"Fashion / Designers / Beauty" Essays

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Fashion and Social Identity Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (933 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


My clothes speak to the people around me and give them an idea about me as a college going student. At times I also realize that without even telling them about my occupation people realize that I am university going student through my dressing style.

I personally believe that there is a reason why people emphasize on the dressing sense and style especially the types of clothes to wear at different occasions. The clothes that a person wears give the statement about his personality and character even before he speaks his fashion speaks for him.

The dress that a person wears also tells about his professional standing. A person wearing a formal dress shirt, pant, tie and coat is usually considered as a top notch executive o business man. Same goes for a woman wearing dress pants or skirt with a shirt and coat. Similarly, a lady wearing a gown is considered to be going to a formal event.

I can quote certain examples and real life incidences that happened with me regarding the out statements that my clothes gave to people in my surrounding. In my sophomore year I got a wild sense of clothing and without thinking I adopted quite a wild dressing sense, torn jeans, T-shirts having quite wild statements. This led my friend's parents asking them to stay away from me and considering me as one of the bad guys. My result in the end set them right.

During my university life I went to a friend's party and was dressed quite formally for the event, (in dress shirts and pants), many people considered me an executive in some company and asked me about my work and position there.

During my first interview for the job training I knew I impressed the panel of interviewees (it was evident by their expressions). After getting the job, I asked the HR assistant and he told me that they were greatly impressed by my dressing sense and considered me a professional when I entered.

These days I try to keep a variable dressing sense and style and like giving surprises. I do not usually stick to one dressing sense and keep changing my style frequently. This makes it difficult for people to form a general opinion about me on the basis of my dressing and fashion sense. It also helps me give different signals and messages in different meetings.

I believe that clothes and dressing style create a general opinion and perception about people and even before speaking to them a person's sense of speaks a lot about that person.


Shete, V. 2012. Fashion & Social Identity: A Cultural Phenomenon. Available at: http://virshete.wordpress.com/2012/07/15/fashion-and-social-identity-a-cultural-phenomenon/… [read more]

Fashion When a Woman Walks Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,348 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Fashion is a factor in social and collective identity; including identities related to socio-economic class, ethnic/racial group, and gender/sex inequality. Moreover, clothing clearly delineates one's professional status or locus of professional activity, level of education and acquisition of certain types of knowledge, and participation in the sciences (Lamont and Molnar, 2002). Fashion is an outward sign of the formation of "communities, national identities, and spatial boundaries," (Lamont and Molnar, 2002, p.167). The relationship between clothing and identity (whether personal or collective) is a two way street. In other words, the way a person dresses enables the individual to express personal preferences and lifestyle choices as well as announce membership in a specific cultural group. At the same time, the group to which a person belongs can co-create expressions of style and fashion that are used to enforce social boundaries.

In research on how African-American communities create collective identity, Lamont and Molnar (2001) found a measurable, directional relationship between African-American consumption patterns and self-marking. African-Americans were found to use consumption to "defy racism and share collective identities most valued in American society (e.g. middle-class membership)" (Lamont and Molnar, 2001, p. 31). Fashion was also used to "simultaneously enact a positive vision of their cultural distinctiveness," (Lamont and Molnar, 2001, p. 31).

Clothing also allows for nuanced and radical types of gender performativity. Gender performativity reflects the culturally sanctioned lines between "male/masculine" and "female/feminine" designations. A drag queen conducts radical gender performativity by revealing the most exaggerated stereotype of "feminine" fashion, and when a butch dons a plaid flannel shirt, she accomplishes the same. In Fashion and its Social Agendas, Judith Crane discusses the various, often contradictory, ways fashion and gender performativity interact. The fashion industry capitalizes on gender norms by ascribing gendered labels to certain types of clothing, thereby enforcing or even creating gender identity through clothing. Consumers literally buy into the gender identities established for them through their choice of clothing or dress style. On the other hand, empowered consumers use clothing to distance themselves from normative expressions of gender, much in the same way African-Americans consciously create group status based on clothing.

Finally, conspicuous branding in fashion creates and establishes social and personal identity. Brands announce lifestyle and social status, especially within the "elite vs. cheap" continuum. Auty and Elliot (1998) reveal the strong impact of branding and fashion labels on consumer behavior. Some consumers are "highly self-monitoring" and "highly involved" in the branding process, such as the woman donning her Louis Vuitton handbag (Auty and Elliot, 1998). The relationship between branding and identity is a strong one, and consumers actively participate in the process of creating boundaries of self and other by the clothes they wear. The relationship between clothing and identity formation therefore has a real, measurable, financial impact on fashion merchandising and marketing.


Auty, Susan and Elliot, Richard (1998), "Social Identity and the Meaning of Fashion Brands," in European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 3, eds. Basil G. Englis and Anna Olofsson, European Advances in… [read more]

History of Fashion Film Review

Film Review  |  2 pages (701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Even the unmarried women of the film are shown constantly trying on clothes and trying to make themselves beautiful, even though they have no work and no husband bankrolling their efforts. The most intelligent and level-headed of the three women, Schatze, (played by Lauren Bacall) is still obsessed with marriage. Her character is photographed in slightly less revealing clothes than her blonde co-stars but she is still often dressed in garish, artificial clothing with tight waistlines and extreme high heels that appear very uncomfortable to wear every day.

The presentation of Marilyn Monroe in the film perhaps most starkly illustrates the idea that female intelligence must be concealed for a woman to 'snag' a man. When the three women are presented, Monroe's character of Paula is always the most scantily clad. She either wears very feminine colors like white and pink, or bright colors that match her lips and makeup, to draw attention to her sexuality. Paula is shown to be resisting the fact that she must wear glasses to see. She is afraid of looking intelligent (despite her 'dumb blonde' attitude, even when she is wearing glasses). She would rather be seen bumping into objects than be perceived as an intelligent woman.

The film is obviously not meant to be taken too seriously, and is bearable to a modern viewer because of its evident lack of 'reality.' Shot in bright-hued Technicolor, the women look garish and slightly unreal, particularly Marilyn. There is a sense of humor about the women's man-hungry quest. When Marilyn is at her most beautiful, such as when she is wearing a form-fitting dress with a swinging skirt to go out to dinner, she still manages to bump into a door. The end of the film depicts the women falling down in a comic faint when they realize that one of the men they have wed is actually extremely wealthy, after they have all reconciled themselves to marrying 'ordinary' men they really love.

Works Cited

"Christian Dior." The Design Museum. [20 Mar 2012]

http://designmuseum.org/design/christian-dior… [read more]

Ancient Egypt to Present: Costume Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


By the 1930s department store catalogs were now depicting Egyptian women sitting in front of their vanity mirror, considerably lightened in the face, giving on e the impression that beauty equals being white, which was an advertisement for one of the catalog's lightening creams "Afridol." This ad was meant to give the impression that being "tanned" equaled manual labor, a peasant type class, while being lighter complexioned equaled high status (Russel, 38). This trend of Westernizing Egypt has continued through to the modern day, where it is not unusual to see youth wearing jeans, sexy outfits, skimpy clothes and designer labels such as Versace and Dolce & Gabanna (Abaza, 284). Mostly these trends are completely Western to completely Muslim (and completely covered), and have given rise to a new kind of debate within Egypt about what style of clothing should be accepted and worn in public; while many are respectable and do not wear anything revealing, tight fitting or see-through, some youth just do not care and will wear what they want (Abaza). Much of Egypt's fashions have changed due to the influences of Western clothing and Muslim style clothing, and the debate will continue to go on. But, Egypt has changed in that it is less "class specific" with its clothing, as opposed to ancient Egypt where it was very easy to tell if someone was a working class farmer or royalty (Abaza). Modern Egypt doesn't bedeck themselves with intricate jewelry or body oils anymore, but they do use Western style cosmetics, deodorants, and they still wear lighter weight fabrics such as cotton, linens and gauze (Abaza).

Works Cited

Abaza, Mona. "Shifting Landscapes of Fashion in Contemporary Egypt." Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture 11.2/3 (2007): 281-297. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.

Batten, Alicia J. "Clothing and Adornment." Biblical Theology Bulletin 40.3 (2010): 148-159. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.

Chaudhri, S.K., and N.K. Jain. "History of cosmetics." Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics 3.3 (2009): 164-167. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.

"Egypt: Daily Life." sptimes.com. St. Petersburg Times, 1999. Web. 5 Apr 2011. .

"Garments: Clothing Material." Ancient Egypt: Clothing. N.p., July 2009. Web. 5 Apr 2011. .

Russell, Mona. "Marketing the Modern Egyptian Girl: Whitewashing Soap and Clothes From the Late Nineteenth Century to 1936." Journal of Middle East Women's…… [read more]

Urban Outfitters Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Urban Outfitters

Sears or Wal-Mart can never had a trendy, counterculture image because they are the mainstream culture. Counterculture is defined against those companies that operate in the mainstream. Sears and Wal-Mart are also hampered by the lead time required to get their products to market, and by the need for product standardization. Clothes at those stores are mass produced to ensure product line uniformity across stores, which will by definition make those clothes more mainstream than clothes produced on a small scale. In addition, stores like Sears and Wal-Mart aim for an undifferentiated look in their fashions. Their target markets do not desire differentiation, but rather more ordinary, safe looks. For each of these reasons, large stores like Sears or Wal-Mart cannot attain a counterculture image.

In addition, those companies do not do their own clothing designing. In order to be trendy, the designs must come from in-house. Sears and Wal-Mart outsource both the design and production functions. As a result, their clothes are not made by good talent, and what output there is tends to be based on old fashions. In order to truly create a trendy, counterculture image the store must have its own designers, not only to shorten the lead time to market but also to develop a consistent and cutting edge signature brand style.

2. The big box stores could sell merchandise approximate to that of Urban Outfitters, but it would be difficult to sell an identical set of merchandise. The lead time for production is longer, so the styles would be knockoffs and approximations, and would always be more out-of-date than the styles at Urban Outfitters.

The big box stores, however, would not want to approximate the variety and constant turnover associated with Urban Outfitters. Those stores tend to operate on slim margins, so rapid price reductions to keep inventory moving and the shopping experience fresh would result in many products being sold below cost. In addition, there are inventory costs associated with having a wider variety of clothes. An Urban Outfitters store can work around this because the smaller stores allow for rapid inventory turnover. Larger stores require much more inventory, so it would be more difficult to enforce the product scarcity that is a feature of Urban Outfitters. The box stores need to fill their floor space, so having a small but frequently rotating merchandise mix is simply more challenging. In addition, the small production runs would increase the price that the box stores had to offer. They compete for a market that is unwilling to pay for differentiation, so any box store charging more than the others for its clothes would lose market share in clothes as a result.

3. Exclusivity in valuable for a number of different reasons. The first reason is that…… [read more]

Fashion Photography Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Fashion photography is an interesting research area because of various reasons. On the one hand, it is safe to state that it reflects the needs and desires of the society where it is produced. On the other hand we could state that fashion photography is one of the main instruments through which companies impose trends. These refer not only to what people should be wearing, but to what they should be thinking as well. More than a communication medium, fashion photography has the power to influence people's ideals regarding life style and also the construction of the social persona.

Programme of study

Under these circumstances, I believe that a research topic such as the evolution of fashion photography could provide us with a deeper insight upon the evolution of society as well. In addition, it would be interesting to see how the power dynamics of fashion photography on the one hand, and of society on the other have switched the position of dominating power. Furthermore, it would also be interesting to see the manner in which the development of technology has had an impact upon the development of fashion photography. The relation between art and fashion photography is another aspect that could be researched and analyzed, taking into consideration the latest trends according to which the boundaries between fine art and commercial photography are more and more blurred. As a case study we could take into consideration the fashion photographers who have had the greatest influence upon the evolution of fashion photography. It would be very interesting to see how their style has evolved throughout the years and which have been the elements that touched people in a relevant manner. And since what we are dealing with is the construction of meaning through visual means, the research should also be based upon analyses in this area. Last but not least the manner in which fashion photography approaches the issue of gender, reflecting or imposing social trends could also be an exciting part…… [read more]

Social Psychology Research -- Fashion and Conformity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Social Psychology Research -- Fashion and Conformity

One of the most fascinating aspects of social psychology is the capacity of social groups and learned connotations to alter the opinion of the individual. It is evident in classic experiments in which subjects alter their answers about obvious observations because of their need to conform to group consensus. Fashion, convention, and fads are also substantially functions of social conformity; that is why clothing fashion (in particular) is cyclical and repetitive. This experiment is designed to demonstrate how much subjective connotations and social conformity of opinion influences the opinions of the individual.

Experimental Method and Design

This project involved the use of two groups of ten individuals each. The group members were told that they would be evaluating an associate professor's lecturing skills in connection with his candidacy for promotion to full professorship. Each group received the same lecture in Anthropology from the same professor dressed in the same attire except for one small element: a label on his lab smock. After the lecture, both groups filled out a 20-question, multiple-choice questionnaire containing typical questions about the candidate's lecturing style and proficiency.

Their responses to Questions 9 and 10 were the sole source of data analyzed; the other questions were designed exclusively to mask the purpose of the questionnaire. Question 9 was "Describe the professor's attire": A. Professional; B. Unprofessional, C. Casual; and D. Fashionable. Question 10 was "How well do you think the professor relates to students generally: A. Tries too hard; B. Probably quite well; C. Probably not that well; D. Unable to evaluate.

In both trials the professor entered the room after the students were already seated, after which he introduced himself the same way and delivered the identical lecture. At the conclusion of both lectures he asked whether there were any questions. One Caucasian female and one black male student in each group were provided with the same questions and the other group members instructed before the lecture not to ask questions. This procedure was designed to ensure that the content of the professor's responses were the same in both sessions and that he had the same types of interactions in both sessions.

The experimental design was intended to eliminate any extraneous differences capable of influencing the results. The only difference in the two trials was the deliberate presence or absence (respectively) of a label affixed to the exterior of the professor's shirt. In both cases the professor wore the same casual pants and clean leather shoes. His shirt consisted of a white laboratory coat that had been cut off at the waist and tucked into his pants. The collar of the lab coat was turned up and the sleeves rolled up to below the elbows. In the first (test) group the professor's lab coat had a "DKNY" label affixed prominently…… [read more]

Fashion Industry Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (460 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Fashion Industry 2009

America's economic downturn has had an undeniable impact upon the fashion world: not only are consumers buying less, they are also shifting their fashion allegiances to less pricy brands, and buying more clothes from discount merchandisers than department stores and boutiques. Consumers that once patronized Macys are now favoring Target: significantly, Macy's Inc. has had to "eliminate 7,000 jobs, almost 4% of its workforce, and cut capital spending, reduce its contributions to its employees' retirement funds and slash its dividend to preserve cash amid a severe pullback in consumer spending," while the luxury store Neiman Marcus has cut about 375 jobs, or 3% of its workforce ("Macy's slashing up to 7,000 jobs," AP, 2009). When consumers cut back, especially given their former retail buying binge, they are more apt to scrimp on clothing, viewing it as a luxury item than utility bills. They reach into their closets rather than into their wallets. When they do buy clothes, such as school clothing for a growing child, they are more apt to go to Wal-Mart where temptations are less obvious than to the shopping mall: the second-largest owner of shopping malls in the nation, General Growth Properties Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in April ("Mall giant files for bankruptcy protection," AP, 2009).

