Study "Fashion / Designers / Beauty" Essays 111-165

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Enhancement Photos Magazines Ads Case Study

… From the old bonnets to parasols, from Glengarry highland caps to doll hats decorated with cockades of feathers, hats started to mark a distinction between social classes, sometimes, the bigger the hat, the higher the rank. By 1950, women had started to wear hats less and less. The milliners sought to revolutionize the industry to recapture women's attention. However, once the Church itself lifted the banner in 1967, hats were history. Nowadays, they are more of an accessory used for spicing up fashion shows.

Shocking fashion looks like it has become a trend with broad initiatives. Olivier Goulet is a French artist who designs and makes anything from clothing to accessories from a type of material that looks like human skin and feels like flesh (Picture 6.1). The same, Nicole Tran Ba, designs bodysuits that imitate skin (Picture 6.2), in an attempt to emphasize on the subjective experience of the human body, subsequently, the woman's body and its social appearance. The difference thus between Goulet and Tran Ba is that the latter puts forth her fashion with a message and creative art. The bodysuits are not there to shock with being gore, but to question artistically about the nature and the social role of the body.

One particular fashion draws on women seeking to return to the innocence of childhood; it is called Lolita fashion and it represents a doll-ish look alike (Picture 7.1, 7.2). Lolita women-girl are specific for Japan mostly who developed this style in the twentieth century. It was first catalogued in the 80's although the style emerged a lot sooner. Since then, various sub-genres have created their own particular style within the style, like gothic lolita. The Lolita fashion spread so fast and so vividly that Japanese society turned the fashion into a "lolita complex" because of men's pornographic attention for lolita women.

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Legend and Life of Coco Chanel by Justine Picardie Term Paper

… Coco Chanel: The Legend and the Life by Justine Picardie

Justine Picardie's Coco is a glitzy celebration of designer Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel's life. From the first chapter entitled "Mademoiselle is at Home," the reader sees how Coco… [read more]

Personal Shopper When the Customer Creates Essay

… Personal Shopper

When the customer creates her or his profile on the website, they are surprised to discover that this is not like any other retail outlet shopper profile or even like a social media website profile. This profile is more robust, dynamic, and most importantly, practical. The customer is first asked to spend time answering a series of questions about body measurements. Because the target market consists of highly motivated consumers, they will spend the time to input this valuable information as they know it will help them achieve the goals they want in terms of having a virtual personal shopper. Most shoppers dream of having a personal shopper who will magically locate the items they want, in sizes that fit. This website makes it possible for everyone to enjoy the pleasure of having a personal shopper.

The measurement information is entered into a complex 3D modeling software application on our company servers. The data is used to create a real working model based on the consumer's data. The Your Mannequin feature is created. The customer has the choice of uploading real images of herself or to leave Your Mannequin in an animated form. The customer can customize the mannequin with hair color and other elements, and can change the mannequin's outfits as much as desired.

Inputs into the system will include a robust, and daily-changing database of information directly from the labels themselves. This means that everyone from Donna Karan to Versace can send in their detailed specs, offering a means by which to properly size customers who find that "Guess size 25 always fit me, but for some reason I need a 27 in Mavi." Every brand deals with measurements differently, which is why this feature of our database is one of the most important and robust. Our technology will be proprietary, and we can monetize it further later by selling it to other companies as a branded product.

In addition to the measurements data, each… [read more]

Hats Head Coverings of Some Sort Research Paper

… Hats

Head coverings of some sort have been a part of universal human fashion. "From ancient Egypt to Ascot, Versailles to the White House lawn, hats have been emblems of style and status, badges of rank and distinction, brilliant signs advertising their wearers," (McDowell, 1997, p. 1). Hats are one of the most ancient forms of clothing, and have been used for various social, cultural, religious, and decorative purposes. Practical purposes such as protection from the elements remain an important component of hat wearing throughout human history. However, decorative uses of hats are equally as important to the history of fashion in multiple societies. In addition to their aesthetic function, hats have also been used to signify one's status, gender, ethnicity, and other cultural or political emblems. It is impossible to say exactly when hats "became fashion," and the evolution of hat wearing has been different in different cultures. For example, the European tradition of wearing decorative hats, hats simply for fashion, came about in the Middle Ages ("The History of Women's Hats," 2013, p. 1). Before that, European headdresses for women ranged from veils to turbans, mingling fashion with functionality (Amphlett).

Women's headwear was often restricted to social function and status rather than to decoration and fashion. However, there were notable exceptions. For example, Amphlett (2003) notes that women in the twelfth century developed a new fashion style involving long plaited hair coupled with a garland. Women's headwear included the German wimple, which was a cloth that flowed around the ears (Amphlett, 2003). "Personal preference" was actually possible, showing that many women were able to choose their hats according to personal taste and fashion sense even among the working classes (Amphlett, 2003). Usually, head wear was, like other elements of fashion, reserved for the wealthier classes.

Women's hats changed dramatically during the Renaissance and Enlightenment. That was when women's headwear became distinct from men's headwear and could be worn as a matter of fashion. In fact, the first overt… [read more]

Beauty Product Analysis the Hidden Essay

… I use Dove Moisturizing Body Wash, which has a rating of 4. Once again, the worst ingredient is fragrance. In my post-shower routine, I use Jergens All-Purpose Face Cream, which has an overall rating of 4; its worst ingredient is fragrance. I also use John Frieda Frizz-Ease Mousse, which has the highest/worst rating of all the beauty products I use on a daily basis. This mousse has an overall rating of 8 and although it has not been demonstrated to cause cancer, its worst ingredients are fragrance and propylparaben, which has been shown to cause reproductive and developmental toxicity, ecotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. Lastly, I use Smith's Rosebud Salve on a daily basis, which has the lowest/best rating of all the beauty products I use on a daily basis. Smith's Rosebud Salve has an overall rating of 1; the highest hazard -- rated at 4 -- in this product are its unspecified oils that create miscellaneous concerns.

This exercise forced me to reexamine the products that I use on a daily basis and consider the impact that they have on my body. I was not aware of how high the toxicity level was in the mousse I use everyday, which is slightly more terrifying because I use the product directly on my head. Based upon the results and ratings of the beauty products I use, I would consider changing the mousse I use and try to find one that has a better rating. I have also been made aware to keep track of product formulation changes as these may also affect the rating of the product.


Barczac, C. (1995, Summer). The hazards of cosmetics. AEHA Quarterly. Retrieved 22 March

2013, from

Epstein, S.S., M.D. (2013). Major risks from cosmetics and personal care products. Dr. Frank

Lipman: The Voice of Sustainable Wellness. Retrieved 22 March 2013, from

EWG Skin Deep Cosmetics Database. (2013). Retrieved 22 March 2013, from

The campaign for safe cosmetics. (2011). Safe Cosmetics Action Network. Retrieved 22

March 2013, from… [read more]

Creating a Personna Essay

… Persona

One of the problems I've always had with is that the user interface and user experience are too cluttered. Lately, I've given up on the website because it takes too much time to sift through everything. It doesn't… [read more]

Individual Summery Essay

… Sustainable Fashion Project: Textile Recycling

The world we are living in is changing dramatically. We are now longer in an environment where massive production without regard to its environmental impact cannot continue to go on any longer. All industries are going to need to adapt, and as such, new start ups have a future potential in business models using a sustainable agenda. This is where the current project comes into play: textile recycling as a way to meet the need for fashion consumer demands with reducing the overall environmental impact of the fashion industry as a whole.

Textile recycling is a process which uses older textile fabrics in recent garment production. It is a practice that is clearly growing an international following, with many countries across the globe utilizing textile recycling and vintage reselling as a way to meet the consumer demand for garments with a more sustainable business and production model. The venture promises to take unwanted textiles and recycle them into new fashionable garments that are in demand and have a vintage and eco-friendly context. The project offers a new way to help reduce the textile waste in and around New York City, which is one of the most fashion forward cities in the world. There is an extremely high demand in the city, and as such textile recycling helps meet that demand without the burden of more production of textiles. There are several direct competitors other thrift stores, like Buffalo Exchange, which have an incredibly popular following. Still, this project has the advantage of collecting recycled textiles in a more cost effective manner.

