Study "Family / Dating / Marriage" Essays 111-165

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Seven Habits of Highly Effective Families Book Review

… ¶ … Habits of Highly Effective Families

It is a well-known fact that today; no family is free from everyday challenges. It therefore follows that there is an existing need for families to have a framework that applies self-evident and universal principles designed to enable members of the family to not only share their problems freely but to also resolve such problems amicably. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective Families, by Steven R. Covey is a timeless classic that seeks to offer precious lessons to families navigating these turbulent times.

This time round, Covey, with the same wisdom, precision and practicability that guided his international bestseller, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, trains his sights on one of society's main concern today- the family. By highlighting the well formulated seven habits, Covey is able to demonstrate that it is possible for families to have a creative mind-set that is well suited to approach challenges from a different angle. It can be noted that the habits Covey presents in The Seven Habits of Highly Effective Families are essentially re-interpreted from The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. However, in this case, Covey seeks to make these habits applicable to both family-life and parenting issues. In his submission, Covey is of the opinion that each family should have a mission statement. Further, he goes ahead to suggest that to effectively deal with every day challenges affecting the family, regular meetings between family members should be encouraged. But his most important proposal remains that individual family members should discard the "me" mentality and instead embrace the more inclusive "we" mentality. This in my own opinion remains one of the best ways of unifying a family in a way that promotes not only togetherness but also effectiveness.

One of the key themes of The Seven Habits of Highly Effective Families remains building a beautiful or wonderful family culture. To further highlight this theme, Covey uses an airplane metaphor where he argues that for any family experiencing major setbacks, problems or even difficulties; the key to recovering its bearing remains finding a "destination, a flight plan, and a compass" (Covey 10). Covey notes that in a way, for a family that is experiencing significant challenges, the idea of building a beautiful family culture can seem to be quite remote. To drive the point home, Covey has in mind a family that is economically constrained and which has members who "just pass one another like ships in the night" (Covey 11). However, according to the author, regardless of what a given family is going through, it is still possible for it to build a beautiful or wonderful family culture.

The Basic Concepts Highlighted in the Book

In one way or the other, the message Covey seeks to pass on in The Seven Habits of Highly Effective Families in not new in its entirety. However, though some of the concepts discussed in this book have been discussed in other forums, Covey's approach to the same remains… [read more]


Recent Socio Demographic Family Change Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Socio-Economic Changes in the Institution of Marriage

Because marriage touches upon so many emotional issues on a personal level, it is a particularly 'hot' topic of social controversy. However, much as it is tempting to believe that marriage as we know it has always existed in its current form, this is not the case. Cohabitation, according to Kathleen Kieman's study of European marital and cohabitation habits, is a fairly long-standing institution and has existed covertly or overtly for centuries. Often, working-class couples would have what might today be called 'common law' marriages, or marriages in which they would live together as man and wife, but not be formally united (Kieman 2004: 67). Rates of cohabitation are difficult to measure in the past, given the social stigma attached to open, middle-class 'living together' during the first half of the 20th century. However, it is clear that amongst younger women and men, admitted cohabitation is on the rise, and has become a de facto gateway to marriage for many young people in Europe and the Americas. This new trend towards open, as opposed to covert cohabitation, is changing the way that courtship, coupledom, and child-bearing are viewed across the world.

Views of cohabitation still do vary considerably from culture to culture -- in Southern Europe, marriage is the preferred route of entry into partnership, while in the U.S. And Northern Europe, cohabitation is more common (Kieman 2004: 67). In Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands, cohabitation is even more common than in the Unites States; in Greece and Portugal, marriage is more common than in Italy and Spain (Kieman 2004: 73). However, some trends are cross-cultural -- Greece was the only nation with an out-of-wedlock birth rate of less than 10%, given the extent to which the practice of cohabitation has become normalized.

Along the same lines of Kieman's, Judith Seltzer's study of cohabitation in the modern world likewise stresses how socially 'shaped' and contextual perspectives upon the practice have changed over time, gradually normalizing how cohabitation is viewed. She too sees a trend towards acceptance, although not a universally welcoming one. For example, within Latin America, cohabitating couples and out-of-wedlock births have formal, legal rights, while in the U.S., legal structures still show a strong preference for marriage. But even when there is less social and legal approval, overall, internationally, there is a trend in favor of the escalation of out-of-wedlock births. These behaviors are less and less considered 'deviant' trends and it is accepted that not every couple will naturally proceed from their parent's homes to marriage, with no experimentation.

In the modern world, marriage itself is not seen as a permanent institution, as the ability to sever it through legal means -- divorce -- is no longer seen as a shameful practice to be avoided, but something undertaken when necessary, simply when a couple does not get along (Seltzer 2000: 1249). Younger adults frequently say that they would advise cohabitation as a practice to a friend contemplating marriage,… [read more]


Emma the Marriages Book Report

… Frank Churchill and Jane Fairfax

Frank and Jane's marriage is again one of mixed social standing. Frank must keep his engagement to the orphan Jane Fairfax secret because his wealthy aunt would disapprove. Jane, in the absence of a good match, is forced to consider taking the position of a governess. Frank could not announce his intentions until after his aunt, who had raised him as a son had passed away because he the loss of his inheritance. When Frank is called back Enscombe because his aunt is ill, Emma experiences "This sensation of listlessness, weariness, stupidity, this disinclination to sit down and employ myself, this feeling of everything's being dull and insipid about the house! I must be in love" (230). But Frank is not in love with her.

His marriage to Jane is based on reciprocal feelings, and though they were forces to hide their true feelings in the end they came together.

George Knightley and Emma Woodhouse

The match between Emma and George is a good one from the stand point that not only are they well matched in temperament but also they are well matched in social class. There love grew out of friendship. Upon reflection "She saw that there had never been a time when she did not consider Mr. Knightley infinitely superior, or when his regard for her had not been infinitely most dear" (363).

Of all the unions examined we are allowed to see their affection grow and the degree of emotional attachment and love is strongest.

Conclusion

This novel revolves around a number of marriages and in each case the participants are identified by social status. At the time this novel was written social status was determined by a number of factors including family background, reputation, and wealth. Marriage was a method of raising ones social status.

The degree of emotional attachment and love varies with each union in the novel. In the marriage of Mr. And Mrs. Elton he married to raise his social status. In the marriage of Harriet and Robert both were from a lower social status, while in the case of Frank and Jane the marriage raised her social status. Given the different motives and circumstances that drove each couple together only adds more meaning to Emma's observation that "I suppose there must be a hundred ways of being in love" (43).

Works Cited

Austen,…… [read more]


Marriage - After the Ritual Research Paper

… Overall, marriage is something that can be far different depending on culture, religious beliefs, age, ethnicity, intelligence and education levels, and upbringing (Edge & Corrywright, 2011). Each person who is part of a couple that is married or that is considering marriage will generally find that there are differences of opinion between he or she and his or her partner. There are also differences between that person and other people who are in relationships. No two people are alike, even if they share many common traits. Beliefs about marriage can be related to many factors, and that is important to note. The reason that it is so significant is that there is not only one reason why individuals have problems in their marriages. The 11 reasons that were provided by Gornbein (2011) are all important concerns, but they are statements on which to expand, as well.

