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Special Education Programs Minorities Overrepresentation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  19 pages (15,814 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 17


¶ … Northcentral University, 2013

The Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education

Concept Paper

Requirements for the Degree of


Prescott Valley, Arizona


Over representation of minorities in special education has been an issue that has been raised over many years. Dunn (1968) questioned this when he noted that the placement of these children in such… [read more]

Analyzing Impacts of Information Systems on Policies and Student Learning Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Information Systems on Student Learning in Texas

Texas website has to categorize resources in accordance to parties, specifically teachers, students, and parents to whom it might be relevant.

Impact of information systems, in general, and this new e-service specifically, on student learning in the state's classrooms

Problem-solving and critical thinking, considered as the most significant of the 21st century learning skills, could be improved through constant exposure to digital media content (Sardone & Devlin-Scherer, 2010). The application of technology in education offers students information literacy, technology literacy, ability for lifetime learning, together with other skills needed for the 21st century workplace. Technology actually assists in preparing students for a world whereby they shall be in competition with the very best as well as the brightest people from each corner of the world. According to a growing body of proof, technology is an efficient way of dealing with academic needs, requirements, and goals. Teachers have also established connections between technology and intermediate goals, which result to high accomplishment, such as better student conduct, attendance, and participation; better opportunities for the professional development of teachers; improved competence in the classroom; administrative tasks; and enhanced communication amidst the stakeholders, such as teachers, students, parents, as well as administrators. Once they have all been properly applied, digital content, institutional courseware, together with other electronic learning resources could assist in meeting the intermediary goals, which could result to better student success, making technology an important tool of the 21st century when it comes to teaching and learning (Grinager, 2006). There are several academic benefits that can be provided by quality electronic learning resources, they include:

Involving the students via multimedia, interactive content;

Reinforcing understanding together with thinking skills via exploration, cooperation, and creation;

Keeping information up-to-date and accurate

Increasing the accessibility for physical or learning disabled kids via helpful technologies as well as content presentation in other ways; and Incorporating testing and classroom management tools, hence permitting real-time monitoring of student performance to offer accountability and inform teaching (Grinager, 2006)

When efficiently applied, technology applications are capable of supporting higher-order reflection through involving students in valid, difficult jobs…… [read more]

Job Application in a Religious Institution Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,193 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Cover Letter, Resume and Selection Criteria


Dear Mr. Keating,


I am writing to seeking the advertised position of Assistant Principal at Mackillop College, Port Macquarie. For a long time, I have been passionately devoted toward promoting well-being in education and am thrilled to see that your college is committed to the betterment of young people… [read more]

Points for Learning Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Refection and Learning Points

Every individual is distinct in his or her own way, as we all have dissimilar perceptions, experiences and outlooks. In essence, our notions regarding life are centered on our perceptions and the manner in which we view the world. My personal philosophy is shaped by my life experiences and my surroundings. The philosophical approach selected is phenomenology. In essence, this encompasses the temperate reflection on my own lived experiences. My own perception of the world is that we as human beings constantly experience either pain or pleasure throughout the course of our lives. It is through these aspects that point out as to what actions we ought to undertake as well as make a determination as to what we eventually do. More so, it lies on the standards of what is wrong and what is right (Van Manen, 1990).

I strongly have the perception that the surroundings of an individual play a significant part in the manner in which they perceive, interact, and operate in the world. For instance, I got to understand what is right and wrong from the way I was raised by my family. The values that were instilled upon me since my childhood are the ones that have been able to teach me to discern from what is right and wrong. When I did very well in school my parents congratulated me and encouraged me to do more of the same. However, when I stole something or lied, I would be scolded and sternly asked not to do it again. These aspects enabled me to learn what I ought to do and what I eventually do. More so, as I grew up and became older, I attained knowledge and came to be more conversant of who I am. In this way, I am able to undertake decisions by myself. Nonetheless, it is these childhood…… [read more]

Grant Proposal for it Veteran Students Grant Proposal

Grant Proposal  |  15 pages (4,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Scholarship for Service Proposal



The National Science Foundation in combination with the National Science and Technology Council bring forth the Cyber Corps (R): Scholarship for Service (SFS) program, which is pursuant of proposals that take into consideration cyber security education and workforce development. The main objective of this Request for Proposal is to track… [read more]

Test Score to Measure Teacher Performance Critique Article Critique

Article Critique  |  6 pages (2,192 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … educator evaluation systems that relies only one component i.e. student performance on standardized tests seems to be unpopular with teachers and is controversial among statisticians (Ballou & Springer, 2015). Although there are reasonable concerns about the prevailing system used in teacher assessment, there are various decent reasons that raise alarm about assertions that evaluating teachers' effectiveness mainly through… [read more]

Curriculum Development and Practical Approaches Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  12 pages (3,613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Precis and Analytical Insights

Schiro Jigsaw Chapter 3 Social Efficiency Ideology

What Schiro means by a curriculum ideology is the ideas that make up the way one sets about organizing a curriculum. The objectives of the curriculum are essential in defining the ideology. For example in Social Efficiency curriculum, the objectives are framed in behavioral terms with "change behavior" being… [read more]

Inclusive Lesson Plan on Grade 8 Geometry Mathematics Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Geometry Grade 8

Approximate Time Duration:

Standards / Objectives

Big Ideas / Essential Questions

Concepts (Know)

Skills (Able To Do): SWBAT:

Pre-Assessment -- Who Are Your Students?