True, fascination with style remains. Of particular note is the new focus on the First Lady's…… [read more]

Feature Writing: How Has Fetish Fashion Influenced Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,233 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Feature writing: how has fetish fashion influenced society?

If you are reading this article it means that you are keen on being fashionable. Why do we do that? Do we adopt this attitude because we want to be better integrated in the group? Or just the opposite, because we want to make a point about our differences? After all, fashion… [read more]

Proposal for Fashion Show Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (641 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Fashion Show Proposal

After graduation I would like to present my knowledge of fashion design and merchandising through an engaging visual show. Unlike commercial fashion shows, however, mine will reflect an appreciation for a variety of seasons and will prove to the academic committee and my fellow students that I have grasped the basic concepts of color, line, and texture. Moreover, I intend to incorporate several ideas for men's fashion as well as casual wear for both sexes.

The theme for my show will be urban. I intend to bridge the gap between high fashion and street wear. The presentation will be divided into four sections, one for each season. Whatever pieces I cannot physically manufacture, I will sketch or use computer animation to illustrate my ideas. The final presentation will include a brief PowerPoint slide show but with some tangible props like fabric swatches or my hand-drawn sketches. Some music will accompany the presentation and tracks will vary according to the season.

Spring clothes will feature fresh colors like playful pinks and Robin's egg blues as well as bright greens and pale yellows. Textures will be a broad mix including some sweaters that are made from lighter materials like cotton or mixed synthetics. Floral accents and other hints of innocence like girlish bows or polka dots will spruce up otherwise plain garments, as I intend to focus on solid colors rather than prints for most of my designs. Skirts with appliques will be featured, too. I will occasionally present simple swatches of color to reveal my ideas rather than drawing an entire ensemble or wardrobe. For men, the occasional splash of color on a striped shirt helps to break up monotony and I will demonstrate a few ways that spring colors can be used without sacrificing the traditional simplicity of men's clothing. To enhance the presentation I might incorporate some spring sound effects including the sounds of birds.

Summer…… [read more]

Influence of People of Color on the Beauty Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3




Beauty is not what is used to be and neither is the beauty industry. If fair-skinned and blue-eyed woman was anyone's idea of beauty few decades ago, they are in for a shock since definition of beauty has taken a 360 degree turn to shape itself according to the demands and trends of the new consumer. This new consumer is a not a white skinned blonde, instead he/she can have any skin color and come from any ethnic background and still command the same respect and importance in the market as any fair-skinned consumer. With ethnic consumers spending more in the market and with many of them becoming highly influential in media and fashion industry, it is high time beauty industry changed to cater to the demands of all the consumers and not just the majority.

With collective purchasing power greater than that of the majority, ethnic consumers are becoming increasing influential and beauty and fashion experts have not failed to take note of this change. They are spending more on developing products meant for ethnic consumers and are also developing equally specific marketing strategies. Ethnic women in powerful positions such as film industry have played a huge role in changing the face of beauty in the country. With the definition of beauty changing, the beauty industry itself underwent major transformation. Multicultural stars such as Jennifer Lopez, Salma Hayek, Jessica Alba and Penelope Cruz have sent a clear message to the beauty industry- Not all American consumers are white skinned blondes. Now beauty is as diverse as the social fabric of America itself. The explosive growth in social mobility of minorities has changed the markets and marketing strategies with beauty product manufacturers vying for the attention of their new multicultural consumers.

In 2003, California-based Longs Drugs launched a Hispanic vendor program designed to target its rapidly growing Hispanic consumer base. The program included a comprehensive Hispanic advertising and marketing plan tied into Hispanic television stations, as well as involvement Rile in health fairs and other events sponsored by the Hispanic community." (Drug store News, 2004)

While some argue that consumers do not need ethnic specific products, the reports indicate otherwise. It is shown in some recent reports that consumer spending on ethnic specific products is increasing steadily. "Last year, sales to ethnic consumers amounted to U.S.$7.5 billion, of which a fifth, or U.S.$1.5 billion, represented ethnic-specific health and beauty products, according to a report entitled 'U.S. Market for Ethnic Cosmetics, Hair Care, and Beauty Products', published by market researchers Packaged Facts." ("Consumer spend," 2004)

Ethnic consumer had not always been powerful. There was once a time, not so long ago, that America was exporting its idea of what beauty was supposed to be to every corner of the world. Big players in the beauty industry worked on the assumption that women around the globe and from all kinds of ethnic backgrounds would respond to beauty products in similar fashion. They felt that… [read more]

Cosmetics Industry Is Currently Developing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … cosmetics industry is currently developing at a rapid pace, as more and more emphasis is being placed on beauty and youth. Additionally, the modern day society is also evolving at a fast pace, with technologic advancements and a rapid rhythm characterizing virtually all aspects of life.

In such a setting, the demand for cosmetics is not only increasing, but it is also changing. This translates into a new process of purchase decision making, constructed on a series of stages. In this order of ideas, the expected purchase process is likely to include the following steps:

The identification of the need for the cosmetics product

The real need for the product, as opposed to the impulse to buy -- this stage would become more important now, in times of economic crisis, and reduction of discretionary income

The inquisition towards the identification of the product's ability to serve the specified need, or the commodity in using the respective item.

In terms of the people that would influence the purchase decision, these could include the vendors, the manufacturers or the people in the entourage of the prospective buyer. The manufacturers could attract the individual towards the product; the vendors could provide more information and the friends could provide positive or negative feedback, after having used the item.

As it can be observed, there are a wide number of factors which influence the purchase decision for the towelettes. These factors are both internal, as well as external. At the internal level for instance, some factors could include the real and/or perceived need a potential customers might have for the respective…… [read more]

H &amp M. Discussion Questions M Clothing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,050 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


H & M. Discussion Questions

M clothing retailer is Europe's largest clothing retailer. The secret to their success is fast, fresh, and trendy fashions at incredibly low prices. This paper discusses H & M's product strategy, their sourcing and inventory management strategies, and the challenges they may face with their aggressive international expansion plans.

M Discussion Questions

Outline H & M's product strategy in comparison to its competitors as described in the article. What has made the company's line of fashion so successful?

M's product strategy is quite simple. They strive for high quality fashions at the best possible price, which translates into leading edge clothing (Author, year, p. x). H & M. currently operates in 20 countries and has over 40,000 employees dedicated to this goal ("Facts and History," n.d.). This strategy has worked so well, in fact, it has made H & M. The largest apparel retailer in Europe.

The team of H & M. designers finds inspiration for their clothing lines in multiple places. Movies, fashion on the streets, and even flea markets inspire the talented design staff when developing the next line of clothing that will be introduced into the stores. However, simply copying the catwalk of high fashion is not allowed. This strategy has led to a unique and eclectic line of fashion, for men, women and children, all at extremely attractive price points, with the average price of an item at H & M. being only $18.00 (Author, year, p. x).

When compared with competitors Zara and Gap, one begins to see why H & M. is so successful. Zara too strives to offer "the latest trends in international fashion in an environment of thought-out design" ("Zara," n.d.). and, they do try to offer these fashion trendy clothes at reasonable prices, however, as Zara handles much of their production in house, they simply cannot take advantage of some of the cost advantages of outsourcing their clothing manufacturing to other vendors. This is reflected in their prices.

Gap, on the other hand, has a completely different product strategy. They do not strive to set or meet fashion trends; instead they focus on fashion basics. Denim, khakis and t-shirts are the mainstays of the Gap line up, at reasonable pricing (Author, year, p. x).

Describe H&M's sourcing and inventory management strategies. Outline threats as well as opportunities you perceive.

The cutting-edge fashion designs of H & M, however, would mean little if they did not arrive at the stores in a timely manner. For this reason, H & M. has worked hard to shorten their lead time, the time it takes for a piece to go from the design team to the store floor for sale, to an incredible short three weeks. This is in comparison to Zara's industry leading 2-week turnaround cycle, and the Gap's traditional 9-month turnaround cycle (Author, year, p. x).

This quick turnaround of inventory is paramount to H & M's success. With 3-week lead times, H & M. can keep their… [read more]

Beauty and the Eye of the Beholder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Beauty and the Eye of the Beholder -- "Making myself up"

You've come a long way baby!" This popular cigarette advertisement of the 1970's, showed a slim woman smoking an even slimmer cigarette. It seems dated to the contemporary eye as an expression of modern women's liberation. What woman today would think that indulging in a negative habit such as smoking could be an example of female liberation? Sadly, Susan Sontag's essay from 1975 on "Beauty" does not nearly seem as dated as this advertisement. In her essay, Sontag reflects that, even before a woman's day has begun, her real work has already started -- before the mirror.

A man, Sontag, asserts, simply is -- he can be handsome, or otherwise, but a woman must construct herself and construct her face and feminine loveliness with cloth, makeup, and the right sense of fashion and color, before she even embarks upon the long morning commute to work or feeds the cat or wakes the children. A woman must make up herself. An exhausting task, in addition to the added labors of housework, schoolwork, and the working pressures of the world, for any woman to endure.

Life is hard for everyone today, and busy for everyone today, but the task of beauty for women is an additional labor -- of justifying the self, one's whole existence and intelligence by creating the illusion of one's self as the daily incarnation of beauty. Making the self up -- with makeup, with the correct clothing choices and haircuts, to construct one's persona in the world may be a task faced by all, men and women. But it is more costly, time-consuming, and self-consuming for women. This is because appearance-creation for women has a more limited and narrow goal -- attaining an ideal of beauty, rather than simply expressing the self or looking presentable for work, is an ideal that few women can obtain.

If such an assertion seems overly paranoid, a bit of feminist raving, consider this item of evidence -- Exhibit a. The hair band. Who does one think of when one thinks of a hair band? Why, Hilary Rodham Clinton of course. A Wellesley and Yale Law School…… [read more]

Future Goal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (442 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Jeans! Everyone wears them, everyone loves them. Jeans have the power to dress down a fancy shirt or with the right accessories become stylish evening wear. Jeans can have sequins, glitter, or fur appliques to make them femme and funky, or they can be torn up, shredded, or stone-washed for street wear. Jeans are no longer just lumberjack wear: they are a full-on fashion statement. I know a lot about jeans because I have been decorating jeans for years, by painting and spray painting directly on them in a dazzling array of colors. Many of my friends are wearing jeans that I have custom-designed for them. Denim has essentially been my canvas, an ideal way for me to express myself creatively. For the past fifteen years, I have been studying art formally in school, learning the fundamentals of drawing, color composition, photography, and digital design. Now I plan on fusing my artistic background with my passion for denim.

My main goal is to own and operate a successful, dynamic jeans-wear company, designing the fashions myself. To do so, I will need more training in the practical matters of fashion design and in the fashion industry. I am seeking entry into the Fashion Design program so that I can fulfill my lifelong dream. Otis offers a uniquely focused program that will challenge…… [read more]

Gucci and LVMH Gucci' Was Founded Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Gucci and LVMH

Gucci' was founded by Guccio Gucci in the year 1923, when he was completely inspired by the extravagant and also elegant baggage that he saw when he was working at a hotel in London. Gucci started a range of classy and expensively luxurious leather goods, including bags, shoes, and apparel. Gucci would become an internationally… [read more]

Fashion Industry Answers a Need Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Fashion industry answers a need and does not make consumers buy unnecessary items. Fashion's primary purpose is to distinguish members of different cultural groups. In this way, fashion has existed as part of society since prehistoric times. While modern fashion appears to take cultural differentiation to an extreme, an examination of previous trends shows that some fashion choices have always been extreme. Therefore, the fashion industry answers an existing need.

While fashion may have many purposes, its primary purpose is to distinguish members of different cultural groups. Whether discussing different tribes in Africa or different cliques in a modern American high school, sociologists can use fashion to determine group membership. More importantly, people inside the various groups can determine group membership by observing an individual's choice of fashion.

In addition, this use of fashion predates written history. Drawings and other artistic renderings make it clear that people have long used clothing and other adornments to help establish group identity. From the toga to the miniskirt, fashion has helped…… [read more]

Fashion Cultural Studies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cultural Studies

Introduction metro-sexual can be defined, as a man who is narcissistic in nature, loves his urban lifestyle and a straight man in touch with his feminine side. A British journalist named Mark Simpson devised this word. It can be said that any urban male of any sexual orientation who spends a lot of time and money on his… [read more]

Linear About Writing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (517 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


There are confines -- a shoe still must go one someone's foot -- but within those confines there were limitless options. And if the rules didn't work for you, you invented new ones, just to see if you could. Designers become the new poets, bending forms, inventing and reinventing, expressing in every possible way their own deepest selves. Well, I had to design. I don't think I was very good at. I still try it, you know, just to see what I can come up with.

My first love remains words, though. The challenge, I realized, was to spin words to create great beauty, power and expression while remaining true to the linear forms. Now, however, lines were not limitations but challenges. My writing changed. I want to bend forms, invent new ones, reinvent old ones, and I want to do it with color, with flair, with texture. It has been a few years since I discovered that my muse came from fashion instead of writing.

There is nothing that sparks my creativity more than the visual stimulation of watching a great runway show. When I see things that I never thought possible in fashion, I launch into fits of writing. Creativity is its own thing, no matter the medium. I create my best work in this linear form when saturated on fashion's linear ideals. They're not that far apart, you know, fashion and writing. What is fashion, anyway, if not an expression of soul that begins with lines on a piece…… [read more]

Connection Between Fashion and Philanthropy Giving Back to Africa Through Non-Profit Purchases Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (805 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Paying it Forward to Africa Fashionably, Top 10 Non-Profit Shop for Change List the combination of business, fashion, and philanthropy is an enticing one and some entrepreneurs are jumping into that with two feet. Ban Ki-moon, the U.N. secretary general insists that: "Africa does not need charity, it needs investments and partnership." As a result, the top 10 list serves to illustrate something of what Ban Ki-moon was trying to say.

Take Saran Kaba Jones, for instance, who founded Face Africa that funds and supports sustainable clean water, sanitation and hygiene projects in Liberia; and African Leadership (Mocha Club) that trains approximately 13,000 students in 23 African countries and supports over 18 projects in 8 countries through their entrepreneurial ventures.

Renzo Rosso, Ali Hewson and her husband Bono, banded together earlier this year to form the Diesel+Edun label that produces fashion products, sourced or made entirely in Africa these are examples of people who integrate business with philanthropy and direct the proceeds to Africa. Sometimes these businesses are partially non-profit. Other times, they are totally so with all proceeds going to the African workers who produce the creations.

A glimpse at one of the websites that integrates fashion with philanthropy and hires African women to weave scarves indicates the beauty of the design and work that can emerge from Africa and how these ventures exceed charity in its crude sense. The entrepreneurs may be benefitting more than, or as equally as the people they hire to create their merchandise. The business FashionABLE scarfs! Is a non-profit organization that gives 100% of its profits to the women who make the scarves -- and the scarves are magnificent. The goal of the company is the following: "The FashionABLE mission is to create sustainable business in Africa so that the women are not dependent upon charity but instead are a vital part of a developing economy."

