"Fashion / Designers / Beauty" Essays

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According to Thomas Kuhn How Does Science Normally Progress Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (598 words)
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¶ … Thomas Kuhn, how does science normally progress?

Thomas Kuhn was one of the most notable scientists of the 20th century. The most famous scientific piece of literature he produced is entitled The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. This work provides Kuhn's seminal viewpoint on the way that science progresses. It is not limited to one particular science, but rather attempts to produce a methodology for how the scientific field as a whole -- and all of its various components -- evolve. In this work and others Kuhn advanced the notion that science progresses in a series of shifts, which are inherently dependent on a consensus of opinions and the input of a larger community.

Kuhn believed that scientific knowledge was not confined to progression in a simple, linear fashion. Instead, he theorized that it evolves based on paradigm, or models that pertain to the degree of knowledge and authority on a particular subject. Those models form the basis of popular or contemporary scientific research. It is vital to understand the importance that Kuhn assigned to the scientific community in his conception regarding scientific paradigms. These paradigms effectively influence the thoughts, sentiments, theories, and work of scientists within a certain field. In fact, one can argue that a true paradigm cannot be established without multiple people employing it -- hence, the need for a scientific community.

The point of departure for Kuhn's theory -- and for the progress of science as well -- is that inevitably, there will be scientists who are part of a larger community who come up with results or employ methods that are at variance with the popular paradigm at the moment. Such conflicting viewpoints, Kuhn, argued, were integral for the progression of science because they reveal that there is some form of incompatibility with…… [read more]


on Abercrombie &amp Fitch Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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A&F Case

Abercrombie & Fitch Co. (A&F) is a prominent specialty apparel retail chain, with four exclusive lifestyle brands, namely- Abercrombie & Fitch, Gilly Hicks, Abercrombie Kids, and Hollister Co. Instituted in the year 1892, A&F was incorporated in 1996 in Delaware, and via its subsidiaries (A&F, with its subsidiaries, are together denoted as the "Company" or "Abercrombie & Fitch"), it runs retail outlets and direct selling to customers under its four brands (Abercrombie & Fitch, 2011).

The retailer was purchased by The Limited in 1988. In 1992, Michael Jeffries was hired to supervise the chain's operations. Jeffries desired to shift course from the 70 years and above demographic, and focus on a youthful, fast-growing market segment in the age group of 14-24 years. Tweed suits were, thus, replaced by T-shirts and denims. This strategy worked in the store's favor. When it was spun off in 1998 by The Limited, A&F had already become a sensation. Sales figures soared from 165 million dollars (1994) to 1.06 billion dollars (1999). Likewise, the number of retail outlets of A&F also spiked climbed from 36 (1992) to 230 (2000). A&F was ranked at the 6th position in a survey of coolest brands among kids in 1999, outranking both Nintendo and Levi's. In summer 1999, A&F's status as one of the youth culture icons solidified, with LyteFunkie Ones' (LFO's) hit pop number, whose lyrics state how they liked girls looking "like Abercrombie and Fitch" (Olson).

Changes in strategies that would allow these two companies to better position themselves in the minds of consumers?

J. Crew and Banana Republic position themselves as brands for yuppies. Their sites attract consumers towards their garments, styles and hues. Both websites' backgrounds are white, which doesn't distract and divert viewers' attention. Both sites have straightforward, appropriate formats; this offers no motivation to viewers to explore and stay longer on the website. In case of both companies, emphasis is given to the item on offer, and not their models. However, A&F is exactly opposite in this respect. Its site focuses on models and revolves more around models' looks than the apparel itself. Models are showcased in highly appealing positions, with a charcoal dark website background serving to elevate their features. A&F's model club, on its website, enables viewers to look at previous models. J. Crew and Banana Republic could increase their market share by drawing ideas from A&F's website design to make a more attractive background. They could also develop a club (even if not for models, then at least for group administrators, challenges, and/or special occasions), i.e. anything that may serve to keep viewers' attention longer on their websites, and cause viewers/consumers to connect with the company, and feel involved with the brands. They should also utilize Facebook, Instagram and Twitter, as social media makes them more visible, and consumers can feel more included.

What can department stores do to make themselves more relevant to the youth subculture?

To modify store images and make themselves more suitable and appealing… [read more]


How Did the Obama Care Website Fail Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (839 words)
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Technology continues to matriculate rapidly throughout society. It is now becoming omnipresent, with disparate business embracing both its costs and benefits. Even the government is no immune to potential pitfalls of technology its repercussions for society. The Obama care website is a classic example of how technology can quickly alienate individuals and society in very dramatic ways. The failure of the Obama care website is not unique however. Many of the risks embedded in the project are many of the same risks other organizations face. What makes the Obama care website a unique situation is how it did not effectively mitigate these risks and continued with the uncertain project anyway.

As mentioned in the introduction, significant risks were embedded within the Obama care website. The chief risk, was the massive integration needed to make the website function properly. According the Washington Post, the Healthcare.gov website attempting to align 112 different computer systems across the nation. In so doing, the website required the assistance of a least 50 separate contractors. This possesses significant risk in regards to quality standards and the overall delineation of responsibility. First, with over 50 contractors there is no assurance that all 50 will adhere to the same quality standards as it relates to their work. In fact, there is a temptation to not have high quality standards due to the contract structure in place to create the website. In many instances, contractors were paid based on the time they spent on the project as oppose to other metrics. This provided many contractors with the incentive to prolong the construction of the website. This misalignment of incentives caused the website to malfunction on its first day as visitors were unable to access needed materials in a timely fashion. Second, with over 50 contractors, roles and responsibilities were difficult to coordinate. The complexity of the project made it very difficult in regards to overall oversight of the project. If one contractor was lacking for example, it had an impact on the other 40 contractors. With lack of oversight, correction action took much longer than it should have. This system of bureaucracy has plagued government organizations for decades, as they are unable to efficiently and quickly adjust to changing market dynamics. Such was the case with the Healthcare.gov website. Third, similar to the first point, contractors did not test the system sufficiently. Instead, they haphazardly pieced together a website, that was spurious at best. Private contractors even testified in congress that the administration went ahead with the website…… [read more]


Women and Men Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,029 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Clothing stores have found that by making stores "men only" and including non-clothing amenities such as watches and luggage, they can lure men in -- men still dislike shopping for clothing, but using the lure of other items can increase foot traffic.

The common image of the male, lolling in a sofa while his wife shops for clothes may be the reason for the common misperception that men do not shop at all -- rather, men merely shop differently, and enjoy buying different things than women. The fact that men are less process-oriented shoppers makes online shopping a boon for them: men who shop online browse for goods "an average of 31 times a month vs. 22 times for women," "make 20% more purchases online each month than women" (Loechner 2004). Contrary to the stereotype of women as spendthrifts, online men spend more money than women, $204 versus $186 dollars per month on average (Loechner 2004). Not having to enter a store makes shopping more attractive for men.

