"Film / Movies / Television" Essays

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Video Tough Guise Related to Popular Culture Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,145 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Guise

Goodfellas and "Tough Guise"

In "Tough Guise: Violence, Media and the Crisis in Masculinity," Jackson Katz shows a clip from Martin Scorsese's 1990 film Goodfellas in which the character Henry Hill (played by Ray Liotta) pistol whips the neighbor of his girlfriend Karen (Lorraine Bracco). According to the film's cinematographer Michael Ballhaus, it was the "most violent scene" he had ever filmed: "There's so much energy in this shot. The violence is shocking, it comes out of nowhere" (Penn, 2010). The film's realistic depiction of violence and wise guy machismo are two reasons Goodfellas has achieved iconic status in pop culture. But as Katz argues, and as Scorsese attempts to show, the "tough guise" of Henry Hill and friends is as equally repellant as it is attractive. This paper will examine how Goodfellas presents both the reasons why men and women are attracted to the "tough guise," and the reasons why the "tough guise" is ultimately an unfulfilling avenue through life.

Based on the non-fiction work Wiseguy by Nicholas Pileggi, Scorsese's Goodfellas was meant to be more than just another gangster movie: It was meant to be a real reflection of the glamour and the horror intertwined within the "tough guise" lifestyle. As Pileggi himself asserted, "There's no sense in making another gangster picture, unless it is as close as possible to a certain kind of reality, to the spirit of a documentary," and this spirit is realized in Scorsese's film (Vervis, 2007, p. 210). Through the use of the freeze-frame and the slow-motion steady-cam shot, both of which emphasize the horrific nature as well as the seductive and hypnotic power of the "tough guise," Scorsese is able to show why the "tough guise" is able to attract and repulse at the same time.

For example, early in the film Henry (still a boy) stops to help a man who has been shot. He is scolded by the wise guys for "wasting eight fucking aprons on this guy." Henry's sympathy for another human being is thus stomped out: "We gotta toughen this guy up" -- is what is heard while Scorsese gives a close-up of Henry's face, brow furrowed, eyes following the wounded stranger who has obviously felt some of the repercussions of dallying with the mob. It is a moment of painful juxtaposition -- painful because it is woefully ironic (Henry is showing manly virtue, and the "real men" with their "tough guise" refuse to allow him to do so). One familiar with Henry's story knows, of course, where it all ends. Henry's sympathy for suffering humanity will turn to blithe indifference as he adopts his "tough guise." His face, however, can never mask what his heart knows: namely, that he may go along with the criminal world out of a longing to belong to something and be respected (the appealing part of the "tough guise") -- but he himself has no taste for the criminal world's inhuman brutality (which is the repellant part of the… [read more]

Titanic James Cameron's 1997 Film Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Because Picasso's name is a byword for aesthetic achievement in the twentieth century overall, we are meant to understand Rose as having a greater sensitivity for art than her callous fiance. Yet this is bizarre in terms of the overall aesthetic of the movie -- the artwork sketched by Rose's loverboy Jack (Leonardo di Caprio) is about as aesthetically different from Picasso as Celine Dion is from Arnold Schoenberg, or Titanic itself is from Un Chien Andalou. Instead, we are meant to understand Rose's character -- and her sensitivity to Picasso -- as part of the film's overall construction of the past. The conflict over Picasso between Kate Winslet and Billy Zane is not really an endorsement of a modern anti-realistic aesthetic: instead, it establishes the 1912 setting as a time when women were routinely oppressed. There is no way to dramatize the fact that Rose, or the other women on the Titanic, don't have the right to vote -- instead, the film must present Rose as being ahead of her time.

This nostalgia for a sense of oppression is also part of the aesthetic construction of Leonardo di Caprio's Jack. It is through Jack that the film acquires its more kitschy Celtic trappings -- particularly in the egregious Irish-dance sequence below decks, but also sensed in the pervading aesthetic of the Celine Dion song that provides the film's theme. It is true that the Titanic itself was built in Belfast, but Belfast is hardly a byword for the kind of free-spirited Irishness that is alluded to here. Instead, the film is constructing nostalgia backward -- if the 1990s were hardly a time when oppression of women or Irish-Americans was widespread, the film can at least paint 1912 as a time when these identities were a sign of underdog status. This allows the historical aesthetic to work for present-day viewers: the audience can feel it is on the right side of history by rooting for characters who, in context, appear unfairly oppressed, while…… [read more]

Formalism in Film Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Formalism in Film

Formalism as a theory is not concerned with reality (Andrew 6). This is unlike the realism theory which concerns with reality as a result of real life experience (Braudy & Cohen 24-40). Formalism arose to respond to the Modern Crisis. It is a concept which the determination of the film is by its forms. This is the… [read more]

Directors Presentation of the Ghost in Three 3 Films of Hamlet Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … directors' presentation of the Ghost in three (3) films of Hamlet

Hamlet as seen from three perspectives

William Shakespeare's play Hamlet triggered numerous controversies and influenced a great deal of individuals to provide their own interpretation of the work. Franco Zeffirelli's 1990 motion picture, Gregory Doran's 2009 TV series, and Kenneth Branagh's 1996 film all provide intriguing versions of the play. This paper is going to analyze how each of the directors deals with scenes involving the ghost and to how these particular instances reflect on viewers.

Zeffirelli's version of the play is certainly intriguing and shows Mel Gibson perfectly embodying the character of Prince Hamlet and generally being successful in emphasizing Shakespeare's intention with the storyline. The scene involving Hamlet coming across his father's ghost in Act 1 is meant to provide readers with the opportunity to gain a more complex understanding of the relationship between the two individuals and of Hamlet's temperament. Low key lighting dominates most of this scene and it is obviously meant to emphasize the suspense and the suspicion triggers by his father's ghost. The fact that the scene follows with a side shot of Hamlet further contributes to its absorbing nature and it emphasizes the fact that Hamlet is about to engage in a dangerous and even evil enterprise as he is about to avenge his father's death. Even with the conversation occurring throughout this scene, it appears that the director was more concerned about having filming send the message he was interested in (Cinematic Hamlet: The Films of Olivier, Zeffirelli, Branagh, and Almereyda 119).

