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Higher Education Policy in the USA and the UK A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Quality Policy in Higher Education in the U.S.A. and the UK

Description of the Policy Issue

At a national level in the UK and U.S., advanced education quality strategies have step-by-step moved far from quality certification considered in more process orientated terms. This has moved strategy improvement towards an origination of value as characterized by student accomplishment of characterized results built up in learning norms, which depict what a graduate ought to know and have the capacity to do (Sadler, 2012). These moves are a piece of an expanding concentrate on learning guidelines and their national and universal equivalence in a quickly changing globalized world, as exemplified by activities, for example, the OECD's Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO) venture (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2014). Inside of the element worldwide instructive scene, advancements of responsibility that emphasize on quantitative correlation have gotten to be predominant inside of an instructive worldview capably molded by neoliberal intrigues. Be that as it may, whilst these approach moves have raised strains and hastened generous contestation, in the meantime, there has been stasis, or, best case scenario, restricted advancement towards having the capacity to make legitimate and solid quantitative correlations of complex discovery that is normal for advanced education (Rust, 2014)

However, in the United States, where accreditation of institutions of higher learning has been a major issue, this has been the case for a long time. Emerging from this new development has been the question as to who has the mandate to come up with the criteria for judgement or evaluating quality. Ultimately, the government of a country is responsible for this through its agencies. It communicates its values indirectly through these bodies so that the rules and the regulations that they set out reflect the government's values and policies (OECD, 2003).

Description of the Perceived Policy Options

The steady appraisal of students' accomplishment of learning against characterized guidelines speaks to an extensive test. Specifically, dependable quantitative correlation of students' accomplishment of learning norms remains a blessed chalice (Massaro, 2013) in quality confirmation. This pressure, in the middle of move and stasis, has been, we contend, particularly tricky for the scholarly endeavors, both in the UK and the U.S. (Yorke, & Vidovich, 2015). There are many issues around the oversight of institutions of higher learning that the governments seek to address. The governments look at the quality of higher education that is offered in view of the independence that institutions are given as well as their own ability to develop strengths in the deliverance of their mandates. Governance of these institutions touches on various things, including how much autonomy these institutions exercise in the running of their affairs. It also touches on the degree to which these institutions depend on the government to fund their programs and also their…… [read more]


Evaluation of Educational Processes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,206 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … Educational Processes

Continuing professional development (CPD) is a term that is commonly used to refer to the process of tracking and recording knowledge, skills, and experience gained in the work setting. In the educational or classroom setting, CPD refers to knowledge, skills, and experienced gained formally or informally when teaching, which is beyond initial training. Given its role in promoting the growth and development of teachers, continuing professional development has emerged as an important educational process. Consequently, this concept has attracted considerable attention among professionals in this sector. Some of the major ways through which teachers and educators implement continuing professional development include peer observation and principal mentoring. These processes are associated with several benefits though their implementation may be characterized by some obstacles that require effective strategies to overcome them.

Peer Observation and Principal Mentoring

Peer observation is a tool for continuing professional development since it's a means of evaluating and enhancing the quality of teaching. Generally, it is a form of peer review in the education sector through which teachers and educators partner with their colleagues to observe one another's practice, offer feedback, and hold discussions that focus on promoting reflection (Davys, 2007, p.489). Through this tool, teachers do not feel isolated, particularly in large schools since they observe their peers in other classrooms and learn important aspects of their practice that they can utilize in their own classrooms. Moreover, teachers and educators share their practices through peer observation in order to boost their teaching practices rather than scrutinize their colleagues. However, the benefits of peer observation as a tool for continuing professional development can only be realized when it's implemented with a clear and specific focus in the learning environment (Carey, 2006).

On the contrary, principal mentoring is a tool for continuing professional development in which school principals engage in peer coaching and mentoring, which is increasing in popularity. Actually, principal mentoring is an extension of peer observation, which has proven to be extremely beneficial in promoting professional development, especially when utilized concurrently with classroom observation (Rose & Reynolds, n.d.). Principal mentoring helps new principals to familiarize themselves with the written rules as well as to become attune with the school's culture in light of the unwritten rules in the school. Principal mentoring involves articulating vision with staff, meeting the individual needs of learners, attending to the social and emotional needs of learners, and providing strong reality-based programs. Through this tool, teachers create a culture in the classroom where learners feel safe, accepted, and can take risks (Ellis, 2012).

Benefits of Peer Observation and Principal Mentoring

As previously mentioned, peer observation and principal mentoring are educational processes with significant benefits in the learning environment and practice. Peer observation generates numerous benefits for individual practitioners (teachers or educators), service (learning process), and service user (learners). One of the benefits of peer observation is creating a sense of professional competency among individual practitioners. This process contributes to this benefit through acting as a means of observation and… [read more]


Analyzing the Pedagogical and Andragogical Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Pedagogical and Andragogic Approaches to Instruction and Learning

Unlike andragogy, pedagogy depends on four suppositions. Firstly, pedagogy regards the learner as dependent. The teacher identifies what should be taught. In andragogy, learner's natural maturation is expected, which enable them to keep on advancing from dependent to independent mode.

Secondly, in pedagogy learners', previous knowledge have less importance. The experience of teacher, textbook, or other teaching material is considered the most important criterion. However, in andragogy previous knowledge of learner is considered a valuable addition that plays vital role in the learning process. Basic methods that are used in pedagogy are lecture, recommended study, and other external sources. In andragogy, activity-based methods, discussion, case studies, role-play, field observation and other relevant techniques are more important.

The third supposition is the anticipated outcome of the first. It is supposed in pedagogy that learners are willing to acquire knowledge that society expects them. Moreover, as most of the learners aim to have same knowledge at the same time; therefore, a moderately developed curriculum is used. Andragogy has a different approach, as learners get knowledge whenever they have opportunity to learn to deal with day-to-day issues (Knowles, 1980).

In andragogy, knowledge is provided based on real-life scenarios that ought to be ordered as per learners' requirements and willingness to learn. The last supposition of pedagogy is, mostly knowledge is provided keeping in mind its future prospects i.e. all knowledge transferred will be utilized and implemented at some time in the future (Knowles, 1980).

