Study "Film / Movies / Television" Essays 606-660

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Broadcast TV Narration the Assigned Reading Term Paper

… Broadcast TV Narration

The assigned reading says that while both television and cinema use
chronological forms of narrative, they use a different form and style to
entertain the audience. Cinema relies heavily on the chronological events,
while television's use of chronology is more of a necessity than it is a

Cinema uses chronological events to tell a story and reach a
conclusion. When the cinematic product reaches its conclusion, the story
is told and there is a resolution of some sort. In television, there are a
series of segments presented to the audience, but there is rarely a
conclusion "It therefore provides no resolution of the problematic at the
end of each episode, nor, often, even at the end of the run of a series"
(pg 241). Some comedies have a conclusion, but they also leave something
unresolved to keep the audience wondering what will happen the next week.
Dramas rarely have a conclusion for the same reason, while news shows rely
on the unresolved to the leave the audience hungering for an update on what
will happen next.

Another difference is that each cinematic event presents a new story,
the television program relies on repetition. Sometimes, when there are
sequels, cinematic programs will intertwine one story with the next, but
otherwise, it is a fresh story with a fresh set of events that must be
resolved and do get resolved. With the television program, a conflict of
some sort is introduced, and the conflict is repeated week by week
throughout the life of the program. A good…… [read more]

Special Effects Term Paper

… Jurassic Park

Special Effects, Animation and Jurassic Park

Special effects and animation techniques are not new technologies per se; according to the online source "History of Animation," Frenchman Paul Roget invented the "thamatroope," a simple disc with a string attached… [read more]

Critique on the Last of the Mohicans 1992 Term Paper

… ¶ … Last of the Mohicans

The events in the film, "The Last of the Mohicans" occur during 1757, during the French and Indian War. During these turbulent times, the British and French were battling for the North American colonies, even as the Native Americans and their way of life were being destroyed by the warring parties. Concomitantly, the Indian tribes are also fighting each other, with some more violent than others, and some more friendly towards the Europeans than others. In this context, Daniel Day-Lewis and Madeleine Stowe play the lead roles of Mohican and European General's daughter. Against the violence of burning, fighting and war, the two main characters provide a romantic sub-plot, which is left undecided and uncertain, but hopeful at the end of the film (the Last of the Mohicans).

While some critics did not receive the film well, others, such as John Nesbit, provide positive reviews. Nesbit for example admires most of the cast, and particularly the leading actors, for their acting skills. Madeleine Stowe…… [read more]

Remember the Titans Term Paper

… ¶ … Titans Analysis

Released in September 2000, the Walt Disney Picture's film Remember the Titans depicts the true story of a year of high school football glory for T.C. Williams High School in Alexandria, Virginia. However, this story is… [read more]

Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho Term Paper

… Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho

Patrick McGilligan writes in his book, Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light, that "Psycho may well be the most overly familiar motion picture in history" (McGilligan 578). There are innumerable essays, books, college courses, academic symposia, fan clubs, and Web sites devoted to extolling and analyzing this film, yet when Hitchcock first presented it to his agent and staff, he described it as a simple, low-budget American shocker (McGilligan 578).

According to McGilligan, Hitchcock loved to brag about playing the emotions of audiences as thought they were "notes of an organ," however when he read Psycho he must have recognized his own inner music flowing through him (McGilligan 579). McGilligan writes:

It was The Lodger as the Landlord of a motel; it was phantasmagoria with a scary mansion, stairwell, and dark basement; it was a Peeping Tom and a screaming

Jane; it was the world's worst bathroom nightmare, mingling nudity and blood; it was a plunging knifein the muscled grip of a man dressed, bizarrely, as his own mother. It is no exaggeration to say that Hitchcock had been waiting for Psycho - working up to it- all his life

McGilligan 579).

Psycho, with its nudity, violence, transvestism, and bathroom scenes became Hitchcock's most direct challenge to Code (McGilligan 580).

James Cavanagh was replaced by Joseph Stefano as screenwriter for Robert Bloch's novel in the summer of 1959, and Hitchcock immediately liked his ideas of how to enhance Marion's role and capture the audience, which was somewhat a problem since Hitchcock had planned to cast the name on the marquee, yet Marion dies considerably early on in the film (McGilligan 583). Hitchcock always told his writers to write bravely and let him be the one to worry about the censors, and this proved true with Stefano as well (McGilligan 583). When Stefano described how he wanted Marion to tear up a piece of paper and flush it down the toilet, Hitchcock replied, "I'm going to have to fight them on it," because as Stefano recalled, "A toilet had never been seen on-screen before, let alone flushing it" (McGilligan 583). By November the final draft was finished and photography began on November 30, 1959. In the end, the Production Code voted its approval, and the Legion of Decency issued a B - "Morally objectionable in part for all," but had stopped short of condemning it (McGilligan 597).

Bernard Herrmann's score, with its frenetically paced all-strings orchestration, its "screaming violins," has set the all-time standard in film music (McGilligan 597). Film music scholar, Royal S. Brown, notes, the main Psycho theme is "repeated so often and at such musically strong points that it seems to be not only a point of departure but a point of return as well," and went beyond any previous Hitchcock theme "in its array of jarringly dissonant chords, the bitonality of which reflects on the film's ultimate narrative theme" (McGilligan 597). Originally, Hitchcock wanted the shower scene to be silent, but after… [read more]

Killing Stanley Kubrick Term Paper

… ¶ … Killing

Stanley Kubrick was one of the most disputed film directors. He always tried to shock the audience through image and dialog. "The Killing" is made in his twenties, but Kubrick proved to be very self assured and confident all over the movie. The basic elements of this film are that of a film noir.

The story is very well written, Johnny Clay (Sterling Hayden), fresh out of prison plans a heist, but his scheme is tangled by the wife of George Peatty who is in on the plan, airport regulations and the wife's boyfriend.

The style used is that to make "The Killing" a film noir. There are heavy shadows and patterns of darkness. The frames are characterized by low key lightning, this leads to a sense of claustrophobia. The scene when Johnny Clay tells the gang about the heist and they are sitting at the table, they are lightened only by a lamp coming from the ceiling; this transmits a sense of mystery and tension. The characters move through dark interiors.

The characters are specific to film noir, gangsters who meticulously plan and fulfil the plan. They are corrupt and cynical. I think that a line which defines the entire film and of course the film noir style, is that told by Maurice to Johnny Clay: "You have my sympathy, Johnny. You have not yet learned that in this life you have to be like everyone else. The perfect mediocrity. No better, no worse. Individuality is a monster and it must be strangled in its cradle to make our friends feel comfortable. You know, I often thought that the gangster and the artist are the same in the eyes of the masses. They are admired and hero-worshiped but there is always present the underlying wish to see them destroyed at the peak of their growth." It's pessimistic and full…… [read more]

National Treasure the Liberalism Term Paper

… ¶ … National Treasure

The Liberalism in National Treasure

The movie National Treasure has a liberalism that captures the passion of the founding fathers of the United States, specifically their pursuit of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The Declaration of Independence, the symbol of American freedom and in many countries, the model of democracy and human rights, is the focus of the entire movie. This symbol of American freedom, and its liberation from being static and lifeless to being alive again is a strong undercurrent in this move. Ben Gates' many exploits during the movie ironically mirrors the same progression of events for Benjamin Franklin and his pivotal role in the writing of the Declaration of Independence.

The allegorical link of Ben Gate to Ben Franklin is made complete with the analysis of the Silence Dogood Letters a young Benjamin Franklin wrote as a joke to play on his brother. This symbolic tie-in is excellently done in both the script and the actual production by having the words of Benjamin Franklin make the Declaration of Independence come alive, and re-invigorate even the most jaded and sarcastic critics of the idea of the Declaration having any true message. This is exemplified in Ben's father eventually becoming a believer again. There are many other instances of this re-invigoration of the Declaration in the movie.

This concept of freedom being liberated by a common man, Ben Gates, anchors the film and serves as its foundation. Building on top of this premise, the film continues to define the many aspects of liberalism.

First, there is the legacy of the Knights Templar from the Middle Ages, one of the more well-known military orders that participated in the Crusades and credited with creating the first concepts of the banking, are mentioned as the initiators of the fortune. Over the centuries the Templar's fortune gets transferred to the United States, and as the nation is on the gold standard at that time, forms the basis of the collateral to begin the government. Why the film shows liberalism at this point is in its definition of the secret order of the Knights Templar being inter-related to the beginnings of the U.S. It is common knowledge that in colonial England and its colonies (including the U.S.) and France that the most influential and elite members of society belonged to these secret societies.

The fact that Ben Gates even knows about the Knights Templar being the accumulators and transferors of the fortune happens by accident centuries before. What this chain of events supports in the film is the fact that it was inevitable that the fortune would be discovered by a common man, not a member of the elite. In the eventual discovery of the treasure and the closing scene where its shared that the artifacts have been distributed among museums of the world, the cycle comes complete. Instead of having been sold for only personal gain, the treasure itself is liberated for the outside world to use… [read more]

Rear Window Term Paper

… Rear Window

Creating Suspense in "Rear Window"

Alfred Hitchcock is definitely the uncontestable king of creating suspense, but from all his movies, even from "Psycho," one stands out at this category. We are talking about the 1954 thriller, Rear Window. Throughout the movie the filmmaker toys with our head without us even noticing it. The plot is so simple, yet the suspense so well created, that at the end of the film the viewer remains in awe, and continues in this state for some time.

The whole movie is characterized by a feeling of uncertainty. At first it seems amusing, and then it becomes serious and frustrating, as the viewer, who is in some way involved in the action, feels helpless in that situation. The drive force for the film is actually the boredom and desire for action of a photographer, Jeff, who has broken his leg and has to stay in his apartment for a while. His main activity becomes spying on his neighbors from across the street from his rear window through the lens of the camera. The movie has only one main set, Jeff's apartment, and one main perspective. Instead of being a set back leading to claustrophobia, the enclosed backyard setting creates a feeling of being trapped in a box with danger lucking around outside. Hitchcock commented about the set saying that he would "box myself in and then figure a way out." This is one of the elements that create a feeling of tension to the viewer. He bears witness to the situation, but he is not omniscient, he is bound by the same apartment, and ends up feeling like he is bound by the same impossibility to move as the main character. This is empathy at its greatest.