With both weddings and divorces becoming easier to get in many countries, individuals who want to get married can do so with very little fuss and bother. For example, in the United States it is possible to fly to Las Vegas, Nevada, go to a drive-thru chapel, and come away married. As long as you have valid identification and the money to pay for the license and the ceremony, as well as time to fill out the marriage license with the courthouse, you can have a wedding. That may be fun for couples to do, but what does it say about the sanctity of marriage? How does it encourage couples who are about to be married to take their vows as the serious, for-life event that they are supposed to be?

Barring people like Beck (2011), who have addiction problems that cause them to seek out relationship after relationship in unhealthy ways, it may be possible to restore the sanctity of marriage and the seriousness of the marriage vows in the hearts and minds of people who are already married or who are thinking about getting married. If couples take their vows and their wedding as seriously as they should, they will be more likely to remain married and work through any problems that they face instead of simply getting divorced. Currently, it seems as though more and more couples are getting married with the idea that they can simply get divorced if the marriage does not work out. That is, clearly, the wrong mindset for people to have when they are embarking on a journey and a partnership that is allegedly supposed to last for their entire lives.

While it is not possible to force people to take marriage more seriously, it is possible for society to move toward showcasing the seriousness and importance of marriage. The institution of marriage is taken very lightly in the movies and on TV shows, and also in Hollywood itself, where many people are married for only a year or two - sometimes less. They did not make a serious, deep-down commitment to one another if they… [read more]


Pro Nuclear Family Getting Started Many People Research Paper

… Pro Nuclear Family

Getting Started

Many people have strongly-held opinions about the importance of the traditional family model. Some point to the myriad social problems currently observed in the United States and cite the breakdown of the family as the root cause. It is as if one could magically turn back the clock back to the 1950s, when the family structure was solid and family values were strong. Others argue that the 1950s were not the ideal time that everyone likes to remember through the mists of nostalgia. There existed many social problems then, too, and many families that were far from Leave-It-To-Beaver perfection. There are non-traditional family models that are as strong, or even stronger, than what has long been considered the traditional model of father in the role of breadwinner, mother as a stay-at-home worker in charge of child-rearing and housekeeping.

In developing an argument in favor of non-traditional families, there are two strategies that can be taken from "Finding Arguments: Thinking Like a Writer." The first is freewriting, which goes beyond brainstorming and involves "writing freely, and without stopping, whatever thoughts and ideas you have about your subject" (Goshgarian, Krueger and Minc 68). As opposed to brainstorming, when one just writes words or phrases, freewriting allows the writer to develop a line of reasoning without the constraints of grammar and spelling. Without worrying about the end product, the writer can be fully engaged in the process of developing ideas. Freewriting can be done with paper and pencil, of course, but today's technology makes freewriting even easier. One can type…… [read more]


Stacy Unhitched Term Paper

… Stacey, Judith. Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western

China. New York: NYU Press, 2011.

Sociologist and NYU professor Judith Stacey's 2011 book Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western China is… [read more]


Changing Family Form Term Paper

… ¶ … Changing Family Form

AMERICAN FAMILY DECLINE

Popenoe (1993:529) argues that the American family, which he defines as "a relatively small domestic group of kin…consisting of at least one adult and one dependent person" has been in decline since… [read more]


Personality Matching on Online Dating Websites Term Paper

… Personality Matching on Online Dating Websites

Colloquial wisdom suggests that when it comes to mating "birds of a feather flock together"; however, common wisdom also suggests that "opposites attract." Which is it? Are people more likely to select romantic partners who are similar to them, or are more likely to select partners who are different, or complementary, personality traits?

Although many people like to think that their matches "are made in heaven," the harsh reality of meeting someone who is sufficiently compatible for a long-term relationship is far more complex. In some cases, opposites do in fact attract while in others, people with complementary personality traits may be more suited to each others. The key is what type of differences and similarities are involved. For instance, a nonsmoker may completely rule out a potential mate who smokes (or does drugs or drinks), and people of one faith may be disinclined to seek out a potential mate of another faith (Fox, 2009) just as some people of one race will not consider a potential mate from another race (Tsunokai, Kposowa & Adams, 2009). When the chemistry is right, though, even these major differences may be overcome by the power of love.

2.

Provide a brief overview of scientific research on online dating websites. Be sure to address each of the following questions:

A.

Are online dating profiles accurate? Or do people try to self-enhance? Just as many people seek to exaggerate their qualifications on resumes, it is reasonable to assume that many would-be suitors try to enhance their dating profiles on the personality tests that are used by online dating services such as eHarmony's so-called "29 Dimensions of Compatibility" which are grouped into four primary categories: (a) "Character and Constitution" (e.g., intellect and industry); (b) "Emotional Makeup and Skills" (e.g., communication and kindness); (c) "Personality" (e.g., sense of humor and energy); and (d) "Family and Values" (e.g., spirituality and feelings about children) (McDermott, 2005).

B.

What is the relationship between self-presentation (trying to impress) and online dating? In reality, many people who tend to exaggerate their qualifications in these categories may truthfully believe they are providing accurate information on these questionnaires. After all, everyone would like to think they are "special" and this is likely reflected in the answers to the personality tests used by online match-making services. In some cases, people may feel they are placing themselves at a competitive disadvantage if they do not exaggerate their attributes. In…… [read more]


Generational Differences in Family Formation and Behavior Interview

… Generational Differences in Family Formation and Behavior

Family formation and attitudes toward it have, over generations, evolved to include historical, technological, cultural or structural changes that have occurred in these years. It is inevitable, then, that generational differences in terms… [read more]


Family Intervention Essay

… ¶ … United States is characterized as a nation of immigrants. Culturally, the United States is in somewhat of a conundrum regarding immigration. As a nation, we know that the types of jobs many immigrants take (cooking or dish washing… [read more]


Non-Traditional Families Gay Couples Grandparents Raising Children Adoptive Thesis

… Non-Traditional Family Structure

So-called "non-traditional" families are more common in contemporary American society than so-called "traditional" families, making them the new traditional family. Since most American marriages end in divorce, there is no reason to presume that the traditional family structure is necessarily more beneficial to children. The health, stability, and absence of dysfunction and emotional trauma in the family is much more important in that regard than the superficial structure or makeup of the family.

Prior to the late 20th century, the predominant family structure in the United States was a nuclear family consisting of a married husband and wife and their children (Healey, 2008; Macionis, 2007). Married women rarely worked outside the home, especially before World War II, and divorce was not an option for many women in unhappy marriages. During the last quarter of the 20th century, women became a much more important part of the American workforce and much more independent in general. Nowadays, approximately sixty percent of American marriages end in divorce; gay marriage is on the verge of social acceptance; and single parenthood is no longer the exception but the rule. As a result, more American families are one-parent families or same-sex couple families than the traditional nuclear family consisting of a married mother and father and their children (Healey, 2008; Henslin, 2005).