How Student Learning will be Evidenced

Diversity Considerations

Family Involvement

Differentiated Instruction

What will be differentiated and how?


DI will be based on:

Readiness (ability and schema)


Learning and thinking styles

Multiple intelligences

What support will you provide for students who need extra assistance?

Flexible grouping:


Pairs, triads, quads

Small group

Whole group

Will learning be competitive or collaborative?

How can curriculum be compacted for students who are ready to be challenged, go deeper, move faster through the curriculum? What alternative choices would be provided to these students?

How will you stretch students who are ready to be challenged?

Teacher Reflection

How did the lesson / unit go?

What would I change?

Results of post-test:

How will I address those who need re-teaching?

How will interventions be provided?

Who are the students who need interventions with the concepts and skills in this unit / lesson?

Strategies Used in the Explicit Instruction

Explicit Instruction

Outline the specific lesson / unit steps for the teaching process -- the overall instructional plan.

Rigor & Relevance

Thinking Strategies Focus


Determining Importance

Drawing Inferences

Asking Questions

Synthesizing Information

Using sensory images

Using Fix-up Strategies

Effective Instructional Strategies

(Marzano, Pickering, Pollock: Classroom Instruction That Works)

Identifying Similarities & Differences


Note taking

Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Homework & Practice

Nonlinguistic Representations

Cooperative Learning

Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

Generating & Testing Hypotheses

Cues, Questions, & Advanced Organizers

Additional Instructional Strategies

(ICLE Instructional Strategies Teacher Handbook -- Daggett, Rigor/Relevance Framework)


Demonstration / Modeling

Lecture / Memorization

Presentations / Projects

Strategies to Engage the Student in Learning

(R.Billmeyer: Strategies To Engage the Mind of the Learner)

Opening Strategies

Vocabulary Strategies

Strategies for Informative and Narrative Text

Questioning Strategies

Graphic Organizers

Information-Building Strategies

Discussion Strategies

Grouping / Energizing Activities

Reflection Strategies

Closing Activities


Students use the idea of distances and angles and their behavior under dilations, translations, rotations and reflections as well as congruence and similarity ideas to analyze and solve the problems to describe two dimensional figures. The students show the sum of triangle formed by the straight line while they also show line configuration differences that make up the triangle. Pythagorean Theorem is also explained through decomposing the square in two ways.

Common Core Standards

Understand congruence and similarity by the use of physical models

Using informal arguments to make various facts of angle sum and exterior of the triangles.

Comprehension of dimensional figures as the same as two other dimensional figures

Explaining effects of translations, rotations, reflections and dilations

Comprehension of dimensional figure as congruent with another figure

Applying and Comprehending Pythagorean Theorem

Applying Pythagorean Theorem to find out the distance between a coordinate system

Applying Pythagorean Theorem to find the missing lengths of the triangles

Explaining and providing Pythagorean proof and converse

Solving the real world problems and mathematical problems including… [read more]

Analyzing Critical Thinking in Action Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,576 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Critical Thinking in Action

This is a case study whose analysis is based on critical thinking.

"A critical thinker is able to deduce consequences from what he knows, and he knows how to make use of information to solve problems, and to seek relevant sources of information to inform himself" (Lau & Chan, 2015).

The procedure of basic speculation offers… [read more]

Implementing Lesson Study in an Elementary School Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Teachers of Reading With Technology and Internet-Based Collaboration

Although the fundamental principles of professional educator development involve face-to-face as well as online platforms, online learning opportunities are becoming more prevalent, making the need for teachers to improve their knowledge and skills in the use of these tools more important than in the past (Hunt-Barron & Tracy, 2015). To… [read more]

Shared Curriculum Positives and Negatives A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  3 pages (940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Shared curriculum is a way for teachers to share their lessons, lectures, and so forth with other teachers so students can receive better curriculum and instruction. As researchers explain, by sharing for example a video lecture with other teachers, teachers become well prepared at relaying what they've learned to their students. Picking up learning objectives, teaching styles, and extra information from other teachers covering the same topics is an effective way of training and instilling confidence in teachers. These are just some of the positive effects of curriculum sharing on instruction with positive effects on student performance shown through improved test scores. However, just like with anything else, there are also some negative effects of curriculum sharing like reduced productivity among teachers and cheating among students. The negatives and positives will be covered more in depth in this essay.

Sharing curriculum introduces the idea of sharing responsibility for teaching quality. Sharing curriculum means having a platform for teachers to improve. People can compare and contrast teacher performance, lesson development, and instruction ability. As more and more schools offer online courses, additional tools and strategies that can be derived from curriculum sharing may help a system of instruction that remains outdated and lacking options. Sharing curriculum also promotes increased participation from both teachers and students and may help to improve academic accomplishment. "As mediated by the networked technology, the multiple modes of participation and opportunities to contribute to the group's accomplishment of its task served as important avenues for underserved students to bring to bear resources they develop through participating in everyday practices of their communities" (Ares, 2008, p. 301).

