"Fashion / Designers / Beauty" Essays

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Clothes Make the Man' Would You Trust Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (435 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Clothes make the man'

Would you trust a soldier with a stained uniform, long hair carelessly tucked in his hat, or a doctor with dirty fingernails? What about a lawyer who came to court in jeans? Of course, none of us like to say that 'clothes make the man or woman,' and we want to affirm that 'beauty is only skin deep.' But clothing is also a medium of communication, and people must take some consideration of the impact of their attire upon the confidence of the people they serve and meet.

Of course, physical beauty, and the appearance of an individual in terms of their race, religion or ethnicity should not determine whether they are seen as competent. But it is a sign of a lack of respect not to dress appropriately for an occasion. Wearing jeans to a formal wedding draws attention from the happy couple, and puts all the focus on the disrespectful individual, trying to be 'individualistic.'

Dressing for a job interview in a suit shows that the prospective candidate knows the job entails certain professional responsibilities and competencies. No, the person who can afford the most expensive interview suit should not get the job, or even the person who fashionably matches his or her shoes with the most flair. I might hire…… [read more]

Disneyland the Fading Premise of Reality in a Postmodern Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,481 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Disneyland the fading premise of Disneyland: The Fading Premise of Reality in a Postmodern Society

Postmodern society is frequently accused of being rife with spectacle. The modern assimilation of sensationalism, mediatisation and commercialism combines to create a society in which the real and the unreal are only distinguishable by the outsider. Every popular scene is simulacrum of an idealized reality,… [read more]

Art Analysis of an Advertisement: Our African Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Analysis of an Advertisement:

Our African Identity is Gwyneth Paltrow's African Identity

Denotative Description:

Advertisements make us of a wide range of visual techniques in an attempt to create an atmosphere and convey a message. The representation at hand is an image of the actress Gwyneth Paltrow set against a dark and featureless background. The name of the actress… [read more]

Hennes &amp Mauritz Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Hennes & Mauritz Case Study

The many marketing challenges of competing as a clothing retailer in multiple nations has forced Hennes & Mauritz (H&M) to take a customer- and cost-centred approach to managing their marketing, cost, supply chain, and production operations. H&M's core strength is the ability to deliver trendy and chic clothing at a fraction of the price of… [read more]

Betsey Johnson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (884 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Betsey Johnson has been a leading influence in the fashion industry for decades. Having won the Coty award at the youngest age of any designer ("Betsey Roars"), it is not surprising that the Betsey Johnson label is one of today's hottest fashion names. Part of their success has been their effective positioning in the marketplace.

Betsey Johnson has positioned itself as a provider of women's fashion items ranging from apparel to home decor items. The organization not only provides high fashion clothing items, but also has licensed products in ten categories. These categories include: lingerie, shoes, belts, handbags, cold weather accessories, swimwear, jewelry, fragrance, home decor items, ophthalmic eyewear, and sunwear for the eyes.

As Johnson stated in 2003, when the company began their licensing endeavors, "I always thought licensing was important, but it has to be done right. People who like my clothes are going to want more products from the same label. It goes with their lifestyle. The licenses should feed off each other so that your customer has many choices" (qtd. "Betsey Roars"). This licensing is an integral part of their market positioning.

Visual continuity of the brand across all product categories is quite evident. The Betsey Johnson line reflects the designer's exuberance, with her embellished and over the top creations ("Biography"). There is a sense of fun in all of her designs. From frilly dresses to leopard print tights to the packaging of the pink topped vintage art deco fragrance, the Betsey Johnson brand is energetic, unique and definitely girlie.

The Betsey Johnson website is divided into their primary categories of goods: clothing, accessories, jewelry, and handbags. From there, website users can find subcategories of the Betsey Johnson product line. From the site's homepage, these categories are easily accessible; however, the primary advertisement is for the most recent collection, with smaller nods to what Betsey Johnson outfits celebrities are currently wearing, a link to their evening wear dresses, and a current t-shirt that can be purchased in support of breast cancer.

Clearly promotion of the upcoming line is the most important facet for the organization. However, instead of showing some of the gorgeous "Prom" theme dresses on this main page, there is a large picture of Johnson herself, with the words, "Spring 2008 Collection - Check it out now" lightly phasing in and out ("Betsey Johnson"). The picture is so prominent and not really relevant, combined with the pastel words quietly slipping in and out, it becomes likely that visitors won't even see this important promotion.

As mentioned, the advertising for each product category is reliant upon simple category listings along the top of the page. Despite their…… [read more]

Textiles Influence on Architecture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,358 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Textiles Influence on Architecture

The objective of this work is to discuss the important influences and effects that textiles have had in architecture and how architecture continues to be influenced or 'woven' by such design.

Gottfried Semper was among the most outstanding architects during his day. The work of Egenter (nd) states that Semper "...globally documented one basic paradigm: the fact that fibrous and perishable materials are widely found in art and architecture related to durable materials, mostly as texture ('incrustation' principle) or structurally. When one investigates the similarities that exist between the art of weaving and the pursuit of architecture, one is able to see the concepts as they overlap. Anni Albers, a weaver states that: "Surface quality of material, that is matiere, being mainly a quality of appearance, is an aesthetic quality and therefore a medium of the artists; while quality of inner structure is, above all, a matter of function and therefore the concern of the scientist and engineer. Sometimes material surface together with material structure are the best components of a work; in textile works for instance, specifically in weavings or, on another scale, in the works of architecture." (Anni Alberts, on Weaving (Middletown Connecticuit: Wesleyan University Press, 1965)


The work entitled: "Weaving as an Analogy for Architectural Design" states that the "history of textile use in architecture is broad." (nd) Most visibly used today is a woven material known as tensile membrane structures. This work states that "for a textile to exist as a cohesive work, all the individual yarns and varying patterns must be bound together in a synergistic and integrated whole." (nd) Traditionally textiles were derived from fabric, clay, wood, stone and metal and were used to fashion carpets, rugs, flags, curtains, mosaics, tiles, brickwork, decorative wood panels, marble, roofing tiles, curtain wall, and articulated metal structures. Kinnane (2005) states that: "Any review of modern day tectonic theory is surely incomplete without an in-depth review of the work and ideas of Gottfried Semper. Semper viewed "the history of architecture as a process of symbolic and formal development." (Kinnane, 2005)


Kinnane states that: "The two parts of Semper's theory are "first the notion that architecture derives its essential forms from four primordial or original motives found in the technical arts of ceramics, roofing (carpentry) moulding (terracing and masonry), and weaving (walling)" (Kinnane, 2005) the second is his dressing theory; that the textile motive for the wall underwent an intricate process of formal development, as the conceptual rudiments of weaving evolved into textile wall hangings and later into solid wall dressings that emulated in style their original textile design." (Kinnane, 2005) Frampton is said to have introduced the notion of 'tectonic', which is 'derived from the Greek tekton, meaning carpenter or builder.

Gottfried Semper proposed his theory known as "The Four Elements of Architecture" in 1851. This theory states that the formative motives: the hearth, the wall, the mound, and the roof were the four motives and that… [read more]

Current Event on USA Today Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (325 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Current Event

Singer, Natasha. "Should You Trust Your Makeup?" The New York Times.


This article "Should you trust your makeup" by Natasha Singer in the New York Times questions the validity of current federal standards regarding beauty products. The European Union and California already have stricter standards regarding levels of toxic chemicals in makeup and skin creams. California requires cosmetics companies to tell state health authorities if a product contains any chemical on several government lists of possible cancer-causing agents or substances that may harm the reproductive system. The bill was passed in the hopes that hope that manufacturers might voluntarily eliminate suspect ingredients from cosmetics, even in trace amounts. This is controversial because no studies exist that conclusively prove that the substances under scrutiny in these cosmetics are linked to disease, although some small case reports published in medical journals suggest that a few substances used in cosmetics may affect hormone function in humans.

Most of the substances are in…… [read more]

Apparel Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Apparel Industry

On the first of October 2001, the North American Industry Classification System defined apparel as belonging to the Manufacturing Industry under the code 315. The apparel industry was then delimited into eight subcategories, based on the particular types of items produced: "315211 Men's and Boys' Cut and Sew Apparel Contractors," "315212 Women's, Girls' and Infants' Cut and Sew… [read more]

Diesel and Benetton Advertising Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Diesel vs. Benetton -- the selling of an image (which may require purchasing some expensive clothing to achieve)

On a purely functional level, clothing is a basic necessity, just like food and shelter. But very much like these commodities, clothing can command a diverse range of prices, based upon the clothing's brand, reputation, quality, and above all style. Diesel… [read more]

Prim &amp Proper to Provocative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conde Nast Publications is an integrated network of magazines that work together to drive income for the company. Sarah Chubb runs Vogue with the help of Goli Sheikholeslami, Senior Vice President and General Manager. They receive guidance and instructions from management of the publication group. According to Suzanne Grimes, Vice President, Conde Nast Media Group,

The overall objective is to drive ad revenue for the company, but to do so in a way that differentiates us from the other big publishers in town ... [the publications should impact advertisers with a] meaningful, measurable contribution to their business objectives. (Grimes, 2004, p. 74)

Driving revenues for the company has proven very successful as circulation numbers increase not just in Vogue but in other Conde Nast Publication magazines. With an average of more than 1.5 million copies sold per issue, Vogue is one of the preeminent magazines not just in the beauty and fashion niche but in the magazine industry as a whole.

A search of the internet and related databases reveals some interesting things about Vogue magazine or at least about what information the company wants to keep private. One of the most obvious points is the lack of information about the company and its key executives. However, circulation information is obtainable revealing that the company generates annual revenue of more than $75 million in just magazine sales alone not counting the revenue generated from selling advertisement space in the pages of the publication.

As a workplace, Vogue is a progressive and family sensitive organization with a wide variety of employee circumstances to consider. Some of the flexibility that employees enjoy depends on their position within the organization and, like any workplace, the benefits that employees enjoy relate to their importance in the organization. With mail room employees, hair and makeup professionals, marketing and sales professionals and models, Vogue must make a benefits package that is appealing and flexible enough to meet the needs of such different types of employees.

Vogue is an amazing American success story. The magazine has shown its adaptability and willingness to meet the needs of consumers. At the same time, Vogue has shown its creativity and ability to push the envelope. It is anticipated that Vogue will continue on with its pattern of success especially given its recent foray into the electronic world. Vogue will continue to amaze and excite the public with its willingness to show consumers both the informational and naughty side of American fashion.


Connect (2000). Adweek, 41, 68. Retrieved on December 10, 2004 from Business Source

Premier database.

Grimes, Suzanne (2004). How Leaders New to Their Jobs View Their Priorities. Folio: The

Magazine for Magazine Management, 33, 74. Retrieved on December 9, 2004…… [read more]

Elizabeth Arden the Founder and Company Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Elizabeth Arden

The Founder. Florence Nightingale Graham was born on December 31, 1878 in Woodbridge, Toronto, Canada to William and Susan Graham of Scotland. She was fourth of five children and her mother chose the powerful name for her. She had three sisters - Lillian, Christine and Gladys, and a brother, William. Her mother died of tuberculosis when Florence was… [read more]

People and Styles of Dress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, many people believe that the business suit functions as a magic amulet that protects them during the rite of passage to a new role as an executive (Solomon Pp). In fact dressing for success "spawned an entire industry devoted to providing the workforce with appropriate sartorial symbols and a heightened awareness of the power of clothing to influence outcomes in all types of settings" (Solomon Pp). Solomon points out that while "fashion has always meant personal expression, esthetics and, above all, constant change, the new emphasis upon strategic business clothing emphasizes conformity, rigidity and continuity" (Solomon Pp).

However, regardless of the research, many major American corporations are instituting dress-down policies (Henricks Pp). Even in Japan, one of the most conservative business climates on earth, colored shirts, plaid trousers and even sneakers are now being worn in corporate offices (Henricks Pp). And corporations that have adopted casual dress codes report positive results, such as better morale and improved customer relations (Henricks Pp).

(Johnson pp).

Laurie Ouellette points out that the "Scots and Irish were forbidden to wear the kilt by their English conquerors because it was seen as a potent symbol of Celtic identity' (Ouellette Pp).

Recently, Virginia lawmakers tried to pass legislation to impose a $50 fine on anyone who wore their pants so that their underwear is visible, however, the bill was killed by two days later (Johnson Pp). The punk style of today, such as the bookstore guys, "can be seen as a ferocious attack on 'normal' standards of beauty" (Ouellette Pp).

Work Cited

Ouellette, Laurie. "Cracking the dress code."

Women's Review of Books; 5/1/1994; Pp.

Henricks, Mark. "Informal wear: does dressing down send productivity up?"

Entrepreneur; 1/1/1996; Pp.

Johnson-Elie, Tannette. "Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Tannette Johnson-Elie column." The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel; 2/16/2005;Pp

Solomon, Michael R. "Dress for effect; Paris creations, power suits or punk put-

ons, your style affects both you and your public."…… [read more]

Oscars Traditionally, the Oscars Have Been Seen Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,340 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Traditionally, the Oscars have been seen as the awards show to watch. Receiving an Oscar used to mean that the actor, director, etc., was at the top of his or her form and that there was no one better. However, there have been concerns of late that some of what the Oscars provide is simply a show - Hollywood glitz and glamour, but no actual test of talent and work that has gone into a project. Some of this undoubtedly comes from four different areas of the Oscars - the host, the clothes, the freebies, and what happens behind the scenes. All four of them will be discussed here in an effort to show that the Oscars have strayed far away from what they used to be, which was a wholesome if somewhat glamorous show, and into the realm of 'reality TV.'

The Host

The host for the Oscars this year was Chris Rock, a frequently R- and X-rated comedian (Harwood, 2005). Shortly before he was asked to host the production, Rock stated comments such as the fact that Jennifer Lopez's behind was so large that she would need an extra limousine for it, and that the Oscars were only a fashion show (Harwood, 2005; Chris, 2005). While the comment about Lopez may have been offensive, the idea of the Oscars as being nothing more than a fashion show may ring truer than many individuals that are associated with it would like. However, Rock still agreed to host the Oscars, even after all of the derogatory comments that he made about them.