In Aid for Africa, African artisans have produced jeweler, crafts, and other products. The proceeds go to African people. Global Mamas (Trade for Change) is another innovative and philanthropic company that in turn creates jobs and increases the income and standard of living of women and their families in Africa. Other companies include Indigo Africa that uses the proceeds from African women to help Africans become better educated; and African Leadership (Mocha Club) that trains approximately 13,000 students in 23 African countries and supports over 18 projects in 8…… [read more]

Fabric Store Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


f) Slither "Python." 71% rayon and 29% poly blend. Is a fun, playful snakeskin print that can be used for trims on hats, shirts, and pants.

5. What was the most unique item you discovered at this store? Explain.

The store has a lot of unique items, but the rarest might have been the hand-embroidered wool fabric from Kashmir.

6. What was the largest section in the store?

The largest fabric section is the cotton/poly, with standard colors and prints.

7. What type of prints did you notice and what seemed the most popular? (floral, geometric, solid, etc.).

The bulk of fabric sold is, I believe, solids. This is because of their versatility. In prints, they all sell evenly well. Florals were particularly popular the day I was in the store. I also noticed animal prints, geometrics, stripes, and children's decorative prints on various fabric bases.

8. Does this store sell designer fabrics? If so which ones?

There are designer fabrics in the store, ranging from Heather Bailey and Lola Violet to Koka Japan and Kei.

9. What is the overall price range in the store?

The overall price range varies considerably: from $2 per yard to upwards of $30 per yard.

10. What is your overall experience in this store?

At first, the experience was overwhelming because of how many things were in the store. After I got used to the extensive array, I understood the store was laid out in a fairly logical manner. The sale bins were scattered about but generally located in one area as well. It was easy to navigate once I got the hang of it. The service was mixed, with many friendly clerks and some who were more stern and unsmiling.

11. Would you shop here in the future?

I would certainly shop here in the future. The prices and selection make M&L Fabrics superior to competitors, especially the larger chain stores like Michaels and JoAnns, which do not have as many fine and specialty items. Shopping for fabrics online can be…… [read more]

Inception of Licensing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It would be very difficult for the fashion industry to survive during these very hard economic times without licensing agreements. They are a very large source of income for designers and their teams, without agreement with manufacturers designers would very likely be unable to provide consumers with the product they demand. If designers are not able to get their products out there to the public it is very likely that their popularity would decrease and hurt the fashion industry. Licensing is a huge part of the industry because logically speaking the true work or designers that are seen in the runway in not available in mass markets where revenue can be created. This is because the work and designs presented on the runaway are too outlandish, expensive or simply not able to be manufactured in mass amounts, so designers are forced to enter into licensing agreements. According to Cooney there are some negative affects to licensing agreements these involved the quality and specifications of some of the products being licensed. For example, a designer might lease his brand to manufacturer who does not do provide a product worthy to be associate with that designer; this can hurt the image and reputation of that designer. By that same account the public is also somewhat deceived because many designers will sell brands to manufactures without actually being involved in any aspect of the design. This seems unfair because the public is inspired to purchase brands because of their assumed association with the work of top designers. Currently in the fashion industry there are a wide ranging variety of products being licensed. These include all kinds of clothing, pants, hats, socks, underwear. According to Faye Brookman T-shirts are especially popular bearing the names of everything from soft drink brands to television shows.

Works Cited

Brookman, Faye. "Fashion Forecast Optimistic." License Global 13.6 (2010): 2-13. Print.

Cooney, Joyceean. "Fashion Licensing Roundtable."…… [read more]

Tattered Jeans as the Fashion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Since tattered jeans are usually products of too much activity, tattered jeans have thus become a fashion for people who want to project a rugged, radical, yet no nonsense image.

In the office setting, people usually wear jeans which are straight in cut and have a clean look, and it is rare in the workplace environment to wear tattered jeans if the workplace is not on the field or the work requires physical activities. Tattered jeans project an image of coolness, but it can also be detrimental to one's image in an office if that person is holding a respectable job or position in the company or organization. However, revolutionary changes have been happening in the business environment whenever issues of dress code are being discussed. More and more companies are adapting the rugged, comfortable look of wearing jeans (tattered or not) so that the employees will work more efficiently since they are wearing clothes that make them feel 'themselves' and comfortable. Thus, tattered jeans are fast becoming an accepted dress code in most formal organizations in the American society today.

High schools and non-private educational institutions have, for years, accepted tattered jeans as the 'official dress code' of most students. Since jeans are more comfortable to wear and has endurance after doing strenuous activities, jeans are adapted by most students, regardless of their gender or fashion tastes. It is evident that from the emergence of jeans as a functionalist wear for workers, it has evolved into becoming one of America's most popular and used clothing in today's fashion of the popular culture of the nation.


Fry, Nick. "Reflections on Fashion: piss stained jeans, the emaciated self and the catwalk catch." 13 March 2003. http://nbprojects.co.uk/nickfry/fashion.htm.

Stretton, Lynda. "Loving Denims." 13 March 2003. http://www.fashionz.co.uk/lovingdenims.… [read more]

Counterfeit Clothing Industry in China Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is a phenomenon that is growing larger with each passing year. As China introduces itself to the modern world and tries to shed its former backwards image the desire to look successful is producing a large market for fake clothing and fake accessory sales.

In the areas of Mong Kok and Tsim there are many imitation products that can be purchased. These imitations of expensive name brands are prevalent throughout Hong Kong with the most attainable products being found in Shenzhen.

There are many psychological aspects of wearing brand name clothing. Many people who live in Hong Kong or other metropolises will see designer brand as one of the important element to distinction the class or as an identity of oneself. They feel if they wear it then the world will view them as successful or rich. Those who cannot afford to wear the actual brand name will settle for a less expensive look alike so that they can appear to be rich and successful. They know they are wearing the cheaper version but because it looks like they are wearing similar or the same thing it makes them feel like they are richer or more upper class than they actually are.

In addition those who wear counterfeit clothing and accessories do so because it allows them to copy those that they adore such as actresses or rock stars. This phenomenon has been studied by many theorists including the famed theorist George Simmel. According to Simmel women are more affected by the need to appear well off than men are. Women are raised to look their best at all times. In addition they are taught to believe the more expensive things they wear the more important people will believe they are.

Women are especially the "victim" in this matter, according to George Simmel, in order to control sexuality, women bodies in particular are constrain in religious communities in terms of emotional expression, diet and especially dress. The fact that fashion expresses and at the same time emphasizes the tendency towards equalization and individualization, and the desire for imitation and conspicuous, perhaps explains why it is that women, broadly speaking, are at its staunchest adherents. (simmel)

View Detail

Product Name: Necklace

Model Number: 2002NEW0166

Place of Origin: China

A set of necklace and earring which is 100% made by hand.

Material is pottery and small beads.

According to Simmel, "fashion derives from a basic tension specific to the social condition of the human being. On one hand, each of us has tendency to imitate others, on the other r, we also have a tendency to distinguish overselves from others. And fashion is a product of class distinction,...the "inferior one" imitated their direct "superior" and never vice versa."

The companies who manufacture and sell the imitation products do so openly and without hiding. One such company places their ad online including their address:


Company Information

Tairong Imitation Jewelry is a leading imitation jewelry and fashion jewelry manufacture and trader. We… [read more]

Financial Management and Pricing Products Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


New-Product Pricing: Penetration Pricing and Price Skimming

Two classic techniques of pricing a new product exist, that of market-skimming pricing and market penetration pricing. "Market-skimming pricing is defined as setting a high price for a new product to skim maximum revenues layer by layer from the segments willing to pay the high price; the company makes fewer but more profitable sales. Market-penetration is defined as setting a low price for a new product in order to attract a large number of buyers and a large market share" (New product pricing strategies, Marketing, 2010).

Perhaps the most obvious way that fashion companies use market-skimming pricing is the manner in which the styles of couture clothing are disseminated through the wider culture. At first, new clothing styles from hot designers are shown to the fashion and celebrity elite. Eventually, the style is copied and adopted by mass market fashion outlets. On a much more modest scale, even consumers who do not follow high-end fashion have observed the market-skimming phenomenon in mall stores such as the Gap. Every season, the store will produce new items, variations on the Gap's classic clothing themes. Consumers, particularly trend-conscious young people, will buy the fashions at the full listed price. Gradually, to reduce inventory, the new clothing styles will be put on sale.

Clothing may be a necessity, but fashion is not. Fashion is about what is new and hip. When a store sells new clothing, it is usually selling fashion, or the allure of having the 'next new thing.' When a consumer buys a very expensive pashmina or pair of Jimmy Choos, he or she is not doing so to keep warm or to walk to work. In fact, these items of clothing are highly impractical. Rather, the consumer is merely communicating a certain image or sense of exclusivity to the world. Thus, the consumer is willing to pay more, as being able to pay more is part of the attraction of these items. Even…… [read more]

Make Up Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  16 pages (4,461 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Status of the Global Cosmetics Industry

Throughout history, men and women have sought to improve their appearance through the use of various lotions, creams and other preparations that typically fall under the umbrella terms make-up and cosmetics today. Beginning around the mid-19th century, the cosmetics industry gained momentum and has since become a multi-billion dollar global enterprise. The… [read more]

Business Report: One Independent Fahion Retailer Just Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Business Report: One Independent Fahion Retailer

Just like its name suggests it, L.A. Sugar is the store which wants to attract London's inhabitants with a special taste for fashion like honey attracts bees. Its declared mission is to provide customers with the latest hip from the fashion industry. The characteristics of the merchandise on display allows for a description of the customers which the store targets. These are young adults aged 25 to 40, living in urban environments, with medium to high incomes, medium to superior education, with an active social life, who are fond of fashion and care about their look.

They want to be glamorous and have the financial resources which allow them to invest in the necessary clothes and accessories. In addition, they like to bring a personal touch to the designer clothes and the must have accessories of the season. Celebrities are also among the target customers of the LA Sugar store chain. It is expected for them to bring more clientele by demonstrating their interest in the brands merchandised by the store.

Students represent an important part of the targeted customers and are especially active during the period from February to April. Since the store's goal is to bring a Hollywood touch to the London fashion, they are most likely to use the LA Sugar items for special occasions such as proms and consequently be willing to invest an important amount of money.

As far as the merchandise is concerned, it includes everything from casual chic items to extremely elegant evening dresses. In addition, the store offers a wide range of accessories including shoes and bags. The collections are renewed on a monthly basis. This is a good marketing technique because it makes clients come back for more at least one time each month. There is no predilection for a particular brand. The sold items are made by a large number of designers and independent brands are to be found as well. The items are available in the following sizes: small, medium, large (no extra large).among the best sold items one can mention the so called "magic dress" which is sold for a moderate price of 90 pounds.

As far as the visual merchandising and the layout are concerned, it must be mentioned that there is a colour division of the store. The display changes every season and the store is redecorated every two or three months. This allows for the brand to contribute in a constant manner to its identity creation respecting characteristics such as youthfulness and playfulness. The window is changed on a weekly basis.

More than looking after the trends which are presented in the fashion magazines, LA Sugar gets inspiration from the stars. Inside the store there are photos of famous people from cinema actors to models wearing an item brought from the store chain itself. One recommendation which could be made in this regard is to update the photos more frequently, possibly showing the persons who are "hot"… [read more]

Audience Profile Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Audience Profile

The subject is a 22-year-old Caucasian female with blonde hair, blue eyes, and a medium to slender body type. A recent college graduate, the subject is interested in intellectual pursuits, primarily economics, business, and politics. Although she has a mixed voting record, she considers herself a classic liberal. She is rather liberal when it comes to social matters, but remains fiscally conservative. She was once identified with the Protestant, and more specifically Lutheran faith, but after some schooling became inclined to atheism. Although she was once rather militant and vocal regarding her atheism, she retains the faith but it does not define much of her lifestyle. She is a fourth generation American, the only child of her parents, and can trace her heritage to Germany.

A child of two ex-hippies who married young, the subject grew up in a comfortable, middle-class home. Her father made around $80,000 working at the local steel mill though he had no education further than college. Her mother stayed at home with her until she entered school. At that time, her mother found several small jobs working with the school corporation where she could keep an eye on her daughter; she worked as a recess aid, drove a bus, and ran errands for teachers. Having just completed college, the daughter has exceeded both of her parents in schooling and is about to exceed them in income, working as a computer programmer for the Chicago Board of Trade. The subject recently moved from the Indiana suburbs into the city of Chicago, where she enjoys meeting new people at work, nightclubs, and fitness events.

The subject's values spring mainly from what she enjoys and what she reads as an intellectual. She values nutrition, and is not a yo-yo dieter, but prefers to simply eat right. She enjoys running and working out, in addition to exercise classes, enjoying both the social atmosphere of the…… [read more]

Makeup Artistry Course Outlines Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (933 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Professional Makeup for the Makeup Artist

Course Objective: To learn the fundamentals of professional makeup artistry for film, television, print, and fashion shows. Also to apply these skills to other contexts requiring professional makeup application such as bridal shows.

Get instruction from professional makeup artists

Apply the skills you learn in a hands-on fashion, using professional models from the industry

Work with the newest, cutting edge material used by industry professionals -- all supplies included in the course fee

School is located in the middle of a professional, working television and movie studio, in the heart of the industry

Learn the essentials of stocking your own makeup kit for a variety of settings

Learn how to set up your station at the beginning of a working day, so that it 'works for you'

Learn how to maintain professional equipment

Learn the different requirements and techniques for makeup on film, on television, in print, for runway, and other types of shows and productions

Learn the basics vent makeup

Learn how to create different day and night looks

Learn about proper skin hygiene, preparation, and care for different skin types

Color me beautiful' -- not every face is the same, learn to use color to work with the model's undertones

Color matching -- how to make a makeup palate work with the model's complexion and clothing

Learn corrective makeup techniques -- not even models are perfect

Learn the correct way of applying eye makeup -- how to bring out the 'windows of the soul' with shadow, liner, and other applications

Learn foundation basics and the use of undertones

Gain experience in enhancing and highlighting the natural shape of the eyes, shape, and lips

Gain experience in enhancing and highlighting a model's 'best' features

Get pointers about touching up makeup during a shoot or a show

Course also provides advice on how to establish yourself in the profession

Get the 'scoop' about the challenges of working on a set

Hear about what different 'set' atmospheres -- fashion shows vs. A film, for example

Get an idea of how to begin developing your own personal style while working with the needs of a model and a director

Professional Fashion Makeup for the Makeup Artist

Course Objective: To learn the fundamentals of professional makeup artistry with an emphasis on fashion makeup, including but not limited to runway and print.

Get instruction from professional makeup artists on the unique challenges of fashion makeup and working during a fashion show

Apply the skills you learn to the faces of professional models from the fashion industry

Work with the newest, cutting edge material used by fashion industry professionals -- all supplies included in the course fee

Learn the essentials of stocking your own makeup kit for a show and multiple shows to create…… [read more]

Makeup Artistry Web Site Content Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Makeup Industry Website

Do you have what it takes to become a makeup artist? Do you have that extra something, that sense of style, that flair, the know-how that can make the ordinary look extraordinary and the extraordinary look out-of-this world? You may have the talent and drive, but to truly succeed in the business you also need the technical expertise. To fully realize your potential requires formal schooling and training in the latest products and techniques.