Thus, the focus is on learning a subject and to, ultimately provide expertise (from the basics to the advance level). On the contrary, in andragogy it is deemed that education is a continual course of skills advancements. The aim of…… [read more]


Analyzing University Accreditation in the US A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  2 pages (817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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University Accreditation in the U.S.A.

Economic analyses of the American and British higher education systems present interesting, though possibly partial, understandings of the weak and strong points of market competitiveness as a way to coordinate higher education. American higher education represents one among the most market-based educational systems across the globe, as is typically noted. The presence of several privately-financed universities and colleges, by state-supported public universities, which vie, on a national level, with the former (i.e., private institutes), for research funding and students, as well as by national policies offering individuals (instead of institutions) with research aid and students, fostering market competition (Dill, 2003). While federal authorities don't directly accredit higher education institutions, they do provide their approval of accrediting agencies, which, in government's view, is deemed a "trustworthy authority" on training/education quality offered by accredited institutions (Higher Education Accreditation, 2013).

Furthermore, America's education department recognizes specialized/programmatic accrediting organizations for engagement in other federal organization-administered programs. For instance, participation in some specific agriculture department-administered loan schemes necessitates a vet school degree; the institution requires American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation. Hence, the education department also recognizes numerous programmatic accrediting organizations, whose accreditation is needed for federal activities falling outside of Higher Education Act's Title IV (Higher Education Accreditation, 2013). America's federal and state governments assign several billion dollars per annum for supporting the nation's universities. Astonishingly, no governmental standards exist for education quality at American universities. Rather, private, not-for-profit organizations known as accrediting organizations establish minimum educational standards in U.S. universities (Standler, 2002).

The central government of the United Kingdom has, since the start, had relatively much greater power than the U.S. federal government, in the area of public services, like education, welfare, and training. Concurrently, variations in English, Scottish, Northern Irish, and Welsh regional governance have led to fairly different systems of education. Novel constitutional amendments are swiftly influencing them all. Just like America, the UK began a literacy program during the early seventies, characterized by one-on-one tutoring, volunteers, and improvised, frequently creative learning and teaching strategies. The "Right to Read" educational campaign in the UK, launched by volunteer advocates and backed by the media and politicians, was directed at mobilizing local and national governmental resources, raising awareness among the masses, and achieving extensive involvement in adult learning and teaching. Though initially perceived as a short-range response strategy to a crisis that was also of a transient nature, the initiative, in fact, established the foundations for a…… [read more]


Academic Goals Career Goals Strengths and Weaknesses Writing Sample Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Academic Goals, Career Goals, Strengths and Weaknesses: Writing Sample

Writing Sample: Academic Goals, Career Goals, Strengths and Weaknesses

As a child, I lacked a clear view of what exactly I wanted to become in future. At the age of four, I was determined to become a stay-at-home mother, looking after her children, packing delicious snacks for them to enjoy at school, and tucking them to bed nicely at the end of the day, just like I had observed my own mother do. As I grew older and entered college, however, I realized that I was always mesmerized by the idea of taking care of children, working with them, and teaching them new things. I realized then that working with young children was my passion, and it certainly was what I wanted to do for the rest of my life.

My career goal, which I have been working towards throughout my undergraduate and postgraduate studies, is to become a renowned and respected K-12 teacher in a recognized international school. The pre-requisite classes that I have taken during my years in college have accorded me invaluable opportunities to interact with actual elementary school teachers, with years of experience in working with and teaching young children. The advice and knowledge that they so readily passed on helped me get a clearer picture of what a teaching major was all about, and what I need to do to be able to articulate in a way that is comprehensible to young children. These classes have molded and prepared me to become a great teacher, and I look forth to the day when I will see others succeed from the knowledge that will I have passed over to them. I chose an international school for my career goal because, having learnt in one myself, I feel that these schools are richer in terms of diversity,…… [read more]


Further and Higher Education Act A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  2 pages (358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Higher Education: The Further and Higher Education Act

The Further and Higher Education Act: Higher Education

The Further and Higher Education Act of 1992 in England

The Further and Higher Education Act of 1992 was passed by the British government in 1992 with the aim of changing the way higher education is funded and administered in England and Wales. One of its core objectives was to transform further education colleges into corporate bodies and hence, take them away from the control of local education authorities to that of the Further Education Funding Councils. This was geared at ensuring that such colleges were better-funded, lecturers had better terms and conditions of employment, and the quality of education offered was higher. The second aim of the Act was to abolish the binary divide that characterized the higher education sector, and to allow polytechnics to take on the title of 'university'. This brought them under the coverage of the Higher Education Funding Council, according them better opportunities to improve their funding sources and to consequently offer higher-quality education to students. The third…… [read more]


Visual Impaired Class Curriculum Development and Classroom Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Classroom Management and Curriculum Development in Visual Impaired Class

Classroom Management & Curriculum Development in Visual Impaired Class

Education is aimed at the maximization of lifelong success. Visually impaired students are characterized by unique learning requirements, which have to be dealt with for them to have access to mainstream curriculum and develop into independent, productive individuals. New data reveals that… [read more]


Education and the Role of Advisory Programs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,785 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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School advisory programs enable growth in students when advisors successfully connect and built trust with the student. When school advisory programs fail to provide that connection, students tend to dismiss what the kinds of programs have to offer and miss an opportunity on a chance for a personalized education. Steps must be taken to ensure school advisory programs meet the… [read more]


Special Education Programs Minorities Overrepresentation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  19 pages (15,814 words)
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¶ … Northcentral University, 2013

The Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education

Concept Paper

Requirements for the Degree of

CHESTER R SMITH II

Prescott Valley, Arizona

Abstarct

Over representation of minorities in special education has been an issue that has been raised over many years. Dunn (1968) questioned this when he noted that the placement of these children in such… [read more]


Points for Learning Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Refection and Learning Points

Every individual is distinct in his or her own way, as we all have dissimilar perceptions, experiences and outlooks. In essence, our notions regarding life are centered on our perceptions and the manner in which we view the world. My personal philosophy is shaped by my life experiences and my surroundings. The philosophical approach selected is phenomenology. In essence, this encompasses the temperate reflection on my own lived experiences. My own perception of the world is that we as human beings constantly experience either pain or pleasure throughout the course of our lives. It is through these aspects that point out as to what actions we ought to undertake as well as make a determination as to what we eventually do. More so, it lies on the standards of what is wrong and what is right (Van Manen, 1990).