Previous hosts such as Billy Crystal were very family-oriented in most of the material that they presented, and many of the jokes that they used were somewhat tired, not on the cutting edge of what is appropriate or not, such as the jokes that Rock uses in most of the stand-up material he works with (Harwood, 2005). The idea of getting Chris Rock to host the Oscars came from the idea that most people were getting tired of seeing the same old thing and that the ratings for the show were beginning to slip. It was hoped that something fresh and new, such as Rock, would allow for a boost to the ratings and therefore put the Oscar show back on its feet once again.

The joke largely ended up being on the executives at the network, however, because many of the public statements that Rock made about the Oscars before the show were very rude and not in favor of the 'glad-handing' that the show often indicates (Harwood, 2005). Another issue significant to note about Rock was that, although he generally kept his language clean during the Oscars, he still managed to offend many people, and those people may not watch the Oscars again, which could hurt its sagging ratings even more (Garron, 2005). Despite this, though, Chris Rock is not really the largest issue when it comes to the Oscars. The biggest issue, at least… [read more]

Marketing Retail Store Visit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Marketing Retail Store Visit


Evaluation Criteria

Wal-Mart is the largest retailer in the world and includes several different retail formats: discount stores, supercenters, neighbourhood markets or Sam's Club. The visit was made at one of the numerous discount stores, operating on an average surface of 100,000 square feet, in the city's outskirts. The location was picked so as to benefit from a wider parking area and to increase the number of potential customers for the store. The Internet was not necessarily a key factor in promotion and sales strategies, but the shop did benefit from the general Wal-Mart approach to e-shopping, including online shopping at www.walmart.comand the capacity to track one's orders online. One of the main characteristic of any Wal-Mart store is the ability to deliver a wide range of merchandise at a consistently low price. Discount retailing was the main function of the visited store. In this sense, the targeted market segment resided mainly, in terms of revenue, on the category of consumers with incomes up to $60,000 a year. Generally, the targeted category of consumers included middle-aged individuals (age perspective), with a high school degree (educational perspective). The unique competitive positioning of the store is based on the company's uniqueness: the ability to offer low-priced quality without prejudicing customer satisfaction.

2. Products/Merchandise

The store includes a varied range of merchandise, such as garden items, automotive-related products, electronics and computer systems, home furnishings, family apparel and sporting goods. The quality of products has been influenced by the tendency to provide most of the store's supply from China, where the labor costs are much lower than in the U.S. Nevertheless, a decrease in product quality due to an increased emphasis on price influence has been noticed. In this sense, the examined store has chosen to provide, first of all, its consumers with low-priced products and concern itself with quality later. As any Wal-Mart store, the analyzed store has chosen to offer "generic brands," cheaper alternatives to name brand products. This has concluded with good results on the targeted market segment.

3. Pricing

Wal-Mart stores have spread the idea of managing to offer high quality-high priced products. As previously shown, this is rather impossible in the competitive economic environment of today. The Wal-Mart store has decided to choose a low-priced - medium/low quality policy instead, opting for heavy Chinese supplying. For the targeted market segment, this is a policy that may have significant chances of success in the future as well.

4. Promotion/Presentation

The store relies greatly on the actual presentation of merchandise within the store rather than on getting to know store brands to other customers. As such, the Wal-Mart store boasted wide aisles, allowing for the larger carriers to get around, as well as a good lighting of products on the shelf. The products were arranged on the shelf with the most advantageous ones at eye-level. Special sales were generously marked, both in the brochure found at the entrance of the store and inside the store itself,… [read more]

Art Design: Minimalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Art Design: Minimalism

The objective of this work is to research and examine "interiors and minimalism" and to answer the questions of:

How it would create a new direction in the interior design field?;

How interior design and minimalism will complement each other?;

How minimalism in interior design would be marketable?; and 4) How this type of interior design would… [read more]

Consumers Attitudes Towards the Environmental Impact of Fast Fashion Speed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (5,591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Consumers' Attitudes towards the Environmental impact of Fast Fashion

Attitudes towards the environmental impact of Fast Fashion

Fast Fashion and the environment

Customer awareness

The issue of fast or quick fashion and the impact that this phenomenon has on the environment, as well as consumer reaction, has gradually attracted attention from environmentalists, fashion commentators and the general public in recent… [read more]

Reexamining Ritual and Routine of My Cousins Putting Facials Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,366 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … daily routine of my female cousin putting on facials that I could easily study.

My cousin has a regular habit of applying a multitude of facials to her face both in the morning when she awakes, and at night before she goes to bed. She is sixteen, and a high-school student at a local public-school.

Her routine includes the following: masks, tonics, make up remover, eye cream, facial creams, and cleansers. She is messy with her ointments, spreads them all over, and often spends much time looking for one or the other. When she is tired, she sometimes omits some of the steps or forgets about the whole process altogether so I offered to create her a prototype that can help her remember and create a place which is organized.

My first thing was to observe her in action and to interview her. I wanted to assess both why she applies the ointments (and why so many) and how we can help her be better organized.

The observation

The observation occurred in the morning (Sunday, 9.00am). My cousin has been going back and forth between her bathroom and her bedroom. The stuff in the bathroom is mostly in the bathroom cabinet, on the sink, on the shelf near the bath, or on a cubby hanging above the bath. She first smears a cleanser on her face and then rigorously washes it off before applying toner, scrub, and moisturizer. She returns to the bedroom for her eye-cleaner. It is supposed to be, she tells me in her cosmetic bag, but when she looks for it, she finds the bag with ointments spilled out and tells me that it is too 'chunky' she has been unable o close it. Finally she found what she wanted -- not in the bag but under her bed, and she told me that she may have been too busy watching TV last night that she forgot to put it away. After leaving the room, she suddenly muttered and returned. She had forgotten to put on her sun lotion (although it was cold outside); couldn't remember where she had put it; she finally found it in her purse after ransacking every other conceivable el place (including underwear drawer and sweater heap).


I asked her as she was applying each ointment to describe to me why she was using it.

Cleanser: she told me that she really needed to use it only at night to remove makeup and 'scum' of day before, but she wanted to use it all the time to look super-good. When she has dry skin, she sometimes uses 'Pond's" (which is what the French use). She wished she had the Clarisonic Skincare Brush which, she said, 'everyone uses' and is so 'cool' and all the beauty stores have it. Average price? $200. (Whew!).


She used Lancome. "it's the in thing'.. Everyone's using it. it's great... "Suzy, in fact (one of the most popular girls) picked it up cheap form a… [read more]

Marketing Plan Project Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Marketing Nike Free in Turkey

The Nike Free line offers runners a 'barefoot running' sensation consistent with a growing market trend toward lightweight running shoes. The discussion here considers the marketing mix impacting Nike Free as it enters a competitive Turkish footwear market. The budgetary, targeting and media strategies are discussed with an emphasis on improving awareness and appeal amongst both fitness and fashion devotees.

Market Trends:

Recent years have seen a burst of interest in running both for recreational and fitness purposes. And as the popularity of this exercise pastime continues to advance, so too does the conversation on the footwear that is best to facilitate this activity. With the understanding that traditional shoes can add to the wear and tear caused to your joints by running impact, there is a growing focus on running shoes that can help to absorb potentially damaging shock.

This demand combines with the imperative created by growing fashion demands as well. Increasingly, going to the gym is not just about fitness. Many people go to the gym to socialize, meet singles and a host of other activities for which fashion is a genuine priority. These two market trends converge to drive the innovation that is the Nike Free running sneaker. A shoe that works to meet both the fashion demands and the functionality imperatives sought by today's runner, the introduction of the Nike Free in the Turkish footwear market has a chance to be extremely successful. This is because it brings several innovations to the growing Turkish footwear market. Specifically, there is a growing agreement among fitness experts that some runners may benefit from a lightweight 'barefoot running' style shoe. At under 8 grams of weight and boasting an extremely malleable texture, the Nike Free succeeds in creating a new model for athletic footwear that may significantly reduce the awkward and heavy steps caused by traditional sneakers. The discussion below considers this innovation in light of market competition and target buyer expectations.


Product Category and Form Competition

The Nike Free occupies the athletic footwear product category. It also occupies the subordinate market of running shoes and, more specifically, the barefoot running market. The Nike Free's lightweight design poises it to compete with other barefoot running shoes currently available. As Nike explains of the innovative running shoe, the product is "specifically designed to let your feet move more naturally and freely than traditional athletic shoes. Over time, this helps make your feet stronger. But because you'll be using some muscles in your feet more than you might be used to, it may take some time for them to get used to all that freedom." (Nike, p. 1)

This dynamic informs the nature of the product and, therefore, the competition that it will face from other lightweight 'barefoot running' products. Among those which are most popular and well-known are the separated-toe design by Vibram Fivefingers, the comfort-oriented Brooks and the versatile New Balance. Nike must consider what each of these competitors brings to… [read more]

Entrepreneur Turkey Interview

Interview  |  5 pages (1,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Turkey has long been a major player in the global textile business. The country built a competency in the industry during the Ottoman Empire and continue to this day. Turkey is one of the world's leading producers of cotton and the country is now embarking on a path to create a diversified textile industry (Saba, 2013). Turkey's geographic position… [read more]

Entering the Great War Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … promotes a series of ideals concerning the appearance a person needs to have in order to be considered 'perfect'. The fashion industry is actively involved in providing women from across the world with the feeling that to be beautiful means that they have to meet certain requirements. Models in the present promote a false image of beauty and go through a complex process involving make-up, exercise, harmful diets, and Photoshop before they appear in fashion photographs. This is why it is confusing for women to see that they have little to no results in spite of the fact that they go through great efforts in order to look like a model.

Fashion has come to encourage women to believe that beauty is in many cases more important than health. By simply looking at the typical requirements encountered in ads issued by supermodel agencies one is likely to observe that it would be difficult and almost impossible for a normal person to become a supermodel. "Unfortunately many girls, in order to look like a supermodel, need to develop an eating disorder." (Normadi & Roark 11) as a consequence, a great deal of women endangers their lives in order to look like a supermodel. Self-starvation is very common in the present as numerous women are obsessed with their weight and constantly feel that they're too fat.

Teenagers and young women are more vulnerable because they have the tendency to be easily influenced by individuals whom they interact with (Fletcher 42). The fact that many teens are likely to be 'imperfect' when considering things from society's perspective contributes to this issue and encourages them to take on attitudes that damage their physical and mental health. They can become obsessed with their appearance and do everything in their power in order to feel that they are socially acceptable. Conditions are critical in some cases where young…… [read more]

Clothing and Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As noted above, France had a strong monarchy during the 18th century. The Court of Versailles aimed to dazzle, to use opulence and extravagance to engender the dual ideas of the monarchy and French culture, and to become the inspiration for the arts and high-culture for all of Europe. In fact, the influence of two women during this time had a seminal effect upon clothing in all of Europe that continued after the French Revolution: Marie-Antoinette (consort of Louis XVI) and Madame de Pompadour (Mistress of Louis XV). Despite the fact that women had no legal rights during this time period, both used clothing and style to become "the governing principle, the guiding reason, the commanding voice… keeping the court in order and managing the household…. while remaining elegant and powerful" (Delpierre, 1997).

Many scholars note that despite the decline of French political influence from 1720-1789, the strength of French fashion helped spread French culture throughout Europe. French styles became the styles to emulate in the cut of coats and dresses, patterns of silks that developed into colors and textures, and the use of costume an outward expression of western civilization in which the combination of fantasy, freedom and pleasure were expressed through garments. French style, even without modern media became such an industry, that the mere addition of a particular hat or scarf signaled a wealth of information about the wearer. Ironically, styles changed quite rapidly, causing French philosopher Montesquieu to comment that: "A woman who leaves Paris to spend six months in the country comes back as out of date as if she had been buried there for thirty years" (Delpierre, 1997, p. 6).

Layers upon layers from undergarments to frock coats became popular for both genders; hose and shoes with exaggerated heels as well. Clothing not only supported the distinction between classes in general, but also in subtle ways between various artificial layers of higher society. For instance, the Court often shunned individuals based on such trivial matters as how one wore a flower, lace, or matched colors. In another irony, French fashion in the 18th century developed at an almost rabid pace that accelerated as the political and social problems came to a boiling point as the Revolution approached. The garishness and expense of one gown that may have cost as much as the average wages of 2-3 years of a middle class workman became part of the criticism of the aristocracy; not to mention the time it took simply to dress for a dinner occasion (upwards of 4-5 hours at times). Thus, the contrast in society was mirrored in the contrast in clothing and fashion for much of the 18th century (Ribero, 2002).

Conclusions: Throughout the 18th century, men continued to wear the coat, waistcoat, breeches and shoes of previous periods; but like the change from the Renaissance to the Baroque, more attention was paid to individual pieces and style with wigs worn for many occasions -- often long and powdered depending on one's station… [read more]

Christian Louboutin vs. Yves Saint Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Question B: United By Blue (Brand)

United By Blue has branded itself as an 'eco-friendly' company. The "Philadelphia-based business makes high-quality organic T-shirts. It also promises that for every product sold, it will remove a pound of trash from rivers, oceans, and beaches by organizing cleanup events. The shirts, and the mission-based pitch, had won an enthusiastic reception from retailers, including Urban Outfitters and Whole Foods" (Lapowsky 20102). The t-shirts retail for around $29.50 and their attraction is not based in their appearance (and certainly not upon their price, given their relatively ordinary appearance for a relatively high sticker price) but the extent to which consumers 'feel good' about buying an ethical brand. To further emphasize sustainability, the company uses "banana-fiber paper packaging, hang tags made of elephant dung, and twine, not plastic, to attach the tags" (Lapowsky 2012).

The company has undergone some financial difficulties in recent years. Its "wholesale margins had shrunk -- from 60% to just 15%," partially because the downturn in the economy has made consumers more financially conservative regarding their clothing purchases (Lapowsky 2012). Also, the company has found that being ethical is expensive. The banana-fiber is cost prohibitive and the cotton from which the shirts were manufactured has hit an all-time high, in terms of pricing. The company is facing a difficult decision because it markets itself upon its ethics and distinguishes its brand by its 'sustainability' but to be sustainable is actually quite cost-prohibitive both for the company and for customers. The company was forced to increase the price of the t-shirts to $34, and while "the price increase raised United By Blue's margins to 30%," a number of major retailers dropped the brand because it was so expensive, which may not bode well for the company in the long-term (Lapowsky 2012).