Learn from the best, to become the best. Our makeup school is located in the heart of the industry, on a studio lot where you can see such nationally-watched programs as "Beverley Hills 90210," "CSI Miami," "Boston Legal," and "Medium," filmed live -- while you go to school. Ours is one of only two makeup schools in all of Los Angeles located on an actual studio lot. While receiving instruction from industry experts in a working environment you can rub shoulders with the people who may be employing you when you are a working makeup artist -- or you may bump into one of the stars whose face you may be 'touching up' someday on a set.

No other school provides professional expertise in a hands-on, real-world setting where opportunities for networking abound. We offer instruction in makeup for print, television, film, and advertising, high-definition makeup education as well as fashion makeup application training for the runway, bridal shows, 'fantasy' airbrushing techniques, as well as hairstyling classes for the professional makeup artist.

Because we are a hands-on program, we offer some of the lowest priced instruction, at the highest quality, with no hidden fees and no materials charges. To gain an immediate foothold in the industry as well as an education -- sign up today! Don't put your dreams on the shelf and stop making excuses -- the future is now!


All of our courses are hands-on. We believe in creating an atmosphere of serious fun, where people can let loose, be creative yet still learn the vital skills they need to succeed. We have a high standard of excellence but recognize that everyone learns at his or her own pace, and students come with many different backgrounds and future goals. All materials are provided and are of the highest industry standard. They are included in the class fee, unlike many other schools. We are always getting the newest products and letting you, our student, use those products, to improve your skills.


Professional Make-up: Learn the fundamentals of doing make-up for film, television, and print advertising. Take street make-up up a notch while still preserving the beauty and unique appearance of a model or actor -- or transform an actor's appearance with the power of makeup design.

Professional Fashion Makeup: How to showcase and improve a model's appearance through the art of makeup. It isn't as easy as it looks -- our instructors tell you how to transform a model's appearance in a matter of minutes, a necessary talent during a… [read more]

Feature Plan What Not to Wear Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Feature Plan

What Not to Wear" is one of the most entertaining fashion-oriented reality television shows. Hosted by Stacy London and Clinton Kelly and aired on TLC, the show makes fashion an accessible and practical topic. Appealing not to the haute couture community but to the ready-to-wear one, "What Not to Wear" deserves an in-depth feature in Time Out. This feature article will include an interview with the hosts of the show.

Telling People to Take it Off: What Goes into "What Not to Wear"

We've all secretly made fun of our mothers, our sisters, our best friends, strangers in the street. "Can you believe she left the house in that?" "That butt should not be seen in those pants." Catty as it may be, we all know people who don't know the limitations of their own bodies, or whose wardrobes haven't changed since high school. Perhaps we ourselves wonder, "Should I still be wearing this?"

The intrepid hosts of the Learning Channel (TLC)'s show "What Not to Wear" have been revamping people's wardrobes for years -- and getting paid to do it. Stacy London and Clinton Kelley are two lucky people, indeed. Yet giving a guest $10,000 to go shopping isn't as fun as it seems.

It's hard work," notes Kelly, who leans forward in his chair showing off his finely honed quaff and his pinstripe, button-down shirt. London nods in agreement. "These people really need help, and we give it to them. At times it's a blast, at other times..." She makes a huge gesture of despair, putting her hand to her forehead in exaggerated disgust.

Since the show first aired in 2003, it has been a huge hit with viewers and shows no signs of slowing down. Most of the guests on "What Not to Wear" are career women: females who work too hard to care whether or not…… [read more]

Fashioning Gothic Body Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (801 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Gothic and fashion, as well as the impact of Gothic on fashion, during the 18th century, most notably towards the end of the century and into the beginning of the 19th century. It is interesting to note that the common denominator of the two is the flesh or rather the revealing of the flash. Indeed, at this point, the Gothic novel and culture seems to be focused on the female body and flesh as a concentration of ideas and writings, be it in the way that women are revealing their body or the way they are spied upon, for example, during their bath.

This seems to be the case in fashion during these times as well. The chapter describes the evolution of the dress and clothing during the 18th century and comes to the conclusion that clothing seems to follow a renouncing trend, with the corset slowly, but gradually being removed from the everyday clothing and the preference switching to lighter, more slender clothes. It also means more revealing clothes, despite the fact that the use of a corset encouraged a generous cleavage.

In the period immediately after the French Revolution, a period known in history as the Directorate, the trend continued same revealing manner, but with different means. This time transparency of the clothing was used as an instrument of displaying form and flesh. This also shows the new emphasis on showing the line of the body and a more naturalist view.

The veil is very important in revealing this tendency towards showing the natural perspective of the body and chapter 2 shows the correlation between the veil and the usual Gothic characteristics of fashion. As such, the veil is not only the transparent interlude between the eye and the flesh, it is in fact more the object of inquiry in itself. In a way, it substitutes the flash itself. In Gothic style, the pureness of the body and flesh is covered by the Gothic of the cloth or material covering it, in this case, the veil or transparent mean itself.

On the other hand, the chapter continues to show that after 1789, the Gothic seems to pass from the material covering a body to those who uncover the body, as the body itself shifts in meaning from being a natural object of desire to being a moral object that needs to be hidden. Exposure becomes shameful,…… [read more]

Diary of Main Character of a Book Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (712 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Diary of a Main Character

The Diary of Laura Finnegan from Bittersweet Sixteen

September 10th know I should feel lucky to be at Tate. it's a great school, will give me a quality education, blah, blah, blah. But what good is that when all I talk about in the locker room is not as, but how to develop my abs?

It's like that old Alanis Morisette song: "Isn't it ironic." Isn't it ironic that your designer handbag was made in a Third World sweatshop, but you're volunteering to save the poor to boost your resume for Harvard? Thank goodness I know where my clothes come from -- my sewing machine! Just a few stitches and some quality fabric and I can make something that looks like designer duds for a dime!

September 23rd

So my parents always say -- stay focused. Remember, Laura, it's all about goals and your future. Which is great and all if you're a middle-aged NYU professor with a kid, right, and married? But when Whitney Blake goes vamping through the room, it's hard to not to just want to be like that -- to be like Whitney.

4. October 2nd

Looking back on some of my entries and feeling pretty down about myself. I think: 'I have to do well in school because I'm not rich and pretty like Whitney. If I was like Whitney, it would be enough simply to exist, I wouldn't have to work so hard.' I tell myself that work is good, but working hard doesn't always feel that rewarding. Sometimes just having a guy give me a second glance, or having someone ooh and ah at what I just bought would be nice too.

5. October 5th feel like -- oh my God, there is no comparison because this is the best thing ever -- Whitney was actually nice to me today!

6. October 17th

Okay it's official. I am Whitney Blake's friend and research assistant. Whitney is going to have the blowout Sweet Sixteen party of the century. Who would have ever thought that the fact that I can SEW my own fashions would impress…… [read more]

21st Century... the Century of Speed Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,879 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … 21st century... The century of speed, of technology, of democratic principles, of diversity... actually, in my opinion, the 21st century is the period of the greatest contradictions: we are experiencing a continuous assault of junk food, but, in the same time the general trend, imposed by the Hollywood Stars is to keep yourself in fit; the same persons… [read more]

1960's Fashion Influence on Today's Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The Influence of 1960s Fashion Today look back at 1960's fashion shows how much influence it still has on today's society. Perhaps the biggest innovation introduced in the 1960s is the mini-skirt, which is still extremely popular today. Short skirts were not the norm in the early 1960s; in fact, most styles were holdovers from the 1960s. However, as new fashions developed, the hemlines got shorter, a trend that continues today with micro-mini skirts and short-shorts, which go in an out of style every few years.

Another very revolutionary influence was pantyhose, which were introduced in the mid-sixties and made a great different in how women dressed. Before pantyhose, women wore stockings, held up by garter belts or girdles. Tights, knit in elaborate designs, and fishnet stockings preceded pantyhose, and helped lead to their development, it seems. Pantyhose and tights allowed women to dress more casually and with less constriction, which is another trend that influences today's fashion as well. In addition, tights in patterns and colors are still comfortable, and so are leggings, which are actually a form of tights, without the feet. Thus, these early designs helped create a new way of dressing that was more casual and less structured, and that certainly influences fashion today.

Low-rise pants were also popular in the sixties. They were called "hipsters," and rode higher than today's low-rise jeans. They could be made of denim or dress fabrics, and they often contained belt loops to hold a wide leather belt. Low-rise pants today are tighter and ride much lower on the hips, but they owe their roots to the hip-hugger look of the 1960s that remained popular for several years. During the same time, boots became popular, in a variety of heel heights and materials. The "go-go" boots of the early 60s had low heels and rose about mid-calf - later boots had higher heels and went all the way to the knees. Some were made of leather or patent leather, while others were made in bright, bold vinyl that matched the vivid colors and prints that were popular at the time.

Perhaps the most important influence 1960s fashion has…… [read more]

Digging Into Cultural History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fashion Evolution and Cultural Anthropology

The Evolution of Blue Jeans and High Heels

Clothing trends come and go, but some stay around for a very long time. As a result, these items tend to evolve over the years. Two examples of this are denim jeans and women's high heels.

The first American jeans were created in 1873 by Levi Strauss. This was the end result to a conversation by a tailor, Jacob Davis, who contacted the dry goods business owner in 1872. Davis, who sewed jeans from Strauss' denim, noted complaints from workers about the durability of the jeans. The pants would always rip and tear at the most stressed out spots.

Davis had created a procedure to reinforce those spots with copper rivets. He offered Strauss half of a new business venture if he would be willing to patent Davis' procedure. Strauss agreed, and Levi Strauss & Co. soon opened a factory to keep up with demand. (Calliope, p. 2)

Blue Jeans were, of course, popular with the working class, such as construction workers miners. They became mainstream after World War II; during the war, jeans were restricted to those doing defense work only. Interestingly enough, African-Americans associated denim with sharecropping in the south (Ownby, p. 79). During the 1960's, the young people of America adopted them as a symbol of the working class. Symbolic meanings were attached to the jeans as well, one of which was a rebellion against authority. As a result, the popularity of jeans exploded during this time.

The original Levis were made with a "Guarantee Ticket." This was an oilcloth label that was first sewn onto the back pocket of the jeans. After the patent expired, the label was placed on the waist, in a location that could be seen when the pants were folded neatly on a shelf (Downey, p.21). Also, the original Levis tab was spelled in all capitals. In 1971, the label was changed so that only the first letter was capitalized. When an interest in vintage jeans surged during the 80's, the tabs were one of the criteria used to determine the value of the pants. All capital tabs were worth more than capital-lowercase ones.…… [read more]

Marketing Plan Marketing Management "Beautiful Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (897 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Instead, offering a custom free 'consultation,' blending an analysis of the right color shades and scents for the customer would be offered with all Beautiful! starter kits. Promotional strategies would encompass traditional venues, such as women's magazines, along with new media such as Internet sales at strategically-located websites that tend to be populated by higher-end consumers. Using mailing lists of customers that enjoy customized shopping experiences at department stores or who are on Estee Lauder's lists of frequent purchasers (based upon their patronization of stores where information from the customer at points of sale) would also be effective.

Place (Distribution)

Customized shades would be offered at free-standing stores, in department stores, and also online. Online venues would give information about the new product to users in print; brick-and-mortar venues would use salesperson. At present, department stores such as Macy's are being trafficked less frequently, while Estee Lauder's sales in free-standing stores are expanding. This suggests an emphasis on promoting the product through venues exclusive to the makeup brand -- online and in Estee Lauder specialty stores.

However, makeup purchased online would not be able to offer a free personalized consultation to users. This means that a more traditional 'free gift bag' of additional products may have to be used as an incentive to encourage online shoppers to buy the product.


Although the luxury market as a whole is thriving within the U.S., Estee Lauder must still continue to differentiate itself from its competitors (Textbook 20). Customized makeup would give luxury customers a unique, added sensory pleasure to enjoy while purchasing makeup. This would give Estee Lauder a competitive edge over other brands, such as Chanel, within the luxury makeup market. Scented body washes and body products are now common to all makeup lines. Consumers like the more subtle scents for everyday wear. For customers who may deny themselves the pleasures of indulgent foods, aromatic scents are often a replacement, given the vibrancy of vanilla, chocolate, and other intoxicating odors. The Beautiful! Line would provide all of these pleasures -- and more -- to the customer, offering customization, scent, and a unique yet elegant product.


5 spring makeup color trends. (2011).Refinery 29. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.refinery29.com/2011-makeup-color-trends

Clifford, Stephanie. (2011). Even marked up, sales of luxury goods fly off the shelves.

The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/04/business/sales-of-luxury-goods-are-recovering-strongly.html

Estee Lauder. (2011). Official Website. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.esteelauder.com/cms/looks_tips/index.tmpl-cm_mmc=MSN-_-TM-BRAND-EXACT-_-Category-LiveChat-_-Estee%20Lauder%20How%20To

Marketing mix. (2011). 12 manage. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.12manage.com/methods_marketing_mix.html

No recession for Estee Lauder. (2008). Business Insider. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://articles.businessinsider.com/2008-09-05/wall_street/30082786_1_citi-el-fy08… [read more]

Frankenstein Taking the Place Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


" Angela opens her eyes and stares at her creator. She immediately looks past him, heading straight for the full length mirror at the other end of the operating room. Angela gazes at herself in the mirror, fully unaware of the barrage of questions that Meinstein is asking her. She turns slowly back towards him, demanding a pair of designer heels. Perturbed at the self-centered nature of his creature, Meinstein leaves the room to hunt down a pair. When he returns, he finds the creature has vanished.

With a sinking feeling, Meinstein searches Los Angeles to find Angela. Day by day, the news reports a mysterious serial killer that has been poisoning young model by injecting syringes of botox into their cocktails in night clubs. Club-goers are urged to watch their drinks; Meinstein frantically frequents the top Los Angeles clubs, searching for his creature. One night, across a crowded dance floor, they lock eyes. The chase is on. With a sinking feeling, Meinstein inexplicably knows where the creature is headed. Meinstein drives home like a madman while calling his house, ordering the armed guards to put the security system on high alert and lock all the doors. It's no use. One of the guards reports seeing a gorgeous woman calmly strolling through the property. She's still at large.

Meinstein finally arrives home, hurling himself inside. He runs to check on his 15-year-old daughter, Wilhelmina. She's sound asleep, resting peacefully. Breathing a sigh of relief, Meinstein is about to close her bedroom door when he sees a syringe jutting out of the side of her neck. The horror. At 15, Wilhelmina had just signed with Ford models and was looking forward to an illustrious career. Screaming in anguish, Meinstein falls to his knees. The creature appears, kisses him on the lips and thanks him for making her just so perfect. "I'd like to stay," she purrs, "but I'm…… [read more]

Greed Is Good Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Catherine Walker is far less well-known than Diddy or whatever it is he goes by these days, and the articles of clothing she designs are also far less ostentatious. Rather than trying to make clothes that stand out and demonstrate to the world how expensive and luxurious they are, Walker's focus is on creating elegance without this conspicuousness. The focus of the clothing is much different, as well, with Walker explicitly designing primarily for women working in professional business settings, however even her more "fashion-forward" pieces emphasize simplicity and ease of use or "wearbility," making the consumer's own experience wearing the clothes rather than the external perceptions of others who see the clothes the focus of the design aesthetic. It is not that these clothes are inexpensive, or are lower quality, or look somehow "bad" or "worse than" clothes designed with conspicuous consumption in mind, but rather with the view that the conspicuous nature of much of current fashion is itself detrimental to the world of fashion, detracting from the real purpose and intent of the clothing. In this world, there is not a direct rejection of the notion that greed is good, but rather this is a realm wholly separate from design.