There may be good reason to expect that children living in non-traditional families may be happier and healthier in some respects than children living in many traditional families. That would likely be true with respect to those traditional families in which unhappily married parents remain together instead of getting a divorce. This issue is potentially significant precisely because…… [read more]


Shawl by Louise Erdrich Marriages Research Paper

… ¶ … SHAWL by Louise Erdrich

Marriages over the years have come to be defined as a union between a man and woman. Similarly based on this definition, we have a sense of family, endorsed by the society in general.… [read more]


How to Build a Successful Relationship and Marriage Essay

… ¶ … Build a Successful Relationship and Marriage

Every relationship, whether it is a marriage or just a friendship, can at one point in time or another develop conflict. Workshops and practical exercises are good way for people to build more successful relationships in spite of the conflict. The workshop enables one to rapidly appreciate how their relationship works, and offers them with the tools they need to fix relationship conflict. People often find their marriage relationship improved and strengthened if they persist to work on their communication skills through courses and workshops. There are many occasions for married couples to improve their marriage relationship through marriage retreats, workshops, and other educational programs.

Research has shown that on average, couples wait almost six years from the first signs of trouble before they get help. Marriage workshops are intended to strengthen a marriage or relationship. If a couple already has a strong relationship, these workshops can provide them with approaches and tools in order to make it a great one. If one's relationship is troubled, these workshops provide a road map for repair.

As marriage problems cultivate, communication and cooperation breakdown. Sustaining a supportive marriage partnership requires advanced skills. No matter how much two people love each other and how well matched they may be the scheme of living life as a married couple can be demanding. Hard shared decisions, stresses, and aggravated concerns in a marriage can steadily decay a couple's original love. Without adequate communication and conflict resolution abilities, couples end up squabbling, fighting, or giving up to keep the peace.

Marriage is often very tough. Two people, joined together, but from time to time feeling like enemies. Many times, couples find themselves frequently hurting each other, missing each other needs, and leaving each other annoyed, angry, and weary, unfilled, worn out,…… [read more]


Problems With Modern Marriage With Adult Children of Divorce Introduction

… ¶ … Marriage With Adult Children of Divorce

Divorce refers to the legal dissolution of a marital bond between two individuals based on a variety of reasons. The husband and wife are free from any obligations over each other following… [read more]


Growth Behind Online Dating Research Proposal

… Growth Behind Online Dating

Team Building Case Study

The Online Dating Industry Growth

The following pages focus on designing a research proposal that intends to address the subject of the online dating industry growth. The importance of the subject is… [read more]


Development of the Marital Relationship Research Paper

… ¶ … Marital Relationship

Throughout the development of the marital relationship, a couple is poised to experience numerous changes, stresses, and stages as they journey through life together. From the time the first glance is given, to the time the… [read more]


Families, Delinquency and Crime Term Paper

… With Germany, the economic constraints do not exist, and this has allowed, among other things, the development of less traditional forms of family, including those of gay and lesbians. Without the economic constraints, the family can develop into different directions… [read more]


Families in a Global Context: Australia Thesis

… Families in a Global Context: Australia and Swaziland

The modern family is in a process of change and transition, with some experts predicting the demise of the traditional family structure. Globalization and the economic interconnectedness of all countries are exerting… [read more]


Families in a Global Context Women Term Paper

… Families in a Global Context

Women as the Architects of Family Life in Sudan and the United Kingdom

In today's globalized world, far more than just politics and economics shapes the international community. Instead, society is made up of families,… [read more]


Ethnic Families I Interviewed Term Paper

… Her mother wanted her to have more, and still asks her for more grandchildren. My subject is raising her children as "American," and is not sharing much of their cultural heritage with them, largely because that is how she grew up. She was not very interested in her mother's tales of the "old country," and she wanted to fit in and act as American as possible, especially in her early educational years. She does recognize that she has missed out on some of the things that are extremely important to her mother and her mother's friends, and as she gets older, she has begun to question her mother more about her memories and traditions, and may begin to pass at least some of those on to her own children. She considers herself an American first, but is becoming more interested in learning more about her culture and heritage.

My own cultural background is far different. Growing up in a white household, I did not face many of the things that my subject faced, and I just took being American for granted. My parents did not have any cultural heritage to pass down to me, and I did not think of myself as anything other than a "regular" kid, just like almost all the others. I did not know what it was to be different or unusual. I think that growing up in an ethnic family makes the entire experience different and more challenging, and my interview showed me that it made life a lot more difficult. It also made me a bit sad that my subject was not more interested in her own culture, and that it did not seem that important to her. Some of my questions seemed to make her stop and think, and I think she may have had a different idea about some of her thoughts on culture and heritage after we talked together.

References

Barefoot, J.A. (2001). Melting pot or salad bowl? ABA Banking Journal, 93(9), 85.

Herr, R.S. (2004). A third world feminist defense of multiculturalism. Social Theory and Practice, 30(1), 73+.

Meyers, M.K., & Jordan, L.P. (2006). Choice and accommodation in parental child care decisions. Community Development: Journal of…… [read more]


How to Make a Marriage Work Essay

… ¶ … Marriage Work

According to commonly cited statistics, at least half of all marriages end in divorce in the U.S., the average length of marriage is approximately 7-8 years, and sexual infidelity issues affect more marriages than not. Even… [read more]


Marriage Fail for Lack of Communication Thesis

… Gay/Lesbian Studies - Marriage Issues

THE IMPORTANCE of COMMUNICATION in SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE

Characterization of the issue

Outline of the research area

Outline of the expected research findings

History, Background Information, and Definitions

Background of prior research

Definitions of key concepts… [read more]


Non-Traditional Families in the United States Thesis

… Sociology

Family Relations: The Role of Non-Traditional Families

The family is central to human culture, yet the family, like so much else in modern society is changing. In times past, the family could be easily defined. It consisted of a… [read more]


Family Dynamics Research Proposal

… Family Values in Antigone, And Oedipus, The Aeneid

Ancient literature often provides an insightful glimpse into life that gives a description about mankind. Many times that story is not far from the stories we experience today. We hear the phrase… [read more]


Dating Before and After the Internet Thesis

… Online Dating

Collecting

There are two sides to every coin, and likewise, synonymous to a coin with two sides, online dating has its pros and cons. The question therefore, which weigh more, the advantages or the disadvantages. Let us probe… [read more]


Cross Border Marriage Term Paper

… CROSS-BORDER MARRIAGES BETWEEN HONG-KONG and MAINLAND CHINA: AN INVESTIGATION of the RATIONALE & CULTURAL, SOCIOECONOMIC and GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS of CROSS-BORDER MARRIAGES

The following study will research and examine cross-border marriages in the country of China to mainland Hong Kong, which… [read more]


Dissolution of Marriage in "The Awakening" Marriages Term Paper

… ¶ … Dissolution of Marriage in "The Awakening"

Marriages fall apart for thousands of reasons. In Kate Chopin's story, "The Awakening," we see some very basic reasons for why marriages break down. Edna becomes an individual that women from around the world can learn from because she represents the independet woman in search of herself. There ae several forces at work that add to the breakdown of Edna's marriage. Edna's husband and their marriage itself are partially responsible for the dissolution of the marriage. Edna was simply not the marrying type. Edna's family and the pressure they place upon her is also a cause in the ending of her marriage. Other factors are the relationship that Edna has with other men while she is married. Edna's state of mind is perhaps the largest contributor to her marriage failing. Edna has too many negative forces encroaching on her and, with no way out, her marriage fails completely.