While there are several positive impacts of curriculum sharing, there are also some negative. Traditional online classes may not have the funds to update to newer versions of interface and may not have the tools to fully utilize curriculum sharing. "Traditional LMSs primarily focus on centralized content creation and deployment of courseware by the instructor. There is a need to further facilitate communication, collaboration, and cooperation, both among students and between students and the instructor -- which is the essence of the traditional classroom-based course" (Singh, Mangalaraj & Taneja, 2010, . 304). Traditional LMSs are the standard for so many schools that allow online course instruction. For curriculum sharing to truly become a benefit, schools have to come up with the funds to adequately support such an environment. Otherwise, the tools needed to promote sharing will fall to the wayside.

That leads to the main negative impact of curriculum sharing which is increased need for school funds. "Administrators have to be willing to commit funds for faculty release time to develop innovative curricula and must create mechanisms to give faculty from different disciplines course credit for team teaching" (Hainline, Feather, Padilla & Terry, 2010). Curriculum sharing means schools have to gain…… [read more]

Hutchinson School District Research Design Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Hutchinson school district wants to investigate the effectiveness of a new curriculum designed at teaching English as a second language to elementary students. The design for the study will be a quasi-experimental design (Creswell, 2012). The independent variable will be the implementation of the new curriculum. The dependent variable will be the test score on the Stafford English Language Proficiency Test (Stanford ELP). The school district can implement an effective quasi-- experimental design designed by doing the following:

First, it is important to select two separate classes at the same grade level that include an equivalent number of students that would potentially benefit from this intervention. It would be best to utilize classes at different schools to avoid any potential breaches of the security and internal validity of the quasi-experimental design. Teachers in each condition will go about the normal business of teaching their classes without knowing that their data will be used in a quasi-experiment. One class will serve as a control group (students being taught as they are traditionally taught) and the other class will serve as an experimental group (students receiving the new curriculum). Teachers in each of the classes will not be informed that there will be a comparison between the two classes. Thus, utilizing two different schools will also limit any complications that might occur if students in the same school from different classes became aware that they were involved in different programs (demand characteristics from both teachers and students).

Secondly, both classes will take the Stanford ELP at the very beginning of the school year to establish a baseline score. At the end of the school year the Stanford ELP will be re-administered the both classes (there are parallel versions of the test; Pearson Assessments, 2015). This will allow for comparison between the classes regarding the relative the treatment in both the control and treatment…… [read more]

Comparing Board of Education Websites Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Information systems and E-Services at the State Level

The Texas Board of Education offers informational resources for teachers such as curriculum and instructional materials, including the specific curriculum standards teachers must be aware of when structuring a lesson plan. These are grouped by subject as well as by grade. There is also information about certification and other issues pertinent to the profession. For parents, standardized testing is explained, along with results of tests and information about accommodations for students with learning challenges. Finance and compliance reports are offered. These different resources are separated by topic, rather than by the different parties (i.e., teachers, parents, and students) to whom they might be pertinent.

In contrast, to make the website more easily navigated by a layperson, the New Jersey State Board of Education segments its resources by teachers, families, programs, and more general data. Like Texas, there is information about standardized testing, school reports, and the different issues which might be of interest to special needs students. The website is far more easily navigable as there is also a menu for different topics with labels a layperson might understand, such as anti-bullying. There are a number of topic areas such as helping students at home which are not covered on the Texas website, which is far more technical. A number of topic areas on the Texas site merely use acronyms which might intimidate unfamiliar parents.

The California State Board of Education, in contrast to both Texas and New Jersey, provides a rather minimal overview of the educational system of the state and instead focuses upon giving a relatively functional description of its duties: "The State Board of Education is the K-12 policy-making body for academic standards, curriculum, instructional materials, assessments and accountability. The SBE adopts instructional materials for use in grades kindergarten through eight." It offers links to curriculum standards and minutes from recent meetings. But the site is relatively difficult to navigate…… [read more]

How to Pick the Best Project Management Teachers Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … hypothetical where instructors are being hired for a project management course. There is to be a list of quality assurance standards listed and described so as to make sure that the hiring of the instructors is done properly and that the right people are hired. Of course, there are fairly straightforward ways to ensure that project management instructors are of high reputation and that they possess the proper experiences. However, it takes a cursory amount of knowledge and perspective for this to be done right the first time. While there is a litany of people that would offer themselves to be project management instructors, only certain people should be hired for such a task and there are fairly easy ways to ensure that the proper standards are met.


One thing that should be sought out with project management instructors are people that have actually taught before. Even if someone is a seasoned project management professional, that does not mean that they are able to teach a class the way it is meant to be taught and in the way it needs to be facilitated. This is not to say that a full-on teaching licenses is needed. However, any person selected to teach a project management course should be able to do it well and should have established experience during which the teacher performed well and was well-received by their hiring manager as well as the people being taught (PAC, 2016).