Conspicuous consumption might be, as has been suggested, a simple cultural or social phenomenon that is neither good nor bad. At some point, however, a population with limited resources must decide how those resources should be expended. Celebrating greed and consumption has not yet led to the most efficient or beneficial allocation of these resources, and at some points the ethics of aesthetics must…… [read more]

Fashion Photographer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (767 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Photos should be produced according to the specifications provided by the client. Communication skills are also essential; the photographer will have to communicate with a variety of people during his or her career, including models, stylists, make-up artists, art directors, agents, and other industry specialists. It is therefore vital that the photographer has an in-depth understanding not only of his or her art, but also of the industry and relationships within that industry. Usually, fashion photography tends to be a well-paid career, with well-known photographers being able to earn up to $2,000 per day.

This is one of the reasons why, as stated by Agarwal (2008), it is vital to continue the learning process. Photography continues to evolve, with continuous developments in equipment and technology. The fashion world itself is also a fluid and dynamic one, with fashions and accessories changing from season to season. A good fashion photographer will make a point of keeping up-to-date with all these on a continuous basis.

After researching this career choice, I find myself extremely interested and excited to start this career. Since both photography and fashion are passions of mine, I cannot imagine a more exciting or rewarding career. This career will also stimulate my creativity and I will fulfill my dream to travel across the globe.


Agarwal, A. (2008). Fashion Photography -- 4 Requirements To Become A Successful Fashion Photographer. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Fashion-Photography-4-Requirements-To-Become-A-Successful-Fashion-Photographer&id=1662089

Careers in Photography. (2012). Fashion Photography. Retrieved from: http://jazzminad.webs.com/

Creative Skillset. (2012). Fashion Photographer. Retrieved from: http://www.creativeskillset.org/photo/careers/photographers/article_3274_1.asp

Job Classifieds:

Ad Number






Ad Number



Independent Commissioned


Represent a new innovative Fashion Brand for Women and Children. Must have established contacts with Independent, Boutique, Internet & Department Stores. All territories available for Fill & Futures Business

Contact -- for further information --… [read more]

History of Fashion Clothing and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Changing World of American Women's Fashion

This dissertation aims to discuss one aspect of the various women's reform movements from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ironically, the aspect of the movements that will be regarded here was such an important part of the many changes our society underwent during those times, yet it is consistently overlooked and even taken… [read more]

Consider How National Identity and Culture Is Constructed Through Fashion in China and Japan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … national identity and culture is constructed through fashion in China and Japan

Fashion and Cultural Identity on China and Japan

Fashion, as it relates to culture, has initiated a relatively new and complex area of research into society and societal history. The concept of fashion has come to mean more than merely the history of dress and style… [read more]

Rara Avis Selection From the Iris Barrel Apfel Collection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Iris Apfel

Clothing designer Iris Apfel may be in her 80s, but her clothing is just as much for today's women as it would be in the past...maybe, even more so. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Rara Avis (meaning rare bird): The Iris Apfel Dress and Accessory Collection September 13, 2005 - January 22, 2006 pays homage to the fashions, textiles, and interior designs of this "head-of-her-times" designer.

Iris Barrel Apfel's clothing are designed eclectically and far from the ordinary due to the addition of thrift shop, second-hand and antique-store accoutrements to the top designers' fashions. Her link of bargain basement with haute couture is created with amazing flair yet distinguished taste. She interweaves an array of hues, textures and patterns without any allegiance to era, origin, or convention, but everything works together as if it was completely made to do so. For nearly 50 years, she has demonstrated a personal mode that is both frolicsome and just the right degree of eccentric.

Her creativity is usually seen in combinations of high and low fashions. Actually, she introduced the concept of "high/low" dressing or pairing high-end designer pieces with generic thrift-store finds in the 1950s, getting a jump on one of the defining characteristics of 21st century style. There are Dior styles adorned with flea market finds as well as 19th-century ecclesiastical vestments with Dolce & Gabbana lizard trousers. Ironically, Apfel's mix of vintage and modern can blend with period pieces or the newest runway releases.

This museum exhibition, established and run by the Costume Institute, includes 80 completely accessorized ensembles from the 1950s to the present displayed as they were originally worn and styled by Apfel.

Some of the unique pieces include upholstery fabric from 1965 by Old World Weavers (an international textile manufacturing company that she founded with her husband, Carl), with an orange and brown tiger-striped handwoven silk face on linen warp -- Boots as well as coat and bag (on left). House of Lanvin gown, circa 1985, gold, brown and gray silk taffeta; Bhutan arm bracelet, late 19th century, silver and amber; Tibet cuff bracelet with late 19th century, silver, amber, coral and turquoise; and Tibet necklaces, early 20th century, silver, amber, coral and turquoise (on right). Geoffrey Beene jumpsuit, circa 1982 in orange wool; Native American brooch, 1980s, silver…… [read more]

Paloma Picasso at Tiffany and Company Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,185 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … jewelry brands and one of the most acclaimed designers combine their work, superb quality jewelry is the result. Tiffany Co. In the summer of 1980 decided to bring aboard Paloma Picasso to design their jewelry and result in its own long running brand. Paloma Picasso, already known for her artistic designs, is the famed daughter of Pablo Picasso. Throughout the past two decades, she has crafted her image into a brand itself and is recognized around the world for her jewelry, clothing and perfume lines.

Paloma Picasso was introduced to the art world at a very young age. She was the youngest child of the master artist Pablo Picasso and his lover Francoise Gilot. Her upbringing surrounded the theme of art and artistic endeavors. As a result, she too turned towards this profession as a designer. Her exposure to art did not only include her own designs, but she was also the subject of at least two of Picasso's most famous artworks. Paloma began her career in Paris as a costume designer in 1968. Her costume work was primarily focused on jewelry design, and her rhinestone necklaces were immediately noticed by critics and positively acclaimed. After taking several courses in jewelry design, she became fully introduced to the jewelry design field when Yves Saint Laurent requested her to design accessories for one of his collections. With this impromptu start, Paloma began working for the highly respected Greek jewelry company Zolotas. It was through years within the jewelry design industry that Tiffany Co. finally began to recruit her in earnest, and as a result, she joined aboard the company in 1980 as the lead designer in her own signature series.

At the time Paloma joined Tiffany Co. It was also undergoing a revolution of its own. The company was originally founded as a boutique jewelry store on Broadway Street. It took the revolutionary sales policy that all items within the store were non-negotiable on price. Founded in 1837, it is the most recognizable name in the high end jewelry and household accessory market. During the past forty years, Tiffany expanded its market presence through cultural advertising. The 1961 classic movie "Breakfast at Tiffany's" made the store widely popular all over the world. It has stores all around the world; recently they opened stores in Japan, China, and South Korean. Their flagship store located in New York City's Fifth Avenue, not far from their original store location on Broadway. The corporation has an exclusive diamond agreement with the Tahera Diamond Corporation to buy the entire production capacity of the Jericho Diamond Mine; as a result they have consistent access to the best quality diamonds in the world. Tiffany has sold its merchandise through two primary distribution channels, its more than 150 Tiffany and Co. stores worldwide, and through its mail-in catalog and website. In the fiscal year 2005, Tiffany was the most successful jewelry retailer, outstripping their next three competitors by a significant margin. Its overall revenue was 2.47 billion… [read more]

Media Plan Analytical Report the Two Brands Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,048 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Media Plan

Analytical Report

The two brands that I have selected are Burberry and Sephora. A New York-based think-tank named Burberry the "most digitally-competent luxury brand," a reflection of its efforts in social media in particular. The group cited Burberry as an example of how "digital investments translate to shareholder value" (Bergin, 2011). Burberry has a formal plan for digital… [read more]

Mass Media and Female Body Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,472 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Psychological Issues Caused by Negative Body Image

Many females, in their quixotic quest to be the girl of every man's dreams, develop soul-crushing and potentially debilitating psychological issues. Some females begin to develop an aversion to food as the cause of fatness and ugliness. Such individuals, generally classified as bulimics, will regularly forgo meals or force themselves to regurgitate food… [read more]

Mediation and Arbitration Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Conflict Resolution in the Workplace

The organization in question is a design firm which works for a range of major clients in the luxury goods industry. This design firm is responsible for the artwork and advertising materials for cruise lines, designer luggage lines and several watch companies. There's a high standard of excellence and at certain times of year, tensions can run high. One issue that has repeatedly manifested in terms of conflict is the overall style of our design firm for the bulk of our clients. Some of the leaders of the firm feel like the signature style should be elegant, modern and minimalist. Other leaders feel that we should make our signature style one which is classic, traditional and evocative of times past. Other team leaders feel that our signature style should simply be one which is eclectic and responsive to whatever the client needs -- essentially, via this viewpoint, these team leaders want to abolish the concept of a "signature style." The parties involves are the six CEOs of the design firm. While the designers themselves have strong opinions, they're more neutral, ultimately just wanting the CEOs to come to a decision. However, the neutral third party was a designer who's worked in a range of high fashion houses. He was chosen because of his haute couture background and because he specializes in both classic and modern design as well as his strong background in settling disputes among parties in the art world.

Part Two

A neutral third party was required in this case because all parties were able to agree that they were tired of having the same conversation over and over again and that it was slowing the overall productivity of the company. Clients also seemed more unsure of us and perhaps reluctant to get on board with us, because it appeared as though we didn't have a clear vision of what we wanted the firm to be.

The neutral third party was able to facilitate discussions by first speaking with the separate parties alone, allowing them to vent in private and to really communicate what they wanted for the overall vision of the company. This allowed them to vent any pent up frustration, making them more pliable to mediation, and it allow the mediator to get a clearer understanding of what the separate parties wanted.

The mediator coached each separate party about the most appropriate way to discuss…… [read more]

Individual Summery Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sustainable Fashion Project: Textile Recycling

The world we are living in is changing dramatically. We are now longer in an environment where massive production without regard to its environmental impact cannot continue to go on any longer. All industries are going to need to adapt, and as such, new start ups have a future potential in business models using a sustainable agenda. This is where the current project comes into play: textile recycling as a way to meet the need for fashion consumer demands with reducing the overall environmental impact of the fashion industry as a whole.

Textile recycling is a process which uses older textile fabrics in recent garment production. It is a practice that is clearly growing an international following, with many countries across the globe utilizing textile recycling and vintage reselling as a way to meet the consumer demand for garments with a more sustainable business and production model. The venture promises to take unwanted textiles and recycle them into new fashionable garments that are in demand and have a vintage and eco-friendly context. The project offers a new way to help reduce the textile waste in and around New York City, which is one of the most fashion forward cities in the world. There is an extremely high demand in the city, and as such textile recycling helps meet that demand without the burden of more production of textiles. There are several direct competitors other thrift stores, like Buffalo Exchange, which have an incredibly popular following. Still, this project has the advantage of collecting recycled textiles in a more cost effective manner.

The very accessible nature of the venture model is what makes it so potentially successful. Locations do not need to be manned, as all that is needed are bins for donations in strategically located areas around New York. As the business increases, the city itself will help maintain bins for donating cloth and textiles to be recycled. This keeps costs low, but they can also be used to help generate a positive consumer reputation through a public relations campaign. The team observed that vintage and other types of recycled fashions can be marketed to several different demographics. Both lower and upper income clientele are increasing their demand for recycled clothing, as it becomes more and more of a staple for sustainable fashion and a sustainable lifestyle in general. It was interesting to see the members of the team bring their own unique knowledge of different target markets that could be included into a potential list of targets for the launch of the product.

The ethics and economics of the intended impacts of the venture have the possibility to be enormous. Textile recycling clearly offers a plausible way to help reduce the overall impact of manufacturing processes…… [read more]

Biography Coco Chanel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Coco Chanel: The Legend and the Life by Justine Picardie

Justine Picardie's Coco is a glitzy celebration of designer Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel's life. From the first chapter entitled "Mademoiselle is at Home," the reader sees how Coco herself helped to cultivate this sense of "celebration" -- an aura of mystique, mythical importance, fashionableness, and elitism. For example, Picardie quotes Coco… [read more]

Enhancement Photos Magazines Ads Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


From the old bonnets to parasols, from Glengarry highland caps to doll hats decorated with cockades of feathers, hats started to mark a distinction between social classes, sometimes, the bigger the hat, the higher the rank. By 1950, women had started to wear hats less and less. The milliners sought to revolutionize the industry to recapture women's attention. However, once the Church itself lifted the banner in 1967, hats were history. Nowadays, they are more of an accessory used for spicing up fashion shows.

Shocking fashion looks like it has become a trend with broad initiatives. Olivier Goulet is a French artist who designs and makes anything from clothing to accessories from a type of material that looks like human skin and feels like flesh (Picture 6.1). The same, Nicole Tran Ba, designs bodysuits that imitate skin (Picture 6.2), in an attempt to emphasize on the subjective experience of the human body, subsequently, the woman's body and its social appearance. The difference thus between Goulet and Tran Ba is that the latter puts forth her fashion with a message and creative art. The bodysuits are not there to shock with being gore, but to question artistically about the nature and the social role of the body.

One particular fashion draws on women seeking to return to the innocence of childhood; it is called Lolita fashion and it represents a doll-ish look alike (Picture 7.1, 7.2). Lolita women-girl are specific for Japan mostly who developed this style in the twentieth century. It was first catalogued in the 80's although the style emerged a lot sooner. Since then, various sub-genres have created their own particular style within the style, like gothic lolita. The Lolita fashion spread so fast and so vividly that Japanese society turned the fashion into a "lolita complex" because of men's pornographic attention for lolita women.

Picture 1

Image retrieved from http://www.designyourway.net/blog/inspiration/the-art-of-body-painting-and-best-63-examples/

Picture 2

This image is attributed to JIP and is retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PETA_body_paint_protest_in_Helsinki.jpg

Picture 3

Pictures retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1312399/The-shirt-spray-For-clothes-fit-like-second-skin-try-instant-fabric-can.html

Picture 4

Image retrieved from http://www.smosh.com/smosh-pit/photos/16-animal-inspired-hairstyles

Picture 5

Image retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2221867/Iris-Schieferstein-shoes-dead-animals-Lady-Gaga-loves.html

Picture 6.1

Picture retrieved from http://www.skinbag.net/diaporama/PB-veste.php

Picturere 6.2

Image retrieved from http://wird.com.ua/archives/168676

Picture 7.1

Image retrieved from http://pinterest.com/pin/303007881149474364/

Picture 7.2

Image retrieved from http://pinterest.com/pin/303007881149090122/… [read more]

Personal Shopper When the Customer Creates Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Shopper

When the customer creates her or his profile on the website, they are surprised to discover that this is not like any other retail outlet shopper profile or even like a social media website profile. This profile is more robust, dynamic, and most importantly, practical. The customer is first asked to spend time answering a series of questions about body measurements. Because the target market consists of highly motivated consumers, they will spend the time to input this valuable information as they know it will help them achieve the goals they want in terms of having a virtual personal shopper. Most shoppers dream of having a personal shopper who will magically locate the items they want, in sizes that fit. This website makes it possible for everyone to enjoy the pleasure of having a personal shopper.