The first and foremost reason that Edna's marriage falls apart is the marriage itself. Mr. Pontellier is an abrasive and unsympathetic man. Instead of seeing her saddened state as one in which he could help Edna, he makes her feel worse than she already does. For example, he reproaches Edna for her "habitual neglect" (Chopin 7) of their children. He would rather make her feel inadequate than offer a helping hand and he belittles her when he asks, "If it was not a mother's place to look after children, whose on earth was it?" (Chopin 7). We know that such remarks are not out of the ordinary when we read, "Such experiences as the foregoing were not uncommon in her married life" (8). In addition, Mr. Pontellier does not like Edna having relationships outside their marriage. Edna's unhappy martial state forces her into a depression that cannot be overlooked as Edna feels an "indescribable oppression" that "filled her whole being with anguish" (8). Even if Edna was not discontent before, a husband such as Mr. Pontellier would certainly make her that way before too long.

The state of Edna's marriage is significant for two reasons. First, she is married to a horrible man. Second, it would make no difference to whom Edna was married because she would never have been satisfied with the kind of life that society told her was rght for her. As a result, we cannot place the blame entirely on Mr. Pontellier. Some of the blame must go to the society in which Edna lived. Edna was not free in any respect and the expectations placed upon her were great considering that she was not the paternal type. Motherhood offers Edna nothing in the way of staisfaction. It is important to note this fact because even at the end of the story, Edna cannot stop herself with even the thought of her children. In fact, her children occur to her as "antagonists who had overcome her; who had overpowered and sought to drag her into the soul's slavery for the… [read more]


Inequality in Marriage in English Research Paper

… The general expectations of women in a society was that they should be submissive and have only weak opinions, that they would not attempt to impose on the others: "Women were expected to have weak opinions; but the great safeguard… [read more]


Divorce in Minority Families Term Paper

… Divorce in Minority Families

Divorce has been a hot topic as well as the effects that divorce has in various family dynamics especially across ethnic boundaries. However, Studies of divorce among ethnically heterogeneous couples was rare in 1996. (Jones, 1996)… [read more]


Marriage Term Paper

… Marriage is arguably one of the most poignant themes at the core of Jane Austen's novels. The plots of her most famous books generally revolve around the subject of marriage and lay emphasis especially on its tremendous importance in the… [read more]


Fighting for Your Marriage There Are Times Term Paper

… Fighting for Your Marriage

There are times in which a marriage is visibly struggling. Two married people can begin to diverge from each other and, subsequently, find that they no longer feel the depth of connection and commitment to each other that is necessary to maintaining a successful marriage. For many, as is clearly reflected in the divorce statistics of the past fifty years, the pressure to perform within a marriage, to compromise and to both lead and follow within the set structure of the bond is superceded by other influences. People feel less pressure overall, internally and externally, to stay with anything that is perceived as too challenging - careers change an average of 5 times over the course of the average working person's life, divorces happen with nearly 50% of all marriages, an increasing number of children are born to single mothers, and our general lack of commitment to anything is reflected in the ADD style (and success of) marketing that is so integral to our commercial culture. In short, loyalty is no longer touted as a virtue outside of strongly religious communities (who definitely have their own share of hypocrisy when it comes to that as well). What this all comes down to is a situation in which our very popular culture is fairly baiting us to be actively disloyal - it's cool to rebel. For authors Markman, Stanley and Blumberg, this situation is not one that should provoke despair, but one that requires an active fight. Fighting for your Marriage: Positive Steps for Preventing Divorce and Preserving a Lasting Love, is one of the many self-help books available and, on the surface, appears to be little different than its cousins at your local Borders. but, in this case, the difference is found rather quickly within: one, this is not a "fixit" book, it is a preventive; two, it focuses on the construction of the relationship in order to help it weather storms; three, it offers uncomplicated and relevant information that, upon reading, seems like obvious truisms but are ones that many couples fail utterly to live up to. This book is a strong reminder that there are people out there genuinely concerned about the problem of divorce and attempting to take a non-theistic approach to this seeming epidemic.

The book is divided into three sections: Handling Conflict, Dealing With Core Issues, and Enhancement. The authors, all Ph.D.'s, and all in the field of family therapy, psychology, and marital studies, have constructed each of these sections to assist a couple who is already doing well, or who is at least in the early enough stages of their marriage that creating patterns of behavior is relatively easier. "If you're currently happy together, you can use the PREP {Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program} approach to prevent [problematic] patterns from developing in the first place," (13). but, this begs the question - if this manual is aimed at helping already healthy couples prevent problems...what couple anticipates the problems that are… [read more]


Traditional Nuclear Family Has Transformed Profoundly Term Paper

… ¶ … traditional nuclear family has transformed profoundly in the past two decades. Increased access for women in the workplace has created a "dual-earner" family setting with both parents earning a steady income. As a result of the diversification of wage earners within the family, the question of how the traditional division of responsibilities has changed is a relevant area of study. The following analysis will examine precisely what has occurred within the traditional nuclear family.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 1960 forty five percent of American homes had married parents with children the age of eighteen and one primary wage earner. The same Census study in 2000 showed that this figure has dropped to fewer than twenty five percent. The dual earner mentality within most families means that the dynamics of household responsibilities have changed. Women, who were the traditional guardians of the home, do not have as much time to devote to maintaining family as previous generations. As a result, the responsibilities of household chores, care-taking of children, and other such responsibilities are duly split between both husband and wife. However, this division is not equal; the majority of household chores and domestic responsibilities are still considered the responsibility of women. Dr. Misrak Elias explains, "The responsibility of women has only increased due to increased work opportunities. Now they must find the time to balance both the responsibilities of nurturing family and maintaining career." (Liazos, npg). The traditional attitude towards family responsibilities has not changed as much as one would think with the dual-earner nature of most families. This change is not realized because women now have the double burden of trying to manage their public and private lives at the same time. A recent United Nations study on family responsibilities…… [read more]


Family Ecology Term Paper

… Family Ecology

The family is considered the basic unit of the society. It is where a person acquires his/her basic characteristics and habits. They say that the personality of an individual is very much affected by the family background. Since… [read more]


Traditional Family Models Term Paper

… ¶ … Family Crisis," Stephanie Cootz asserts, "If it is hard to find a satisfactory model of the traditional family, it is also hard to make global judgments about how families have changed and whether they are getting better or worse." (14) Yet, her work doesn't support this statement very well. Cootz provides an historical perspective of the family, making negative value judgments throughout her recounts of many earlier times. Yet, when she gets to the modern-day family of the late twentieth century her criticisms are few. She spends most of her time describing why things are just as good, if not better now, than they were in the 1950's. Most damningly, near the end of the chapter, she makes a recommendation for a problem of the twentieth century family that she had claimed just pages earlier didn't really exist. Still, her work is valuable because it does an excellent job of convincing the reader that there are a lot of myths about the traditional family, both historically and today, that simply aren't true. If Cootz had stuck to her initial statement that it's hard to compare the family at different times in history because of complex contextual factors, her work would have been more objective and, therefore, valuable.

Cootz states that people believe the appropriate function of today's family has somehow broken down and many desire a return to times long gone when they believe family values were much stronger. but, she believes that people's notions of earlier times are based on myths and that the true realities of these times wouldn't be as appealing. For example, some may see the strict patriarchal authority of colonial days as preferable to today's more egalitarian environments. but, they would be shocked to discover the sexual morality of that time was actually much more liberal than today's practices. Instead, one might lament that the Victorian era of the 1830's and 1840's is the better time for the family because this is when middle-class women were freed from time-consuming chores by the spread of textile mills. but, admirers might think twice when they learn that this freedom came at the expense of slaves and child laborers.