Women still account for most of the purchases made in the economy, however, up to 85% overall. While the fact that they account for most food and healthcare purchases may be unsurprising, (93% of both respectively), they also account for 66% of PCs purchases and 65% of new cars ("Fast Facts," M2W, 2007). Thus, despite the lack of online sales, women simply tend to consume more frequently. This indicates that, regardless of what they purchase, whether a stereotypically feminine purchase or not, women continue to enjoy shopping for reasons (such as a "pick me up" or a mood booster) beyond the immediate value or utility of the product in contrast to their male counterparts.

The "relationship value" of the product is just as important as the product itself for women -- yet another reason so many women are consumers of new PCs. Social networking and other interpersonal uses of technology make women more interested in technology, versus having the "next new thing" like a male. Digital cameras that show images of women and children on their packaging, fitness-oriented video games, process-oriented computer games like the Sims, car ads that show children nestled in the back seat, all demonstrate female buying power in the supposedly male realm of technology, and the fact that different images attract different gendered consumers. While there may be some truth in the common stereotype of the woman shopping while her husband sits and waits, the statistics suggest that reality is slightly more complex, and retailers in a variety of industries have begun to capitalize on this fact.

Works Cited

"Fast Facts." M2W. 2007. April 19, 2009. http://www.m2w.biz/fast_facts.php

Loechner, Jack. "Women Do Most Shopping Online; Men Outspend Them." Research brief:

Media Post. December 23, 2004. April 19, 2009. http://www.mediapost.com/publications/index.cfm?fa=Articles.showArticle&art_aid=21617

Poggi, Jeanne. "Men's shopping shrines." Forbes. September 20, 2008. April 19, 2009.

http://www.forbes.com/2008/09/30/men-shopping-shrines-forbeslife-cx_jp_0930style.html

Wilder, Ernie "Men Buy, Women Shop': The Sexes Have Different Priorities When Walking

Down the Aisles." Knowledge @ Wharton.…… [read more]


Human Geography in Our Grandparents' Era Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,393 words)
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Human Geography

In our grandparents' era, clothing was often produced domestically. In recent decades, however, the globalization of trade has shifted industries such as textiles and clothing overseas. In some cases, this brings production closer to the source of the raw materials. In many cases, however, this shift is simply to take advantage of lower wages for the labor-intensive clothing manufacturing industry. Indeed, it is rare today for a person in North America or Western Europe to own mass-produced clothing from their own country. All clothing manufacturing, except for some high-end items, is conducted overseas. We have even seen a shift in the sources of overseas production. Some traditional clothing manufacturing centers have already begun to price their labor at levels too high for clothing marketers, who have found lower-cost production centers in other countries as a result.

This paper will explore the geography of clothing in greater detail. The wardrobe of any person will illustrate the impacts of globalization on our daily lives. The paper will first outline the methodology used in the study. Then, the results will be tabulated and mapped. The results will then be interpreted and some conclusions drawn with respect to the geography of garment production.

In order to study the geography of clothing production, I have taken an inventory of my own clothing. The study included a total of 44 items. This includes all types of clothing, from shirts to shoes to hats, pants, shirt and underwear. These items were purchased in various countries around the world, with the bulk being purchased in North America. Each item was recorded for the country of origin with these countries subsequently being mapped to illustrate the sources of the different clothing items, and the number of items from each country. The map is as follows:

The deep red countries had ten or more items from the 44 produced there. The cherry red countries had between five and ten items produced. The dark grey countries had between one and five items produced and the remainder of the countries had zero items produced. The chart showing the full results is included as an Appendix.

On this map, the leading country is China, with 12 items. This is more than double the next most significant producer, which is a tie between Canada and India at 5 garments. Thailand had 4 garments, Indonesia 3. Hong Kong, Bangladesh, Honduras and Mexico each had two garments while Peru, El Salvador, Turkey, Cambodia, Vietnam and Nicaragua each had one.

The data revealed multiple regional groupings. Broadly, North America and Asia were by far the most represented. Within these categories, there was a cluster in Central America and two Asian clusters -- one in Southeast Asia and one in South Asia. Beyond these three major clusters were only a couple of outliers -- Peru and Turkey.

Moving across the map, it is worth noting some of the areas of the map that are entirely not filled in. Europe is completely empty and while that may… [read more]


Team Export Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (482 words)
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Team Export Project

Abercrombie and Fitch is a upscale retail store geared for teens and young adults. Their target population is 18 through 22 years of age. There are currently over 300 plus stores in the United States. Abercrombie and Fitch first started out in the early 1900's as a sporting goods store, years later this retail store went bankrupt, and was brought out by the Limited Inc., and changed it's clothing line to gear towards young college students. The brand is upscale, and casual.

Target market, demographics who will you sell it to Abercrombie and Fitch ( a&F) is coming to Being, China. A & F. will target the teen and young adults populations in Being, China. Why such a narrow demographic group, if we open the doors to a larger demographic group the company will fail. We have seen this happen in the United States with this company. Advertising is a potent and extremely prevalent form of communication in American; we want to take this to China. In America the average consumer sees roughly 3,000 advertising message in a week. Commercial images shape people's perceptions and Abercrombie & Fitch targets the impressionable demographic of American youth. Marketing in China will become a prominent means for organizations to create or adapt their image. Image creation is a public relations strategy that has increasingly targeted young adults and teens because they are not receptive to traditional direct marketing. Marketing a &…… [read more]


Symbolism in Clothes by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Creating atmosphere within a story can be accomplished through a variety of descriptors ranging from the personal to the environmental. Stories are contained worlds and the characters that populate them must interact with the audience through dialogue, both inner and outer, as well as their actions and even their clothing. Clothing has always been important throughout art in projecting more onto the audience than words or images can allow. A character's primness can be characterized in a buttoned up outfit or, as in "Clothes," every fluctuating mood and emotion can be similarly expressed in the various clothing styles that evolve over the course of the story.

When first meeting Mita, she is awaiting her upcoming bride viewing while having her hair bathed in the Women's Lake with "…my sari float up around me, wet and yellow, like a sunflower after the rain." The intensity of the color yellow in comparison to the muddiness of the surrounding waters acts as a symbol for the seeming brightness of her future in comparison to her faded and sepia colored past. The color yellow is new and bright and her future has no reason to not follow suit.

The theme of transformation and metamorphosis from her past continues when she is confronted with her actual bride viewing sari which she mentions is, "…a sari that could change one's life." It's construction and color, pale pink with gold thread, is the most extravagant and beautiful outfit she has ever owned and encapsulates the promise of her future and its transformative effect on her. She mentions that, "Its body was pale pink, like the dawn sky over the women's lake. The color of transition."