Suspense springs from seeing reality through Jeff's perspective. It should also be mentioned that with a lot of subtlety his perception changes while the movie unravels more and more mystery. It is easily noticeable how good the character of the "watcher," the "voyeur" is build. He is a photographer, used to notice things, to observe what is out of place and to interpret visual images through his camera. Also, his personality is the one of an intruder. He has a strong character, treats the women in his life, at times, with contempt, thus his activities from when he is forced to…… [read more]

Vampyr ) Critical Review of Carl T Term Paper

… Vampyr (1932)

Critical Review of Carl T. Dreyer's Motion Picture Production, "Vampyr" (1932)

People today love to get scared, at least in a controlled fashion, and the popularity of various early horror stories and motion pictures is evidence that Americans… [read more]

Reality TV Reality Television Shows Term Paper

… Reality TV

Reality television shows are often no realer than scripted television shows. In fact, reality television shows often portray similar situations as soap operas, such as people stabbing each other in the back or bickering incessantly. However, people bickering and betraying one another does reflect reality. When placed in a competitive environment, and especially with a large sum of money at stake, most people would look out for themselves and not care about the other contestants unless caring was to their benefit. Contestants who did become sentimental would be likely to either lose or their kindness not included in the final edit of the show because conflict makes for better drama than harmony and peace.

On the other hand, reality television shows depict the worst in human nature and rarely the best. Built on a model of intensive competition, the shows encourage egotism and individualism. Even when participants work on teams, they don't demonstrate cooperation or collaboration because in the end only one person will win the big money. Therefore, betrayal is usually…… [read more]

True Story of Erin Brockovich Term Paper

… ¶ … true story of Erin Brockovich is now blurred by Julia Roberts' performance in Steven Soderbergh's 2000 film but the triumph of the single mom over huge corporate interests reveals an astounding example of human moral courage. Similarly, the story of The Bride in Quentin Tarantino's 2003 action film Kill Bill is entirely fictitious but demonstrates in exaggerated cinematographic form the value of physical courage. The word "courage" gets thrown around so much it has lost much of its impact and meaning. Therefore, film examples offer modern audiences a means through which they can perceive the perennial importance of courage on both moral and physical planes. Courage means the same thing in the moral and physical realms, too: in both cases, an individual becomes fearless. When a person is morally courageous, he or she vehemently stands up for an unpopular belief, risking ridicule and persecution. Erin Brockovich exemplifies moral courage because of her willingness to take on corporate interests many times more powerful than she. When a person is physically courageous, he or she places life and limb in direct danger. The Bride exemplifies physical courage because of her willingness to endure pain, bleeding, and other visceral forms of suffering. Courage is important to see on the big screen because courage matters in real life. In the insulated world of modern life, courage can seem relegated only to fairy tales and movies but in fact, no one would succeed without courage. Courage is what makes people change careers, apply for a job, ask an attractive person out on a date, or go on a vacation to an exotic locale. Courage is key because it is that which fuels a meaningful existence; courage distinguishes those who go through the motions from those who stand out from the crowd.

In Erin Brockovich the movie, the title character discovers that a small town is being slowly poisoned by their water supply due to the negligent practices of a local power company. Although Brockovich has hardly a penny to her name, she champions the cause of the townspeople because it is a matter of moral imperative. Erin's courage is evident in her willingness to set aside mundane, trivial matters like what she will eat for dinner and focus more firmly on universally relevant and politically-charged issues. Moreover, Erin Brockovich is courageous because she altered her ego-self in taking on the California power company. Her former self was focused solely on her own personal needs, her failed relationships and her children. In short, Brockovich's life was insular and because it was insular she was safe and secure. It took an enormous amount of courage to transcend the familiar. Erin became bigger than herself when she acted as if she were a lawyer when the only legal training she had was through working as an assistant in a law firm. Brockovich risked personal ridicule and social stigma through her direct action suit and it was because of her courage that she triumphed. Without people as… [read more]

Cinema Paradiso When I Was Child Term Paper

… Cinema Paradiso

When I was child, I saw the world through my father's eyes and the lens of his camera. It was as if I were watching a movie, yet acting in the movie at the same time. I traveled the world, hopping from one country to the next, and protected under my parents' loving wings. At the age of 15, our global spin ended. Soon I would leave the nest and be on my own.

Perhaps memories of these fledgling years arose and stirred me when watching Cinema Paradiso. Rarely has a film touched me as this one directed by Giuseppe Tornatore. Why should I be surprised? This movie in so many ways reflects my own life. The relationship -- friend, mentor, father -- between Salvatore (ToTo) and Alfred resembles that between my father and me. Salvatore sees the films and life, itself, through his own eyes and also through those of Alfredo.

Throughout Cinema Paradiso, Alfred nurtures Salvatore's love for moving pictures. He plants a seed that grows first into a young boy who becomes a projectionist, then a struggling filmmaker, and finally a successful director.

More important, Alfredo prepares Salvatore to go out into the world to discover and experience life for himself. Yes, pain will come. So will joy. As in the movies, life does not always proceed as planned. Many times, the script changes midstream, and the scene becomes unexpected. To be an artist, it is necessary to bare one's heart and soul and feel all the possible human emotions.

When the whirlwind stopped and we came down in Manhattan, my parents prepared me to meet the world on my own. They enrolled me in a school that provided the final grooming for my future career in film. Instead of getting my foundation in cinematography by watching scores of movies as Salvatore, I became a novice videographer and took college preparatory courses in photography and film.

One of the most poignant scenes of Cinema Paradiso occurs when Alfredo makes Salvatore promise to leave the town and make a life for himself elsewhere:

Living here day by day, you think it's the center of the world. You believe nothing will ever change. Then you leave: a year, two years.…… [read more]

American History Since 1877 Term Paper

… American History since 1877

Until the advent of commercial television in the United States in the early 1950s, political campaigns in this country depended on newspapers, magazines and radio shows to reach the American people, and town hall meetings were… [read more]

Television, the Plug-In Drug: Negative Term Paper

… 325). Instead, Winn offers up the poignant recollections of one young woman, whose childhood joy during Christmas, replete with visits from many aunts, uncles, and cousins, all talking together; opening gifts, and playing games, abruptly ended one year, never to return, when the option of watching a holiday football game on TV presented itself one Christmas.

Winn observes that "Families frequently use television to avoid confronting their problems" ("The Plug-In Drug, p. 330). TV watching, since it inherently discourages conversation, provides a convenient, reliable excuse for families to avoid discussing problems; conflicts; frustrations; disagreements; anger; disappointment, or any other typical (and typically human) feelings that occur in families, and that (when addressed) help them grow and bond. Instead, a family that watches TV instead of sharing joy; sorrow; triumph; and disappointment together forfeits chances to grow closer and stronger as a unit. That, combined with today's dearth of extended families; community ties, and other traditional support networks, further undermines family unity; devalues real-life experience; and contributes to human isolation and alienation.

It is true that not all effects of TV, on all viewers, are, or need be, negative. For example, watching television (in moderation) after a hard day at work or a tough high school science test can be restorative before next facing the world again. Documentary programs on the History channel; the Discovery channel, and PBS are often informative and educational, as well as interesting. The children's program Sesame Street has taught whole generations about the alphabet; the basics of good nutrition; the importance of sharing possessions, etc. Even TV game shows like Jeopardy are educational and mentally stimulating. Television, when viewed recreationally and in moderation, is therefore harmless and arguably even constructive.

The harm of watching television, as Winn points out in "The Plug-In Drug, occurs when TV is viewed excessively; in ways that isolate individuals and family members; or in lieu of communication; bonding, and actual experience. It is then that we, as individuals; family members; community members, and members of society, must agree to…… [read more]

Formalism the Subject of Films Term Paper

… Alfred Hitchcock is a probable name and he made mainly thrillers and those were like by viewers, but not considered by critics as good films. Of his films, only Rebecca won the Best Picture award at the Academy awards. On the other hand, formalists like Truffaut and others said that Hitchcock also had a distinct style and this could be clearly seen. These were in his editing, the camera movements and the droll humor. Even the themes of his films were different with wrong men being accuse, sudden eruptions of violence on the screen and some cool characters. The appreciation of Hitchcock has increased over the years and now all his films are dissected and he is acclaimed as a master. There are now studies of his style, variations and obsessions which are all clearly part of the formalist film theory. (Formalist film theory)

Let us look at one of his earlier films, Rope and that was made in 1948. The beauty of the movie is that under the direction of Hitchcock, "Rope" appears like one continuous scene, or in terms of film industry, "take." The budget was low, and Hitchcock could not break up the film in cuts and thus he built up ten-minute takes where there was continuous action during all the ten minutes. This forced him to plan out the cuts as a way to hide where they had to be there. Having a movie without any cuts, the question comes whether this makes the movie realistic or formalistic. The speed that it gives to the movie makes the audience more interested in it and this created additional suspense among them. The efforts at creation of suspense certainly are a formalistic attitude and thus the effects of Hitchcock on the movie are clear. The cuts were also hidden through the use of fading in and fading out of the characters and this makes it more of a formalistic movie. (Hitchcock) Thus when the effects of the director add to the values of the film, the efforts of the directors are certainly formalistic.


True formalistic films are considered to be avant-garde and the film ultimately leaves the audience wondering where the camera was and finally leaves them thinking. This is what creates interest in the ideology of the movie.


Baker, Elizabeth. 2003. Hitchcock. Retrieved from Accessed 14 August, 2005

Film Reviews: Great Expectations. Retrieved from Accessed 14 August, 2005

Formalist film theory. Retrieved from Accessed 14 August, 2005

Spotlight of the Month: The Night of the Hunter. Retrieved from,,99305%7C911%7C29975,00.html Accessed 14 August, 2005

The Night of the Hunter. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Accessed 14 August, 2005… [read more]

Public Sphere and the Culture Term Paper

… Yet the documentary on Vietnam directed by Peter Davis "Hearts and Minds" was an Academy Award-winning work (a commodity-generated award ceremony that is a product of modern Hollywood and fuels the media machines of money that fuels Hollywood) that confronted rather than endorsed the United States' involvement in Vietnam. The film was designed to make the viewer uncomfortable rather than comfortable in his or her sense of being an American.

