"Family / Dating / Marriage" Essays

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Kung San Trial Marriages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nevertheless, "!Kung adults are cooperative, generous and hardworking" (Shostak, 2000:45) and sometimes these equalities are not always found within American society -regardless of if they are men or women.

There are many exterior influences that have come into play for the modern American man and woman - like greed, money, fame, and materialism. These factors play a role in our development from an early age as we progress more and more away from the simple pleasures and into a more technological ego-filled world.!Kung adolescents grow up in an environment that is not hindered by materialism and possessiveness, rather they must rely on each other for their survival, and co-exist dependant on each other to do their part within the tribe.

If 'trial marriages' were taken to the same level within American society as they are in the!Kung San, it's quite possible that they could have an effect on divorce rates, though probably not as much as we would like.

People are still people, and with the influences in modern society that also have roles in high divorce rates (drugs, crime, poverty, infidelity) it would be unrealistic to imagine that trial marriages could have such an adverse affect. Even in multi-cultural societies where trial and arranged marriages are still common practice, divorce rates are still somewhat higher than in originating countries. Perhaps it is because of the freedoms enjoyed by Americans that give them the impression that they are more entitled to file for divorce, and find love somewhere else, while in countries like India, Pakistan and China, where arranged marriages still take place, these freedoms aren't so easily expressed.

In the!Kung, children are almost promoted into looking after themselves at an early age. Their dependency on their parents becomes less from the moment they are encouraged to walk long distances on their own. In American society it is not unusual for adult children to live with their parents or for older teenagers to still be supported by their parents - usually monetarily.

Maybe it is this early independence, that allow boys and girl of the!Kung to grow into respectable adults- generous and hardworking - and this propagates into their social aspects of marriage, child-care and survival. It is interesting to note that this!Kung independence does not have them filing for divorce whenever something goes wrong, like their American counterparts - but then how many independent American men and women would consider polygamy? This almost seems to be the!Kung answer to divorce - have co-wives so everyone is happy.

While divorce rates within the U.S. are high, and it seems that the!Kung live in a 'utopian' world, it is important to consider the social and economic factors that affect the divorce rates in the U.S., if not around the world. We live in a world where money means more than how well you can gather food (it goes hand in hand) and child custody isn't nearly as persuaded by traditional roles as we have seen in the past.

The!Kung use trial… [read more]

George Washington's Marriage Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (992 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/leaders/wash/martha_1).Martha enjoyed the private life she shared with George at Mt. Vernon and although they were often separated, she was "...still determined to be cheerful and happy in whatever situation I may be, for I have also learned from experience that the greater part of our happiness or misery depends upon our dispositions, and not upon our circumstances" (http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/leaders/wash/martha_1).

Of George's life at Mt. Vernon, he once wrote, "it is honorable, it is amusing, and with superior judgement, it is profitable" (((http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/leaders/wash/martha_1).

However, Martha did not find being First Lady as comfortable as life at Mr. Vernon, writing to a niece, "I think I am more like a state prisoner than anything else, there is certain bounds set for me which I much not depart from...many younger and gayer women would be extremely pleased" but she would have "much rather be at home" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/mw1.html).Although always warm and gracious, "she took little satisfaction in 'formal compliments and empty ceremonies...I am fond of only what comes from the heart'" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/mw1.html).

As the first president's wife, Martha had no traditions to follow and used her common sense and sound social training to guide her and although always cheerful and happy "she felt she led an extremely dull life in New York City and was much more content when the capital was moved to Philadelphia in 1790 (http://www.gi.grolier.com/presidents/ea/first/01pw.html).

No one living today will ever know whether George's relationship with Sally was more involved than a deep friendship. One thing is for certain and that is that by choosing Martha he gained a stable and loving wife to whom he remained truly devoted to until his death.

Works Cited

Eady, Brenda. "Did they or didn't they?" People Weekly. January 23, 1984.

George Washington." The SAR Magazine. Winter 1999 Vol. XCIII. No. 3. http://www.sar.org/sarmag/GW.htm.(accessed 12-03-2003).

George Washington the Husband." http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/leaders/wash/martha_1 accessed 12-03-2003).

Martha Dandridge Custis Washington." http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/mw1.html accessed 12-03-2003).

Martha Washington." http://www.gi.grolier.com/presidents/ea/first/01pw.html accessed 12-03-2003).… [read more]

American Family in Today's High Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,530 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If answers are to be found they might possibly be hidden in the pre and post role model the father did and does portray.

Role Function

Prior to Drake's incarceration both he and Emily were not only positive role models for their three children but mentors as well. Both parents shared the responsibility of working, meal preparation, making sure all… [read more]

Marriage in Greek Myth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Additionally, many other unions and marriages, like that of Ares and Aphrodite have at least one common parent.

Fourth of all, marriage has nothing of the smooth, calm nature that is presented in the Odyssey, for example. If we draw a parallel between the two, in the Odyssey, husband and wife have an exemplary marriage, with a total consensus overall.… [read more]

Family Assessment Description Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


"Health is the absence of incurable issues - such as physical, mental and emotional problems." Queried individually, each member agreed with this explanation. Seeking further clarification, I asked Mrs. T to explain what they meant by 'incurable issues'. Her replay was "some physical ailments can be treated and cured such as ear infections that doctors treat with antibiotics. In other… [read more]

"Family to Family" by Pipes and Lee Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The model created by Pipes and Lee is depicted by an image of concentric circles which spread outward, with the "self" remaining at the center and each circle expanding to eventually cover "person X," or a stranger you have yet to meet.6

5. Ibid, p. 71-73.

6. Ibid, p. 58.

I hope to open myself up to these daily opportunities for evangelical teaching, searching for people in my academic, professional or personal lives who may benefit from exposure to biblical teachings. Remaining mindful of the views held by others must be paramount, however, because in my mind many chances for genuine conversion are lost due to the overzealous overtures made by overeager Christians bursting with enthusiasm as they try to spread the Good Word.

The final action step I will attempt to integrate into my routine involves the Mission Statement advocated by Pipes and Lee in the book's second chapter,7 as I firmly believe the structure provided by a tangible document such as this is integral to the pursuit of lasting change on a personal level. By creating separate Mission Statements -- one for my own life here at school and another for my life at home with my family -- I hope to organize my spiritual development according to a preset plan, with certain benchmarks set along the way to serve as motivation for continued growth and development. Combined with my first action step (returning home more often to engage in ministry and spiritual expansion alongside my family), I am convinced that the use of a clearly defined mission statement will strengthen our collective commitment to Christian teachings, as well as my own pledge to pursue a more spiritual lifestyle.

7. Ibid,…… [read more]

Nursing Care and the Modern Family Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


These arrangements leave the nuclear family intact and living separately from members of their extended family or living in intergenerational situations under one roof. As a result, many of the caregiving, advisory, or economic arrangements of intergenerational living are lost, a phenomenon that places a larger responsibility for the healthcare of families is placed in the hands of the family-community nurse. Traditional healthcare practices -- based on conventional wisdom or folk medicine -- give way to scientific healthcare practices provided by a trained nurse.


Bialek, R., Duffy, G.L., & Moran, J.W. (2009). The Public Health Quality Improvement Handbook . Milwaukee: American Society for Quality, Quality Press.

Davidson, K.A. (2013, August 29). The most efficient health care systems in the world. The Huffington Post. Retrieved Edelman, C. And Mandle, C.L. (2010). Health promotion throughout the lifespan (7th ed.). St. Louis. MO: Mosby Co. And Rowe.

Kaakinen, J. Gedaly-Duff, V., Padgett-Coehlo, D., & Hanson, S.M., (2010) Family health care nursing: Theory practice & research (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis ISBN 978-0-8036-2166-4.

Mui, Y.Q. (2012, June 11). Americans saw wealth plummet 40% from 2007 to 2010, Federal Reserve says. The Washington Post. Retrieved http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/fed-americans-wealth-dropped-40-percent/2012/06/11/gJQAlIsCVV_story.html

Rosenthal, E. (December 21, 2013). News analysis: health care's road to ruin, New York Times. Retrieved ____. American Medical Student Association Foundation (AMSAF). Breaking Barriers. Promoting, Reinforcing and Improving Medical Education (PRIME). Retreived


____. (2011). Office of Minority Health. Health and Human Services. Retreived http://www.minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=46#stha h.qv8rre6w.dpuf

____. (2013). Public health nurses change lives -- today and tomorrow. Nurse-Family Partnership. Retrieved http://www.nursefamilypartnership.org/Nurses… [read more]

Austen, Eliot, Besant, Browning: 19Th Century Views of Marriage and Property Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Marriage in 19th c English lit

To a certain extent, England owes its national identity in the modern period to issues of marriage: it was over marriage policy that Henry VIII would break with Rome and establish his own church in the sixteenth century, and the Church of England's denial of sacramental status to marriage led to a… [read more]

Family Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Even with the shifts above, there has been a lot of controversy and toiling about what defines a family and what does not. For example, some may hold that the aforementioned lesbians parenting a child is not acceptable and is not a "real" family. However, functionalism would hold that it is so long as the core functions are operating and functioning nonetheless. Factors that influence these directions and perceptions are internal feelings and desires but they are also influenced by society, race, biological gender and ethnicity. Even if a person feels that they are part of a family, this does not mean that the wider society feels this is the case. However, many changes have occurred in the last thirty years including the idea that gay or lesbian couples can adopt kids or be foster parents and people much more commonly having children out of wedlock. Some decry this to be the case but it is happening a lot more nonetheless and society is not wilting as a result (Jayson, 2010).


While there will always be religious and other cultural forces that will "push back" on what it means to be a family, it is undeniable that there has been a paradigm shift on what defines family and what does not. What has not changed is the core functions of the family and even non-traditional iterations of family in the United States and other countries manifest in the form of family even if the forms themselves are controversial to some. These shifts will no doubt continue to become more common and society will probably eventually become more accepting.


Jayson, S. (2010, November 25). What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - USATODAY.com. What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - USATODAY.com. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/yourlife/sex-relationships/marriage/2010-11-18-pew18_ST_N.htm

Levin, J. (2004, August 24). Functionalism. Stanford University. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/… [read more]

Family Theoretical Perspective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The author also states that the diversity of family multigenerational relations is increasing due to various reasons such as; changes in the structure of the family which involves stepfamily relationships and divorce, an increase in the longevity of kin, and an increased diversity of the types of intergenerational relationships (Vem, 2014).

Therefore I have learnt that there is an increase in multigenerational relationships and nuclear family setups are now decreasing. People are increasingly moving towards other family structures as opposed to the usual biological parents and children structure. People are becoming keen on working and living together as a family. Therefore, I agree wit the author that there is an increase in multigenerational relationship bonds.