The very accessible nature of the venture model is what makes it so potentially successful. Locations do not need to be manned, as all that is needed are bins for donations in strategically located areas around New York. As the business increases, the city itself will help maintain bins for donating cloth and textiles to be recycled. This keeps costs low, but they can also be used to help generate a positive consumer reputation through a public relations campaign. The team observed that vintage and other types of recycled fashions can be marketed to several different demographics. Both lower and upper income clientele are increasing their demand for recycled clothing, as it becomes more and more of a staple for sustainable fashion and a sustainable lifestyle in general. It was interesting to see the members of the team bring their own unique knowledge of different target markets that could be included into a potential list of targets for the launch of the product.

The ethics and economics of the intended impacts of the venture have the possibility to be enormous. Textile recycling clearly offers a plausible way to help reduce the overall impact of manufacturing processes… [read more]

Mediation and Arbitration Essay

… Conflict Resolution in the Workplace

The organization in question is a design firm which works for a range of major clients in the luxury goods industry. This design firm is responsible for the artwork and advertising materials for cruise lines, designer luggage lines and several watch companies. There's a high standard of excellence and at certain times of year, tensions can run high. One issue that has repeatedly manifested in terms of conflict is the overall style of our design firm for the bulk of our clients. Some of the leaders of the firm feel like the signature style should be elegant, modern and minimalist. Other leaders feel that we should make our signature style one which is classic, traditional and evocative of times past. Other team leaders feel that our signature style should simply be one which is eclectic and responsive to whatever the client needs -- essentially, via this viewpoint, these team leaders want to abolish the concept of a "signature style." The parties involves are the six CEOs of the design firm. While the designers themselves have strong opinions, they're more neutral, ultimately just wanting the CEOs to come to a decision. However, the neutral third party was a designer who's worked in a range of high fashion houses. He was chosen because of his haute couture background and because he specializes in both classic and modern design as well as his strong background in settling disputes among parties in the art world.

Part Two

A neutral third party was required in this case because all parties were able to agree that they were tired of having the same conversation over and over again and that it was slowing the overall productivity of the company. Clients also seemed more unsure of us and perhaps reluctant to get on board with us, because it appeared as though we didn't have a clear vision of what we wanted the firm to be.

The neutral third party was able to facilitate discussions by first speaking with the separate parties alone, allowing them to vent in private and to really communicate what they wanted for the overall vision of the company. This allowed them to vent any pent up frustration, making them more pliable to mediation, and it allow the mediator to get a clearer understanding of what the separate parties wanted.

The mediator coached each separate party about the most appropriate way to discuss… [read more]

Mass Media and Female Body Research Paper

… Psychological Issues Caused by Negative Body Image

Many females, in their quixotic quest to be the girl of every man's dreams, develop soul-crushing and potentially debilitating psychological issues. Some females begin to develop an aversion to food as the cause… [read more]

Media Plan Analytical Report the Two Brands Essay

… Media Plan

Analytical Report

The two brands that I have selected are Burberry and Sephora. A New York-based think-tank named Burberry the "most digitally-competent luxury brand," a reflection of its efforts in social media in particular. The group cited Burberry… [read more]

Louis Vuitton and Hermes: Contrast Essay

… [3 Nov 2012]]

Louis Vuitton has tended to be more innovative in its design and more eclectic. From the beginning, it incorporated aspects of Japanese designs into its style, versus the European appearance favored by Hermes. In "1924, eight years after the end of WWI, Vuitton invented the 'Keepall' bag, a light-weight travel bag that foreran the invention of the duffel bag. In 1932, the 'Noe' bag was designed for a champagne vinter to transport several bottles at once.[footnoteRef:7]" As the brand grew older, it adopted more outrageous stunts to gain in notoriety. Vuitton has sponsored auto racing and yachting events, while Hermes has remained decorously in the sidelines. [7: Prince, 2012]

Even the materials used to construct a Vuitton bag are distinct. Louis Vuitton created a new way to 'coat' the leather, which "allowed the fabric beneath to maintain its suppleness and beauty, while adding strength and impermeability. By treating the canvas to make it more supple while still maintaining its durability and elegance, the material was able to be used for making purses, smaller bags, and wallets.[footnoteRef:8]" Hermes, in contrast, was known for using traditional materials, specifically leather from different animals to create a unique feel. For example, Grace Kelly's famous signature bag was made of goat skin.[footnoteRef:9] [8: Prince, 2012] [9: Parr, 2012]

The reason both luxury brands have remained so successful throughout the ages is because they have succeeded in earmarking a distinct, unique image for themselves. Someone who favors one brand is unlikely to favor the other. For eye-catching bags on the red carpet, or for someone who wants innovative styles and materials, Louis Vuitton is the obvious choice while for a classic and timeless aura that harkens back to an older, more ladylike age, Hermes is the preferred name.


"History of Hermes." Fashion Bank. Available: [3 Nov 2012]

Parr, Christopher. "The history of the Hermes bag and Grace Kelly," Pursuitist, Available: / [3 Nov 2012]

Prince, Diana. "Louis Vuitton: The history behind the purse." Yahoo Voices.

Available: [3 Nov 2012] [read more]

Fashion Photographer Research Paper

… Photos should be produced according to the specifications provided by the client. Communication skills are also essential; the photographer will have to communicate with a variety of people during his or her career, including models, stylists, make-up artists, art directors, agents, and other industry specialists. It is therefore vital that the photographer has an in-depth understanding not only of his or her art, but also of the industry and relationships within that industry. Usually, fashion photography tends to be a well-paid career, with well-known photographers being able to earn up to $2,000 per day.

This is one of the reasons why, as stated by Agarwal (2008), it is vital to continue the learning process. Photography continues to evolve, with continuous developments in equipment and technology. The fashion world itself is also a fluid and dynamic one, with fashions and accessories changing from season to season. A good fashion photographer will make a point of keeping up-to-date with all these on a continuous basis.

After researching this career choice, I find myself extremely interested and excited to start this career. Since both photography and fashion are passions of mine, I cannot imagine a more exciting or rewarding career. This career will also stimulate my creativity and I will fulfill my dream to travel across the globe.


Agarwal, A. (2008). Fashion Photography -- 4 Requirements To Become A Successful Fashion Photographer. Retrieved from:

Careers in Photography. (2012). Fashion Photography. Retrieved from:

Creative Skillset. (2012). Fashion Photographer. Retrieved from:

Job Classifieds:

Ad Number






Ad Number



Independent Commissioned


Represent a new innovative Fashion Brand for Women and Children. Must have established contacts with Independent, Boutique, Internet & Department Stores. All territories available for Fill & Futures Business

Contact -- for further information -- [read more]

Greed Is Good Term Paper

… Catherine Walker is far less well-known than Diddy or whatever it is he goes by these days, and the articles of clothing she designs are also far less ostentatious. Rather than trying to make clothes that stand out and demonstrate to the world how expensive and luxurious they are, Walker's focus is on creating elegance without this conspicuousness. The focus of the clothing is much different, as well, with Walker explicitly designing primarily for women working in professional business settings, however even her more "fashion-forward" pieces emphasize simplicity and ease of use or "wearbility," making the consumer's own experience wearing the clothes rather than the external perceptions of others who see the clothes the focus of the design aesthetic. It is not that these clothes are inexpensive, or are lower quality, or look somehow "bad" or "worse than" clothes designed with conspicuous consumption in mind, but rather with the view that the conspicuous nature of much of current fashion is itself detrimental to the world of fashion, detracting from the real purpose and intent of the clothing. In this world, there is not a direct rejection of the notion that greed is good, but rather this is a realm wholly separate from design.

Conspicuous consumption might be, as has been suggested, a simple cultural or social phenomenon that is neither good nor bad. At some point, however, a population with limited resources must decide how those resources should be expended. Celebrating greed and consumption has not yet led to the most efficient or beneficial allocation of these resources, and at some points the ethics of aesthetics must… [read more]

Frankenstein Taking the Place Creative Writing

… " Angela opens her eyes and stares at her creator. She immediately looks past him, heading straight for the full length mirror at the other end of the operating room. Angela gazes at herself in the mirror, fully unaware of the barrage of questions that Meinstein is asking her. She turns slowly back towards him, demanding a pair of designer heels. Perturbed at the self-centered nature of his creature, Meinstein leaves the room to hunt down a pair. When he returns, he finds the creature has vanished.

With a sinking feeling, Meinstein searches Los Angeles to find Angela. Day by day, the news reports a mysterious serial killer that has been poisoning young model by injecting syringes of botox into their cocktails in night clubs. Club-goers are urged to watch their drinks; Meinstein frantically frequents the top Los Angeles clubs, searching for his creature. One night, across a crowded dance floor, they lock eyes. The chase is on. With a sinking feeling, Meinstein inexplicably knows where the creature is headed. Meinstein drives home like a madman while calling his house, ordering the armed guards to put the security system on high alert and lock all the doors. It's no use. One of the guards reports seeing a gorgeous woman calmly strolling through the property. She's still at large.

