flaws as well as the successes (See: Holmes and Jermyn, 2004). The core idea of the family is shrouded in myth -- that it is universal, completely harmonious (or if not something is wrong), children turn out as their parents raise them, and a stable past means future success. While the myths surrounding these family issues are a surprise to most of us, they can also be educational. Looking at the myths surrounding family does, actually, imply a degree of universality in that there are no perfect families; despite television. In this we come to understand a degree of humility and function -- functional families work out differences and dysfunctions when possible.

The Myth of Family Harmony -- This myth says that to be stable and productive families are always happy and if there are moments of unhappiness, those moments are solved within the allotted 20 minutes of the episode (Beaver, Partridge Family, Waltons). What is true is that like any human interaction, a family has its good moments and its bad moments. Some individuals are more prone to nurturing, others to authoritarianism, still others to abuse. We need only look at history (the Ancient Greeks or Romans or the Middle Ages) to find examples of dysfunctional families, often the royals or elite, to find that the norm is just that -- never the norm.

The Myth of a Stable Past -- A "Stable Past" implies that at a time in history there were stable,…… [read more]

Marriage Enrichment Program Term Paper

… Marriage Enrichment Program is a 5-day workshop focusing on the issue of "empowerment." The Program will cover a range of topics in relation to marriage such as love and romance, openness and communication, accepting help from a partner, appreciating positive changes that lead to forgiveness, and the showing of love through touch, sex, rituals, activities, faith and prayer. The Program is designed for married individuals who are hearing impaired and thus communicate through American Sign Language.

Hearing-impaired individuals in marriages suffer the same kinds of communicative problems as everyone else does, although the nature of communication is different. This Marriage Enrichment Program, which takes place over five days, is an enrichment program designed especially for hearing-impaired couples between the ages of 30 and 65 years. Marriage enrichment programs are the perfect opportunity to put a marital relationship to the forefront of busy lives. Getting away from the chaotic and constant distractions from every day life to focus on each other and the relationship as a whole can do wonders for improving the way that spouses communicate. Some couples may be wondering where the romance in their marriage has gone while others may have a hard time forgiving each other for past wrongs that they cannot let go of. Empowering oneself with an open attitude to change is something that we all must do at some point in our lives, but when one's marriage is the price of not changing, we cannot afford not to.

The Marriage Enrichment Program is a 5-day workshop set against the backdrop of nature in Elk River, Minnesota, very near the border of Canada. Couples stay in cabins in the forest and are joined speakers and therapists who are fluent in sign language; for those speakers and therapists who are not fluent in sign language, interpreters are provided. The event will be marketed through email and Facebook.

The first day of the program focuses on Love and Romance. Married life involves a continuous cycle of ups and downs referred to as romance, disillusionment, and true joy. The couples will be asked certain questions such as: 1) When have we experienced romance in our relationship? 2) When have we experienced disillusionment in our relationship? 3) Have we made the conscious decision to love each other? And, 4) What ways are we alike and/or different? These questions will be asked and the couples will have discuss these topics individually with each other.

Day two of the enrichment program focuses on Openness and Communication. What behaviors, thoughts, and values to you show your partner? Do we listen openly? In what ways do we argue or show the other when we are angry? How do we deal with conflicts in our relationship? Gottman (1999) notes in his book The Marriage Clinic that there are two main types of conflict: conflict with issues that can be solved and conflict with a perpetual issue. When looking at conflict that can be solved (not perpetual), looking for these signs is often necessary: softened… [read more]

Sociological Views on Marriage Argument Against Congressman Essay

… Sociological Views on Marriage

Argument Against Congressman McDonald's Proposal to Abolish Marriage:

According to California Congressman McDonald, there is no longer any use of the concept of formal marriage at law. His argument is based on three specific points having to do with the rate of: (1) divorce, (2) cohabitation amongst unmarried couples, and (3) childbirth outside of marriage. That analysis largely ignores the value of marriage for couples who do not divorce; likewise, it ignores the fact that cohabitation serves a valuable purpose as an informal trial of compatibility before marriage; and it ignores the important distinction between planned and unplanned pregnancy and the benefits of a traditional nuclear family to children.

If anything, the increased divorce rate is mainly the result of changed societal values and the fact that divorce is no longer associated with the same social stigma as it once was in society. Whereas prior generations of married couples may have had no choice but to remain unhappily married, contemporary married couples have the option of divorce to end unhappy marriages and allow both partners to go on with their lives afterwards. Many times, divorced people eventually find happiness in other marriages that they would never have had the opportunity to do without the divorce option. Therefore, high divorce rates are not necessarily evidence that marriage has become obsolete, particularly since most divorced people do eventually get married again.

Similarly, high rates of cohabitation are also more the result of relaxed societal values and norms than they are evidence that cohabitation is necessarily replacing marriage or that cohabitation necessarily fulfills all the functions and provides all the same benefits…… [read more]

Polygamous Marriage Polygamy Is the Practice Thesis

… Polygamous Marriage

Polygamy is the practice of maintaining family systems involving more marital partners than two. It was commonly practiced in ancient times and is referenced throughout the Old and New Testaments. In modern human societies, polygamy is still practiced… [read more]

Way We Really Are Coming to Terms With America's Changing Families by Stephanie Coontz Research Paper

… ¶ … America's Changing Families

In her book the Way We Really Are: Coming to Terms with America's Changing Families, which is partially a continuation and response to criticism of her older book, the Way We Never Were, Stephanie Coontz… [read more]

South Asian Arranged Marriages Term Paper

… ¶ … high rate of marriages to relatives. Furthermore, the high rate of such marriage is not simple reflected by a cultural preference. Various factors are included for further explanation and the influence of the decision and choices of arranged marriages, arranged by the elders particularly of the Pakistani who migrated to Britain. This article also includes about the caste, socio economic status and upbringing to focus the discovered processes which have generated from the ancestors.

South Asian Arranged Marriages

Arranged marriages were practiced by the kinship groups in South Asian sub-continent before they migrated towards Britain which took place during 1950s. It remained popular among the South Asian's although it has been argued by the anthropologists that arrange marriages in Britain are an economic arrangement between the two families. However, others have said that it's a way to maintain the family honor.

British Pakistanis expose a large section of kin marriages. Most of their marriages are arranged, especially with their relatives. Most of the Pakistanis themselves points out on the majority marriages which take place within the caste or in other words biradari. Many Pakistanis also justify that close kin marriages are also preferred in Islam. In this way they preserve the purity of the blood by giving importance to the qualities of their caste. These marriages indeed do take place with the first cousin. Although, these marriages do not have any choices, they simply follow the cultural preference by getting married with kin. If a Pakistani women dishonor their parents and the family respect, the result will be her death. However, these cases mostly represent the extremes but there are some principles at work which can be less dramatic and as well as more sensational cases. Women are mostly the victims of violence incidents and death threats. Many of the young girls do refuse to go through an arrange marriage, due to this they are killed or forced to get married, which is arranged by her elders.