Transitioning towards her new life in America, Mita travels with her beloved father and her again, clothing takes on an aura of significance. While she preferred a blue sari because of the colors link to possibility, her mother stressed that red should be the color of choice as it is considered lucky to married women. Her father is the ultimate compromiser and chooses a sari that blends both luck and possibility. As she transitions over the thousands of miles of ocean on her way to America, Mita starts to imagine herself in her new life, with her new name and finds that, "…the syllables rustle uneasily in my mouth like a stiff satin that's never been worn." Again she finds her frame of reference in the clothing that she both wears and has been surrounded by all of her life.

It is in this past full of colors and clothing that she is able to connect to her past as a grounded station against her momentary rise in panic when she discovers that she cannot picture her husband Somesh's face. Knowing and fixating onto the truth that within the plane there is a case full of her saris she can travel through her own past and upbringing with, "…the thin hand-woven cottons of the Bengal countryside, green as a young banana plant,… [read more]


AVON Cosmetics Place and Price Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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AVON Cosmetics-Place and Price Analysis

AVON Cosmetics Place and Price Analysis

AVON Cosmetics uses a distribution strategy based on representatives. The mechanism behind this distribution system is relatively simple -- individuals sign up to become AVON representatives. They can sign up with a local sponsor, directly with the company or even online. The new AVON representative has the ability to purchase the company's cosmetics products at discount prices. He will in fact purchase all of the AVON products at discount prices, but will further sell them to his clients at catalog rates. The difference between the discounted price he pays to the company and the catalogue price charged the customer represents the earning of the representative.

This distribution method is commonly referred to as multi-level marketing, in which the company seeks not only to sell its product, but to gather more and more representatives that sell products and enroll more AVON representatives. The method is useful and adequate for the company from at least two standpoints:

First of all, it creates word of mouth publicity and promotes the company through representatives enrolling campaigns

Secondly, it sells the company products without incurring the high costs associated with a traditional distribution channel (such as direct distribution through company stores or indirect distribution through intermediaries)

It removes geographic barriers and allows the company to grow globally (Direct Selling Education Foundation)

More recently, the AVON Cosmetics Company has developed a new distribution channel through which to interact with both prospective customers but also prospective representatives. This new channel is represented by the online community, mostly by the company's own website (http://www.avon.com/), where interested users can communicate with AVON representatives.

Price Analysis

The AVON Cosmetics company implements a complex pricing strategy. At the core of price setting lies the variable pricing strategy, through which retail prices…… [read more]


Creating and Using a Master Budget Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (559 words)
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¶ … Master Budget

The variable manufacturing cost as a percentage of the aggregate selling price for each product line for 2008 is the following. For the 2008 lipstick product line, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 88.4%. For the 2008 Nail Polish product line, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 80.7%. The 2008 Creams product line, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 50%.

The variable manufacturing cost as a percentage of the aggregate selling price for each product line in 2009 is the following. For the 2009 lipstick product line, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 94%. For the 2009 Nail Polish product line, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 85%. For the 2009 Creams product line, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 50%.

The variable manufacturing cost as a percentage of the aggregate selling price for each product line in 2010 is the following. For the 2010 lipstick product line, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 92.7%. For the 2010 Nail Polish product line, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 83%. For the 2010 Creams product like, the percentage of variable cost to selling price is 51.5%.

The mark up on lipstick in 2008 was 11.6%, for Nail Polish it was 19.3%, and for Creams it is 50%. The mark up on lipstick in 2009 was 6%, for Nail Polish it was 15%, and for Creams it was 50%. The mark up on lipstick in 2010 was 6.7%, the mark up on Nail Polish in 2010 was 17% and on Creams it was…… [read more]


Finding the Vision Wow Factor Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (962 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Vision 'Wow' Factor

Finding the Vision Wow Factor

The vision statements that will be analyzed in the following pages are: Estee Lauder Companies' "Bringing the best to everyone we touch," DuPont's "Our vision is to be the world's most dynamic science company, creating sustainable solutions essential to a better, safer and healthier life for people everywhere," 3M's "3M's commitment is to actively contribute to sustainable development through environmental protection, social responsibility and economic progress. To us, that means meeting the needs of society today, while respecting the ability of future generations to meet their needs," Boeing's "People working together as a global enterprise for aerospace leadership," and Goodyear's "Become a market-focused tire company providing superior products and services to end-users and to our channel partners, leading to superior returns for our shareholders."

The two frameworks selected for the analysis are Kotter's approach, which basically states that a successful vision should be imaginable, desirable, feasible, focused, flexible and communicable, and Metals' approach that considers that a good vision statement should be a dream, it should be excessive, and it should be deviant.

Estee Lauder's vision statement is a simple one, short, concise, easy to understand and to remember. Customers are likely to remember such a vision statement. However, the vision does not offer an image of the future, it focuses on providing an image that refers to the present, it offers no clear view of what the customer is expected to receive in the future. The vision is desirable, it focuses on committing to product quality, which is a driver for both employees and consumers. The vision refers to feasible objectives, given the fact that the company's high standards in relation to quality have proven over decades of activity (Estee Lauder Inc., 2010). In other words, the vision is focused on product quality, this factor being the central issue on which the company's strategy and decision-making is based on. The vision statement is not a flexible one, being so concise, but it is very communicable. As for Metals' approach, Estee Lauder's vision can be considered a dream. Given the company's situation, it is not an excessive one. However, the purpose of this vision statement is not to be a deviant, but a traditional one.

DuPont's vision is a more complex one and it includes more factors (DuPont, 2010). The vision is indeed imaginable, consumers being able to figure out what the company intends to do in the future. The issues addressed by this vision are appealing to all the parties involved, from shareholders to customers, making it desirable. The objectives stated in the vision are feasible. The vision is communicable, it is easy to be understood by the public. The vision is slightly excessive, the objectives established by the company may be too high to be achieved shortly. The vision statement does not break conventional thinking.

The vision expressed by…… [read more]


Art - Interior Design Form and Function Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (856 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Art - Interior Design

FORM and FUNCTION in INTERIOR DESIGN

Interior design encompasses two fundamental considerations: form and function, and overemphasis on either component nearly always comes at the expense of the other. Excessive emphasis on aesthetic elements can detract substantially from the ability of a living space to perform its principal function of accommodating living. On the other hand, exclusive focus on functional necessity can completely overwhelm a home aesthetically and give it the feel of a workspace or storage space equipped but with sleeping, showering, and eating stations. Interior Design Philosophy:

In principle, one of the most important purposes of interior design is to maximize the efficient integration of form considerations and functional necessity in the home (Susanka & Obolensky, 2008). Instead of viewing aesthetics and function as competing concerns, my approach emphasizes the optimization of both to the extent neither compromises the necessary elements of the other. In virtually all situations, aesthetics and functional purpose can coexist to some degree (Pennington, 2008).

One useful mechanism for achieving a balanced integration of form and function is the symbolic logic represented by the Venn diagram depicting sets of ideas, more in principle than necessarily by actually reducing design considerations to a drawing on paper. Overall, the goal is to separately identify those functional requirements that cannot be compromised and those aesthetic requirements that are absolutely essential for the living space to meet the needs and preferences of its inhabitants.