Meinstein finally arrives home, hurling himself inside. He runs to check on his 15-year-old daughter, Wilhelmina. She's sound asleep, resting peacefully. Breathing a sigh of relief, Meinstein is about to close her bedroom door when he sees a syringe jutting out of the side of her neck. The horror. At 15, Wilhelmina had just signed with Ford models and was looking forward to an illustrious career. Screaming in anguish, Meinstein falls to his knees. The creature appears, kisses him on the lips and thanks him for making her just so perfect. "I'd like to stay," she purrs, "but I'm… [read more]

Marketing Plan Marketing Management "Beautiful Essay

… Instead, offering a custom free 'consultation,' blending an analysis of the right color shades and scents for the customer would be offered with all Beautiful! starter kits. Promotional strategies would encompass traditional venues, such as women's magazines, along with new media such as Internet sales at strategically-located websites that tend to be populated by higher-end consumers. Using mailing lists of customers that enjoy customized shopping experiences at department stores or who are on Estee Lauder's lists of frequent purchasers (based upon their patronization of stores where information from the customer at points of sale) would also be effective.

Place (Distribution)

Customized shades would be offered at free-standing stores, in department stores, and also online. Online venues would give information about the new product to users in print; brick-and-mortar venues would use salesperson. At present, department stores such as Macy's are being trafficked less frequently, while Estee Lauder's sales in free-standing stores are expanding. This suggests an emphasis on promoting the product through venues exclusive to the makeup brand -- online and in Estee Lauder specialty stores.

However, makeup purchased online would not be able to offer a free personalized consultation to users. This means that a more traditional 'free gift bag' of additional products may have to be used as an incentive to encourage online shoppers to buy the product.


Although the luxury market as a whole is thriving within the U.S., Estee Lauder must still continue to differentiate itself from its competitors (Textbook 20). Customized makeup would give luxury customers a unique, added sensory pleasure to enjoy while purchasing makeup. This would give Estee Lauder a competitive edge over other brands, such as Chanel, within the luxury makeup market. Scented body washes and body products are now common to all makeup lines. Consumers like the more subtle scents for everyday wear. For customers who may deny themselves the pleasures of indulgent foods, aromatic scents are often a replacement, given the vibrancy of vanilla, chocolate, and other intoxicating odors. The Beautiful! Line would provide all of these pleasures -- and more -- to the customer, offering customization, scent, and a unique yet elegant product.


5 spring makeup color trends. (2011).Refinery 29. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at

Clifford, Stephanie. (2011). Even marked up, sales of luxury goods fly off the shelves.

The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at

Estee Lauder. (2011). Official Website. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at

Marketing mix. (2011). 12 manage. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at

No recession for Estee Lauder. (2008). Business Insider. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at [read more]

Shu Uemura Make-Up Remover Thesis

… Some of its bottles of cleansing oil are as much as $78.00 per bottle. Other cleansing oil bottles are priced at $28.00 per bottle.

Photo Credit: Nathan Bush at

Obviously, the higher the price bottle the more likely it… [read more]

Digging Into Cultural History Research Paper

… Fashion Evolution and Cultural Anthropology

The Evolution of Blue Jeans and High Heels

Clothing trends come and go, but some stay around for a very long time. As a result, these items tend to evolve over the years. Two examples of this are denim jeans and women's high heels.

The first American jeans were created in 1873 by Levi Strauss. This was the end result to a conversation by a tailor, Jacob Davis, who contacted the dry goods business owner in 1872. Davis, who sewed jeans from Strauss' denim, noted complaints from workers about the durability of the jeans. The pants would always rip and tear at the most stressed out spots.

Davis had created a procedure to reinforce those spots with copper rivets. He offered Strauss half of a new business venture if he would be willing to patent Davis' procedure. Strauss agreed, and Levi Strauss & Co. soon opened a factory to keep up with demand. (Calliope, p. 2)

Blue Jeans were, of course, popular with the working class, such as construction workers miners. They became mainstream after World War II; during the war, jeans were restricted to those doing defense work only. Interestingly enough, African-Americans associated denim with sharecropping in the south (Ownby, p. 79). During the 1960's, the young people of America adopted them as a symbol of the working class. Symbolic meanings were attached to the jeans as well, one of which was a rebellion against authority. As a result, the popularity of jeans exploded during this time.

The original Levis were made with a "Guarantee Ticket." This was an oilcloth label that was first sewn onto the back pocket of the jeans. After the patent expired, the label was placed on the waist, in a location that could be seen when the pants were folded neatly on a shelf (Downey, p.21). Also, the original Levis tab was spelled in all capitals. In 1971, the label was changed so that only the first letter was capitalized. When an interest in vintage jeans surged during the 80's, the tabs were one of the criteria used to determine the value of the pants. All capital tabs were worth more than capital-lowercase ones.… [read more]

Financial Management and Pricing Products Term Paper

… New-Product Pricing: Penetration Pricing and Price Skimming

Two classic techniques of pricing a new product exist, that of market-skimming pricing and market penetration pricing. "Market-skimming pricing is defined as setting a high price for a new product to skim maximum revenues layer by layer from the segments willing to pay the high price; the company makes fewer but more profitable sales. Market-penetration is defined as setting a low price for a new product in order to attract a large number of buyers and a large market share" (New product pricing strategies, Marketing, 2010).

Perhaps the most obvious way that fashion companies use market-skimming pricing is the manner in which the styles of couture clothing are disseminated through the wider culture. At first, new clothing styles from hot designers are shown to the fashion and celebrity elite. Eventually, the style is copied and adopted by mass market fashion outlets. On a much more modest scale, even consumers who do not follow high-end fashion have observed the market-skimming phenomenon in mall stores such as the Gap. Every season, the store will produce new items, variations on the Gap's classic clothing themes. Consumers, particularly trend-conscious young people, will buy the fashions at the full listed price. Gradually, to reduce inventory, the new clothing styles will be put on sale.

Clothing may be a necessity, but fashion is not. Fashion is about what is new and hip. When a store sells new clothing, it is usually selling fashion, or the allure of having the 'next new thing.' When a consumer buys a very expensive pashmina or pair of Jimmy Choos, he or she is not doing so to keep warm or to walk to work. In fact, these items of clothing are highly impractical. Rather, the consumer is merely communicating a certain image or sense of exclusivity to the world. Thus, the consumer is willing to pay more, as being able to pay more is part of the attraction of these items. Even… [read more]

Make Up Research Proposal

… ¶ … Status of the Global Cosmetics Industry

Throughout history, men and women have sought to improve their appearance through the use of various lotions, creams and other preparations that typically fall under the umbrella terms make-up and cosmetics today.… [read more]

Business Report: One Independent Fahion Retailer Just Thesis

… ¶ … Business Report: One Independent Fahion Retailer

Just like its name suggests it, L.A. Sugar is the store which wants to attract London's inhabitants with a special taste for fashion like honey attracts bees. Its declared mission is to… [read more]

Audience Profile Thesis

… Audience Profile

The subject is a 22-year-old Caucasian female with blonde hair, blue eyes, and a medium to slender body type. A recent college graduate, the subject is interested in intellectual pursuits, primarily economics, business, and politics. Although she has a mixed voting record, she considers herself a classic liberal. She is rather liberal when it comes to social matters, but remains fiscally conservative. She was once identified with the Protestant, and more specifically Lutheran faith, but after some schooling became inclined to atheism. Although she was once rather militant and vocal regarding her atheism, she retains the faith but it does not define much of her lifestyle. She is a fourth generation American, the only child of her parents, and can trace her heritage to Germany.

A child of two ex-hippies who married young, the subject grew up in a comfortable, middle-class home. Her father made around $80,000 working at the local steel mill though he had no education further than college. Her mother stayed at home with her until she entered school. At that time, her mother found several small jobs working with the school corporation where she could keep an eye on her daughter; she worked as a recess aid, drove a bus, and ran errands for teachers. Having just completed college, the daughter has exceeded both of her parents in schooling and is about to exceed them in income, working as a computer programmer for the Chicago Board of Trade. The subject recently moved from the Indiana suburbs into the city of Chicago, where she enjoys meeting new people at work, nightclubs, and fitness events.