Another requirement for a project management instructor is tangible experience in the field. This is not to say that a teacher has to have three or four decades in the field. On the other hand, it should be insured that the person doing the teaching is inexperienced or, worse yet, less experienced than the people that they are teaching. Any person could pull out the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK) and read aloud what is in it. However, someone that can do that and know how the facets of that book translate to real-world situations and scenarios would be a much better teacher than someone that is new to the field.…… [read more]

Analzing a New Mathematics Curriculum With Action Research Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


New Mathematics Curriculum

Action research is a type of practically-oriented research specifically designed to tackle an educationally-related program. In the case of the action research study "A new mathematics curriculum" by Karen Swift, the research was specifically embarked upon to assess the experience of students, teachers, and parents after a major change in the curriculum at a primary school. The author describes herself as doing a grounded theory research study in which she interviewed the participants over the course of two weeks and then used the notes to derive common themes in the participants' responses afterward (Swift, 2013, p. 265). These interviews then were followed up with focus groups to delve more deeply into the themes touched upon in the interviews. The focus groups, divided into the three separate interest groups affected by the policy, then were asked to give presentations about their experience. This formed the 'action' component of the research. Finally, teachers and parents collaborated upon a formal report to the principal of the school to introduce needed changes.

The theoretical basis behind the qualitative research design was the "need to understand how people make meaning and sense of experience and phenomena" (Swift, 2013, p. 267). Another way of thinking of this qualitative approach is a look-think-act structure in which after observation and reflecting the researcher actively engages with participants to form a solution to the problems highlighted by their discussions (Swift, 2013, p. 268). The purpose of this research was to improve the curriculum as well as engage with the groups it was designed to serve. The participants themselves were actively involved in assessing the data that had been accumulated by the research (Swift, 2013, p. 268). This created a solution-focused perspective. The participants were not passive subjects but rather worked to change the school for the better.

Given that education is…… [read more]

Analyzing and Making Excellence Inclusive in Education Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (907 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Excellence in Education --

Making Excellence Inclusive in Education

Embracing diversity in the student populations in campuses by leaders has stirred a new discussion with regards to the mission of higher education and highlights the need for a change of approach in the delivery of higher education- Clayton-Pedersen, O'Neill and Musil (2006). Even though a lot of leaders agree that there is need for systemic change, institutional diversity as it is implemented at the moment comes with a range of different initiatives that are not linked sufficiently to the mission of academics. It is not coordinated adequately.

Diversity is often looked at in terms of racial and ethnic differences. Other people look at it in terms of a variety of social identities and dimensions including gender, class, sexual orientation race, ethnicity and religion. Incorporating people with such diversity enriches the educational experience. Ideally, inclusivity has to do with engaging diversity in learning and the development of knowledge by all campus community members (Clayton-Pedersen, O'Neill & Musil, 2006).

How to Make Excellence Inclusive in Educational Discourses

Inclusive excellence is designed to assist campuses to incorporate quality efforts and diversity. The model incorporates diversity into the institutional functions in order to attain educational goals. Implementation of inclusive excellence helps in incorporating diversity into such institutional aspects as co-curriculum and curriculum, admissions, recruitment and hiring. It also embeds the same into the administrative structures and functions.

Inclusive excellence highlights the fact that an organization has embraced cohesion and integration in the routine efforts to attain excellence. Acceptance of inclusive excellence is an indication that diversity and inclusivity are potent catalysts for excellence in educational realms. It emphasizes the need to integrate them in the core of educational service provision and avoid isolating it (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2015).

Inclusive excellence comes with fresh excellence forms and an expanded formula to measure the same- Williams, Berger and McClendon (2005). These measures incorporate techniques that review research on learning processes, assessment progression, accountability structures and the functioning of the human brain.

Inclusive excellence transcends traditional limits of student numbers, program magnitude and even the goals of an institution. Rather, they occur in various layer-processes that function as a channel for achieving excellence in learning, teaching and research, student development, development of the workforce, global and local community participation.

Diversity as the Core Dimension of Educational Excellence

Comprehensive engagement of diversity helps in effective practice within the institution and points to the reality that there is need for organizations to look beyond the value and mission statements in the implementation of a plan that will make a difference. Although increasing student and staff body diversity is important in achieving educational excellence, it is not sufficient by itself. Facilitating strong…… [read more]

Diversity Issues in Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,211 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Diversity in Education

Concerns of Diversity Issues in Education among the Several Areas Addressed in the Research

This research paper focuses on how students perceive the multicultural education and diversity as a topic worth discussing in and out of the classrooms. There are thousands of foreign students incoming each year into the international universities and diversity is the challenge that… [read more]

Mathematics Instruction for Students Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Mathematics Instruction for Students with Disabilities GRADES 7-12

Assessment is the process of gaining insight into the motivation and knowledge of learners. It can either be informal or formal. Assessment should not only facilitate the learning of fundamental math concepts but should also provide important information to both the learners and their instructors. Assessment/evaluation is also important for kindergarten children. A statement released recently by the National Council of Teachers in Mathematics (NCTM) argued that teachers of children at the Early Childhood Level ought to actively introduce the young learners to math language, methods, symbols and operations using different, proper teaching strategies and experiences. These should be assessed using observation or any other kind of appropriate assessments to make sure that the instructional methods fit the young learner's math needs. Likewise, other early childhood experts stress on the significance of repeated questioning, listening, and observation as some of the most effective instructional methods when teaching young children in the day-to-day context (Copley 1999).