Rather than manufactured sources of media production, Davis deployed real life interviews and newsreels to create a montage of documentary footage that presented an anti-heroic portrait of the conflict. The documentary used real life rather than false life to suggest to audiences watching the film from home that the American ideals of freedom were bankrupt. The title of the film came from a quote from Lyndon Johnson, designed for media propaganda but ironically deployed in the film: "The ultimate victory will depend on the hearts and minds of the people who actually live out there." The President's statement gives the film its title also parodies war rhetoric in general.

However, Adorno might protest that by 1974, such a strident anti-Vietnam voice, even as eloquently expressed by the film maker Davis did little good to fundamentally alter the social reality of American political life and society, much less that of the Vietnamese people. True, the documentary might not exist as a manufactured product in the sense that a John Wayne film manufactures older cinematic tropes and spackles them onto a non-reality. And true, the awards won by the film might be self-congratulatory but do not detract from the quality of the film. However, it is equally true that the constructs of the war depicted came too little, too late to fundamentally change society -- the war had already been fought, lost, and challenged, but not by the popular culture of the day until after the fact, after it had already become unpopular.

Works Cited

Adorno, Theodore. "The Culture Industry Reconsidered" In Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.

Habermas, P. "The Public Sphere." In Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.

"Hearts and Minds." Directed by Peter…… [read more]

Graduate (Mike Nichols, 1967) Centers Term Paper

… He is easily seduced by Mrs. Robinson because he wants to be, not only for the sex but for the way it gives a momentary direction to his life. She takes the place of his parents -- is indeed their age and stands as a surrogate mother in this sense -- and guides him into this aspect of the adult world as his parents are trying to do with the business and society world. Benjamin is malleable in either world, though he does not really take to the program in either case. Mrs. Robinson becomes more a habit than a conviction, and his love for Elaine is the first feeling he has that he can truly call his own.

The imagery surrounding Benjamin includes not only imprisonment but water -- he is literally seen as a young man drowning, drowning in the possessions heaped upon him by his parents, drowning in the attentions of Mrs. Robinson, drowning in the choices he should make but does not. Water is a repeated motif in the film. Benjamin is seen in a diving suit standing at the bottom of the pool -- here, he is visually drowning in the water but is also escaping from the real drowning taking place above at the party. Eventually, he has to emerge and take his place among the guests, who surround him and drown him with questions and false empathy. Water is seen again and again in the aquarium, a visual symbol of his drowning as we see him through the glass and the water. It is significant that when Mrs. Robinson wants him to drive her home, she cruelly throws the car keys into the aquarium so he has to fish them out, getting his sleeve wet. Her cruelty is itself a subversive element -- she seduces this young man with that cruelty, taking control from the first and enfolding him. Rather than throwing a drowning man a life jacket, she is throwing her arms around him and dragging him down further.

Nichols uses visual images to subvert family relationships, sexual expectations, and audience expectations. A key shot cited by Schuth takes place when Benjamin is sent by Mrs. Robinson to get her purse and to take it to Elaine's room:

What follows is one of those remarkable shots that has strong connotative as well as denotative meaning. Benjamin is looking at Elaine's portrait. The portrait is covered by glass. The camera is on the portrait when, in the reflection in the glass, the bedroom door opens and Mrs. Robinson enters in the nude. As she opens the door, her image blots out Elaine's face (Schuth 49).

Schuth says that on the denotative, or sign, level, Mrs. Robinson has entered the room, while on the connotative, or symbolic, level, she has blotted Elaine out of Benjamin's mind. The viewer shares in the experience with Benjamin, and the editor uses the turn of Benjamin's head three times to emphasize the shock of the moment:

Nichols purposely… [read more]

Burden of Dreams in 1979 Term Paper

… Herzog could have made some concessions, by acknowledging that moving the mega-ton ship over a mountain was simply a preposterous feat. Instead of admitting defeat and losing face, Herzog elected to postpone production until the ship could be moved. It was almost as if Herzog cared more about training the wills of his cast and crew than he did about making a movie. Herzog's burden of dreams caused some of his original cast: Jason Robards and Mick Jagger, to leave the set due to illness and impatience, forcing Herzog to find replacement actors. Moreover, Herzog's dream burdened most those who lost their lives or who were physically injured during production. Throughout the entire course of the film's production, Herzog was besieged with delays that caused his cast and crew to work well beyond what they had originally signed up for. When the crew finally began moving the ship over the mountain, at least one person died. Herzog persisted in the task even though a Brazilian engineer resigned, telling Herzog that what he wanted to do was impossible. Herzog's ambition to parallel the exact moves of Fitzcarraldo was self-centered; few people cared about the accomplishment as much as he did.

In one poignant moment in Burden of Dreams, Herzog states that he wanted the Indians on the crew to live in separate camps from the white European crew. He asserts that he did so out of respect for their mutual cultures. However, Herzog essentially promoted segregation on his set. Early in the documentary, Herzog affectionately calls the indigenous people "lions," implying that they are more animalistic than he is. Later in the documentary, Herzog launches into dark commentary about the jungle, noting that it is "unfinished," and it represents a "curse," and that it is filled with "vileness, baseness, and obscenity," as well as "overwhelming misery."

Herzog freely admits that his dreams became serious burdens. "One starts to question the profession itself," Herzog stated, referring to the profession of filmmaking. "I shouldn't make movies anymore. I should go to a lunatic asylum." Herzog's self-awareness pierces through his otherwise egotistical nature, and his self-acknowledged aggrandizement proves that he truly does resent the colonial mentality. Thus, in most ways, Burden of Dreams is an ironic production. Herzog is a product of his time and his culture. He was not at fault for conquering the indigenous peoples of South America, and it is not his fault that most of the rainforests are being cut down. Herzog also treats the native peoples with respect and admiration and he also reveres their environment in spite of his harsh words about the jungles. Herzog set out to produce a film about a rubber baron who clearly had less respect for the native peoples or the environment than he did, but Herzog nevertheless follows in Fitzcarraldo's footsteps.

Les Blank clearly admires Werner Herzog, precisely because of his burden of dreams. To achieve the impossible, to conquer fear and failure: Blank captures the essence of Herzog's unwavering spirit. Indeed,… [read more]

Roman Culture Spartacus the 1960 Term Paper

… Women even fought in the army. Varinia, for example, says that "my master had me tutored..." And indicates that she had been a teacher to his children. Spartacus, at one point says there are "too many women" come to join his army, and eventually consents to let them stay if they will fight. Historically, however, it appears that less than one quarter of the slaves (and possibly as few as 12%) were female. Men often performed female roles (something hinted at in the oysters or snails... dialog). John Madden records that "in general, whenever slaves were bought, males outnumbered females, and that this was the pattern also for the total slave body of the Empire..." And speaks of male hairdressers, cooks, and kitchen workers. Other minor inconsistencies no doubt exist as well, such as the focus on illiteracy being synonymous with slavery through-out the film. Disallowing slaves to be educated was true in America, but slaves in Rome were as likely to be literate as were free people. (Antoninus is an example of that truth) Of course, in many other ways the portrayal of slaves is accurate for the era. For example, the fact that many slaves were freed and joined the ranks of Roman citizens is hinted at in the movie.

Perhaps because the causes of slavery are so simplified here, the motivations and idealism of the slave army is also simplified and even fictionalized -- the army is made both more ideological and more incompetent than it really was. In this movie, all the slaves want is to escape Rome and return home. This is clearly stated by Spartacus when he says "all we want is to get out of this damn country" and reiterated by Glabrus to the Senate. The film shows the army mustering and then marching straight through to the ocean, presumably in less than seven months (as Spartacus tells the Silesians to be ready in that amount of time and is expecting them), with the intent of sailing to freedom. However, the reality is more complicated. Historically, Spartacus marched North to the Alps (something that in the movie he says is impossible because each pass is defended by a legion), defeating several legions along the way. Then, inexplicably, the Gaulish/German slaves inform him that they don't want to go home across the Alps. The army turned around and did another tour through Rome before eventually being caught in the toe of the peninsula and betrayed by pirates who had promised to take them to Sicily. Kubrick himself complained that the film was entirely ahistorical here, but was not allowed by the screenwriter or producer to change it. Kubrick reported that the movie had "a pretty dumb script ... History tells us that he twice led his victorious slave army to the northern borders of Italy, and could quite easily have gotten out of the country. But he didn't... The most interesting question the film might have pondered...[were] Did the intentions of the rebellion change?… [read more]

Shorty Directed by Barry Sonnenfeld Term Paper

… This film is loaded with clues from the very first. When Bones steals Chili's coat it shows that Chili will always have the upper hand over Bones, and that is the first clue that the final outcome has to include these two characters. As the film progresses and the crimes get more convoluted, there are many other clues, from Bo wanting in on the action, to finding Lou and his money, Chili getting into the movie business, Zimm getting beaten up and moved quietly to the sidelines, and Bones showing up in Hollywood. The film is full of clues and watching it once is not enough to see them all. However, throughout the film Chili shows that he is one step ahead of everyone else, and that is one of the biggest clues that he will win out in the end, and the "villain" Bones will end up being the fall guy.

There is only one motive in this film, and it is the motive of greed or money. All the characters are after money in one form or another -- money that has been stolen from them, money they think is rightfully theirs, and money they need to succeed in Hollywood. Money is the ultimate motive, and the thing that gets so many people killed in this film. The ulterior motive is for Chili to succeed in Hollywood and become a producer, leaving the mob lifestyle behind but entering one that is not really that much different.

The opportunity in this film is the opportunity that presents itself to Lou (the plane crash that gives him $300,000), and the opportunity for Chili to break away from the mob lifestyle. The other opportunity is the money at the airport, which ultimately allows Chili to set up Bones and break free. The things that lead to these opportunities are all the other characters that are continually chasing the money, from Bo to the drug lord. They all create opportunities for Chili to succeed.

The real sleuth in this story is Chili, who figures things out just ahead of everyone else. He is the "glue" that holds the mystery together, but he is also the one who ultimately "solves" the mystery by setting up Bones. With Bones and the drug lord out of the way, the rest of the characters can go about paying each other back (with each other's money, which is too funny), and then make the movie that will supposedly make them rich and give them more credibility in Hollywood. The solution of the mystery is really Chili's success in Hollywood by a very roundabout and convoluted way.