By the end of the nineteenth century, "Reformers advocated adoption of a "true American" family -- a restricted, exclusive nuclear unit in which women and children were divorced from the world of work." (13). In the 1920s and early 1930's, the independence and isolation of the nuclear family became a concern, but was later seen as resolved by the hardships of the Great Depress and the Second World War that ushered in a new kind of family ideal that took root in the 1950's. According to Coot, this ideal wasn't really better than any other time for the family throughout history.

Next, Cootz dispels myths about the family in the late twentieth century. Even though this is a time we are experiencing, we appear to be just as subject to embracing fallacies and myths about our present… [read more]


Decline in the American Family Values Term Paper

… Decline in the American Family Values

The decline of American family values

There are many studies which assert that there has been a strong and even radical decline in American family values since the 1950's. The following extract clearly outlines this concern.

Throughout most of Western history, until the 20th century, society as a whole strongly supported the family institution. It was the family's duty to instruct children in moral values, but it derived those values from church, from philosophers, from social traditions. Now most of these supports are weakened, or gone.

The American Family: Future Uncertain)

There are also many studies which attempt to find reasons for this situation. For example, the American Family Association (AFA) believes that one of the central factors in the decline of family values is the media and the entertainment industry. This point-of-view claims that the entertainment industry has "....has played a major role in the decline of those values on which our country was founded and which keep a society and its families strong and healthy." (the American Family Association). One aspect of this is, according to the article, the normalization and even endorsement of premarital sex during the last 25 years. This decline in values has led to "... A dramatic increase in teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS and abortion as a means of birth control." (the American Family Association)

The ideal of the American family as a close-knit and caring unit comprising father, mother and children was one of the positive social entities that emerged in the prosperous years after the Second World War. Many studies however suggest that there has been a subsequent and accelerating decline in the American family.

One of the main aspects leading to this decline is that the centrality and importance of marriage in society has also suffered a steady decline since the 1950's. "While still a central institution in American society, marriage plays a less dominant role than it once did." (the Emerging 21st Century American Family) This is supported by statistics which show that the proportion of adults who have never been married rose from 15% to 23% between 1972 and 1998. (the Emerging 21st Century American Family) There has also been a concomitant increase in the divorce rate. These aspects have all contributed to the changing values in the family.

For example, the values associated with different gender roles have changed as a result of the changes in the nature and structure of the family. The value system in the traditional nuclear family was dependent on gender role differentiation and responsibilities. These roles, which created certain values and norms associate with the sexes, were disturbed by social events such as the increasing participation of women in the workforce since 1950. This altered the responsibility structures and values attached to the concept of the mother as the 'homemaker'.

A traditional perspective in which women were occupied in the private sphere of life centering around running a home and raising a family… [read more]


Family Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Family

Prior to the introduction of the television show All in the Family in 1971, television was primarily just another form of entertainment that shied away from the real-world issues that might possibly offend viewers. All in the Family radically transformed the role of television to a form of study on society's views of race, ethnicity, gender and social class as well as a host of other previously taboo political issues such as gun control, homosexuality and rape. Even so, some debate whether or not the show really fostered a more positive view of diversity and multiculturalism. While some believe that comedy was not an appropriate means for addressing serious issues such as prejudice, All in the Family at least brought these issues out into the open for the very first time and paved the way for the future use of television to deal with the harsh realities of issues confronting society.

All in the Family's lead character was Archie Bunker, an uneducated blue-collar dock worker and an open racist who disliked virtually every minority group imaginable. He left practically no negative stereoptype unturned, referring to blacks as "jungle bunnies," "spades," or "niggers," Puerto Ricans as "spics," Chinese as "chinks," Jews as "hebes," Polish as "polacks" and homosexuals as "fags." To Archie, people who defended these minorities such as his daughter Gloria and his liberal son-in-law Michael was an outright "pinko," a derogatory term for a Communist sympathizer. In Archie's world, women were to be seen, not heard. As a response to his wife's opinions, Archie would frequently say, "Stifle yourself, you dingbat!" (Cited in St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture on All in the Family). Archie was not one to flaunt conservative social traditions. He frequently derided his daughter for marrying a "polack" and for supporting her unemployed husband while he attended school.

The Bunker's neighbors were George and Louise Jefferson and their son Lionel. George was just as much a racist and a bigot as Archie, illustrating that these characteristics are not just confined to the white community. George popularized the disparaging term "honky" for a white person. The son Lionel and his friends Gloria and Michael frequently railed against social injustice to the dismay and contempt of their fathers. Most of show centered on arguments between the younger members and Archie. These generational differences in opinions showed how the passage of time was beginning to transform society with younger people becoming more accepting of minority groups and developing different ideals for social roles. However, older Americans were having a hard time adapting to these new realities.

This very transformation was what was motivating Archie cling to the stereotypes that he believed defined certain social groups. Archie simply couldn't hide from the transformation of society that he feared and detested and he longed for a time past…… [read more]


Sociology and the Family Specific Topic Question Term Paper

… ¶ … Sociology and the family [...] specific topic question regarding a family with a gay son. The sociological issues facing the family are many and varied, just as the sociological issues of modern families are varied and always changing.… [read more]


Marriage Contract Term Paper

… Marriage Contract

Attitudes toward marriage in the younger generation have definitely changed over the last few decades. Though many young people are stating that marriage is important to them and that they will most likely choose at some point in their lifetime to get married, their hopes for these marriages to last a lifetime are very small. Mostly they feel that, even though the idea of lifelong commitment is ideal, it is a very difficult goal that very few will actually reach. The esteem they hold for couples who have remained together for lengthy periods of time is high, but they feel they are rare and that the chances of actually being one of those couples themselves is slim. Along with this sentiment is the growing acceptance of bearing children out of wedlock and the general opinion that single-parent households are just as acceptable as a traditional family. Trends also seem to indicate that most young people feel that divorce is quite easy in today's social and legal climate, and that there is likely little fight or effort to save a marriage, and far less agonizing over the social stigmas of divorce. Also, there is a growing sentiment that cohabitation before marriage, or instead of, marriage is not only acceptable but often the preferred course of events to insure that the marriage would be a happy one if the couple decided to move in that direction (Whitehead & Popenoe, 1999).

All of these opinions are in rather stark contrast to the opinions of the older generations. Not only were older generations expected and expecting to marry, but it was generally accepted that they would remain married for the course of their lives. This does not necessarily mean that they expected to be happy within those marriages, however, they simply believed very strongly in the vows they took during the wedding ceremony and there was simply no question whether they would or wouldn't weather the rough times with the good -- they simply stuck it out. Long courtships structured with extreme amounts of etiquette were observed and most of the older generation dated only a few people within their close community of church, school, neighborhood, and parents' friends' children. These long courtships did not include the option of cohabitation as it was viewed as very distasteful -- likely because of the strict opinions held about pre-marital sex. Also, many of the older generation still held strong traditional beliefs on securing parental approval prior to any engagement, and pregnancy out of wedlock was absolutely shameful. Single-parenting carried with it a heavy stigma that is born out of that same shame. Of course, single mothers were often nearly desperate to find a man to marry since working outside of the home was almost as bad as being a single mother in the first place.