There are number of ways that students can benefit from evaluation. For instance, when an instructor in a clinical interview asks the people he is teaching to describe their thoughts, the students are able to learn a lot in the process of answering the question. One way students benefit from the given example is that the instructor understands the importance of thinking of the students. And it is, since thinking is a significant part of any learning. Students can thereby realise that understanding mathematics is not just about memorizing operations, concepts or facts but about learning to think. Learners need to be able to reflect and effectively convey their own unique thinking. Students need to learn not only how to work on problems but also how to describe their thoughts so that fellow students or teachers can understand. Assessment is one of the best ways through which students can learn to think in a different manner in learning math (Ginsburg, Jacobs, & Lopez, 1993).

During assessments, teachers also get to learn important lessons. Evaluations are not just about giving tests and grading learners. Teachers can also gain insight into the individual thought processes of the students through assessment. Assessment can help a teacher to learn about the ways of thinking, misconceptions, strategies, ideas, and the concepts of the students about math. Evaluating the thought process of a student necessitates a teacher to think critically and to utilize imagination to interpret interviews, performance evaluations, observations and exams to improve understanding of student learning (Ginsburg, Jacobs, & Lopez, 1993).

Chapter 5

The main objectives are:

To provide expectations for math proficiency in operations and numbers

To offer recommendations for structuring curriculum to not only conceptualize but also build proficiency with operations and numbers in the classroom setting.

To offer recommendations for special accommodations and adaptations (based on available studies on students with math LD (learning difficulties). Teachers can…… [read more]

Analyzing Decision Making Opportunities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Community Resources

Policymakers, educators, and every other person involved in education are searching for means of utilizing the limited resources effectively and efficiently to help them solve problems that arise in the education sector and to make quality education available. Their combined efforts have in no small measure helped the realization of the importance and advantages of community involvement in educational accessibility and standard. However, this does not mean that community involvement is a new trend in educational delivery. It didn't just appear suddenly as a solution to certain complex problems that relate to education. As a matter of fact, not every community has played an important role in education. For example, Williams (1994) argues that prior to the middle of the last century, the task of educating children rested solely on the community. Though, there are certain places where the communities get themselves organized to run schools for their children today, the participation of communities in education has not been fully documented or systematically extended to a broader practice (Uemura, 1999).

The Value of Community Resources on Educational Institutions

Education does not only take place in schools, but also in families, communities and the society at large. In spite of the different level of responsibilities assumed by each of the groups, none can be said to be the sole agent that assumes 100% responsibility for the education of children.

Neither parents nor families can be the only ones determining the education of their children so long as the children interact with the outside world and learn from them. Parents as well as families must be supported by communities and the society at large in not only the nurturing, but also the socializing as well as educating of children. Schools remain institutions that prepare the children to make relevant contributions to improve the society where they operate, by getting them equipped with the skills they need in the society. Since every group has a different role it plays in making relevant contribution to the childrens' education, efforts must be made to form a bridge between themas a way of maximizing their contributions. Efficient and effective education can only take place when there is collaboration between these two groups. In accordance with this, it is vital to set up and always attempts to build partnerships between the parents, schools and communities (Uemura, 1999).

Maximizing Limited Resources

All over the world, most governments are committed to the delivery of quality education to their children and wards. Especially after the Jomiten, Thailand, 1990 meeting of World Conference on Education for All, an increasing number of nations have attempted to attain the goal of making education accessible to all. Nevertheless, the lack of capacities and resources has made it hard for governments to do so. Both learning materials and human resources are not easy to come by, mostly, in developing nations. The attention has moved from finding efficient and effective ways of making good use of the available scarce resources. Though several… [read more]

Social Problem of Bullying Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,251 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … truism that a host of social problems -- including violence, mental illness and suicide, racism and homophobia -- can be traced back to behavior in childhood and adolescence. If we were to look for a common behavioral factor in childhood and adolescence that could link all of these varied ills, the most obvious one is bullying. In a very important sense, any act of childhood bullying that receives no prevention, intervention, or correction by adults may very well have two victims -- not only the obvious victim of bullying, but also the bully, who is badly served by adults in being permitted to persist in the behavior, but who is also likely to exhibit higher levels of antisocial behavior into adulthood. If the bullying has an additional racial, sexual, or homophobic component, the lack of adult intervention becomes a tacit approval of such attitudes. A simple act of playground bullying -- beginning with mockery and taunts, and escalating to pushing and shoving -- will, under fuller consideration, reveal that what may seem like a harmless childhood scuffle is actually an opportunity to prevent a panoply of more serious harms in future. In presenting such a fuller consideration, by examining the phenomenon of bullying in its broader ramifications, it becomes clear that bullying must not be considered child's play, but instead should be understood as the greatest social problem that needs to be addressed.