After identifying all the specific functional requirements, the next step is to list them in an approximation of their relative importance; after that, the same process is applied to the list of identified aesthetic considerations. This allows the most efficient cost-benefit analysis of understanding specific trade-offs between competing solutions to any necessary choices between functional and aesthetic considerations.

Ideally, a living space would never require any compromises from either perspective at all. Unfortunately, the reality is that in most cases, economic and other practical considerations require some degree of duality as pertains to form and function (Susanka & Obolensky, 2008). Creative interior design solutions allow many potential conflicts to be resolved completely. In most of the cases remaining, creative design can maximize dual solutions under the circumstances, as well as minimize the number of preferences that simply cannot be accommodated in a given living space (Pennington, 2008).

Personal Experience:

was fortunate to have relatively good intuition in the area of perceiving potential conflicts between form and function considerations and basic instincts about resolving those issues creatively. In fact, my first attempt to maximize dual expression of form and…… [read more]


Impact of NAFTA on Textile and Apparel Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,424 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … NAFTA on Textile and Apparel Industry

Introduction to NAFTA

Increasing market liberalization and globalization are the two constants of the contemporaneous economy and in support of them, various agreements have been signed between countries. The aim of these agreements is to form alliances and partnerships based on free trade, through the elimination of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers.… [read more]


La Groupe LVMH Louis Vuitton Mo T Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,093 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13

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La Groupe LVMH

Louis Vuitton Mo t Hennessy

Table des Metiers

Produits principaux du group

Pourquoi choisir les produits LV en comparison avec les concurrants?

Pourquoi les produits de LV sont de haute qualite?

Quels sont les performances financieres de la societe dans les dernieres annees?

Qu'est-ce qui va passer avec LVMH dans l'avenir?

CE papier est un expose sur… [read more]


Museum Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (990 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Museum Comparison

The two private art museums I am comparing are the High Museum of Art in Atlanta and the Textile Museum of Canada.

The High Museum was founded in 1905 based on a donation from Mrs. Joseph M. High and has continued to grow over the years with the financial help of various donors and philanthropists. Recently, the High further increased its size by over 300,000 square feet with three new buildings, built by the Italian architect Renzo Piano. According to the High's director, "Renzo Piano's 2005 expansion takes the High to a new level as one of the nation's great museums of the twenty-first century." (Shapiro, 2005)

The additions have allowed for an increased number of more eclectic exhibitions including three brand new exhibitions pertaining to Harry Callahan's photographs of his wife, Eleanor, and an exhibition about 19th century folk art. The High's staff is a mix of staff members and volunteers, who assist in carrying out the various exhibitions and events going on at the museum. According to the museum's director, the High has not only drawn many crowds interested in seeing various works and exhibits, but the High has also helped to revitalize the and arts and cultural feel to all of downtown Atlanta. This is an illustration of how certain the help of volunteers, and hardworking citizens alike can help to turn an area around. (High Museum, 2005)

Unlike the High, the Textile Museum of Canada focuses exclusively on the work of textiles from all over the world. In 1975, this museum started out as a tiny village art shop in Toronto, but has grown in to one of the world's most renowned collection of textile art. (Textile Museum, 2007) the museum's growth is very similar to that of the High in that much of the money generated for the museum has come from donors and those with a passion for textile art.

The Textile Museum has an administrative and curatorial staff, but also relies on the help of volunteers for the certain events and exhibitions. The museum's mission is based on their desire for individual's to gain an understanding of humanity as it is represented through textiles. (Textile Museum, 2007)

The University Natural Museums I will comparing are the Royal BC Museum in Canada and the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History.

The Royal BC Museum has been around since 1886 and prides itself in teaching individuals about the human and natural history in British Columbia. They're growth is based on their own learning and their ability to share more knowledge as they learn more about their own region and history. (BC Museum, 2007) the museum was started based on a petition of 30 "prominent citizens" in British Columbia. They expressed the importance of learning and educating others about BC. As the years went by, the government and the private sector has built upon the vision of those citizens to carry out a number of objectives relating to…… [read more]


101 Uses for Pencils Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (491 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Pencils

Keep score during board games, fill in racing forms, fill in IKEA shopping cards, to fill in bubble sheets for exams, vote, mark children's growth charts, mark the spot to hammer in a nail, mark where to install shelves, mark where to hem, mark where to sew a button, or to measure a length of fabric. Pencils draw outlines and shade them in. Pencils can be used to poke holes, press telephone numbers, press letters on a keyboard, turn on an appliance. Pencil erasers can be used on their own to erase or as a makeshift screwdriver. Pencils are used on hospital patient charts, janitor cleaning charts, and in crossword puzzles. Eyebrow pencils outline eyes and color eyebrows. Lipstick pencils enhance lips. Colored lead pencils serve their purpose in art. Pencils are for doodling, formal drawing, and drafting. A pencil can be used to retrieve any object from an out-of-reach crack or crevice. Use pencils instead of popsicle sticks to build little boxes. Glue pencils together into a toy raft, toy bridge, or toy car or toy plane. A pencil becomes the stem of a paper flower or a stick doll. Use pencils in a multimedia composition, to carve a figure out of, or to stir paints. Pencils can be used as path markers, to hold up weak plant stems or to dig holes. Pencils can be used instead of pick-up sticks. They can become kindling wood for fires. Pencils can be…… [read more]


Professions - Bastakiya Tailoring Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Bastakiya tailors are certainly capable of producing extravagant clothing for some of the choosiest tourists. The seams in Bastakiya are virtually working non-stop in order to satisfy the needs of clients determined to take home a piece of old Dubai. Tourists are one of the principal customer segment fueling the tailoring activity, especially given that the area attracts them in large numbers as a result of the feeling that one gets walking through the streets of a quarter that practically contrasts the rest of Dubai.

One of the principal reasons for which the tailor profession managed to stay in the Bastakiya region is that it completes the overall atmosphere in the quarter. By visiting this area, one does not just get to see how people used to live in old Dubai, as they also get the chance to experience living in old Bastakiya themselves as they bargain with merchants, buy textiles, and get tailors to create clothes in accordance with their personal needs. Along with people in other professions, tailors can be considered responsible for keeping the old part of Dubai alive, especially considering that the families of most of them have a history working in the enterprise. Although it is difficult to determine whether tailoring is still a profitable activity for people in the Bastakiya region, it is only safe to assume that they are content with knowing that they follow a tradition in keeping both tourists and locals feel that little has changed in the quarter over the years.