Works Cited

"Christian Louboutin vs. YSL 'Red Soles' Court Case Takes A New Twist." The Huffington

Post. 5 Sept 2012. [22 Mar 2013]


Lapowsky, Issie. (2012). "Should an Eco Brand Put Money Before…… [read more]

Eye Has to Travel Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It is a textile which is plain-woven, made from unbleached cotton. Also, it is a very cheap fabric in and of itself which takes on cost only after the addition of dyes and designs. The actual feel of chintz is rough and this is synonymous with its being inexpensive.

c. Tweed: Tweed is a very rough fabric which is made from sheep's wool. The way that the tweed is woven creates a definitive pattern. These are made by weaving different colors of wool yarn into the larger tweed material. Herringbone and checks are two of the most common patterns although tweed can be made in plain colors. It is both heavy and coarse and many people find it uncomfortable. The textile is most commonly used for external purposes, such as in coats because of its feel, ability to retain warmth, and its durability.

d. Cashmere: Cashmere is another form of wool, like tweed, but it is a much finer grade than other types. It is a wool that is made from goats rather than sheep. Cashmere is an extremely soft material which is both strong and lightweight. A wool is only considered to be cashmere so long as it comes from the fine dehaired undercoat fibers produced by the cashmere goat. The diameter of the wool fibers must also be extremely fine. Because of all the restrictions put on classification of cashmere, it is an extremely expensive material.

4. Which was your favorite and why?

Of the four textiles described, my favorite is chintz because I was unaware of its history before watching this documentary and doing research.

Works Cited:

Diana Vreeland: The Eye Has to Travel. Dir. Lisa I. Vreeland. Perf. Diana…… [read more]

L'oreal Nederland B.V. Situation Analysis Case Study

Case Study  |  13 pages (3,770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Women in the Netherlands were gaining self-confidence, independence and disposable income, and more of them were using it to buy cosmetics for use on a daily basis.

The skin care market was the second largest sector of the Dutch cosmetics and toiletries market.

The fastest growing category of skin care products was anti-aging and anti-wrinkle creams.

The fastest growing population… [read more]

Sociology "Mcdonaldization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


A young woman would like a classy coat for winter but can't afford the best available, so she goes to Target which allows her to "reach [her] ultimate end," a cheaper coat that looks like it may have come from Macy's. Basically what she has done according to Weber's theory is calculate (quantify) and rationalize that her purchase meets her expectations. I can also see McDonaldization in consumer technology, including devices such as smartphones. I think this term can also be applied to the food industry. The food industry has been in the news much more in recent years, with reports of genetic modification of produce and of animals that are used for food.

3) Are there times or places in life when you feel that McDonaldization is more or less acceptable? In other words, are there examples where McDonaldization is especially good or bad?

I do not see how McDonaldization is particularly good in most industries although I do see that McDonaldization can be helpful to consumers (at the salad bar and at the self-serve gasoline station, which I will refer to later in this paper). I am not against efficiency, but there is a clear trend to sacrifice products over people. I think we have to find a balance in using technology to produce products well, and a production process that values people, respecting and acknowledging the human factory in business. McDonaldization is a state that does not value people and turns people into interchangeable, cheap, limited-functioning objects/workers. Industry can be productive and still treat people as people in a respectful manner. I am uncertain as to whether there are places in life that this process is more or less acceptable. McDonaldization likely… [read more]

Cultural Review Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Some fifty museums from more than twelve countries in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East have participated in this striving exhibition, contributing to national treasures that have been hardly ever been displayed and exhibited outside the boundaries of the art institutions.


Goodness provides a ground for the public to learn about this important art movement, which influences not only visual art, but also happenings and literature. This exhibition features new paintings made by Wong Shun Kit. In the era where digitalization exists, Wong tried to revert to simple painting, ranging from composite means of creation, to installation and diverse media and to simple brushes and sketches.

The exhibition although is not much focused and tuned according to the recent style, yet it touches human nature, and capture feelings and expose emotions. For example, one of the paintings is "diary" that in a more direct and free manner reflects the lives and captures one's thoughts and present sketches of emotions and feelings. Thus, Wong as adapted the concepts of traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy depicted all his thoughts and emotions in the form of art works.

Another inspired and limelight in the exhibition was the depiction from the clothing of ancient Greece to modern evocations such as Madame Gres's symbolic creations and Versace's neoclassical loincloths. These traditional and outstanding dresses has overwhelmingly inspired and influenced art and design over the millennia. Comprising of clothing, prints, photographs, and decorative works of art, ranging from the 18th century onward, the exhibition illustrates many styles in which classical dress has undoubtedly become a truly everlasting style.

Thus, the exhibition features more than 200 items on exhibit, which also includes clothing from the Directoire and Empire periods. The show has lent vintage and contemporary designs from international fashion design houses as well as from private collectors in addition to the works from the permanent collection of The Costume Institute. The designers participated in the exhibition include Paul Poiret, Madame Gres, Christian Dior, Madeleine Vionnet, Fortuny, Alexander McQueen, Roberto Cavalli, John Galliano, Gucci, Halston, Issey Miyake, Yves Saint Laurent and Yohji Yamamoto.…… [read more]

Media by Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In order to sell their products several companies depend on televisions and magazines and resort to advertisement strategies. They make a feeling in the minds of women, particularly teenagers that an ideal body is a thin body and their appearances are quite unattractive. Women try several techniques of rigorous strain to achieve their goal of an ideal body. But the image, which women try to achieve, cannot be attained for a majority of the population. Because of the influence of the media by way of advertisements negative effects are being placed on women and they end up having eating disorders and other physical and mental disorders. The gravity of this problem has been underestimated. This matter has to be brought to public attention, basically the hazards of women engaging in satisfying and becoming unsuccessful in achieving their goal of an ideal thin body.


Posavac, H., Posavac, S. And Posavac, E., Exposure to media images of female attractiveness and concern with body weight among young women. Sex Roles, 38 (3/4) 187-201, 1998

Chang, Maria L. Walking A Thin Line: Celebrities, Mass Media and Eating Disorders, Science World, Dec 14, 1998

Aguinaldo, T.A. The effect of media on women's body image. California Polytechnic State University. 1993.

Kilbourne, J. Still killing us softly: Advertising and obsession with thinness. New York: Guilford Press. 1994.

Wilcox, K.L. Media imagery and body dissatisfaction: A study of…… [read more]

Estee Lauder Inc. New Promotional Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is very important as no personal product can be thought of without the packaging. Would you like to buy your shampoo, or hair dressing gel, or cream, or shaving lotion in a flat square volume efficient bottle? No one does, for every one would like to think that they are special, at least in themselves. So, they develop reasons… [read more]

Mark Ames, an Expatriate Living Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Old Navy, on the other hand, is counter-cyclical in that it markets to the budget-conscious consumer and has the potential to thrive even in hard times.

Because retail space is one of the largest components of a company such as Old Navy's cost, market segmentation makes plain sense: Old Navy stores tend to be large and in strip malls whereas Gap stores predominate in malls. In this manner, Gap, Inc. is able to rent or purchase retail space more effectively as incomes are highly correlated with geographic factors and pedestrian traffic in places such as shopping malls. Demographic factors also play into the location of Gap Kids and Baby Gap outlets; these are more often than not found in malls where middle class families may stroll and browse shops in a comfortable attitude of relative safety.

Banana Republic is slightly more upscale than the Gap and targets upper middle class consumers. Instead of featuring TV advertisements, it focuses on subdued print advertisements targeted at professionals. Banana Republic can often be found along trendy shopping streets in upscale pedestrian areas such as New York's SoHo or San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf.

Many people consider the Gap's product line to be too bright and cheerful; Gap clothes seem more feminine than other product lines targeted at the Middle Class such as Land's End, Eddie Bauer, L.L. Bean or Swedish middle class clothing retailer H& M. However, Gap counts on its mainly female customers to capitalize on this silliness, as reflected in its marketing campaigns. The recent "Feelin' Groovy" campaign, which followed its successful "Crazy Stripes" campaign last winter, is described by Money magazine as being another hit with its customers. Gap marketed its brightly colored apparel to young middle class women successfully last year with its "Crazy Stripes" theme, which featured popular winter accessories such as striped scarves, woolen caps and gloves. Money quotes Ellen Schlossberg, a retail analyst with William Blair & Company, as saying "The striped sweaters and scarves blew out of the Gap stores over the holidays."

Money goes on to say that the new campaign, which is set to the Simon & Garfunkel tune "Feelin' Groovy" features female models wearing Gap Stretch pants when they're caught in an "everyday" moment, like getting splashed by a puddle of water. The well publicized open casting call for extras, a first for the Gap, was also a new strategy designed to foster inclusion. William Blair's Schlossberg noted "It's really pegged to the reality TV trend that's big right now, and it's a good idea," she said. "The real question is whether it will have an impact in terms of unique product positioning."

Gap ads are usually light hearted. TV ads featured stars such as L.L. Cool J. To Aerosmith. Khaki commercials included ones with titles such as Khaki-A-Go-Go, Khaki-Country and Khaki-Soul. One Gap commercial asked: "Are you a jean or a khaki?" In three ads with dance routines modeled after West Side Story. Old Navy commercials are similar, featuring a colorfully dressed… [read more]

Instagram's Impact on Modern Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,890 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Once you get 11 likes on a photo, you no longer see user names, but instead you see just a number. There are even unspoken rules to #TBT [Throwback Thursday] with some Instagram loyalists demanding that the photo has to be 'so old' that it's in physical form. What's your filter of choice" (Fineman 1)?


Despite this perhaps inevitable backlash against a company which has enjoyed such stratospheric success so swiftly, Instagram remains a potent and popular tool for PR and marketing. Marketers are even willing to cope with the less-elevated challenges that Instagram poses to optimal use: "You can't include links in captions or comments. You can't copy and paste inactive links from captions and comments. Users can't easily share your content to their personal networks. Even search is limited, mostly to hashtags" (Janssen 1). The simple fact that such a large mass of users is present on Instagram is argument enough to use it, regardless of certain less-than-ideal aspects of the platform.

Although Instagram may become an unhealthy obsession for some users, there is a growing expectation that at least some significant aspect of people's lives will be lived online and placed upon public display. Photographs are a way to get to know someone, whether they are of a good friend on Facebook or because the user's hashtags drew you to their artistic work on Instagram. The line between personal and corporate, between public and private life, between friends and strangers has all been blurred through the sharing enabled by Instagram and there are no signs of it stopping any time soon.

Works Cited

Fineman, Meredith. "How Instagram almost ruined my life." Fast Company.

24 Jun 2013. 1 Jun 2014. http://www.fastcompany.com/3013197/unplug/how-instagram-almost-ruined-my-life

Isbell, Daniel. "Does Instagram change the ways we perceive our lives?" NVate.

24 Oct 2013. 1 Jun 2014. http://nvate.com/14819/instagram-lives/

Janssen, Devani. "Optimize your Instagram presence." Smart Shoot. 29 Jan 2014. 1 Jun 2014.


Laurent, Oliver. "Instagram has changed the way people see the world." BJP. Oct 2013.

1 Jun 2014. http://www.bjp-online.com/2013/10/instagram-has-changed-the-way-people-see-the-world-claims-co-founder-kevin-systrom/

Lux, K. "What is Instagram and why is it so popular?" Information Space. 15 Dec 2011.

1 Jun 2014. http://infospace.ischool.syr.edu/2011/12/15/what-is-instagram-and-why-is-it-so-popular/

Mattern, Mary. "How Instagram changed my life." Nom Yourself. 2012.…… [read more]

What Is Buddhist Economics and How Does it Compare to Milton Friedman S Philosophy Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,751 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Buddhist Economics

What I perceive to be the beauty of Buddhist Economics is its insistence on work as a three-fold endeavor that actually benefits man and society as a whole, as opposed to the more materialistic view of a work as a "necessary evil" as Schumacher (1966) describes it -- the view of the modern globalist capitalist society as interpreted… [read more]

Industry and Market Environment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



The industry and market environment

H&M, from Hennes & Mauritz AB, is one of the most known, successful, popular and globally recognized apparel retailers. The firm operates stores in over sixty countries, in virtually all corners of the globe, from the United States, to Europe, Africa and the Middle East (Website of H&M, 2016).

The company operates in a highly dynamic and competitive environment, which is influenced not only by fashion trends, buyer power and changing consumer demands, but also by geographic and regional disparities, and social, cultural and economic differences across the countries in which the retailer is present. The company seeks to respond to these challenges by devising a globally integrated business model, with local adaptation based on local market features.

Competitors and partners

The competition in the apparel and accessories industry is fierce and the players are generally divided into two categories. First, there are the large retailers, such as H&M, C&A, Tommy Hilfiger, Levi Strauss & Co., Gap, Ralph Lauren, Nike, Adidas, Next or Zara. These large size retailers have the competitive advantages of buying in bulk from their suppliers and being therefore able to negotiate lower prices and then to also offer their customers lower retail prices.

The second category of competitors is represented by the smaller size clothing retailers, who do not possess the advantage of bulk buying from suppliers and are, as such, forced to retail their merchandise at higher prices. The competitive advantage of these retailers -- many of which are locals -- is that they can offer personalized customer care and diversified clothing selections, which is different from the larger retailers, where the clothes are often similar as emphasis had been placed on production efficiency (Wagner).

In terms of strategic partnerships, H&M has sought to establish relationships with worldwide apparel manufacturers which create high quality products at cost effective rates. In mitigating the sweatshops debate which affects the industry, the company has set out a 25 points agenda to ensure the sustainability of its partnerships with worldwide suppliers. Some of the points on its agenda include:

Auditing the suppliers in terms of sustainability

Rewarding sustainability performances

Providing support to remedy causes of non-compliance

Implementing labor…… [read more]

Levinson's Stage Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,168 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Clinical Implications of Levinson's Stage Theory

What is the underlying philosophical paradigm of the practice theory? Why do you think this is the philosophical paradigm underlying this theory? Link the major assumptions of the theory to the ontological, axiological, and methodological assumptions of the epistemological paradigm.