Pakistanis are mostly concerned with the matters of sexuality, childbearing and birth control. Having children is the main part of any Pakistani family. British Pakistanis set their limits of ideas and system to practice…… [read more]

Family Violence and Health Issues Domestic Term Paper

… Family Violence and Health Issues

Domestic violence is one of the most unreported and insidious forms of violence in our society. The complex nature of this violence and the fact that it takes place in the privacy of the home… [read more]

Immigration and the American Dream in Junot Diaz's Drown Term Paper

… Junot Diaz's Drown is a collection of stories that tell of the contemporary misery and urban despair that can grow from poverty and "uprootedness" from one's own cultural setting. Diaz's protagonists are immigrants from the Dominican Republic, many of whom… [read more]

Sex and Marriage Term Paper

… This pattern is also known as 'agnatic descent', and the members are generally people who are from nuclear families that have descended form one single man. (Glossary of Terms)


Definitions. Retrieved From Accessed on 20 March, 2005

Glossary of Terms. Retrieved From Accessed on 20 March, 2005

Grenet, Phyllis. American Life: a Comparison of Colonial Life to Today's Life. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. 1990. Retrieved From Accessed on 20 March, 2005

Marriage Rules, Part 1. 19 March, 2004. Retrieved From Accessed on 20 March, 2005

Marriage. 18 August, 2004. Retrieved From Accessed on 20 March, 2005

The Functions of the Family. Retrieved From hl=en Accessed on 20 March, 2005… [read more]

Arranged Marriages the Social Custom Term Paper

… In this situation it is marriage first and then love, instead of the Western concept of love first, and then marriage." ( ibid)

Arranged marries vary in the way that they are dealt with in different cultures. From a negative point-of-view arranged marriages can be restrictive and a denial of the basic rights of the individuals to make choices about their life partners. On the other hand, marriages that are arranged can also provide a sense of belonging to a cultural tradition as well as providing economic and other aspects. The modern arranged marriage, especially in Western counties, has adapted to the more individualistic style of the culture. Many very modern young Indians and other cultures still retain the tradition of arranged marriages within a contemporary context.


Arranged Marriage. Video Letter from Japan: My Family, 1988, p. 36-37. ( Accessed November 24, 2004.)

Arranged Marriages and Dowry. (Accessed November 24, 2004)

Ramaswami Srikant 1995. MARRIAGES IN LITTLE INDIA: ARRANGED MARRIAGES Union of Families. Little India, July 31.

Applbaum, Kalman D. 1995. Marriage with the Proper Stranger: Arranged Marriage in Metropolitan Japan. Ethnology 34, no. 1: 37+.

Dalrymple, Theodore. 1998. Can a Liberal Society Tolerate Eastern Culture?. New Statesman, October 23, 28+.

Fields, Suzanne. 1999. Indian Marriage Is No Honeymoon. The Washington Times, March 18, 21.

Westermarck, Edward. 1921. The History of Human Marriage. 5th ed. Vol. 2, . London: Macmillan and Co., Limited.

Zaidi, Arshia U., and Muhammad Shuraydi. 2002.…… [read more]

Family Law and Gay Term Paper

… His wife claimed that this finding resulted in an inequitable distribution of assets since it lowered the value of the marital interest in the home. The court of appeals found that the evidence did not support the presumed gift by the parents to the husband alone. In the state of Missouri, where the case took place, a gift to both spouses was presumed to be marital property.


The argument for allowing gay marriage may at first seem to rest upon issues of choice and a lack of state interest in intruding into individual's personal privacy decisions. There seems to be little evidence that gay marriage is substantially detrimental to the psychological health or social development of individuals beyond the difficulties of interracial marriage and other unions that occasionally meet with societal disapproval. The state's right to regulate gay unions seems to fly in the face of the same equal protection clause, as essentially gay partners are discriminated against and deprived of benefits because they are of a particular gender, or cannot have children (although the latter fact is not universally true of gay unions.) Certain religions allow gay marriage, and to not allow individuals to practice their religions, if it is not detrimental to others, violates the first amendment.

Moreover, the state's interest in intervening in family privacy seems only augmented by formalized unions, in terms of fairly allocating property during a divorce, when gay unions exist, or of ensuring that families treat their children appropriately in the context of the home environment. If the importance of the social institution of the married family is so beneficial and if the only reason that gays are prohibited from their union is because of their same-sex gender, both the private values as well as the societal values that validate the marital union seem to suggest that allowing gay marriage is both useful and necessary.

Works Cited

Areen, Judith. Cases & Materials. Fourth Edition. New York: Foundation Press,…… [read more]

Social History in Perspective: Family Term Paper

… Rather, it views marriage from the legal viewpoint of the period, and delves into why people chose to get married in medieval times, and what early cultures and laws helped contribute to medieval ideas of marriage and consent. (They were Roman, Jewish-Christian, and German.)

The "Family Life" section of the book may come closest to portraying day-to-day life in a medieval household, but its main focus is still the societal and outside forces on the members of the family. He does discuss the importance of affection and sexual relations in a marriage, and even what happens to a widow or widower. It is clear Fleming's main interest and concern throughout the book is how laws and society affected the family, rather than how individual members reacted to those laws and societal pressures.

The final section, titled "The Dissolution of Marriage and its Consequences," is perhaps one of the most disappointing in the book, because it leaves so many unanswered questions. It deals mainly with widows rather than widowers, with more heavy emphasis on how the law deals with the property left behind in broken marriages.

A gained many insights and information on the medieval family's relationship to law and church doctrine by reading this book, but it was not what I expected when I picked it up. I expected to be reading more of how people lived in a family, with specific details that would aid someone perhaps researching medieval times for a novel or report on the actual day-to-day lives of families. Instead, the book dealt with law and society, and while it was at times interesting, it was not what I expected, and so was a let down in other areas. I grew tired of reading about the laws and their relationship to family activities. I wanted to know more about the people themselves.

It seems simple to tell the book was written by a man, for it concentrates on more "masculine" issues of law in society, rather than the more "feminine" actual details of the household and family life of medieval times. This might only make a difference to a reader who was expecting a book that was more about how people lived as a family rather than why they lived as a family. At the end of the book, Fleming says to those "attempting to write the history of family relations, approaching the most private and intangible of human experiences" to "always remember that what they are working with are the shadows left by real flesh and blood human beings" (Fleming, 2001, p. 127). Yet, his study of medieval English family life seems to lack some of that "real flesh and blood." It is so concerned with the how's and why's of the family, that it forgot to look deeply into the members themselves, and this seems a major oversight in such a family oriented book.