Doran's portrayal of the scene involving Hamlet meeting his father's ghost takes on a more modern attitude. While low key lighting also dominates most of this scene, Doran displays the ghost in a more angelic way by using rear lighting with the purpose of shaping his appearance. The fact that the scene uses a low angle also contributes to emphasizing the ghost importance, and, particularly, its power. Hamlet is portrayed from a high angle perspective, this most probably being meant to highlight the fact that he is still a weak and somewhat powerless individual, especially when considering that he is confronted by his father -- a more dominant figure and the individual whom Hamlet associates with the idea of power in general. This is actually a significant trait when considering Doran's version of Hamlet in general, the director concentrated on emphasizing the contrast between two characters by having one appear to be much stronger than the other (Cartmell).

Doran's focus on displaying the contrast between Hamlet and his father's ghost is generally obvious as a result of the fact that he uses light as a main tool to shape the personality of each of the characters. Hamlet's character in this scene is displayed through slow falloff lighting, as the director wanted this individual to seem less authoritative at this point in the motion picture. In contrast, his father's ghost is generally shown in fast falloff lighting, given… [read more]

Movie Adaptations, it Is Often Difficult Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (772 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … movie adaptations, it is often difficult to make a selection of which do you prefer over what. The case becomes a challenge in itself when say you have read the book in your early teenage years and years later when you've seen Michael Mann's film adaptation, all you want to do is again get your hands on the book that marked your early years as a teenager. That is not to say that the movie lacks the intensiveness of the book, on the contrary, the screening makes everything so much more alive that it brings back old memories and fascinations. It is funny how after reading the book and later seeing the movie, all the pieces of information on the Last of the Mohicans come from what we've seen and not from what we've read and, in this essay, we will bring the focus on why that has happened. That is to say that we will illustrate why we seem to prefer the version of the movie over the book itself, when we know it is the book we would normally have to praise.

First off, Cooper's style of writing is somewhat heavy, making it hard for the reader to get straight into the story, whereas the images of Mann are very expressive and related to the events in the movie, to the extend that you cannot but see those places and immediately project yourself in the middle of the story. It is Mann's success that he was able to create such a powerful setting that it managed to lure the viewer immediately whereas, when reading the book, you are compelled to read at a low speed that it takes away the charm of the story in the beginning. What increases the value of the movie are also the soundtracks that do create a marvelous effect between the action and the setting. In this respect, it seems as though the music in the film adaptation seems to complete the book on more than one level. It works on a psychological level that you are bound to connect scenes in the movie with music themes. Also, the soundtracks keep the balance between scenes that we find in the book and are not included in the movie.

This is also something we appreciate in the movie…… [read more]

Holy Motors Movie Analysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Oscar never knows exactly who is watching or how closely they are paying attention to his odd performances. Oscar's boss, Michael Picolli, reinforces this creepy sense of voyeurism when he explains to Oscar that cameras could be anywhere and so Oscar must be putting on his best performances at ever waking second. Essentially this is illustrating how mechanical life has become in the sense that someone is always watching. Life has become so much like a strange acting role for so many of us that the human actor never knows when he or she is actually being watched because it can be at any moment, or all moments at once. In this, the film suggests that voyeurism has evolved into an intense extreme. There is a strange sense of passivity to this ongoing gaze, the audience never jumps in but constantly demands the actor to keep up with his roles at all times -- essentially sacrificing his own life for the entertainment and viewing pleasure of an audience that never voices appreciation or affection. It is performing for a machine that constantly demands perfection, but never shows itself.

In this strange world, the line between fantasy and reality is blurred. Oscar becomes the fantasies of others, and as a consequence he looses sense of himself. The constant demand to satisfy the audience's gaze in this strange voyeuristic fetish costs Oscar his own life and being. He is so disillusioned from his many roles that he does not even know himself. The fetish of the world around him has demanded he give up his own life to satisfy their strange voyeuristic demands. The roles he plays make no sense to him, but they become so overwhelming, he looses complete sense of who he really is. In the end, Oscar is no one but what his appointments want him…… [read more]

Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds an Analysis Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For instance, in the scene where the Basterds are interrogating a small group of Nazi soldiers in order to find where they are stationed, Tarantino makes use of high-angled to "look down" on the captured Nazis, creating the illusion that they are inferior to their captors, which are shot using low-angled shots as though their captives are looking up at… [read more]

Paris Is Burning Film Review

Film Review  |  3 pages (710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Paris Is Burning

Discuss the film's introductory material -- Were you provided with background or introductory information to orient you about what you were going to be viewing? If not, did it pose a problem in your understanding of the film?

In the documentary film "Paris is Burning" there is little in the way of an opening that includes any background or introductory information. The film opens in New York in 1987 which is displayed in lettering in the initial opening of the movie. It then proceeds to offer a quote and then portrays a "ball" and then rolls into an interview with Pepper LaVasia who speaks about being the "mother" of the house who rules with a soft glove. It does give some information that explains some aspects of the "ball" from different perspectives illustrated through interviews yet there is little context provided from a narrator or other sources. Give the culture that this documentary is focusing on, I did not personally think that this detracted from the film in anyway. Even with the assistance of a narrator, it would have still been difficult to understand the culture. Therefore maybe it was best just to let the participants describe the "ball" and what it means to them to let the films viewers build a picture from this.

2) Music/sound -- Was there any music during the film? If so, what kind, and what role did it play? Did it enhance the scene (or scenes) where it was used? Did it distort the film in any way?