Identify and describe what research studies have been used to test this… [read more]

AVON Case International Business Avon Calls Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


AVON Case International Business

Avon Calls on Foreign Markets Case Study

Avon's challenges to move into international markets more effectively is attributable to their lack of consistency of their global operations frameworks to the global initiatives and strategies they are attempting to attain. Beginning with the lack of congruency between their sales teams domestically and the needs of the international sales team and progressing into the variation in product requirements globally, Avon has over time completely re-architected their company to overcome these shortcomings (Hill, Still,1990). The case study Avon Calls on Foreign Markets is analyzed within this paper.

Avon is highly dependent on its foreign operations because they comprise the majority of investment in new product development. The company has worked to create a product lines that align to specific market requirements and as a result have proliferated product lines globally (Grammenou, 2009). Given this significant investment in new product development, the company has to pursue growth globally to ensure a positive Return on Investment (ROI) on their R&D and product-related costs.

The socioeconomic and demographic changes globally have led to much fewer stay-at-home moms who are often recruited to be Avon ladies. The challenge is to create marketing strategies supported by exciting, innovative products that interest younger women. While the global recession of 2009 did slow sales, the company found that selling the rejuvenating value of its cremes and lotions would do much to further the brand and sales to Baby Boomer-age women globally (Tarquinio, 2004). This had a counterbalancing effect on the recession's effects on the business. The company also pursued a "green" or sustainability effort to further strengthen its brand as well (Prior, 2010).

Avon has trust…… [read more]

International Marketing Rimmel London Is a Makeup Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (479 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


International Marketing Rimmel

Rimmel London is a makeup company that operates worldwide. It is a division of Coty, Inc. And competes largely in the mainstream sector of the market, trading on a combination of low cost and decent quality. The company's customers are 20-35 years old, skewing younger to include teenagers as well. Rimmel uses celebrity endorsement to promote its products. It often produces its products in major markets, to meet local tastes. Rimmel competes against a variety of local and global makeup brands.

Current Distribution

Generally working through local distributors, Rimmel is available in hypermarkets, department stores and drug stores.

There is sometimes horizontal conflict, as these distributors can carry multiple makeup lines.

The channels are not long -- typically a single intermediary between the manufacturer and the retailer. Local intermediaries are often used, and may even be consulted in the product development phase. In major markets where Rimmel manufactures, it is more likely to control its own distribution.

Rimmel is distributed in most major markets worldwide, with a focus on Western markets like the UK, Germany, the U.S. And Australia; and eastern markets like China and Japan. The company also has a presence in Eastern Europe. This distribution is focused on cities and towns primarily, and within a given market there could be thousands of distribution points.

All of Rimmel's products are distributed in the same manner, and are considered by the company to be a complete…… [read more]

Sleep and Bed Times Correlate With GPA? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … sleep and bed times correlate with GPA? Form a hypothesis about the nature of the relationship between these sleep habits and GPA. Note that this hypothesis may require recoding variables to consider what is a healthy or unhealthy pattern of sleep.

Students who, on average, sleep a greater number of hours during the week will have a higher GPA.

Students who go to bed after midnight will have a lower GPA.

The variables in question are Amount of Sleep, GPA and Bedtime. Both Amount of Sleep and GPA are scale (interval) variables, which are continuous in nature. The Bedtime variable is a categorical, ordinal, discrete variable. This variable was broken into 4 categories, with the majority of participants selecting category 2.

On average, participants in this sample received 7.2 hours of sleep each night, with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours and with responses ranging from a minimum of 4 hours to a maximum of 35 hours. The sample reported an average GPA of 3.56 with a standard deviation of .43. Overall, GPAs in this sample ranged from 1 to 4.7. GPA has a negatively skewed distribution, while Amount of Sleep shows a somewhat negatively skewed distribution. The bedtime had a relatively even distribution between the 4 categories, with slightly more selecting the two inner categories of 2 and 3.

Histogram of GPA

Histogram for Hours of Sleep

Hypothesis 1 was examined using a one-tailed correlation test with the two scale variables of amount of sleep and GPA. The results of the analysis indicate that there is not a significant correlation between these two variables (r = .097, p = .101). The analysis was run as a one-tailed test due to the directionality built into the hypothesis (i.e. that greater sleep would predict a higher GPA). To double check for potential alternate directions a two-tailed correlation was also run, which was also not significant (r = .097, p = .202). The significance level used for these tests was .05. A correlation tells us how one variable functions in relation to another variable. A positive correlation exists when one variable goes up in relation to another and a negative correlation exists when one variable goes down when another variable goes up. Correlations can be measured on a scale of 0 to 1, with 1 being a perfect correlation and 0 representing no relationship whatsoever. We then check the significance of our correlation to determine what the chances are that we would find a correlation this strong due to chance. If we are satisfied that we would not find such a correlation solely due to chance then we conclude that the correlation is significant.

The graph below demonstrates that there is no linear relationship between these two variables.

Hypothesis 2 was tested using an independent samples t-test to determine whether individuals who went to bed after midnight had lower GPAs than individuals who went to bed before midnight.

The graph below shows the number of respondents who selected each of… [read more]

Marketing Communications Management for a New Brand of Perfume Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Marketing Communications Management for a new brand of perfume

Marketing Communications Management for Paradise Perfume

The modern day global trend seems to be that of creating a free international market place, in which the commodities are sold without regulation and intervention from the government and in which the economic rules are the dominant ones. Despite tremendous efforts, such a marketplace… [read more]

Brand Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,124 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Brand Comparison

Background of L'Oreal

In 2001 Business Wire explained that L'Oreal, the world's leading Cosmetics Company, was founded in Paris in 1907. Over the past ten years, L'Oreal has significantly strengthened its presence in the major international markets, and has some 48,000 employees in 150 countries. More than four-fifths of sales (85%) are now achieved outside France, and 50%… [read more]

Bebe, Inc Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Bebe, Inc.

Bebe Inc.

Bebe, Inc. makes and sells clothing and accessories for and to women between the ages of 21 and 35 years of age. These women will follow the latest fashion trends, which is what attracts them to Bebe's clothing and accessories. Bebe sells sweaters, shoes, handbags and all types of jewelry. Bebe manufactures its clothing in countries such as Brazil and Italy and refrains from manufacturing their goods in China. Since the recession, Bebe has taken into account the changing times and that people are becoming more frugal when it comes to spending money on clothing and accessories; therefore, Bebe, as of lately, has been focusing on more classic and traditional clothing as opposed to trendy as they believe it is more attractive at this period in time.

Bebe has always been a company that has been considered more trendy, edgy and a bit upscale as well. Their boutique environment as stores is more upscale than other "trendy" stores such as Express or Gap even. The clothes and accessories are displayed in a very upscale fashion and the stores are bold and visually stimulating. All of these aspects have created a clientele for Bebe that have illustrated their loyalty to the Brand. The Bebe clientele is smart, sassy and driven and thus the sales team are training to be knowledgeable about the product they are selling (Bebe 2010).

In 2007, Bebe eliminated Mischa Barton as the face of Bebe and hired model-turned-actress Rebecca Romijn to take her place. Eva Longoria was then hired for the company's activewear line, Bebe Sport (Highbeam 2007). This hiring of thirty-somethings for the faces of Bebe suggested that the company was looking to market to a bit older clientele as Mischa was 20 at the time and Romijn 34 and Longoria, 31. (2007). This makes sense as the clothes, while being trendy, are also seen as more upscale as their price points are more than other stores such as Express and Gap (as aforementioned) and are more along the lines of the price points of Banana Republic -- although Bebe's clothing is still more edgy. The clothing therefore fits a special need in the market and it has created its own niche. The only store that seems very close by comparison is Arden B., but Arden B. does not have the same loyalty of clientele as does Bebe.

To loyal customers of Bebe, the brand signifies contemporary and modern appeal. When Manny Mashouf opened the first Bebe store in San Francisco in 1976, there were three categories that dominated the women's wear market, according to Bebe.com (2010): "junior, bride, and missy" (2010).Mashouf found a demographic that was not junior and not missy -- and not bride (normally), so he aimed to help women find a new way to express themselves by offering the "under represented population of stylish women inspirational, sexy fashion" (2010). Thus, the brand Bebe means a lot to stylish and sexy women who feel that the Gap is too… [read more]

Attractive Woman Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … airs as icy as a New York winter, she sauntered into the dining room. Her long, jet black hair shimmered in tandem with the sequins on her dress. Heels clicked and clacked on the wooden floors, broadcasting her presence. Sometimes her perfume heralded her arrival before her shoes did. Tonight her scent was a hundred percent rose with leaf, root, and thorn included.

She strutted with her chin just a tad too high, making eye contact with none but a select few who crossed her path. A smile was even rarer than the sight of her dark eyes. Her lips were pursed and purposefully pouty. At work I have tried to coax the corners of her mouth into turning upwards, and I have failed. When I speak with her, she usually gazes back with a mixture of disgust and desire. Only once have I heard Angelina laugh. When she did the sound seemed alien.

In candlelight her beauty is almost unbearable. I usually look away, to avoid embarrassing myself. Now I steal another glance. Looking at her is like gazing into a flame. Those who chose to stare saw flickering shadows, never revealing the same face twice. One minute she was a playful girl, the next a saddened crone. She seems sad tonight, her erect posture belying a heavy weight she carried inside. The deliberateness with which she sits down makes her seem stiff, as if all her actions were rehearsed in advance. Angelina always seems on, like a television news anchor who never takes a commercial break.

Oceans of sadness issued from her eyes tonight. Her pupils are barely visible. She has lined her eyes in thick, heavy purple pen liner and many coats of mascara. The lashes touch her eyelids. The impenetrable aura that Angelina created around herself was beginning to show wear. I deliberately put my briefcase on the seat next to mine, and she took the bait. She asked if the seat was free. Yes, I said. It happened to be…… [read more]

Merchandise Sears or Wal-Mart Cannot Effectively Create Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (897 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Sears or Wal-Mart cannot effectively create a counterculture image for a couple of key reasons. The first is that the stores inherently are not counterculture. They are mainstream in every sense of the word, such that consumers will assume a product coming from those stores as being mainstream. Counterculture is partly defined by what it is not, and it does not involve shopping at Sears or Wal-Mart.

The other reason those stores cannot create a counterculture image is because of their merchandising tactics. Those stores, Wal-Mart in particular, rely on high volume sales to cover lean margins. That business model lends itself to narrow product lines and mass production. Counterculture is effectively impossible with mass production. Moreover, those stores have difficulty tapping into counterculture because of they lack the expertise. The staff tends to be older and therefore is unable to contribute to defining fashion for the stores. This means that the lead time for product development is going to be higher than at a store like Urban Outfitters. By the time a product makes it to a Wal-Mart, it is no longer cutting edge, and therefore no longer counterculture.

2) In a way, big box stores can sell merchandise identical to Urban Outfitters. They would simply have a longer lead time to create that merchandise. Thus, they would not be able to sell identical merchandise simultaneously. By the time the big box store catches on to a trend, that trend has already passed through the Urban Outfitters stores

In that regard, then, the box stores cannot have the same merchandise at the same time. This is especially true of the more specialized items at Urban Outfitters. These can be very cutting edge, with short development lead times and low production runs. The uniqueness of some of the items at Urban Outfitters cannot be matched by big box stores with long lead times and massive production runs.

3) Exclusivity is valuable for several reasons. The first is that in fashion, uniqueness is a valuable attribute. A fashionable person derives a specific sense of worth from being at the cutting edge of fashion. The cutting edge is inherently exclusive, in the fashion industry. Therefore, the prestige gained by the wearer of exclusive clothing lends value to their sense of worth.

The second reason is that exclusivity creates a market, in particular pent-up demand. Exclusivity means that the potential demand for a product is unlikely to be met. This is not universally the case, but is commonly so. With Urban Outfitters, exclusivity results in there being more demand than supply for some products. Basic economic theory tells us then when the demand curve shifts upwards, either the supply curve…… [read more]

Holistic Skin Care Verses Conventional Skin Care Slowing Down the Aging Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,596 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Holistic Skin Care vs. Conventional Skin Care

What are the advantages of using holistic sources to care for your skin? Are conventional skin creams worthless in comparison with holistic applications? This paper will examine holistic skin care and review issues associated with holistic skin care.

The Human Skin Issues: Background

The good and the bad of UV: During the daytime… [read more]

New Product the Clothing Industry Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,426 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


New Product

The clothing industry is a broad swath that encompasses every conceivable income level, gender and age. At its highest, most creative levels, the bounds of creativity are near endless. For clothing as a business, it is best to consider a portion of the industry that can generate consistent sales. To develop this new product, it is important that… [read more]

Impact of Sustainable Design on the Cosmetics Industry in the UK Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,304 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Sustainable Design and the UK Cosmetics Industry

Sustainable Design and the UK Cosmetic Industry

The topic of sustainability and its affect on industry is a relatively new concept. However, it is becoming important for several reasons. First, governments around the globe are beginning to toughen environmental laws. New regulations require many industries to "go green." However, perhaps an even bigger… [read more]

Sales and Packaging Techniques Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (731 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Sales and Packaging Techniques

The Target Corporation: Sales promotion and packaging techniques

The Target store is a discount retailer, much like Wal-Mart and Kmart. However, its brand name has an additional cache that its competitors lack. Target has a trendy, fun, yet ever-so-slightly sophisticated reputation: the common, mental image of a Kmart or Wal-Mart shopper is very different than that of a typical Target consumer. This is the result of carefully contrived branding and crafting of the Target name and image. Target's in-store design, product lines, and advertising all demonstrate clearly why Target is often called 'Tar-get,' with a fake French pronunciation by its more upscale clientele. Consumers have a fanatical devotion to Target, not so much the quality of its products, but because of how the products look on the outside and how they make the customer feel. Target's brightly colored and sleek packaging is never purely functional: it is designed to delight the eye, as in the case of its 'prestige' line of makeup, furniture, and clothing. Target is best known for these types of products, rather than more practical items like automotive parts or grocery items. Target stores are divided into comfortable, well-lit aisles to enhance the shopping visit and make going to Target an ambient experience more like mall shopping, not simply a place to get out of as quickly as possible.