The subject's values spring mainly from what she enjoys and what she reads as an intellectual. She values nutrition, and is not a yo-yo dieter, but prefers to simply eat right. She enjoys running and working out, in addition to exercise classes, enjoying both the social atmosphere of the… [read more]

Makeup Artistry Course Outlines Thesis

… Makeup

Professional Makeup for the Makeup Artist

Course Objective: To learn the fundamentals of professional makeup artistry for film, television, print, and fashion shows. Also to apply these skills to other contexts requiring professional makeup application such as bridal shows.

Get instruction from professional makeup artists

Apply the skills you learn in a hands-on fashion, using professional models from the industry

Work with the newest, cutting edge material used by industry professionals -- all supplies included in the course fee

School is located in the middle of a professional, working television and movie studio, in the heart of the industry

Learn the essentials of stocking your own makeup kit for a variety of settings

Learn how to set up your station at the beginning of a working day, so that it 'works for you'

Learn how to maintain professional equipment

Learn the different requirements and techniques for makeup on film, on television, in print, for runway, and other types of shows and productions

Learn the basics vent makeup

Learn how to create different day and night looks

Learn about proper skin hygiene, preparation, and care for different skin types

Color me beautiful' -- not every face is the same, learn to use color to work with the model's undertones

Color matching -- how to make a makeup palate work with the model's complexion and clothing

Learn corrective makeup techniques -- not even models are perfect

Learn the correct way of applying eye makeup -- how to bring out the 'windows of the soul' with shadow, liner, and other applications

Learn foundation basics and the use of undertones

Gain experience in enhancing and highlighting the natural shape of the eyes, shape, and lips

Gain experience in enhancing and highlighting a model's 'best' features

Get pointers about touching up makeup during a shoot or a show

Course also provides advice on how to establish yourself in the profession

Get the 'scoop' about the challenges of working on a set

Hear about what different 'set' atmospheres -- fashion shows vs. A film, for example

Get an idea of how to begin developing your own personal style while working with the needs of a model and a director

Professional Fashion Makeup for the Makeup Artist

Course Objective: To learn the fundamentals of professional makeup artistry with an emphasis on fashion makeup, including but not limited to runway and print.

Get instruction from professional makeup artists on the unique challenges of fashion makeup and working during a fashion show

Apply the skills you learn to the faces of professional models from the fashion industry

Work with the newest, cutting edge material used by fashion industry professionals -- all supplies included in the course fee

Learn the essentials of stocking your own makeup kit for a show and multiple shows to create… [read more]

Makeup Artistry Web Site Content Thesis

… Makeup Industry Website

Do you have what it takes to become a makeup artist? Do you have that extra something, that sense of style, that flair, the know-how that can make the ordinary look extraordinary and the extraordinary look out-of-this… [read more]

Feature Plan What Not to Wear Term Paper

… ¶ … Feature Plan

What Not to Wear" is one of the most entertaining fashion-oriented reality television shows. Hosted by Stacy London and Clinton Kelly and aired on TLC, the show makes fashion an accessible and practical topic. Appealing not to the haute couture community but to the ready-to-wear one, "What Not to Wear" deserves an in-depth feature in Time Out. This feature article will include an interview with the hosts of the show.

Telling People to Take it Off: What Goes into "What Not to Wear"

We've all secretly made fun of our mothers, our sisters, our best friends, strangers in the street. "Can you believe she left the house in that?" "That butt should not be seen in those pants." Catty as it may be, we all know people who don't know the limitations of their own bodies, or whose wardrobes haven't changed since high school. Perhaps we ourselves wonder, "Should I still be wearing this?"

The intrepid hosts of the Learning Channel (TLC)'s show "What Not to Wear" have been revamping people's wardrobes for years -- and getting paid to do it. Stacy London and Clinton Kelley are two lucky people, indeed. Yet giving a guest $10,000 to go shopping isn't as fun as it seems.

It's hard work," notes Kelly, who leans forward in his chair showing off his finely honed quaff and his pinstripe, button-down shirt. London nods in agreement. "These people really need help, and we give it to them. At times it's a blast, at other times..." She makes a huge gesture of despair, putting her hand to her forehead in exaggerated disgust.

Since the show first aired in 2003, it has been a huge hit with viewers and shows no signs of slowing down. Most of the guests on "What Not to Wear" are career women: females who work too hard to care whether or not… [read more]

Fashioning Gothic Body Term Paper

… ¶ … Gothic and fashion, as well as the impact of Gothic on fashion, during the 18th century, most notably towards the end of the century and into the beginning of the 19th century. It is interesting to note that the common denominator of the two is the flesh or rather the revealing of the flash. Indeed, at this point, the Gothic novel and culture seems to be focused on the female body and flesh as a concentration of ideas and writings, be it in the way that women are revealing their body or the way they are spied upon, for example, during their bath.

This seems to be the case in fashion during these times as well. The chapter describes the evolution of the dress and clothing during the 18th century and comes to the conclusion that clothing seems to follow a renouncing trend, with the corset slowly, but gradually being removed from the everyday clothing and the preference switching to lighter, more slender clothes. It also means more revealing clothes, despite the fact that the use of a corset encouraged a generous cleavage.

In the period immediately after the French Revolution, a period known in history as the Directorate, the trend continued same revealing manner, but with different means. This time transparency of the clothing was used as an instrument of displaying form and flesh. This also shows the new emphasis on showing the line of the body and a more naturalist view.

The veil is very important in revealing this tendency towards showing the natural perspective of the body and chapter 2 shows the correlation between the veil and the usual Gothic characteristics of fashion. As such, the veil is not only the transparent interlude between the eye and the flesh, it is in fact more the object of inquiry in itself. In a way, it substitutes the flash itself. In Gothic style, the pureness of the body and flesh is covered by the Gothic of the cloth or material covering it, in this case, the veil or transparent mean itself.

On the other hand, the chapter continues to show that after 1789, the Gothic seems to pass from the material covering a body to those who uncover the body, as the body itself shifts in meaning from being a natural object of desire to being a moral object that needs to be hidden. Exposure becomes shameful,… [read more]

Diary of Main Character of a Book Term Paper

… Diary of a Main Character

The Diary of Laura Finnegan from Bittersweet Sixteen

September 10th know I should feel lucky to be at Tate. it's a great school, will give me a quality education, blah, blah, blah. But what good is that when all I talk about in the locker room is not as, but how to develop my abs?

It's like that old Alanis Morisette song: "Isn't it ironic." Isn't it ironic that your designer handbag was made in a Third World sweatshop, but you're volunteering to save the poor to boost your resume for Harvard? Thank goodness I know where my clothes come from -- my sewing machine! Just a few stitches and some quality fabric and I can make something that looks like designer duds for a dime!

September 23rd

So my parents always say -- stay focused. Remember, Laura, it's all about goals and your future. Which is great and all if you're a middle-aged NYU professor with a kid, right, and married? But when Whitney Blake goes vamping through the room, it's hard to not to just want to be like that -- to be like Whitney.

4. October 2nd

Looking back on some of my entries and feeling pretty down about myself. I think: 'I have to do well in school because I'm not rich and pretty like Whitney. If I was like Whitney, it would be enough simply to exist, I wouldn't have to work so hard.' I tell myself that work is good, but working hard doesn't always feel that rewarding. Sometimes just having a guy give me a second glance, or having someone ooh and ah at what I just bought would be nice too.

5. October 5th feel like -- oh my God, there is no comparison because this is the best thing ever -- Whitney was actually nice to me today!

6. October 17th

Okay it's official. I am Whitney Blake's friend and research assistant. Whitney is going to have the blowout Sweet Sixteen party of the century. Who would have ever thought that the fact that I can SEW my own fashions would impress… [read more]

21st Century... the Century of Speed Thesis

… ¶ … 21st century... The century of speed, of technology, of democratic principles, of diversity... actually, in my opinion, the 21st century is the period of the greatest contradictions: we are experiencing a continuous assault of junk food, but, in… [read more]

1960's Fashion Influence on Today's Society Term Paper

… Fashion

The Influence of 1960s Fashion Today look back at 1960's fashion shows how much influence it still has on today's society. Perhaps the biggest innovation introduced in the 1960s is the mini-skirt, which is still extremely popular today. Short skirts were not the norm in the early 1960s; in fact, most styles were holdovers from the 1960s. However, as new fashions developed, the hemlines got shorter, a trend that continues today with micro-mini skirts and short-shorts, which go in an out of style every few years.