Works Cited

Fleming, Peter. (2001). Social history…… [read more]

Family Theoretical Perspective Term Paper

… The author also states that the diversity of family multigenerational relations is increasing due to various reasons such as; changes in the structure of the family which involves stepfamily relationships and divorce, an increase in the longevity of kin, and an increased diversity of the types of intergenerational relationships (Vem, 2014).

Therefore I have learnt that there is an increase in multigenerational relationships and nuclear family setups are now decreasing. People are increasingly moving towards other family structures as opposed to the usual biological parents and children structure. People are becoming keen on working and living together as a family. Therefore, I agree wit the author that there is an increase in multigenerational relationship bonds.

There are several theories that can be used to explain this shift from nuclear family structure to the increase in multigenerational bonds in families. One of these theories is structural functionalism theory that is a framework for building theory that sees any society as a complex system that has parts working together so as to promote solidarity and stability. The key insight of the structural functionalism theory when it comes to the family centers on tasks that are performed with this unit. The family operates as a backbone to any society. According to the theory, family structures are shifting towards multigenerational relations in order to promote solidarity and stability. With increased multigenerational bonds the family institution is becoming more strong and solid. The solution to this issue is to continue encouraging multigenerational relations since they are leading to societies that are more strong due top strong family relations.

The social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is caused by an exchange process. The purpose of the exchange is so as to maximize the benefits can get and minimize t6heir costs. According to this theory people weigh the benefits and risks that can come from social relationships, when risks are more than the benefits then they abandon the relationship. According to this theory family structures are changing from nuclear families to multigenerational relations due to the benefits that these relations bring. In these relations there is a lot of economic security and people work together so as to achieve goals. The reason behind this shift is that people have examined the benefits that they can get from building strong multigenerational bonds and clearly they have seen that these benefits outweigh any risks.

The structural functionalism theory is the most useful theory between this two. This is because, the structural functionalism theory revolves around creating a solid society through the family. Therefore through stronger multigenerational bonds the family is going to be a strong institution that will eventually lead to a strong society.


Vem, B. (2014). Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational…… [read more]

Family Essay

… Even with the shifts above, there has been a lot of controversy and toiling about what defines a family and what does not. For example, some may hold that the aforementioned lesbians parenting a child is not acceptable and is not a "real" family. However, functionalism would hold that it is so long as the core functions are operating and functioning nonetheless. Factors that influence these directions and perceptions are internal feelings and desires but they are also influenced by society, race, biological gender and ethnicity. Even if a person feels that they are part of a family, this does not mean that the wider society feels this is the case. However, many changes have occurred in the last thirty years including the idea that gay or lesbian couples can adopt kids or be foster parents and people much more commonly having children out of wedlock. Some decry this to be the case but it is happening a lot more nonetheless and society is not wilting as a result (Jayson, 2010).


While there will always be religious and other cultural forces that will "push back" on what it means to be a family, it is undeniable that there has been a paradigm shift on what defines family and what does not. What has not changed is the core functions of the family and even non-traditional iterations of family in the United States and other countries manifest in the form of family even if the forms themselves are controversial to some. These shifts will no doubt continue to become more common and society will probably eventually become more accepting.


Jayson, S. (2010, November 25). What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - Retrieved August 12, 2014, from

Levin, J. (2004, August 24). Functionalism. Stanford University. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from… [read more]

Austen, Eliot, Besant, Browning: 19Th Century Views of Marriage and Property Essay

… ¶ … Marriage in 19th c English lit

To a certain extent, England owes its national identity in the modern period to issues of marriage: it was over marriage policy that Henry VIII would break with Rome and establish his… [read more]

Nursing Care and the Modern Family Term Paper

… These arrangements leave the nuclear family intact and living separately from members of their extended family or living in intergenerational situations under one roof. As a result, many of the caregiving, advisory, or economic arrangements of intergenerational living are lost, a phenomenon that places a larger responsibility for the healthcare of families is placed in the hands of the family-community nurse. Traditional healthcare practices -- based on conventional wisdom or folk medicine -- give way to scientific healthcare practices provided by a trained nurse.


Bialek, R., Duffy, G.L., & Moran, J.W. (2009). The Public Health Quality Improvement Handbook . Milwaukee: American Society for Quality, Quality Press.

Davidson, K.A. (2013, August 29). The most efficient health care systems in the world. The Huffington Post. Retrieved Edelman, C. And Mandle, C.L. (2010). Health promotion throughout the lifespan (7th ed.). St. Louis. MO: Mosby Co. And Rowe.

Kaakinen, J. Gedaly-Duff, V., Padgett-Coehlo, D., & Hanson, S.M., (2010) Family health care nursing: Theory practice & research (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis ISBN 978-0-8036-2166-4.

Mui, Y.Q. (2012, June 11). Americans saw wealth plummet 40% from 2007 to 2010, Federal Reserve says. The Washington Post. Retrieved

Rosenthal, E. (December 21, 2013). News analysis: health care's road to ruin, New York Times. Retrieved ____. American Medical Student Association Foundation (AMSAF). Breaking Barriers. Promoting, Reinforcing and Improving Medical Education (PRIME). Retreived

____. (2011). Office of Minority Health. Health and Human Services. Retreived h.qv8rre6w.dpuf

____. (2013). Public health nurses change lives -- today and tomorrow. Nurse-Family Partnership. Retrieved… [read more]

"Family to Family" by Pipes and Lee Book Report

… The model created by Pipes and Lee is depicted by an image of concentric circles which spread outward, with the "self" remaining at the center and each circle expanding to eventually cover "person X," or a stranger you have yet to meet.6

5. Ibid, p. 71-73.

6. Ibid, p. 58.

I hope to open myself up to these daily opportunities for evangelical teaching, searching for people in my academic, professional or personal lives who may benefit from exposure to biblical teachings. Remaining mindful of the views held by others must be paramount, however, because in my mind many chances for genuine conversion are lost due to the overzealous overtures made by overeager Christians bursting with enthusiasm as they try to spread the Good Word.

The final action step I will attempt to integrate into my routine involves the Mission Statement advocated by Pipes and Lee in the book's second chapter,7 as I firmly believe the structure provided by a tangible document such as this is integral to the pursuit of lasting change on a personal level. By creating separate Mission Statements -- one for my own life here at school and another for my life at home with my family -- I hope to organize my spiritual development according to a preset plan, with certain benchmarks set along the way to serve as motivation for continued growth and development. Combined with my first action step (returning home more often to engage in ministry and spiritual expansion alongside my family), I am convinced that the use of a clearly defined mission statement will strengthen our collective commitment to Christian teachings, as well as my own pledge to pursue a more spiritual lifestyle.