An examination of bullying should begin with the most obvious negative aspect, which is violence. Cohen (2015) usefully reminds us that "experts now recognize bullying as a form of violence" (2). Implicit in Cohen's word "now" is, of course, the salient fact that, before the twenty-first century, bullying was not considered in such a serious way. It is not hard to understand the shift in attitude on bullying, however, when we consider an incident like the Columbine High School shootings in 1999. As Cohen (2012) notes, this significant and troubling event -- in which two high school students turned up at their educational institution with guns, ammunition, and bombs, and killed twelve students, one teacher, and ultimately themselves -- was perpetrated by former bullying victims who "targeted those classmates who bullied them" (2). In considering bullying as a form of violence, then, it should be considered that what might seem a trivial incidence of elementary school rough-housing is not so trivial after understanding that the violence of bullying can provoke later retaliatory violence on this kind of scale. An incident like the Columbine High School shootings should be enough to show that it is no understatement to claim that bullying is the greatest social problem that needs to be addressed. For educators who consider that adult intervention during the bullying of the Columbine shooters in childhood and early adolescence could have prevented fifteen deaths just a few years later, the significance of bullying appears stark. If an easily-performed act of responsible supervision and oversight by adults just a few years earlier could have saved that… [read more]

Different Hats of a School Counselor Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Collins, T. P. (2014). Addressing Mental Health Needs in Our Schools: Supporting the Role of School Counselors. Professional Counselor, 4(5), 413-416.

Easily one of the most common issues that school counselors come across would be the mental health status of students. To be sure, school counselors are in a position to come across and interact with a great number of students that have one or more mental health concerns or issues. Further, a counselor can be a major and common point of intervention for children or teens that are experiencing mental health problems. Just a few factors and topics surrounding all of this would include the professional identity of the counselor, their training, self-efficacy, supervision, burnout, career competencies, cultural competencies and a general measurement of the impact of interventions that are undertaken by the counselor. There are other concerns that have to be addressed such as properly identifying the importance of the role of school counselors and the "hindrances" that can come up when it comes to the discharging and execution of school counselors' duties. A widely hailed solution to empowering school counselors when it comes to mental health issues of students is to use a ground-level and localized approach that helps to build up and improve the abilities and knowledge attributes that counselors tend to have. Indeed, the more prepared and well-versed a school counselor is when a flare-up or incident occurs, the more able and ready that they will be to help those in need.

Goodman-Scott, E., & Carlisle, R. (2015). School Counselors' Roles in Creating and Implementing Social Stories to Serve Students with Autism Spectrum

Disorder. Professional School Counseling, 18(1), 158-168.

Whether it be a matter of under-diagnosis or whether it is a case of more children having the disorder, the amount of children with autism and the resources/people needed to deal with the same is mushrooming in terms of size and gravity. Much of the increased resources allocated to such children and their challenge has had to come from school counselors.

Riggs, D. W., & Bartholomaeus, C. (2015). The Role of School Counsellors and Psychologists in Supporting Transgender People. Australian Educational & Developmental

Psychologist, 32(2), 158-170.

While people being transgender or otherwise within the LGBT realm is nothing new, the topic of and handling of LGBT issues has become increasingly prominent in recent years and the school counselors of the school systems around the United…… [read more]

School Records and Security Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Education

Information services, often shortened to IS or MIS, has become more and more of an integral part of daily life in the United States since the major emergence of the internet in the 1990's. This has been true across the board including in the consumer, business and government paradigms. When it comes to government, there are few sectors that are held in as high a level of prominence as education. Information services can be and are wielded in any number of ways by educational authorities. There are also private schools that do much the same thing on their own behalf. The proper depth and breadth of information services as well as the securing and safekeeping the same are all extremely important and this all needs to be handled by competent and ethical professionals. While information services can be a big and unwieldy mess when mishandled or under-handled, they are necessary in a technology-driven culture and economy and they can be used in adept and novel ways.


This report shall be divided into two major dimensions, that being usefulness and security. When it comes to usefulness, there are a number of basic things that all school systems and administration bodies should use information systems for. These include things like student information, names of parents or guardians (including their contact information), emergency contacts in case there is a medical or other problem, medical issues that a student may have such as asthma, diabetes and so forth as well as school records like attendance, grades, disciplinary issues (if any) and so on. However, information services can also be used to track things like who accesses secure areas, video surveillance (both live and recorded) and the monitoring of internet use and activity on both student and teacher/administrator computers. Indeed, if there is anything untoward happening on school systems, it needs to be detected as soon as possible and addressed fully with the same expediency. Some teachers/students may take issues with this oversight but they can be fully warned and informed about what is watched…… [read more]

Using Bloom S Taxonomy for an Excel Class Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Learning: Spreadsheet Applications

Learning Objectives

By the end of this course students will be able:

To describe the uses of and interpret a basic spreadsheet using Excel: Students will be able to launch Excel, identify the different components of an Excel window, navigate between different cells, columns, and rows, "insert," "delete," and "reposition" cells when prompted to do so by the instructor, and be able to open and close an Excel file with minimal errors ("Course Syllabus" 2015). They will also be able to easily open up a new Excel worksheet and name it.

To understand the different functions of spreadsheets in various applications: Students will be able to explain why using certain functions would be useful under certain circumstances, such as when constructing a budget or displaying information for a marketing report. They will be able to link worksheets and workbooks and create, sort, and filter lists to facilitate their functioning in their offices with minimal errors ("Course Syllabus" 2015).

To apply the use of Excel to a variety of common, everyday work-related problems. Students will be given information in spreadsheet form and be asked to answer a variety of questions based upon the displayed data. They will be able to create a chart using the Chart Wizard to share information and to explain why this function is useful ("Course Syllabus" 2015).