Target also often pairs with well-known designers like Isaac Mizrahi to create store-exclusive products. These products are consistent with the familiar Target visual style, as bright and graphically distinctive as the department store's logo: most recently, Target entered into a joint relationship with the famous designer Orla Kiely to produce home decoration products. Consumers can chose from designs in orange, white, green pear or brown floral motifs, all priced from $2.50 to $22 (Schelfo 2009.) While Target products are relatively inexpensive compared to department stores, for a slightly higher price than the bottom-market prices of Wal-Mart, Target customers can purchase the appearance of good taste, and create a more visually enticing environment. The product's cheapness is not immediately apparent, which allows consumers to scrimp on some items at Target while they splurge on others elsewhere yet still create…… [read more]

Brand Marketing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (659 words)
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Brand Marketing

Old Navy

Identify Target Audiences

Old Navy is part of the same clothing retailer as The Gap and Banana Republic. It is the most downscale incarnation of this line of youthful, yet family-friendly stores. Its core consumers are young adults and adolescents, their parents, and young children who want affordable, comfortable, yet fashionable items at a reasonable cost. Its target consumer is a 25- to 35-year-old 'hip' mom who still keeps abreast of teenage fashions (Anderson 2009).

Analyze SWOTs

Strengths: Old Navy is a relatively inexpensive clothing line, seemingly tailor-made for these recessionary times. It also has extensive children's offerings (such as school uniforms and camp clothes), which are often regarded as necessities, as children quickly outgrow their clothes. Parents might deny themselves new clothes, but not their children. It also offers cheap items for individuals seeking to supplement their wardrobe on a budget, like its $5 flip-flops.

Weaknesses: Because of its fun image, consumers may see Old Navy clothing as a frivolity, because it is not a store that sells needed clothing items that are 'built to last.' The new emphasis on frugality and sustainability may run counter to Old Navy brand associations.

Opportunities: Given the state of the current economy, consumers are scaling back. Their buying habits and brand loyalties are in a state of flux. They are less focused on brand names and images, and more upon affordability. Old Navy could command a new market segment of former mall shoppers.

Threats: Even cheaper discount stores like Wal-Mart or Target might win consumer's new loyalties. Consumers might not go clothes shopping and mall shopping at all, to save money, and pick up the little clothing they need when they are grocery or school supply shopping. Old Navy's lack of focus is hurting its stores, and benefiting its competitors: "Old Navy's sales in stores open at least a year, known as same-store sales, dropped a sharp 34% in January. That compares to an 18% drop at…… [read more]

Multi National Web Site Design Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (885 words)
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Multi-National Web site design.

Zara in the United States and Germany vs. IKEA in the United States and Germany

What elements are standardized?

Zara, a Brazilian clothing manufacturer, immediately assaults the web surfer with an artistic montage of images. Sultry, beautiful pouting men and women gaze at the viewer after a slew of leaping geometric designs. Zara's website lists the different product lines, but does not have wholly different concepts or sites for different countries, merely different languages and lists of areas where Zara is located across the world, including the United States and Germany. It is a difficult site to navigate, mainly relying upon images to encourage the viewer to shop at its multinational offerings of stores and uses very few words

IKEA in the United States, in contrast, is very wordy, stressing IKEA's commitment to the environment. Its layout for its American and German sites is similar, featuring various images to click to read more about the company as well as shop the online store.

Were the two companies similar with respect to the elements that were standardized?

The image was very similar -- IKEA brands itself as an environmentally friendly, quirky company while Zara brands itself as an elite clothing line that is artistic and sensual. Although both companies have different images, they relied upon virtually the same layout and aesthetic when marketing to both the nations of America and Germany.

Why do you think these elements are standardized? If the companies differ, why do you think they differ?

A brand 'makes' a fashion company, whether it is expensive clothing or inexpensive furniture. To say 'IKEA' immediately conjures up a certain price point and type of furniture, regardless of where one lives, and similarly a ZARA customer is likely to want to project a similar visual image, regardless of where he or she lives.

What differences do you observe between the U.S. sites and those in the other country?

Zara's site was exactly the same for all countries, and merely provided information about where the store was located -- clearly it expects to do most of its retail traffic in brick and mortar establishments, and uses its website to promote rather than sell its product. IKEA's German site was far more humorous and more daring than its United States incarnation -- it featured a sleeping Eskimo on a bed, perhaps indicating the warmth of the bed and its images on its U.S. site focused more on its bright, clean wooden lines of furniture. The German Eskimo image might be considered politically incorrect in the U.S., and it also took some attention away from the various articles included about IKEA's…… [read more]

Evaluated Products Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (567 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Products

What were the hypotheses in this study?

The hypotheses were that high self-monitoring personalities would rate products in attractive packaging more favorably than the same products from packages in neutral packaging, while low-self-monitoring personalities would not be affected by product packaging, or would be less affected, and more affected by actual product quality.

How did the researchers operationally define "self-monitoring?"

High self-monitors tend to modify their beliefs and opinions based upon the individuals they are associating with in a social situation, while low-self-monitors do not, and tend to exhibit the same behaviors and beliefs, regardless of social context.

Which of the four types of measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio) was used to measure the personality variable of self-monitoring in this research? The measurement scale was a nominal scale. Participants were given a list of 18 items on a Self-Monitoring inventory, and based upon their agreement or disagreement with these statements, they were classified as high or low self-monitors

Which measurement scale was used to measure the product type?

An ordinal, or numerical scale was used, rating the samples from 4 (most attractive container) to 1 (least attractive) package.

What were the independent variables in this experiment?

The packaging and the product were the independent variables, the variables altered by the experimenter.

What were the quasi-independent variables in this experiment?

The degree to which an individual was a self-monitor, although not perfectly controlled was made aware to the study designers, and although something subjective like a person's character cannot be contained, a balance between the different personality types was created. (the study could not contain just one type of person, such as high self-monitors). The notion of 'attractive' packaging…… [read more]

Biometric May Be Described as the Mechanized Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Biometric may be described as the mechanized way of finding the personality of a living being depending on the person's behavior and physiology. While examining the description of biometrics, there are various definite provisions that should be explained to thoroughly know about biometric technology. The concept of 'mechanized way' refers to three fundamental modes of ascertaining identity by connecting to… [read more]

Asian Americans and Popular Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,199 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Surreal," described one student on campus after being shown the new line of Orientalist-kitsch t-shirts, sweatshirts, baseball caps, and other paraphernalia. I see what she means; the new line of clothing is eerily reminiscent of the Abercrombie & Fitch fiasco several years back. When I asked a salesperson in the campus store about the clothes, the individual shrugged his shoulders and said, "I don't see anything wrong with it. it's just a joke, I think it's funny."

Funny? Why not design a sister line depicting blackface minstrel characters like Sambo? Or t-shirts with a Muhammad caricature. Reactions to the racial slurs seeping into pop culture and defended as being jokes can be far from funny. The new line of Orientalist kitsch should be removed from our campus stores immediately. Just as Abercrombie and Fitch recalled their line of offensive clothing, so too should our campus stores.

The most infamous of the Abercrombie and Fitch Orientalist line was one image of the "Wong Brothers Laundry Service -- Two Wongs Can Make it White." Deeply disturbing, the shirts received a major backlash. The wave of resentment might have been exactly the type of publicity the retailer was hoping for, because sales of their horrendously boring fashions had been sliding (Nguyen). El Boghdady calls the phenomenon a type of "guerilla marketing...that stirs up a buzz around the brand name" while relying on half-hearted apologies for any offense caused. "Then watch as curious shoppers swarm the stores," (El Boghdady). Surely our campus store's sales have increased since the controversial line hit the shelves.

Critiques of the Orientalist line denounced their representation not only of Asian culture but also their depiction of Asian masculinity. Interestingly, an Asian-American male was a part of the Abercrombie and Fitch team that "came up with the concept," (El Boghdady). The retailer imagined that the line of orientalist kitch clothes would appeal especially to Asian-Americans who liked to poke fun of stereotypes. I wonder if the next new line of clothing might use swastikas to achieve the same goal.

Moreover, images like those of the Wong Brothers amount to a dangerous denial of the hardships and the social stigmas Asian immigrants have endured in the United States. As Nguyen notes, the resurrection of old racist stereotyped caricatures like the Wong Brothers equals a "dismissal of these histories as meaningful in the present." The camps clothing, like the Abercrombie and Fitch line, depicts Asian-American males engaged in stereotypical occupations like laundry and rickshaw driving. Caricatures are grinning widely, of course with buck teeth and pointed farmers' hats.

Like the salesperson at our campus clothing store, some consumers view the outrage over Orientalist kitsch as "overreactive," (Strasburg). Further, some say that protesters should "focus energy on pressuring companies to stop manufacturing clothes in overseas sweatshops" instead of on the caricatures (Strasburg). The reality of sweatshop-produced goods may be certainly more important than the offended sensibilities of college students. However, there is no reason why both sweatshops and racist caricatures should not… [read more]

Teen Magazines Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,715 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … sampling of the articles within the popular teen magazine "Seventeen," including a synopsis of feature articles and columns. The paper then evaluates the issues and topics dominating the content, the appeal of the magazine to teens, and relates these findings to the literature available on teen reading habits and their influence on lifestyle choices and behaviors.

Seventeen Magazine… [read more]

Consumer Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Consumer behavior could be defined as the attitude and actions taken by one individual regarding the process of acquiring an item, including the phases immediately before and after the buy.

One of my latest acquisition is a perfume. The product is called Narciso Rodriguez, for Her and is a new apparition on the market of perfumes. The character of novelty influenced my choice because I like to be tuned with the latest fashion (able) trends. The other product characteristics have also played an important part in influencing my choice. First and foremost, there are the technical traits. The smell of the perfume is the essential element for me when deciding upon what product to use. From this point-of-view, I perceived the product as desirable. Furthermore, I find the product's name to be of importance. In this case I found the name exotic and consequently, appealing.

Nevertheless, I had difficulty in reaching a final choice because the product came on the market in two versions. One, eau de toilette is fresher as fragrance, while the second available version, eau de parfum has a somewhat heavier feel. I normally buy eau de parfum because it is more consistent and it lasts longer on the skin. It is also stronger which allows me to use smaller quantities of the product. I other words, the product lasts longer, which for me is an advantage because I never buy the same perfume twice.

A need to be completely "blown away" with a perfume in order to buy it. It is an item of high importance which I use on a daily basis for several times. In the case of this particular perfume, the difficulty to choose between the two versions made me look for another product from the same category, but manufactured by another brand which could draw my attention. In fact, unlike the other times when I go to the store, try the product one and buy it, I spend a lot of time trying…… [read more]

Book IT's Not Easy Being Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (659 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Cap: OCD

Dear Diary:

Okay, I admit I abandoned you for awhile. After the rest of the Clique girls and I returned from Hollywood, I wanted to be super careful that nothing I wrote would end up in the tabloids. I mean, you hear about the Star and the paparazzi going through Paris' garbage, so who knows? And given how fast secrets get spilled around here nowadays, I thought that writing an entry in a journal, even a locked journal, was not a good idea.

But I gotta give you the 411 since I don't think I'm quite ready for my close-up Mr. Spielberg -- yet. Anyway, like I said, we had just come back from Hollywood and were back at school, forced to grind away (horror) at soccer practice so we could return to Octavian Country Day (I'm sure that Lindsay Lohan has her own personal trainer in a grass-stain free gym). Let me tell you, having wanna-be Mia Hamm Kristen act as if were the most important thing in the world to put a ball in a net when my precious Nike might get scuffed is not my idea of a good time.

Then, if things couldn't get worse, we found out that the key to the oh-so secret room had been stashed by Pie-in-the-Skye in the bedroom of a Briarwood boy. So Alicia, Dylan, Kristen, Claire, and yours truly were looking all over -- hunting around in the rooms of teenage males makes slopping the hogs in "The Simple Life" look like a piece of carb-free cake. (Which Alicia was munching, I'm sure, when she wasn't kissing half the boys in the Briarwood class.) I must say, that Claire was pretty industrious, that is when Claire wasn't pursuing ugliness for the sake of her acting ahhrrt. (Please).

Anyway, I can't be too down on Claire because it was Claire found the key, so she's part of the Pretty Committee -- again! Now maybe if…… [read more]

Strategic Challenges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,250 words)
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Strategic Challenges

L'Oreal - Company analysis

The following analysis will provide information on one the most important players in the international cosmetics industry, L'Oreal, and a brief history of this industry. The company's advantages, like its diversified target markets, its position as a worldwide leader on the market, its tradition, quality products, research and development activity as well as its innovative marketing approach, make of this company a powerful competitor for other companies in this industry. The company has several challenges to benefit from: major takeovers in the United States, Europe and Asia, new research and development centers in Asia, and other local strategic challenges. These opportunities are created by the company itself, and are not due to the market's conditions, as L'Oreal influences the market through its innovative products and activities.

Ever since ancient times, cosmetics have been present in people's lives, cosmetics products being used for beauty purposes or for medical ones. Over the ages, cosmetic products have been used in order to show the correspondence with a certain social status, or to change and improve the appearance, and even to prevent ageing.

In the 1920s cosmetic products have faced a real revolution, becoming an industry, due to the United States, where beauty products and fragrances were manufactured at an industrial scale, becoming more and more accessible due to chain department stores. However, the cosmetics industry's modern era began in the 1950s, when extremely diverse cosmetic products were manufactured and commercialized at a mass level, for a post-war society, satiated by privations. Given the importance that public relations were starting to develop, the cosmetic products were advertised both on radio and on the recently discovered television. In the 1970s, the cosmetics industry was facing certain obstacles created by ecologists, which lead to the interdiction of certain ingredients, in order to protect endangered species, and animal testing. Nowadays, the cosmetics industry is characterized by diversity. The annual sales incomes from the extended cosmetics market, that also includes plastic surgery, fitness and diet products, are over $160 billion worldwide. The American trio Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor, is responsible for the extraordinary development of the cosmetic industry. These were the companies that established the market, being surpassed only by Revlon before World War II, and by Estee Lauder right after the war.