The measurement information is entered into a complex 3D modeling software application on our company servers. The data is used to create a real working model based on the consumer's data. The Your Mannequin feature is created. The customer has the choice of uploading real images of herself or to leave Your Mannequin in an animated form. The customer can customize the mannequin with hair color and other elements, and can change the mannequin's outfits as much as desired.

Inputs into the system will include a robust, and daily-changing database of information directly from the labels themselves. This means that everyone from Donna Karan to Versace can send in their detailed specs, offering a means by which to properly size customers who find that "Guess size 25 always fit me, but for some reason I need a 27 in Mavi." Every brand deals with measurements differently, which is why this feature of our database is one of the most important and robust. Our technology will be proprietary, and we can monetize it further later by selling it to other companies as a branded product.

In addition to the measurements data, each…… [read more]

Hats Head Coverings of Some Sort Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Head coverings of some sort have been a part of universal human fashion. "From ancient Egypt to Ascot, Versailles to the White House lawn, hats have been emblems of style and status, badges of rank and distinction, brilliant signs advertising their wearers," (McDowell, 1997, p. 1). Hats are one of the most ancient forms of clothing, and have been used for various social, cultural, religious, and decorative purposes. Practical purposes such as protection from the elements remain an important component of hat wearing throughout human history. However, decorative uses of hats are equally as important to the history of fashion in multiple societies. In addition to their aesthetic function, hats have also been used to signify one's status, gender, ethnicity, and other cultural or political emblems. It is impossible to say exactly when hats "became fashion," and the evolution of hat wearing has been different in different cultures. For example, the European tradition of wearing decorative hats, hats simply for fashion, came about in the Middle Ages ("The History of Women's Hats," 2013, p. 1). Before that, European headdresses for women ranged from veils to turbans, mingling fashion with functionality (Amphlett).

Women's headwear was often restricted to social function and status rather than to decoration and fashion. However, there were notable exceptions. For example, Amphlett (2003) notes that women in the twelfth century developed a new fashion style involving long plaited hair coupled with a garland. Women's headwear included the German wimple, which was a cloth that flowed around the ears (Amphlett, 2003). "Personal preference" was actually possible, showing that many women were able to choose their hats according to personal taste and fashion sense even among the working classes (Amphlett, 2003). Usually, head wear was, like other elements of fashion, reserved for the wealthier classes.

Women's hats changed dramatically during the Renaissance and Enlightenment. That was when women's headwear became distinct from men's headwear and could be worn as a matter of fashion. In fact, the first overt…… [read more]

Beauty Product Analysis the Hidden Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


I use Dove Moisturizing Body Wash, which has a rating of 4. Once again, the worst ingredient is fragrance. In my post-shower routine, I use Jergens All-Purpose Face Cream, which has an overall rating of 4; its worst ingredient is fragrance. I also use John Frieda Frizz-Ease Mousse, which has the highest/worst rating of all the beauty products I use on a daily basis. This mousse has an overall rating of 8 and although it has not been demonstrated to cause cancer, its worst ingredients are fragrance and propylparaben, which has been shown to cause reproductive and developmental toxicity, ecotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. Lastly, I use Smith's Rosebud Salve on a daily basis, which has the lowest/best rating of all the beauty products I use on a daily basis. Smith's Rosebud Salve has an overall rating of 1; the highest hazard -- rated at 4 -- in this product are its unspecified oils that create miscellaneous concerns.

This exercise forced me to reexamine the products that I use on a daily basis and consider the impact that they have on my body. I was not aware of how high the toxicity level was in the mousse I use everyday, which is slightly more terrifying because I use the product directly on my head. Based upon the results and ratings of the beauty products I use, I would consider changing the mousse I use and try to find one that has a better rating. I have also been made aware to keep track of product formulation changes as these may also affect the rating of the product.


Barczac, C. (1995, Summer). The hazards of cosmetics. AEHA Quarterly. Retrieved 22 March

2013, from http://www.environmentalhealth.ca/summer95cosmetic.html

Epstein, S.S., M.D. (2013). Major risks from cosmetics and personal care products. Dr. Frank

Lipman: The Voice of Sustainable Wellness. Retrieved 22 March 2013, from http://www.drfranklipman.com/risks-from-toxic-ingredients-in-cosmetics-personal-care-products/

EWG Skin Deep Cosmetics Database. (2013). Retrieved 22 March 2013, from http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/

The campaign for safe cosmetics. (2011). Safe Cosmetics Action Network. Retrieved 22

March 2013, from…… [read more]

Creating a Personna Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



One of the problems I've always had with Gilt.com is that the user interface and user experience are too cluttered. Lately, I've given up on the website because it takes too much time to sift through everything. It doesn't "think" like I do. I much prefer a traditional interface with clearly defined categories, rather than the Gilt approach. The Gilt approach is to use themes or brand names to hook the user into browsing a specific section of the website. For example, Gilt will have a section on "What you need for the beach!" one day, and "How to enjoy bedtime!" The next. Sometimes the themes make no sense, like the "Staycation" theme. The themed shopping idea has its merits, but I rarely find it gets me to fill a shopping cart. While fun for wasting time, the Gilt method of shopping is simply not my style. I'm looking for a simpler way to shop.

That's why I like luxuriousimplicity.com. As the name suggests, simplicity is part of the shopping experience, just as I like it. Yet I also need a little luxury in my life, which is why I like to shop for new things. I like to browse, but more often than not, I'm looking for something in particular. Website like Gilt seem to assume that I want to unleash myself and my wallet in a giant department store. I don't. I just want to buy a pair of shoes. If I wanted a department store, I might actually go visit one. The truth is, I no longer have time to go shopping. Some days, I come home from work at 8PM. On the weekends, I'm always too busy to fit shopping into the schedule. I do most of my shopping online now, and in the late night hours.

Luxurioussimplicity.com is luxuriously simple in its user interface. I can't stand how when I visit the Gilt page, I am assaulted with different boxes that have no real relevance to the way I shop. I am not looking just for "print dresses" today, or Paula Dorf cosmetics. Whatever happened to categories like "jeans"? On luxurioussimplicity, tagging is used in a genius way so that if I want, I can find a print dress by the designer that knows my body best; I can find my favorite lipstick by entering the tags into the advanced search. At the same time, luxurioussimplicity knows that when it's late at night and I'm tired, sometimes browsing is all I want to do. The showrooms in luxurioussimplicity are simply gorgeous and help me to fantasize about what I want my next wardrobe overhaul to look like. I especially appreciate the rollovers, where I can place my mouse on strategic areas and it will ask me if I want to see a similar item in different colors, prints, or designers. This is a great feature for browsing, and helps me to see "what's out there." These features also help luxurioussimplicity differentiate itself from drabber… [read more]

Louis Vuitton and Hermes: Contrast Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


my-fashionbank.com/articles/article44.html [3 Nov 2012]]

Louis Vuitton has tended to be more innovative in its design and more eclectic. From the beginning, it incorporated aspects of Japanese designs into its style, versus the European appearance favored by Hermes. In "1924, eight years after the end of WWI, Vuitton invented the 'Keepall' bag, a light-weight travel bag that foreran the invention of the duffel bag. In 1932, the 'Noe' bag was designed for a champagne vinter to transport several bottles at once.[footnoteRef:7]" As the brand grew older, it adopted more outrageous stunts to gain in notoriety. Vuitton has sponsored auto racing and yachting events, while Hermes has remained decorously in the sidelines. [7: Prince, 2012]

Even the materials used to construct a Vuitton bag are distinct. Louis Vuitton created a new way to 'coat' the leather, which "allowed the fabric beneath to maintain its suppleness and beauty, while adding strength and impermeability. By treating the canvas to make it more supple while still maintaining its durability and elegance, the material was able to be used for making purses, smaller bags, and wallets.[footnoteRef:8]" Hermes, in contrast, was known for using traditional materials, specifically leather from different animals to create a unique feel. For example, Grace Kelly's famous signature bag was made of goat skin.[footnoteRef:9] [8: Prince, 2012] [9: Parr, 2012]

The reason both luxury brands have remained so successful throughout the ages is because they have succeeded in earmarking a distinct, unique image for themselves. Someone who favors one brand is unlikely to favor the other. For eye-catching bags on the red carpet, or for someone who wants innovative styles and materials, Louis Vuitton is the obvious choice while for a classic and timeless aura that harkens back to an older, more ladylike age, Hermes is the preferred name.


"History of Hermes." Fashion Bank. Available:

http://www.my-fashionbank.com/articles/article44.html [3 Nov 2012]

Parr, Christopher. "The history of the Hermes bag and Grace Kelly," Pursuitist, Available:

http://pursuitist.com/style/hermes-kelly-bag / [3 Nov 2012]

Prince, Diana. "Louis Vuitton: The history behind the purse." Yahoo Voices.

Available: http://voices.yahoo.com/louis-vuitton-history-behind-purse-53285.html [3 Nov 2012]… [read more]

Shu Uemura Make-Up Remover Thesis

Thesis  |  17 pages (4,805 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Some of its bottles of cleansing oil are as much as $78.00 per bottle. Other cleansing oil bottles are priced at $28.00 per bottle.

Photo Credit: Nathan Bush at http://www.dailymakeover.com/blogs/fashion-week/2009/09/woodstock-waves-at-vivienne-tam.html

Obviously, the higher the price bottle the more likely it is to appeal to those who could afford it. It is a status symbol as well as an excellent product… [read more]

Big Data Is a New Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Only in the past couple of years has this drive to use big data as a source of competitive advantage existed in fashion, but its impacts are already being felt, as large firms like Burberry and Oscar de le Renta are using big data to enhance their offerings (Trites, 2013). The more companies seek to utilize data in design, the more they will be attractive to consumers, by meeting their design needs. In addition, the use of data to improve the production function is something that will help all designers eliminate waste. By making fashion companies more profitable, there will be more money available to invest in more data, creating a cycle of competitive advantage. Furthermore, by gathering immediate feedback on runway exhibits -- or taking exhibits off the runway altogether and going straight to social media, fashion companies put themselves in a position of being seen as more fashion forward than their competitors, because they have fewer poor performing items.

It remains to be seen whether the top design houses will utilize big data to improve their businesses, but certainly at this point there is room on the margins of the industry for new players to enter using this innovation, in particular as a means of differentiating their product offerings. In addition, retailers will probably drive the use of big data in the fashion world because of their greater orientation to finance. The fashion industry is going to experience a shift in the coming years towards increasing use of big data and it will be interesting to see how the change affects the industry.


Deamicis, C. (2013). Lingerie and algorithms: Big data comes to fashion. Pando Daily. Retrieved November 9, 2013 from http://pandodaily.com/2013/10/23/lingerie-and-algorithms-big-data-comes-to-fashion/

Manyika, J., Chui, M., Brown, B., Bughin, J., Dobbs, R., Roxburgh, C. & Byers, A. (2011). Big data: the next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity. McKinsey Global Institute. Retrieved November 9, 2013 from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_technology/big_data_the_next_frontier_for_innovation

Trites, D. (2013). Big data: The next big trend in fashion. SAP Business Innovation. Retrieved November 9, 2013 from http://blogs.sap.com/innovation/industries/big-data-next-big-trend-fashion-0661043… [read more]

Men's Sportswear in the 1950S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In Keller 2000).

Jack Herschlag, executive director of the National Association of Men's Sportswear Buyers, argues: "There's no question suit sales have gone down, but there's a basic attachment to the suit. The concept is a century and a half old, and it's held up well" (qtd. In Gottschalk 2003).

It's hard to believe now, but in the 1950s anyone who didn't have a laborer's job wore a suit. Our culture has changed, society has changed and the rules have certainly changed, but there are strongholds in the business world, people who travel internationally, in banking, in high executive jobs and in entertainment where suits still exist. Then there are the dressy guys who like fashion, and there's a lot of fashion in men's suits and sportswear today.

Works Cited

Bosak, S. "A Quick Tour Through the Last Century of Fashion" (2003). Mother's Day Activity

Kit. 04 December 2003. http://www.tcpnow.com/mother'sdaykit.html

Font, L. "The Fashion Front" (2003). CNN Interactive.com. 03 December 2003. http://www.cnn2.com/SPECIALS/fashion.essay/

Gottschalk, M. "Can't Men's Suits Survive the Dress-Down Trend?" (2003). Kansas City Star.

04 December 2003. http://www.kcstar.com/item/business.html

Historical Boys' Clothing. "Boys Clothing Styles: 1990s" (2003). 04 December 2003. http://www.histclo.hispeed.com/1990.html

Keller, L. "A Wardrobe That Works" (2000). CNN.com. 03 December 2003. http://www.cnn.com/2000/trends/casual/

Trdesignet.com. "Point of perfection,…… [read more]

Unfolding Textiles Potential for Creating Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,150 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Panels of golden yellow and green, trellised with exquisite Shibori, bring alive the surface of a rich brown cushion cover. Delicate pink bylanes and pathways of white make inroads into a flowing length in magenta, while pathways of post-stitch perforations add an unusual dimension. Deep accents in turquoise and cerulean playfully crisscross a spread of silken fabric, ideal for a divan cover or a wall hanging (The Hindu 2003).

Nishath explains, "I wanted to create embroidery that is rooted in the urban context, very different from the traditional, rural context it has always been seen in...or possibly to draw connections between the process and methods of the act of stitching, with the process of urban living" (The Hindu 6). "In a city, you can't see things in isolation; everything is interwoven," she says, conveying an inborn reticence over her achievements, and joy at the opportunity to share her textiles with appreciative people (The Hindu 6). "I did not want to look at embroidery that is independent of other textile techniques like batik, dyeing, printing..." (The Hindu 7). Linking her experiments with Shibori, Nishath explains:

Shibori is a Japanese word for a variety of ways of embellishing textiles by shaping cloth and securing it before dyeing by folding, crumpling, stitching, pleating, plucking, and twisting. I found similarities in our resist-dyeing methods, which differ from Gujarati bandhej or Madurai chungadi.

The Hindu 8)

While the future beckons with infinite possibilities through Shibori and technical improvisations, Nishath's glance back is clear-eyed:

With the help of straight and curved lines, circles and landmarks, people give directions, without knowing that they are actually creating patterns. Perhaps, I tried to explore different effects that echo such a pattern by varying the thicknesses of yarn, with the help of my tailor Babu and Vijaya, who did handwork.

The Hindu 9)

What innovations did Nishath try? Using bleach on the surface of stitches. Combining embroidery with batik. Layering pre-dye fabric with nuts and washers. Her excitement comes through as she shares the process:

There was a sense of excitement in this technique because the end wasn't known until the entire process was completed. When the fabric was folded, it formed layers and what you finally saw was one unit, under which these many layers were present, besides creating impressions of the stitches.

The Hindu 9) surprise element was latent, as Nishath found, "Due to the thickness of the fabric, the dye penetration happened unevenly. The bottom and the top layers took in most dye, while the other layers got progressively fainter" (The Hindu 10).