There are several theories that can be used to explain this shift from nuclear family structure to the increase in multigenerational bonds in families. One of these theories is structural functionalism theory that is a framework for building theory that sees any society as a complex system that has parts working together so as to promote solidarity and stability. The key insight of the structural functionalism theory when it comes to the family centers on tasks that are performed with this unit. The family operates as a backbone to any society. According to the theory, family structures are shifting towards multigenerational relations in order to promote solidarity and stability. With increased multigenerational bonds the family institution is becoming more strong and solid. The solution to this issue is to continue encouraging multigenerational relations since they are leading to societies that are more strong due top strong family relations.

The social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is caused by an exchange process. The purpose of the exchange is so as to maximize the benefits can get and minimize t6heir costs. According to this theory people weigh the benefits and risks that can come from social relationships, when risks are more than the benefits then they abandon the relationship. According to this theory family structures are changing from nuclear families to multigenerational relations due to the benefits that these relations bring. In these relations there is a lot of economic security and people work together so as to achieve goals. The reason behind this shift is that people have examined the benefits that they can get from building strong multigenerational bonds and clearly they have seen that these benefits outweigh any risks.

The structural functionalism theory is the most useful theory between this two. This is because, the structural functionalism theory revolves around creating a solid society through the family. Therefore through stronger multigenerational bonds the family is going to be a strong institution that will eventually lead to a strong society.


Vem, B. (2014). Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational…… [read more]

Growth Behind Online Dating Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  20 pages (5,133 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Growth Behind Online Dating

Team Building Case Study

The Online Dating Industry Growth

The following pages focus on designing a research proposal that intends to address the subject of the online dating industry growth. The importance of the subject is derived from the fact that this online sector has significantly developed, creating a profitable environment for both large players in… [read more]

Solution to the Gay Marriage Problem Evaluation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Solution to the Gay Marriage Problem

Evaluation Claim

Marriage is one of the basic building blocks of the United States of America. It is an institution that embodies some of the fundamental principles that the nation holds dear: concern for others; love for fellow man; self-sacrifice in the interest of another. When marriage is working best, it operates as "a stable bond between two individuals who work to create a loving household and a social and economic partnership" (Olson 68). The benefits of marriage extend well beyond the confines of the household in which the marriage exists. By transforming two individuals into a union, marriage establishes an investment in the well being of society. Adults have a right to get married, regardless of whether or not they are gay.

The problem arises when any governing body prohibits consenting adults from getting married. This is not an issue at all, unless the topic of gay marriage is being discussed. If two persons of the same gender desire to be joined in matrimony, a legal roadblock is in place to prevent them from fulfilling their wish. Marriage licenses are issued to partners of the same gender in only six places in the United States: Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Washington, D.C (Urbina). In every other U.S. state and territory, gay couples are not permitted to share in the legal benefits of being married. This fact is especially a problem in the United States of America, the supposed "Land of the Free." The proposed solution to this problem is to legalize gay marriage in the U.S.

2. Criteria of Evaluation

In order to accurately judge the customs of a country, the foundational documents of that country must be accessed. In this case, the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution will be used as guides.

The second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence states:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. -- That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, - That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive in its ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it… (U.S. 1776)

Essentially, what this means is that no one person has more rights than any other person, and that if the government has become destructive, evidenced by denying rights, then that government must be altered or abolished.

The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution echoes this sentiment in a more specific way:

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall… [read more]

Family Therapy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Family Therapy

Family Therapist

Dr. Imber-Black (1988) claims that family therapist originated with the idea that an individual's problem begins to make the different kind of sense when examined in the context of the nuclear and extended family. That idea can be expanded into an even more complex meaningful system, composed of individuals, family, and larger systems, existing in a wider social context that shapes and guides mutual expectations, specific interactions, and outcomes. Hence, Imber-Black declares that the skills required in systematic assessment of and intervention with families makes the family therapist particularly suited for work at the macrosystem level. Therefore, Imber-Black comprehends that the often problematic interaction of families and larger systems requires attention from the therapist seeking to intervene with larger families while maintaining viable relationships in the broad professional community.

Goldenberg and Goldenberg (1991); and Barker (2007) concur that the field of family therapy has broadened considerably In terms of advancement and elaborated theories, greatly expanded research undertakings, and a portfolio of clinical intervention techniques. The therapist's training remain committed to offering a balanced presentation of the evolving viewpoint, perspectives, values, and intervention techniques, as well as the ethical and other professional issues that are considered to be of greatest relevance and immediacy to today's students and practitioners alike (Goldenberg and Goldenberg, 1991).

According to Goldenberg and Goldenberg (1991), the training also greatly expositions the family life cycle framework; offers a more description of major theories and a clearer description of numerous specific therapeutic techniques, and pays closer attention to integrating research findings and clinical practice. Therefore, Goldenberg and Goldenberg; and Barker (2007) agrees that to be effective in helping couples and entire families to change, the therapists' training continue to believe it essential that therapists trainees…… [read more]

Ordinary People Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (4,439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Ordinary People Intervention

Family Dynamics in "Ordinary People"

Ordinary People is the story of a family living in the aftermath of the tragic death of one of their sons, Buck. The death was the result of a boating accident. Soon after, Conrad, Buck brother tried to commit suicide. After a four-month hospitalization, Conrad returns to school. The family is in… [read more]

Family in the UK Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Childless families

There are other families that pose to challenge the idea of having children in a queer family. They are contra-culture queers who differ with the idea of having a lot of emphasis put on importance of having children in a queer family. They argue that the queer family will lose meaning if it will be deemed to gain recognition only if it imitates or looks somehow like the straight family.

In a nutshell, the social scientists have strived to show that families work out no matter what shape they take, as long as the relationship is followed with commitments. The examples and cases above serve to prove that the social scientists have perpetually demystified and redefined the notion of a family being consisted of heterosexuals and children.


An Encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexuals, transgender and queer culture, 2004. Family.

Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/family.html

Factoidz, 2008. Divorce Rate in the UK. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from divorce-rate-in-the-uk/" http://factoidz.com/the-divorce-rate-in-the-uk/

Family Plus, 2009. What is a Family. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://familyplus.bgca.org/YourFamily/EffectiveParenting/WhatisaFamily/Pages/default.aspx

Find law, 2011. Legal Issues for Gay and Lesbian Adoption. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://family.findlaw.com/adoption/same-sex-adoption/same-sex-parent-rights.html

Lesbian and Gay Lawyers-LAGLA, 2011. About LAGLA. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://www.lagla.org.uk/

Terence, 2011. Seeking Gay Parents, Dispels Myths. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://rooting-for-gay-marriage.blogspot.com/2011/02/seeking-gay-parents-dispels-myths.html

The Independent, 2010. Gay Couple to have Children Christened. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/gay-couple-to-have-children-christened-2018169.html

The Telegram, 2009. Westboro Baptist Church Announces first Anti-homosexuality Picket in Britain. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/4640967/Westboro-Baptist-Church-announces-first-anti-homosexuality-picket-in-Britain.html… [read more]

Family Traditional Definition Limits Families Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6




Contribution of Anthropology

Rejection of the need to produce a single universal definition of family

Identification of other societies where other family forms dominated

Use of a different methodology that was focused on more qualitative elements.

Anthropologist, who provided accounts of other civilizations, where families were not as described by the heterosexual one-man one-woman definition, has provided a challenge to the concept of the ideal family.

Recently, the focus is on understanding the nuanced meanings people give to their lived experiences and cultural structures (Family in anthropology 2010).

Methodologically anthropologist have popularized the use of ethnography as a way to study families in modern societies. Ethnography focuses on the culture of people and have given balance to the male dominated numerical analysis of what occurs within the family.


Contribution of Economics

Provided the conceptual tools for the assessment of the division of labor in the family.

Application of the concept of human capital to family studies

The sexual division of labor within the family and the understanding of the family as an economic unit are contributions economics has made to the redefining of the family.

Human capital encouraged the discussion of issues of health and poverty as it concerned the family. This widened the debate beyond the scope of issues of production and understanding the family simply as a unit of production.


Methodological changes

Move from a positivist / quantitative approach to qualitative approach.

Introduction of different research questions

The focus on the experiences of families and not simply on categories of families.

Feminist critique gave great impetus to this dynamic

The most critical methodological change that has influenced the definition of family is the movement away from a Posivist quantitative approach to more qualitative approaches.

Additionally, this created a movement away from the search for categories of families to an attempt to understanding the experiences of families and how members of familes interpreted their lives.

This created a need to new research questions which could be adequately answered with words instead of numbers



The traditional definition is very limited in focus and coverage of family types

The quantitative orientation of that definition was balanced by more qualitative work

Each discipline assisted in…… [read more]

Adult Life Cycle Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Family Life Cycle

The stage of the family life cycle where initial young adults begin the process of individuation is essential to individual and eventually family level functioning as it is at this point that the individual is seeking to develop his or her own family and self. In western culture a great deal of importance is place upon this concept and this period of life and much attention is applied to those who "fail" or remain in the original family unit for periods that surpass what is considered the norm, 18-25 and instead remain in their family of origin without obtaining financial, social, and emotional independence beyond those years. This concept is typically applied to the social work practice in both aiding individuals to reach this "normal" pinnacle of growth, through independence and in aiding those who have not done so at an average age or whom have returned home for any number of reasons. Seiffge-Krenke in fact notes that leaving home early or late had less to do with age and much more to do with developmental task progression, and to some degree parental support. When parental support is in place, i.e. assistance getting a job, transportation and even household furnishings was much more likely to aide individuals in leaving home, at any age. (2009, p. 238) the reader will find that this work discusses the family life cycle transition "leaving home" as a variable issue in both the primary and contrasting cultural settings. The foundation of the findings are that the age of "normalcy" for the event of leaving home and becoming independent adults is fluctuating on a continual basis and can be a result of many factors including but not limited to the relationship one has with the family of origin and particularly the parents, financial issues, issues associated with tradition and/or a rejection of it and the ability of one to function as a single adult, as more and more people are doing so in western and other cultures. Ultimately the issue becomes one of developmental task progression, when certain developmental tasks, often having to do with parental support are achieved individuals no matter their age often pass through this stage of family life cycle. (Seiffge-Krenke, 2009)

The fierce sense of independence and autonomy associated with U.S. culture has in part contributed to the impetus for individuals to leave the family home, separate themselves from the original family, develop their own community awareness and belonging, have intimate relationships with life partners and ultimately have children and begin their own family. (an, Mertig & Liu, 2003, pp. 419-421) "Adolescents leaving their parental homes has been viewed as a normal and natural phenomenon in Western societies & #8230;, as it signifies economic independence, personal responsibility, and emotional separation from parents & #8230;" (an, Mertig & Liu, 2003, pp. 415-416) Yet, it is also fundamentally challenged in real life by children in western culture leaving home at older ages or returning home after leaving. Despite years of emphasis… [read more]

Creon State vs. Family Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,144 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … creon, state vs. family

The story that Sophocles creates goes back into the times of ancient Greek and the Thebes' civil war. It starts with the decision of the Creon, new king of Thebes to offer honors to Eteocles and to leave unburied, on the battle field, the body of Polyneices, Eteocles' brother. This decision, of not honoring Polyneices for acting against Thebes, offers the conditions of a classical Greek tragedy involving politics, family relations, death and a strong set of Greek democracy symbols.