I strongly have the perception that the surroundings of an individual play a significant part in the manner in which they perceive, interact, and operate in the world. For instance, I got to understand what is right and wrong from the way I was raised by my family. The values that were instilled upon me since my childhood are the ones that have been able to teach me to discern from what is right and wrong. When I did very well in school my parents congratulated me and encouraged me to do more of the same. However, when I stole something or lied, I would be scolded and sternly asked not to do it again. These aspects enabled me to learn what I ought to do and what I eventually do. More so, as I grew up and became older, I attained knowledge and came to be more conversant of who I am. In this way, I am able to undertake decisions by myself. Nonetheless, it is these childhood…… [read more]


Test Score to Measure Teacher Performance Critique Article Critique

Article Critique  |  6 pages (2,192 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … educator evaluation systems that relies only one component i.e. student performance on standardized tests seems to be unpopular with teachers and is controversial among statisticians (Ballou & Springer, 2015). Although there are reasonable concerns about the prevailing system used in teacher assessment, there are various decent reasons that raise alarm about assertions that evaluating teachers' effectiveness mainly through… [read more]


Inclusive Lesson Plan on Grade 8 Geometry Mathematics Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Geometry Grade 8

Approximate Time Duration:

Standards / Objectives

Big Ideas / Essential Questions

Concepts (Know)

Skills (Able To Do): SWBAT:

Pre-Assessment -- Who Are Your Students?

How Student Learning will be Evidenced

Diversity Considerations

Family Involvement

Differentiated Instruction

What will be differentiated and how?

Product

DI will be based on:

Readiness (ability and schema)

Interest

Learning and thinking styles

Multiple intelligences

What support will you provide for students who need extra assistance?

Flexible grouping:

Individual

Pairs, triads, quads

Small group

Whole group

Will learning be competitive or collaborative?

How can curriculum be compacted for students who are ready to be challenged, go deeper, move faster through the curriculum? What alternative choices would be provided to these students?

How will you stretch students who are ready to be challenged?

Teacher Reflection

How did the lesson / unit go?

What would I change?

Results of post-test:

How will I address those who need re-teaching?

How will interventions be provided?

Who are the students who need interventions with the concepts and skills in this unit / lesson?

Strategies Used in the Explicit Instruction

Explicit Instruction

Outline the specific lesson / unit steps for the teaching process -- the overall instructional plan.

Rigor & Relevance

Thinking Strategies Focus

Schema

Determining Importance

Drawing Inferences

Asking Questions

Synthesizing Information

Using sensory images

Using Fix-up Strategies

Effective Instructional Strategies

(Marzano, Pickering, Pollock: Classroom Instruction That Works)

Identifying Similarities & Differences

Summarizing

Note taking

Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Homework & Practice

Nonlinguistic Representations

Cooperative Learning

Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

Generating & Testing Hypotheses

Cues, Questions, & Advanced Organizers

Additional Instructional Strategies

(ICLE Instructional Strategies Teacher Handbook -- Daggett, Rigor/Relevance Framework)

Brainstorming

Demonstration / Modeling

Lecture / Memorization

Presentations / Projects

Strategies to Engage the Student in Learning

(R.Billmeyer: Strategies To Engage the Mind of the Learner)

Opening Strategies

Vocabulary Strategies

Strategies for Informative and Narrative Text

Questioning Strategies

Graphic Organizers

Information-Building Strategies

Discussion Strategies

Grouping / Energizing Activities

Reflection Strategies

Closing Activities

Curriculum

Students use the idea of distances and angles and their behavior under dilations, translations, rotations and reflections as well as congruence and similarity ideas to analyze and solve the problems to describe two dimensional figures. The students show the sum of triangle formed by the straight line while they also show line configuration differences that make up the triangle. Pythagorean Theorem is also explained through decomposing the square in two ways.

Common Core Standards

Understand congruence and similarity by the use of physical models

Using informal arguments to make various facts of angle sum and exterior of the triangles.

Comprehension of dimensional figures as the same as two other dimensional figures

Explaining effects of translations, rotations, reflections and dilations

Comprehension of dimensional figure as congruent with another figure

Applying and Comprehending Pythagorean Theorem

Applying Pythagorean Theorem to find out the distance between a coordinate system

Applying Pythagorean Theorem to find the missing lengths of the triangles

Explaining and providing Pythagorean proof and converse

Solving the real world problems and mathematical problems including… [read more]


Hutchinson School District Research Design Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Hutchinson school district wants to investigate the effectiveness of a new curriculum designed at teaching English as a second language to elementary students. The design for the study will be a quasi-experimental design (Creswell, 2012). The independent variable will be the implementation of the new curriculum. The dependent variable will be the test score on the Stafford English Language Proficiency Test (Stanford ELP). The school district can implement an effective quasi-- experimental design designed by doing the following:

First, it is important to select two separate classes at the same grade level that include an equivalent number of students that would potentially benefit from this intervention. It would be best to utilize classes at different schools to avoid any potential breaches of the security and internal validity of the quasi-experimental design. Teachers in each condition will go about the normal business of teaching their classes without knowing that their data will be used in a quasi-experiment. One class will serve as a control group (students being taught as they are traditionally taught) and the other class will serve as an experimental group (students receiving the new curriculum). Teachers in each of the classes will not be informed that there will be a comparison between the two classes. Thus, utilizing two different schools will also limit any complications that might occur if students in the same school from different classes became aware that they were involved in different programs (demand characteristics from both teachers and students).