There was music in the background in the film that played at different times during the film. It seemed to be used mostly in transitions or music played in the background of ball scenes. It had an enhancing effect though it was not that prominent. It was necessary to give the viewers a taste of the music that the subculture listened to so that they could understand this element of this culture. I did not feel it distorted the film at all.

3) Narration -- Was there any type of narration describing the scenes? If yes, how did…… [read more]

Sound Technologies and Sound Design Thesis

Thesis  |  40 pages (11,249 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


The synchronization of sound films was experimented during 1912 to 1914. These developments underlined the importance of technology and innovation in coming years of film industry. The history of film music also does not provide a coherent record of its developments as Lumiere brothers are also reported as introducing their film with music in 1895. However the confirmation of such… [read more]

Rosemary's Baby Roman Polanski's 1968 Feature Film Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Rosemary's Baby

Roman Polanski's 1968 feature film Rosemary's Baby is a very interesting and appealing work of art that discussed many important topics that are still relevant today. The film, based on IRA Levin's novel of the same name, dives deep within the individual psyche to both challenge and entertain the viewer. The purpose of this paper is to examine… [read more]

Art Film Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Art Cinema and Contempt

Le Mepris (Contempt) is a 1963 by Jean-Luc Godard based on the novel Il Disprezzo by Italian writer Alberto Moravia. The film, like the book, focuses on the deterioration of a couple's relationship, which eerily paralleled Godard's real life. Le Mepris embraces concepts of French New Wave cinema, builds upon theories of art film, and provides… [read more]

Art Film and Its Influences on Other Films Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (800 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Art Cinema-400 Blows and Loves of a Blonde

In "The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice," David Bordwell provides several characteristics of art films that are shared by directors across international cinema. Bordwell's shared characteristics aim to break away from traditional or classical cinema narratives and be reflective of the anxieties and social commentaries of post-World War II Europe. Francois Truffaut's 1959 film the 400 Blows and Milos Forman's 1965 film Loves of a Blonde share similar art cinema characteristics that help to demonstrate shared experiences and reactions.

One of Bordwell's central arguments regarding art cinema is that it aims to break away from the classical narrative, specifically the cause-and-effect structure of classic Hollywood cinema (717). Art cinema does not focus on events and how they influence characters and the narrative, but rather, art cinema shifts its focus to psychologically complex and imperfect characters that often lack "defined desires and goals" (718). These character uncertainties are reflected in Truffaut's the 400 Blows protagonist Antoine. In the film, Antoine rebels against a variety of institutions: his school, his parents, and the military/boys home he is sent to.

Antoine is the embodiment of the psychologically complex characters Bordwell describes in his essay. Bordwell argues, "Characters may act for inconsistent reasons…or may question themselves about their goals" (Bordwell 718). Bordwell also claims, "art cinema is less concerned with action than reaction; it is a cinema of psychological effects in search of their causes" (Bordwell 718). Antoine's psychological constructs are further shaped by how others view him in addition to how he views himself. In an interview with a psychiatrist, Antoine contends that he is not always lying, as his parents claim, and states, "Oh, I like now and then, I suppose. Sometimes I'd tell them the truth and they still wouldn't believe me, so I prefer to lie" (the 400 Blows).

Bordwell maintains realism is a major component of art cinema. Art cinema "will show us real locations…and real problems" (Bordwell 718). One way in which Truffaut maintains realism is by showing the city as it is. He does not rely on constructed scenery, but rather uses real locations. Eventually, the confusion of the city parallels Antoine's erratic behavior with him appearing to be more at peace and free when he is removed from it and sent to the boys home near the sea (400 Blows). The film also adds realism…… [read more]

Miss Evers Boys the Tuskegee Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (950 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


One of the most important ways Miss Evers' Boys humanizes the stories of those involved in the Tuskegee experiments is through character development. The title character is a nurse who cares for the patients. She is generally powerless to make an impact on the political decisions motivating the experiments, until she is able to finally testify before the United States Senate. However, Nurse Evers does make a direct and meaningful impact on the lives of those who suffered during the clinical experiments. She develops personal relationships with the patients. Some of the patients even name their band after Nurse Evers, giving rise to the name of the film: Miss Evers' Boys. The musicians provide blood samples, and one of them becomes Miss Evers' love interest (Caleb, played by Laurence Fishburne). Caleb plays an important role in Miss Evers' Boys. He discovers that penicillin might help, and he begins to take it. However, penicillin is not available to all of the patients involved in the experiment.

The film exposes the potential for deep corruption in the government, in the medical community, and even in academia. Although unlikely, it is possible that such an experiment might be carried out today. This is why ethics committees carefully review all scientific studies, to ensure that informed consent and other formalities are followed during research design.

Another key element of Miss Evers Boys is the way that Nurse Evers faces a moral dilemma. She works under the assumption that the government will live up to its word by providing the medication to the patients. Even though she knows that the patients are being harmed in the process, she continues to comply with the parameters of the experiment. This makes Nurse Evers complicit in some ways; she struggles with whether or not to disobey orders. The human side that Miss Evers' Boys exposes causes the viewer to feel a lot of compassion. There are no moral black-and-white issues, but only shades of gray.

Few faults can be found with Miss Evers' Boys. The film is a warning and touches upon various social and political issues. Racism is a poignant issue that Miss Evers' Boys discusses, and the film is a historical piece showing the state of race relations in America curing most of the 20th century. Research ethics is another component of the story, and most students are aware that unethical experiments are almost impossible to design now. Corruption in government is another theme that Miss Evers' Boys explores, and this may be the most important issue that remains relevant. The United States government and "big pharma" are still in bed together, and this film should serve as continued warning as to what could happen.


Sargent, J. (1997). Miss…… [read more]

Digital Age Include Worlds Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8



1. Technologically, the filmmaking process has evolved from traditional to digital means, which is shown by the concept of the 'Digital Workflow.'