Another very revolutionary influence was pantyhose, which were introduced in the mid-sixties and made a great different in how women dressed. Before pantyhose, women wore stockings, held up by garter belts or girdles. Tights, knit in elaborate designs, and fishnet stockings preceded pantyhose, and helped lead to their development, it seems. Pantyhose and tights allowed women to dress more casually and with less constriction, which is another trend that influences today's fashion as well. In addition, tights in patterns and colors are still comfortable, and so are leggings, which are actually a form of tights, without the feet. Thus, these early designs helped create a new way of dressing that was more casual and less structured, and that certainly influences fashion today.

Low-rise pants were also popular in the sixties. They were called "hipsters," and rode higher than today's low-rise jeans. They could be made of denim or dress fabrics, and they often contained belt loops to hold a wide leather belt. Low-rise pants today are tighter and ride much lower on the hips, but they owe their roots to the hip-hugger look of the 1960s that remained popular for several years. During the same time, boots became popular, in a variety of heel heights and materials. The "go-go" boots of the early 60s had low heels and rose about mid-calf - later boots had higher heels and went all the way to the knees. Some were made of leather or patent leather, while others were made in bright, bold vinyl that matched the vivid colors and prints that were popular at the time.

Perhaps the most important influence 1960s fashion has… [read more]

Paloma Picasso at Tiffany and Company Term Paper

… ¶ … jewelry brands and one of the most acclaimed designers combine their work, superb quality jewelry is the result. Tiffany Co. In the summer of 1980 decided to bring aboard Paloma Picasso to design their jewelry and result in… [read more]

Rara Avis Selection From the Iris Barrel Apfel Collection Term Paper

… Iris Apfel

Clothing designer Iris Apfel may be in her 80s, but her clothing is just as much for today's women as it would be in the past...maybe, even more so. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Rara Avis (meaning rare bird): The Iris Apfel Dress and Accessory Collection September 13, 2005 - January 22, 2006 pays homage to the fashions, textiles, and interior designs of this "head-of-her-times" designer.

Iris Barrel Apfel's clothing are designed eclectically and far from the ordinary due to the addition of thrift shop, second-hand and antique-store accoutrements to the top designers' fashions. Her link of bargain basement with haute couture is created with amazing flair yet distinguished taste. She interweaves an array of hues, textures and patterns without any allegiance to era, origin, or convention, but everything works together as if it was completely made to do so. For nearly 50 years, she has demonstrated a personal mode that is both frolicsome and just the right degree of eccentric.

Her creativity is usually seen in combinations of high and low fashions. Actually, she introduced the concept of "high/low" dressing or pairing high-end designer pieces with generic thrift-store finds in the 1950s, getting a jump on one of the defining characteristics of 21st century style. There are Dior styles adorned with flea market finds as well as 19th-century ecclesiastical vestments with Dolce & Gabbana lizard trousers. Ironically, Apfel's mix of vintage and modern can blend with period pieces or the newest runway releases.

This museum exhibition, established and run by the Costume Institute, includes 80 completely accessorized ensembles from the 1950s to the present displayed as they were originally worn and styled by Apfel.

Some of the unique pieces include upholstery fabric from 1965 by Old World Weavers (an international textile manufacturing company that she founded with her husband, Carl), with an orange and brown tiger-striped handwoven silk face on linen warp -- Boots as well as coat and bag (on left). House of Lanvin gown, circa 1985, gold, brown and gray silk taffeta; Bhutan arm bracelet, late 19th century, silver and amber; Tibet cuff bracelet with late 19th century, silver, amber, coral and turquoise; and Tibet necklaces, early 20th century, silver, amber, coral and turquoise (on right). Geoffrey Beene jumpsuit, circa 1982 in orange wool; Native American brooch, 1980s, silver… [read more]

Consider How National Identity and Culture Is Constructed Through Fashion in China and Japan Term Paper

… ¶ … national identity and culture is constructed through fashion in China and Japan

Fashion and Cultural Identity on China and Japan

Fashion, as it relates to culture, has initiated a relatively new and complex area of research into society… [read more]

History of Fashion Clothing and Society Term Paper

… Changing World of American Women's Fashion

This dissertation aims to discuss one aspect of the various women's reform movements from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ironically, the aspect of the movements that will be regarded here was such an… [read more]

Richard Bolles Term Paper

… Completing my Master's Degree will be the most difficult and challenging portion of my five-year plan; I will first need to narrow down choices for a graduate school, apply and hopefully be accepted to all my schools of choice. Then I will have to select which school to attend based on personal preferences, like geography and faculty members. Because I am also interested in fashion design, I will look specifically at schools in major cities like Chicago, New York, Seattle, Los Angeles, and Miami. I will obtain my Masters Degree in Industrial Psychology, either an MA or a MS, depending on the program department within three years. While I work toward my degree, however, I will work as an intern in an industrial setting so that I will be familiar with the hands-on, daily work of an industrial psychologist. Moreover, interning will enable me to network with potential future employers and could possible be a foot in the door for me. Once I actually have my degree in hand, I will use the techniques outlined in Bolles's book to set up interviews and create the ideal position for me. I intend to have a decent, well-paying position as an industrial psychologist within five years. Ideally, I will actually be a psychologist in the fashion field, working for a large design company, a manufacturer, or even a magazine. However, regardless of the specific industry I work with, I will contribute one hundred percent of my energies and enthusiasm to ensure maximum productivity for the company. If I am able to work in the fashion industry as a psychologist, I will also become familiar with the business and better able to market my own designs once I get my small business started.

After working for one year as an industrial psychologist, I will begin setting up my home-based fashion design business. If I feel I need specific training to become a more effective designer, then I will devote time and invest money in fashion design schooling. This could take a year or more, during which I can still work as a psychologist. In fact, if I have a full-time position with an industry, I can always telecommute or attend weekend or night school classes. Regardless, in five years' time I should possess a solid foundation from which to launch my own small company. I will investigate the various legal considerations of setting up the business, including tax laws, so that everything will run smoothly.

Initially, the business will probably not turn a profit and therefore I will rely exclusively on my salary as an industrial psychologist for living expenses. A considerable portion of my salary will be invested into my fashion design company and I may even need to take out a business loan. Regardless, both jobs will soon be thriving. Eventually I will be making a profit on both fronts, and would work part time as a psychologist and part time as a designer, balancing both sides of my brain as… [read more]

Unfolding Textiles Potential for Creating Term Paper

… Panels of golden yellow and green, trellised with exquisite Shibori, bring alive the surface of a rich brown cushion cover. Delicate pink bylanes and pathways of white make inroads into a flowing length in magenta, while pathways of post-stitch perforations add an unusual dimension. Deep accents in turquoise and cerulean playfully crisscross a spread of silken fabric, ideal for a divan cover or a wall hanging (The Hindu 2003).

Nishath explains, "I wanted to create embroidery that is rooted in the urban context, very different from the traditional, rural context it has always been seen in...or possibly to draw connections between the process and methods of the act of stitching, with the process of urban living" (The Hindu 6). "In a city, you can't see things in isolation; everything is interwoven," she says, conveying an inborn reticence over her achievements, and joy at the opportunity to share her textiles with appreciative people (The Hindu 6). "I did not want to look at embroidery that is independent of other textile techniques like batik, dyeing, printing..." (The Hindu 7). Linking her experiments with Shibori, Nishath explains:

Shibori is a Japanese word for a variety of ways of embellishing textiles by shaping cloth and securing it before dyeing by folding, crumpling, stitching, pleating, plucking, and twisting. I found similarities in our resist-dyeing methods, which differ from Gujarati bandhej or Madurai chungadi.

The Hindu 8)

While the future beckons with infinite possibilities through Shibori and technical improvisations, Nishath's glance back is clear-eyed:

With the help of straight and curved lines, circles and landmarks, people give directions, without knowing that they are actually creating patterns. Perhaps, I tried to explore different effects that echo such a pattern by varying the thicknesses of yarn, with the help of my tailor Babu and Vijaya, who did handwork.

The Hindu 9)

What innovations did Nishath try? Using bleach on the surface of stitches. Combining embroidery with batik. Layering pre-dye fabric with nuts and washers. Her excitement comes through as she shares the process:

There was a sense of excitement in this technique because the end wasn't known until the entire process was completed. When the fabric was folded, it formed layers and what you finally saw was one unit, under which these many layers were present, besides creating impressions of the stitches.