Secondly, both classes will take the Stanford ELP at the very beginning of the school year to establish a baseline score. At the end of the school year the Stanford ELP will be re-administered the both classes (there are parallel versions of the test; Pearson Assessments, 2015). This will allow for comparison between the classes regarding the relative the treatment in both the control and treatment…… [read more]


Challenges and Behavior of Teachers With Students of Disabilities Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,015 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Disabled students at times behave in a way that is difficult for the teachers to handle. They sometimes feel frustrated for not able to fulfill a required task or even behave extremely emotionally because of social pressure. It is important that the teachers respond positively so that instead of continuing with their behavior, the student can learn to progress in positive ways. A number of teachers realize that the academic potential of the disabled students was high, and several participants possessed advanced oral skills, compared to their reading or writing abilities. Nevertheless, all of these students recount countless instances wherein their teachers, puzzled as a result of the superior skills exhibited by them in certain areas, constantly called them lazy, instructing them to 'work harder' and 'shape up' (Reis & Colbert, 2014).

Negative response

All of the students with learning disabilities can remember negative encounters with some teachers. The experiences were not isolated; every student had similar experiences and in nearly 50% of the cases, the emotional scars and awful memories persist even now. Every child could specifically recall no less than one teacher that played the role of a highly negative force during their school life; a majority of students could recall two or more such teachers. Students were denied opportunities by some teachers, which would have helped them in using different necessary compensation strategies for achieving success at school. Numerous students spoke of teachers who would employ punishment in several forms when they failed to keep pace with peers or work similarly to them. For instance, students recall missed recesses owing to their inability to complete class work, as well as detentions on account of completing (in teachers' perception) poor work because of sloppiness or laziness, rather than because of some learning disability. These negative incidents with teachers typically culminated in anger, leading to insights about what action would have helped improve their experiences at school (Reis & Colbert, 2014).

Three different approaches developed/attempting to develop to work with or manage more negative responses constructively

About half of the learning-disabled had to turn to professional counseling following graduation from high school for achieving reconciliation (Reis & Colbert, 2014). Teachers must contribute to the guidance curriculum by co-teaching and observing guidance lessons, for instance, eliminating negative attitudes towards gifted children suffering from learning disabilities, as well as every other student. Moreover, upon completion of the guidance lesson, teachers can maintain learning among students by paying more attention to instances wherein their pupils fail to, say, accept and appreciate individual differences. Through this awareness, teachers can more likely be receptive to the emotional and social needs of individual student well before issues can surface (Reis & Colbert, 2014). Learning disabled as well as academically-able students' parents usually find their personal role in academic development of their teenaged and younger children challenging. This challenge may be manifested in pressure on children by parents to perform well and attain high grades. Thus, school counselors must aid students in acquiring parental support, in… [read more]


Reason to Skip College and Save Money Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,779 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … College and Its Effects on the American Dream

The increasing cost of college is obliterating the American Dream. It is now to such a point where that dream is now a nightmare. Student loan debt in the U.S. now equals 1.3 trillion dollars and there are roughly 7 million borrowers who have not made a single payment on… [read more]


Implementing Lesson Study in an Elementary School Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Teachers of Reading With Technology and Internet-Based Collaboration

Although the fundamental principles of professional educator development involve face-to-face as well as online platforms, online learning opportunities are becoming more prevalent, making the need for teachers to improve their knowledge and skills in the use of these tools more important than in the past (Hunt-Barron & Tracy, 2015). To… [read more]


Mathematics Instruction for Students Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Mathematics Instruction for Students with Disabilities GRADES 7-12

Assessment is the process of gaining insight into the motivation and knowledge of learners. It can either be informal or formal. Assessment should not only facilitate the learning of fundamental math concepts but should also provide important information to both the learners and their instructors. Assessment/evaluation is also important for kindergarten children. A statement released recently by the National Council of Teachers in Mathematics (NCTM) argued that teachers of children at the Early Childhood Level ought to actively introduce the young learners to math language, methods, symbols and operations using different, proper teaching strategies and experiences. These should be assessed using observation or any other kind of appropriate assessments to make sure that the instructional methods fit the young learner's math needs. Likewise, other early childhood experts stress on the significance of repeated questioning, listening, and observation as some of the most effective instructional methods when teaching young children in the day-to-day context (Copley 1999).

There are number of ways that students can benefit from evaluation. For instance, when an instructor in a clinical interview asks the people he is teaching to describe their thoughts, the students are able to learn a lot in the process of answering the question. One way students benefit from the given example is that the instructor understands the importance of thinking of the students. And it is, since thinking is a significant part of any learning. Students can thereby realise that understanding mathematics is not just about memorizing operations, concepts or facts but about learning to think. Learners need to be able to reflect and effectively convey their own unique thinking. Students need to learn not only how to work on problems but also how to describe their thoughts so that fellow students or teachers can understand. Assessment is one of the best ways through which students can learn to think in a different manner in learning math (Ginsburg, Jacobs, & Lopez, 1993).

During assessments, teachers also get to learn important lessons. Evaluations are not just about giving tests and grading learners. Teachers can also gain insight into the individual thought processes of the students through assessment. Assessment can help a teacher to learn about the ways of thinking, misconceptions, strategies, ideas, and the concepts of the students about math. Evaluating the thought process of a student necessitates a teacher to think critically and to utilize imagination to interpret interviews, performance evaluations, observations and exams to improve understanding of student learning (Ginsburg, Jacobs, & Lopez, 1993).

Chapter 5

The main objectives are:

To provide expectations for math proficiency in operations and numbers

To offer recommendations for structuring curriculum to not only conceptualize but also build proficiency with operations and numbers in the classroom setting.