In conclusion, all of the elements that make up a good mystery or detective story are present in "Get Shorty." It is a funny story, and if the viewer does not really think about it, it just might be an amusing tale with decent acting and a storyline that keeps the viewer always guessing. However, it is really a modern detective… [read more]

And the Brilliance of John Term Paper

… John Dunbar) must face life essentially alone, making difficult decisions and risking misunderstanding, ostracism, or both, as well as his own life on numerous occasions, in order to remain true to himself, his principles, and his value system. Dances with… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Two Films Term Paper

… ¶ … 1989 was a time "when the American quest for colorblindness sought in the seventies and eighties became a search for multiculturalism. The decades' symbols turned from 1987's July 4th cover of Time bravely announcing 'We the People' to… [read more]

Films Term Paper

… In the end, it doesn't really matter whether the stories are true. What matters are the lessons they teach us.


Berardinelli, James. "The Green Mile." 1999. May 2, 2005 .

Berardinelli, James. "The Hurricane." 1999. May 2, 2005>.

Berardinelli, James. "The Shawshank Redemption." 1994. May 2, 2005 .

Ebert, Roger. "The Green Mile." December 10, 1999. May 2, 2005 .

Ebert, Roger. "The Hurricane." January 7, 2000. May 2, 2005 .

Ebert, Roger. "The Shawshank Redemption." September 23, 1994. May 2, 2005 .

Green, Susan. "The Hurricane." 1999. May2, 2005 .

The Green Mile. Dir. Frank Darabont. Perf. Tom Hanks, David Morse, Bonnie Hunt, Michael Clarke Duncan. Warner, 1999.

The Hurricane. Dir. Norman Jewison. Perf. Denzel Washington, Vicellous Reon Shannon, Deborah Kara Unger, Liev Schreiber. Universal Studios, 2000.

King, Stephen. The Green Mile. New York: Pocket Books, 1999.

Reisinger, Sue. "Ex-reporter Rains on Denzel's Parade." Miami Herald. April 3, 2000. May 3, 2005 <>.

The Shawshank Redemption. Dir. Frank Darabont. Perf. Tim Robbins, Morgan Freeman, Bob Gunton and William Sadler. Castle Rock, 1994.

Travers, Peter. "The Shawshank Redemption." 1994. May 2, 2005 .

Williamson, Kim. "The Hurricane." 1999. May2, 2005 .… [read more]

Mental Retardation in Forrest Gump Term Paper

… 5. How accurate do you think the portrayal of the disability was?

I think the portrayal of the disability was well acted, but still mostly inaccurate. I feel that the movie Forrest Gump is a highly entertaining, uplifting film that portrays just how well a mentally retarded person can do in life, with a combination of the right attitude and all the right breaks. Still, that it is not terribly accurate in terms of portraying the real challenges and obstacles typically faced by mentally retarded people. The film shows Forrest basically turning all of his mental (and other) deficiencies into strengths, which just does not happen in real life. For example, the article mentions difficulty with language development for mentally retarded people. Forrest certainly has this, as can be seen with his limited vocabulary, but his signature metaphor "life is like a box of chocolates, you pick one out and you never know what you will get," while true, seems way too sophisticated, in a cognitive sense, for a mentally retarded person, even a person with limited mental retardation, to have actually made up.

6. Give your impression of how public opinion might be impacted by this movie.

I believe public opinion might be positively impacted, in favor of the mentally retarded, by the film, but in a strictly fictional, non-lasting way. In other words, the movie causes good feelings about the character Forrest Gump in particular, but not about mentally retarded people in general. Forrest Gump, unlike Radio, is too far-fetched as to be believable, or to really change anyone's attitudes about mentally retarded people in a permanent or meaningful way

7. Would you recommend this movie to others? Why or why not?

I would recommend the movie Forrest Gump to others for its entertainment value, its sweet message, and due to the powerful acting performance of Tom Hanks as Forrest, but not as a social commentary on what can really accomplished by mentally retarded people if given the chance. It did have a positive and encouraging message: that a mentally retarded person like Forrest can make something positive out of life and even find true love in the end. Still, there were too many ironies and coincidences in the film to make it (unlike Radio) anything more than an entertaining movie, rather than a really affirmation of the capabilities…… [read more]

Suffering for Our Cinematic Sins Term Paper

… At the end of "The Green Mile," Coffee is actually asked to forgive the prison guards, including Hanks for Edgecomb's role in sending an unjust man to the electric chair. The Christ/Uncle Tom myth carries on to the film's end, treating the man Coffey like a vehicle of spirituality and narrative plot, rather than a three-dimensional figure.

Perhaps the most perplexing thing about "The Green Mile" is why it was so well received by critics and audiences at the time, garnering several academy awards and making a modest profit for its studio. It grossed $136,801,374 by May 14, 2000, after costing $60,000,000 to make and market, according to the Internet Movie Database. (IMD) The film's marketing as an anti-death penalty film, which it is, may have muted the cry of liberal minded viewers, while its spirituality made it a 'hit' amongst conservative Christians. The reputation of Stephen King, on whose novel the film is based upon was key in marketing the film upon its official website. King's fiction has given birth to a number of popular horror fiction, such as "Carrie" and "Cujo" on the silver screen, as has his more serious works such as the short story "The Body" which was transformed into "Stand by Me." One reviewer noted, however, "Other writers have influences; King has nothing but influences," citing John Stienbeck's Of Mice and Men as one of the film's dominant influences. But this comparison does little justice to the true offense of the film's religious theme -- the gentle giant is not merely a gentle white giant like but a black man who physically becomes a vehicle of salvation for those who oppress him, and unlike the director's previous film, this salvation comes with no added knowledge about his condition to the sufferer, nor at any real moral cost to those individuals inflicting the suffering.

Works cited

Edlestein, David. "The Green Mile." Film Review. Slate. 1999.

"The Green Mile." 1999. Directed by Frank Darabount. Business data available from the IMBD at

"The Shawshank Redemption." 1994. Directed by Frank Darabount.

Stowe, Harried Beecher. Uncle Tom's Cabin. 1892. Available in full text at The University of Wisconsin at

"To Kill a Mockingbird." 1962. Directed by Robert Mulligan.… [read more]

Iranian Cinema After the Revolution Term Paper

… Some box-office hits of period from late 1980s to 1994 include: Makhmalbaf's Arusi-ye Khuban ('Marriage of the blessed', 1988) and Nasereddin Shah, aktor-e sinema ('Once upon a time cinema', 1992), Sa'id Ebrahimian's Nar O. Nay ('Pomegranate and the reed', 1988), Mas'ud Jafari Jozani's Dar cheshm-e tond-e bad ('In the wind's eye', 1988), Kimia'i's Dandan-e mar ('Snake's fang', 1990), Mehrju'i's Madreseh-e keh miraftim ('School we went to', 1989) and Hamoun ( 1990), Kiarostami's Mashq-e shah ('Homework', 1988), Close-up ( 1990), and Zendegi va digar hich (And life goes on', 1992), and Baiza'i's Mosaferan ('Travelers', 1992).

This was a period of revolution in the Iranian cinema. Women began to experience more freedom and interaction rules were largely relaxed. Women and men could now engage in proper conversation and direct gaze was no longer prohibited. Many women also took up the job of direction which resulted in some great movies by them including Rakhshan Bani'etemad's Kharej AZ mahdudeh ('Off limits', 1987) and Nargess'(1992), Puran Derakh shandeh's Parandeh-ye kuchak-e khoshbakhti ('The little bird of happiness', 1989), and Tahmineh Milani's Tazeh cheh khabar? ('What's new?' 1992).

Censorship was still a problem since it had not yet been completed reversed. Each film had to go through four stages of approval. Islamic clerics still help an important place in cinema regulations and Islamic laws were to be observed during production. Cinema also experienced some serious changes in infrastructure. Financial, technical and production areas were improved but there were many other sectors which were still in dire need of rebirth. The theaters which were burned during the 1979 uprising were never restored. By 1993, number of theatres was very low compared to the number of people willing to enter them. There was one theatre for every 209,000 people. The sound equipment, seating arrangement, technical expertise were all inferior compared to real cinema experience in western countries. But the country did not have required funds to restore or upgrade the theaters primarily because of various sanctions against Iran that resulted in a fractured economy.


1. Akrami J. ( 1987). "Persian cinema and politics in Iran." In J. DH Downing (Ed.), Film and politics in the Third World . New York: Praeger.

2. Akrami J. (1990). "Feature film…… [read more]

Cyrano De Bergerac vs. Roxanne Term Paper

… Cyrano v. Roxanne

Cyrano and Charlie -- Roxanne in the 20th century

Both the play "Cyrano de Bergerac" by Edmond Rostand and the movie "Roxanne" starring Steve Martin tell the tale of a witty man with an enormous nose who loves but fears to woo a beautiful woman. The 1897 play has retained its popularity even into the modern era, where Internet sites abound such as "The Cyrano de Bergerac Fan Site," in loving tribute to the thwarted poet and fighter. However, while Rostand's 19th century French play is essentially tragic in its architecture, albeit with many comic touches and funny lines, the 1987 America film starring Steve Martin offers a modern retelling that is much gentler and funnier in its construction. This shift in tone arises largely because of the increasingly intimate connections between the sexes in modern life -- an intimacy that exists on both a friendly as well as a sensual level.

In contrast to the play, the film "Roxanne" suggests that the most overwhelming obstacle that the large-nosed hero faces is not his face, but his own, internal self-consciousness. The original presents the hero's nose as a much greater obstacle (if not necessarily as great a facial protuberance) and suggests that true love in the absence of beauty can only be enjoyed upon the brink of death. Thus, the ending of the movie is the most fundamental shift in plot from the original play, and in examining this ending the difference of the tone of the movie throughout becomes clear. In the original play, Roxane's beloved Christian dies while he is fighting in a battle. The woman lives on, in a nunnery, forever mourning her idealized dead lover, almost as if it were her holy obligation to do so. She lives until Cyrano reveals to her upon his own deathbed that it was he who penned all of the letters she read over and over, for many years, thinking they were from Christian.

Roxane realizes that she has not been mourning the loss of a dead man, but mourning a good man who visited her every day -- until now. "How can you read now? it's dark. And for fourteen years you played the part of an old friend who came to be amusing!" (Rostand, Act V) Roxane observers that she has lost her own true love, twice, first in the form of Christian, now again, as Cyrano dies mortally wounded before her feet.