The Hindu 9) surprise element was latent, as Nishath found, "Due to the thickness of the fabric, the dye penetration happened unevenly. The bottom and the top layers took in most dye, while the other layers got progressively fainter" (The Hindu 10).

Inspired by Yoshiko Wada's two books on Shibori, Nishath plunged headlong and heart-deep into her experiments with stitches and dye-vats in 2001. Unsure at first, tentative at each step, reeling from questions within, she was encouraged and steadied by her guide, National Institute of Design-trained textile designer Jayshree Poddar, who gave her both "confidence and the freedom to work on the open-ended project" (The Hindu 11). Each time a bundle of stitched cloth was… [read more]

Men's Sportswear in the 1950S Term Paper

… In Keller 2000).

Jack Herschlag, executive director of the National Association of Men's Sportswear Buyers, argues: "There's no question suit sales have gone down, but there's a basic attachment to the suit. The concept is a century and a half old, and it's held up well" (qtd. In Gottschalk 2003).

It's hard to believe now, but in the 1950s anyone who didn't have a laborer's job wore a suit. Our culture has changed, society has changed and the rules have certainly changed, but there are strongholds in the business world, people who travel internationally, in banking, in high executive jobs and in entertainment where suits still exist. Then there are the dressy guys who like fashion, and there's a lot of fashion in men's suits and sportswear today.

Works Cited

Bosak, S. "A Quick Tour Through the Last Century of Fashion" (2003). Mother's Day Activity

Kit. 04 December 2003.'sdaykit.html

Font, L. "The Fashion Front" (2003). CNN 03 December 2003.

Gottschalk, M. "Can't Men's Suits Survive the Dress-Down Trend?" (2003). Kansas City Star.

04 December 2003.

Historical Boys' Clothing. "Boys Clothing Styles: 1990s" (2003). 04 December 2003.

Keller, L. "A Wardrobe That Works" (2000). 03 December 2003. "Point of perfection,… [read more]

What Is Buddhist Economics and How Does it Compare to Milton Friedman S Philosophy Essay

… Buddhist Economics

What I perceive to be the beauty of Buddhist Economics is its insistence on work as a three-fold endeavor that actually benefits man and society as a whole, as opposed to the more materialistic view of a work… [read more]

Industry and Market Environment Essay

… H&M

The industry and market environment

H&M, from Hennes & Mauritz AB, is one of the most known, successful, popular and globally recognized apparel retailers. The firm operates stores in over sixty countries, in virtually all corners of the globe, from the United States, to Europe, Africa and the Middle East (Website of H&M, 2016).

The company operates in a highly dynamic and competitive environment, which is influenced not only by fashion trends, buyer power and changing consumer demands, but also by geographic and regional disparities, and social, cultural and economic differences across the countries in which the retailer is present. The company seeks to respond to these challenges by devising a globally integrated business model, with local adaptation based on local market features.

Competitors and partners

The competition in the apparel and accessories industry is fierce and the players are generally divided into two categories. First, there are the large retailers, such as H&M, C&A, Tommy Hilfiger, Levi Strauss & Co., Gap, Ralph Lauren, Nike, Adidas, Next or Zara. These large size retailers have the competitive advantages of buying in bulk from their suppliers and being therefore able to negotiate lower prices and then to also offer their customers lower retail prices.

The second category of competitors is represented by the smaller size clothing retailers, who do not possess the advantage of bulk buying from suppliers and are, as such, forced to retail their merchandise at higher prices. The competitive advantage of these retailers -- many of which are locals -- is that they can offer personalized customer care and diversified clothing selections, which is different from the larger retailers, where the clothes are often similar as emphasis had been placed on production efficiency (Wagner).

In terms of strategic partnerships, H&M has sought to establish relationships with worldwide apparel manufacturers which create high quality products at cost effective rates. In mitigating the sweatshops debate which affects the industry, the company has set out a 25 points agenda to ensure the sustainability of its partnerships with worldwide suppliers. Some of the points on its agenda include:

Auditing the suppliers in terms of sustainability

Rewarding sustainability performances

Providing support to remedy causes of non-compliance

Implementing labor… [read more]

Instagram's Impact on Modern Life Research Paper

… Once you get 11 likes on a photo, you no longer see user names, but instead you see just a number. There are even unspoken rules to #TBT [Throwback Thursday] with some Instagram loyalists demanding that the photo has to be 'so old' that it's in physical form. What's your filter of choice" (Fineman 1)?


Despite this perhaps inevitable backlash against a company which has enjoyed such stratospheric success so swiftly, Instagram remains a potent and popular tool for PR and marketing. Marketers are even willing to cope with the less-elevated challenges that Instagram poses to optimal use: "You can't include links in captions or comments. You can't copy and paste inactive links from captions and comments. Users can't easily share your content to their personal networks. Even search is limited, mostly to hashtags" (Janssen 1). The simple fact that such a large mass of users is present on Instagram is argument enough to use it, regardless of certain less-than-ideal aspects of the platform.

Although Instagram may become an unhealthy obsession for some users, there is a growing expectation that at least some significant aspect of people's lives will be lived online and placed upon public display. Photographs are a way to get to know someone, whether they are of a good friend on Facebook or because the user's hashtags drew you to their artistic work on Instagram. The line between personal and corporate, between public and private life, between friends and strangers has all been blurred through the sharing enabled by Instagram and there are no signs of it stopping any time soon.

Works Cited

Fineman, Meredith. "How Instagram almost ruined my life." Fast Company.

24 Jun 2013. 1 Jun 2014.

Isbell, Daniel. "Does Instagram change the ways we perceive our lives?" NVate.

24 Oct 2013. 1 Jun 2014.

Janssen, Devani. "Optimize your Instagram presence." Smart Shoot. 29 Jan 2014. 1 Jun 2014.

Laurent, Oliver. "Instagram has changed the way people see the world." BJP. Oct 2013.

1 Jun 2014.

Lux, K. "What is Instagram and why is it so popular?" Information Space. 15 Dec 2011.

1 Jun 2014.

Mattern, Mary. "How Instagram changed my life." Nom Yourself. 2012.… [read more]

Sociology "Mcdonaldization Essay

… A young woman would like a classy coat for winter but can't afford the best available, so she goes to Target which allows her to "reach [her] ultimate end," a cheaper coat that looks like it may have come from Macy's. Basically what she has done according to Weber's theory is calculate (quantify) and rationalize that her purchase meets her expectations. I can also see McDonaldization in consumer technology, including devices such as smartphones. I think this term can also be applied to the food industry. The food industry has been in the news much more in recent years, with reports of genetic modification of produce and of animals that are used for food.

3) Are there times or places in life when you feel that McDonaldization is more or less acceptable? In other words, are there examples where McDonaldization is especially good or bad?

I do not see how McDonaldization is particularly good in most industries although I do see that McDonaldization can be helpful to consumers (at the salad bar and at the self-serve gasoline station, which I will refer to later in this paper). I am not against efficiency, but there is a clear trend to sacrifice products over people. I think we have to find a balance in using technology to produce products well, and a production process that values people, respecting and acknowledging the human factory in business. McDonaldization is a state that does not value people and turns people into interchangeable, cheap, limited-functioning objects/workers. Industry can be productive and still treat people as people in a respectful manner. I am uncertain as to whether there are places in life that this process is more or less acceptable. McDonaldization likely [read more]

Clothing and Culture Research Paper

… As noted above, France had a strong monarchy during the 18th century. The Court of Versailles aimed to dazzle, to use opulence and extravagance to engender the dual ideas of the monarchy and French culture, and to become the inspiration for the arts and high-culture for all of Europe. In fact, the influence of two women during this time had a seminal effect upon clothing in all of Europe that continued after the French Revolution: Marie-Antoinette (consort of Louis XVI) and Madame de Pompadour (Mistress of Louis XV). Despite the fact that women had no legal rights during this time period, both used clothing and style to become "the governing principle, the guiding reason, the commanding voice… keeping the court in order and managing the household…. while remaining elegant and powerful" (Delpierre, 1997).

Many scholars note that despite the decline of French political influence from 1720-1789, the strength of French fashion helped spread French culture throughout Europe. French styles became the styles to emulate in the cut of coats and dresses, patterns of silks that developed into colors and textures, and the use of costume an outward expression of western civilization in which the combination of fantasy, freedom and pleasure were expressed through garments. French style, even without modern media became such an industry, that the mere addition of a particular hat or scarf signaled a wealth of information about the wearer. Ironically, styles changed quite rapidly, causing French philosopher Montesquieu to comment that: "A woman who leaves Paris to spend six months in the country comes back as out of date as if she had been buried there for thirty years" (Delpierre, 1997, p. 6).