To offer recommendations for special accommodations and adaptations (based on available studies on students with math LD (learning difficulties). Teachers can…… [read more]


Alternative School and Teaching Formats Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Hybrid Classrooms

The author of this report would pose a question to the reader. That question would be whether one has sat in a class and wondered why one is not being reached. Alternately, the question might be whether one cannot "get" what the teacher is trying to do. This might be because the teacher has not utilized the right approach for a given student and their needs. Hybrid classes have many benefits and they tend to improve the classroom environment in which a student learns. This is because a hybrid approach offers a mix of ideas and methods and does not just emphasize or focus on one main idea. This is helpful because students have different needs and ways of learning. As such, to present them a different method is like appealing to all the different ways that they are open to learning. This paper will show that hybrid classes has many benefits in improving student learning. These possible benefits include the allowing of students to be more involved with their class environment, it tends to improve student work quality because of the flexible timeframes and it helps them to be more responsible as a student. While there are some detractors of hybrid classrooms and the use of technology in the same, the good would seem to far outweigh the bad.

Analysis

In a nutshell, hybrid classrooms are those that use different techniques and structures so as to more effectively reach and teach students that may be underserved by traditional classroom formats and schedules. An easy example would be a student that is very sharp and smart but the student is left bored and disengaged because the lessons being covered have already been mastered by that student. Another example would be a student that truly prefers to use computer-based learning rather than reading out of a textbook. This report shall discuss options that can be implemented to combat these issues. One way to implement a hybrid-style class is to have a flexible time schedule (Valencia, 2015). Fixed times are the norm but there are those that question the need for such rigidity. Sometimes it acts like an unnecessary constraint. One example of this in motion would be the class dismissal bell ringing when the teacher is making an important point. Some assert it is better to have the teacher dismiss the students when he or she is ready to have them leave and this would obviously not occur mid-lesson or mid-thought. Further, if the student needs some extra time the teacher can comply with this request since there is no need to hurry due to a fixed schedule. If all teachers are under this same plan, it makes the school as a whole very flexible and hybrid in nature. This methodology makes the school more appealing for the student because the students sees that they are having their needs met. This is coming from both the individual teachers as well as the school as a whole. The students will… [read more]


Solutions to Violence in the Nation S Schools A2 Outline Answer

A2 Outline Answer  |  2 pages (700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … optional external literature concerning violence in schools and/or other training facilities, how far should administrators go in securing the students, personnel, buildings, and premises?

Supreme Court has repeatedly held that students' constitutional rights do not end when they step foot into a school, but the Court and an enormous body of precedent also emphasize the fundamental obligation of school administrators to ensure the safety of students and personnel as well as school buildings and premises (Robelen, 2009). Therefore, the question concerning how far administrators should go in their efforts to secure this safety depends on the confirmed level of threat that exists as well as the potential for risk (Triplett & Allen, 2014). In some cases, even the perceived potential for risk has caused some school administrators to implement zero tolerance for violence policies that critics charge unfairly target minority members (Triplett & Allen, 2014).

The rationale in support of these charges is based on the fact that in some cases, zero tolerance policies have been implemented by inner-city schools that are largely minority in composition in response to shootings at suburban schools that are predominately white (Triplett & Allen, 2014). Therefore, the risk exists that taken to its extreme, schools could become armed fortresses that brook no dissension or critical thinking.

Do you think armed guards should be hired as a deterrent to violence?

Certainly, some school districts across the country have felt compelled to implement this draconian solution to this complex problem, and it is reasonable to suggest that on the one hand, armed guards do in fact serve as a deterrent to violence in the schools. On the other hand, though, armed guards are hardly conducive to creating an atmosphere that is conducive to learning and it is also reasonable to suggest that most young people would feel at least uncomfortable knowing that armed guards are needed to ensure their safety while they are in school.

Describe what you feel is the most effective strategy for ensuring safety onsite at schools and other education or training facilities.

One of the more telling points to emerge…… [read more]


Descriptive Research in Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … alteration is made by the researcher to the environment; rather he or she constructs a study to observe current conditions and changes in the conditions which result organically. Common designs include cross-sectional comparative studies between different groups or longitudinal studies in which the same group of people are observed over time. "Descriptive studies in which the researcher does not interact with the participant include observational studies of people in an environment and studies involving data collection using existing records" (Nebeker 2015). These types of studies are often used as initial phases of research, after which an intervention can be put into place. One possible intervention for the new ESL program at Huntspoint would be a longitudinal study; i.e. a study which measures the progress of the students over time. "A longitudinal study is more likely to suggest cause-and-effect relationships than a cross-sectional study by virtue of its scope" and there is a lower likelihood that extraneous variables not specifically under study could affect results ("What researchers mean," 2015).

For such a study, the descriptive research question might be: Did the implementation of the new ESL program improve test scores of the students involved in the program on the Stanford English Language Proficiency Test (Stanford ELP) (or other standardized test designed to measure language proficiency)? (Stephenson, Johnson, Jorgenson, & Young 2003). The independent variable would be the implementation of the new program and the dependent variable would be test score results on the standardized assessment. The testable hypothesis would be that students involved in the…… [read more]


Teaching Resources and Selection Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  20 pages (6,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

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Parameters of Teaching Resource Selection

Teachers in the modern university environment have a significantly increased range of options available to them in regards to textbooks, supplementary resources, and/or alternative resources to use in classroom instruction. However, it was identified that the selection process is at least subtle different depending on the discipline and the level of instruction. Different disciplines evolve… [read more]


Special Education Idea Improvements Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
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NCLB & IDEA

The author of this report shall offer some answers to a few questions relating to a particular subject and the research design that would go into studying the same. Questions that will be answered and details that will be offered include the logical argument that will be used to address a known or perceived gap in the knowledge base, preliminary evidence that provides justification for this problem being researched and investigated, the best possible research approach and/or method that could and should be used to research and address the problem and an overview of the high-level design of the study including where data will be gleaned from, who may participate in the study, the location of the study and so forth. While even sensible people can disagree about No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the proper evidence-based ideals and practices can be found or created and thus illuminate the proper path forward.

Analysis

The motives of No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are clearly and certainly noble. However, the results discovered after the implementation of each law have revealed possible or obvious problems with both laws. With NCLB, there has been problems found with an over-reliance on standardized testing and the active gaming of that testing system by the schools and administrators that are involved with that testing (Rose, 2015). Even so, there are many people that actively and purposefully say that NCLB should be reauthorized, but with changes (Stecher, Vernez & Steinberg, 2010). With IDEA, the results seem to be much better overall but many say that the overall funding levels for the program are not nearly enough while a vocal minority suggest that reforms and updates are called for (McCann, 2014). Just the three sources above show that there are procedural or conceptual problems with the two pieces of legislation involved even if some of the results of both are encouraging.