As far as love itself goes, the most interesting thing to note about generational attitudes towards love is that very little has changed in the perception of love over… [read more]


Mate When Selecting Term Paper

… If Claire makes the immediate decision to marry Jim, she would probably be making a large mistake. She has been dating two people for almost a year's time, which indicates that she is not truly ready to make a commitment to either one. Therefore, what Claire should do is stop seeing Sam and continue to date Jim, in order to determine whether or not she and Jim have the wherewithal necessary to sustain a serious relationship. If she does so, she will be better able to make a serious and responsible choice about marriage. In that way, in five years, Claire could be celebrating a third anniversary and have a child with Jim. Although Claire's earning capacity is not shown, responsible financial planning should allow her some flexibility in her work situation. Together she and Jim will be able to expose their child to their shared interests and to provide their child with a warm and loving…… [read more]


Spousal Abuse and Its Impact on Family Members Term Paper

… ¶ … Spousal Abuse on Family Members

Spousal abuse or violence is a hidden but widespread phenomenon in society. Certain theories have attempted to explain it, its origin, how it occurs, its victim and its consequences. Several studies confirm that… [read more]


Marriages Arranged Term Paper

… On the other hand, most arranged marriages start off with fewer expectations which make it easier to build a relationship. It is also true that most people in arranged marriages do eventually fall in love as couples from those countries would testify. With love marriages the problem starts with each person wanting to stay in love as passionately throughout their time together. This is close to impossible because while love may stay and even grow stronger, it changes form. While it was once highly passionate and all about public displays, it may take a less aggressive form with the passage of time- and the couple might start doubting their feelings. However the truth of the matter is that even in this age or time, one can stay in love with one person for good provided both are willing to accept the fact that love will not always be about giving gifts, remembering each other's birthdays and kissing for no reason in a theme park.

References

1. Robert Epstein, Editor as a Guinea Pig: Psychology Today, http://cms.psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-20

2. PT Staff, The Love Project. Psychology Today, http://cms.psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-20.html… [read more]


Same Sex Marriage Haven Term Paper

… A BIOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE ON PARENTING

Alice S. Rossi describes that a shift has been seen in the societal opinion as far as family is concerned. This is seen to be true when one reads the "Australian De Facto Relationships Law" where it is observed that the Act includes property and inheritance laws of same sex couples. The New South Wales Act is aimed at going to extents where same sex couples can claim for financial maintenance and the dividing up of property. Although marriage law in Australia states that it is the "voluntary union of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others," this seems very closely related to the heterosexual marriage and in an indirect way it attests and recognizes the same sex couple as being in a bond of marriage. Thus Alice S. Rossi rightfully states that previously what was always referred to being deviant is today recognized and accepted as a variant. Herma Hill Kay, in her article "Private Choices and Public Policy: Confronting the Limitations of Marriage" states in clear expressive terms that man has tried to give himself all the rights and secure his concerns, thinking himself to be superior to the females. Alice however points out that the earlier Darwin theory of sexual selection had such an impact on the male population where they felt that "superiority evolved in the male line only." In essence her assessment is true and it can be seen from Herma Hill Kay's article that men try to talk and implement what they feel is beneficial to them and fail to understand the other's point-of-view. Antionette Blackwell has been referred to by Alice where she explains that Darwin and Spencer both were in error because "characteristics are transmitted equally to all descendants" whether it is a male or a female. However towards the end of her article, Alice explained that later views regarding the superiority of the white race were rejected and this can be seen where Herma Hill Kay states that America at once used to prohibit mixed racial marriages but today such laws have been abolished. Thus Alice is correct in her observation that ideas of white superiority have been abolished.

Alice explains in her article the importance of a bond between the mother and her child however in today's society, as Herma Hill Kay explains that today people are not concerned and they aim to legalize same sex marriages. Homosexual marriage between two males would have to do without a mother-child bond incase they do adopt. There little remains to the importance of the mother-child bond that Alice stresses upon. Similarly where Alice explains that in the past, mothers had an inclination towards their child and described the emotional conditions and feelings that a mother goes through when she takes a look at her baby are really dying out in today's society. Today where women are working to get a better economical standing, and fighting for same sex marriages, such emotional feelings are… [read more]


Marriage Implies Different Meanings Term Paper

… The wedding commonly takes place in the parish church of the bride's family. When a marriage is to take place between two Catholics having mixed rites, it will be the rite of the groom that decides the type of service to be used. The power to reassign rites from the groom's church to that of the bride stays with the Church. (Roman Catholic Traditions)

A Catholic annulment refers to the declaration of truth that a valid marriage never exists. Thus, it will not be considered as a Catholic divorce, because divorce considers at the moment that the relation broke down and comments that there was some relationship which existed and now we are putting a stop to it. As per the annulment process, from the initial start there was nothing which existed to consider this relationship as a marriage. The annulment does not denote that no love existed in the relationship and does not invalidate civil contract. On the other hand, the annulment process takes a spiritual view. As per Catholic Church, marriage is everlasting and is between one man and one woman. Hence, according to Catholic Church, law or civil government cannot break marriage. Hence, if a person wants to remarry, his previous marriage cannot be broken by a civil divorce. In this case, the Catholic Church examines, by means of the annulment process, whether an actual marriage, as defined by the Church, came into being. If they conclude, by examining the facts offered to the Tribunal, that no marriage came into being, then the parties are free to enter into marriage with any other person. (What is a Catholic annulment & why do I need one?)

A Catholic Church ceremony is carried out in two processes: the first part of the process being the main marriage ceremony wherein a religious union of husband and wife with readings, hymns, prayer and the legal and civil responsibilities are performed and the second part of the process involves sharing of Holy Communion wherein if both bride and groom are practicing Catholics. Usually, the priest's time is not charged in the Catholic Church. However, a cover of a small donation is frequently provided to the priest after the service. The flowers used to beautify the church are also left as a symbol of gratitude. (The Ceremony)

References

A Compilation of Customs and Traditions regarding Marriage. Retrieved from http://www.limarriages.com/customs.html Accessed on 30 July 2005

Before you marry. Retrieved from http://www.stjudeparish.com/growth/prep/marriage/default.asp Accessed on 30 July 2005

Marriage. Retrieved from http://www.vexen.co.uk/human/marriage.html

Accessed on 30 July 2005

Roman Catholic Traditions. Retrieved from http://www.weddingdetails.com/lore/catholic.cfm

Accessed on 30 July 2005

The Ceremony. Retrieved from http://www.countybride-bath.co.uk/etiquette/ceremony.php

Accessed on 30 July 2005

What is a Catholic annulment & why do I need one? Retrieved from http://www.ultimatewedding.com/articles/get.php?action=getarticle& articleid=571 Accessed on 30 July 2005… [read more]


Drama the Family Drama All Families Term Paper

… Drama

The Family Drama

All families are dysfunctional, one might say, after a cursory glance at most of the husband-wife couples and extended families of Western drama -- only some are more dysfunctional than others. The Helmers of "A Doll's House," and the Wrights of "Trifles" illustrate the dark side of the husband-wife dynamic, whereby two people joined in matrimony can live side by side in a perpetual state of mutual misunderstanding. Children are incidental to this state of misunderstanding. Rather the well-intentioned crime of fraud that is perpetuated by Nora in Ibsen's drama, and the frustration-propelled murder of the husband in "Trifles" are both the realistic result of the man's refusal to acknowledge the contribution of what his wife has given up for him in the context of her marriage.