Roxane believed she had overcome physical assumptions, but she was wrong. In Act IV she made the admission to Christian that "Your handsomeness was what first attracted me, but now that my eyes are open I no longer see it!" Her eyes and mind are not truly opened until the end of her true beloved's last day on earth. The comedic film "Roxanne," does not require the woman to wait so long. Once the Cyrano character gains enough courage to 'come out' about his to Roxanne, the two are happily united. In… [read more]

Producers Are Your Inspirations Term Paper

… In the creation of new projects is where I, as a producer, would have the most impact. By seeing my pet projects through from beginning to end, I would have the opportunity to make my creative visions become realities.

Eventually, when I make a name for myself as a producer, I can broker a deal with a studio to create my own production company. Ideally, this company would be initially located on the lot of a major studio, and I would oversee a small staff of development executives and assistants to help me with my film projects.

Why do you think you have what it takes to be a producer?

I would be a successful and innovative film producer for a number of reasons. First, I have an extensive knowledge of film history and modern trends in film.. It's important to know where film has been and where it's going in order to make films that not only appeal to audiences but also have something interesting and insightful to say. Film is an important medium because it has so much power. We are entertained when we go to the movies, but a smart producer also understands that films have the power to influence thought and change lives. I hope to make movies that do all of these things and more, and the first step is to understand what has been done before in film.

I also have a definitive creative vision about the types of movies I would like to see made. I think there is too much tendency to take the easy road in filmmaking by creating by-the-numbers films designed to attract large crowds. While there's nothing wrong with blockbusters. sometimes producers must take risks in order to bring their creative vision to light. I hope to take those risks and make films that are both unusual and appealing to audiences.

A good producer also has a well-developed sense of what little things can make or break a film. This attention to detail is key in a producer, and I am completely tuned in to the details. Something as small as a costuming choice or a bit of dialogue can change the tone of a film, and it is the producers job to recognize this and surround himself with a production crew that shares his vision. I know that success is in the details, and this is one of the qualities that make me certain I have what it takes to be a producer.

Finally, I am dedicated to making it as a producer and I have the assertive nature and the ambition to make it happen. By no means will the road be easy, but I recognize this and I am prepared to…… [read more]

Perceptions of Male and Female Viewers Term Paper

… Perceptions of Male and Female Viewers Regarding Women's Violence in Kill Bill, Vol. 1 by Quentin Tarantino

The purpose of this study is to determine the extent, if any, to which male and female viewers perceive the violence of women… [read more]

Obedience to Authority Gladiator Term Paper

… It is very difficult for human beings to disobey authority. Consider that we are conditioned from birth to obey our parents and our parental authority figures. But Maximus was a person that met Fromm's definition. He was and did walk alone and in a sense sin because he went against the status quo.

These rules of authority and social order are actually tools we humans have used to evolve with. As Fromm points out, during most of human history obedience has been identified with virtue and disobedience with sin. But I believe that Darwin would take this to the next level. It is not that we historically have believed in obedience, I believe we are driven by our very core and DNA to live it. If I drive through a red light to be disobedient for example I could very easily die and therefore not procreate my humanness. It is not in my best interest to tell a police officer to kiss off for the very same reason. It was not in the best interest of the Russian peasantry to tell their neighbor that Stalin was a mad man. In the movie, the act of not shaking the new king's hand got Maximus' entire family killed. The majority of the world's population is not prepared to buck authority when the price is this steep.


In conclusion, social order is a need we humans have and that leads us as a species to be more obedient to authority. Obedience is in our best interests in the majority of life settings and evolution has provided compliance as a tool to overcome many adverse situations. For those individuals who are prepared to be disobedient, they have mad a series of decisions that go against the status quo of human nature and often they will pay a price. Consider the likes of the many great men and women who have been ostracized such as Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King, Jesus and his disciples and of course, in the movie Gladiator, Roman general Maximus. When I dutiful stopped at that red light and did not complain about the fact that there was a camera present, I made a decision to accept authority and therefore to be obedient. The entertaining DreamWorks film "Gladiator" showed what bucking authority can get you. This essay attempted to examine my position that man as a species must have social order and that order requires certain levels of obedience to authority. This work incorporated some references from Erich Fromm, Crispin Sartwell and Theodore Dalrymple in the Obedience to Authority chapter of "Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum" to serve as a basis for my argument in regard to my views on obedience to authority.

Works Cited

Fromm, Erich, Crispin Sartwell and Theodore Dalrymple. (Add Year) Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. 9th ed. Add City: Add Publisher.

Scott,…… [read more]

Billion Dollar Bet Term Paper

… ¶ … Billion Dollar BET

Brett Pulley is a Senior Editor at Forbes magazine and has written the book titled The Billion Dollar BET: Robert Johnson and the Inside Story of Black Entertainment Television. The Billion Dollar BET is an unauthorized biography of the founder of Black Entertainment Television, Robert Louis Johnson. The author traces the blazing path of Robert Johnson through social and economic barriers with his charm and intelligence to firmly ensconce himself into the politics of Washington and the media business. This rag to riches story should have been inspiring, but then the author has painted the methods employed by Robert Johnson as anything but noble. The sale of Black Entertainment Television to Viacom in 1999 made Robert Johnson a billionaire and many consider him the first black billionaire. (Editorial Review: The Billion Dollar BET: Robert Johnson and the Inside Story of Black Entertainment Television)

Becoming a billionaire was what Robert Johnson set his eyes on. Brett Pulley portrays his biography of Robert Johnson and the Black Entertainment story on the basis of the research he conducted and the interviews he had with most of Robert Johnson's colleagues at Black Entertainment Television. The portrayal is quite pointed in the dubious methods used by Robert Johnson both in the terms of the growth of Black Entertainment Television and his own rise. From the refusal to acknowledge and compensate the man who gave him the business plan and the many who helped him in his rise as well as the growth of Black Entertainment Television, to his shedding of associates, friends and even family members, who were no longer useful, this book paints Robert Johnson in a new light and that too in quite a cynical way. (Editorial Review: The Billion Dollar BET: Robert Johnson and the Inside Story of Black Entertainment Television)

The book has raised controversies as there are many people who have strong feelings towards Robert Johnson and Black Entertainment Television. In addition is the fact that the book was written without the cooperation of Robert Johnson and based on his research and interviews. This reason along with the strong passions for Robert Johnson, black America's most successful media mogul, among many of his followers and well wishers has caused a lot skepticism and controversy about the book. (Writing About BETs Bob Johnson)

In the book Brett Pulley tells us that it was during his work with the National Urban League and press secretary for Congressman Walter Fauntroy in the early 1970s that the idea of cable station to provide for black leaders to educate the people, by the use of satellite, countrywide was formed. In 1976 Johnson became the vice president of the National Cable Television Association and made his presence felt in the lobbying for pay television. The transformation from a socially minded young man to capitalist with the goal of making money took place now. Johnson realized that there was a huge neglected black audience market that was not being tapped by the… [read more]

Place in the Sun Term Paper

… ¶ … Sun directed by George Stevens [...] George's character development in the film. A Place in the Sun is the story of George Eastman, a lower class man with high ideals. He wants to be rich and successful, and the film follows his rise and eventual fall from what he aspires to. How much does George change throughout the film? Outwardly, George changes tremendously during the film, because he goes from "rags to riches" and learns how the upper classes live. He becomes one of them. However, inside, George does not change much at all. He is selfish and self-serving, lonely, and determined to better himself throughout the film, and he allows his heart to rule over his head and common sense. In the end, he is still lonely and alone, but wiser, because he does recognize his own part in his destiny.

In the beginning of the film, George is essentially nobody. Standing by the side of the road hitchhiking, no one pays attention to him, least of all the rich socialite who passes him by. He is clearly undereducated and from the working class, and he desperately wants to better himself. He is uncomfortable in social situations and with his rich uncle's family, who sneer at him behind his back. His aunt says, "But what are we going to do about him socially?" (A Place in the Sun). That is the main theme of the film, because George is poor and working class, he can never fit in socially with his "betters." In the beginning, George sees himself only as a plant worker, but aspires to something more. He tells Alice, "That's silly. I'm in the same boat as the rest of you" (A Place in the Sun). He actually has much more in common with the lowly Alice, and might make a decent life with her, but he wants more, and cannot be happy with a factory worker when he might have a chance at a socialite. He hungers for approval from his uncle and his mother, but he does not use his head. First, he gets involved with a woman he is not supposed to be dating, and lets his emotions take control when he sleeps with her. He is lonely and not in love, but he does not use his head, he lets his emotions rule, and it gets him in trouble throughout the film.

As George begins to socialize with the Eastmans, he becomes surer of himself, and when he is promoted this also helps him feel better about himself. He begins to leave Alice and her world behind, but he is not adult enough to tell her. This is another way George does not change throughout the film. He wants to be successful and make a good life for himself, but he is not adult enough to cope with the many changes in his life. He takes up with Alice by chance, even when he knows it is forbidden. He cannot say… [read more]

Ansoff's Matrix and the Boston Term Paper

… Ansoff's Matrix And The Boston Matrix

Ansoff's Matrix

Market Penetration: There are several products in Sony's portfolio that could be included in the market penetration segment, that is, products that already exist in the company's portfolio and are marketed to existing customers. Among them, digital cameras and flat-panel TVs are "remaining strong and boosting revenues," which means that they were still used as a cash cow by the company in 2004.

Market Development: We should include in this category products such as DVD recorders, digital still cameras and network electronics devices. For many of these products, Sony has a long history of excellence, but the global economy of the 21st century and the new challenges it brings about implies discovering new markets for these products.

Product Development: The LCD flat-screen TV is the most representative product from this category. Indeed, as we have seen from the articles, the demand is growing and Sony has developed a partnership with Samsung in order to further develop its range of LCD flat-screen TVs. Additionally, the low-priced electronics may also be fit in this category, not necessarily as a new product, but as a new way of producing, for which the third country markets are excellent demand providers.