However, L'Oreal is the oldest company and the worldwide leader, of the dominant cosmetics companies. L'Oreal was founded in 1909 by Eugene Schueller. The company has 52,080 employees. The company is mostly active in the field of cosmetics, but also in the dermatological and pharmaceutical fields.

L'Oreal's target markets are: mass market, professional, luxury, and active. The mass market products include brands like L'Oreal Paris, Garnier, Maybelline New York and SoftSheen-Carson, while the luxury market products include prestigious brands like the Body Shop, Cacharel, Giorgio Armani Perfumes and Cosmetics, and many others.

Each of these target markets correspond to different target customers. The target customers for the mass market products are women between 25-45 years of… [read more]

Roadblocks the Types of Challenges My Organization Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Roadblocks

The types of challenges my organization has faced when instituting new policies or installing new systems are typical of many problems exhibited in project management. Timeliness is a particular problem. In a multi-faceted project, if one aspect of the project is delayed, the entire project can become more costly and drawn-out than originally predicted. We have tried to address this problem by targeting the most 'mission critical' aspects of the project before it begins. However, this has not entirely prevented project delays. It can be difficult to predict the evolution of a complex IT project, even when expectations of delays when beta-testing the system are built into the timeline.

These types of problems are generally technical in nature. However, other problems can be attributed to human factors, such as change-resistance when instituting a new system. For example, whenever a new system is adopted by the organization, new training is required of all the affected personnel. Some people will be upset if the system seems unnecessarily complicated, or represents a notable deviation from what they are accustomed to be doing, even if, logically speaking, the system is demonstrably better than what existed previously.

Security-related issues are always a concern, given the considerable damage that a breach can enact upon an organization that is dependent upon IT. These problems have been constrained to some degree by forcibly limiting employee browsing with firewalls and 'blocks' that prevent them from accessing the Internet in a manner not germane to their work. These policies, as can be imagined, have not been popular, and have generated some resentment even if they have reduced the threat of viruses and other types of malware.

Part 2: Regulating the IT environment

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has made technology a critical part of a company's compliance with U.S. laws governing the reporting of financially-related data. IT personnel must be more knowledgeable than ever before about tax and accounting policy, given that accounting staff must report how information is entered electronically, and how it specifically has enacted policies to prevent fraud using computer software. The accounting software industry has experienced a financial boom because of Sarbanes-Oxley, as it has generated -- and sold -- numerous programs to ensure compliance. There are strict legal controls regarding the documentation of data which require constant testing and IT must have an intimate relationship with the organization's auditing and accounting department. CIOs have become more significant than ever in the creation of strategic plans, given the rise of the law, and the manner in which…… [read more]

Market Segmentation and Product Positioning: A Sporting Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Market Segmentation and Product Positioning:

A sporting goods and apparel shop for equestrians

Pursuing sporting activities has become more expensive than ever before. The economy is contracting, yet the prices of coaches, gear, and the cost of living is going up. Many people find themselves forced to choose between the pursuits they love and paying for basic necessities. One of the most expensive sports is horseback riding. The proposed sporting goods store would offer a full-service riding and horse care store, with a special service of designing custom saddles and boots. However, it would also offer a consignment shop for horse show clothing, boots, and other tack, as a way of attracting budget shoppers. Also, some horse enthusiasts prefer second-hand boots and saddles as they are already 'broken in.' The proposed enterprise would thus cater to two distinct demographic segments within the riding market.

Identify the marketing segment for the product and explain why this segment was selected

The economic marketing segment for the proposed store is extremely wide within this narrow demographic, encompassing both high-end and low-end horse enthusiasts. Higher-end shoppers could patronize the custom-made section of the store, while lower-end consumers could avail themselves of the second-hand items. However, because riding and keeping horses are so expensive, there would be considerable cross-over between the two areas. Very few people are wealthy enough not to want some sort of a 'deal' on boots, saddles, and apparel. However, they would also be able to purchase new items if they desired. Also, some lower-end consumers might wish to buy one luxury item, like a custom saddle, given that such items last for many, many years.

The store would target higher-end consumers with its service of customized saddle and boot manufacturing. For very competitive equestrians, finding the perfect gear that works with their body and the body of the horse is essential. They are willing to pay premium prices due to the fact that they have already invested so much in a show horse, they want nothing to go wrong with their equipment. Yet as well as horse owners and competitors, the store would also attract ordinary equestrians shopping for boots, saddles, breeches, and other items necessary to pursue their hobby and thus have a broader outreach than a very narrow economic segment within this hobby.

Discuss the target market and why these customers will be targeted

The target market for this store will be multifaceted. The primary target will be equestrians seeking show gear in the form of customized saddles or high-end second-hand saddles. However, along with the 'luxury' image of the brand, there will also be an attraction for less affluent equestrians to buy second-hand saddles of slightly lesser quality or new, non-customized saddles. Although in some sporting categories there needs to be careful delineation between luxury and bargain merchandise, in the case of equestrian items, this is less dramatic. All consumers must have a certain income level to participate in the sport, although there is a range between casual… [read more]

Apply a Social Psychological Theory to an Advertisement Print Media Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Learning & Social Exchange in Dolce & Gabanna Advertising

Observational learning is also called social learning. The theory of observational learning proposes a method of behavior acquisition via observation and imitation of new behaviors. The theory of observational learning occurs without reinforcement or punishment for new behaviors and learning acquisition. It is in this way that observational learning differs from other theories of learning.

Social exchange theory works well within and likely has capitalist roots. Whatever one's regard for capitalism, one cannot deny the logic and practicality of social exchange theory. Social exchange theory springs from the logic that human relationships are chosen based on a cost-benefit analysis. People weigh the costs and benefits of a person, of a relationship, of a behavior, and make decisions based on those evaluations. It is as if people and relationships are commodities, like stocks, or bonds, or trusts -- things that acquire, accumulate, and amass wealth or worth over time. People make evaluations and decide to remain or exit relationships when implementing social exchange theory. Social exchange theory, then, works well in advertising for products such as clothing and in turn the lifestyle clothing propagates.

Dolce & Gabanna is a European fashion label that often makes risque advertisements. D & G. is known for provocative imagery that often is reminiscent of orgiastic and otherwise group sexual activities. In this advertisement for the Fall & Winter 2009 collection, there is a group of models in a boxing ring. It is unclear as to what time of day it is because there are no windows and the lighting is ambiguous, though it gives off an "evening" vibe. On one platform, there are a few male models dressed in red and black suits. On another platform, there is a pair of models pretending to box. The primary action is happening on the floor in front of the platforms in the foreground of the photograph. There are six models. Five of the models are male. One male model is implied nude. The female model is implied topless. The rest of the male models are fully dressed in suits. The models on the floor are set up in pairs. The pair furthest from the camera is two males. One male is upright, holding the arm of another mail that is bent over, implying severe intoxication. The next pair closest to the camera is a male and the female. He holds her up because she is unconscious, also implying intoxication. The pair of men closest to the camera look fully sober. The one who is fully clothed stands behind the other who is sitting or kneeling and is implied nude. It is only these two that make eye contact with the camera.

The models in the background are doing observational learning. They are clearly observing the pairings and it is implied that they will mimic the behavior, or that "they got…… [read more]

Information Security and Assurance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,223 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Metrics are tools designed to facilitate decision making and improve performance and accountability through collection, analysis, and reporting of relevant performance-related data. The purpose of measuring performance is to monitor the status of measured activities and facilitate improvement in those activities by applying corrective actions, based on observed measurements. & #8230; (Swanson, n.d.)

Metrics are a set of security processes that, when applied to the security system, are intended to monitor the status of the security process, identify and prevent problems, and facilitate improvement by applying corrective action. Security breaches often occur due to a mixture of defective communication protocols, lack of awareness of security procedures or recklessness, defective software designs, improper procedures, bad configurations of systems, and so forth (Pedro & Ashutosh, 2010). Organizations, such as the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC), Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SSE-CMM), and the Common Criteria have, therefore, formulated a series of standards, or models, and metrics that are intended to identify and prevent problems and correct problem when occurring (Jansen (n.d.)). The models that formulate the metrics and the metrics (i.e. measurements themselves) help organizations in that they seek out security problems before occurring and address them if and when they do occur.

Models and Metrics

There is a difference between models and metrics. Models measure discrete factors of data at a single point in time and formulate theoretical or quantitative conclusions, whilst metrics are a result of the analysis and are an objective or subjective interpretations of the numerical data points (Chowdhary & Mezzeapelle, n.d.). Metrics are a derivation of the models. They are an instrument of the models and are used to apply the insights of the models to security systems doing so in a quantitative or qualitative fashion. By being applied in a practical way, they also test the instrumentality of the models and see whether the models do indeed work and if so in a replicated fashion. The different models -- with metrics as their offshoot -- are devised as a security process in order to identify security problems if and when they occur and to address them.

Security metrics can be categorized in various ways. You can either categorize them according to the maturity level of the process, i.e. metrics that are popularly and traditionally used of constructing and monitoring the system. These include security processes as well as procedures and training used when designing, configuring, operating and maintaining the system. And then there are those metrics that test for and denote the extent to which security is, or is not, present in a system. These include those that test the security posture of a system and the risk level involved (Pedro & Ashutosh, 2010).

The three main categories of models and metrics

1. Implementation models are used in connection with implementing information security programs, specific security controls, and similar policies and procedures. Operational metrics are developed from these measures and are usually quantitative in nature relating… [read more]

Operation Service Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (620 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Two large and immediate scheduling problems emerge from a cursory examination of the scheduling and patient data that would create problems with long wait times. First, though it is estimated that sixty percent of all patients arrive on a walk-in basis, more clinicians are devoted to appointment care throughout the day than to the handling of walk-in arrivals. That is, more patients are in demand of walk-in assistance, but more appointment clinician-hours are being offered. Switching this, or simply making all clinical staff more flexible -- setting appointments during hours that they will otherwise be seeing walk-in patients -- would go a long way towards solving the scheduling problems and the at time issues at the clinic. In addition, it does not appear that there has been any attempt to match clinician scheduling with patient patterns, with a great deal more variability in clinic staff than in patient visits and in fact more clinicians on staff during the last open hour of the clinic, when the fewest patients come in. In other words, a very basic rescheduling plan could be put into place without any in-depth analysis and still yield dramatic improvements. Brief statistical analysis and a bit of deeper logical thinking enhance these benefits still further, however, as the accompanying spreadsheet shows. Combining walk-in and appointment staff makes it clear that there are ample clinicians available to treat students in a more timely fashion if only they were better utilized, and in fact changes can be made to make everything more efficient.


Cutting wait times to ten minutes or even less will be very simple, and determining a scheduling plan for such an outcome is not especially difficult. The exact parameters of the length of patient visits is not given, therefore this cannot be estimated with precision, however, with a given average of twenty minutes per clinician-patient…… [read more]

Why to Buy Make Up Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Buy Makeup trip to any department store will reveal the vast array of cosmetics available on the market today: from sultry lip gloss to shimmering eye powders. The industry, which boasts multi-billion dollar revenues each year, is simultaneously loved and loathed by women. Sometimes referred to as "self-esteem in a bottle," makeup is considered to be as essential to the female wardrobe as underwear or pants. Some women won't even head out of doors without wearing makeup. While many may view makeup as a tyranny, contributing to women's unhealthy obsession with beauty, buying and wearing makeup can be a boon and a blessing. First, makeup is fun. Buying makeup can affirm a woman's sense of playfulness because the range of products available is simply stunning, fun to put on, and relatively inexpensive in general. Moreover, applying makeup is an art, and the products can and do alter a person's appearance drastically, enhancing natural beauty and concealing blemishes and imperfections. Buying makeup can lift the mood and brighten the spirits. Wearing makeup can also make a woman feel better about herself, increasing her sense of self-esteem. Far from being a psychological detriment, buying makeup does not indicate that a person believes that they are naturally unattractive. Rather, buying makeup is like saying, "I want to look and feel my best." People should continue to buy and enjoy makeup because the products are fun, creative, and they have a positive impact on one's self-esteem.

Few people can deny makeup's appeal to the child within us all. Anyone who has visited the huge cosmetics store called Sephora knows that buying makeup can be like buying art supplies (http://www.sephora.com/).Even men can appreciate the fun aspects of buying and wearing makeup. In fact, more and more men are opting to wear makeup, to cover flaws and enhance their features. Celebrities and anyone in the performance or news broadcasting industry wear makeup, regardless of their gender. While the thought of men wearing makeup might seem strange, many men see makeup as being fun…… [read more]

Apparel Mechanizing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (818 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The reason such stores are organized in this fashion is that merchandiser hope that consumers will go to the back of the store, for what they really need, but make an impulse purchase on the way out. Consumer covetousness and desire is stimulated in the store by the sight of luxury and unnecessary goods -- one reason that many merchandisers hate the Internet, because it allows for point-and-click specific shopping.

Underhill even comes clean that merchandizing specialists have quantified the importance of shopping baskets in certain types of stores. Baskets make it more difficult to move through the store, which is negative, as it makes shopping a more unpleasant shopping experience, particularly for space-sensitive women, and may drive them more quickly from the store and result in less merchandise being purchased. But on the upside for retailers with large aisles, the existence empty basket space encourage consumers to fill the cart, is one reason why the relatively larger clothing areas of stores like Target and Wal-Mart now provide carts.

Underhill offers important advice to retail store owners, like to make sure to design the store for customer convenience, in terms of seeing the merchandise, rather than giving predominance to cash registers. The presence of registers, and worse, long lines, makes the shopper think of the uncomfortable fact that he or she will have to pay for all of the nice things on display and wait for the privilege of doing it.