7. Ibid,…… [read more]

Family Assessment Description Research Paper

… "Health is the absence of incurable issues - such as physical, mental and emotional problems." Queried individually, each member agreed with this explanation. Seeking further clarification, I asked Mrs. T to explain what they meant by 'incurable issues'. Her replay… [read more]

Marriage: A Still-Evolving Concept Essay

… The second wave of feminism was touched off by the publication of the Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan. Friedan chronicled the unhappiness of women who were bored with little to do during the day, even though they were supposedly living the 'dream' of being an idle housewife. As a result of activists like Friedan, more and more women lobbied to enter the workforce again, demanding their legal right to equal employment prospects on par with their male counterparts. Thanks to the legislation enacted as the result of second wave feminism, women could no longer be refused jobs because of their gender or paid less for the same work. Women gained new economic power within marriage as a result, since they no longer had to feel pressured to remain with a man for fear of being able to find work outside of the marital construct.

However, many women today feel that social inequalities within marriage still persist, that they are forced to do just as much of the housework as before, yet are expected to work as hard as a man outside the home. A study of husbands and wives found "82.5% of women versus 65% of men were engaged in household activities and 41.6% of women versus 30.4% of men were engaged in caring for and helping household and non-household members" (York 1). While few women would likely want to go back to the 'bad old days' in which women had no legal rights and felt pressured to stay with unfeeling, unfaithful, or even abusive spouses for economic reasons, the expectations of the correct duties of a wife have not yet readjusted to reflect the fewer hours of the day women have to engage in homemaking activities. The recession changed this to some degree -- there are more stay-at-home dads than ever before -- but while "the number of stay-at-home dads has more than doubled over the last decade and a half, from about 76,000 in 1994 to 189,000 as of last year…women in dual earner households spend 12 hours a week on childcare on average, compared to just 7 for men," indicating that in most settings, old gender stereotypes still persist and place an undue burden on women (Weissman 1). As marriage changed in the past it must continue to change in the future.

Works Cited

Coontz, Stephanie. "The radical idea of marrying for love." From Marriage: A History.

Evergreen State College. 2005. [13 Oct 2013]

Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: Laurel, 1923.

Offen, K. "A brief history of marriage." Economica. [13 Oct 2013]

Weissman, Jordan. "The over-hyped rise of the stay-at-home dad." The Atlantic. 3 Sept 2013.

[13 Oct 2013]

York, Anne. "Why men should share equally in housework." CNN. 8 Apr 2013.

[13 Oct 2013]… [read more]

Institution of Marriage Essay

… " (Chopin, p. 1)

In this description, we can see that it is not the nature of her marriage but the nature of marriage itself that she had objected to. Further, we can presume that she did not recognize this objection in herself until the moment she was informed of her husband's passing. That the report was incorrect is rather irrelevant in the moment of realization given the rapid sequence that takes the women from grief to internal celebration. What is far more relevant is the emergent understanding the most women in this era complied with the pressure to become married and to live in compliment to another individual's desires and expectations even if this did not strike one as the most desirable or fitting course of life.

In this regard, Louise strikes the reader as a woman who feels that she has been given her own life back. With the death of her husband, she experienced a sense of the entitlement for self-determination. Even before marriage, the understanding that marriage was inherently necessary would have presented this character with an already defined future. Based on the societal pressure for women to ultimately become married and have children, and based on the understanding that a woman lacked the right to extricate herself from a marriage through divorce during that time, death would truly be the only key to extrication from a binding union such as this. As such, even before her betrothal to the man believed to be dead, Louise will have had a future entirely laid out before her, predictable and routine to its core.

In those moments following the proclamation of her husband's death, the character experiences a sense that she had perhaps never felt. It was a feeling of excitement at the unknown, the unpredictable and the things that she would yet see, feel and experience. According to Chopin, the death of her husband did not put an end to her future but stimulating a whole new imagination regarding what this future could be. Chopin tells that "her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her. Spring days, and summer days, and all sorts of days that would be her own. She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be long."

With each bit of subtext, the author reveals yet a bit further just how unhappy and trapped this young woman must have felt in her marriage. The text by Toth goes on to suggest, the author's own personal experiences would inform the text. Her household was defined by the death of her father and by, according to Toth, the strong women that would ultimately raise her. (p. 11) This context would give Chopin an especially useful perspective on the patriarchy that she observed around her.


Ultimately, what stands out about the author's personal orientation, and that of the Louise character, is the view that a woman left to… [read more]

Life in a Family Essay

… For Lee's mother, however, she is a woman, whose life is guided by the love of her children,

Many of her decisions are being made on the basis of how it would affect her children. For example, the writer says that it was only six weeks later when his parents came to visit him at school that he realized he had started growing distant with his mother. This, when put in the context that it was his mother who let him go to boarding school in the first place, shows that his mother sacrificed her relationship with Lee so he could get educated.

On the other hand, Didian does not exude characteristics of sacrifice, but she is protective of her child, she fears that the world she knew will not be the same for her daughter. She views her child as fragile and untested; however, she would offer her daughter a little of life as she describes the child as open and trusting a child who is unaccustomed to the surprises of life. The writer views her child as unable to face the various 'ambushes' of life and, therefore, needs protection. She is willing to sacrifice for her child as she says, "I would like to give her more." She looks then ready and willing to sacrifice and make sure that her daughter gets the best life (Lee 1-6).

In Coming Home again, Lee's mother is portrayed as the dedicated person in the family. In days before she became sick, she was a dedicated wife and mother, she used to prepare dinner for the family and manage the entire household. In fact, the writer says that her mother was in the traditional sense, the launderer, maid, driver, disciplinarian, accountant and the cook. Lee's mother undertakes numerous roles and responsibilities around the house. This is contrasted in On Going Home where the writer, Didion comes across as a somewhat lazy mother. She easily slips into a life of complacency, doing nothing the whole day and does not like being told to do anything (Lee 1-6). This is evident when the writer tells that she came to fear the evening calls her husband made to her, not because of the remote stories he would give but because he would chastise her to do something or go somewhere. The writer has no apparent will to do anything and is seemingly lazy. The two stories bring into focus the various issues surrounding how the various family members interact as a unit. The lives of the players revolve mainly around the unit of family and family life and activities.

Works Cited

Lee, Chang-rae. "Coming home again." What a son remembers when all that is left are memories, (2006): 1-6. Print

Didion, Joan. "On Going Home." Beacon Book…… [read more]

Depiction of Marriage in Films Essay

… Marriage in Movies

Marriage in the Movies

In Jean Luc Godard's Contempt, marriage is depicted as a relationship in which all sense of meaning and purpose has been emptied out. Brigitte Bardot plays Camille, wife of Paul, a playwright. Though they still converse and live together, an estrangement has crept into their marriage. They no longer seem to know one another or really care for the other.

Meanwhile, Paul's producer Prokosch, played by Jack Palance, takes an interest in Camille and goes out of his way to be alone with her. When Paul does not try to assert his rights, Camille takes offense. She clearly wants to be fought for -- but Paul is so dejected by the environment in which he finds himself that it is impossible for him to really fight for anything, especially a wife who fails to inspire him.