Antigone, sister of Polyneices, decides to bury his brother with all honors despite the order that no citizen of the city will offer honors of burial. As soon as Creon finds out that Polyneices was buried, he orders that the person responsible be brought to him to receive the capital punishment for defying his order. As both Antigone and her sister Ismene are brought to Creon he decides to temporarily put the two in lock down. Although death would have been the punishment for the two, Creon, after a fight with his son Haemon, decides to bury Antigone alive and to spare Ismene, although the signs that this was a wrong decision appear more and more. Sophocles ends the play in a tragic manner, when Antigone, Haemon and Creon's wife Eurydice kill themselves as a result of Creon's decisions.

After this brief summary, it is evident that one of the most important issues to be discussed regarding this play are Creon's decisions. He, as a new king, is trapped between family and state, between Gods' will and family values. What begins to be important for him at the beginning -- rules and state -- begins to fade away towards the end when he realizes that more importantly than that are family and morality. Sophocles' "Antigone" becomes, when analyzing Creon, a story of choice, decision and how a leader wins wisdom through making mistakes.

Creon is a new king that comes to power after a civil war in a rather fragile state system. As a leader in ancient Greece, Creon needs to enforce strongly his position and any action of his, especially during the beginning of his reign, has to be carried out in perfect conditions. Although he is advised that denying Polyneices's burial might have unwanted consequences, Creon decides exactly that, aiming at creating for his citizens the image of a leader that respects the laws of the state. Citizenship is an important political tool in the hands of a ruler and altering its rules might shake a ruler's position. A citizen of the state does not act against the state, and once he decided that Polyneices has betrayed Thebes, he also removes his citizenship. Creon makes his first bad political decision when he decides to deny Polyneices' burial and sets the rules of the state, the human-made laws, in an adverse position than the rules of the Gods.

The strong family relation, loyalty to family values and most of all towards the Gods,… [read more]

UAE Abuse the United Arab Emirates' Successes Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (4,444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


UAE Abuse

The United Arab Emirates' Successes and Failures in Resolving Domestic Disputes: An Evaluation of the Performance of the UAE's Social Support Centers

Domestic violence, defined as both physical and/or emotional abuse taking place in the home between members of the same domestic unit or family, remains a large problem throughout the world. It is difficult to determine the… [read more]

Albertis Family the Family and Individual Familial Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (815 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Albertis Family

The Family and Individual Familial Roles through the Ages: From the Renaissance to Today

Throughout most if not all of recorded human existence (and quite probably pre-history, as well), the family has served as the basic social unit, wherein roles and personalities develop, and values and beliefs are at least initially if not permanently formed. The role and expectations of the family have changed dramatically over the course of human history, of course, with different civilizations and societies taking different views of the individuals within families, and the degree to which the family is responsible for the overall well-being and productivity of individual citizens. Even within a fairly limited cultural range, the sheer progress of time can lead to many changes, such that what was desired and expected of families in previous eras of Western and even English culture, while remaining highly recognizable today, do not fully mesh with modern expectations.

Leon Battista Alberti, writing about the family in fifteenth-century Florence -- nearing the height of the Italian Renaissance -- draws clear lines between the roles of the father and the wife of the typical nuclear family. For men, virtue is shown by action and the good management of the household -- which means producing amply and spending wisely, so as to ensure security -- while a woman shows virtue largely through her appearance and docility: "who cannot see that a badly mannered woman is only very rarely a virtuous one," Alberti asks (pp. 170). Women are also judged by the wroth of their lineage, in Alberti's view, rendering them still less capable of determining their own inner worth.

The external sentiments expressed about the family and the various roles within it have certainly changed from Alberti's time to our own. Gender equality is seen as a paramount good in modern Western society whereas it was a virtually unthinkable and laughable concept in Alberti's world; to suggest that it is solely the man's responsibility to manage the economics of a household, especially when that responsibility is built on a supposed lack of competency on the part of the woman, is as horrific to many modern sentiments as suggesting the equality of women would have been to Alberti. This difference in perspective also points to major differences in the overall social values that inform these perspectives. Equality and self-determination are increasingly important concepts in modern society, which has led to much greater innovation and an increase…… [read more]

Children Respond When Their Parents Divorce? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Children Respond When Their Parents Divorce?

What are the ramifications for children whose parents divorce? It is a fact that about fifty percent of marriages fail -- but what happens to the children from those families? How do they respond in the years that follow the divorce? These issues are addressed in this paper.

Attorney Sandford M. Portnoy writes in the American Journal of Family Law that while various researchers disagree on how children react when their parents divorce, there is a consistent theme to the research -- children are negatively impacted to varying degrees. Portnoy begins his research article by put the divorce rate into "perspective"; one of every six adults living in the United States divorces "two or more times" (Portnoy, 2008, p. 126). Also, he reveals that the divorce rate in the U.S. "hovers around 50%" and between a half to two-thirds of divorced people get married again.

That all adds up to the fact that about 40% of the children in America will experience the divorce of their parents. And what do studies show about how children of divorced parents respond scholastically? Studies in the 1980s and 1990s that Portnoy references reflected that children of divorce "scored lower" when it came to academic success, conduct, "psychological adjustment, social competence, and health" (p. 126). Another study that followed divorced children for 25 years (Wallerstein and Lewis) reported that these children "changed radically almost overnight" and that after 25 years -- as adults looking back -- these children of divorce still remembered "the shock, unhappiness, loneliness, bewilderment, and anger" of those experiences during and following the act of divorce (p. 126).

In more recent times, the trend, according to Portnoy, has been toward less severe outcomes vis-a-vis children of divorce. For example, the author generalizes about recent studies saying children do "indeed struggle" while their families are torn apart and that they generally do not perform as well academically. But in some of those studies the pain doesn't last quite as long as it…… [read more]

Family and Education in Frankenstein Mary Shelley Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Family and Education in Frankenstein

Mary Shelley's 1818 novel "Frankenstein" has generated much controversy for the fact that it dealt with some of the most intriguing topics that humanity produced until the time. Whereas most readers might have been initially inclined to believe that Shelley intended to put across an episode involving a monster and the terror that it provokes,… [read more]

Effect of Family Structure on Children in as I Lay Dying Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Family Dysfunction, Economic Distress, and Sexual Tension in as I Lay Dying

William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying presents the story of the poor and dysfunctional Bundren family in Mississippi, as they take their deceased wife and mother, Addie, from their home to a town that lays a day's ride away for burial. It is told in a number of… [read more]

Family Association Centre FAC Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,012 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Family Association Center (FAC)

The success of YMCA in the United States has inspired a drive to establish similar associations in other countries. More daring than the drive to expand the basically Christian premise of YMCA, is the idea of applying the central ideal of the organization to alternative cultures and religions, such as Islam in Saudi Arabia.

It is… [read more]

Life Course Interview and Analysis Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,525 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Life course interview synthesizes personal information with sociological theory. On its own, the interview is an interesting narrative. With the insight and analysis of social science, the life course interview becomes a piece of valuable qualitative research. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to apply theory to the life course interview. The goals of the analysis include answering the… [read more]

Teen Dating Violence Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  13 pages (3,837 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Teen dating violence is an unfortunate reality for many teenagers across the United States. It can include a number of different types of abuses that have serious ramifications on the physical and mental health of the victims of such abuse. The goal of this research is to find a measurable correlation between exposure to abuse within romantic teen relationships as… [read more]

Family System Therapy Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (899 words)
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Family Systems Therapy: Strengths and Weaknesses

While most forms of therapy treat the individual in isolation, and focus upon the family only to the extent that the family impacts that individual's psyche, family systems therapy treats the family and its history as a dynamic, functioning unit, almost as an organism in and of itself, hence the label 'systems' therapy. The family is a system, just like a physical organism, that can and must be healed. The philosophy was founded by Murray Bowen and is also called Bowen theory or Bowen therapy. In family systems theory, by definition, the individual is seen as interdependent, rather than independent.

Interdependency is not seen as a negative or unnatural and total independence is not a feasible or even a desirable state: "emotional interdependence presumably evolved to promote the cohesiveness and cooperation families require to protect, shelter, and feed" one another (Bowen theory, 2009, Bowen Center). However, the potentially healing relationships of a family can become toxic and unproductive. One of the core concepts of family systems theory is the idea of triangular systems of tensions: "A triangle can contain much more tension without involving another person because the tension can shift around three relationships. If the tension is too high for one triangle to contain, it spreads to a series of 'interlocking' triangles (Triangles, 2009, Bowen Center). However, spreading tension does not resolve tension. Triangles are stable, but unhappy -- the three people locked in tension must deal with their mutually shared issues.

Family systems theory does hold that there is a need for a differentiation of the self -- in fact, a lack of differentiation is one of the reasons many family members experience psychological instability (Differentiation of the self, 2009, Bowen theory). Marital conflict, dysfunction of one of the spouses, impairment of one of the children, and emotional distance are sources of conflict that can arise from a lack of self-differentiation, and are often interrelated. For example, a father might be an alcoholic because of his anxieties about being a provider for his family or perceived personal failures, which results in marital conflict, and the mother's compensation through over-involvement with her son. Tension escalation within the nuclear family system is reciprocal in such a formulation, although a feminist critic might state that such a systems analysis places equitable blame upon all family members, which is not necessarily 'fair' and does not really change negative social assumptions about gender roles in the nuclear family (Nuclear, 2009, Bowen theory).

Another critique of family systems therapy is that it accepts the nuclear family as a norm, and places too much emphasis on the family unit, as opposed to other social relationships, such as those…… [read more]

Infertility and Marriage Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,176 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … negative or positive impact of infertility upon marriage is conflicted and has yielded mixed results. On one hand, some small case studies, such as that of R.D. Benasutti (2003) suggest that there may be an overstated impact regarding the negative influence of infertility upon a couple's interpersonal relationship. On the other hand, Peterson et al. (2003) in a study of 1,153 women and 1,149 men discovered a notable correlation between marital strain and infertility. Peterson's findings are borne out by a number of studies within the existing literature. Anderheim et al. (2006) conducted a study of 117 couples undergoing IVF treatment, and found that those with unsuccessful treatment were notably less happy in their marriages than those who were successful.

Johansoon's et al. (2009) long-term study of 400 couples found that after a 5-year follow-up, those who had children were significantly happier than those who did not have children, regardless of how the children were obtained -- through adoption or through successful IVF. Male infertility placed a particular strain upon the infertile couple's marital relationship, according to Russell et al. (2006), given the ways that this specific form of fertility threatened a couple's sense of gender roles. However, very long-term studies, including a survey by Chou et al. (2004) of Chinese adults, found that infertility, despite the strong significance given to children in Chinese culture had less of an impact than initially suspected by the study's designers, at least amongst long-married couples.