2. The value added to a film by CGI or visual effects is critically undeniable and commercially indubitable.

3. Technologies used in 'Blade Runner' showcase the onset of the digitalization trend. Other examples discussed are those of 'Harry Potter', 'Avatar', 'Shrek' and '2001: A Space Odyssey.'

4. There are many advantages related to digitalization especially those related to the economization of post-production.

5. The major criticism is that of realism and how the realism of a movie may be compromised.

6. The future of filmmaking is definitely brightest in digitalization.

CONCLUSION: Ultimately, we are able to see the work that goes into digitalizing a movie and the consequential success that it brings to the producers, thereby proving its worth…… [read more]

Melancholia in Film Melancholia Depicting A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This scene seems to convey the sense that Justine 'needs' her melancholy and is reacting to attempts to improve her mood accordingly.

Accuracy of the Film's Portrayal of Depression

Both the director and Dunst suffer from depression (Bradshaw, 2011), so it should come as little surprise that the symptoms of depression were accurately depicted. Justine is obviously depressed throughout most of the movie, regardless of what time of day it is. After Justine arrives in the cab, every scene in which she is present reveals her depressed mood. She never laughs, her smiles are more courteous than felt, her face perpetually sags, and her eyes ooze melancholy and hopelessness. During the days following Justine's arrival at her sister's home, she is often depicted as semi-comatose and therefore suffering from hypersomnia. This state has nothing to do with the impending death of planet Earth.

During her most depressed moods, Justine obviously suffers from anhedonia. The idea of taking a bath is repulsive and her favorite meal tasted like ashes. When her nephew tries to connect with her in the bedroom, Justine is completely unresponsive. There is also a perception that Justine has no interest in eating during here lowest moods. When Claire tries to get her to take a warm bath, the scene begins with the hotel concierge and Claire holding up Justine as they shuffle towards the bathroom. Next to the bath filled with warm water, Claire is holding Justine erect and urging her to step into the bath. Justine is incapable of performing this simple act. When Claire continues to urge her to get in, Justine begins to rebel in an infantile, pre-verbal manner by moaning and collapsing to the floor. The bath scene seems to convey an unspoken need to embrace her melancholy.


Bradshaw, Peter. (2011, Sep. 29). Melencholia -- review. The Guardian. Retrieved 24 Jan. 2013 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2011/sep/29/melancholia-film-review.

Foldager, Meta Louise and Vesth, Louise (Producers), & Trier, Lars von (Director). (2011). Melancholia (Motion picture).…… [read more]

Perceiving Helvetica Gary Hustwit's Film Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There are numerous examples of the font in the world over its fifty year existence (at the time the film was first released, the font Helvetica was fifty years old). There are advertisements, public signs, graphic design and other examples of where this font has lived and worked in human culture.

There were a number of featured designers and great thinkers in the film. They were dynamic, expressive, and informative. The montages were often well constructed and captivating. This viewer did experience a sense of post modern irony in that a film that is centered around design and that is one part of a three part trilogy of films regarding design, that some of the cinematography violated some very basic rules of aesthetics. It is curious how a film so focused on design could miss that some of the shots and photography do not work and go against basic film conventions, such as refraining from placing fair or white skinned people before a light background.

It was almost riveting in how much attention and focus designers and artists have toward something that others may find insignificant, such as a type of font. It is quite possible to see the points made by designers regarding the variation of emotional impact that accompanies certain fonts. This film elucidates how powerful fonts can be and how they have a history that correlates to other aspects of culture and society directly as well as indirectly. This film is relevant because with the proliferation of specifically visual media in the 21st century, it is key for consumers and producers of visual culture to accrue and hone visual literacy. This film contributes to the development of visual literacy. It builds upon the sort of innate sense of design and aesthetics that the layman or average consumer may have and further develops through regular consumption of visuals including films like Helvetica.… [read more]

White Favorite Film "Snow Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


One of my favorite aspects of the story involves the seven Dwarves and in the new film they are fully represented. However, they are not the happy dwarves of the Disney film, these are based on the original story and are a group of dejected and hopeless ex-miners. However, the new dwarves do maintain a certain sense of humor which harkens back to the jolly fellows I remember from childhood and acts as a conduit between the traditional view of the dwarves and this new, darker version.

"Snow White and the Huntsman" has become one of my favorite films and I recently purchased the DVD for myself. Not only is it a great film, but it maintains the core elements of the original Grimm brother's story while simultaneously feeding the audience small bits of the flavor of the Disney film as well. For those who know the original story, like me, this film does not disappoint; but for those who also know the Disney story, they will be pleasantly surprised at how it contains similar elements. I really liked the way that the film combined all the elements of the various versions of the story while presenting it in a way that is not only visually stunning, but literally takes a person on a journey. It must be said that this version is PG-13 and contains some risque scenes as well as some serious violence, and while it may not be suitable for small children, teens and adults can enjoy this film immensely. It is the kind of film where, when it is over, one wonders how time could have passed…… [read more]

Postman Always Rings Twice Film Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The characters were introduced in very different manners. Even though both men arrived at a diner needing work in the films, Frank and Nick were convivial chums in the 1946 version, whereas Frank and Nick seemed to have an adversarial relationship from the first in the 1981 version. Lana Turner came on the scene as a vision who was dressed more for a night out on the town in Hollywood, than as the wife of a small town diner owner. Jessica Lange looked the part because which was accomplished through lighting, wardrobe and makeup. Garfield (1946) was instantly smitten, while Nicholson (1981) seemed to have the same initial reaction to Lange as he did to her screen husband.

The endings of the two films are very different. The second film ends abruptly after the second car crash kills Cora. There is no scene which tries to explain the film as the 1946 version did. In the earlier version, Frank is pictured on death row contemplating the fact that fate circles around and fixes errors that have been made previously. The first time a postman rings no one may hear it, so the postman rings twice so that someone answers the door. Frank was not convicted for the first murder which he did commit, but he was convicted for the second murder he did not commit as a means of satisfying an unbalanced fate. It can be said that the two films are different because of the eras they represent, but it seems like the second wishes to explain the title also.