Yet even the happier, more fully fleshed out family of the Wrights, of "Our Town" suggest that Emily, who dies young, might have been happier had she spread her wings more and left her town and the offered prospect of the marriage that results in her death from childbirth. The play's climax reveals how much families interact as a part of…… [read more]


Isolated Life of the Old Term Paper

… Most marriages were arranged, and by the Second Century, divorce was a legal practice. Girls were legally marred at twelve, and, as a wife, served a central role in the social life of the household. Motherhood was centered to the moral guidance of her children, and with a declining birthrate, the Roman government also instituted laws requiring parents to increase the number of their offspring. Because of the great infrastructure of the Roman Empire, and the collective urban life that defined most families, education consisted of less agricultural knowledge and more academic and political. Families were the basic unit of society, and not only important for maintaining the education value, they were the backbone of this most advanced political state.

In its reclamation of the old Roman ideas and similar life expectancy, it is not surprising that most states in Renaissance Europe allowed for the girl's legal marrying age to be twelve; her male counterpart could be married at ten. Regardless, Thomas Moore recommended that girls married at eighteen and boys four years later to ensure the adulthood and readiness of those future spouses. A contract between the families would solidify a marriage, and an exchange of dowry and jointure (cash settlement) was expected. Marriage was largely a perfunctory means of power acquisition or stability, ideally shown by the marriage of the royals, like Lord Darnly and Mary Queen of Scotts.

Children were viewed as property, and could be given to another master -- for example, they could be apprenticed to a professional and he, then, would be their owner. Wives too were property; society did not favorably allow for their trade. While Anglican England and other Protestant groups allowed for divorce, it was still viewed with question. A child born out of a family (as defined by having a father), legally called a bastard, was not entitled to own property at any point in time, marry, or hold offices, publicly or ecclesiastically. Children were expected to mimic their parents and learn not only useful skills and trades, but also the manners with which a civilized person would expect a young adult to be equipped; this included saying prayers, giving the presence of a devout lifestyle, rising early, and working hard. Family life was focused not only on the transmission of good morals and proper social norms from one adult to its offspring, but also harkened back to the Mesopotamian insistence on learning useful skills, in this case, the trades that would lead to the rapidly approaching…… [read more]


Marriage in Eastern and Western Term Paper

… In Malaysian societies, marriage is exclusively tied with the society's culture, specifically, religion. Weddings are conducted in order " ... To monitor the genealogical appropriateness of the marital pair ... thanks moyang (ancestors) for the past good year and ask for a good year to come" (Nowak, 2000). Inevitably, marriage is tied with mysticism and religious rituals, an activity that is devoid of any political influence. What makes Malaysian wedding rituals different from the American society's is that the latter conduct weddings not to focus on the celebrants or the bride and the groom, but on the ritual itself. This contradicts the American experience, wherein the bride and the groom (or the celebrants) are given central roles in the said activity, thereby resulting to a social activity borne out of the beliefs of people or individuals rather than social actors (people) emerging out of a social activity (wedding).

While American weddings reflect the dynamic process that marriage and domestic partnership undergo, and Malaysian societies demonstrate exclusivity in celebrating weddings in the context of the society's culture, Japanese wedding rituals are mainly identified as a hybrid form of modern and traditional cultures of the country. Japanese wedding rituals are also characterized as having a dynamic or ever-changing process of creating and developing marriage beliefs as well as the reinforcement of traditional practices and usage of material essentials needed in conducting weddings.

Japanese society is portrayed as a hybrid form of culture when it comes to marriage rituals because it has the character of both traditional and modern practices. Traditional practices often conducted are the usage of the traditional wedding attire, called "ju nihitoe" and setting up weddings in Shinto shrines (Goldstein-Gidoni, 2000:45; Coeyman, 2002). However, the prevalence of modern ideas on marriage is illustrated in the Japanese couples' practice of recognizing same-sex marriages, as well as acknowledgment of the fact that people can live together without going through the tedious process of arranging marriages according to tradition. At present, however, Western influence on marriage practices has a more powerful effect on the nature of Japanese weddings. Not only do weddings become modernized or 'Westernized,' they have also assumed the appearance of completely commercialized and practical marriages (Goldstein-Gidoni, 2000:50).

Given these nature of each society in the Asian and North American regions, it can be said that wedding rituals across Eastern and Western cultures have dynamicity. This ever-changing nature includes the continued development of new ideas and beliefs on marriage and domestic partnership, accompanied by an active advocacy among other cultures to preserve and perpetuate traditional wedding rituals. This active advocacy, as seen in Malaysian wedding practices, is considered as subsistence to exclusivity and traditional culture. The ever-changing nature of marriage practices, meanwhile, are apparent among the Americans and Japanese, wherein a fusion of ideas on new and old marriage beliefs integrate and persist themselves in the society, respectively. Thus, marriage assumes numerous facets that involve with it political and cultural norms established within a particular society.

Bibliography

Coeyman, M. (2002). "Western… [read more]


Rachel Year-Old Jewish Girl, Rachel Was Admitted Term Paper

… Rachel

year-old Jewish girl, Rachel was admitted to the ward after having a dosage of 10 panadol tablets last night. She told the a&E department that she wanted to be lonely and she wanted to die. Rachel was brought in… [read more]


Family Crucible Oftentimes, When Spouses Reaction Paper

… Problems are treated by changing the way the system works rather than trying to "fix" a specific member.

The most important aspect of this book is something that the late Whitaker stressed throughout his work. When families begin therapy, each of the members -- as human nature is inclined -- blames another. The family does not work as a unit or a system, but rather as separate entities like two sides of a magnet repelling each other. The therapy, through the therapist's interventions, encourages these separate beings to see themselves as part of a whole that will either support each other or bring everything tumbling down. At the beginning, each person has a specific role. Yet, as therapy moves forward, even the roles become fluid and interchangeable. Whitaker believes that as the family becomes healthier, the roles begin to be more flexible. People take turns acting as scapegoat, "mother," "father," "child," and so on. In addition, the level of involvement of each family member in the family becomes more flexible. Members become free to make distance when they choose, but without catastrophizing, so they are free to connect more deeply when they are ready.

The therapist is all important in this development. he/she must be involved enough to become "part of the family" so to speak, but still keep a distance. It is not something that every therapist is able to do. As he says:

The therapist must develop the kind of power necessary to invade the family and do battle with them. Simultaneously, he must develop the courage to be himself, and to share his own irrelevancies and free associations. He must expand his own person, thus modeling for the family their own growth.

For Whitaker, theory always had to take a back seat to the intuitions and personal strengths of the therapist him/herself: One must "care enough to get in and get involved, while retaining enough love of self to withstand the cultural mandate of sacrificing yourself to save the family." He always believed that remaining "tough" in the face of family pressures for him to join in their view of the world was as important as caring; he joked that therapists who got overly enmeshed in their clients' worldviews "needed a life."… [read more]


Arranged Marriages in India Term Paper

… With involvement of the society and the entire extended family, couples are under greater obligation to make their marriage work. Divorce is usually considered the last resort and is presented as an option only when they become unbearable and there appears no possibility of reconciliation. Unlike traditional American marriage, an arranged union in India has greater chance of surviving the trial and tribulations of early years of marriage because of the support of both families, and the entire social system, which is conducive to marriage than divorce.