The lack of agreement amongst these different authors may be rooted in the fact that such divergent populations were studied over such different durations of time. Also, the previous state of the marriage of the infertile couple was not assessed, nor was there a cross-comparison of happy and unhappy couples, and couples that had been married long or short periods of time. The next research step would be to study a broad population of infertile couples, and to first screen them for relative marital health. A tentative hypothesis might be that while infertility does place an immediate strain upon a marriage that is alleviated by successful fertility treatment and pregnancy or successful adoption, infertility is merely an immediately exacerbating strain upon a marriage that is already in 'trouble' rather than a cause of marital discord. Also, infertility does not resolve a fundamentally unsound marriage.

A wide selection of adults must be surveyed for accuracy. One problem with focusing on fertility clinics is that the participants tend to be relatively homogeneous and affluent. Johansoon's study, for example, only focused upon middle and upper-class Scandinavian, heterosexual couples, and most studies, such as Holter's (2006) et al. are limited to those who can afford costly infertility treatments. To obtain a wide selection of individuals, approximately 1,000 couples seeking initial screening rather than treatment for infertility could be asked to take part of a study. They would then receive extensive questioning through questionnaires to ensure comfort and honesty about the state of their marriage. Questionnaires would also be a relatively… [read more]

Sacred Marriage Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (712 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Sacred Marriage

One of the core concepts of Gary L. Thomas' (2000) Sacred Marriage is that the union between a man and a woman is not merely for self-actualization on earth, but is designed for a higher spiritual purpose. Marriage teaches individuals about the need for God, the need to truly open up their hearts to love, to honor others, to respect others, and to pray. Marriage is a vehicle to explore God, not to measure the spouse in terms of how they come up "short" in terms of false, romantic ideology (Thomas 31). All human beings are imperfect in the eyes of God, and marriage is an institution of learning and teaching, not personal pleasure and fulfillment.

A devout Christian, Thomas acknowledges early Church father's ambivalence about the marital state. But Thomas believes that marriage is not simply a way of avoiding greater sexual sin, but analogous to God's love for humanity, and the Church and God (Thomas 33). Divorce is anathema to this spirit of reconciliation and divorce means that at least one partner in the marriage has ceased to put the Gospel first in his or her life. It is impossible to teach children about fidelity if one does not practice this concept of putting the Gospel first -- which means avoiding divorce, for Thomas. Marriages are platforms for evangelism for Thomas, for they embody the spirit of togetherness and sacrifice in a 'me first' culture. However, even divorce may be acceptable in cases of irreconcilable differences and infidelity -- still, divorce is seldom a solution to what is really ailing a marriage. God provides the energy to sustain a marriage, but both partners must be willing to receive it (Thomas 115).

Although Thomas argues his points from a largely conservative and evangelical perspective, he does take a very positive and healthy view of sexuality within the context of marriage, urging men and women to approach one another without guilt or shame. In fact, he says that if it is selfishly pursued, celibacy can be an unproductive path to holiness (Thomas 92). Selfless concern for another human being must be reinforced physically, emotionally,…… [read more]

Family Is Very Close Knit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (382 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Sure, there can be squabbles between people, but for the most part, these parties are all fun for everyone.

I think these parties show me that I like being part of a big family, and that I want a big family myself, someday. I wouldn't want to move away from my family, and miss these gatherings that mean so much to all of us. I feel sorry for people who don't have large families, and don't get to experience these big family gatherings. I wouldn't want to be alone, or with only one or two other people during the holidays, it just wouldn't be the same, or as memorable without a big family to celebrate with. I wish everyone could know what it is like to come from a big family. I think that there is a feeling of security you get from a big family, because you know, without question, that no matter what happens, someone will be there to get your back and always care…… [read more]

Marriage and Family Therapist Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (612 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Clinical Psych MFT

If there's one TV show that could convince us having a dysfunctional family can be fun, then it would have to be the syndicated comedy series, Everybody Loves Raymond. It's hard not to like the show; anyone can relate to the all too-familiar extended family situation of the well meaning but meddling in-laws, uptight parents, and an antisocial relative or two. In the middle of these conflicts is a flippant but amiable husband, who together with an oft resentful and stressed out wife, somehow manage to raise three rambunctious children in as normal fashion as their idyllic Long Island neighborhood can be. It's a funny, constructive show, especially when you realize how silly marriage and family life can be.

If only life could imitate art, then there'd probably be less need for marriage and family counselors. Unfortunately, life rarely imitates art; and marriage and family therapists are, in fact, more in demand than ever. In my own experience as a psychologist and human resource manager, I have witnessed and heard too many stories of marriage meltdowns and family conflicts to conclude that we are indeed living in a world of broken relationships. Further, my daily observations in a clinical environment seem to affirm the theory that many modern-day maladies are partly influenced by stress arising from conflict and unhealthy relationships.

These experiences inspired me to specialize in the area of Marital and Family Therapy (MFT). I am fortunate that I already have a solid background in Psychology to start with. My years of training in the field are useful, too, as they have enhanced my intuitive skills. Further, colleagues say I am a patient listener and insightful in my assessment of situations and relationships. Hence, I feel that I am ready and well equipped to do the course.

As a hands-on…… [read more]

Marriage the Institution Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (564 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Marriage

The institution of marriage has been a fundamental part of human culture throughout recorded history. In modern times, marriage may no longer be as necessary, especially for individuals who have no desire to procreate. Together with the fact that sexual infidelity in marriage is widespread (Barash & Lipton, 2001) and that more than half of all American marriages end in divorce (Branden, 2003; Roberts, 2007), may suggest that the cultural assumption that marriage is the most natural lifestyle for all adults may no longer be valid.

Prior to the middle of the 20th century, marriage was a practical necessity simply because the responsibilities of earning a living and maintaining a home were tremendously difficult for single individuals without the help of a spouse (Branden,

2003). Nowadays, it is no longer rare for single adults to support themselves comfortably, which, especially for women, was extremely rare as recently as several generations ago (Branden, 2003). The fact that economic necessity is no longer as much of a motivation for marriage has allowed many adults to postpone marriage (sometimes indefinitely), for various reasons, including the hope of finding the perfect life partner.

According to sociologists, marital infidelity is very widespread, with as many as seventy percent of married men and fifty percent of married women engage in sexual

infidelity at some point in their marriages (Barash & Lipton, 2001). Furthermore,

psychologists report that both general satisfaction and sexual interest within marriage

declines substantially and at very predictable intervals in most traditional marriages

(Angier, 2007; Roberts, 2007). Furthermore, the average length of marriage in the United States is less than eight years (Branden, 2003; Roberts, 2007), notwithstanding the fact that marriage is supposed…… [read more]

PA Chin Family Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,619 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Pa Chin "Family"

Book Critique:

Chin, Pa. Family. Waveland Press, 1972.

Pa Chin's simply-titled Family is a complex portrayal of the political and social dynamics pre-Revolutionary China. The novel focuses on the intergenerational conflicts within the wealthy Kao family, which, despite its numerous servants and great affluence, is still torn apart by unhappiness. The novel is both allegorical and highly… [read more]

Child Abuse and Domestic Violence Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,178 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Child Abuse and Domestic Violence

The failure of the family to serve its nurturing function is demonstrated in cases of domestic violence and child abuse. Literature review shows that domestic violence can take on many forms and has both long-term and short-term effects. The broadness of the concept of domestic violence prodded the author to focus on one… [read more]

Political Election Have Defied My Expectations Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … political election have defied my expectations for the American political and social landscape. Quite honestly, I did not believe that there was a realistic possibility that the United States would have anything other than white male presidents during my lifetime. In fact, even before the results of the election were known, one could tell that America was ready… [read more]

Coontz and the Traditional American Family Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (585 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … traditional American family is a thing of the past. We do not see it in our modern culture and literature reflects this shift in society. Coontz maintains in her essay that these values are an "ahistorical amalgam of structures, values, and behaviors that never coexisted in the same time and place" (Coontz 9). The days of the traditional family where the father worked and the mother stayed home to care for the children is over. It is no surprise that we see this reflected in literature. After all, art reflects life. In the story, "Cyclops," Sedaris illustrates this point with the scene of his mother running over a cat and then returning home only to suffer at the hand of her husband. One thing that does not reflect traditional American values is the mother cursing on the way home and another is the father's response to the situation. We read that he shouts at her, telling her, "That could have been a child!" (Sedaris 50). He also warns his wife to think about that the next time she is "tearing sown the street searching for kicks" (50). These scenes illustrate how American family life has come a long way since its traditional roots. The mother drives and the father yells at her when she makes a mistake. these instance illustrate just how far culture has come in just a few decades. We are no longer a society that understands the notion of a nuclear family and if we do understand what it means, we may have never seen it in existence. Coontz is correct in her assertion that some families simply did not have the luxury of fitting within the cookie-cutter family ideal. We see this change occurring as early…… [read more]

Family Communications Family Therapy and Communications: Literature Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,037 words)
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Family Communications

Family Therapy and Communications: Literature Review

No therapeutic technique designed to foster communication and improve relationships within the family dynamic is comprehensive and suits the needs and situation of all students. Educators and therapists will likely deploy a variety of approaches. Still, having a sense of the more popular theoretical rubrics is helpful when formulating an approach.

Cognitive-behavioral family therapy

Cognitive-behavioral family therapy attempts to facilitate greater communication between family members by focusing on current, negative thought patterns and behaviors, rather than delving into the family's long, past history like psychoanalytic theory. Although less community-based than some therapeutic forms, it can be very helpful in ameliorating the behavior of young children and their parents in the classroom as well as the home, by focusing on what can be changed (thoughts and behavior) rather than the actions of others. "Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviors, not external things, like people, situations, and events. The benefit of this fact is that we can change the way we think to feel / act better even if the situation does not change" ("What is cognitive-behavioral therapy, 2008, NACBT). In other words, instead of saying 'my son is a bad boy,' or 'I can't do math,' family members are encouraged to change their thought processes, and thereby their actions and create a new family dynamic.

Bowen theory

Bowen family systems theory views the family as an emotionally interconnected system. A family (or a classroom) is like a small society, with its own unconscious rules, culture and behavior. A life change in one person's behavior causes changes in everyone else's lives in positive and negative ways. This can be an effective way to understand why a family member, even a young child, is 'acting out' in apparently self-destructive ways to express aggression at other family members. When there is a problem at home or in school, the whole family must be treated, rather than a single individual. This prevents scapegoating the child for what may be a larger family problem that must be addressed for the child to function normally ("Bowen therapy," 2008, the Bowen Center).

Milan Systemic Therapy

The basic assumption of Milan Systemic Therapy is that human beings are social creatures, and apparently symptomatic behavior is transactional in nature and must be understood as part of a larger social context. "The therapists consider that the way to eliminate the symptom which is present in the family is to change the rules and beliefs. Change is achieved in clarifying the ambiguity in relationships" ("Find out more about family therapy," 2008, DMRTK). Intervention and treatment of the family is required, not simply an individual member, and social services may be required to also address failures in the larger family system in terms of how the child's needs are addressed.