4.…… [read more]

Jennifer Aniston 'When Somebody Term Paper

… With Friends off the air and in reruns, Jennifer Aniston will probably need to make more a mark on the silver screen. Rarely do television shows as long-running and loved as Friends lead to continued television fame: one need only remember Seinfeld and its cast to know that none of them have found roles remotely approaching the magnitude of that show. Aniston's impact on television in the 1990s is dramatic, however. Friends characterized a generation and its popularity was due to its stellar cast including Jennifer Aniston.

Works Cited

'Aniston Settles Topless Photo Flap." 21 Nov 2003. <>.

Armstrong, Mark. "Aniston Sues Over Celebrity Skin." E!Online. 8 Aug 2000. <,1,6902,00.html>.

'Biography for Tate Donovan." .

"Brad and Jen's Marriage is in the Pits." Herald Sun. 07 Dec 2004. <,5478,11612554%255E2902,00.html>.

"Brad Pitt, Aniston, Settle Ring Lawsuit" 17 Jan 2002. .

Fontana, Tony. "Biography for Jennifer Aniston." .

'Friends Rachels' Influential Hairdo" Ananova. .

'Jennifer Aniston." Online at .

'Jennifer Aniston." <>.… [read more]

Papa's Waltz the Play Term Paper

… Kitty's husband, Paul, suggests that his wife is seeking and will only be 'cured' by being loved but he knows she is incapable of accepting it.

Each character has a stake in Kitty's success; none, however, appear more concerned with her emotional condition than the movie. Philip, Derek, and Flora take a turn at trying to persuade Kitty to return to the set; her mumbles are indicative of her lack of interest in anything but her own problems. The clever camera work in showing extreme close-ups of her face portray her point-of-view without explanation.

Philip demonstrates a personal empathy and humanness toward Kitty -- surprising considering the scant history between them -- and encourages her to keep going with platitudes like, "all life is like a damaged apple, you have to eat around the bad parts."

It is Jerome who finally convinces Kitty to get back to work, but the appearance of Paul causes her to revert to hysteria at the sight of him. Paul -- nee Miller -- is resigned to the marriage's downward slide, stating they "had too much hope . . . we weren't able to save each other." Prophetic words in the real-life tragedy of Miller's own wife.

Kitty agrees to return to work immediately, but strangely, it is Philip who insists on her weekend hospitalization. This empathetic gesture -- while well-meaning -- was destructive to Kitty's character. She never finishes the film.

Production and Technical Aspects

The play is set entirely 'in a 1960's Reno hotel' and is reminiscent of the last movie Monroe attempted before her death a year later.


The title of the play is transparent to those who know the tempestuous story of Miller and Monroe. Finishing the Picture harks to closing the book on his love for the emotionally bankrupt beauty he called wife for a short time.…… [read more]

Sydney Poitier -- Oscar-Winning Actor Term Paper

… An indication of his private character outside the studio can be gleaned from his early years when he endured racial prejudice.

... he also has felt the sting of segregation in 1940s Florida and discrimination in his early New York and Hollywood years and the continual bigotry that all blacks in America often endure. Yet, he speaks of these happenings matter-of-factly, without bitterness.( Thomas. B)

After winning the Oscar for best-actor in Lilies of the Field, Sydney Poitiers' career took on a new impetus and he became a box-office success in the United States. Another indication of his integrity was that he refused to play roles that conflicted with his conscience or inner morality. For example, he objected to certain elements in the script of In the Heat of the Night and initially declined the part. However, the producer agreed to make the necessary changes.

One of the reasons that he gives for his strong sense of right and wrong is the example that his father set him.

My father was a poor man, very poor in a British colonial possession where class and race were very important," Poitier said. "But my dad also was a remarkable man, a good person, a principled individual, a man of integrity." I decided in my life that I would do nothing that did not reflect positively on my father's life. That is where I got the 'I will not do this ... I will not do that.' I just said no! (Thomas. B)

Sydney Poitier's integrity and forthrightness are reflected in his firm characterizations, setting positive examples for many people to emulate in order to persevere in breaking down racial prejudices and stereotypes. His roles in films like To Sir, with Love (1966) were important landmarks in bringing down racial barriers in the United States. His integrity and talent are the aspects that have made him one of the most loved stars of cinema in the Twentieth Century. In recent years Poitier has written a number of books and screenplays. He also studies astronomy and philosophy.


Thomas. B. Sydney Poitier. Prime Times. 1999. Accessed…… [read more]

Adaptation vs. Being John Malkovich Term Paper

… ¶ … Adaptation" and "Being John Malkovich," both written by Charlie Kaufman. Specifically, it will compare the vision of what a movie should or should not be between the two films, and the relationship of fantasy to reality in "Adaptation." Both films are "quirky" in just about every sense of the word, and include great flights of fancy, taking them quite far from the "traditional" vision of films. Therefore, these two films represent a new trend in filmmaking that concerns blended fantasy and reality, and all that says about the human mind.

It is sometimes difficult to know where reality stops and fantasy begins in both these films. "Adaptation" is the very loose story of Kaufman's life, with quite a liberal does of fantasy thrown in, (his brother doesn't die in the end, and the writer does not chase after him. He does however, sort of turn her book into a screenplay - this screenplay). In "Being John Malkovich," the audience is often literally inside the head of the actor, so…… [read more]

Hot Is a Classic Hollywood Term Paper

… Close-ups are also used often, but not as often as the two-shots and deep-focus shots. This may be that the two men looked more like women from further away, and so, the camera was kept at a distance to help keep up the masquerade. There were a few low camera angles looking at feet and legs, primarily the two men as they learned to walk in heels and Monroe when she is introduced in the film. The "Spats" character is almost always introduced by a close-up of the floor and the spotlessly clean spats he wears on his shoes, which is where he gets his nickname. Other than that, most of the camera angles are straight on, and mid-range focus is used for most of the shots. Another exception are the outdoor shots, which tend to include at least some of the background in the shots. For example, when Curtis meets Monroe on the beach, the shot is medium to wide, with a nice view of the Hotel del Coronado in the background. This helps set the stage, but it also keeps distance between the characters at first, so other camera angles can show them getting closer as the film progresses.

Music is an integral part of the film, because Curtis and Lemmon play musicians (not very convincingly), and Monroe is the lead singer in their all-girl band. This could be called a musical comedy, because the musical numbers are an important part of the plot, and show Monroe at her best, performing before a "live" audience. She is vulnerable and yet sexy in the part, and the musical numbers play on her vulnerability and soft side, except for "Running Wild," which sets the stage for the party on the train. The music is good, and so is the sound quality, the only disappointment is that it often openly appears Monroe is lip synching, and it is quite clear Curtis and Lemmon are many things, but musicians is not one of them. All in all, the film uses no extraordinary techniques, but it is memorable anyway for the story and the acting, which make it…… [read more]

Sixth Sense in Our Society Term Paper

… This is illustrated by the ghost of a little girl who, as it turns out, was poisoned by her mother. She knew this, and caught her adding poison to her food. She wants Cole to give the videotape to her father in order to save her little sister, who is now getting mysteriously sick. Cole does this, which allows the ghost of the older sister to save the younger one. At the end of the movie, he finally finds the courage to tell his mother about his unusual ability. Just as it terrified Cole in the beginning, it also scares his mother, but then he reveals a secret her mother had kept from her for years, something his mother realizes has to be true. Once more, Cole has used his powers to bring comfort or aid to another person -- this time, his own mother.

In the process of Cole learning about this power of his, Crowe goes through a dramatic transformation as well. At the beginning of the movie, Crowe is shot by a young man. Vincent Gray, who had been his patient years before. Crowe had not been able to help him, and after shooting Cole, Vincent shoots himself. Gradually we realize that Vincent had the same powers as Cole. He was also terrified, but without the support and understanding that Cole receives from Crowe, Vincent cannot cope with it. Again we see the imagery of names, as Vincent's last name, Gray, is a shade of black.

Eventually, Crowe realizes that he died from Vincent's gunshot wound, and that his wife seems indifferent to him because she is no longer aware of his presence. Once again Cole has helped someone with his special powers. He has helped Crowe understand that he is dead and that it is time to let go of his Earthly life. Even this reinforces the idea that ghosts remain behind because they had something left to do: Crowe was not able to help Vincent Gray, but he can help Cole, and he does.

Throughout this movie, as Cole begins to understand the usefulness of his special powers, he develops more and more ability to live with it. In the beginning of the movie he is terrified by the visits from ghosts, but by the end of the movie he sees these visits as an opportunity to help others. He's still a child, and will still need the guidance of adults, but by the end of the movie, this fact does not blot out the special thins he is able to do.… [read more]

Lies and Talkies: Singing Term Paper

… Really, this gentleman was born poor and spent most of his days hoofing away, learning his trade dancing for pennies in saloons. The myth vs. The reality generated by the studio system is highlighted through this juxtaposition of flashback and present, also called the Kuleshov effect whereby a viewer associates apparently disconnected shot -- the dancing young boy becomes Kelly early on in the viewer's mind, although this side of the matinee idol is not immediately seen in the film. The fact that this popular actor's even lovelier female co-star has a coarse voice incommensurate with her blonde confection-like appearance adds to the humor generated by the falseness of the film industry.

But when sound comes to film, the only way to save the trashy costume drama the studio is attempting to enforce upon the public is to make it a movie musical, thus taking the matinee idol back to the truth of the early dancing and singing roots of his career. The cinematographer's choice to contrast the black and white jumpiness of the 'fake film' made over the course of "Singing in the Rain" with the reality of Technicolor underlines this theme of how talking films, even musicals, are more realistic than were the silent visions of far-off exotic glamour and locations. Moreover, because his female co-star's speaking and singing voice is so dreadful, the woman's must be dubbed. The actress assuming the woman's true voice assumes the career of the star of the silent screen, the far more talented and 'real' perky up-and-comer played by Debbie Reynolds, who admits that yes, she reads "some" of the fan magazines, but is still authentic in her willingness to sacrifice for her costars to make the film work.

There is no such hope for truth in film in "Sunset Boulevard." A corpse after all, narrates this film noir. It is set in an age where screenwriters were blacklisted for a whisper of communist connections, not a time of innovation, as was the 1920's setting of "Singing in the Rain." Only the dead tell the truth in Hollywood, and the talking pictures merely create an illusion of reality that Norma is shut off from, now that she is no longer lovely enough or melodious enough in her speech to generate images.… [read more]

Women in Middle East Term Paper

… The way in which the director manufactures shifts in the space and camerawork in the film allows him to manipulate the audiences sense of what they are seeing, so that he can convince them to apply documentary-viewing mindsets to a fictional and even occasionally cinematic moment, and then create humor through the juxtaposition (e.g. The humor of taking the cinematic and thinking it real, or the humor and applying it to a movie world).