The emotional vulnerabilities of marriage as depicted in the film are clear: husband and wife drift apart into meaninglessness; they have no higher vision; they are trapped in a menial existence in which sensuality and materialism are everything. The economic vulnerabilities are less clear but are hinted at: Paul must earn his wages somehow, and if he must write tedious work for the movies, then so be it: but the work does not truly stimulate him and his marriage may suffer for it as a result. The social vulnerabilities are evident in the fatalism which the film projects: any joy that the married couple may have had is never to return; the society around them is crippling force and they are speeding towards death on an unstoppable course.

Marriage in Contempt is not ridiculed. Far from it -- what is inspected is the state of married life in the modern world; there is little sense of its true meaning and purpose, and therefore little hope of marital success.

In Derek Cianfrance's Blue Valentine, marriage is depicted in a similar way. There is little sense in the film of any meaning or purpose. There is, instead, a clear longing on the part of the main characters, Dean (played by Ryan Gosling) and Cindy (played by Michelle Williams). Both characters long for love and support, but they rush into marriage because Cindy is pregnant and Dean wants to help support her.

However, Dean tends to drink and Cindy wants him to have more ambition. He is happy painting houses and doesn't want to do anything else. All he asks for is a little consideration. When he doesn't get it, he becomes angry -- to the point of causing a scene at her work, which causes her to lose her job.

The emotional vulnerabilities of the marriage in this film center on the unstable nature of the relationship. Neither Dean nor Cindy really connect with one another. They met at a time when both were in a state of emotional need. They fulfilled that need…… [read more]

Is Marriage Beneficial to People's Lives? Essay

… Marriage Happiness

Is Marriage Beneficial to People's Lives?

Are married people happier than unmarried people? Discuss the research on this, and whether the data show that getting married can increase happiness levels in the short or long-term.

The effect of marriage on an individual's happiness is difficult to study. It is not sufficient simply to compare people who are married to people who are not. If the currently-married people differ from the other people -- in happiness, for example -- we cannot conclude that they are different because they are married; people who are married and people who are not married may differ in all sorts of other ways (such as financial resources or experiences of stigma -- getting stereotyped, excluded, or discriminated against), and it may be those ways, rather than marriage, that accounts for any differences in happiness (DePaulo, 2013). Furthermore, some studies have tried to compare samples that were married with others that were never married, which is problematic as well.

Most of the research tends to agree that there is a period in which married people are clearly happier which is the honeymoon period or the short period just after the couple exchanges vows (Conger, N.d.). However this seems to be the least debatable phenomenon in the relationship while other periods of marriage have mixed research results. Some studies seem to suggest that marriage stabilize happiness in the long-term, others show no correlation between marriage and happiness, and still others suggest that married people are generally less happy which is represented by the high divorce rate.

2. Does marriage impact men and women differently in terms of various measures of well-being (e.g., happiness, economic security, health outcomes)? Discuss some of the research findings on this, and the implications of these findings.

Marriage does have different implications for men and women in regard to different measures of well-being. For example, women who marry later are less likely to get divorced and earn more, on average, than their earlier-marrying counterparts (Matthews, 2013). Furthermore, women who are married seem to earn more than women who are unwed on average; however this trend is more significant with women who have gone further with their education. However, marriage does not seem to have a correlation with men and their earning potential throughout their careers. In general, married people are healthier than those who are not married across a wide array of health outcomes however the existence of an association between marriage and health does not necessarily imply that marriage causes better outcomes because people who marry may already be healthier than those who do not, and this may be the reason for the better health of married adults (Wood, Goesling, & Avellar, 2007).

The implications…… [read more]

Marriage and Courtship in Modern Essay

… In this story, Mr. Fan is representative of all males in Asian countries, China in particular. The women are so determined to have any suitable person marry their daughters that they literally offer up one and then the other when… [read more]

Family Health History Essay

… Family Health History

It is important to note from the onset that although I came to the U.S. approximately 17 years ago, my parents have been residing in this country for over 35 years. Being of African descent, the West… [read more]

Family Therapy Term Paper

… ¶ … Parent Trap 1 and 2" is a movie that depicts a family that would benefit from family counseling. Using Bowen's Family Systems Therapy and McGoldric's Ethnicity and Family Therapy, the following essay outlines the cultural and social contributors… [read more]

Family I Grew Up Term Paper

… I could never put my parents in a nursing home where strangers took care of them.

I am a single woman now, but I have been married before. Even though the first marriage did not work out, I hope to meet a person that makes a good partner for me during my life. My upbringing taught me to be strong within myself, and not rely on a man for anything. However, I also have traditional values in the sense of wanting a happy family and home life. I intend to have my own children one day, and will pass on the healthy values that I learned from my parents. My mother was a good role model for someone who can balance a good career with a happy family life.

My parents taught my sister and me that gender does not present any significant limitations. The society might treat women differently from men, but that does not mean women cannot serve as professionals in the same capacity as men. I was surrounded by powerful women during my childhood, including my mother, my aunt, and my grandmother. My mother and father both enjoyed equal success in their careers.

Our culture teaches that working hard is the key to success, and achievement comes from personal responsibility and sacrifice. We learn to respect those who are our superiors, because they have experience and wisdom that we want to achieve. It is important to have patience, because no one achieves their dreams overnight. As I pursue my career, I remember what I learned during my childhood. The lessons related to teamwork and collaboration within the community showed me that I want to contribute to the world rather than achieve goals for selfish reasons. Being a nurse means that I need to balance my personal and professional lives, as I will be taking care of other people. Taking care of myself at the same time can be a challenge, but I have had a strong family background and upbringing that have taught me the lessons I need to know to achieve success.… [read more]

Family Therapy Term Paper

… Family Therapy

Family establishment and sustainability are a multifaceted endeavour that has immense explanations and perceptions in the world. Many families in the society have diversity in management, care, materialization of existence, and continuum of productivity and success. The existence… [read more]

Family Traditions Essay

… " This voice is reflecting back on the people who came before her and in comparing herself to those ancestors she finds herself lacking. Her grandmothers were able to use their muscles and work in the land. They were physically strong and by extension mentally strong because they were able to perform these labors in order to support their families without giving way to despair over their own retarded ambitions. Unlike her grandmothers, this narrator does not believe she is living wholly. The scents and sounds she equates with the grandmothers indicate lives that were fully lived. She however, laments that she is not strong like her grandmothers. It is unclear if she is despairing because she has not lived up to her potential, or if she is emotionally weak, but she looks upon herself as less than those who came before. This can be an important part of familial custom and tradition because it is common that if someone in your family was powerful or had achieved some level of success either in the home or in the larger world, the pressure will be upon you to match their success or indeed surpass them. It is clear that this narrator does not believe herself capable of this and has given up.