Structural Therapy

Structural therapy focuses on altering family behavior, through altering the structure and dynamic of how the family relates to one another, often by enhancing… [read more]

Culture of Poland the Country Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,643 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Culture of Poland

The country of Poland has a rich history and while it is not commonly known, Poland was home to many Jews prior to what is termed a 'Hitler's Horror' in Poland. Several alternative names exist for the country of Poland however, in the tenth century the name 'Polanie' is reported to have been derived from the name… [read more]

Families in Fiction Family Plays Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Families in Fiction

Family plays a part in all three books, "April and the Dragon Lady," "Children of the River," and "Shizuko's Daughter." In "April and the Dragon Lady," her mother is dead, so her relationship revolves around her father, grandmother, and brother. April feels a great deal of responsibility to her family, and she is the main caregiver for her grandmother, a duty that her brother does not share. He is spoiled and selfish, and April is always making excuses for him. She loves her father and her grandmother, and she takes on much responsibility early in life, while her brother takes on none. She is strong, and she is responsible, but she is also human, and she needs friends and people in her life that will support her, because her family life is difficult. She has a good relationship with her father, and her relationship with her grandmother improves as the book ends. Her father is portrayed as weaker than the grandmother, who is the true matriarch and leader of the family.

In "Children of the River," the protagonist, Sundara, leaves her family behind in Phnom Phen when she becomes a refugee from the Khmer Rouge. Her family is back in Cambodia, while she lives in America with her aunt and uncle, who push her to become a doctor. She seems almost like a servant to them, and sleeps in the garage; with the car she calls her "roommate." Sundara loves her family, but they are so strict, and so different from the American families she sees around her, that she begins to rebel and fight against their very strict Cambodian ways. Sundara, like April, is very responsible to her family, and, even though it is not true, she feels responsible for the baby's death as they left Cambodia. Her family is portrayed as strict, and living in the past, something that Sundara cannot accept or understand.

In "Shizuko's Daughter," Yuki probably has the worst relationship with her family. Her mother commits suicide, and she lives with an aunt until her father remarries. Her father is portrayed as extremely cold and unemotional, and…… [read more]

Xhosa People Are Black Africans Who Live Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,830 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Xhosa people are Black Africans who live in the Republic of South Africa, mainly in Ciskei and Transkei in the Eastern Cape areas (CESA 2008). Recent statistics say there were 6,734,000 of them living in beehive shaped huts. They are mostly cattle herders ruled by chiefs (CESA).

The Xhosa people were among the Bantu migrants from Southern Zaire to most… [read more]

Parental Alienation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Parental Alienation has had a profound impact on my life. Being separated from my son is the most dramatic event I have ever experienced. Ideally, I would be writing about the joy of marriage and fatherhood. For a time, there was nothing more pleasurable in my life. I met a woman in Chile and had a child with her there. There is truly nothing that can compare with the joy of becoming a father for the first time. Perhaps that is why there is nothing worse than the pain of parental alienation. To have the greatest gift you have ever been given taken away from you, it is a pain unimaginable to those who have been lucky enough to have never experienced it.

The marriage ended and I returned to the United States. My son remains in Chile, a continent away. Such a physical distance is enough to cause anxiety on its own - the opportunities to share my love would always be few and far between. However, my ex-wife has created a wedge between my son and myself. He is forbidden to come to the U.S. To see me and likewise I am forbidden to visit him in Chile. She visits the U.S., even to my hometown, and yet I still do not see my son. It is the most devastating thing I have ever encountered.

It is understandable that she and I do not get along. That is part of life, that a love once so strong can turn to something so awful. But ill will is not an inevitability. The desire to hurt one another is not a given. Whatever animosity that exists between us, however unfortunate, should nonetheless remain between us. That would be a cross for us to bear, the two of us.

What is unforgivable is the way in which she has split our entire family. My son has been forced to choose sides, and she fills his head with terrible thoughts. Her choice to…… [read more]

Autobiography All About Me Because I Immigrated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



All About Me

Because I immigrated to America at the cusp of adulthood, I have found that many of the people that I encounter focus on the fact that I am different from them. I immigrated to America six years ago from Moscow, Russia, which is where I spent my childhood. I am a tremendous advocate of America and… [read more]

Arguing to Inquire Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,731 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Gay Marriage


Those opposed to legalizing gay marriage consider it a danger to the sanctity of traditional, monogamous marriage, and maintain that expanding the notion of formal marriage to homosexual couples is a "slippery slope" that could conceivably lead to the legalization of polygamous marriage, and possibly incestuous marriage, and ultimately,… [read more]

Family Health Promotion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,790 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Family Health Promotion

Homelessness has been a foundationally recognized aspect of need in our culture from the period of the progressive era, and especially beginning during the great depression. Yet, the focus has traditionally been on homeless single men, as historically they have been the demographic that has been the most vulnerable to homelessness. Additionally, a period of deinstitutionalization occurred… [read more]

Family Deliquency and Crime Nowadays Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,521 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Family Deliquency and Crime

Nowadays society has to deal with all sorts of social issues in different contexts and with different social actors. A social problem is mostly a matter of perception, and it becomes a social problem when those around us consider it so.

Delinquency is known to be part of the social problems that nowadays society is confronted… [read more]

Commitment Example Marriage Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Commitment (example Marriage)


The idea of commitment means many different things, depending on the person that is asked the question. Generally, commitment means deciding on something - a course of action, a person, an idea, etc. - and then remaining with that, regardless of what else happens. However, an extended definition of commitment is more complex than that. For purposes of this paper, marriage will be used as an example to provide an extended definition of commitment, which will provide a clearer understanding to the reader of what commitment actually means, or at least should mean to people today.

In days gone by, when people got married they stayed that way. Now, that usually is not the case. Of course there are times when most people would agree that the marriage commitment should be broken, such as when a spouse is very abusive and will not seek any type of help for this issue. There are probably other circumstances, too, but that is not what this paper is about. The point is that more people used to remain married and take their commitment seriously, but there are still some people that take this type of commitment seriously, in the way that they should.

When two people make a commitment to one another on their wedding day, those vows are to be taken seriously. It is difficult to tell, anymore, if people really listen to and think about the words that they are saying when they get married or whether they simply go through the motions of the ceremony. Because of this, commitment gets avoided by individuals that are claiming to be completely immersed in it, which is unfortunate for the multitude of now-divorced individuals out there in the world today that made a deep commitment that their partner chose not to honor.

Commitment is not about 'just for today,' when one is standing there in the white dress or the tuxedo. Commitment is about a lifetime. People that are truly committed stand by one another no matter…… [read more]

American Families and the Nostalgia Trap Stephanie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,864 words)
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¶ … American Families and the Nostalgia Trap

Stephanie Coontz

It was in 1989, when historian Stephanie Coontz published an intellectual and scholarly book on the American family, the Social Origins of Private Life: A History of American Families, 1660-1900. Now, recently she has redrafted and expanded her previous study to make a valuable book that will be liked by… [read more]

Book Neither Black nor White the Saga of an American Family the Complete Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Black nor White the Saga Bk rpt.

Neither Black nor White: The Saga of an American Family, the Complete Story written by Joseph E. Holloway is a historical novel tracing the lineage of a black immigrant slaveholding family. The work is clearly a documented case of the extreme situation of colorism in American culture, where the wavering ideas… [read more]

Interview and Biography of an Elderly Person Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Edna Diamond is a 78-year-old female. Like most seniors, Diamond loves to tell stories and freely answered questions during this interview. Diamond agreed to speak to me about her personal feelings and experiences with the aging process. The following partial transcript and biography elucidates some of the ways seniors experience and address change.

At what age did you become… [read more]

Alcoholism on the Family and the Benefits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (6,219 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … alcoholism on the family and the benefits of a rehab. program

The impact of alcoholism on the family

General description of Interest

My interest in this subject is based on the fact that alcoholism is one of the most devastating and serious social and psychological diseases that affects thousands of people in our society. A further factor is… [read more]

Is the Decline of the Traditional Family a National Crisis? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,812 words)
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Decline of Traditional Family

The decline of the traditional family structure and concomitant values has been the subject of many worried religious and social documents. These documents quote high divorce rates as the reason for all social problems from crime and suicide to the AIDS pandemic. Single-parent families are demonized for their propensity towards abuse and poverty. Gay marriage are… [read more]

Family Planning and the One Child Policy in China Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,923 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Child Policy in China. It explores the problems faced by the Chinese due to the implementation of the One-Child policy. It takes a deep look at the origin of the policy, the social and economic outcome of the policy, and the issue of infanticide associated with the One-Child policy.

Origin of the One-Child Policy

Enforcement in Urban and… [read more]

Social Work Research Marriage Is a Serious Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (610 words)
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Social Work Research

Marriage is a serious institution that many people do not take seriously anymore. However, there is a growing trend among more highly-educated individuals to marry at high rates but do so later in life once they have completed all of their education (Goldstein & Kenney, 2001). By doing this they establish careers for themselves and they also tend to marry others that are highly educated. This helps the economic stability of the family and also works to help the economy of the country in general, as more people that are in higher socioeconomic classes are generally believed to contribute more to society. Those that are more highly-educated marry later and have fewer children overall than their younger counterparts. Those that marry at a younger age, in addition to having more children, also tend to have a lower education level and keep that lower education level throughout their life. In other words, those that marry at a young age often do not go back to school and seek out a higher level of education (Gayle, Berridge, & Davies, 2002).

Studies have shown that education and marriage apparently only mix if the education comes first (Gayle, Berridge, & Davies, 2002; Goldstein & Kenney, 2001). When an individual marries young, the economic constraints and the pressures of family life, children, and jobs often prevent these individuals from pursuing a continuing level of education. This is unfortunate for those that desperately want to return to school but simply cannot. With the advent of more online University options, more of these people can return to school, but the education level of people that marry young is still lower than those that do not marry until they are older, and this is true of both men and women. Gender differences do not seem to pay a large role…… [read more]

Divorce Insight Into the Quandaries Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (872 words)
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Nonetheless, there appears to be significantly more images which portray only one aspect of these relationships, or which so distort the depiction of a healthy marriage so that observers are left with only a caricature of one. A fair amount of role playing is involved in these portrayals, which, from a very early age, future adults observe and eventually emulate in the beliefs that these roles constitute the requirements of a marriage. Men mold themselves into the "honey" role, a decisive, money-earning, action-based problem solver who wants his living room clean and his dinner warm by the time he returns to his "castle." Women pattern themselves into the "babe" role, an attractive domestic (regardless of professional aspirations or realizations) with impeccable maternal instincts and a knack for convincing her husband of virtually anything. Problems exist when situations arise (such as life itself) that detract from the perceptions and responsibilities of these two roles, and thrust the assuming couple into instances outside of the foundation (if such narrow viewpoints can be called one) with which their relationship is based. Marrying another because of a perceived image or expectation with an ephemeral lifespan is not reason enough to endure the vicissitudes of a union, which contemporary divorce rates readily indicate.