Of course, space and camera angles were not the only elements that contributed to this hilarious seesaw effect between the somewhat impersonal and yet "nonfictional"-seeming documentary segments and the personal and yet "fictional"-seeming cinematic sections. Lighting was also a significant contributor to this project. One noticed that the more nonfictional the segment was going to try to be, the more likely it was that either naturalistic lighting would be used, or that the lighting used would be designed to mimic that of news reports or other "on-the-spot lighting styles. However, in more cinematic section, as when the Wiemerian's woman frantically seeks the room for her stuffed bumblebee, the lighting tends more towards a three-light system, which is more traditionally cinematic. This has the same effect of creating a duality in which the documentary segments convince everyone that the story is "real" while the cinematic sections make it appear more personal and immediate. The combination of these characters being both personal and immediate --and therefore more obviously absurd-- and their being presented as nominally nonfictional results in a very funny and even laughable parody of humans, documentaries, and movies themselves.… [read more]

Raging Bull and Reservoir Dogs Term Paper

… Raging Bull & Dogs

Doubtlessly, specifically what designates films as entertaining or not depends largely upon what the audience desires to see. The value system of both society and the individual can be reflected in what they find enjoyable. It has been argued, "The viewer's experience is predicated on the pleasure of seeing the male 'exist' (that is walk, move, ride fight)... And on the unquiet pleasure of seeing the male mutilated... And restored through violent brutality." (Neale 13). This concept can be applied to any number of films portraying the theoretical "male" sphere of influence in the world. Two such films, Reservoir Dogs and Raging Bull, have come to be considered modern film classics. So, it is only natural to wonder why these films are so appealing to the audience.

To begin with, each of these films obviously displays substantial levels of violence. Reservoir Dogs, for instance, depicts a man dying from a gun shot to the chest for the entirety of the forward section of the plot. This does not, importantly, detract from his ability to be the central protagonist of the story; in fact, his slow death could be argued to contribute to his appeal as a character. But before investigating this notion, it should be considered particularly what it is that the "male" does, and how violence plays into this persona.

The traditional role of the male is well-known: he is the "breadwinner." Prior to the establishment of society the male was the hunter and defender. Obviously, both of these facets of the ancient man's life imply violence. Generally speaking, societies tend to adhere to this standard of the male position in the world, and accordingly, it is desirable to see a man exhibit these characteristics. The violence in the ancient man's life was not for the purpose of violence itself, but rather, for food or to save what or who was important to him. Similarly, the pleasure taken from violence in the cinema is usually associated with larger principles that the male character holds: the male does not kill for the sake of killing or suffer for the sake of suffering, but instead, he acts in an attempt to reach something that he sees as larger than…… [read more]

Dirty Harry Stars in Action Term Paper

… Throughout the film as well, Hamlet is grouped very rarely with other characters. He is mainly alone, rather than with Horatio, or closely watched by other members of the court. This Hamlet is a man alone, again like a typical action hero, outside of society, and dependant upon his own morals and strength of character. The flighty, rather than queenly quality of his mother further reinforces this aspect of the film -- the strong, silent hero abandoned by all of the women in his life, with no real friends to talk to. This Hamlet's movements are always strong and decisive, even when he is wondering "To be or not to be," like the motions of an athlete rather than one who is genuinely tormented. Hamlet's indecision seems uncharacteristic, even assumed, because of his great physical confidence in contrast to the other characters of the film, again underlining the individualist, action hero nature of the man -- like all action heroes, Hamlet is alone but alone in his emotional and physical strength.

The action hero plot texture of the film is further reinforced by setting the film in the traditional costumes and characters of Denmark, rather than in a more ethereal setting. The characters wear animal skins to keep warm in the drafty castle. The overall atmosphere that is conveyed by the film is one of a dog-eat-dog world, animalistic in its emotional tendency, where revenge seems to be appropriate, rather than an object of questioning, much like a Denmark Wild West.

Ultimately, Zeffirelli's film is quick moving and satisfying like a bowl of popcorn, like an action motion picture with Shakespearean costumes, but without any of the soul-searching on the part of its main character, or even the minor characters, to truly make the film Shakespearean in its inner, lived intensity. The action film borrows in its character depiction more from Westerns and other revenge epics than truly embracing the scope of a drama where character and eloquence are all.

Work Cited

"Hamlet." Directed by Franco…… [read more]

Ring Casting Naomi Watts Martin Henderson Term Paper

… Night of the Living Dead

George Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968) is not only the single most influential zombie movie of all time, it is also reputed to be one of the first movies to employee color-blind casting.… [read more]

Graffiti and Fast Times Term Paper

… Rather than bathing adolescent in nostalgia, and past rock n' roll soundtracks like George Lucas' American Graffiti, Fast Times at Ridgemont High lacks an overt sentimentality about high school romance. Rather than disinterestedly picking at their food like the rich girls of Fast Times at Ridgemont High and using the food for embarrassing instructional purposes, Lucas' boys are actually, actively hungry, jockeying for fries at the table with calls of 'ya gonna eat that?' Food is power, social currency in the scene, but lacks the sexual connotations of Heckerling's film. Rather than one boy emerging as dominant through sexual knowledge, the deployment of wit secures temporary social status. The fact the scene occurs in a group, rather than in a pair of friends may intensify the social, rather than the sexual power implications of the use of food -- of who deploys the banana in one scene, and who gets the uneaten fries in the other scene.

By showing different levels of sexual knowledge and maturity amongst boys and girls, Heckerling's film has a verisimilitude that Lucas' film lacks. Even by the mere setting of the crueler and more cutting 1982 film during the school year, and the 1973 American Graffiti film's seasonal setting of summer creates a greater sense of the finely calibrated nature of the social hierarchy of the Ridgemont High School when school is in session, rather than the social fluidity of the summer of American Graffiti when anything can happen, and the character's sexual vulnerabilities are more exposed and in flux. During the summer, a sense of innocence can be created and cast away, through nostalgia clouded eyes, unlike the real world of the fast times of contemporary high school.

Works Cited

Crowe, Cameron. Fast Times at Ridgemont High. Directed by Amy Heckerling. 1982.

Ebert, Robert. "Fast Times at Ridgemont High." Review. The Chicago Sun Times. January 1, 1982. 2 November 2004.

Lucas, George. "American Graffiti." Written and directed by George Lucas, 1973.… [read more]

Jean-Luc Godard's Contempt Term Paper

… Kehr writes, "By encouraging her, against her obvious wishes, to go off alone with the producer, he has used his wife's beauty to promote his career" (Kehr 1997). In the time it takes for Camille to get into the car, whatever love she had for her husband has vanished and is communicated in a single glance (Kehr 1997). Camille now feels little more than contempt for Paul, however, he is so caught up in his effort to succeed that he does not notice the change in her, much less the fact that he has infected the relationship with an incurable disease (Kehr 1997).

To Paul defense, he is older than his wife and feels that he needs to ensure her security. Although beautiful, she is less educated and comes from a lower social status. Writing for Prokosch will allow Paul to pay off the mortgage and stabilize his future, thus, "giving his lower-class wife the one thing she wants most, a middle class home of her own" (Kehr 1997). He believes that perhaps then he can concentrate on his writing and become a truly serious writer.

While in negotiations, Prokosch assumes his charisma will be enough to entice Paul to work for him, however, the presence of Camille complicates the deal. As Gary Morris writes, "Camille's favors appear to be part of the price Prokosch will exact from Pavel in exchange for the $10,000 salary and further inroads into 'show biz'" (Morris 1997). The presence of Camille as a beautiful vessel to be filled is established early in the movie when she "catalogs her own body parts in the form of questions" for Paul, asking, "Do you like my breasts ... my ankles ... my knees ... my thighs" (Morris 1997). This scene also establishes Camille's insecurities as well as Paul's deeper feelings:

Camille -- "You like all of me? My mouth? My eyes?

My nose? And my ears?"

Paul -- "Yes, all of you."

Camille -- "Then you love me... totally?"

Paul -- "Yes ... Totally... tenderly... tragically" (Godard 1963).

When Paul tells Camille that he has seen her and Prokosch kissing, she responds with "an indifferent 'I know,' with no hint of spitefulness ... Camille is lost to him as she is lost to us" (Kehr 1997).

That look of disdain that Camille gives Paul triggers the action of the film, "the separation of a couple is caused by a loving regard that becomes a critical one -- where once there was unity ... now there is discontinuity and difference" (Kehr 1997).

When Paul not only allowed, but encouraged, Camille to go off with Prokosch, whatever trust that existed between them died. He lent her out with no more regard than one would feel by lending out a favorite toy. So eager was he to please Prokosch that it never occurred to him the destruction such an act would cause. The act confirmed that he never really attributed a soul to Camille, and truly regarded her only as… [read more]

HDTV Challenges in Marketing Term Paper

… ¶ … Marketing HDTV

HDTV was introduced into the U.S. market many years ago, though broadcasters and viewers alike have been slow to adopt the new technology. Within the European and UK market, a mass marketing campaign has generated much… [read more]

Group Development in Alfred Hitchcock Term Paper

… At this time, conflict centers on how to best accomplish the group's task.

In the movie, the group reaches this stage after their first night at sea. The group of survivors has not established a formal leader. The businessman assumes a sort of administrative leadership by taking an inventory and delegating task to the other members. His assumed authority is contested again by the same sailor as the day before. After some discussion as to leadership merits, the sailor assumes control of the lifeboat as "skipper." The main point of contention is about the task: who can provide the best chances of survival to the entire group? The sailor wins this argument by establishing himself as having the skills to keep a ship going under bad circumstances.

In the group cohesion stage, the group has defined its roles and relationships. The group has reached a consensus about appropriate behavior of its members. The members accept each other, and an identifiable group culture emerges. The conflict is less intense at this stage. Conflict now tends to focus more on methods of doing the task instead of on the social structure of the group.