Works Cited

The Postman Always Rings Twice. Dir. Bob Rafelson. Perf. Jack Nicholson, Jessica Lange, John Colicos. Paramount Pictures, 1981. DVD.

The Postman Always…… [read more]

Film Theory the Canonical Model Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,093 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


With regard to the theory of face, representations that come from the groups arguing for better representation may be just as fake or unreal as the narrowly circumscribed stereotypes that are already in abundance. They continue to argue that representation and realism in representation are seemingly unbearable burdens because there is always room for misrepresentation and lack of authentic self representation. (Shohat & Stam, 1994) Like Wollen, Shohat & Stam posit that the cinematic elements and sensory stimuli be contemplated and theorized upon concurrently and in unison, rather than separately:

It is not our purpose merely to reverse existing hierarchical arrangements -- to replace the demagoguery of the visual with a new demagoguery of the auditory -- but to suggest that voice (and sound) and image be considered together, dialectically and diacritically. A more nuanced discussion of race and ethnicity in the cinema would emphasize less a one-to-one mimetic adequacy to sociological or historical truth than the interplay of voice, discourses, perspectives, including those operative within the image itself. The task of the critic would be to call attention to the cultural voices at play, not only those heard in aural "close-up" but those distorted or drowned out by the text. The analytic work would be analogous to that of a "mixer" in a sound studio, who responsibility it is to perform a series of compensatory operations, to heighten treble, deepen the bass, amplify the instrumentation, to "bring out" the voices that remain latent or displaced. (1994)

A film such as Bamboozled, directed by Spike Lee, presents theory in the flesh moments for texts such as the hooks and the Shohat & Stam. Bamboozled is an excellent example of the above quotation playing out successfully in the cinematic realm. It is a film that does and does not reverse existing racial hierarchical arrangements. It is a film that is written, shot, and edited to be read on multiple, simultaneous levels that are mixed up and mixed down over the course of the narrative. Certainly, Bamboozled reveals the diversity of voices that contribute to the televised minstrel show: there is the voice of the writer, the producer, the writers' team, the network, the actors playing the minstrels, and the voices of the characters who protest everything for which the show stands. This is a film that attempts to tackle and reflect all the shifts mentioned within the scope of this question in a single bound. Bamboozled discusses and illustrates the shifts from image studies to self representation to delegation of voice. The shifts of the theory of race are, arguably, the central theme of the film, as these shifts occur within certain characters, or certain characters represent aspects or each individual shifts, and the entire film is a discourse on the theory of race and racial representation in the cinematic imagination as well as the experienced reality.


Diawara, M. 1993. Noir by Noirs: Towards a New Realism in Black Cinema. African-American Review, 27(4), 525 -- 537.

Hooks, B. 1991. Micheaux:… [read more]

Musical Theatre Film Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (910 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Though these are old movies, they are indubitable classics that can teach important lessons. [3: Larson, B. (2010). "The 35 Best Dance Sequences in Film." Retrieved May 28, 2011, < http://flavorwire.com/74975/the-35-best-dance-sequences-in-film>.]

Soon after the magic of the 1930's and 1940's on screen, Broadway choreographers and other talented actors aligned to make great movies throughout the 1950's and 1960's. According to Kenrick (2010), "from the 1950s onwards, most of the important Hollywood musicals were screen adaptations of Broadway shows […], Broadway choreographers were given the opportunity of recreating their stage dances for the big screen." As a result of this process, there are movie versions of some of the most popular musicals of all time, including Oklahoma, The King and I, West Side Story, and many others, including Mary Poppins, which was a great and talent-packed hit in the 1960's. However, after these decades, dance became much less important in the decreasing numbers of screen musicals. Kenrick (2010) mentions the 1978 adaptation of Grease, which was quite popular at the box office, but states that "Patricia Birch's period spoofs did not rate as anyone's idea of inventive choreography." Eventually, the importance of musical choreography was relegated to the bottom, and was often enhanced with edition instead of true dancing. According to Kenrick, "fast, inventive editing and lots of electronic razzle dazzle made the most of the sometimes limited dancing talents of the performers. As the 21st Century dawned, live action screen musicals like Loves Labour's Lost (2000) and Moulin Rouge (2001) used such MTV-inspired techniques to make their non-singing, non-dancing stars look and sound like musical pros. The results were, at best, uneven." [4: "Dance Sequences in Film." (2011). Retrieved May 28, 2011, < http://www.hitormissmovies.com/2011/dance-sequences-in-film/>. ] [5: Kenrick, J. (2004). "Dance in Screen Musicals." Retrieved May 28, 2011, . ] [6: Kenrick, J. (2004). "Dance in Screen Musicals." Retrieved May 28, 2011, . ]

As a result of the fact the some of the best figures in the movie business advocate for classical dance sequences as far superior to modern ones, choreography in today's musicals should not copy but build on such classical pieces as those mentioned above, instead of rely on special effects and talentless extras. Dance sequences involving a lot of individuals should be filmed just as those involving a few individuals. The camera must pan on those talented who move best, and not occupy itself with mediocre dance that can be re-edited. Therefore, it is perhaps a good idea for the movie industry to borrow from…… [read more]

Geology Film Rebirth: A Geologically Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,418 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Volcanic eruptions, however, would be one of the most serious consequences of humans living in this era; however, this is true of any period, as continents have been on an ever-changing schedule since almost the beginnings of time. Some short-term effects would be that volcanic activity during this era could increase sulfuric acid amounts in the atmosphere, thereby cooling the… [read more]

Film Required for the Class Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This is best reflected by Caine's teacher, as she is an African-American woman and as she has an African sculpture on her desk, presumably with the intention of having others acknowledge her being proud of her background. In contrast, the schooling system in Boyz n the Hood seems to be more supportive toward white individuals. The protagonist in Singleton's film, Tre, has a white teacher who cannot refrain from considering African-American stereotypes when calling Tre's mother with the purpose of finding out more about the student.