The very nature of the so-called information age in which modern American life has become increasingly dependant upon explains why marriages appear to be more difficult to keep intact despite a seemingly wealth of resources to help them. The same informational resources which can be used to aid a marriage, such as the internet, television, podcasts, and films) provide wonderful distractions and disincentives in the form of competing interests and alternative companions which can potentially sunder a union, particularly if it is not based upon concrete reasons for marriage in the first place.

All divorces in postmillennial American society should not be perceived as negative, any more than all marriages in such society should be perceived as positive. As alluded to earlier in this essay, potential obstacles to happiness in marriages (particularly for women) -- including physical and mental abuse or economic dependence on a spouse -- no longer need to be tolerated due to the accessibility and acceptable social regard for divorce in contemporary times. These considerations, combined with the myriad methods of financial stability both men and women can achieve independently of one another, make divorce an appropriate option in several instances that would not have been possible a few generations ago.… [read more]

Why Marriages Fail Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Marriages Fail

Typically, studies involving the causes of divorce interview divorced individuals to determine the cause of the divorce. According to Amato & Rogers, the most frequently cited marital problems include communication difficulties, general incompatibility, infidelity, not spending enough time at home, and disagreements about money (613). However, a longitudinal study conducted by Amato & Rogers used panel data from a telephone survey of married people in 1980 to determine the extent to which marital problems would predict divorce between 1980 and 1992. Amato & Rogers identified two types of factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. The first, they call distal factors, represent the characteristics that individuals bring into the relationship. The second, they call proximal factors, are specific marital problems which directly increase the likelihood of divorce (613).

Amato & Rogers explain "that distal factors (demographic and life course characteristics) affect the likelihood that certain problems arise within the relationships and these proximal relationship problems, increase the likelihood of divorce" (614). Distal factors that increase the likelihood of divorce include: marrying at an early age; cohabitating prior to marriage; being African-American; being in a marriage of short duration; having low religious participation; having low education or income; being in a second rather than a first marriage; experiencing parental divorce as a child; and women's employment and income (Amato & Rogers 614). Proximal factors that increase the likelihood of marital dissolution include: sexual infidelity; jealousy; drinking; spending money; moodiness; not communicating; and anger (Amato & Rogers 622). Amato & Rogers report that extramarital sex is a particularly powerful predictor of divorce, occurring in at least one-third of failed marriages.

According to Amato & Rogers, the distal factors such as age at marriage, church attendance, remarriage, and parental divorce affect the odds of divorce in part by "contributing to certain constellations of marital problems, which, in turn, predict divorce" (623). For example, couples who marry at a young age are more likely to report marital problems associated with infidelity and jealousy. However, frequent church attendance seems to lower the likelihood of divorce. This could be because people who attend church have internalized behavioral norms and behave better, or because there may be more stigma associated with divorce for them. Amato & Rogers further assert that parental divorce seems to lead to an increase of a number of marital problems including jealousy, infidelity, irritating habits, and spending money foolishly. Additionally, children who experience parental divorce do not have role models of effective relationship skills; therefore, they experience increased marital problems and an increased risk of divorce (623). Amato & Roger's research clearly shows a link between marital problems and the likelihood of divorce.

A second longitudinal study conducted by Huston was called the Processes of Adaptation in Intimate Relationships (PAIR) Project, and examined "romantic relationships back into courtship and forward into the early years of…… [read more]

Family Be Defined in Such Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Family be Defined in Such a Way as to be Globally Relevant?

The idea of a family, being in a family, or having a family is no stranger to anyone anywhere in the globe because as social beings, each of us began our lives within the confines of a group known as the "family." Of course when the term family comes into focus, the very first notion of which is a group of people related by blood comprising of a father, mother and one or more children. This is the basic definition of a family and since time immemorial; the family has been viewed as the basic unit of society providing the needs of members and learning from within before moving into the other social groups of the larger society. Although there is the basic definition of a family (i.e. father, mother, children), the meaning has been further extended wherein the composition of which include people who are related by blood, marriage, and/or adoption. This gives rise to two types of family: the nuclear and the extended, where the latter comprises of the parents and the children while the former includes other relatives living in the same roof. As already stated, "families play a central role in societies as they are the primary site for reproduction, in socializing the next generation, in early education, and in stabilizing adult personality formation (Trask 2011)." However, like in other times in history, the social, cultural, economic, political climates and other factors contributes to changes in the family. During the last several decades, the onset of globalization proved yet another determining factor in how families stand in a changing world. Consequently, it is important to understand the affects of what is happening now and how the family relates to the changes and challenges of the times.

There are varied definitions of globalization from the economic, political, to the information and communications perspective as well as other factors. Carrington (2001) defined globalization as increasing the ways in which individuals and groups understand their world are in global terms. No longer are we confined to localized and space-bound communities and identities. Applying this in the context of the family today, globalization added a new dimension to what the family is in a way that the confines of the family or any family for that matter, is not relegated anymore to their immediate society or geographic boundary but on a global scale as well. Whereas, families before are likely to be in the same geographic location, the changing face of the world especially with globalization saw families living separately in different parts of the globe. An example would be a father working abroad in order to support a family back home. There are also families nowadays wherein the children had to leave home for another country in order to get a better education or work…… [read more]

Doll's House: Marriage &amp Gender Roles Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Doll's House

An Analysis of Ibsen's Doll's House

Henrik Ibsen's 1879 Norwegian play A Doll's House presents a none-too-flattering vision of 19th century marriage and gender roles. But is Ibsen attacking marriage per se? From the perspective of "new historicism" and "cultural criticism," this paper will attempt to answer that question by drawing on information contemporaneous of Ibsen's drama -- such as "A Nineteenth Century Husband's Letter to His Wife," which bears at least in essence the form of a real-life Nora-Torvald type of husband-wife relationship: one in which the husband fails to follow the Golden Rule -- or the Pauline principle, "Husbands, love your wives" (Eph 5:25).

Ibsen, of course, had lived through a century in which his own nation had been subjugated to a foreign aggressor: Sweden. It was not until the 20th century that Norway was able to assert its independence and put the Swedish invasion and fidelity to the Swedish king behind it. If anything, Ibsen's Doll's House may be read as an allegory for Norwegian nationality, with Nora coming to realize herself as an independent body fully capable and deserving of governing herself. When Nora casts off Torvald (who obviously loves himself more than her -- and who has not the slightest conception of selflessness, thankfulness, or humility -- virtues that Nora alone possesses), a new historicist or cultural critic could easily reckon this as a symbolic gesture of what every good Norwegian hoped for.

However, disregarding the play's symbolic aspect for a more literal interpretation moves the literary critic into another sphere of social commentary: the 19th marriage. As Paul Johnson observes in his critique of Ibsen, "Ibsen preached the revolt of the individual against the ancien regime of inhibitions and prejudices which held sway in every small town, indeed in every family. He taught men, and especially women, that their individual conscience and their personal notions of freedom have moral precedence over the requirements of society" (82). Ibsen, in other words, was a social revolutionary on the order of the Romantic/Enlightenment era -- a time whose doctrine was substantially divorced from the old world teachings that unified Europe in the medieval world and brought security to Norway in the tenth century under King Olav. Ibsen, like the rest of the modern world of the 19th century, had rejected the medieval mores associated with the old world religion and family structure; it had left the Pauline scriptures for a philosophy based on "liberty, equality, and fraternity" -- the motto of the French Revolution. Ibsen's Nora is, in this sense, a reflection of the spirit of Ibsen's age -- the woman who realizes that she has been playing a thankless role her whole life: that the husband for whom she would sacrifice everything would not stoop to make the same sacrifice of himself for her. What St. Paul would have judged an error on the part of the husband (and compelled him to correction), is judged by Ibsen an inexcusable flaw in the… [read more]

Marriage and Crime Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Marriage Reduce Crime? A counterfactual Approach to Within-Individual Causal Effects" by Sampson, Laub and Wimer (2006), the authors explore the possibility that men who enter marriage are less likely to continue with criminal activities after the fact, or indeed are less likely to commit a crime than unmarried men. To investigate this, 500 high-risk boys were followed from their youth to the age of 32, with 500 additional candidates being followed to age 70. The finding was that marriage resulted in an approximately 35% reduction of crime than the non-married state.

The basis of the paper is the bias that may result from marriage selection. Although outcomes have suggested that marriage has a reducing effect on criminal activity, the interpretation might also be that men who are not involved in crime in the first place are more likely to be chosen as marriage partners than those who are. Hence the results are difficult to pinpoint. The authors were concerned with addressing this potential pitfall.

To do this, 500 young men were investigated as they entered adulthood with a high risk of continued criminal activity, with a follow-up study for these men to the age of 70. By choosing men with a history of criminal activity, the bias related to marriage partner choice is eliminated. This enabled the investigators to determine the variants within individuals before and after marriage, rather than simply comparing married to non-married individuals.

Assuming the positive effect of marriage on the tendency to desist from crime, the authors identify four factors that creates this association for marriage: 1) The social bonds that form as a result of marriage; 2) significant changes in everyday routines and patterns; 3) direct social control by the female spouse, where she insists on the husband spending a certain amount of time within the family, being a good breadwinner, and so on; and 4) the change in sense of self that often comes with marriage, i.e., the young man now feels "grown up" and ready to take the responsibility of marriage and providing for his family. This can only be effectively done by means of a steady and legal employment, while desisting from crime. The authors hold that these are major factors playing a role in married individuals desisting from crime to a greater degree than their non-married counterparts.

Although it is uncertain whether cohabitation is less likely to inhibit criminal activity that marriage itself. Nevertheless, it is found that both cohabitation and marriage tend to reduce the use of marijuana and binge drinking. While the authors then found that marriage did have a positive effect upon crime reduction, the question to be addressed by the rest of the paper was whether this effect was causal.

Before moving to the body of their research, the authors make the point that the focus of…… [read more]

Work Family and Gender Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  4 pages (1,151 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Work, Family and Gender

In the book, The Second Shift: Working Parents and The Revolution at Home, by Arlie Hochschild gives a lot of detailed information as well as additional tactics through which men and women in two career marriages manage the burdens of work and family desires. During the early and mid-eighties, Hochschild and her investigation acquaintances talk to fifty married couples at boundless lengths. Furthermore, Hochschild viewed the lives of families in a twelve homes. At the center of the book are the accounts of eleven pairs. Everyone but two are associates of the middle and upper-middle class. With that said, I believe and support Hochschild's purpose for writing this book. In my opinion, it was to bring to society's awareness the necessity for change in how accommodating communities are to women giving another income and the majority of the "second shift in their household.

I did not have a hard time at all agreeing with the author regarding the struggle between husband and wife. I concur with Hochschild concerning the point that it is not just the conflict between the husband and wife about partaking in household duties and childcare obligations, but the basis behind the strain and the fact that it is not easy to resolute plummets on the shoulders of our culture and anticipated and learned gender beliefs (Hochschild 16 ) Through the reading, I was not surprised to learn that throughout her study Hochschild concluded that the majority of marriages that did not collapse or that did not last with an endless fight and emotional stress on the husband and wife, were the marriages where both couples shared the task of the "second shift (Hochschild 215). I agree with her quote: "In my investigation the men who took on the second shift had a happier family life (Hochschild 216). I can compare this with society today because men that step up and help in the partnership, take a load off the female and bring balance to the marriage since I think it takes two to make it work.