Unlike the other two narratives which deal with the pain of differentiating between traditional family customs and the individual, Heaney's work is focused on the happy combination of tradition and ambition. Seamus Heaney's poem "Digging" has a narrator who is watching his father from his window where he is writing while his father performs manual labor in the garden. The narrator's father gardens with his spade just as other members of their family did before them. They are a family of diggers, of men who work with their hands, until the narrator who is different. This narrator realizes that he is different from the men in his family in that he writes rather than labors manually, but he also relates to them because he says that he will use his pen to dig; that is to say, he will do his work with his pen but with the same skill and dedication as his forefathers. He shows that you can respect the traditions of his kinsmen without following directly in their footsteps. The narrator honors his family tradition by working hard rather than by doing precisely as they did.

The three different works show different perspectives on the conflict of heritage and individuality. The stronger a person's familial culture, the more pressure is upon the individual to agree with that culture and take part of it. Alice and Margaret Walker seem to think that the customs of the family must be taken up or else a person risks isolating themselves from the family. Heaney on the other hand believes that a person can embrace the virtues of the family while still obtaining their own individual identity.

Works Cited:

James, Missy & Alan P. Merickel. Reading Literature and Writing… [read more]

Sociology Families Are the Basic Social Groups Term Paper

… Sociology

Families are the basic social groups and central institutions that are united through bonds of kingship or marriage and are present in all societies. In other words a family is a group of people who are affiliated by affinity, consanguinity or co-residence .The family provides its members with protection, companionship, security and socialization. Since it is a unit of socialization the family is an object of analysis for sociologists of the family. In every society there is a difference of how the family is structured and the needs of the family. The main unit in some societies is a nuclear family with two adults and their children while in other units it is a subordinate part of an extended family lastly a third unit is a single parent family where children live with just one parent who is either unmarried, divorced, widowed and can be a mother or father. Over time the family has been argued as the basic building block of society. Just like other institutions in the dynamic world it has been faced with challenges; it is hence vulnerable and susceptible to change that is incited by internal and external factors. These changes can occur slowly or quickly and they affect the dynamics of a family and hence it should be explored in a more holistic approach and not a single discipline approach. The family like other institutions has its own sets of values, statuses, roles and remains a principal environment where an initial form of socialization takes place (Naveed, 2009).Many sociologists rely on different perspectives and theoretical models that explain social interactions and the way humans behave. Sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels and different perspectives. There are three dominant modes used by sociologists and these are functionalist perspective, conflict perspective and symbolic interaction perspective.

This paper will look at my family within the aspect of sociology putting into focus various concepts and theories in sociology. First when we look at my family on a symbolic interaction aspect we will consider some symbols that are portrayed in daily life upon which all human interaction and all human relationships are based on. First I come from a single-parent family raised by a mother who is divorced. From this perspective it is indicated that people behave differently according to how they interpret the meaning of the world. This interpretation however is dependent on how they perceive the different symbols and details of daily lives. It can be said that language is symbolic since they do not summon forth meaning on their own but symbolize what meaning is inferred. According to the symbolic interaction perspective relationship are built on symbolic interaction. People communicate through language which is a shared system of symbolic interaction. All social and cultural interactions are symbolic. Marriage is facilitated by symbolic interaction between persons. It is said that people with strong marriage are those with similar interpretations of symbolic interactions. It can be said that my mother and father read the world in an… [read more]

Religion and Same Sex Marriage Abortion Research Proposal

… Same Sex Marriage

The topic under investigation will be same-sex marriage. The idea of marriage is both a social and religious contract that is sanctioned by society as a valid contract and event. Depending on the particular society and culture, marriage combines the institution of family with intimate and sexual relationships, and the idea of the unit growing from this union. Traditionally, marriage has been with a man and a woman with the potential of having children, thus creating kinship ties to extend families. Historically, this was also an economic unit; families joined forces with land or property, or even joined nations together. In modern society, marriage signifies a commitment, even though the marriage rate has dropped 17% in the last decade, while the divorce rate prior to 5 years has dropped to 10% (Regnerus, 2012).

Part 2 -- Significance -- for centuries, marriage was both the main social and economic institution of American family life. Over the past few decades, though, marriage has weakened as the prime social institution of family life. There are a number of trends contributing to this: Americans are delaying marriage, living together prior to marriage or consistently, marrying at a much older age, or not at all, and even raising children in divergent environments. These trends in America have been going on in Europe for much longer, caused many say because of a cultural move away from conservative religion and faith-based ways of thinking (Popenoe, 2010).

The significance of allowing same-sex marriage is similar to that of the Civil Rights movement. For years, laws were in place with racial restrictions, now found unconstitutional and unnecessary. If the necessity of marriage no longer focuses on child bearing and rearing, then it becomes more of a civil issue that allows for stability and legal protection under the law. The definition of family is also evolving, as is the family structure itself, and clearly, many heterosexuals are opting not to have children, but to focus on their career and relationships. Opponents of same-sex marriage believe that…… [read more]

Television's Depiction of American Family Essay

… Being the years following the WWII and the cold war period, the television portrayed the American families as it did in a direct reflection of the political and cultural tempers of the time.

The trauma of the WWII and the harsh economic realities of the cold war encouraged the utopia that surrounded the television entertainment. This meant that programmers had to look for the least objectionable programming to help the viewers forget the harsh realities that surrounded them on the daily life and not necessarily reflect the reality in the society. The program sponsors were not much interested in the urban unrest, the Vietnam War, rebellious college generation and volatile community; hence the programmers pretended that nothing was going on until the 1970 where the ratings were geared more toward the new cultural tempers.


Ella Taylor, Prime-time Families: Television Culture in Postwar America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989).

Jenkins H, (n.d:27). The politics and Pleasure of Popular Culture.

George Lipsitz, 1990: Pp44). Time Passages: Colective Memory and American Popular Culture.

Taylor Ella, (1989). Prime Time families: Television Culture in Postwar America.…… [read more]

American Family in Television Entertainment Essay

… In The Beverly Hillbillies, for example, a backwoods, low-income family ended up striking it rich on oil and moving to a posh mansion in an expensive part of the country. They did not fit in with the culture, of course,… [read more]

Same Sex Marriage the Debate Case Study

… Advocates of some sex marriage argue that all of us should admit or agree that marriage is an intimate relationship between two people and to act in a manner to exclude those who believe in this that is same sex -- couples amounts to discrimination for this I can agree that they are correct if marriage purposefully is a union to protect an intimate pair-bond.

But they are surely wrong if and when the purpose of marriage is to protect, the inherently procreative relationship of opposite pair-bonding with purpose of procreation.

Therefore to include same sex couples as a marriage union it waters down the symbolism and protection of procreative relationship ruled out by marriage the pair bonding of opposite sex.Same sex -- marriage advocates may also argue that restricting marriage to opposite sex couples who do not or do not want to have children are to be excluded from marriage or to the worst .extend only couples who are fertile should be allowed to marry.