Bibliography:

"Bastakiya -- A slice of old Dubai," Retrieved September 24, 2011, from the National Website: http://guidepal.com/dubai/shopping/textile-souk-bastakiya

"Textile Souk Bastakiya," Retrieved September 24, 2011, from the Guidepal Website: http://guidepal.com/dubai/shopping/textile-souk-bastakiya

"The pulsing heart of old Dubai," Retrieved September 24, 2011, from the flickr Website: http://www.flickr.com/photos/visbeek/3367722567/… [read more]


Marketing Management the Cosmetics Industry Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  10 pages (2,826 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

4. Objectives

The first objective of the plan is that of attaining a sales volume of 20,000 units within the first year of introduction. From a market share perspective, the aim is that of gaining a 3 per cent market share of the new products, and representing a 20 per cent market share for the specific customer base of baby… [read more]


Hungary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Hungary

(a) as we will be discussing further below, we are addressing a certain category of consumers. In this sense, both socially and culturally, our consumer segment is very well defined and the new perfume will be designed to best match their needs. From a social or cultural point-of-view, we are not expecting to be influenced by changes in these… [read more]


Practical Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
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¶ … right cleaning products for your house can be a real hassle. Drug and department store aisles are filled with a plethora of products with fancy names and claims to work miracles. The number of selections becomes doubly as confusing when price becomes a factor. However, with the following simple practical process, selecting the right cleaning products for your needs can be a snap.

First, go to a local store that you like shopping at, one that isn't too crowded and at which you feel comfortable. You want to be able to read labels and price tags without being in a crowded aisle. Second, make a note of which cleaning chores you need to do most. If you are looking to clean more than one type of surface then you will definitely need to consider buying more than one product, as each cleaning product has specific applications.

Now what you will need to do is work one by one through your list and select the product that most fits your needs. If price is a factor, you can easily eliminate…… [read more]


RFID Chips Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,462 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Radio Frequency identification device or RFID is recently growing technology that has the potential to drastically change and simplify many aspects of our lives. RFID is an automated identification and data collection technology consisting of tags that contain chips for storing data and an antenna which is used to transmit data through radio waves. RFID has a standard numbering scheme… [read more]


Sociology and Socialization: Gender Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (616 words)
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' From an early age girls are socialized to be 'ladylike' and feminine, as evidenced by the number of frilly dresses and soft clothing available for girl babies.

Most babies would do nothing more than spit up on the frilly dresses offered at the baby store. Girls clothing is much more impractical than infant boy clothes, given that most baby's do nothing more than eat, sleep and poop in the first few months of life. However despite this even at a young age female members of society seem inundated with the message that they need to dress up, look great, and maintain an image that is both feminine and cute. Boy clothing is much more practical and oriented to the types of activity children should be engaging in, such as playing, sleeping and tumbling about.

Social inequities are apparent from this early age. There is a far greater selection of clothing for girl babies than boy babies, suggesting early on that girls be more concerned with their appearance than boys. Miniature versions of stockings are even available for girl babies to wear. While barrettes and hair clips are abundant for little girl babies, few if any accessories exist for little boy babies.

The idea that each gender is different and has certain characteristics or behaviors that must be maintained is a concept that is supported by the social institutions we grow up in. From day one boys and girls are treated differently. It is hard to say if things would be different if infants weren't socialized from such an early age to act a certain way, dress a certain way and even play a certain way.

Reference:

Shepard, J.M. (2001). Sociology, 9th ed. West Publishing Company.… [read more]


Business Plan Outline: (for a Make Believe Business Plan

Business Plan  |  5 pages (1,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Business Plan Outline: (For a make believe product I evented called, VIVID)

The Company is into manufacturing and marketing of the wonder cream VIVID which has proven abilities to iron out facial wrinkles caused due to aging. The cream contains the active ingredient Retinol which is richly textured and quickly absorbed. This useful night cream works all the while a… [read more]


Wash a Wool Sweater in Hot Water Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … wash a wool sweater in hot water, it permanently shrinks?

Shrinking of wool sweaters

The world is filled with fascinating little things, which enchant the young and the old alike. There are the fireflies, the falling stars or the multitude of means in which nature provides for mankind. One example in this sense is represented by the sheep, which, along the years, have become emblematic in cultural representations such as stories or even theater plays. And the sheep also have their main function of providing milk; and each year, their wool is cut by the shepherds and turned into valuable pieces of fabric for clothes or coverlets.

Wool is often a preferred material in the creation of soft and warm sweaters, worm by people around the globe to protect them during the colder season. It grows on the skin of most sheep and it has the characteristic of regenerating itself each time after it is cut. The natural wool from sheep is a protein and one of its most notable traits is that it has evolved throughout the millions of years to best attain its objective of protecting the various animals, especially those living in different and difficult climatic conditions. The structure and evolution of the natural wool best distinguish it from the artificial textiles, which have been chemically created by mankind and which serve a specific single function.

"Wool fiber is so resilient and elastic that it can be bent 30,000 times without danger of breaking or damage. Every wool fiber has a natural elasticity and wave or crimp that allows it to be stretched as much as one-third and then spring back into place. Its complex cellular structure also enables it to absorb moisture vapor, but repel liquid. No synthetic fiber has been able to combine all of these characteristics" (Sheep 101, 2012).

Wool is also characterized…… [read more]


Image Chosen Is an Advertisement Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (404 words)
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These items are staggered as well, which serves to have a more relaxing impression and seems less forced than a straight presentation, reminding women of the effects of purchasing these items. Beneath the products, an opposite image shows the reflection of the materials. This is a representation about how these items will aid the reflection and physical appearance of the person who buys them. It is a silent sentence, telling women that these products will make you like what you see when you look at yourself.

Almost centered, but more to the left are the words "Be Cool, Calm and Collected." These words are presented in a brown rounded font against a lavender background. These colors are mirrored in the lavender flowers on the left of the advertisement. Beneath the larger words are printed "This season, settle into soft, lavender-scented skin" in much smaller type. The whole effect is designed to be calming and relaxing to the target audience of women who can be stressed from work, family, or any number of…… [read more]


Skin Care Treatment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (551 words)
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D. Asking for patient history will help determine which steps to take for effective treatment.

E. If massaging a patient, communication of where it is safe to massage and where not is important to avoid injury and stress for the patient.

2.Environmental safety precaution

A. To reiterate, oncology patients may have weakened immune systems along with complications from medical treatments, providing comfortable furniture and setting will allow for the patient to feel relaxed and safe.

B. Dispose of any sharp objects and prevent slippery floors to keep the risk of patient injury low.

3.Proper handling of tools and supplies

A. Creams used to provide hydration to the skin of oncology patients should be kept stored for that specific patient and not used on anyone else.

B. Creams, lotions, etc. should be kept closed at all times to avoid contamination.

C. Supplies must be properly labeled and checked for expiration dates, especially if a skin treatment involves fresh ingredients.

4.Safe spa: Environmental

A. Spas are meant to be relaxing. Having soothing music, a friendly staff, and efficient communication will allow patients/clients to feel calm and tranquil. Many times oncology patients undergo a tremendous amount of stress and need an escape when receiving these kinds of treatments.