One of the wounded men in the lifeboat has contracted gangrene in his leg. It is concluded that the leg must be amputated. It is also decided that the only one capable of performing the procedure is the German (who, incidentally, has also been properly identified as the captain of the submarine). In order to save the life of the wounded man, the group decides to place trust in the "enemy."

The group has also defined itself. The roles of the group have been defined and each person has found a niche to fit into. Some play music with a flute. Some play cards to defeat boredom and monotony. One has faith, to bring hope to them. There is even a nurse to provide care.

The task orientation stage is the operating phase of the group. The members continue to become comfortable with each other and the group's norms. Members have settled upon goals and divided the labor accordingly. The task of the group is clearly defined and the group's energy is focused on doing the work.

After the amputation, the group focuses its energies upon reaching the destination of Bermuda. There has been a disagreement about which course to follow, one being the guess of a sailor, the other being a suggestion of the German's. With no compass (or so they think), the group is left to guess the right direction to travel in. Do they trust a guess from one of their own, or trust the German who appears to be a superior seaman? The conflict is resolved when the group discovers that the German captain has been concealing a compass from them all along.

The termination stage is where the group disbands otherwise ceases to exist. Some groups redefine their membership and tasks. These are essentially new groups that will proceed through the same evolutionary… [read more]

Waterfront Timeless Elia Kazan's 1954 Term Paper

… It may be an old theme, but Kazan brings new life.

There were several scenes that Kazan's direction made powerful and memorable. To show just how Friendly ran the docks and how this effected the men, Kazan shot a scene in which one of Friendly's goons throws tokens up in the air and watches the men scramble for them. A man had to be picked, had to have a token to work on the docks. This scene shows the desperateness of the men and how Friendly operation controlled their livelihoods. Kazan used the roof scenes with Terry and his pigeons to give a glimpse into his character, the real Terry. The taxi cab scene with Terry and Charlie shows the intimacy between the two brothers as Charlie breaks down upon hearing Terry's confrontation that Charlie was responsible for ending his fighting career. Kazan used the ship's horn to block Terry's confession to Edie, allowing the audience to only hear bits and pieces, however, the look on her face lets the audience know that he has told her the truth. Kazan could have used complicated dialogue to convey the message of these scenes, however, he instead, shot them simple and uncomplicated, thus adding more power to each scene, the less said the better.

The main characters are sympathetic. Edie appears the strongest in the beginning, she knows right from wrong and cannot understand how anyone could turn their back on injustice. It is she who spurs Father Barry to become involved and weighs on Terry's sense of morality. Father Barry rises to the calling and becomes the sub-hero of the movie. The audience is allowed to watch Terry transform himself from a bum who does what he is told to the hero of the waterfront.

On the Waterfront" was directed by Elia Kazan in 1954. It stars Marlon Brando, Eva Marie Saint, Karl Malden, Lee J. Cobb and Rod Steiger. Kazan brought to life the universal theme of good verses evil against the waterfront docks by telling the story of the longshoremen fight against a corrupt union. Kazan succeeds in making a brilliant movie of a simple theme. This movie is excellent and timeless in theme and direction. It should be seen by any movie buff.


On the Waterfront." Directed by…… [read more]

Pianist Directed by Roman Polanski Term Paper

… When an old man in a wheelchair cannot comply, they simply toss him out a third floor window. The scene is horrible to watch, but it contains the truth of what happened to thousands of Jews, and without it, the film would not have the impact or meaning that it does. Removing the violence and graphic language might make the film more appropriate for a wider audience, but that is the point of the film - it is not meant for everyone, and it should not be meant for everyone. Children probably will not appreciate this graphic look at history, and if we water down every film we view, we will eventually water down our own view of the world and world events. Graphic violence and language may not always be easy to view, but making everything easy to view takes away our choice in life, and also removes our ability to make our own decisions about what has happened in the world around us.

Clearly, the filmmakers had a vision for this film, and for a third party to alter that vision is not only censorship in its entirety, it is a travesty to the filmmakers and their message. Censorship assumes that the same things will offend all people equally, when that is not the case. Language that might offend one person might not even faze another. It is not the role of a censor to dictate what we view and what we do not view. It is our own responsibility, and if we find the material too offensive, we can simply turn it off. However, to not have the right to view it for ourselves and make that decision offends our basic instincts, and may infringe on our right to free speech by removing our choice in the matter. Of course, the filmmakers have an argument in the issue, for it is their films that could be altered without their consent. The future of filmmaking revolves around who has the ultimate responsibility for the content of a film. If companies such as Clean Flix are allowed to alter films according to their own rigid standards, filmmakers will no longer have artistic license, they will be censored by a third party unconcerned with meaning, style, or content, they will simply censor anything they deem inappropriate. Frankly, it seems most of the American people would not like this choice made by a stranger. Most Americans would probably rather have the ability to choose, rather than have that ability taken away by a third party with perhaps much more rigid and unforgiving standards than a majority of viewers.

In conclusion, while censoring certain films for young audiences or in extreme cases might be viable, censoring a film such as "The Pianist" simply removes the impact and meaning of the film. "The Pianist" may contain brutal language and equally brutal violence, but it captures the horrific viciousness of the period. It may be difficult to watch, but it is true history, and… [read more]

Joey's Going Commando Lead Term Paper

… (151)

All television, Adorno argues, merely has the effect of purveying "wares upon the audience." (165) The existence of such shows as "Entertainment Tonight" and "Extra" that seamlessly chronicle the lives of the stars of the show make the hidden message rather than the overt message of "Friends" all the more insidious. The characters seem more real because the viewer feels that he or she knows the actors better, off the soundstage, yet still in their crafted personas. The messages of buying and superficial appearance advocated by the show thus "will escape the controls of consciousness, will not be 'looked through', will not be warded" to an even greater degree than in Adorno's day.

Thus, rather than creating Enlightenment of either the mind or heart, today's popular culture is "rigid," not "pliable" in its intentions to an even greater degree than in Adorno's day. (177) The ostensible liberation of "Friends" morals merely conceals the traditional agenda of television, to sell a lifestyle and to sell products to an unwary audience, rather than to substantively change the audience's collective mindset. It offers the promise that a better life exists, if one has the economic means to purchase such "Friends" and the lives they live.

Works Cited

Adorno, T. "How to Look at Television." Culture Industry. Routledge Classics.

Brainydictionary. "Enlightenment.

Enlightenment." PBS Glossary.… [read more]

Television Show Onto the Air Term Paper

… There are many potential ways to get an idea or script for a pilot to someone within Hollywood. Of these, likely the most effective is using personal contacts to get a script to someone in a position of power. In… [read more]

Film Adaptations of Bram Stoker Term Paper

… Judith Mayne points out that Nosferatu "is concerned with the hypothetical area between west and east, between the land of reason and the land of passion, between self and other" (28). That gray area between east and west where reason… [read more]

American Graffiti and Easy Rider Term Paper

… Beatles' music had turned to acid rock, and rock groups such Jefferson Airplane and The Grateful Dead topped the charts, and Woodstock had drawn 400,000 hippies searching for peace, love and LSD (

Dennis Hopper's 1969 film "Easy Rider" reflects the counterculture of the era. It is a buddy road film about two bikers, Wyatt and Billy, who ride through the back roads of America from Los Angeles to New Orleans searching for the American Dream or rather the freedom it represents (Hopper 1969). What they find though, is prejudice, paranoia and violence, along with sex, drugs, and rock and roll (Lucas 1969). It was a time of innocence lost, when America had experienced three assassinations and the Vietnam War was dividing an already vulnerable society. Times had changed and landscape of American society would never be the same as it had been just a few short years before.

Each film is a time capsule of the perspective eras. For although both films are set in the sixties, the early sixties and the late sixties were definitely two distinct eras, beginning with innocence and ending in disillusionment.

Works Cited

American Cultural History: 1960-1969." Kingwood College Library 11-18-2003).

American Graffiti." Director: George Lucas. 1973.

Easy Rider." Director: Dennis Hopper. 1969.

Wetzel, James R. "American families: 75 years of change." Monthly Labor

Review. March 01, 1990.… [read more]

Blue Velvet, Directed by David Term Paper

… Just as Lynch used mise-en-scene throughout the film to carry the theme, plot, and characters, he uses unusual and dark, film noir photography to move the film along and build the characters. The blue theme of the film is of course central to the cinematography, and Lynch is well-known for his dark, brooding scenes, which are central to this film, and central to the theme. The blue cast of many of the scenes adds to the look and entire plot of the film, but it also gives an eerie sense to the scenes, which goes right along with Lynch's mise-en-scene themes. The cinematography is just another cog in the entire staging of the film, but it is of course the visual sense that carries the viewer through the film. As the film progresses, the blue tint to the evening shots just seems to fall into place, and Dorothy's "Blue Lady" act, filmed in the blue spotlight, could be filmed no other way, it seems. Of course, the sexual scenes all have that dark, smoky blue quality to them to add to the very "blueness" of what they are doing. (Blue movies are another name for sex films), and the blue scenes in this film almost scream "sex, violence, and depravity."

However, Lynch uses some stark contrasts to the blue overtones of the nightclub and sex scenes to help graphically portray the differences in the story line. The "regular" shots of the white-picket fenced houses during the day are brightly lit and vivid, compared to the other scenes in the film, and this technique helps move the plot along visually. Clearly, these vivid, clear shots of the town and its people point out how "normal" this small town appears on the outside, while the blue-tinged underbelly lies beneath the surface. Those brightly lit people such as Sandy and Jeffrey's mother seem to exist in a vastly different world, and of course, they do, which is the whole point of the vastly differing uses of cinematography and lighting.

Another graphic and quite common technique Lynch uses are bars of light or shadow falling across the scene or the character, illustrating how the character is literally held captive by the action or the other characters. This happens when Jeffrey is watching Dorothy from inside the slatted doors of the closet - he is a captive and cannot escape the consequences. It also happens when Frank is talking on the phone, with a lighted window blind behind him. Both times, Lynch sets the scene specifically so the light and shadow play across the scene, and signify the turmoil the characters face, and how they are all prisoners of their own circumstances, from the "normal" people in their normal homes with their white picket fences, to the seedy side of Lincoln Street, and the depravity that lurks underneath.

In conclusion, David Lynch's film is part love story, part sadistic porn flick, and part murder mystery. By using mise-en-scene and cinematography so effectively, Lynch turned what… [read more]

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