To analyze and derive solutions for a variety of work-related problems using a spreadsheet. Students will be asked to compose their own spreadsheets using data and from that data answer questions. They will know when to use macros to automate tasks to improve…… [read more]

Gender Equality in Access to Education Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Secrets to Increasing Females in Technology," Shanahan (2006) talks about ways of revising pedagogical methods and classroom environments as the primary solution to the gender gap in technology. As Shanahan (2006) points out, societal messages, parental messages, and the media can also play a role in stimulating female achievement in STEM courses. The methods by which the classroom and pedagogical methods can change to encourage greater participation by girls are relatively simple and straightforward. Most importantly, these methods do not require girls themselves to change in order to "fit" the standards established in traditional learning environments. Instead, the learning environment can encourage collaboration and problem solving that plays to the strengths of its female members, without any detrimental effects on male students either.

This article focuses on gender as a core variable in access to effective technology instruction in grade school. Shanahan (2006) indicates why it is important to encourage more females to thrive in technology and other STEM courses. Moreover, the article shows that the problem of underachievement is systemic. That is, parents and the media may be inadvertently sending messages to both males and females about what they are capable of. These messages can either help or hinder the students. As of yet, there are no direct policies related to making changes to the classroom that would implement some of the ideas that Shanahan (2006) puts forward, but educational leaders and all administrators can and should consider some of the methods. Most importantly, teachers and parents can work more conscientiously to transform gender stereotypes and roles by actively showcasing female technology leaders as role models, working with the curricula in different ways, and making sure that the classroom environment and pedagogy are built on evidence-based practices.

In "Linking gender and race in peace education," Kester & Glustein (2009) point out that gender is the most universal diversity variable. Even in cultures that have relatively little class hierarchy or cultures that are relatively homogenous ethnically, gender…… [read more]

Differences in Access to Technology Among Low Income A2 Outline Answer

A2 Outline Answer  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Children and Internet Use," Jackson, von Eye & Biocca (2003) use data from the HomeNetToo longitudinal field study, which was funded in part by the National Science Foundation. The project started in the year 2000, and was design to measure a sample of families over 18 months. A total of 90 families were included in the data collection, totaling 117 adults and 140 children. The sample was taken from a medium-sized city in the Midwestern United States. Average age of the children was 13 years, and the majority of the children (83%) were African-American. The majority of adults (67%) were African-American and female (80%). The objective of the survey was to record both antecedents and consequences of home internet use in a cohort of low-income families, as well as to provide raw statistics for research and analysis. The Jackson, von Eye & Biocca (2003) research uses data from the HomeNetToo study to discuss not only patterns of use observed, but also the social, psychological, and academic consequences of using the internet for low-income children. The results show that the Internet had no measurable effect on the children's social life or on psychological measures, but internet use did improve the academic outcomes for this sample. Jackson, von Eye & Biocca (2003) hypothesize as to why these results were observed in the HomeNetToo study.

Economic and social status is the primary independent variable in this research, which aims to highlight some of the differences in technology use among low-income families and particularly children in those families. The research shows that low income families do not use the internet for communication, and the researchers speculate that the reason for the lack of use of email and other forms of digital communication would be that such technologies have yet to become entrenched in low-income communities. Furthermore, the research did not reveal any changes to the children's overall self-worth after internet use. Yet the use of the internet did lead to measurable positive impacts on student grades and test scores. The research therefore suggests that children from low income families would…… [read more]

Analyzing School Advisory Programs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … School Advisory Programs

The importance of school advisory cannot be ignored by the schools since they are the initial learning years in a student's life. The paper focuses on the current theories and explanations and how their practical implications have affected the advisory programs in schools. The proposed relationships among the constructs and the ambiguities have been discussed in later section as well.

Current Theories and Explanations

Advisor mentoring is linked to the 'attachment theory' that states that child's experiences with his caregiver in the early stages of his life influences the expectations with others in his subsequent stages of life (Bretherton, 1992, p. 759). The current theories are in accordance with the attachment theory and verify that a child's behavior throughout his lifespan is influenced by the care he had in his early childhood days, as expressed in the article "Secondary school advisors as mentors and secondary attachment figures" by Mark Van Ryzin (2010).

Developing on this concept, a valuable theory, presented by Bronfenbrenner in 1979, can be of great help to analyze present literature and research studies. Bronfenbrenner argued that a child's development is understood by probing deeply into the context of a child's environmental factors influencing his development (Bronfenbrenner, 1994, p. 37). It is clearly conceptualized in his study that a child's immediate environment has a deep impact on his mental and emotional growth. This theory can be put in line with the advisory programs so that a child's progress can be studied by evaluating his relationship with the advisor.

Proposed Relationships among Constructs

The proposed constructs in various studies are attachment network, closeness to advisor, feeling of assurance, learning engagement, perceptions of advisor and peer support, psychological adjustment, and academic achievement. In another research from the bibliography, the most plausible reasons the schools present for not implementing advisory programs are those of time constraints, unclear focus, need of leadership and organization, difficulties in implementation, and the programs' sustainability, such as in the article "Linchpins or lost time: Creating effective advisories" written by Bil Johnson (2013). The overall relationships among the constructs can be seen when the school's willingness to implement these programs is pronounced, and they are willing to give time to run the advisory program. Therefore, they will be more engaged to invite children to take help from their advisors, hence leading to better school performance.