Both films appear to promote the concept of "moving out of the hood" as being one of the best things that a young African-American could hope for. To a certain degree, even with the fact that Menace II Society presents a more optimistic attitude toward African-Americans and their roots, it is actually the motion picture that also supports nihilistic ideas. The central character is shot as a result of a series of problems that initially seemed unimportant, this being likely meant to emphasize that it is extremely difficult for someone to leave the hood.

Menace II Society tends to be more confusing at times and appears to be intended to send a message rather than to provide viewers with a story. Boyz n the Hood is much better put together and viewers are presented with a linear storyline and with well-shaped characters that react exactly how they would be expected to react when they come across critical situations.


Dir. Allen Hughes & Albert Hughes. Menace II Society. New Line Cinema, 1993.

Dir. John Singleton. Boyz n the…… [read more]

Film Required for the Class Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Even with the fact that they address the topic from different points-of-view, both films are basically the same when considering the suave central characters who initially have problems believing that love actually exists and they gradually come to realize that they need to restructure their lives in order to be able to have the persons they want to be with.

The two movies are largely meant to discuss the idea of an attractive bachelor who sees relationships as a game and who becomes proficient in playing it. This respective individual sees matters from a material perspective and it is only when he comes across more serious emotions that he decides to change who he is in favor of being in a traditional relationship. The films are basically intended to emphasize that people are always going to 'fall victim' to love and that there is nothing that someone can do in order to fight such feelings, even with the fact that the person is an expert in inter-human relations.

The fact that the movies show awkward individuals trying to learn from persons who are presumably more experienced in dealing with other people is also a principal idea. The films promote the idea that love is not the same thing with connecting to people as a result of smooth-talking and looking good. To a certain degree, it would only be safe to say that they are directed at society's tendency to appreciate material values more than feelings and to people who believe that being shallow is more beneficial than risking to lose one's heart in a relationship.


Dir. Andy Tennant. Hitch. Columbia Pictures, 2005

Dir. Glenn Ficarra. Crazy,…… [read more]

Images in the Film Badlands Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,833 words)
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Before he was a garbage man and had to deal with human trash. Now, he is in the feed lot and has to deal with cows. When Holly spends time with him, she seems so pure and bright. Her clothes are white, or some bright shade. When Kit finally decides to change outfits, he wears a shirt similar to the… [read more]

Film "Schindler's List," Directed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (654 words)
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That is not real life and this film certainly portrayed real life, in all its horror and disgust.

The use of camera angles, lighting, and character development throughout the movie were the most interesting to me. It was also interesting to see how Spielberg tried to recreate the World War II Poland ghetto, and the horrors and humiliation of the concentration camps. One of the most moving scenes was when Schindler follows the women and girls who are misdirected to a camp, and sees first-hand what is happening to the Jews. It is also one of the most disturbing scenes, as the ash floats down at the beginning of the scene, and you know what the ash contains, you do not have to be told.


Critics, foundations, and a long list of professionals highly acclaim this film. They believe the film is a masterpiece of direction, storytelling, and filming. Spielberg uses black and white to give the feeling of a documentary, except at the beginning and the end. I believe these sections of color let us know what we are going to see really happened, and then let us know we are back in "reality." He also uses tiny bits of added color to reflect horror and fear. He used bright red on the child in the red coat to make her stand out, and demonstrate how inhuman it was for a child to watch the even more inhuman executions in the streets.

The film received numerous awards, including these 1993 Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Spielberg), Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Art Direction/Set Decoration, Best Cinematography, Best Film Editing, and Best Original Score. It is truly a difficult film to watch, but a film that should be seen by everyone, to help understand the horrors of World…… [read more]

Schindler's List Film Review

Film Review  |  4 pages (1,399 words)
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How The Story is Told

The story begins in Poland in 1941 with the central character, Schindler. Schindler is seen operating his factory, hiring Jews to work in his factory because they are cheaper labor. While this saves the Jews from death, Schindler is not concerned with this fact, he is concerned only that they are cheap labor and of benefit to him. We see that Schindler's genius is in his ability to bribe, scheme and con others and we see him interacting with the Nazi's. It is a sign of the times that a man with such qualities is able to be successful, the message is that these are the qualities required in this damaged society. Schindler hires Jewish Itzhak Stern to handle his accounts and Stern recruits Jews to work in the factory.

The story continues in 1943 after the ghetto that was home to the Jews has been raided, with the Jews that survived being placed into the Plaszow Forced Labor Camp.

We are introduced to Amon Goeth, the Nazi commander who shoots Jews for target practice. Schindler forms a relationship with Goeth, a relationship he later uses when he campaigns to save the Jews from the camp. In one crucial scene, Schindler marches into the camp after a trainload of his employees are accidentally sent there. Schindler marches into the camp and talks the authorities out of killing his employees, saving them and sending them back to the factory. This scene shows Schindler's ability in bribing and conning others. It is representative of the fact that only a man with such unheroic qualities was able to make a difference in this environment. The story continues as Schindler's plan to save the Jews unfolds. The culmination of the events is in the end of the film where we learn that today there are around 6000 descendants of the Jews Schindler saved and that the Jewish population of Poland is around 4000. The meaning of this is that the Nazi Schindler was able to do more for the Jews than the whole of Poland.