My argument however is that a union of people of opposite sex symbolizes the reproductive potential that exists at a general level between a man and a woman, even though this people don't get advocate for child bearing, their marriage does not go contrary to the general symbolism of marriage since the reproductive capacity of a man and a woman is assumed at a general level rather than in individual cases since the privacy of every individual must and should be respected.

All of us should recognize that the fundamental purpose of marriage is for the purpose of respect to the transmission of human life, the exclusion of same sex-couples from the institution of marriage is not related to the individual s sexuality (homosexual orientation ), or to them as individuals or their relationship s this exclusion is related to the fact that their union is not inherently procreative and if we join institulization and symbolism of marriage as a union that transmits life, therefore to do this we will eliminate this function as marriage.

All of us deserve to respect, exclusion of same sex couple really matters, if our primary goal of denying same sex- marriage is because we do not respect peoples sexuality is wrong, then this exclusion in my view from the perspective and respect for homosexuals and their relationship s is ethically wrong and amounts to discrimination.

But if the reason of exclusion is to keep the very natures, essence to protect the inherently procreative relationship then this exclusion is ethically acceptable and the refusal of such a kind is not discrimination...

In conclusion therefore our society needs to establish a cultural meaning to marriage, which symbolizes the moral values around the inherent procreative relationship between members of the opposite sex, because from this relationship is where children emanate for us to want to redefine marriage to include same sex couples we will not only affect the cultural meaning and function of marriage but damage the ability of this old… [read more]

Gender Roles Austen Essay

… All his wishes centered in domestic comfort and the quiet of private life" (Sense and Sensibility 14).


When Jane Austen was writing, marriage was much more than a contract between two people who love each other enough to want to spend their lives together. In fact, love neither might nor even have been a consideration. For women, marriage provided the only way of financial security.

Legally, married women had nothing to own, property and money belonged to their husbands. In families with sons, there was little complication about who inherited the wealth - the eldest son. Daughters had to be allocated a portion of the family's wealth (a dowry) but this was really for use as bargaining power in the marriage marketplace.

During Jane Austen's short life (she was born in 1775 and died in 1817), there were many important events and changes in society. The most obvious point to make about her life is that it bridged the 18th and the 19th centuries. As far as literary history is concerned, there was a gradual change in attitudes and philosophy which also spanned the two centuries, so that it is possible to recognize typical 18th century views reflected in books written in that century as well as views typical of the 19th century. Broadly speaking, the 18th century has been called 'The Age of Reason' - the age of sense when there was a belief in a 'right way' for the universe to work and in 'true' human behavior. The 19th century saw a gradual move away from 'reason' towards human instinct and feeling, so that it became known as 'The Age of Romanticism' with the emphasis on sensibility. The influence of this transition was broad-reaching affecting attitudes to art, architecture, music, philosophy as well as literature.

As you can see, in one very short scene the extremes of emotion are shown. Often these novels presented natural, unspoilt behavior against an ideal rural setting such as a very 'pretty' country cottage or a picturesque scene of pastures and trees. The novels were guilty of relying upon romantic cliches such as 'love at first sight' and quite unrealistic coincidences. Poverty was also admired as it brought people closer to their natural, uncorrupted origins. It would be difficult to justify such romantic views to the people who actually suffered genuine rural squalor during the reign of George III!

Jane Austen is obviously attacking the conventions of these novels - not so much as a comment upon the society of the time but for the dangerous emotional imbalance it encouraged. In a novel entitled Love and Friendship written several years earlier than Sense and Sensibility, Jane Austen clearly attack the cult of sentimentalism? On the surface, the characters in this earlier novel behave according to the sentimental formula - at one point the heroine Laura and her friend Sophie take turns to faint! However, the novel is clearly meant to be - -poking fun at the cult of sensibility and actually shows… [read more]

Structural Family Therapy Individuals Chapter

… The relationships themselves may need to be redefined, and sources of controversy explored and discussed: "Frozen conflicts have to be acknowledged and dealt with so that they can be solved -- and the natural road to growth reopened" (Colapinto 1982).

Colapinto's approach is divided into two parts. The first, described as the introduction of "joining techniques," might be described as the relationship between the therapist and the family (or couple). Much importance is placed on the strength of the therapeutic alliance, which is something the therapist must not only focus on in the initial stages of therapy, but throughout the therapeutic relationship. The more encompassing part of the approach is what Colapinto refers to as "techniques for disequilibration," which are the techniques that will be used in the process of effecting change. Enactment, boundary-making, reframing, and punctuation are all methods that can be used by the therapist who is working with adult children of alcoholics in helping them to change their perceptions of past relationship models to healthier, more positive paradigms on which to build the future.


Working with adult children of divorce presents definite challenges. Within the framework of structural family therapy, the approach is to see the ways in which social rules and regulations are transmitted from adults to children, who then grow up and carry on what they have seen modeled. If the blueprints for future relationships are flawed, the blueprints can be adjusted. As Minuchin et al. explained as early as 1967, "the family system is at a crossroads between society and the individual, transmitting social rules and regulations to the growing child and providing blueprints for his cognitive and emotional development."

If the road to healthy relationships seems daunting for adult children of divorce, there is some solace to be taken in the potential for success: family members working proactively to avoid mistakes of the past by revisiting them for the purpose of preparing themselves for different versions of these relationships in their own futures. Colapinto, in his own work with family structure, has commented that family therapy "presents some unique characteristics that make it a comparatively accessible and rewarding field of application" (1982). Intensity of emotion and the stress of dealing with negative feelings associated with dysfunctional events of the past may be a strong deterrent to successful therapy among other groups. For family members, however, these challenges are undertaken with more positive attitudes and a sense of commitment and continuity. To work with members of a new couple, there must be a focus on developing healthy and productive patterns to replace the learned patterns that they know to be flawed.


Colapinto, J. Structural family therapy. (1982). In A.M. Horne and M.M. Ohlsen (Eds.),

Family counseling and Therapy. Itasca, Illinois: F .E .Peacock.

Lappin, J. (1988). Family therapy: A structural approach. In R. Dorfman (Ed.), Paradigms of Clinical Social Work. New York: Brunner Mazel.

Minuchin, S. Structural family therapy. (1972). In G. Caplan (Ed.), American handbook of psy chiatry (Vol. 2). New… [read more]

Happy Family Happy Families Research Paper

… The first and the foremost important thing in this regard is the planning of actions that are to be taken in a particular situation. In any unfavorable situation, family members should sit together and plan for their future with mutual understanding and beliefs.

If one family member is in trouble, all others should give him hope and confidence. To be a happy family, the problem of one member should be the problem of all. It reduces the worries of that member and gives him encouragement to fight against the bitter circumstances. All family members should learn from the hard times they face in their life. It helps them become stronger and more vigilant than before (Vowell, 2000).