The best possible research approach to this issue would be one that is heavily reliant on quantitative results but that also…… [read more]


How to Be a Professional in the Classroom Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (625 words)
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¶ … Teaching Philosophy Based on Professionalism

Professionalism is the degree of skill, care and ability that one should receive from a professional: it is what sets the professionals apart from the amateurs. Professionals should be trustworthy, respectful, integral, competent, kind and understanding. They should have the experience and knowledge expected of an individual in their position. They may not need to have seen and heard it all -- but they should be well on their way to that. By being courteous, cooperative, committed to their area of expertise and dependable, professionals lead the way and set the example for those who look up to them and go to them for assistance (Campbell, Taylor, 2015).

I have incorporated professionalism into my development as an educator by first educating myself and staying abreast of developments in my field as well as knowledgeable of the fundamentals, which are put into practice every day. This is helpful for when students and colleagues come to me with needs and questions: I am able to help and point them in the right direction. I give off an example of professionalism that sets the tone in the classroom and serves as a benchmark for the students: they understand that education is a serious matter and should be respected by all involved. Thus, through constant study, through conscientious example setting, and through my dress, appearance, demeanor, and outlook, I have incorporated professionalism into my development as an educator.

My classroom environment is peaceful and encouraging. I post positive quotations from inspiring historical persons that serve to motivate those who see them, including my students as well as myself. I ban negativity from the classroom because it does not help to support forward movement and only acts as an obstacle to progress and development. Therefore, corrections and criticisms are matched by encouraging and helpful words so that no one is…… [read more]


Division of Learning Disabilities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,204 words)
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Math Learning Problem

Mathematical learning challenges are widespread, significant and deserve focused instructional attention to be dealt with, both in conventional and special classes. Repeated failure may result in students having low self-esteem, withdrawing effort or avoiding mathematics. Additionally, lack of understanding of mathematical concepts can have a huge effect on one's management of his or her day-to-day affairs, and also career prospects and progression. Mathematical learning challenges could vary in severity, in addition to being evident in several different ways. The most frequently seen math difficulties are often associated with lack of efficient remembrance of basic math facts and the lack of ability to understand written problems. When these two problems are coupled with a lack of comprehension of spatial and mathematical relations, then the student is often faced by computational difficulties that he or she may regard as impossible to overcome. In such a situation, it is crucial not to concentrate just on remediation of computational difficulties, because while doing so will be important, it can deny full mathematical education of students who are otherwise capable. Language disabilities, even to smaller degrees, can hamper the learning of mathematical concepts. It has also been found that many students with language disability have a tendency of avoiding the verbalization of concepts in arithmetic activities, a tendency that is frequently made worse by the manner through which math is usually taught in the United States.

DISCUSSION

While kids with difficulties in mathematics are usually categorized under the term people with Learning Disabilities, rarely do children with such difficulties get referred for evaluation. In many school districts, special education classes are often only provided to children who have reading difficulties. Even after cases where the students with math learning difficulties have been identified as being LD (Learning Disabled), not many of them are provided with comprehensive evaluation and remedial measures taken to alleviate those math difficulties. This neglect of children with such difficulties might result in the majority of teachers and parents thinking that such math learning problems are very few, or that they aren't serious problems. Despite such beliefs existing in the American society, it has been found that about 6% of school-going children have huge math learning difficulties, and among the children who have been categorized as LD, arithmetic problems are as common as reading problems. This doesn't automatically mean that the children with arithmetic difficulties also have reading problems or vice versa, instead it means that children with math learning difficulties are common in the society and also in need of equal attention and care (Gable, Tonelson, Sheth & Wilson, 2012).

Failure in mathematical tests is often shown in students who are deaf or those who have hearing difficulties, and this is due to several reasons, such as difficulties with language, insufficient instruction approaches and inadequate arithmetical learning experiences (Gable, Tonelson, Sheth & Wilson, 2012). In terms of the language aspect of learning mathematics, an idea can be explained in a variety of ways in English; instances that ambiguous… [read more]


Looking Into the Education Act and Individuals With Disabilities A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  2 pages (828 words)
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Individuals With Disabilities Education Act

Discuss the Rights and the Extent of the Benefits that the Student, Frank Evans, Was Entitled to Receive

The individuals with disabilities education act is a regulation that protects and ensures that children considered to have disabilities that may impair their learning are assisted through special education programs designed for them. The act provides for evaluation of the student to discover whether they qualify or are eligible to benefit from this act. Some of the disabilities that are recognized under this include impairment that can be visual, audio, orthopedic, intellectual, speech and language impairment.

However there are many students who have these types of disabilities, but do not qualify for IDEA because they have normal scores as compared with other students. At the same time, there are those whose disability requires quite extensive specialist evaluations to uncover. The Act specifies that for a student to qualify and be a beneficiary, they must first be impaired in a certain way, and must require special programs in order to advance academically (Lee, n.d.).

IDEA has two major objectives that it fulfills. The first is to protect the rights of the child with a disability. Every child with a disability has a right to Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). Under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, a child cannot be excluded from benefiting or participating in an activity that is receiving federal funds. Public education, thus, fits this profile, and hence IDEA exists to ensure the rights of the child are protected.

The second benefit that it offers is giving parents a say in their children's education. Therefore as a school chooses a cause of action for your child, you as a parent must be involved or allowed to voice your opinion.

The student in this case, Frank Evans, was thus entitled to evaluation as a way of gauging his eligibility for special education. This was done by numerous specialists. Secondly, the parent had a right to be included in the decisions about the child's education. The parent was involved in this as well (U.S. Department of Education, 2010).

The Major Principles of IDEA

One of the principles advocated by IDEA is the acceptance of all children with disabilities. In essence, all states are required to provide appropriate education to all impaired children who qualify under the act, without discrimination (Lee, n.d.).