Film Effects

The most notable film effect is the fact that it is filmed largely in black and white. This gives the film a stark quality, with the cinematography also making good use of shadow and light. The black and white seems like an attempt to lessen the impact of the events. In color, the events may have been overpowering, in black and white the viewer is transfixed. It also adds to the idea of looking at a place from another time. The movie also include various scenes of gore. The black and white works to great effect in these with the red of the blood a dark red rather than the brighter red as in color films. It is also gives an extra sense of impact to the opening scenes and especially to the closing scenes, which are both shot in color. There are also two scenes where color appears, the first is… [read more]

Movies Explore Historical World Events Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (430 words)
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The story is divided into three parts the first part depicts a love triangle between Rafe McCawley Danny Walker and nurse Evelyn Johnson. The second part of the film is actually a reenactment of the actual attack on Pearl Harbor. The last part of the film depicts the 1942 raid on Tokyo.

The first part of the movie that shows the love triangle lacks the intrigue that the love story in Titanic did. It was a typical love triangle that has been seen in films and plays since the beginning of time.

The second part of the movies that shows the events that took place leading up to and during the attack on Pearl Harbor was exceptional. This part of the movie shows the carnage of war and the will of human beings to survive and help others.

The last part of the film seems rather unnecessary and takes away from the second part of the film that showed what these soldiers went through. The third part of the film seeks to invoke a since a national pride and patriotism that so easily turns into sensationalism and arrogance.

While the film Titanic was able to balance a love story with historic events…… [read more]

Movie Versions of "The Green Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Edgecombe narrated how he grieved and lfinally learned to cope about death, particularly Janice's death. Edgecombe's reflections on his wife's death was not included in the movie, as well as to what became of Melly and Hal's life after JohnCoffey's (their savior) death.

Although there are numerous changes that must be made to make the film shorter without losing the important and significant events in the novel, both the movie and book version of "The Green Mile" mainly focused on the questionable and unfair death of John Coffey, of what could have been prevented, but did not happen. The story deals with the value of life, of how people cherish it, and "The Green Mile" evokes this theme effectively, both in its book and film version. In conclusion, this paper was able to analyze effectively the novel's differences (and similarities) by comparing the treatment of the story thru two different media: the book and film version. In both media, Stephen King's novel continues to possess the theme of life, death, and healing, despite some differences in narrative order and treatment of the events in the story.


Clinton, Paul. "The Green Mile Covers Powerful Territory." 9 December 1999. Cable News Network Web page. 15 July 2002 http://www.cnn.com/1999/SHOWBIZ/Movies/12/09/review.greenmile.

King, Stephen. "The Green Mile." New York: Simon and Schuster. 1999.

The Green Mile. Director: Frank Darabont. Performers: Tom Hanks, Michael Duncan. Film Production. Warner Brothers (TIME Warner Entertainment Company). 1999.

The Man Who Would Do King." Preview Magazine. January- February 2000. 15 July…… [read more]

Film Lone Star Discussing Various Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This becomes a perfect way, the audience is carried by a thread of progression, Sayles shows how the present is just an extension of the past; they are one. Sayles has creatively and skillfully structured his murder mystery and love story to force audience to periodically reassess their understanding of the characters as more and more relevant details unravel. Though the chronological transitions effected within the shot represent the films most striking structural stylistic feature, other successful techniques and devices guide the audience through the geographical and chronological leaps in the story. The wonderful music (Mason Daring) runs from twangy mysterious melodies to nostalgic Mexican songs. It is very much like Texan music. Sayles uses music traditionally to comment on themes and characters, to reinforce setting and to advance the story line. The soundtrack mines the musical tradition of the three principal cultures depicted, Spanish, English rock, traditional Mexican folk, and country and western.

The accents of the characters were realistic as well. Too often filmmakers overdo Southern accent, some Texans have thick vocals but not all. The sets by Dan Bisop are typical Texas hokey right down to the gunstocks that are used as draft beer handles at the bar.

A quest for realism has guided Sayles in selecting the appropriate artistic ingredients to concoct and season his rich multicultural stew. He does not use the burdensome star personas in his prominent role, instead uses low profile actors, which helps him to create a general sense of small town everydayness.

In writing too Sayles has excelled in the creation of dialogue and in capturing realistically the linguistic universe of his characters. Because Sayles is relating several personal themes with the framework of community dynamics, the very serviceable art direction centers on public or social spaces. The jail, the public school, international bridge, the town square, parking lots, sidewalks and especially bars each have its own African, Mexican or Anglo ambiance.

Although the movie is a bit long but Sayles tries that dull never enter the picture and I think he has successfully achieved that. He cares too much about his characters and about his script. He explores the lives of half a dozen people and the equal number of sub-plots and themes in the picture. It is not doubt that he has done a brilliant job tying together with his direction, with camera lingering on faces and even on broad shots of empty rooms that invite the audience to look at the details.

The film explores race relations, father and son relationship, bribery, incest, drugs, community tensions, history, military base and of course murder. Sayles makes brilliant use of the two hours, and after viewing this movie and Sayles direction I would certainly want to be a director, Sayles shows how you can use this short amount of time to describe, explain and depict various themes, plots and cultures within a single framework and this is what I like most about him. Though the different aspect like cinematography, sets… [read more]

Movie Good Will Hunting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (856 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The professor regains a friend; the psychotherapist gets prodded into re-engaging with the world again, Schulyer grows from someone superficially bantering with strangers in a bar to someone ready to fight for the relationship she wants with Will; Chuckie gives Will the courage to want more than he currently has; and Will forms a real bond with the therapist and risks leaving all that is familiar and safe to him so he can be with Schuyler.

The movie uses setting well to demonstrate how isolated the main characters are. Will is often shown riding public transportation by himself, often elevated above the buildings below. This is his true situation - he is apart from people, and intellectually, well above them. Both help isolate him. His intellectual isolation is demonstrated by how he reveals his gifts, on blackboards when the halls are deserted. The first time the professor tries to talk to him about it, he rejects him with harsh language and when followed, hides in the maze of hallways. Most of the other characters are shown isolated as well, particularly the therapist in his silent apartment and Schuyler lost in her textbooks.