I felt that in supporting her argument about the second shift, Hochschild revealed three main points that were from her standpoint. I can agree with her first point regarding that society depicts the woman that works as busy, entertaining, and to her daughter, a positive role model. Basically, she is seen as a woman that is able to do everything. I was astonished regarding her passion for this point, especially when she went so far to support this with an article from the New York Times Magazine. On the front page of this article, it depicted a working mother strolling home, holding the hand of her daughter. I felt that this article was a great example in supporting her point. According to Hochschild, "The Times article portrays the image that the woman who works is doing a good job because she is individually skilled, not because she has a good social plan. Certainly, I think and… [read more]

Marital Vows Relevance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (909 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Marriage ceremonies indicate that two or more people have come together to create a family. That they do so through the public declaration of a wedding rather than simply living together (for example) means that there are public aspects of the relationship that is defined at least in part by the wedding vows. This is why vows remain relevant, because they remind both those who are marrying as well as the members of the wider communities in which they live that they are (usually literally) signing up for a particular type of relationship (Bell, 1997).

For example, the marital vows associated with many of the world's established religions emphasize the importance of creating a family for the purpose of producing children. Some marriage vows remind the couple that their religion admonishes that women be subordinate. Other traditional marriage vows touch on the importance of fidelity or honor. By incorporating these concepts into the marriage vows, the community (from whose history the marriage vows will have originally derived and been modified over time) is making its expectations clear with each new marriage.

The above description of marriage vows should make it clear why they should remain relevant in our modern age, especially within the context of traditional marriages. But it is also the case that marital vows remain highly relevant for those in untraditional marriages. The following is a portion of a wedding between two women:

You are my best friend. I feel so fortunate to have found such a wonderful person to share my life with.

You make me laugh and you add so much light to my life.

I promise to keep you laughing, to take care of you when you are sick and to support you with any decisions you make.

I look forward to growing with you in mind and spirit. I will always be honest and open to you.

I adore & love you and will continue to cherish you throughout our lives together. (Belge, 2011)

What is most striking about the above vow is how traditional it is in terms of the values that it encodes and expresses. This is intentional: For those who enter into marriage in a form that many in our society consider to be illegitimate there is all the more reason to make a clear statement in their vows that in terms of love (as institutionalized in marriage) we are all the same (Bell, 1997).


A two-year marriage bill was proposed by Mexican politician, http://www.ecuadortimes.net/2011/09/28/a-two-year-marriage-bill-was-proposed-by-mexican-politician/

Belge, K. (2011). Sample Lesbian Wedding Vows, http://lesbianlife.about.com/od/weddingplanning/a/PamVickyVows.htm

Bell, Duran (1997). Defining Marriage and Legitimacy. Current Anthropology 38(2): 237 -- 254.

Benokraitis, N. (2010). Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints (7th ed.) New York: Prentice Hall.… [read more]

Family Therapy Models, Diagnosis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These patterns of interaction are necessary for the regular functioning of the family, even though the members do not realize they are part of this structure. Another key component in the Minuchin's model is the notion of subsystems. Families can be differentiated into subsystems based on generation, gender, and function, which are demarcated by interpersonal boundaries. When a therapist observes… [read more]

Unemployment Emotional Distresses Which Arise From Loss Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Emotional distresses which arise from loss of job usually have effect on the loser of the job and the rest of the family members. This analysis covers the issue of unemployment and assesses its effect on auto workers in Detroit and their families. It was found that financial hardship which comes as a result of unemployment directly affects the relationship of the family.

From the year 1979 to 1984, there has been loss of jobs to more than 11.5 million by workers as a result of plant closing within industries. Though manufacturing industries offers 20% of the employment in the nation, it has undergone tremendous cut down and closing, (Bluestone & Harrison, 1982). A number of issues that leads to plant closing has come up like, ill-founded federal policy, poor corporate planning, capital flight, pursuit of lower labor costs and decreasing profit rate. The effect of these on workers as well as their families tends to be severe.

The above situation is being experienced by Whelchel's family who are living on a side of street just near the automobile plant. This was after the shut down of Chevrolet plant in Atlanta due to strike and the Whelchel's family is trying to make end meet. Their house is brown framed with seven rooms-seven rooms. The lot is narrow though deep, stretching almost two hundred feet back which forms a pasture for the cow that is providing the family with milk. Houses that are around Whechel's are the same in size and style, all of them having frame structures, with grasses planted at the small front yards.

The jobs that Whelchel is doing is refinishing furniture for the Western Union Telegraph Company, being a shipping clerk and as well being a lineman for the Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company. Currently he is on the unloading platform of the Chevrolet Company whereas a month ago he was a buffer. On the unloading platform he works for forty hours a week making just eighty cents for an hour.

About 40% of the entire U.S. auto employment tends to be situated in Michigan. From 1980s recession in the auto industry, the economy of the Michigan has suffered considerably. Detroit area economy was largely hurt by decline in industries. Annual rates of employment in this area were as high as 16% in 1982, whereas in January 1988 the rate was still far above the national average of 5.8%-10.3% within Detroit.

Skills that are required in jobs as well as training like the ones needed within automotive industry are becoming scarce increasingly. Even though the service industry within the sector of the service industry goes on to enlarge in the 1980s and 1990s, most of the jobs which are available are paying low with low skill requirement as also realized from the work that Whechel is doing. Therefore, plant shutdown mean the worker will get lower pay (in any case work is found), quite long periods of unemployment, and at the end there is possibility of… [read more]

Challenges of the Marriage Market for Women in Pride and Prejudice Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pride and Prejudice

All women love "Pride and Prejudice." And really, why shouldn't they? The story of the intrepid and, at times, impertinent Elizabeth Bennet is an alluring one. It's a story of a comely young women looking for her prince charming, it's a story of an iconoclast challenging antiquated social conventions, it's a story that juxtaposes bourgeois pride against… [read more]

Assessment Tool Assessment

Assessment  |  8 pages (2,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … road is not just the road; the road is the way that you walk it." -- Juan Ramon Jimenez

Because not all changes affect all family members, and alterations in one individual are not going to influence the rest of a person's family, it seems families can use whatsoever techniques to ease smooth performance. Then, what is the… [read more]

Taking Care of the Elderly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,500 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Care of the Elderly: The Responsibility of Family

It is a fact of life that people are living longer lives than ever before in human history. Because of advances made in medicine and knowledge about lifestyle choices, the older population is growing and living to increasingly older ages. With this, some unfortunate effects are following, including the economic… [read more]

Factors Predicting Marital Success or Failure Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Predicting Marital Success or Failure

Marriage and marital success is an issue that has dominated debate in the counseling and research field for quite a long period of time. For a while now, researchers and counselors have sought answers to questions that seek to establish the reason why some marriages are successful while others are not. In that… [read more]

King Arthur Is an Epic Hero Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


King Arthur is an epic hero and few before him could match that description. Beowulf, Gilgamesh, and Achilles were all ancient heros that can be comparable to King Arthur. Their royal family line, their weaknesses, and their iconic deaths forever link them as well as distinguish them from one another. Given these particular characteristics, all these idols were made iconic… [read more]

Anthropology Marriage and Divorce Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Marriage and Divorce

In Matthew 19:1-16, Jesus began by referring the Pharisees back to the Book of Genesis where God at the beginning made them male and female ("Matthew 19: Divorce,," ). This was to bring out God's original intent, which is one man and one woman as one couple for a lifetime. This is the ideal of God and the way things really should be. In Matthew 19:5 it states "And [Jesus] said, for this cause shall a man leave [his] father and mother, and shall cleave [be united] to his wife: and they twain [two] shall be one flesh? (ibid.)

The basic doctrine that Jesus set down in Mat 19:6 Wherefore they [a man and his wife] are no more twain [two], but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together [in marriage], let not man put asunder [put away, take apart, divide, separate] (ibid.). Divorce is therefore frowned upon in Christianity in the strongest fashion and equated with fornication and adultery that took Israel away from God's original ideal of marriage to one partner for good.

While the law made allowance for a man to give a bill of divorce, Jesus made the divorce strictures more strict. As Jesus says "Mat 19:9 and I [Jesus] say unto you, Whosoever shall put away [divorce] his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away [divorced] doth commit adultery (ibid.)." If there are objections, this author will point to the Lord Jesus' teachings and mention that this is the higher moral manifestation of marriage and it must be followed even while it may be inconvenient and not politically expedient. As the antecedent to Moses, he has the right to make something stricter or less strict as the case may be.

As set out in Matthew 19:9, fornication is the only…… [read more]

Students With Diverse Families Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" They may be more worried about meeting their survival needs than their educational requirements.

Support for these families is also more complex. The school needs to have a program to involve parents and help them create a comfortable and functional setting for learning. At school, these children need to feel welcome. Generally, they have been in multiple schools. They probably have fallen behind and may not have developed learning skills yet. They need to be enrolled and integrated into the new school promptly. They need supports at school to increase their self-esteem. Often, the school needs to arrange medical treatment and psychotherapy. The school's role for foster children is far more involved than for the children of gay parents.

Multi-racial families and families with grandparents or relatives functioning as caregivers require still other services. Active participation in the classroom by teachers who are well equipped for each student is necessary to allow these children to perform well. In addition, positive reinforcement through means such as having library and classroom resources that reflect family diversity and using inclusive terms for caregivers is beneficial for all of the students.

The author eradicates the concern that the institution of the family is declining. Quite the contrary, the institution of the family is growing. Consequently, as the institution expands and evolves, educators need to increase their knowledge and augment family support in order to create stability in the lives of their multi-cultural students.


Ayasse, R.H., "Addressing the needs of foster children: The Foster Youth Services Program." Social Work in Education, 17(4) (October 1995)

Hampton, F.M., Rak, C., & Mumford, D.A. "Children's literature reflecting diverse family structures: Social and academic benefits for early reading programs." ERS Spectrum, 15(4), (Fall, 1997).

Schwartz, Wendy, "Family Diversity in Urban Schools." ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education…… [read more]

Person Whom I Spoke Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … person whom I spoke to is approximately 30 years older than I. She was describing her childhood experiences when her parents were divorced and the fact that she had to grow up in as conflicting family.

Firstly, she described to me at length how she felt that her mother was often frustrated that she had to be a… [read more]

Family Nudity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Family Nudity

Most people, who oppose Family Nudity, do so as an extension of their own conservative views on sexuality or simply as a knee-jerk reaction and do not have valid scientific reasons for such opposition. In my opinion there is no harm in family nudity, especially if it is practiced in the privacy of one's home and does not have any sexual overtones to it.