5.Client scheduling and appropriate documentation

A. Usually oncology patients need treatment immediately and may not reschedule. Having an organized record of the patients/clients is crucial in being efficient. Patients do not want to have to wait or get re-scheduled because of an unexpected error. Having backup plans and updated patient information keeps everything running.… [read more]


Business Situation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Turning Martin's Textiles in the right direction will be quite challenging. The Mexican people have historically feared that foreign control and ownership of their natural resources might orchestrate loss of sovereignty (Hiemstra-Kuperus and Meerkerk 81). However, Martin's Textiles needs to be autonomous to use Mexico's private investment for it to remain efficient. Although it will be politically challenging to attain this objective, it remains economically critical if Martin's Textiles is to remain viable.

The financial straits of Martin's Textiles are not the only issues confronting the business. Its opposition to NAFTA and various trade agreements has recently become more vocal as calls for renegotiation or suspension of the treaty mounts. Protectionism will hurt the company's status as a proponent of global growth. In addition, withdrawing from NAFTA and other trading agreements would enable other companies in the industry to take the lead, which will put Martin's Textiles at a competitive disadvantage (Keesing and Martin 75).

As the CEO of Martin's Textiles, I will be obliged to handle the issue of family atmosphere with urgency. This involves knowing that cultural diversity influences the preference and behavior of customers. For Martin's Textiles to sell successfully in the Mexican market, I will need to gear the products to meet the diverse needs of this group of customers. Modifications in product, marketing, and advertising and after sale services will be based on cultural differences in Mexico. Recruiting Mexican employees will be of two-fold advantage; first they know what the customers want and will help make the right delivery in the market; second, the company will enjoy cheap labor (Hiemstra-Kuperus and Meerkerk 98). In case I fail to do so, the company will end up in communication blunders and marketing mistakes, which will become marketing folklore.

Works Cited

Hiemstra-Kuperus and Meerkerk E. Nederveen. The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650-2000. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2010. Print.

Keesing, Donald B, and Martin Wolf. Textile Quotas against Developing Countries.…… [read more]


Fictional Family in the Textile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,249 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Julianne, who had been sitting quietly until now, wanted the floor. "Father? What was it like before the fabric chemicals were invented"? she asked. "She had been going through her wardrobe earlier that morning and she loved the feel of the soft comfortable fabric her dresses were made from. Bradley smiled at his only daughter, five different gentlemen were currently… [read more]


Forensic Fabric Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,310 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Afterwards, use a comparison microscope to compare two fabric side-by-side. The following tools will help you in finding the physical and chemical traits of a fabric (Lyle, 2004).

Birefringence: Whenever light is passed through synthetic fabric, it has to be refracted twice if it is to emerge as two completely different wavelengths of polarized light, where each type has its… [read more]


Art History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (318 words)
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My European friends would like it and think it was scary.

8. a. Papua New Guinea, b. Dog tooth necklace: http://www.newguineaart.com/assets/images/gallery/necklacep106-2e26d8e8.jpg

c. date: 1970s or before, d. rope and animal teeth, e. private collection

This necklace was perhaps worn by important members of the tribe to demonstrate prowess. My European friends would be frightened by it.

Sub-Saharan Africa

9. a. Dogon, b. Figures with Xylophone: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1979.206.131.jpg

10. a. Dogon, b. Standing Man: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1978.412.322.jpg… [read more]


Counterfeit Cosmetics and Homeland Security Issues Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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IV. Analysis

The method of analysis identified in this study is based on the potential effectiveness of the stated alternatives and it is determined that each of these alternatives when combined into one effort have a high chance of success in stopping the inflow of counterfeit cosmetics into the American marketplace. The costs of these alternatives when combined will be considerable however; the benefits will override the costs due to the harms that result from the use of counterfeit cosmetics. Costs associated with implementation of these strategic alternatives will include the following stated costs:

(1) Educational and knowledge provision -- Amount unknown

(2) Implementation of RFID technology for authentic cosmetics: this includes the cost of RFID tagging and RFID readers which will be distributed to the various agencies, actors, and organizations that will be involved in the control of counterfeit cosmetics inflow into the American marketplace.

(3) Costs associated with assigning regulatory authority to the various agencies, actors and organizations involved in this strategic implementation.

V. Alternatives Selected

The alternatives selected in this strategic plan include education and knowledge provision to all agencies, actors and organizations identified as well as implementation of RFID identification tagging for legitimate cosmetics that is encrypted so that it is not easily duplicated in addition to provision of RFID scanning equipment to the various agencies, actors, and organizations that will be taking part in the effort to stop the inflow of counterfeit cosmetics into the American marketplace. The alternatives are to be immediately implemented.

VI. Planning for implementation

The lead agency in this strategic initiative is the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) who will be charged with educating the various participating actors and agencies and who will be responsible for contracting with and Information Technology provider for creating and implementation of the RFID technology used to identify authentic cosmetics or alternatively to identify counterfeit cosmetics. The DHS will initiate planning for the strategic alternatives which will ensue immediately and which will involve setting up meetings with the various actors and agencies, gaining legislative approval, applying for government grants and funding needed to implement the plan, and who will be responsible for monitoring the results and outcomes of the initiative.

VII. Monitoring and Evaluation

The Department of Homeland Security will collect data after the implementation of the plan and will compare data with that previously collected in the conduction of a before/after analysis. Following this analysis, the DHS will plan for future planning based on the findings in the study and the effectiveness of the strategic implementation in this plan.

Bibliography

Barker, C. (2013) Reports of Counterfeit Estee Lauder Cosmetics Grow in the Bay Area. Cosmetics Design. Retrieved from: http://www.cosmeticsdesign.com/Regulation-Safety/Reports-of-counterfeit-Estee-Lauder-cosmetics-grow-in-the-Bay-area

Borrelli, L. (2013) Counterfeit MAC Cosmetics May Pose Health Risk: 'It Can Break You Out, Cause Irritations, And Allergies. Medical Daily. Retrieved from: http://www.medicaldaily.com/counterfeit-mac-cosmetics-may-pose-health-risk-it-can-break-you-out-cause-irritations-and-allergies

Counterfeit Cosmetics Could Put Your Health At Risk (2014) Fox News. Retrieved from: http://www.myfoxdfw.com/story/24910331/report-counterfeit-cosmetic-could-put-your-health-at-risk

Dangerous Fakes (2014) Global Intellectual Property Center. U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved from: http://dev.theglobalipcenter.com/dangerous-fakes/

Gilbert, A. (2013) Anti-Counterfeiting… [read more]


Apparel Industry Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,209 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

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Power of Suppliers

The power of supplier is low in the women clothing stores industry because there is large number of suppliers ready to offer their services. Baye, (2010) argue there will be a lower industry profits when suppliers have the power to negotiate favorably. In the women clothing stores, there is a concentration of suppliers making the power of… [read more]


Pietra Rivoli's the Travels of T-Shirt Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,817 words)
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Pietra Rivoli's The Travels of T-Shirt in a Global Economy is a fascinating narrative that offers a unique way to analyze the globalization phenomenon. The book is both didactic and fun, personal and historical while denoting many of the tenets pertaining to globalization in action. The author is a college university professor whose tone is not overbearing. She manages to… [read more]


Human Capital and the Command of Salary Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Salaries and Expectations

Some duties of an economist or someone who graduates from college with a degree in economics are to perform analysis on issues that have an impact on economies. This includes surveying and interpreting data, utilizing mathematical models and implementing statistical analysis, creating tables, graphs and reports that clearly indicate or provide forecasting of market trends. Economists are employed by businesses, firms, multinational corporations, banks, governments, and various other groups or individuals who depend on having a perspective on the economy in order to manage money and investments. Economists are sometimes required to give guidance or create policies that address specific problems faced by organizations. Central banks like the Federal Reserve, for instance, rely upon the opinion of various economists in order to develop the appropriate guidance and/or strategies needed to meet market needs (Truity, 2015).