Factors that spoil the Family Happiness:

The most significant factors which spoil the happiness in a family are the lack of respect, care, and compromise. Family members should live together as one Unit where there is no hatred or mistrust for each other. The family happiness is also spoiled when its members tell a lie or try to deceive other people in the family. Moreover, making strong arguments to win against others' point-of-view or criticizing their actions is also dangerous for family happiness. Some families also lost happiness when their members fail to resolve their issues and conflicts in a polite and friendly manner (Ricker, Calmes, & Sneyd, 2006).


Banks, R. (1986). My Mother's Memoirs, My Father's Lie, and Other True Stories. In M. Krasny and M.E. Sokolik (Eds.) Sound Ideas (pp. 173-179). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Haltzman, S. & DiGeronimo, T.F. (2009). The Secrets of Happy Families: Eight Keys to Building a Lifetime of Connection and Contentment. 1st Edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ricker, A., Calmes, R.E., & Sneyd, L.W. (2006). How Happy Families Happen: Six Steps to Bringing Emotional and Spiritual Health into Your Home. 1st Edition. Center City, Minn.: Hazelden.

Rodriguez, R. (1992). Nothing Last a Hundred Years. In M. Krasny and M.E. Sokolik (Eds.)

Sound Ideas (pp. 122-133). New York: McGraw-Hill

Vowell, S. (2000). Shooting Dad. In M.…… [read more]

Added for a Few Term Paper

… That means a lot about what might happen in the future as we hear of other successes. But it also cannot be forgotten that even in the most repressive of societies, gays and lesbians have reappeared after campaigns were waged to eliminate them (Hunter, 1994). This resiliency has the potential to be a very loud voice in its own right and will likely be heard more across the world as men and women are able to be freer in our interconnected world.

There are going to be some very intense public fights about whether one type of relationship should exist or not. There are likely also going to be a number of other debates as well about what types of parents are better than others, including whether biological parents are superior to artificially conceived or even socially selected families -- but it will have to be remember that the underlying fact will remain that these combinations will no longer be tied to whether people are heterosexual or not. These discussions and the scientific findings that will underlie them are going to be helpful to those looking to support families that come together through marriage (Random History, 2011). As a society we will be able to use technology to learn more about ourselves, but that does not necessarily mean that we will have to use that knowledge to undercut one type of family over another.

People who find comfort in their religious understandings may find this period of adjustment difficult. They will continue to try to ground their assumptions and values in what their god says or what they are told those sayings mean, but it is most likely going to be the case that greater sexual and gender equality is coming on many fronts. With large debates about income inequality and riots in many countries over economic unfairness, family injustices like being prejudice against gay and lesbian families will likely fall to the wayside. We know already that the freedom to be who one wants to be in this regard has not hurt our military and thus it likely will not hurt other assumptions or values either, including those about which type of marriage, gay or straight, is best.


Frank, N. (2010). What Does the Empirical Research Say about the Impact of Openly Gay Service on the Military? Palm Center. Retrievable from

Hunter, P. (1994). Homosexuality: The paradox of evolution. Retrievable at

Random History (2011). Same-Sex Unions throughout Time: A History of Gay Marriage. Retrievable at… [read more]

Marriage Contract Division of Household Labor Essay

… Marriage Contract

Division of Household Labor

It is hereby agreed by the parties that each will contribute an equal share toward household labor and related responsibilities. In that regard, those respective responsibilities shall be reduced (or increased, as the case may be) in proportionate relation to the financial contribution to the household financial support. More specifically, the degree to which each partner's household labor responsibilities is reduced by virtue of disproportionately higher financial contribution, the amount of time and effort required to earn that money will also be factored in so as not to deprive either party of appropriate benefit of contribution efforts in connection with longer hours at a lower paying job. Further, in assigning respective responsibilities, the parties shall first identify their respective most preferred and least preferred methods of contribution so that each can contribute as much as possible with as little inconvenience as possible.

Expectations for Paid Employment and Workload

The respective obligations of each partner to earn a financial wage will be determined by their relative abilities in that regard as well as by the financial needs of the household. If the circumstances cause the parties to agree that only one will earn an income, the other will assume full responsibility for other household obligations. In the event that the income from one partner is insufficient to support the household, the other partner will make a conscientious effort to find the highest paying work possible to contribute. In the event the financial contribution is unequal thereafter, the party contributing less shall be responsible for a proportionately higher share of other responsibilities pursuant to the preceding clause.

Sexual Responsibilities

It is hereby stipulated that neither party shall ever use sex for manipulative purposes, such as by withholding it strategically. Conversely, it is also hereby stipulated that neither party shall ever demand sex if the other partner indicates lack of current interest. Neither party will ever react in anger to polite rejection in recognition of the fact that their respective desires may not always coincide. Both partners are equally free to indulge in self-sex by any means desired provided it does not involve any other person. In that regard, it is hereby stipulated that self-sex is a normal healthy practice and is never to be taken as a rejection or shamed or discouraged.

Contraception Responsibilities

It is hereby stipulated that neither party will make any effort to conceive or not to conceive outside of the express understanding of the parties with respect to whether or not they desire to conceive at any particular time. The parties shall communicate their individual desires and come to a mutual agreement with respect to conception after which each party may choose the method of birth control desired provided it is one that is agreed to by the parties. In the event either party wishes the freedom not to be responsible for contraception, the parties shall take turns for that responsibility for different periods of time and shall adhere to whatever method… [read more]

Family Social Policy Term Paper

… What is wrong with Canada's family policy? One issue that is brought up by Susan McDaniel is that Canada has a "long-standing tendency to account for social problems in the manner least costly to the society" (McDaniel, 286). In other words, the problem is the family, not historical changes in Canada, or government policies, McDaniel believes, and so with that approach, Canada can pass the responsibility on to the family. Also, Canada's policies toward families are often based on "biases, myths, and misconceptions" about what a family really is or what it should be. A great deal of family research is conducted by men, which McDaniel asserts "…results in an incomplete picture of family"; and moreover, the research men conduct is on "traditional" families which implies that "non-traditional families are deficient, deviant, abnormal, or in the process of becoming traditional" (288-89).

As a social worker, one thing that concerns me is the obvious bias shown by the Director of Child Welfare when he reports that his department won't place a child with a "practicing gay or lesbian" (McDaniel, 289). A practicing gay or lesbian family? How condescending. Also, I am concerned with Canada's insistence on making the nuclear family (with the man as breadwinner) the "model"; that shows bias against female-headed households, which is quite common in African-American homes and in Aboriginal homes as well.

Works Cited

McDaniel, Susan A. (2007). Families, Feminism, and the State. In Power and Resistance.

Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing.…… [read more]

1234. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.