Underhill's most controversial assertions, however, come as he projects what retailing will look like in the future, stressing that the aging of the population means that retailers must answer to the baby boomer generation. But given that young consumers -- despite the ubiquity of the Internet in their lives -- tend to patronize malls physically, because of their greater physical mobility, and have more disposable income and a greater willingness to shift brand allegiances in items with a high level of turnover and profitability, this may not necessarily be 'the way to go.' Still, the store is an education and also a powerful incentive for future merchandisers to go to the mall in search of an education, rather than with a credit card.

Work Cited

Underhill, Paco. (2000) Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping. New York: Simon & Schuster… [read more]

Content Analysis Between Women and Men Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Homme (men's monthly magazine, September 2004) and Harper's Bazaar (women's monthly magazine, August 2004) examined the ways that men and women are depicted in magazine articles through photograph descriptions and a comparison of layout including copy length, white space, headlines and visuals. The intent is to determine if there is a difference between an American-based magazine and a European one in terms of audience and design.

Sampling Frame: Four articles apiece from September 2004 Homme (men's fashion) with 200 pages and August 2004 Harper's Bazaar (women's fashion) with 272 pages. The magazines were randomly selected off the library shelves

A nonfictional literary composition that forms an independent part of a publication, as of a newspaper or magazine.

Photograph Comparison (factors analyzed)

Looks (attractive -- pleasing and dignified in form or appearance; average; unattractive)

Weight (110-120; 121-130; 131-140; 141-150; 151-160; 161-170; over 170)

Race (This can only be an assumption)

Age (under 20, 20-25; 25-30; 30-35; 35-40; over 40)

Emotional state (smiling, serious, angry)

Layout Comparison (factors analyzed)

Size of photographs (other visuals)

Inches of copy


White space

Harper's Bazaar

Article 1: (Feature) "Mommy's Checkered Past: A Bedtime Story: What do you tell your children when you've done it all?"

One photo, black and white 5x3" (white attractive mother smiling; age 35-40; 125 pounds; with two children serious)

One large 3" high bold headline

Article 2: (Regular column) "Fashion" photo montages, color and black and white, attractive mixed ethnic high-fashion models with new fashions, age 20-25, 110-120 pounds, very trendy looking, posed and serious

One large 4" bold headline on each page

Article 3: (Feature) "SAD -- Seasonal Affective Disorder -- Season"

One photo, color 4x7" (head shot of white woman in shadow, semi-smile, age 20-25)

One large 4" high bold headline

Article 4: (Feature) "Mother's Boy? Author James Ellroy sets out to solve mother's death"

One photo, black and white 3x5" (head shot of James Ellroy, close-up,…… [read more]

Andrea Jung Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (402 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Andrea Jung -- New ideas of participatory leadership 'calling' Avon

The words 'Avon Lady' probably calls up the image of a pleasant woman, going door to door, selling make-up part time to make some 'spare change' for her family. But the first female CEO of Avon, Andrea Jung, defies both the customary stereotypes of what a powerful organizational leader is supposed to look like, how a leader is supposed to manage her organization, as well as the conventional image of a woman in the fashion industry. Avon, under Jung's leadership, Avon has also adopted a more participatory model of organizational culture, taking in new suggestions and ideas from lower-level staff members and influencing the company with a 'flush,' no pun intended, of new ideas regarding international and national marketing.

Under Jung's tutelage, the company has entirely done away with stuffy assumptions of who Avon customers are and what they desire from their products. "This," the chief executive declared, during a recent interview, with a reporter "has been heralded as one of the breakthrough ideas of the decade." The quantum leap? The packaging, in contrast to the staid and conventional styles of Avon's older days. "Avon's new line puts an applicator on…… [read more]

Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sales progressed across all regions, with accelerating momentum in Asia and Europe. Guerlain is maintaining its renewed momentum thanks to the continued success of l'Instant and of its make-up products. BeneFit Cosmetics recorded double-digit sales growth in dollar terms.

Watches & Jewelry followed its strong progress in 2004 by recording strong sales growth of 21% for the first quarter 2005. TAG Heuer and Zenith grew at a double-digit rate despite a strong comparison period last year. Chaumet and Fred also had a good start to the year. The Group's brands did particularly well in the U.S., Asia and in France. The new collections unveiled at the Basel Watch Fair by TAG Heuer, Zenith, Chaumet and Dior Watches confirmed the creative potential of these brands.

In Selective Retailing, DFS had a good start to the year in line with the momentum recorded in 2004 and benefiting from the continuing recovery in Asian tourism, which has been driven by the weak dollar. Sephora continued to win market share in Europe and in France in particular, thanks to the excellent response to the brand's innovative services. In the U.S., Sephora continued to record double-digit sales growth on a comparable store basis for the first quarter 2005.

LVMH should continue to pursue growth in 2005 by taking advantage of the strength of its brands, new product launches and penetration of new markets. Increasing market share and the profitability of the leading brands, as well as improving the performance of the developing companies and cash generation, should remain LVMH's top priorities.


Ackman, Dan. "Morgan Stanley, LVMH Tango In Paris." May 27, 2003. June 18, 2005. .

Guyon, Janet. "The Magic Touch." 2005. June 18, 2005. .

Hazlett, Curt. "LVMH: Luxury's International Name." May 1, 2004. June 18, 2005. .

Curt Hazlett "LVMH: Luxury's International Name." May 1, 2004. June 18, 2005. .

Dan Ackman, "Morgan Stanley, LVMH Tango In Paris." May 27, 2003. June 18, 2005. .…… [read more]

Kinder Togs Has Been an Industry Leader Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Kinder Togs has been an industry leader for over one hundred years, recent developments has forced the company to realize the sad fact that it is no longer lucratively competitive in the children's and baby clothing market. New trends have pushed interests in children's clothing into more trendy styles, reflecting parents' changing tastes (Pennington 1). Those parents who still prefer the classic styles of clothing for their young children have created a market that consists of demands for lower pricing as well as other obstacles to the success of Kinder Togs.

In response to this changing market, Kinder Togs has decided on some drastic and radical changes to our basic business strategies and product line. To avoid the potential negative impact of this changing market in children's and baby clothing, Kinder Togs will be developing a line of clothing for young adults ages 18-21. This new line will provide a fresh face for the company, which should have a rejuvenating effect for the company and its employees (Hisey 1). It will also enable the consumer who had been loyal to the company in the past to perpetuate this relationship by purchasing clothing for their older children, or for themselves.

Though the Kinder Togs branding has been a quality presence in the market of children's clothing, it is precisely this characteristic that makes the brand difficult to transition into the new line as it currently is. With this in mind…… [read more]

Business Plans Legal Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Legal Effects upon Businesses - Currently, I won an online women's accessories boutique and am looking for a storefront. Because of the numerous laws that affect consumer safety, there is a large potential impact on the type of storefront I find, not just for consumer safety, but for protection of the business, privacy issues, convenience issues, and of course, the ability to service customer needs.

First, there are access laws, meaning that anyone should be able to enter the storefront. This means that both the store and the access needs to be wheelchair accessible; so the aisles must be of a certain size, the changing rooms must have appropriate bars and access, and the restroom must be handicapped equipped. This can result in considerable expense unless it is included in the build-out with the landlord, and depending on the State we decide to use for brick and mortar operations, local restrictions as well.

Additionally, in a clothing store, we must have changing rooms for clients. In contemporary culture, though, people are very privacy conscious and need to feel like their environment is safe. This requires doors or locations that allow for that privacy to occur as well as the convenience of the client -- but at the same time, discourage shoplifting and allow for store security. In the same light, many customers use credit cards now, and need to know that any personal information we keep must be secure. If we keep a database of clients so that we can send out newsletters, for instance, we must protect that data by having a secure firewall, and personal financial information should not be stored. The credit card machine should print out only the last 4 digits on the receipt so the…… [read more]

Women's Magazines Has Income Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


On the other hand, male magazines touch less on such subjects and include more articles that address self-esteem issues and relationship contacts at a different level, suggesting improvement and not actual creation or mending as in the case of women.

Finally, studies have been conducted in terms of the impact glossy magazines and the subjects they address on males and the image men have over women from this point-of-view George and, Uhlenbrock, 2010). In this sense, the advertisements presented in such magazines present women in a limited manner, with a certain type of physique and usually uni dimensional. Studies have concluded that men, after reviewing such advertisements from glossy magazines are more prone to consider women uni dimensional. This type of attitude however tends to harm the image of the woman in the work place and in the society and creates certain preconceptions that reflect in the way in which women are eventually considered valid for leadership or top management positions.

At the same time though, there are situations in which glossy magazines support a more feminist approach which empower women. For instance, different types of advertisements and articles present women in such a manner that inspires a more motivational approach and a powerful image of women (Mark, 2012). However, these are only isolated cases and are of recent date.

Overall, despite the fact that women magazines tend to focus on the general problems facing women in general, from personal issues to social and work relations, they provide an image on women that most often affects negatively their self-esteem and through advertisements, promote a type and model of woman that very rarely actually exists in reality and in the natural environment. However, women that are the targeted audience of such magazines are influenced by the articles, the pictures, the advertisings and constantly compare themselves with models and with aspects presented in the magazine as compared to their own life style. Such comparisons are often in the detriment of everyday women and thus influence their self-esteem negatively. Even if there are cases in which the effects of the empowering articles are positive, they can barely compensate the generally negative impact of women magazine on their self-esteem.


Mark, K. (2012)"The Impact of Cosmo Magazine on Women's Sexual Attitudes." Kinsey Confidential.. Available at http://kinseyconfidential.org/cosmo-impacts-womens-sexual-attitudes/

George, J and Michelle Uhlenbrock. (2010)Effects of Advertisements on Perceptions of Women's Leadership. Available at http://psych.hanover.edu/research/thesis10/uhlenbrock%20and%20george%20is%20final.pdf

Kramer, M. (2011). "The effects of women's magazines on body image." Livestrong.com. Available at http://www.livestrong.com/article/548072-the-effects-of-womens-magazines-on-body-image/… [read more]

Organizational Design Model Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


There is no need to spend money enforcing official corporate policies, no need to administer complex hierarchies designed to take care of bureaucratic measures -- employees can even work largely online in a relatively non-supervised context. In one Internet-based organization cited in the article, there are no official leadership titles -- all employees are 'associates' and the focus of the organization is upon fulfilling its mission, not upon reinforcing hierarchical divisions. This encourages information-sharing between employees, a vital component of the technology-driven economy, and discourages unhealthy workplace competition.

In another model, "chaordic organizations formed by the development of chaos and complexity theories are self-improving and self-organizing structures resembling a neural network instead of a hierarchical structure. Chaordic organizations have the capability to keep pace with the technological developments and globalization to the highest level" (Yildiz 2012). These organizations are made up of very separate parts that still work in a mutually beneficial and interdependent fashion. The goals of the organization are diverse, and may differ slightly between their distinct components, but through the connections of technology, mutual learning and service is possible.

After defining the new organizational models, the article concludes that specialized division by labor will increase -- however, rather than this segmentation leading to division, the organizational models will actually facilitate greater cooperation. Older models defined by rigid hierarchies and enclosed processes are not sustainable and employees that can deliver unique value yet who are also flexible enough to work in a cross-disciplinary fashion are required for organizations to thrive in the new millennium.


Yildiz, M. (2012). The future of organizational design: A forecasting…… [read more]

Women Pea Coat Major Components Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,073 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In addition, the double-breast gives it a traditional design that has been proven to be most attractive throughout the years. Considering these features, the coat is well priced and offers both style and comfort to the wearer. The pea coat is a classic, and can be worn to various out door functions in the cold weather. However, the quality of the shell is less likely to offer total protection against cold weather. The blended wool with 48% polyester, 45% wool, 4% acrylic, 2% rayon, and 1% nylon is of a lesser quality compared to other high end pea coats in the market.

Quality Analysis

Garment: Women's Pea Coat

Store: Forever21.com

Brand Name: Wool-Blend Pea Coat

Retail: $62.80

Target market: Young women

Size: Small- Height: 5'10," Bust: 32, Waist: 25, Hip: 35

Information found on the care label: The care label of this product reads 48% polyester, 45% wool, 4% acrylic, 2% rayon, and 1% nylon. The lining is 100% polyester and washing instructions as cold and dry flat.

Care and TFPIA Labels

It is a requirement that apparels such as the Wool-Blend Pea Coat sold in the United States of America must have a label attached to them. The label must have information on content of the fabric, country of origin, dealer information as well as care information. This labeling law is enforced by the Customs and Border Protection and the Federal Trade Commission. Therefore the care label on this product is legal and indicates the correct type of fiber and fabrication.

In addition, the care label procedures are appropriate for the product and intended customer. This is because it clearly indicates the appropriate sizes, type of care as well as quality of the fabric. This information is critical in maintain the product and target market is most likely to benefit as unlike other pea coats that may require dry cleaners, this coat can be well cared for domestically.

Federal Trade Commission enforces the legislation that requires labeling of specific information that includes content of the fiber. The act stipulates that each fiber that makes the textile must appear on the label alongside their percentage of the total textile content. These must also be listed by their generic names starting with the largest quantity first, then second largest quantity second, until all are listed. The act also stipulates that content less than 5% can be represented as other fiber. In addition, everything that is part of the textile must be labeled as well as the name of the manufacturer and country of origin. In this line, the Wool-Blend Pea Coat has all this information and is correct according to FTC regulations.

Style Suitability to the Target Customer

Pea coats are very popular winter wear for most young women. Many prefer high quality pea coats with higher wool percentages which are considered the top of the line winter wear of all time. However, the Wool-Blend Pea Coat is a perfect substitute, with its low wool percentage (48%); it does appear stylish… [read more]

Coach, Inc. Stock Analysis Business Plan

Business Plan  |  1 pages (379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The company has a loyal following which makes it a solid investment. In addition, merchandising teams employ a customer-centric approach in designing products that is based upon consumer research and a solid understanding of the customer base.

Despite the recession, the multi-tiered pricing strategy (rare in the luxury market) and emphasis on quality and value, has helped Coach, Inc. weather the storm. The company's balance sheet shows little to no debt allowing it to finance operations without relying on creditors. A strong cash advantage over competitors is an asset -- another reason why I view it as a stable investment poised for continued growth as the economy improves. I would anticipate an increase in stock values as Coach's earning improve.