REFERENCE

1) Vijay Gupta, Consensual Marriage: The Indian system of marriage has a superior India Currents; 2/28/1994;

2) Diwan, Paras. Family Law: Law of Marriage and Divorce in India. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 1983.

3) Prakasa, Rao. Marriage, The Family and Women in India. Printox: South Asia Books,1982.

4) Shuraydi, Muhammad Perceptions of arranged marriages by young Pakistani Muslim women living in a Western society *. Journal of Comparative Family Studies; 9/22/2002;

5) Kurian, George Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Mate-Selection and Marriage. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.…… [read more]


Shape of Marriage Term Paper

… Success in marriage means going through any obstacles smoothly. This depends on the two persons' responsibility to make a marriage work, and not just on 'love' as many may have perceived.

In the instances within the story, the gender role is constructed based on the cultural heritage of the characters. Like Mala, women in India are supposed to serve their husband and take care of their home and family. The cultural norms in the story, on the other hand, despite of living in another land, depend on the family heritage of the couple. This was apparent on the marriage of the couple that continued and lasted even though they already live in America where divorce is legal.

Bibliography

Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Third and Final Continent.

Dequinix.Com. 17 Nov. 2004.

http://www.dequinix.com/a/continent.php… [read more]


Marriage: This I Call Term Paper

… My definition of my abstract topic, marriage, is "an agreement between two individuals to share their emotional feelings." However, this definition cannot be accurate for some people because of the words "individuals," and "feelings." Why? Because first, some people misunderstand the actual meaning of the word "individuals." Second, some will think of marriage as a sexual exchange not an emotional exchange.

First, those who do not understand "individuals" are perhaps sharing their feelings with someone rather than their husband or wife. Thus according to my definition of marriage, they are in fact married with an "entity" that they are sharing their feeling with. For instance, I found some people talk to non-human objects such as pet about their problems and their emotions. Therefore, according to my definition, these people are married with these so called "entities," because they share emotions with them. That is the reason that I think some people misunderstand the actual meaning of the word "individuals." They do not understand the bond that marriage brings to two "individuals" to become one, with one purpose. A person can share their feeling with many people, and they can feel close emotional bonds with some people, but the bond of marriage is the strongest bond of love and trust. Individuals are two living things, and a person can share some things with just about any entity, but with their spouse, they share their love, passion, and sex. The people who do not understand this do not understand the true definition of marriage. For example, sisters share most of their innermost feelings, and have strong emotional bonds with each other, and twins share even more of a bond. However, these people are not married, and there are some things they… [read more]


Marriage in Greek Myth Term Paper

… Additionally, many other unions and marriages, like that of Ares and Aphrodite have at least one common parent.

Fourth of all, marriage has nothing of the smooth, calm nature that is presented in the Odyssey, for example. If we draw… [read more]


American Family in Today's High Term Paper

… If answers are to be found they might possibly be hidden in the pre and post role model the father did and does portray.

Role Function

Prior to Drake's incarceration both he and Emily were not only positive role models… [read more]


George Washington's Marriage Term Paper

… americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/leaders/wash/martha_1).Martha enjoyed the private life she shared with George at Mt. Vernon and although they were often separated, she was "...still determined to be cheerful and happy in whatever situation I may be, for I have also learned from experience that the greater part of our happiness or misery depends upon our dispositions, and not upon our circumstances" (http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/leaders/wash/martha_1).

Of George's life at Mt. Vernon, he once wrote, "it is honorable, it is amusing, and with superior judgement, it is profitable" (((http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/leaders/wash/martha_1).

However, Martha did not find being First Lady as comfortable as life at Mr. Vernon, writing to a niece, "I think I am more like a state prisoner than anything else, there is certain bounds set for me which I much not depart from...many younger and gayer women would be extremely pleased" but she would have "much rather be at home" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/mw1.html).Although always warm and gracious, "she took little satisfaction in 'formal compliments and empty ceremonies...I am fond of only what comes from the heart'" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/mw1.html).

As the first president's wife, Martha had no traditions to follow and used her common sense and sound social training to guide her and although always cheerful and happy "she felt she led an extremely dull life in New York City and was much more content when the capital was moved to Philadelphia in 1790 (http://www.gi.grolier.com/presidents/ea/first/01pw.html).

No one living today will ever know whether George's relationship with Sally was more involved than a deep friendship. One thing is for certain and that is that by choosing Martha he gained a stable and loving wife to whom he remained truly devoted to until his death.

Works Cited

Eady, Brenda. "Did they or didn't they?" People Weekly. January 23, 1984.

George Washington." The SAR Magazine. Winter 1999 Vol. XCIII. No. 3. http://www.sar.org/sarmag/GW.htm.(accessed 12-03-2003).

George Washington the Husband." http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/leaders/wash/martha_1 accessed 12-03-2003).

Martha Dandridge Custis Washington." http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/mw1.html accessed 12-03-2003).

Martha Washington." http://www.gi.grolier.com/presidents/ea/first/01pw.html accessed 12-03-2003).… [read more]


Kung San Trial Marriages Term Paper

… Nevertheless, "!Kung adults are cooperative, generous and hardworking" (Shostak, 2000:45) and sometimes these equalities are not always found within American society -regardless of if they are men or women.

There are many exterior influences that have come into play for the modern American man and woman - like greed, money, fame, and materialism. These factors play a role in our development from an early age as we progress more and more away from the simple pleasures and into a more technological ego-filled world.!Kung adolescents grow up in an environment that is not hindered by materialism and possessiveness, rather they must rely on each other for their survival, and co-exist dependant on each other to do their part within the tribe.

If 'trial marriages' were taken to the same level within American society as they are in the!Kung San, it's quite possible that they could have an effect on divorce rates, though probably not as much as we would like.

People are still people, and with the influences in modern society that also have roles in high divorce rates (drugs, crime, poverty, infidelity) it would be unrealistic to imagine that trial marriages could have such an adverse affect. Even in multi-cultural societies where trial and arranged marriages are still common practice, divorce rates are still somewhat higher than in originating countries. Perhaps it is because of the freedoms enjoyed by Americans that give them the impression that they are more entitled to file for divorce, and find love somewhere else, while in countries like India, Pakistan and China, where arranged marriages still take place, these freedoms aren't so easily expressed.

In the!Kung, children are almost promoted into looking after themselves at an early age. Their dependency on their parents becomes less from the moment they are encouraged to walk long distances on their own. In American society it is not unusual for adult children to live with their parents or for older teenagers to still be supported by their parents - usually monetarily.

Maybe it is this early independence, that allow boys and girl of the!Kung to grow into respectable adults- generous and hardworking - and this propagates into their social aspects of marriage, child-care and survival. It is interesting to note that this!Kung independence does not have them filing for divorce whenever something goes wrong, like their American counterparts - but then how many independent American men and women would consider polygamy? This almost seems to be the!Kung answer to divorce - have co-wives so everyone is happy.

While divorce rates within the U.S. are high, and it seems that the!Kung live in a 'utopian' world, it is important to consider the social and economic factors that affect the divorce rates in the U.S., if not around the world. We live in a world where money means more than how well you can gather food (it goes hand in hand) and child custody isn't nearly as persuaded by traditional roles as we have seen in the past.

The!Kung use trial… [read more]

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