Also, in another study counselors indicated that they actually want to act on building their mission of ensuring that the children perform well and for that, they are highly-equipped. The counselors did not fulfill these goals in practice, since they thought they had unclear perception of their role and high administrative workload, which resulted in spending less time with the children for giving them advisory sessions. This suggests that another proposed construct can be 'unclear conception of counselor roles' or 'insufficient training due to increased administrative burdens'. If these constructs are linked with the above-mentioned ones then it would be revealed that workload hinders the schools to… [read more]

Four Articles Related to Education and Pedagogy A2 Outline Answer

A2 Outline Answer  |  3 pages (963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



As UNICEF (2016) puts it, "Universal access to quality education is not a privilege -- it is a basic human right." The readings show that even in wealthy developed countries, girls are underperforming and underachieving in STEM courses. Female teachers in schools have also reported gender inequity. Without radical change to the role of females in society, it will be impossible to bridge the gender gap. One of the most important solutions to the problem of gender inequity in STEM achievement is through the software and games industries. By developing toys and video games that appeal to and encourage girls, companies can redesign the fundamental pedagogical tools used in the classrooms. These types of changes to the classroom materials will alter the way female instructors and educational leaders view themselves, relate to their colleagues and peers, and also relate to their students. As a result, all students -- both male and female -- will enjoy a more diverse and stimulating learning environment. Even simple changes, such as alterations to the themes of games, the characters playing those games, the colors used in the games, and other seemingly superficial alterations can make a difference when trying to appeal to a different cohort of students.


In the eSchoolNews article, the authors talk about a misappropriation and misuse of funding for computer technologies in the classroom. The eRate case is deplorable, as millions of dollars worth of equipment went to "waste" in a warehouse ("Federal probe turns up $5 million in unused computer equipment," 2004). There is no excuse for this obviously fraudulent behavior, and this issue bears closer scrutiny as it reveals a deeper system of corruption endemic in the state of Illinois and the school system in general.

This story draws attention to the ways public education funding can be misappropriated when elected officials and their cronies become corrupt. The organizational cultures in these situations are to blame. The teachers and even the school administrators often do not realize these types of behaviors are taking place by their supervisors in political positions of power. Educators often fight for additional materials, funding, or resources like computers. They know that, for instance, the eRate funding was given to the local school system but have not yet witnessed the fruits of that funding in their classrooms. A more concerted oversight effort is needed, with possibly a conscientious third party watchdog organization that prevents corruption.


In the Valli & Buese (2007) article, the authors discuss the changing roles of teachers in the post-NCLB educational environment. Without a doubt, teachers have been under considerably greater pressure than ever before to perform in order to meet goals that go beyond the simple expectation that they improve the learning outcomes of their students. High-stakes accountability refers to the slew of standardized testing that often inhibits instructional quality and pedagogical integrity. Instead of teaching for the students,…… [read more]

Analyzing Behavioral Consultation in the School Setting Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  8 pages (2,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Behavioral Consultation in the School Setting: Annotated Bibliography

Dufrene, B. A., Lestremau, L., & Zoder-Martell, K. (2014). DIRECT BEHAVIORAL CONSULTATION: EFFECTS ON TEACHERS' PRAISE AND STUDENT DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR. Psychology in The Schools, 51(6), 567-580.

This study was conducted to examine the direct behavioral consultation being offering in two classes, following a study that found that teachers were not giving expected… [read more]

Multiple Intelligence and Gardner S Theory Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Howard Gardner believes every human being has multiple intelligences. They can be strengthened and nurtured or the opposite, weakened and ignored. He claims every person has to a varying degree, all nine intelligences. The first one is verbal-linguistic intelligence and this intelligence can be strengthened through public speaking in the classroom. By students conversing with each other, they enhance their ability to convey meanings of words and understand the rhythm they impart.

The next is mathematical intelligence. This can be strengthened in students via practicing math problems and identifying/discerning numerical or logical patterns. Musical intelligence can be taught through playing an instrument, or even singing and dancing. Visual-spatial intelligence can be taught through students practicing drawing, sculpting. Dancing or other movement based activities like sports can improve bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences can be done through students engaging in group work. Communication and observation strengthen both these intelligences. Biology and husbandry can improve naturalist intelligence. Students can improve their level of existential intelligence through philosophy and examination of abstract concepts and theories.

By briefly covering these multiple intelligences and explaining how each person has them, students will see that anyone can strengthen their various intelligences simply by actively participating in all the various subjects a normal education offers.

Going back to multiple intelligences, three of the nine can be examined further. Naturalist intelligence is seen in a high level in zoologists, astronomers, and biologists. They can appreciate and recognize the relationship humans have with the natural world. Their understanding of plants and animals, the world, helps them make realizations and connections other people would not be able to make. Great composers and singers have a high level of musical intelligence. They are naturally gifted when it comes to rhythm, tone, and pitch. They can compose, perform, and appreciate musical patterns…… [read more]

Culture as Part of Learning Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,438 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Pedagogy Theory

The author of this brief report has been asked to synthesize and analyze, rather than simply summarize, a chapter from the Nieto text about pedagogy and empowerment. A good read of the chapter reveals some strong and prescient points about learning and how to empower people to do the same. What follows in this report is a set… [read more]