Whatever little research is available on the issue indicates that children who grow up in nudist families are much more comfortable with their bodies and their sexuality as adults. They are apt to exhibit higher levels of self-esteem and self-confidence. On the other hand, children who have been brought up without any exposure to family nudity at home are more likely to suffer from feelings of shame about their genitalia as children and from sexual anxiety as adults. Such feelings of shame about sex may adversely affect their adult sexual relationships too. To my mind, anything which helps children to develop normally with a healthy attitude about sex should…… [read more]

Marriage Coaching Movie Review

Movie Review  |  2 pages (770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Marriage Coaching

The movie Not Easily Broken is a master piece in the art of marriage counseling. The movie is based on young couples who love each other at the start and even conduct a church wedding and at the initial time, all they wanted to see is the mate. This however changes when other commitments like the job schedule for the wife and the sports training schedule for the man (David Johnson) fail to give each of them time to be with each other, even though they both want to be with each other. Things get worse when Mrs. Johnson breaks a leg in an accident occasioned by their very arguments and her mother moves into their home to take care of her. The mother-in-law becomes the biggest barrier to the communication between the man and wife hence driving them further apart. The situation depreciates so badly that at last the man seems to find consolation from another single woman and the sports he is a coach at and not the wife. Eventually he is evicted from the house under the influence of the mother-in-law. Mrs. Johnson at last decides to salvage her marriage and realizing that her mother was a bad influence, she relieves her off their home and decides to call back the husband, and the situation turns around totally.

Anyone who has not seen the movie will definitely have to look for the clues on the importance of understanding the interpersonal communication in a marriage as well as the non-verbal cues that partners could be using for communication yet largely ignored for instance Mrs. Johnson stopping his husband from kissing him because she just had some makeup. There will also be need to look out for the external interference in a marriage and how such interference is capable of having a negative impact on the stability of a marriage. These are the two aspects that need further reflection as well for anyone in a marriage union or are aspiring to get to the institution of marriage with success.

There are various therapeutic values that are observed and are worth learning in the movies. There are several scenes of emotional outburst that becomes therapeutic to the characters and makes them think seriously about their next step after the outburst. For instance after…… [read more]

Gay Marriage the Overwhelming Passage of Amendments Term Paper

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¶ … Gay Marriage

The overwhelming passage of amendments defining marriage as a union between man and woman is a sign of religious fundamentalism creeping into the back door of the American government. Amendments such as this undermine every citizens constitutional right to freedom in a country founded on the principles of democracy and liberty for all. It signifies an… [read more]

Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales of Marriage the Wife Term Paper

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Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales Of Marriage

The Wife

The Merchant

The Franklin

Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales of Marriage

Geoffrey Chaucer wrote the Canterbury Tales, which is a collection of stories told by a set of thirty pilgrims to Canterbury Cathedral, to the shrine of Thomas of Canterbury, martyred in 1170. Most of the tales deal with the question of the correct attitude… [read more]

Family &amp Kinship (Anthropology) Term Paper

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With the pervasiveness of modern Western culture, even the Mosuo themselves consider the possibility that their non-traditional family and kinship structure will be altered to adapt to the normative traditions of marriage and family structure.

Of course, this commentary remains to be seen and witnessed to happen in the Mosuo community; nevertheless, the article brings into lucidity how, viewed from the perspective of Western paradigm of anthropology, cultures are analyzed in order to convince readers how the Mosuo culture is unique and different from them. This may be construed positively or negatively by the article's audience. People may consider the Mosuo culture as an example of how non-normative social behaviors are perpetuated and influence people over time. However, the uniqueness of the Mosuo culture may also elicit negative reactions among people who have rigidly conservative belief in marriage and notion of what a typical family should be (these insights are reflected when viewed from the Western perspective).

Similar with the Mosuo culture, the nature and structure of Taiwanese families in China shows how matriarchy is perpetuated despite the seemingly patriarchal nature of Taiwanese society. Through the concept of "uterine families," Margery Wolf discusses the how, despite the dominance of men in Taiwan, it is evident that ultimately, it is the women who maintain autonomy all throughout their lives. However, despite this autonomy, women also live a life of constant detachment from the family she establishes and later on leave, in pursuit of a new life.

Wolf elucidates on this point, explaining how the process of autonomy emerges as the woman is detached from her family to join her husband's family, only to become a temporary family member to it. Wolf states: "With the ritual slam of her father's door on her wedding day, a young woman finds herself quite literally without a family....She is an outsider, and for Chinese an outsider is always an object of deep suspicion" (243). This passage illustrates that despite the collective nature of Chinese society, women become underprivileged, mainly because they assume roles that puts them at a disadvantage -- that is, becoming a "temporary" member not only of her husband's family, but to her own family as well. In the words of Wolf, the temporariness of her role within the family makes her dependent "on her husband, her mother-in law's son, as her spokesman, and here is where the trouble begins" -- that is, the dominance of her husband, thereby resulting to the persistence of patriarchy (244).

However, Wolf also makes her readers realize that despite the disadvantageous position that Taiwanese women assume in her society, the autonomy that she receives created an opportunity for women to establish their own community -- a community that is unique and geared towards making women feel belonged and part of a pseudo-family. Through the "collective power" of this community of women, women develop control and influence over their husband by 'manipulating them,' a character which the author considers as a display of a Taiwanese woman's "rugged individualism,"… [read more]

Bertrande Knew the Real Identity Term Paper

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Davis notes that the village of Artigat in 16th Century France was becoming more subject to a liberating Protestant influence. In general, more and more women were exercising free choice in deciding whom they married. Bertrande now, after suffering her father's will to marry Guerre, and then cut off from Martin Guerre because of a fatherly quarrel, must have been aware of the burgeoning Protestant influence upon the doctrine of marriage that stressed love rather than family allegiance as the basis of matrimony. She may have used it as an excuse to ignore the difference of identity of her new bedfellow and companion and protector.

The spread of Protestantism thus could have created an intellectual justification for both Bertrande and the reborn 'Guerre' to validate their union, in their own minds and also in societal terms, where secret and freely chosen marriages were growing more common, and more and more couples were entertaining the possibility of love matches than prearranged alliances. Of course, initially, the desire to gain property may be one reason as well that Bertrande's new husband wished to impersonate her old man Guerre. Bertrande de Rols, was relatively well off, and despite patriarchal norms regarding inheritance, in the French village where she resided, the law regarding female inheritance was fairly equitable in theory, although often contested. It divided property equally amongst daughters, in the absence of male heirs. These customs and laws were often debated, however, and tensions existed between Protestants and Catholics and different regions of how property should be distributed when the daughters were married, and when there was no clear son to inherit the wealth.

If Bertrande knew her new husband's identity, she could have a lover, become the clearly wealthy and powerful individual in the relationship, rather than be subject to questions of inheritance and legal squabbling. She would always have something to hold above her false husband's head in knowledge, over the course of the relationship, as she could always reveal that he was not what he said he was, unbeknownst to her. But Bertrande's happiness was thwarted -- also by using documented court records, Davis notes that when doubts began to circulate about the real identity of Guerre, this began to unsettle the already divided village of Artigat.

At the time of Martin Guerre's false return, differences in religious affiliation between Protestants and Catholics were particularly rife, thus making the court system oversensitive to secret marriages, and different views of Protestant and Catholic ideas about women, witchcraft, and inheritance. This division often marked the disagreements, rather than belief in what was true, factually in numerous court cases, including that of Guerre's. Jean de Coras, the reporter and judge had Protestant ties, while the original Martin Guerre's father was a Catholic.

Thus, Natalie Davis suggests that regardless of the truth, the community was probably too ideologically fraught to ever render a truly equitable judgment regarding Guerre. The societal religious divisions between Protestants and Catholics as well as the true Guerre's desire to… [read more]

Portrayal of American Family in Recent Films Term Paper

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Portrayal of American Life Through Films

Portrayal of the American Family in Recent Films

It does not take an expert in sociology to see that the landscape of the American family has changed during the last few decades and these changes have been reflected through several movies such as "Kramer vs. Kramer," "Ordinary People," "American Beauty," and "In the Bedroom."… [read more]

Sociology Family Issues Divorce, Property &amp Women Term Paper

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Sociology Family Issues

Divorce, Property & Women's Rights

Throughout history the inequality of the experience lived by men and women have been quiet different in terms of equality. Although it may appear that women are on equal standing with men in some areas, a closer look, especially historically speaking, tells a completely different story. The purpose of this work is… [read more]

Self-Improvement Spiritual Guru Deepak Chopra Term Paper

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Spiritual guru Deepak Chopra discusses the realities of love in his 1997 book "The Path to Love." Although he does not necessarily outline a plan of how to get out of a failed relationship, he does however point the reader in the right direction concerning how to recognize a meaningful one.

The first chapter, "Reviving a Love Story," Chopra… [read more]

Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony Cultures Term Paper

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¶ … Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony

Cultures evolve over time in response to changes in environment and social conditions. This fact is brought home in a Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony, where John Demos ostensibly sets out to reconstruct the typical life of an average Pilgrim household in the seventeenth century. However, since Demos uses a social history rather than a narrative framework, he succeeds in effectively establishing the manner in which the Pilgrim families adapted to their new environment. Demos achieves this through a process of analysis and interpretation of everyday life, using method and theory from the social sciences. This approach allows Demos to infer that the opportunities for geographical and social mobility offered by the new environment led to changes in the family system and ideals that the Pilgrims brought with them from the Old World.

Demos uses three types of source material to bring together a vivid portrayal of family life in Plymouth colony - physical artifacts, documents such as wills and inventories, and the official records of individual towns and the Colony. In addition, Demos also draws upon secondary research in the form of literary materials published during the period. Using these source materials, Demos analyzes the everyday life of a Plymouth household using a combination of quantitative data, an impressionistic and topical approach and theoretical models borrowed from the behavioral sciences. Indeed, it is the unorthodoxy of Demos's method that allows him to draw inferences and develop the hypothesis that, contrary to popular legend, family life in Plymouth Colony was not at all unique, and that it marks the beginning of the history of American family life.

Demos's systematic and scientific approach to his subject lends a great deal of credibility to the supports and inferences he uses to support his major theme. For instance, he points out that scholars have traditionally focused on the authoritative control exercised by the various institutional systems of Plymouth Colony on virtually all aspects of life, including family. Whereas, a careful examination of individual lives reveals a kind of fluidity that is commonly associated with a much later period in American national history. As a prime example, he cites the simple factor of geographical mobility, brought about by the temptation of empty land and a desire for wealth: "New towns arose in the wilderness and were chartered, albeit reluctantly, by the General Court." In effect, Demos debunks the myth that the Pilgrims were people who believed in austerity and a Godly life. In fact, as additional support, Demos analyzes artifacts, wills, and inventories to establish a trend of steadily growing diversity in housing, furnishing, and the possession of other material objects.

Demos also analyzes the cultural effect of Pilgrim families eagerly responding to the "land of opportunity." For instance, he points…… [read more]

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