The earnings of an economist vary according to position and time in the field. A starting position in the economics field might yield one an average annual salary of $50,000 per year, while a median, mid-level, mid-career salary might approach the $100,000 mark. Top economists with years of experience can command salaries of double that (Wall Street Journal, 2015).

What I expect to earn upon graduating with a four-year degree in economics is a mid-level salary based upon the human capital that I bring to the field. I am a female student, early 30s, who has decided to return to college. I have over 16 years of work experience in banking, retail, customer service, and aviation. Not only am I reliable and a team player (evidenced by my past career), but I am also bilingual, which is a significant skill to possess in the global economic workplace. Thus, my human capital is worth substantially more than a four-year degree might otherwise indicate.

With this in mind, I would expect to earn around $55,000 per year, starting off. I understand that human capital brings with it certain aspects that are considered by employers, but in my situation, there are also other aspects that I…… [read more]


Being Black and Wages Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Passing on blackness: Latinos, race, and earnings in the U.S.A.

In the U.S., there have been many studies that have indicated that there are significant wage discrepancies that are based on the individual's race. Economists' standard statistical procedure for detecting market-based discrimination in the employment process is to use the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, which assumes that an ethnic/racial group may receive an average wage lower than the mean for the entire population due to a combination of two factors: a general group deficiency in productivity-linked attributes that generate higher wages and/or lower returns to those characteristics (Darity, Hamilton, & Dietrick, 2010). Therefore, this assumption makes no provision for any wage-based inequalities that are directly attributable to race as a means of discrimination, but rather focuses on productivity instead.

Using this measure, it is possible to tease out many insights into the extent that minorities face wage-based discrimination in the U.S. The authors state that this approach can help economist to better understand the "By substituting the mean characteristics for a specific ethnic group of men or women into the wage equation for all men or all women in the U.S.A. in either census year, an estimate can be derived for the hypothetical wage a member of the group would have received if he/she were treated like the average male/female in the U.S.A. population. The difference between this estimated wage and the average wage actually received by all males or by all females in the given year indicates the magnitude of the group's relative advantage or disadvantage in human capital attributes (Darity, Hamilton, & Dietrick, 2010)."

Furthermore, with a known productivity variable for each of the groups, such calculations are important because they can help to provide insights into whether the discrepancies inherent in compensation are based upon some kind of cultural differences found in these minority groups that…… [read more]


Education Level and Employment Percentages Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (933 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Employment Rates and Unemployment Rates by Educational Attainment" (from The Condition of Education 2015) examines the data concerning trends in employment and unemployment surrounding the recent 2008 economic recession. The article essentially presents sets of data in graphic form, with each graph explained so as to make its essential meaning clear. Therefore the conclusions of the article are essentially conclusions of fact, not a matter of polemical argument. This is merely a presentation of data.

The first graph (Figure One) presents the employment rate by year from 2000 onward, for young adults (age 20-24) and for older adults (age 24-64). In both cases, the trend of the line can be spotted fairly readily: a substantial downward dip appears at the time of the 2008 recession, and the numbers do not rise to their pre-recession heights again. For both age groups, there looks like a slow steady decrease in the percentage of employed persons over time. In terms of the overall data being presented by the article, however, we are invited to observe that persons with a college degree or higher level of educational attainment are represented by the line on the graph that shows the least fluctuation and the highest percentage of employment. Whereas the fluctuations for those who lack a high school degree are visibly severe: just over sixty percent of high school dropouts were employed in 2000, but after the 2008 recession the percentage hovers in the low forties.

This correlation between employment and educational attainment is further confirmed by Figure Two, which presents the percentage figures for just one post-recession year, 2014. Here we can see -- for both 20- to 24-year-olds, and for 24- to 64-year-olds -- that those with a college degree are employed at a much higher rate than the overall average for the age group. In fact, being a college dropout also appears to help, as the figures for those with some college education but no degree are just slightly higher than the average. But a much lower percentage of those with less education finds employment in each age group.

Figure Three goes on to present the figure for unemployment, although the article notes that in America the figures for unemployment are derived slightly tendentiously, as they only include those who have been jobless and actively seeking employment for a month without finding anything. This of course ignores those who are still jobless and seeking employment in a fifth week onwards, and it ignores those who are not actively seeking a job, among others -- by no means does it represent a full calculation of all who are jobless. Nonetheless even within this circumscribed definition we can again spot similar trends: unemployment for those with a college degree is always the lowest compared to other educational attainment…… [read more]


Analyzing the Foreign Exchange Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Foreign Exchange

Would you rather live in a country with a strong or weak currency? What might be the implication to the citizens of each scenario?

In definition, the exchange rate is basically the price of the currency of one nation expressed in terms of the currency of another country. In other words, the exchange rate is the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another currency. A strong currency implies that when one exchanges it for another currency, you spend a considerable amount of the other currency. With regard to a nation with a strong currency, implication for the citizens is that foreign goods will be cheaper while the goods produced domestically will be more expensive. This is a benefit for the citizen in terms of being consumers and travelers. On the other hand, with respect to a nation with a weak currency, the implication for the citizens is that the domestically produced and manufactured goods become cheaper in the marketplace while goods that are produced and manufactured from foreign nations, for instance, oil, become costlier. This implies that it is beneficial and advantageous for the citizens in terms of the manufacturers. Another simple way to put it, in the short-term period, having a strong currency is good and beneficial for purchasing goods, while on the other hand, having a weak currency is good and beneficial for manufacturing and producing goods (Setzer, 2006).

The foreign exchange rate is significant for the reason that it permits the exchange of one nation's currency into the currency of another nation, thereby enabling international trade for buying of goods and services as well as the transfer of funds between nations, in addition to permitting the comparison of prices of similar goods and products in different nations. On the whole, the price variance between comparable goods defines which goods are transacted and where they are distributed or obtained. Therefore, the exchange rate is an important aspect impelling the affordability of agricultural produces and other products (Setzer, 2006).