Layers upon layers from undergarments to frock coats became popular for both genders; hose and shoes with exaggerated heels as well. Clothing not only supported the distinction between classes in general, but also in subtle ways between various artificial layers of higher society. For instance, the Court often shunned individuals based on such trivial matters as how one wore a flower, lace, or matched colors. In another irony, French fashion in the 18th century developed at an almost rabid pace that accelerated as the political and social problems came to a boiling point as the Revolution approached. The garishness and expense of one gown that may have cost as much as the average wages of 2-3 years of a middle class workman became part of the criticism of the aristocracy; not to mention the time it took simply to dress for a dinner occasion (upwards of 4-5 hours at times). Thus, the contrast in society was mirrored in the contrast in clothing and fashion for much of the 18th century (Ribero, 2002).

Conclusions: Throughout the 18th century, men continued to wear the coat, waistcoat, breeches and shoes of previous periods; but like the change from the Renaissance to the Baroque, more attention was paid to individual pieces and style with wigs worn for many occasions -- often long and powdered depending on one's station… [read more]

Entering the Great War Essay

… ¶ … promotes a series of ideals concerning the appearance a person needs to have in order to be considered 'perfect'. The fashion industry is actively involved in providing women from across the world with the feeling that to be beautiful means that they have to meet certain requirements. Models in the present promote a false image of beauty and go through a complex process involving make-up, exercise, harmful diets, and Photoshop before they appear in fashion photographs. This is why it is confusing for women to see that they have little to no results in spite of the fact that they go through great efforts in order to look like a model.

Fashion has come to encourage women to believe that beauty is in many cases more important than health. By simply looking at the typical requirements encountered in ads issued by supermodel agencies one is likely to observe that it would be difficult and almost impossible for a normal person to become a supermodel. "Unfortunately many girls, in order to look like a supermodel, need to develop an eating disorder." (Normadi & Roark 11) as a consequence, a great deal of women endangers their lives in order to look like a supermodel. Self-starvation is very common in the present as numerous women are obsessed with their weight and constantly feel that they're too fat.

Teenagers and young women are more vulnerable because they have the tendency to be easily influenced by individuals whom they interact with (Fletcher 42). The fact that many teens are likely to be 'imperfect' when considering things from society's perspective contributes to this issue and encourages them to take on attitudes that damage their physical and mental health. They can become obsessed with their appearance and do everything in their power in order to feel that they are socially acceptable. Conditions are critical in some cases where young… [read more]

Entrepreneur Turkey Interview

… Entrepreneur

Turkey has long been a major player in the global textile business. The country built a competency in the industry during the Ottoman Empire and continue to this day. Turkey is one of the world's leading producers of cotton… [read more]

Marketing Plan Project Research Paper

… Nike

Marketing Nike Free in Turkey

The Nike Free line offers runners a 'barefoot running' sensation consistent with a growing market trend toward lightweight running shoes. The discussion here considers the marketing mix impacting Nike Free as it enters a… [read more]

Christian Louboutin vs. Yves Saint Case Study

… Question B: United By Blue (Brand)

United By Blue has branded itself as an 'eco-friendly' company. The "Philadelphia-based business makes high-quality organic T-shirts. It also promises that for every product sold, it will remove a pound of trash from rivers, oceans, and beaches by organizing cleanup events. The shirts, and the mission-based pitch, had won an enthusiastic reception from retailers, including Urban Outfitters and Whole Foods" (Lapowsky 20102). The t-shirts retail for around $29.50 and their attraction is not based in their appearance (and certainly not upon their price, given their relatively ordinary appearance for a relatively high sticker price) but the extent to which consumers 'feel good' about buying an ethical brand. To further emphasize sustainability, the company uses "banana-fiber paper packaging, hang tags made of elephant dung, and twine, not plastic, to attach the tags" (Lapowsky 2012).

The company has undergone some financial difficulties in recent years. Its "wholesale margins had shrunk -- from 60% to just 15%," partially because the downturn in the economy has made consumers more financially conservative regarding their clothing purchases (Lapowsky 2012). Also, the company has found that being ethical is expensive. The banana-fiber is cost prohibitive and the cotton from which the shirts were manufactured has hit an all-time high, in terms of pricing. The company is facing a difficult decision because it markets itself upon its ethics and distinguishes its brand by its 'sustainability' but to be sustainable is actually quite cost-prohibitive both for the company and for customers. The company was forced to increase the price of the t-shirts to $34, and while "the price increase raised United By Blue's margins to 30%," a number of major retailers dropped the brand because it was so expensive, which may not bode well for the company in the long-term (Lapowsky 2012).

Works Cited

"Christian Louboutin vs. YSL 'Red Soles' Court Case Takes A New Twist." The Huffington

Post. 5 Sept 2012. [22 Mar 2013]

Lapowsky, Issie. (2012). "Should an Eco Brand Put Money Before… [read more]

Eye Has to Travel Case Study

… It is a textile which is plain-woven, made from unbleached cotton. Also, it is a very cheap fabric in and of itself which takes on cost only after the addition of dyes and designs. The actual feel of chintz is rough and this is synonymous with its being inexpensive.

c. Tweed: Tweed is a very rough fabric which is made from sheep's wool. The way that the tweed is woven creates a definitive pattern. These are made by weaving different colors of wool yarn into the larger tweed material. Herringbone and checks are two of the most common patterns although tweed can be made in plain colors. It is both heavy and coarse and many people find it uncomfortable. The textile is most commonly used for external purposes, such as in coats because of its feel, ability to retain warmth, and its durability.

d. Cashmere: Cashmere is another form of wool, like tweed, but it is a much finer grade than other types. It is a wool that is made from goats rather than sheep. Cashmere is an extremely soft material which is both strong and lightweight. A wool is only considered to be cashmere so long as it comes from the fine dehaired undercoat fibers produced by the cashmere goat. The diameter of the wool fibers must also be extremely fine. Because of all the restrictions put on classification of cashmere, it is an extremely expensive material.

4. Which was your favorite and why?

Of the four textiles described, my favorite is chintz because I was unaware of its history before watching this documentary and doing research.

Works Cited:

Diana Vreeland: The Eye Has to Travel. Dir. Lisa I. Vreeland. Perf. Diana… [read more]

Reexamining Ritual and Routine of My Cousins Putting Facials Essay

… ¶ … daily routine of my female cousin putting on facials that I could easily study.

My cousin has a regular habit of applying a multitude of facials to her face both in the morning when she awakes, and at… [read more]

Thrift Versus Treat Relationships and Ideology Related to Scoop and Century 21 Essay

… Ethnography of shopping: Scoop vs. Century

Shopping is not simply a chore -- it is also an experience. Shopping for clothing is a particularly personal decision, and various motivating factors can cause one shopper to choose a particular store over… [read more]

L'oreal Nederland B.V. Situation Analysis Case Study

… Women in the Netherlands were gaining self-confidence, independence and disposable income, and more of them were using it to buy cosmetics for use on a daily basis.

The skin care market was the second largest sector of the Dutch cosmetics… [read more]

Negative Publicity or Advertising Scandals Term Paper

… ¶ … fashion industry Calvin Klein has forever been in trouble with critics who claim that his advertisements indulge in child pornography. Klein's most vociferous critics are consumer and child welfare who have ongoing mission in crusading against Klein and his marketing. In 1989, Brooke Shields, then barely fifteen, modeled a sexually attractive woman, who uttered the slogan, "What comes between me and my Calvin's? Nothing." Sales soared and no reprisals occurred. Giant billboards in Time Squares portrayed youth wearing nothing but their briefs. In 1995, Klein again produced advertisements that featured pubescent minors in suggestive poses. A legal investigation discovered that the model were adults. In that image, featured in the style of the 1960s, a model tugs at the crotch of her pants whilst another youth lolls suggestively by. Both are leaning against a paint-splattered ladder in a cheap room, with the TV spots leaving little doubt that the image intended to portray pornography. In one ad, the camera focused on the body of the boy whilst an off-scene camera voice entices him to rip off his shirt: "You got a real nice look. How old are you? Are you strong? You think you could rip that shirt off of you? That's a real nice body. You work out? I can tell." (Media Awareness Network) in another, a young girl is told not to be nervous and that she is pretty as she begins to unbutton her clothes. This third troubling Calvin Klein advertising campaign, however, was forced to retract that same day.