IDEA also provides for protection in evaluation situations. Section 3A part (i) states that the materials used to evaluate a…… [read more]


Teh Concept of Learning and Education in Schools Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,251 words)
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¶ … Education and Learning

Each nation has the literacy levels and one of the central tenets that are considered when determining these levels is the availability of education and how much that particular nation under gauging has embraced or promoted education within the population. Education, has also been set for the developing nations as a yardstick to achieve in order to achieve their millennium goals by 2030, hence the need to significantly understand what education is. The word education is known to be from a Latin word 'e-ducere ' which typically means 'to lead out' and over the years it has acquired different meanings due to the fact that the definition of each word has more to do with the belief in the person defining it rather than the word itself. Yero J.L. (2002) reiterates the Webster definition of education as the act of developing the knowledge and the skills or the character of and individual. However, in order to fully comprehend and apply this definition, there is need to define the meaning of the associated words like knowledge, character and develop to give the definition a holistic meaning.

Educating someone somebody has also been defined as a stage of initiation, whether with success or not is debatable. In this definition, a learner is initiated into the concepts that he needs to know, master and later on remember by another individual who already knows these. In this case, the concept of education is viewed as a process and whether this process reaches a desired end or fails to achieve the desired goals, the process was done and education took place (Peters R.S., 2010: Pp2).

UNICEF also wades into the attempt to define education, particularly quality education for children which is what it is directly concerned with. In their definition, they emphasize on the passing of knowledge that is covered in the relevant curricula and materials that are meant for mastering of basic skills such as numeracy, skills for life and literacy (UNICEF, 2000:Pp5).

The personal perspective on education involves the encounter that an individual has with the particular environment he lives in, the skills he imbibes and the techniques he further develops as a result of interaction with the new environment. This stems from the fact that each environment presents unique challenges that will require the individual to develop coping skills, either through copying, being shown or personal skills. This is a definition that is widely ignored yet instrumental in looking at the concept of education without confining self to school or class scenario.

The other concept of learning is widely seen as an active process that can take place with or without the intervention of the teacher and for the concept to be seen to have successfully taken place, the learner must acquire the necessary stages that were envisioned of the learner. Where the intervention of the teacher is required, then the success of the teacher can only be defined in line with the success of learner.

One… [read more]


Link Between Music and Learning Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  10 pages (3,261 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … music play in learning. On the whole, the literature gives the indication that music does, in fact, play a vital role in learning, and particularly, for children from early childhood. The literature also takes into consideration the influence of integrating music as well as movement into teaching strategies of students with special needs. The literature review will be… [read more]


Conflict Resolution Paper Importance of Code of Conduct Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  5 pages (1,786 words)
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¶ … Values, Ethics, and Morals of Your Childhood and Teenage Years, as Well as Your Current Values, Ethics, and Morals.

Children are often quick to blame others for everything, including their academic failure. In case a child attains poor grades in class, he/she maintains that it is because of an ally who would not cease conversing with them. When… [read more]


Learning Assessment in K 12 A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
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Authentic Assessment: Preferred Learning Style

I assess the students' learning using the standardized assessment. Every district-based school or educational facility is required to and does make use of standardized tests that are mandated by the state. In this approach, every student at a certain grade level is expected to take a similar test. The main reason why I assess the students' learning in this manner is that every aspect of the test is standard. This encompasses the test questions, the time allotted to the students in which to complete the examinations and the time of the year in which the examinations or tests are scheduled to be undertaken. This offers a fair, uniform, and reasonable way of assessing the capabilities of every student and the performance of the students is considered as the basis on which they are promoted from one level to the next in the K-12 system (Eudotopia, 2008). These standardized tests offer the teacher instantaneous feedback on the manner in which the students are absorbing and meeting the scholarly or academic standards. The use of this assessment is to act as a constituent of measuring the level of growth of the students and assists in designing the school or learning curriculum keeping in perspective personal learning needs. I use this assessment approach also because it is in alignment with the federal No Child Left Behind Act which takes into account income levels, disabilities, race and also the level of proficiency in English. In this manner, there is sustained reliability, validity and fairness in the assessments of the students' learning. In addition, these standardized assessments can be employed to appraise and evaluate the extent or magnitude to which the students have grasped and become proficient at selected standards in not only their classrooms but also be able to make comparisons with other grade-level classrooms within the district (Edutopia, 2013).

The main reason why I am dissatisfied with certain other customary testing and assessment methods is simply that these other methods or approaches of assessment do not test or examine several skills and capabilities of the students. As such, some of the testing designs are not a complete form of assessment. It is imperative that the students be prepared, ready and equipped to undertake more than just memorizing the information and content and make use of formulae and procedures to solve basic problems. I think it is important that students ought to learn higher order thinking and scrutinize the test so as not to feel measured (Teacher Vision, 2013). However, there are numerous alternative assessments that are effective as well. It is imperative to undertake assessments to evaluate the level of understanding as well as achievement of the students. It is important to ascertain that the students are able to apply and show the skills as well as the concepts that they have learnt. Ideally, the approach which I would like to employ in assessing the students' learning is the 'authentic assessment' approach. The concept of authentic assessment refers… [read more]


Challenges Facing Ecce in the US Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (725 words)
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Early Childhood Educational System Funding

The American system concerning the Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is programmed such that the funding of the education and the related or integrated services is done through the public government funding at the central and state government. The ECCE is also funded through the private funds from private entities, churches, charities and companies among others. Families that may not be able to raise funds privately to access the other services that may be additional on the public funds financed programs.

This system as used in the U.S. presents difficulties in accurately accounting for the amount of funding per child and spreads out the cost in terms of year brackets. This bulk consideration means that the central governments subjects the children from poorer families to lack of the essential but not catered for provisions, or be at the mercy of the private funding and the donors for help. It creates a vacuum that inequality thrives in since the better off families will aptly provide their children with more developmental and educational services that are not easily or comprehensively availed to the poor family children. The other challenge to the U.S. system is that the significantly bulky part of the development and education of the children under ECCE which is left under the private funding is always at risk since it is at the whims of the donors and well-wishers. This means that main donors experience tough economic times and are unable to bring forth the finances, then the children will lose their right to education. The private cost sharing means the parents have to strive harder to avail a percentage of the funds. The local governments are also seen to be mainly coordinators of the service such that they help the community raise funds from among themselves, clubs therein and donations from groups. This is not a very reliable model since the best quality of the child development and education will go to the community with a higher economic power or to the local government with a higher political will to help raise the funds, otherwise those whose parents can afford.