After Hours: 57.750.00(0.00%)

Nov 6, 4:57PM EST

Currency in USD







Vol / Avg.


Mkt cap











Inst. own



(2012, October 24). Stocks…… [read more]

Advertising Applying Goffman to Modern Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There is a two page ad by Tommy Hilfiger. Though it is a group photo, more than half of the models are male. There are a few males on the floor, in reclined positions, touching each other. There are also males who are standing upright and looking directly into the camera. There are two males that are touching themselves in the way Goffman would call the Feminine Touch. Therefore, this photo is dynamic in its display of gendered roles, as it falls in line with some of his ideas and also opposes them at the same time. None of the women in this ad fall into any of Goffman's categories of female representation, making this ad all the more interesting to analyze. This ad both engages Goffman and rejects him at once.

D. There is a one page ad for a brand called Valentino. In it, there are two women, both dressed completely in red, one in the foreground and one in the background. The one in the background looks as if she could be male. Her body is barely female and her suit is androgynous. Her positioning is what Goffman would classify as typically male, including her facial expression and hand placement. The woman in the foreground, though wearing a short dress, also has been styled to look more male and her only femaleness registering in the positioning of her hands with respect to the purse she holds. Otherwise, her body and face are traditionally male as well.

3. Conclusion & Reflection

It is not at all challenging to apply Goffman's aging categories to the magazine of my choice or to the average magazine available contemporarily. His analyses are both dates and relevant. Once an idea is formally published into the collective memory, it is instantly dated. Yet, because there have not be a large quantity of significant strides in the equal representation of ethnicities, classes, sexes, and genders in media, his work remains relevant in the 21st century. Certainly, because of some the evident global cultural changes, his ideas may have to be tweaked some or modified to more appropriately align with modern cultural norms and practices. Goffman's fundamental ideas, hypotheses, and techniques continue to remain useful and productive, yielding keen insights into the interactions between capitalism, culture, advertisements, perceptions, sexuality, power, hegemony, and behavior.

With respect to the magazine I assessed, the application of the Goffman's ideas and techniques came naturally. Advertisements retain the same kind of power, perhaps more in the modern day, than they did when his ideas were more current. It also shows to me how theories and ideas are able to endure and remain applicable though the times may change. Finally, there is still a great deal of progress to be made before societies can rightfully…… [read more]

Primark: History, Growth, Products Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Primark gives great emphasis to work closely with the concerned suppliers and factories that manufacture the items to be sold at Primark stores. Suppliers, factories and its own consumers are provided trainings to inculcate the ethical issues in them. For instance, guidance is offered regarding the issues such as child labor, immigration, and right to work. Primark is always… [read more]

H &amp M. Promotional Strategies Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Their seasonal campaigns are also very successful.

Marketing 4P's

H & M. offers a recognized brand of clothing at a reasonable price. Most of the competitors of H & M. have prices of 30% - 50% higher (H & M, Facts about H & M, 2010). The company has stores located throughout the world and clothing can be sold online. This company has stores in many of the major cities of the world, like New York City, London, Paris and other fast pace cities. One of the main reason H & M. is able to set itself apart from its competitors is because of the product turnaround time. The company can move a product from design to hanger in only 20 days which much less than the competitors except for Zara, whose price is much higher. The company can make changes easily, such as add new looks, change looks based on demand. H & M. can increase supply and get it to their store locations very quickly. The main form of promotion that is utilized by H & M. is the social media networking online sites. This is a great way for the company to reach their target audience, and keep marketing cost effective.


The H & M. store is a recognized store in many parts of the world. The mission of the organization is to bring fashion and quality to the customers at a reasonable price. The company utilizes the social media networking sites to market to the target audience. The company is also very efficient with time managing their products. H & M. remains competitive with the competitors by staying ahead of the competitors, through their efficiency and flexibility.


Fashion Retail Promotion 2009-2010., 2009. H&M Promotion Strategy. (Online) Available at http://fashionretailpromotion2009-10-group4.blogspot.com/2009/12/h-promotion-strategy.html (Accessed December, 8, 2010)

H & M. delivers 10.6 M. branded impressions via MyTown promotion: panelist, 2010. Mobile Marketer. (Online) Available at http://www.mobilemarketer.com/cms/news/content/7098.html (Accessed December, 8, 2010)

H & M, Facts about H & M, 2010. H & M. (Online) Available at: http://www.hm.com/gb/press__press.nhtml (Accessed December, 8, 2010).

Larenaudie, S., 2004. Inside the H & M. fashion machine. (Online) Available at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,993352-2,00.html (Accessed on December 8, 2010).

X-mas Campaigns, 2010. Retail Digital. (Online) Avaiable at http://www.retail-digital.com/sectors/fashion/x-mas-campaigns-coca-cola-h-m-gear-brand-promotion (Accessed on December 8, 2010).… [read more]

Earn to Live Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



After handing over the expanded business to his four nephews, he further pursued his goal of serving humanity through social work. Levi Strauss made generous contributions to the Eureka Benevolent Society, the Hebrew Board of Relief and the Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home. After assisting the University of California with various scholarship funds, he left the world on September 27, 1902 (Levis to Levis Co.), leaving behind an exemplary lifestyle and the brand name "Levis."

From Waist Overalls to Levis Jeans

Levi Strauss believed in change for the better. Therefore, his invention of waist overalls witnessed many phases of development and amendments catering to the needs of the consumers of all age until today.

From the plain canvas made to light blue waist overalls, Levis waist overalls underwent change in 1873 with an addition of three pockets and subtraction of belt-loops (Mattox) followed by another change in 1886 with an addition of leather piece at the rear of "501 waistband Strauss" (Mattox). In 1890, the firm adds another pocket to the existing three pocketed-overalls to make room for coins and other stuff subsequently with another big pocket to accommodate purses and wallets in 1905 (Mattox). 1913 was marked with the introduction of "Union-All" (Mattox), with the addition of belt loops in 1922. In 1924, "13 ounce denim Lee Rider jeans were introduced" (Mattox) to which was added a zipper in 1926. Next came the addition of a red tab to the rear pocket of the blue jeans. From 1930's to 1950's the world witnessed a rise and fall in the brand image with an introduction of Bell Bottoms in 1960's (Mattox) followed by replacement of Capital E. with small e on the RED tab at the back of the Levi's. 1990's saw changes in fashion industry that directly affected the garment or the textile industry making room for other companies to appear, compelling Levi's to come up with newer and more fashionable changes and designs.

However, due to competition and changing needs and fast altering trends in fashion market, in 1999, Levis Strauss & Co. had to unfortunately, shut down eleven manufacturing concerns in North America, downsizing an employee number of 5, 900 (Levis to close: 17). Although, Levis Strauss & Co. tried its best to be up to the expectations of the customers, survey reports suggest that since concentration as well as interest is increasing more towards casual, trendy and snazzy outfits followed by it's augmented demand, the company will have to ameliorate it's strategies and its designs in order to grab the lost market share and the appended profits (More Casual Dress).


Hence, from the above discussion we may culminate that Levis Strauss was no doubt a name in both fashion and garment industry who founded pillars on which rests the foundation of the contemporary flourishing textile industry. Though, Levis Strauss & Co. is in hard waters currently, like past history reveals, the company will surely emerge from the challenges and hardships it faces today… [read more]

Men and Women Models Asian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The problem however is that many Asian people, who are not of tall height, may find it hard to go with the trend because of height differences.

Describing body structures, American male models have bigger bodies and are more muscled than some Asian male models. The body size of Asian male models is usually slender. American and Asian female models, however, do not differ much in body structure. Both fashion in slender bodies.

In terms of fashioning clothes, Asian models are more conscious with baring parts of their body when doing the "catwalk." The reason for this is that most Asians are conservative. The typical clothes of many Asians are long and unrevealing of body skins. Hence, the style of Asian modeling conforms to the attitude and characteristics of Asians. American fashion, on the other hand, can be described as "free oriented."

American models are more open with fashioning clothes that bear parts of their bodies. This goes the same with the Americans attitudes and customs. They are free-spirited and are not conservative in terms of fashion and clothing styles.

Oriental style is the usual fashion of Asian models. It was only a few decades before that they started to fashion western modes. Their trends are usually one-layered clothing. This is because many parts of Asia do not experience winter season. American models, on the other hand, fashion multi-layered clothing. Usually, wearing coats on top.

Despite of the differences in fashion, American and Asian male and female models are all models in their own right. They have their own styles, fashioning things that suits their peoples' lifestyles.


Asian Fashion.

2003. FashionAlley. 01 Sept 2003. http://www.fashionalley.tv/cybermode/orientalfashiondresses.htm… [read more]

Gendered-Stores and Shopping: Express Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,861 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Gendered-Stores and Shopping: Express for Men, An Examination

Store Design

The twilight zone refers to the physical space just past the entrance doors. This space is what Underhill refers to as the decompression zone and it's a space that is generally "lost" on customers. Once in this area, Underhill explains, "These people are not truly in the store yet. You… [read more]

Fabric Analysis When Constructing Bridges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,394 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Fabric Analysis

When constructing bridges, planes and other constructions, engineering designers create elaborate plans on electronic computers and use stress analysis to figure out the effects of all the likely forces. On the contrary, textile products and textile fabrics are still produced mostly on the grounds of experience, trial and error and intuition. A lot of textile fabrics have currently… [read more]

Technical Description of Pilot G-2 Roller Ball GEL Ink Pen Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


8 x 5.8 inches. The Pilot G-2 gel pen consists of parts: top and bottom sections of the barrel, soft grip, clip mechanism, spring, ink refill, top, and accent rings.

The Pilot G-2 offers several barrel designs and vibrant gel ink colors. The options for barrel designs for the Pilot G-2 include the original translucent barrel, the Fashion Collection, the Breast Cancer Awareness pen, and two business-oriented designs, the G-2 Pro and the G-2 Limited. The original design pen comes in black or blue plastic with a translucent hard plastic barrel, except where the black rubber grip and the retraction button are located.

The Pilot G-2 Fashion Collection features barrels with stylish floral design in a variety of colors. In this collection, black grips and clips indicate black ink, and colored grips and clips are associated with gel inks in coordinating colors. The Pilot G-2 Breast Cancer Awareness pen features a pink ribbon imprinted on the barrel, a pink rubber grip, a pink plastic clip, and is available with black ink or pink ink. The Pilot G-2 Professional Styles are available in two refined barrel designs that retain an effortless, light feel characteristic of the original G-2 barrel. The professional design G-2 pens are available with deep-toned metal barrels set off by sophisticated metal accents, a premium matte finish, and black rubber comfort grips. The clips and accents of the G-2 Limited are stainless steel, with six color options for the barrels and color-coordinated rubber grips.

The model number of the Pilot G2 is G27-BLK. The Pilot G-2 is available in four different point sizes, 15 different gel ink colors, and a variety of barrel designs and colors that work well across any number of settings, from casual to professional.

The pen is available in packs of 4, 5, 10, and 12.


http://pilotpen.us/…… [read more]

Indigo Bookstore Reflections Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (730 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Bookstore

Description of the Visit to Chapters Indigo

The bookstore I visited was a Chapters Indigo store in a busy upscale shopping mall, which includes a Starbucks, a multiplex with 8 movies currently showing, high-end eateries, a designer clothing store and an ice cream shop. The chain bookstore is fairly predictable as to what it offers in terms of best sellers, budget books, and accessories. This Chapters Indigo was very similar to what one might expect with a couple of exceptions, which will be pointed out in this paper. Chapters Indigo has a huge banner posted inside the glass at the entrance promoting the "American Girl Speciality Boutique" inside the store. Right next to that banner is a sign letting customers know how they can "Win Isabelle," who is "Girl of the Year" -- so customers are greeted not with a best-selling book, or a juicy "tell-all" book, but a boutique for young girls. The advertisements explain that only one doll will be won in each "participating location" of Chapters Indigo. Once inside the automatic sliding doors, I was met by an attractive young women (probably eighteen years of age or less, dressed conservatively) handing out an entry form for the possibility of winning the "Girl of the Year," who is named Isabelle (although there are more than 80 dolls in the collection). She reminds us that "every girl can have a doll as unique as her…" and I accepted the form.

At the front of the store there are large displays of current best-selling books. These are hard-back books, including, "Natchez Burning," "The Goldfinch," and "Orphan Train." Boldly prominent as you enter the main portion of the store are celebrity books. The Robin Roberts book is right next to the book by Hillary Clinton ("Hard Choices"); near to those are books by retired New York Yankee closer Mariano Rivera and by Michelle Knight ("Finding Me") one of the women who was kidnapped and kept as a sex prisoner for five years in Cleveland. These books are located in the most visible place for a customer's eyes to see as he walks in. The Canadian bookstore is not reticent to put books by…… [read more]

Renaissance Current Can Be Dated Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Perhaps one of the most important differences between the Northern and Italian Renaissance clothing was the Northern tendency to distort, through clothing and fashion, the figure and stature of the individual. Primarily, this was done by padding that was added; particularly to the sleeves (including arms or shoulders) or to the thighs. Several of Henry VIII's portraits are eloquent in this sense.

The padding was not entirely adopted in Italy, where the preference was for slender clothing that would show the shape of the body, in the tradition of the close-fitting previously discussed. Even if this was not the primary reason, the climate could have also played a role: the warmer weather in Italy would not encourage such fashion extravagances and the Italian creativity went in a different direction.

The materials that were used to make the clothes differed from Italy to Northern Europe primarily because of the weather conditions and the climate. Italy benefited from a milder, Mediterranean climate, so the preference for fine linen and similar materials could be successfully valued in the fashion production of the country. At the same time, Northern Europe was exposed to a harsher climate, with colder winters. The main material used here was wool, although linen was not necessarily entirely left out of the fashion industry.

As presented, there were several common elements of Northern and Italian fashion during the Renaissance, resulting primarily from the main objectives of fashion (to showcase richness and the position of the individual in society). However, differences appeared, particularly considering the weather and climate, but also the political differences that followed with the Reformation process in Germany and the Northern countries.… [read more]

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