Inspired by Yoshiko Wada's two books on Shibori, Nishath plunged headlong and heart-deep into her experiments with stitches and dye-vats in 2001. Unsure at first, tentative at each step, reeling from questions within, she was encouraged and steadied by her guide, National Institute of Design-trained textile designer Jayshree Poddar, who gave her both "confidence and the freedom to work on the open-ended project" (The Hindu 11). Each time a bundle of stitched cloth was… [read more]

Richard Bolles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Completing my Master's Degree will be the most difficult and challenging portion of my five-year plan; I will first need to narrow down choices for a graduate school, apply and hopefully be accepted to all my schools of choice. Then I will have to select which school to attend based on personal preferences, like geography and faculty members. Because I am also interested in fashion design, I will look specifically at schools in major cities like Chicago, New York, Seattle, Los Angeles, and Miami. I will obtain my Masters Degree in Industrial Psychology, either an MA or a MS, depending on the program department within three years. While I work toward my degree, however, I will work as an intern in an industrial setting so that I will be familiar with the hands-on, daily work of an industrial psychologist. Moreover, interning will enable me to network with potential future employers and could possible be a foot in the door for me. Once I actually have my degree in hand, I will use the techniques outlined in Bolles's book to set up interviews and create the ideal position for me. I intend to have a decent, well-paying position as an industrial psychologist within five years. Ideally, I will actually be a psychologist in the fashion field, working for a large design company, a manufacturer, or even a magazine. However, regardless of the specific industry I work with, I will contribute one hundred percent of my energies and enthusiasm to ensure maximum productivity for the company. If I am able to work in the fashion industry as a psychologist, I will also become familiar with the business and better able to market my own designs once I get my small business started.

After working for one year as an industrial psychologist, I will begin setting up my home-based fashion design business. If I feel I need specific training to become a more effective designer, then I will devote time and invest money in fashion design schooling. This could take a year or more, during which I can still work as a psychologist. In fact, if I have a full-time position with an industry, I can always telecommute or attend weekend or night school classes. Regardless, in five years' time I should possess a solid foundation from which to launch my own small company. I will investigate the various legal considerations of setting up the business, including tax laws, so that everything will run smoothly.

Initially, the business will probably not turn a profit and therefore I will rely exclusively on my salary as an industrial psychologist for living expenses. A considerable portion of my salary will be invested into my fashion design company and I may even need to take out a business loan. Regardless, both jobs will soon be thriving. Eventually I will be making a profit on both fronts, and would work part time as a psychologist and part time as a designer, balancing both sides of my brain as… [read more]

Contributor Intern: Job Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Job: Contributor Intern

My thoughts on how the media portrays women and body image

The influence media wields in our lives cannot be overstated. In addition to shaping our opinions, the media also moulds public discourse and largely configures public debate on a wide range of issues. Most importantly, especially with regard to this discussion, the media also has great influence on how we perceive others -- particularly women. For the media, thinness and good looks, which could be further enhanced using a plethora of beauty products, constitute the ideal feminine look. The most desirable women, at least according to the media, are the ones that tend to be tall and slender. This is the ideal female body presented by the media.

I strongly believe that regardless of their height or body size, women (in general) could further enhance their looks by, at least, having some sense of fashion. For instance, there are fashionable outfits out there that are designed for, and indeed look good on, curvy women. However, there is also need for ladies to, at the very least, to take good care of their bodies (i.e., by regularly working out) so as to maintain even more appealing looks. In addition to helping maintain an attractive look, regular workouts are good for the health and well-being of the entire body. In the final analysis, therefore, I wouldn't say that media's portrayal of women is entirely erroneous. Instead, it is exaggerated. Although every woman has the potential to look good, there is need to, for instance, maintain an ideal body weight, so as to enhance such looks even more.

How the contributor intern, in Respoke -- Kire Media LLC Company, experience will help me

The above mentioned role will be of…… [read more]

Working Methods of Vivienne Westwood Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (663 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Vivienne Westwood

In the ever evolving world of high fashion, a designer being lauded as "ahead of their time" is a refrain heard all too often, but in the case of British design icon Vivienne Westwood, such high praise is a fitting tribute. Since the early 1970's it was Westwood who led the charge to infuse modern fashion with a true sense of modernity, as her passionate advocacy for the so-called "punk" movement spearheaded a sea change in the previously cloistered and refined world of haute couture. Together with rocker husband Malcolm McClaren -- who managed the Sex Pistols and designed for the New York Dolls -- Westwood brought the punk aesthetic to the forefront of British youth consciousness during the 1970's, helping to revolutionize an entire generation's sense of style by synthesizing the rebellious music with clothing and accessories. As noted by a recent exhibit of Westwood's work compiled by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, "the punk look has come to be associated with clothing that has been destroyed, has been put back together, is inside out, is unfinished, or is deteriorating & #8230; (and) punk was an early manifestation of deconstructionist fashion, which is an important component of late twentieth-century postmodern style."1 Westwood continually achieved her creative objectives over the span of several decades, transitioning from her punk rock heyday to become a guiding force for modern fashion like television's Sex and the City, which is why the following explication of her processes and methods is a crucial exercise for contemporary design students.

1.) Shannon Price. Vivienne Westwood (born 1941) and the Postmodern Legacy of Punk Style."

In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2000).

In the decade between 1971 and 1981 Westwood and McClaren owned and operated a clothing store at 430 King's Road that, while attached to various names over the years, became legendary within the world of fashion because of Westwood's innovative and daring…… [read more]

Documentary Released in 1990 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


at the end of the movie the narrator says that 'Its really like going back to the closet'.

However there was a problem in the film since Jennie Livingston never interrogated whiteness within her film this is a clear indication that subcultures mainly depend on the dominant main stream culture. Her film depicts that people look to white culture for the ideals of beuty.in so many ways this film paints a graphic picture of the way white colonized black people in this case the black gay brothers some of whom were drag queens worship and bow down at the throne of whiteness even if this worship demands that people must live in perpetual self-hate, go hungry, steal or even die when they are pursing it. Here it is evoked that black people or people of color are daily bombarded by powerful hands of colonizing whiteness which seduces away from them which negates that there is any kind of beauty that can be found in any form of blackness which is not imitation.

2. How do the participants of New York's drag balls cope with the lack of understanding and tolerance they encounter in their original families and mainstream society?

The Drag is presented as a complex performance of class, gender and race whereby there is an expression of an individual's identity, their desire and what they aspire in life along many dimensions. The African-American and Latinos that are introduced to us in this film include a diverse range of identities and gender presentations from gay men to buthc queens to even Tran's gender women. The film was an exploration of a new subculture within the African-American and Latino cultures which proved to be the microcosm of the society that was underappreciated and the mainstream society was quite unfamiliar with. This are really new concepts in the mainstream society as well as the families that these people come from.it was therefore very hard for the families and the entire society to accept this new lifestyles that their children had adopted.at the same time this children were not ready to let go of their new acquired way of life that came with their participation in the New York balls. However the participants were not in any way bothered by what the society thought of them .they went about with their normal lives as if nothing else matters. This is what helped them to survive in the harsh society, since they were not concentrating too much on what people though of them.

3. In what ways has the subculture of the drag balls influenced mainstream culture?

The drag balls subculture had a significant impact on the mainstream society even if most people were adamant to accept it. first of all this subculture brought in a new form of dancing style which was known as voguing.it got accepted in the mainstream society and many people adopted this dancing style and incorporated it into their songs.at the same time this subculture brought in an new… [read more]

Negative Publicity or Advertising Scandals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … fashion industry Calvin Klein has forever been in trouble with critics who claim that his advertisements indulge in child pornography. Klein's most vociferous critics are consumer and child welfare who have ongoing mission in crusading against Klein and his marketing. In 1989, Brooke Shields, then barely fifteen, modeled a sexually attractive woman, who uttered the slogan, "What comes between me and my Calvin's? Nothing." Sales soared and no reprisals occurred. Giant billboards in Time Squares portrayed youth wearing nothing but their briefs. In 1995, Klein again produced advertisements that featured pubescent minors in suggestive poses. A legal investigation discovered that the model were adults. In that image, featured in the style of the 1960s, a model tugs at the crotch of her pants whilst another youth lolls suggestively by. Both are leaning against a paint-splattered ladder in a cheap room, with the TV spots leaving little doubt that the image intended to portray pornography. In one ad, the camera focused on the body of the boy whilst an off-scene camera voice entices him to rip off his shirt: "You got a real nice look. How old are you? Are you strong? You think you could rip that shirt off of you? That's a real nice body. You work out? I can tell." (Media Awareness Network) in another, a young girl is told not to be nervous and that she is pretty as she begins to unbutton her clothes. This third troubling Calvin Klein advertising campaign, however, was forced to retract that same day.

Klein assured that the campaign far from being pornographic was intended to:

"convey the idea that glamour is an inner quality that can be found in regular people in the most ordinary setting; it is not something exclusive to movie stars and models" (Media Awareness Network). However, the American Family Association threatened to boycott stores that carried Calvin Klein products, and major magazines refused to carry his…… [read more]

Luxury Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Luxury Business

"For more than a century, the luxury fashion business was made up of small family companies that produced beautiful items of the finest materials. It was a niche business for a niche clientele. But in the late 1980s, business tycoons began to buy up these companies and turn them into billion-dollar global brands producing millions of… [read more]

Company Mantero Seta SPA Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Mantero Seta Spa is one of the largest textile manufacturers in Italy supplying silk and other fabric material to fashion houses in the country. By 2000, the company had over 1000 employees and a turn over of $200 million. Mantero has been in operation since 1903 and with more 100 years of experience behind the organization, the company now enjoys a very positive reputation within Italy and outside. The company has achieved this level of success through hard work and serious dedication. Below is an analysis of the company's strategy and strengths.

The mission of Mantero Seta should revolve around three key areas: i.e. expansion, communication and technology adoption. The company stands for much more than fashion alone. It stands for class, culture and experience. Its values must therefore be an integral part of its mission statement but it needs to have a broader vision as it enters a new era in fashion.


To improve communication with clients- old and new

To adopt technology at a faster rate

To expand into foreign markets

To invest more on Research and Development

Strategic Analysis:

Mantero has always been a very well integrated company that believed in performing most of the tasks connected with production completely in-house. In other words, Mantero has not been outsourcing any of its major production units or even the more significant smaller segments. But it has acquired help of specialized companies in taking care of some parts of the production though under strict scrutiny. It has always prided itself on producing the fabric completely in-house where it is turned from raw material into high-class material for fashion houses around the world. However in the beginning of 2000, things began to change for Mantero on the buyer front. Even though its buyers had been used to the inelasticity of the market in which Mantero operated, their decision of purchase was affected by certain political and geographical changes including economic slow down of 2001 and SARS in the Far Eastern region. Those factors coupled with a very strong Euro placed immense pressure on Mantero's profits and despite being a leader in its niche market, Mantero faced financial crunch.

Mantero also faced social issues that it had not been prepared for. When expansion took place, it was seen that the markets in China and…… [read more]

Marketing Audit Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Marketing Audit

The following marketing audit will be conducted on Rimmel London, based in the UK. The company was established in 1834 by Eugene Rimmel, a French perfumer. The company produces and commercializes a wide range of cosmetics products that have been developed since the company was established, in order to anticipate the needs of consumers and to adapt to the changing preferences of buyers.


The company produces and commercializes make up products for eyes, nails, lips, face, and body. Each of these lines of products includes numerous items that are intended to address the preferences of users. For example, the eyes make up line consists of several types of mascara: waterproof, adjustable, regular, eye shadow: mousse, powder, metallic, regular, several color combinations, eye liner, eye pencils in numerous colors, and others.

Regarding the quality of the products, it seems that the company is unable to reach high quality standards for all of its products (Rimmel, 2010). In other words, there are products of high quality that satisfy users, and products that consumers are not satisfied with. This customer satisfaction in the case of Rimmel London can be observed on the company's website, in the customer review section. Products like skin foundation and face powders have received great reviews from customers, while certain types of mascara are considered to be completely unacceptable by customers that used them.


Rimmel London's main competitors are represented by Maybelline New York and Astor. These companies commercialize similar products to those commercialized by Rimmel, and they provide them in the same price range. Even more, the companies of these products can often be found in the same stores, drug stores, and hypermarkets. Product differentiation in this case can be achieved by different production technologies,…… [read more]

Apparel Industry SWOT

SWOT  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Apparel SWOT


Increased strengths for the apparel industry in 2010 and beyond include the ability for fashion to be delivered with greater immediacy as well as changing marketing platforms, which interact in inextricable ways. Fashion is often at the mercy of individual tastes, and social marketing techniques -- generally web-based -- have led to an increase of communication between consumers and designers/manufacturers that leads to more specific designs and "humanized" brands (Arthur 2010). Customers can even work directly as designers, and Internet shopping and shipping has made a greater variety and volume of fashion available to a greater number of buyers (Corcoran & Lockwood 2010). While this will certainly increase competition within the apparel industry, it will serve to increase overall sales volume for the industry as a whole and so facilitate growth for successful companies.


The reduced timescale with which customers expect delivery and turnaround presents a significant disadvantage to certain members of the apparel industry. The artistic and craft aspects of apparel design and manufacture necessarily suffer when immediacy becomes the primary goal of the industry (Ford, in Foley 2010). The rapidity with which the public becomes inundated with and inured to new fashions can also hurt sales, potentially hurting the long-term reputation of certain houses and even of the industry as a whole (Ford, in Foley 2010). The increasing ease with which consumers can pick and choose from almost any designer and manufacturer in the world as well as effectively design their own clothing to be built using new media could also be disturbing to the morale of the craftspeople in the industry.


The technological advantages…… [read more]

Thrift Versus Treat Relationships and Ideology Related to Scoop and Century 21 Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,175 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethnography of shopping: Scoop vs. Century

Shopping is not simply a chore -- it is also an experience. Shopping for clothing is a particularly personal decision, and various motivating factors can cause one shopper to choose a particular store over another store. Some consumers go to the store to confirm that they belong to a certain social stratum, others because they enjoy the thrill of a bargain. According to Daniel Miller in Making Love in Super Markets, the behavior of consumers in supermarkets tends to fall into two categories -- 'treat' shoppers and 'thrift' shoppers.

'Treat' shoppers view shopping as a chore for which they deserve a reward. In the supermarket, this 'treat' is often the form of a piece of candy or snack that is bought on impulse when the individual waits in line. Even clothing stores such as the warehouse-size discount clothing store Century 21 make use of 'treat' incentives.

For example, Century 21 displays accessories such as necklaces and handbags next to the register, to encourage impulse buys before check-out. Particularly attractive sales that are bargains too good to resist are also placed near the register. Even if shoppers do not regard clothes shopping as a chore in the same way they regard food shopping, they may find finding the right size to be frustrating, and being able to purchase items without regard to size in a manner that is purely fun and for pleasure can be an incentive.