The model that is used…… [read more]


Proposal for the Bd Backward Design Program Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,089 words)
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¶ … Backward Design Program

Objective of this proposal is to design an educational learning program called Backward Design (BD) to improve student learning. Essential goal of teachers is to design a program that will enhance a positive learning environment to assist students to achieve success in the academic environment. Students are required to have a deep understanding of learning… [read more]


How I Use Constructivism in the Classroom A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  3 pages (1,476 words)
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Constructivism:

The value of being a constructivist teacher

Although I do not specifically label myself as a constructivist teacher, many of the philosophical components of constructivism resonate with me and my philosophy of instruction. Constructivism views learners as active participants in knowledge acquisition and stresses that learning is constructed socially, versus something that is objectively understood. What makes an educated… [read more]


Blue Ray Is Successful Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (663 words)
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Blu-ray is still a young company and some observers debate its ability to succeed. David Carnoy (January 14, 2009), review critic of CNET, however believes that not only will Blu-Ray continue to succeed but it will also outlast its competitors due to reasons that include the following: Blu-ray discs still offer a better picture than cable internet viewing time whose bandwidth offerings are inadequate and are not predicted to get better any time soon; Blu-ray has one clear standard as opposed to digital video streaming and downloads, on the other hand, is a jumble of competitors offering no single standard whatsoever. Carnoy believes, too, that Blu-ray prices will drop in the future making the product more accessible to consumers.

Another factor going for Blu-ray is that its format not only compresses more data on it but displays this data in a clearer, more holographic and pleasing format. Blu-ray, at the moment, represents the climax of high-definition discs, and whilst competitors may be gearing up for beating that, Carnoy believes that the expense and lack of need for doing so will drive competitors out of business.

A serious limitation to Blu-ray is that standard TVs and computers can accept HD-DVD disks, but Blu-ray needs a player of its own (e.g., I, Cringely, Is Blu-Ray a Failure?). Carnoy, however, believes that process for Blu-ray players will continue to drop leading many more consumers to purchase the high-definition discs. Sony, too, will sell more PlayStation 3 game consoles and each of these consoles has a Blu-ray player in it.

HD-DVD is still as successful as ever, but some like Carnoy believe that as Blu-ray becomes more accessible, it is the disc of the future.

Source

Blu-ray.com http://www.blu-ray.com/info/

Carnoy, D (January 14, 2009) 9 reasons why Blu-ray will succeed CNET

http://reviews.cnet.com/8301-18438_7-10142913-82.html

History of blu-ray technology http://www.buzzle.com/articles/history-of-blue-ray-technology.html

I, Cringely, Is Blu-Ray a Failure?

http://www.cringely.com/2009/06/22/is-blu-ray-a-failure/… [read more]


Thomas Alva Edison Term Paper

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Thomas Alva Edison: A lifetime of work dedicated to the improvement of technology

Thomas Alva Edison, American scientist of the 19th and 20th centuries, have provided inventions and innovations in technology which paved the way for human living to become more comfortable and easier. Edison was not only known for his numerous inventions, he was also recognized for his ability to make his inventions available to ordinary people who most need these inventions. He was known as a prolific scientist and a calculating individual, recognizing that his inventions are not only commercially viable, but can also be marketed to include every consumer in the society who needs his inventions.

Edison's lifetime of work towards improving technology began with his famed incandescent electric lamp, which enabled people to invest on having lights in their home instead of the crude lighting that gas lamps provide. Under the company name of Edison Electric Light Company, Edison began his pursuit in developing an incandescent lamp in 1879. He sought this invention to become not only cheap, but also ergonomic, designing this electric lamp as lightweight and safe for its users (National Inventors Hall of Fame, 2002).

Although Edison's first attempt at creating inventions was when he was still working as a telegraph operator in 1863, which enabled him to later invent his own "version" of the telegraph, this time through the quadruplex telegraph, designed to transmit four messages. These attempts at invention became pivotal for him to develop his interest in the development of inventions that utilizes electricity, hence the development of the incandescent electric lamp.

Apart from inventing the electric lamp, Edison also explored greater attempts to make optimum use of electricity. Thus, he invented the electric generator, which was an innovation from the electric…… [read more]


Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Classic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (646 words)
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However, his pride does not cause his or anyone else's downfall as is the case with a classical tragedy.

The emotional intensity that characterizes the play existed before the events depicted occur, and will continue to plague George and Martha. Although both George and Martha learn a few things about how they feel, no major changes take place in their lives. In classical tragedies, huge shifts in the consciousness of the protagonist occur. The hero learns through death and devastation to overcome personal pride. Also, in a classical tragedy, the events of the play lead to cataclysmic changes in the world. George's consciousness is not considerably changed by the end of the play, and nor is his world. Therefore, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf is not a true tragedy.

On the other hand, there is considerable comic relief in Albee's play. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? might be heavy and dark, but the characters and dialogue are intensely humorous. George and Martha's bickering, especially their absurd arguments in front of Nick and Honey, are tragic and funny at the same time. The drunkenness and chaos surrounding the evening are reminiscent of Shakespearean comedies. Typically comedies include tragic moments and themes, in which identities are shifted and wild deceptions occur. In Albee's play, George and Martha shock Nick and Honey by revealing intimate secrets, potentially creating rifts in the young couple's relationship. The presence of tragic elements does not preclude a play from being a comedy, though. Furthermore, in classic comedies like those of Shakespeare, characters generally remain the same; at the end of the play, nothing really changes much. George and Martha revert to playing the game that lends the play its title. Because George and Martha endure a night of chaos without significantly changing their lives, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? is more comedy…… [read more]