Klein assured that the campaign far from being pornographic was intended to:

"convey the idea that glamour is an inner quality that can be found in regular people in the most ordinary setting; it is not something exclusive to movie stars and models" (Media Awareness Network). However, the American Family Association threatened to boycott stores that carried Calvin Klein products, and major magazines refused to carry his… [read more]

Lecture With Jay Margolis What We Know so Far Essay

… Jay Margolis is one of the most important men in the world of fashion merchandising. He has served as President of Claiborne Men's and also President of Liz Claiborne Sportswear. He has also served as Chairman and CEO of Esprit de Corporation, and was President and Vice Chairman at Hilfiger/Pepe. Ralph Lauren, Rockport, Greg Norman, and Reebok are also in Jay Margolis's portfolio. For Reebok, Margolis was President and COO. Since 2005, Jay Margolis has been the CEO/President for Apparel Group for Limited Grands. Margolis is an exceptional businessperson because he has deep knowledge of one particular sector: the fashion retail industry. This knowledge and expertise allows him to make sound decisions while being a highly effective leader and visionary.

Starting his lecture by saying that knowledge and education are the best beginnings for a successful career, Margolis also mentioned the importance of travel. He has traveled to Japan and China to network with business partners. Margolis claimed that the people he met "changed his life" but so has the act of traveling itself. Margolis said that when he travels he can see other approaches to innovation and design, which helps him to keep his eyes open and his mind flexible. He has incorporated what he learns from his traveling into his role at Limited and other companies. His discussions about learning from traveling was one of the most important aspects of Margolis's lecture. When we travel, for business or for pleasure, we should not just be focused on the immediate task. We should also look for opportunities to learn from the other culture and the people we meet. We should learn about people in totally different jobs and different sectors, just to get an idea of what other people do. Learning is the most important thing to being successful. Traveling also gives us valuable experience. We need to gain experience, by… [read more]

Luxury Business Term Paper

… ¶ … Luxury Business

"For more than a century, the luxury fashion business was made up of small family companies that produced beautiful items of the finest materials. It was a niche business for a niche clientele. But in the… [read more]

Company Mantero Seta SPA Case Study

… Mantero Seta Spa is one of the largest textile manufacturers in Italy supplying silk and other fabric material to fashion houses in the country. By 2000, the company had over 1000 employees and a turn over of $200 million. Mantero has been in operation since 1903 and with more 100 years of experience behind the organization, the company now enjoys a very positive reputation within Italy and outside. The company has achieved this level of success through hard work and serious dedication. Below is an analysis of the company's strategy and strengths.

The mission of Mantero Seta should revolve around three key areas: i.e. expansion, communication and technology adoption. The company stands for much more than fashion alone. It stands for class, culture and experience. Its values must therefore be an integral part of its mission statement but it needs to have a broader vision as it enters a new era in fashion.


To improve communication with clients- old and new

To adopt technology at a faster rate

To expand into foreign markets

To invest more on Research and Development

Strategic Analysis:

Mantero has always been a very well integrated company that believed in performing most of the tasks connected with production completely in-house. In other words, Mantero has not been outsourcing any of its major production units or even the more significant smaller segments. But it has acquired help of specialized companies in taking care of some parts of the production though under strict scrutiny. It has always prided itself on producing the fabric completely in-house where it is turned from raw material into high-class material for fashion houses around the world. However in the beginning of 2000, things began to change for Mantero on the buyer front. Even though its buyers had been used to the inelasticity of the market in which Mantero operated, their decision of purchase was affected by certain political and geographical changes including economic slow down of 2001 and SARS in the Far Eastern region. Those factors coupled with a very strong Euro placed immense pressure on Mantero's profits and despite being a leader in its niche market, Mantero faced financial crunch.

Mantero also faced social issues that it had not been prepared for. When expansion took place, it was seen that the markets in China and… [read more]

Marketing Audit Essay

… Marketing Audit

The following marketing audit will be conducted on Rimmel London, based in the UK. The company was established in 1834 by Eugene Rimmel, a French perfumer. The company produces and commercializes a wide range of cosmetics products that have been developed since the company was established, in order to anticipate the needs of consumers and to adapt to the changing preferences of buyers.


The company produces and commercializes make up products for eyes, nails, lips, face, and body. Each of these lines of products includes numerous items that are intended to address the preferences of users. For example, the eyes make up line consists of several types of mascara: waterproof, adjustable, regular, eye shadow: mousse, powder, metallic, regular, several color combinations, eye liner, eye pencils in numerous colors, and others.

Regarding the quality of the products, it seems that the company is unable to reach high quality standards for all of its products (Rimmel, 2010). In other words, there are products of high quality that satisfy users, and products that consumers are not satisfied with. This customer satisfaction in the case of Rimmel London can be observed on the company's website, in the customer review section. Products like skin foundation and face powders have received great reviews from customers, while certain types of mascara are considered to be completely unacceptable by customers that used them.


Rimmel London's main competitors are represented by Maybelline New York and Astor. These companies commercialize similar products to those commercialized by Rimmel, and they provide them in the same price range. Even more, the companies of these products can often be found in the same stores, drug stores, and hypermarkets. Product differentiation in this case can be achieved by different production technologies,… [read more]

Apparel Industry SWOT

… Apparel SWOT


Increased strengths for the apparel industry in 2010 and beyond include the ability for fashion to be delivered with greater immediacy as well as changing marketing platforms, which interact in inextricable ways. Fashion is often at the mercy of individual tastes, and social marketing techniques -- generally web-based -- have led to an increase of communication between consumers and designers/manufacturers that leads to more specific designs and "humanized" brands (Arthur 2010). Customers can even work directly as designers, and Internet shopping and shipping has made a greater variety and volume of fashion available to a greater number of buyers (Corcoran & Lockwood 2010). While this will certainly increase competition within the apparel industry, it will serve to increase overall sales volume for the industry as a whole and so facilitate growth for successful companies.


The reduced timescale with which customers expect delivery and turnaround presents a significant disadvantage to certain members of the apparel industry. The artistic and craft aspects of apparel design and manufacture necessarily suffer when immediacy becomes the primary goal of the industry (Ford, in Foley 2010). The rapidity with which the public becomes inundated with and inured to new fashions can also hurt sales, potentially hurting the long-term reputation of certain houses and even of the industry as a whole (Ford, in Foley 2010). The increasing ease with which consumers can pick and choose from almost any designer and manufacturer in the world as well as effectively design their own clothing to be built using new media could also be disturbing to the morale of the craftspeople in the industry.


The technological advantages… [read more]

Barbie as a Male, I've Never Played Essay

… Barbie

As a male, I've never played with Barbies or really understood their appeal. However, I have given Barbies as gifts to younger female relatives on many occasions, upon their request. I had been told by my feminist friends that Barbie was supposed to be 'bad' because she projected an unhealthy and unrealistic image of female sexuality. However, while Barbie has her detractors, she also seems to spawn equally devoted female followers. It was not until I saw the 'Black Barbie' Vogue parody featured in Jezebel magazine that I began to question other aspects of Barbie's appeal, including her 'whiteness.' One of the striking features of the Jezebel photographs is their similarity. 'Black' Barbies all have the same features and look exactly like white Barbies, except for their coloring. Unlike real African-American women (and unlike real women in general) the Black Barbies all have the same skin tone and shape. And of course the idea that there is a 'Black' Barbie suggests that the 'real' version of the doll is not Black at all, but white.

Some of the images featured by Jezebel seem to merely replace images of white Barbies with images of Black Barbies, like the preppy, Ralph Lauren-style tennis game featured as image 11 on the website. Other online depictions show images of stereotypical but sanitized ghetto life, like the hip-hop Barbies featured in 19 and 20. These images echo the way African-American women themselves are often shown in fashion magazines. Either African-Americans are merely used to replicate typical images of white women, like a haughty, gaunt fashion model, or they are featured in highly exoticized advertisements. Of course, some people might say that African-American girls are 'lucky' (or unlucky) to have an alternative version of Barbie that even attempts to represent their lifestyle, however imperfectly. For example, there is no Asian Barbie and no Hispanic Barbie, except as part of Mattel's special 'collection' doll series for adults.

Mattel's actual website devoted to Barbie is striking in its whiteness. No Black Barbies are featured on the main page, in a manner that seems noteworthy after the Jezebel parody. Jezebel was attempting to satirize both fashion magazines' use of Black women and Barbie herself, but even its satire has more creativity and beauty, in… [read more]

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