The more upscale retailer Scoop showcases accessories on models, to encourage consumers to buy them as part of the complete ensemble outfit they are assembling at the store. However, the real 'treat' aspect of Scoop is shopping at the store itself. Some stores, such as the grocery store Marks & Spencer in England and high-end stores such as Scoop are almost exclusively 'treat' stores for most consumers, where shoppers will go to rally themselves out of a bad mood. Some of these types of 'treat' stores may function as destination locations. While Scoop does not have the ambiance of a sprawling Marks & Spencer, its spare, clean location is designed to delight the eye in a different manner. The cool, minimalist and spacious area of Scoop is designed to provide a refuge for the consumer from the hustle and bustle of the exterior world.

In contrast, Century 21's chaotic layout, featuring piles of clothing on tables, fosters a free-for-all atmosphere.

Clothing stores like Scoop often present themselves as refuges for the female consumer from the hustle and bustle of their everyday lives. 'Treat' stores like Scoop must work especially hard to create a sense of ambiance, to justify the additional cost of their products. While quality and trendiness may be the stated reason that consumers buy costlier clothes, the desire to participate in the image and experience of the store is clearly another factor. A 'Scoop' consumer has a particular image. A Century 21 purchaser might want to hide the origins of her 50% off Betsy Johnson dress… [read more]

Lecture With Jay Margolis What We Know so Far Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Jay Margolis is one of the most important men in the world of fashion merchandising. He has served as President of Claiborne Men's and also President of Liz Claiborne Sportswear. He has also served as Chairman and CEO of Esprit de Corporation, and was President and Vice Chairman at Hilfiger/Pepe. Ralph Lauren, Rockport, Greg Norman, and Reebok are also in Jay Margolis's portfolio. For Reebok, Margolis was President and COO. Since 2005, Jay Margolis has been the CEO/President for Apparel Group for Limited Grands. Margolis is an exceptional businessperson because he has deep knowledge of one particular sector: the fashion retail industry. This knowledge and expertise allows him to make sound decisions while being a highly effective leader and visionary.

Starting his lecture by saying that knowledge and education are the best beginnings for a successful career, Margolis also mentioned the importance of travel. He has traveled to Japan and China to network with business partners. Margolis claimed that the people he met "changed his life" but so has the act of traveling itself. Margolis said that when he travels he can see other approaches to innovation and design, which helps him to keep his eyes open and his mind flexible. He has incorporated what he learns from his traveling into his role at Limited and other companies. His discussions about learning from traveling was one of the most important aspects of Margolis's lecture. When we travel, for business or for pleasure, we should not just be focused on the immediate task. We should also look for opportunities to learn from the other culture and the people we meet. We should learn about people in totally different jobs and different sectors, just to get an idea of what other people do. Learning is the most important thing to being successful. Traveling also gives us valuable experience. We need to gain experience, by…… [read more]

Barbie as a Male, I've Never Played Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



As a male, I've never played with Barbies or really understood their appeal. However, I have given Barbies as gifts to younger female relatives on many occasions, upon their request. I had been told by my feminist friends that Barbie was supposed to be 'bad' because she projected an unhealthy and unrealistic image of female sexuality. However, while Barbie has her detractors, she also seems to spawn equally devoted female followers. It was not until I saw the 'Black Barbie' Vogue parody featured in Jezebel magazine that I began to question other aspects of Barbie's appeal, including her 'whiteness.' One of the striking features of the Jezebel photographs is their similarity. 'Black' Barbies all have the same features and look exactly like white Barbies, except for their coloring. Unlike real African-American women (and unlike real women in general) the Black Barbies all have the same skin tone and shape. And of course the idea that there is a 'Black' Barbie suggests that the 'real' version of the doll is not Black at all, but white.

Some of the images featured by Jezebel seem to merely replace images of white Barbies with images of Black Barbies, like the preppy, Ralph Lauren-style tennis game featured as image 11 on the website. Other online depictions show images of stereotypical but sanitized ghetto life, like the hip-hop Barbies featured in 19 and 20. These images echo the way African-American women themselves are often shown in fashion magazines. Either African-Americans are merely used to replicate typical images of white women, like a haughty, gaunt fashion model, or they are featured in highly exoticized advertisements. Of course, some people might say that African-American girls are 'lucky' (or unlucky) to have an alternative version of Barbie that even attempts to represent their lifestyle, however imperfectly. For example, there is no Asian Barbie and no Hispanic Barbie, except as part of Mattel's special 'collection' doll series for adults.

Mattel's actual website devoted to Barbie is striking in its whiteness. No Black Barbies are featured on the main page, in a manner that seems noteworthy after the Jezebel parody. Jezebel was attempting to satirize both fashion magazines' use of Black women and Barbie herself, but even its satire has more creativity and beauty, in…… [read more]

Friends Describe You? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … friends describe you? Do you agree or disagree? Why/Why not?

If you want a friend who will tell you that the sun is shining when the sky is dark, do not solicit my opinion. If you want a friend who always agrees with you, whether you are right or wrong, I am not your ideal confidant. However, if you want strength, support, and unswerving determination, I will be there for you, and not just in fair weather.

Here are some of the adjectives often used to describe me: opinionated, an over-achiever, dynamic, independent, and a natural leader. I have lived in many different countries over the course of my life, yet these words have emerged again and again in the character studies of friends and acquaintances who have tried to encapsulate my character in words.

I was born in Korea but have traveled and lived all over the world. My need to adapt to new environments has made me resilient and tolerant yet also unafraid of what others think. I emerged from my wanderer's life fluent in Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and English and the cultures of Asia and North America. I am familiar with many different ways of life but have always had the instinctive knowledge of how to preserve my essential sense of self. I think that is why my early career focused on the fashion industry: the idea of holding true to one's personal style yet constantly having to reinvent one's image fascinated me.

Perhaps not surprisingly, given my career in fashion, I have also been described as a perfectionist -- to realize a creative vision requires nothing…… [read more]

Causal Analysis Argument About the Media Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,039 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Media Influence: Gender-bending, Fashion-Spoofing, On the Streets and in the Elite Malls of California

The interactive web feature is entitled 'Street Fashion,' and is a catalogue of teen and twentysomething images, as encapsulated by a wandering L.A. Times photographer. Twenty-one-year-old USC student Ja'Lon Johnson beams at the camera. He is wearing a Forever 21 necklace and Diesel jeans. Such a look, proudly sported by this young man, would never have been celebrated twenty, even ten years ago. Because of the greater ubiquity of fashion and the democratization of fame through the Internet, modern identity has become more plastic, more shape-shifting than ever before.

Firstly, the nature of the feature shows the degree to which the Internet has made fame accessible to many people, simply on the basis of their appearance. To retain readership of their newspapers, many traditional content sources such as the L.A. Times are introducing online features, such as "Street Fashion." This segment focuses on impromptu shots of ordinary Californians in various self-designed ensembles. The feature reflects the belief that anyone can be a celebrity and worthy of news attention, provided they dress like one, and also shows the modern fascination with fashion in general amongst all segments of society, young and old, male and female, gay and straight, white and non-white. As instantaneous fame is more accessible than every before, more and more people are 'dressing the part' in hopes of being discovered by a passing cameraman.

Forever 21 is a fashion store that focuses on young girls. But Johnson wears a necklace from the store proudly. This shows the gender-bending embraced by twentysomethings today. Fashion is about not accepting gender labels, or being confined by style. The media's embrace of more flexible sexual norms, and allowance for a greater range of masculine types is shown in Johnson's love of Forever 21. Queer Eye for the Straight Guy made feminine fashion for males acceptable, even for straight 'metrosexuals' (Coleman 2005). After the airing of the show: "Entertainment syndicate Zap2it reported that The Fab 5 had a profound affect on the nation's shopping habits. According to a retail industry poll, men were now 50% more likely to go shopping following a new episode of Queer Eye than on other days of the week' (Dossi 2004, p.2).

The inexpensive Forever 21 necklace paired with the pricy Diesel jeans shows how expensive jeans are another 'trend' and the merging of high and low culture as manifested in Johnson's ensemble. Only in a media-driven culture could expensive blue jeans become a hot commodity, and command prices once reserved for formal wear. Only with the media assurance that it was cool to blend expensive and inexpensive and male and female together would Johnson's ensemble seem hip rather than square. Expensive jeans are an affordable luxury -- a luxury that is perhaps ideally suited for advertising today. Jean brands convey images that can be sold online to captive young viewers like Johnson. "Luxury brands apparently need to create high-priced anchor items in order… [read more]

Product Decisions Pricing Strategies and Distribution Channels Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,532 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Product Decisions, Pricing Strategies, And Distribution Channels

"Avon calling China:" Avon's marketing and launch in the Chinese market

The Avon Corporation is one of the oldest purveyors of makeup in the world. The familiarity of the slogan 'Avon calling' and 'Avon lady' indicates its iconic status as an American brand. Rather than retailing through drug and department stores, Avon first… [read more]

Cosmetology Code of Ethics Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,151 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Cosmetology Code of Ethics

Cosmetology is a profession that most Americans are familiar with. If you've gone to a hair salon or barber shop and had your hair cut, then you've been under the care of a cosmetologist. However, cosmetology goes beyond simply hair care and includes complete body care. Skin care, nail care, spa services, styling, and even fashion all fall under the auspices of cosmetology ("You have," n.d.). The fact that cosmetology centers on the very subjective concept of beauty is what draws me to this arena. By undertaking this critique, I hope to better understand how the complex topic of ethics interrelates with such a subjective field.

Moral Issues Prevalent in Cosmetology:

There are a variety of moral issues prevalent in the field of cosmetology. One of the most common is the need for licensing for people performing cosmetology services on friends and family. Perhaps the person performing the services was formerly trained, but is either no longer licensed or never obtained their license. In this specific moral quandary, the person likely isn't being paid for their services, so the ethical challenges of paying the appropriate taxes is not a consideration. Instead, the person providing the cosmetology services is operating outside of the laws and regulations established in their state, which is the basis of the moral issue.

Another moral issue that frequently appears in cosmetology is a licensed cosmetologist performing services from her or other's homes, as opposed to a licensed salon. Given that many cosmetology services can be performed with few implements, the temptation to have a client come to the cosmetologist's home, or for the cosmetologist to travel to the client's home, is strong. Again, this leads to the services being performed outside the control of the regulations and laws of the state, plus can add to the taxation ethical challenges of cosmetologists being paid 'under the table'.

Maintaining the health and safety of clients is another moral issue cosmetologists must contend with. Communicable diseases can be transferred through many cosmetology practices, including fatal diseases like HIV / AIDS. For this reason, sterilization, sanitation, and knowledge of skin and scalp diseases are imperative for cosmetologists.

Moral Principles Reflected in the Code:

Looking at Florida's Regulation of Professions and Occupations, Chapter 477 Cosmetology the moral principles reflected in this code become clear. The primary purpose of the code is to protect the interest of public health, where cosmetology is concerned. The code seeks "to protect the public from significant and discernible danger to health" ("477.012," 2009).

In response to the moral issue of maintaining client health, even providers of services as simple as hair braiding must complete state mandated training regarding communicable diseases and disorders. Cosmetologists are required to take board approved classes concerning education in communicable diseases, includnig HIV / AIDS, sterilization, sanitation, and diseases and disorders of the skin and scalp ("477.0132," 2009). As clients place their health into the hands of the cosmetologist, this regulation is considerable.

Where cosmetology services can be… [read more]

Commodity Chain Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,707 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Commodity Chain -- Carpets in North York, Toronto

In this era of rapid change, more and more home owners choose hardwood floors and some of them prefer to leave these floors uncovered and no longer purchase carpets. The situation may seem of a socio-cultural nature, mostly associated with spending more time at work and reduced time on household activities (cleaning… [read more]

Blue Jean Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,076 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … social or cultural significance as Davis presumes, most people wear jeans simply for comfort and budgetary reasons. Blue jeans seem synonymous with youth, vitality, and style, but that was not always the case. At their roots, jeans were "working men's" clothing, signifying the working class, hard work, and good value. Today, jeans may be a status symbol for some, but for most of the world, they are affordable, comfortable, and just make sense for day-to-day living.

Sometimes, people simply read too much into a work, whether it is a piece of fiction or an article of clothing. Learned individuals must root into the origins of a work, attempting to delve into the mind of the manufacturer, whether it is Edgar Allen Poe or Levi Strauss. Often, these individuals create alternative meanings, reasoning, and purpose in a work, dissecting it down to its very warp and weft, leaving no stone unturned to find out just what the sociological and societal ramifications of the piece can actually be. Sometimes, they think too much, and add too much meaning to a simple, straightforward item. That seems to be the case with Davis' assessment of blue jeans. While designer jeans certainly have become a status symbol for many, they are out of reach for a majority of people around the world, and yet, many of those people wear jeans. For example, in the film God Grew Tired of Us, which tells the story of some of the Lost Boys of Kenya, when the boys arrived in the United States, many of them were wearing blue jeans donated by relief organizations. The boys wore them because they were donated, of course, but also because they represented comfort and utility at a time when they needed both. They wore them in the camp in Kenya where they waited to begin their new lives, as well. Watch any Discovery Channel or National Geographic production, and you will certainly see natives of Third World countries wearing jeans, as well. This is not because they want to be trendy or stylish, but because the clothing is affordable, comfortable, and allows them to do their jobs more efficiently. Jeans have certainly risen in status and stature around the world, but for the majority of people, jeans simply make good sense.

Davis follows the history of jean use through their rise in popularity in the 1960s, and indicates for the most part, the fringes of society adopted them throughout the 30s through the 50s. He notes, "All of these groups (each in its own way, of course) stood strongly in opposition to the dominant conservative, middle-class, consumer-oriented culture of American society" (Davis 103). What Davis overlooks here is that each of these groups is also economically challenged, and they may not oppose that "consumer-oriented culture," they may just not be able to participate in it during their present circumstances. Davis seems to have to put a "spin" on jeans that matches his own perceptions of what they mean to… [read more]

Guess Jeans, Liz Claiborne Fragrances, and Obsession Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (644 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Guess Jeans, Liz Claiborne fragrances, and Obsession cologne, including favorite and least favorite ads in this group. Each of these ads uses a different formula to make their items more appealing and attractive. Each of these ads illustrates the different markets these products are attempting to attract, and what type of consumer they are looking for. These consumers are young, concerned about their appearance and their fashion statements, and they want the lifestyle these ads suggest.

My favorite ads in the group were the Calvin Kline ads, which were photographed and lighted brilliantly, and gave the entire impression of youth, health, and sexuality. All of the colognes, including Obsession, were shown in dramatic lighting, and even the shape of the bottles suggests sex and male/female relationships. The sometimes color and sometimes black-and-white ads are startling, especially because of that dramatic lighting, making the people seem larger than life, and of course, perfect in every say. The implication is that you too can be perfect if you only use Obsession, which is the point, but the dramatic way they view their products is very attractive and compelling at the same time.

In the middle were the Guess Jeans ads. They use the same premise, sex, as Calvin Kline, but they are much more overt with it. The shots of jeans are usually shot from the back, with the butt the prominent feature, (the only feature, really), and some of the other fashions are blatantly sexual, as well. These are clearly the fashions to "be" seen in, and the women's fashions, especially, are extremely trendy and part of what makes the "in-crowd" so hip and fashionista. It is interesting to note that none of these products relies on professional endorsements; rather, their main points are sex, sex, sex. It is clear you don't need a professional for that, you need attractive models who show off the clothing to its best advantage and…… [read more]

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