What are the ethical considerations…… [read more]


Analyzing Economic Development in the Middle East Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,081 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Economic Development in the Middle East

According to Kuran what have been the effects of Islamic inheritance rules on economic development in the Middle East?

Islamic laws created a rich set of principles, ideologies and measures to govern the predetermined relationships, during the first few centuries followed by the rise of Islam. There were rules to maintain the joint ownership of property, to merge the resources for commercial operations. However, the traders and investors had ample flexibility in defining the assignment as well as setting profit shares. As Kuran states that "Islamic law recognized only flesh-and-blood individuals" (Kuran73), it believes in the egalitarian inheritance system, as the Qur'an includes the issue of inheritance in the most detailed and explicit manner, amongst all other economic rules mentioned (74).

Therefore, as the law says, two-third of any property is held in reserve for extended relatives of both genders, i.e. parents, children, spouses, siblings or for distant relatives too, in special cases. All authoritative powers of the individual are limited to only one-third portion of his property. This inheritance system restricted the absorption of wealth; it mired the preservation of properties or other assets, through generations. Though the property can be held by anyone entirely if he can establish an exclusive partnership or if any single heir buys out the rest, still the clear effect of this system was disintegration of property, specifically financial wealth. (74)

Nonetheless, this defragmentation of property, as per the norms of Islamic inheritance law, contributed to economic development in its own ways: firstly, it stressed on small partnerships, thereby limiting the commercial wealth; secondly, it divided the private property acquired through coexisting and successive partnerships, as if a merchant has many children from multiple wives, then defragmentation of his property would be beneficial to all; and thirdly, limitations on authoritative rights over property encouraged people to accommodate their resources within waqfs (82-83).

Kuran further emphasizes that if the Islamic inheritance law had not been so flexible and encouraging, waqf system would not have been practiced extensively, and entrusted interests, that protects the system, would have been comparatively weaker (83). Also, prior to eighteenth century, minorities had a tendency to exercise their choice of law in favour of Islamic law, as the Islamic inheritance system seemed very appealing to Jewish and Christian women because it grants mandatory shares to wives and daughters in any property. Consequently, non-Muslim families offered women a large share while dividing property to keep them from asking for an Islamic settlement (84).

2. How were Islamic inheritance rules different from those historically found in European (Western; Christian) countries?

The cities which had interest in rapid economic growth, mostly merchant-dominated, were gaining power. In contrast with the Qur'an, the Bible does not lay down any specific rules for disposition of property, therefore the West followed diverse and mixed inheritance practices, in comparison with the Middle East. As the western trust was formed much later than the Islamic waqf, and private possessions were more secure in Western… [read more]


Economics of the Sharing Economy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Sharing Economy

Last night 40,000 people rented accommodation from a service that offers 250,000 rooms in 30,000 cities in 192 countries and they chose their rooms and paid for everything online via AirBnb (The Economist, 2013). The sharing economy is one of the trends that is likely to expand quickly into many different industries. People are now able… [read more]


Basis Points for the U S Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

U.S. and French Economies

The one year rate of interest for a U.S. Treasury security is .52%. The ten-year rate of interest for the same security is 1.50% (Bloomberg, 2016). The spread between these two percentages -- which is the interest rate difference measured in basis points -- is 9,800 basis points. This fact is significant in a couple of different ways. Firstly, it indicates that the ten-year security is more valuable than the one year security is. The higher rate of interest for the former is suggestive of the fact that there is a fair amount of confidence in the U.S. economy and in the securities and bonds that it issues. Were that rate of interest lower than (or even commensurate with) the one year one, it would connote that the long-term value of such a security was dubious at best.

Instead, the higher rate of interest for the ten-year security implies a degree of confidence in both the country and its economy. Moreover, that confidence is projected over the long-term (a decade). The spread between these two rates of interest is significant because it illustrates a fairly robust economy and expectations that it will continue. Also of note is the fact that those who choose to purchase the 10-year bond should eventually see a greater return on their investment in those ten years, as opposed to those whose securities mature in a single year. 9,800 basis points is statistically significant, and even economically so, which further underpins the ideas advanced within this document about the spread between the single year and the decade long U.S. Treasury security. This fact becomes all the more pronounced when one analyzes these rates of interest and their spread with economic data from foreign countries. The sovereign debt of a country evinces a fair amount of insight into its economic prowess.

France's sovereign debt is calculated at 3.3% of…… [read more]


Analyzing the Asian Economies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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South Asian Economy

South Asia comprises of Afghanistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan, Bhutan and India. The region hosts about 600 million people who are currently undergoing a lot of socioeconomic changes. There are new forms of poverty and new forms of wealth that continue to emerge in the region. Conflicts over rights, power, social injustices and identity… [read more]


Australia Japan and Dalys Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

HeaLYs and DALYs have their strengths and weaknesses when compared to more traditional indicators like maternal or infant mortality. These indicators, called composite indicators offer information that may help researchers investigate the burden of disease of vulnerable groups that may otherwise not be assessed. "Composite indicators (such as HeaLYs and DALYs) use duration of time (years, weeks, days) to measure the loss of healthy life from disease and the gain from interventions. These metrics are evolving into important tools for assisting health-related decision making" (Merson, Black, & Mills, 2012, p. 39). Trends as they relate to disease burden offer significant clues on the success of continuous health programs, providing a more complex and multi-faceted view that can show the need for new advancement of novel interventions. However, DALYs and HeaLYs have a downside.

For example, DALYs shows the gap between the ideal scenario and existing health status or YLL + YLD = DALY. However, it does not solely take into account existing data making it an estimate of the actual statistics available. While HeaLYs helps set health priorities via identification of disadvantaged groups, it offers a simplified disaggregated approach that does not offer all the information someone might want from information gathered. By incorporating mortality and morbidity into a single number, there is no differentiation that traditional numbers yield nor does it offer a clear separation of statistics.

The countries selected where Japan and Australia. Both Japan and Australia are fairly developed countries. They both have high life expectancies and high levels of wealth. Australia has a life expectancy of 82 and Japan has a life expectancy of 84. Although Japan has a higher life expectancy, the GDP/capita is higher in Australia with $41,710 compared to Japan's $34,320. Although Australia has more wealth and a smaller population, Japan has better longevity amongst its citizens and higher life expectancies. (Gapminder World, 2016).

Japan and Australia are the selections. They were good to compare because they have fairly similar statistics and robust economies. With regards to infant/child mortality rates, Australia had 5.2 per 1,000 0- to 5-year-olds that died in 2008. Japan had 3.4 per 1,000 0- to…… [read more]


Economics of Minimum Wages and Rent Controls Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  6 pages (1,753 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Supply and Demand

The graph shows that the equilibrium point is where P=20. At this point, the supply is 40, and the demand is also 40. Demand equals zero when the price hits 30. Supply hits zero when the price is zero.

The consumers in Prescott are not well-served by the price ceiling. The problem is that the ceiling is… [read more]