Throughout the movie, everyone is looking for the good in Will Hunting. In the process, they all discover good will within themselves. The professor and the therapist make a real connection with each other at the end of the movie instead of the stiff, awkward and often confrontational meetings they had had before. Schuyler completely accepts Will's humble background as well as his revelation that he has been terribly abused, and doesn't give up even when he brutally ends their relationship.

This feeling of innate isolation, requiring acts of will to overcome its affects and truly connect with others is emphasized by the end of the movie, which shows Will driving resolutely westward to reunite with Schuyler in California. His car is completely alone on the highway, but we know he is moving away from aloneness.

Good Will Hunting was very successful at exploring the very human problem of isolation from others because it explored the issue from the viewpoint of multiple characters who have varied roles in life and who have widely varying experiences. In the end, they all have to do the same thing: overcome the tremendous risk, step off the emotional cliff and trust that the person they care about will be there to break their fall. Each major character has learned that the joy of really connecting with others is worth overcoming the fear…… [read more]

Dreams May Come, a Film Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The tracker is revealed to be actually Albert Lewis, Chris' mentor. Thus, the cycle is complete and Chris can use this characters advice to try to save Annie from hell.

The ultimate message of having characters appear to be one person but really be another is that outward appearances, preconceived ideas about relationships, can get in the way of true communication. The various characters in the film chose appearances that would allow Chris to receive the messages that he needed at the time. These messages were necessary for him to adjust to his new surroundings, reacquaint himself with his daughter and son, and have the information needed to save his wife. To receive them, he had to lose his prior attitudes about his daughter, son, or mentor and his relationship to them, so he could be open to what the thoughts of those people really mean to him. Again this is an expression of the idealism approach of the film, as the outward appearances of the people are not reality, but their expressed thoughts and beliefs are what is truly real.

Thus through the use of various visualization techniques, the film "What Dreams May Come, sets forth a visually arresting expression of the idealism philosophy -- the idea that the only reality is that contained in the mind. Taking this idea to its logical conclusion, Chris Nielsen creates a heaven from within his mind, one that is controlled through his thoughts and wishes. His thoughts govern such fundamental things as the world around him, as well as the very question of his own existence. This heaven also the visual representation of the strong and unique connection with his wife, Annie, and her ability to connect with him even after his death. Through various tricks of visualization, different characters are able to communication to Chris information that he may not have accepted coming from the true bearer of the message. This emphasizes the reality of his son's, daughter's, and mentor's beliefs and not their bodily existence. Thus, by carrying the viewer into this world governed by thought and not matter, the filmmakers present a story that embodies the philosophies of idealism, that reality exists only in the mind.

Works Cited

Brewer, Ebenezer C., "Spirit Writing," Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus Company, 1898.

Crystal, Ellie. "Automatic Writing." 2002. Crystalinks. 26 November 2002 http://www.crystalinks.com/automatic_writing.html

Russell, Bertram. The Problems of Philosophy. New York: H. Holt, 1912.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Complete Moby Shakespeare. 26 November 2002.…… [read more]

Film Noir Among the Various Dissertation

Dissertation  |  28 pages (7,885 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The words chosen aren't ordinary strings of words thrown together but are in fact extracts from the novel.

By exposing the fact that the dialogue in noir films were often taken from novels some of them were based upon it can give one a pretty good idea of what an impact visual entertainment with novel dialogue can have on the… [read more]

Frankenstein-Movie Reading About Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,324 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The most memorable part is when the mad doctor checks the monster for signs of life. At first it seems like as if the experiment has failed, but then the camera focuses on the monster's right hand which is twitching. Frankenstein starts screaming in a very dramatic manner "Look! It's moving. It's alive. It's alive....It's alive, it's moving, it's alive, it's alive, it's alive, it's alive, it's alive! Oh - in the name of God. Now I know what it feels like to be God." (Filmsite, Tim Dirks, 1996) This is one of the most memorable and spectacular scenes in the movie. It has been popular with movie fans throughout the years and has been spoofed and lampooned in dozens of movies.

Whale does not let the audience see the monster and builds up a lot of suspense. The unveiling of the monster is very dramatic. Seeing the monster for the first time is a very memorable scene. The monster is a very complex character. He is gentle and fearsome at the same time. One doesn't know whether to feel sorry for him or to hate him. He is just an unfortunate freak of nature and can't seem to understand the purpose of his life. There is an attempt by him to try and find a place for himself in this world. He doesn't wish to harm anyone but distrustful people are after his blood. The people are responsible for turning the monster against them as he had not wanted to harm them. There is a sympathy factor attached to his character as he does not want to harm people but is forced to take that path to defend himself. He is left all alone in the world after being spurned by his master. He has to discover the cruel fate of the world on his own. This is a lot like the true human nature of people. No one likes to accept a person with any abnormality. A person should not be condemned for his/her shortcomings. People usually go for appearances and don't care for the inner feelings of others. One should think with their hearts and not with their brains for once. Frankenstein's creation is also like one of the outcasts of society who is condemned for something which is not his fault.

One of the film's most powerful and horrifying scenes is when the monster befriends a young girl Maria. "Who are you? I'm Maria. Will you play with me?" (Filmsite, Tim Dirks, 1996) She does not display any fear for him and asks him to play with her. The innocence of the child is radiated when she offers him a flower and takes him to the edge of the lake. The monster is just like a child right now when he has an innocent smile on his face. They both throw flowers on the lake to see how they float. The sad part comes when the monster ignorantly and unintentionally throws Maria in the lake to… [read more]

Physical Comedy on Film Sophisticated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bedini becomes a comic Italian, clicking his heels and threatening people with a sword. There is a good bit in which Travers and Bedini are trying to decide who has the bigger key to Tremont's room in yet another mix-up.

There are two slaps that we see; Tremont flattens her hand on Travers' jaw. There is one we don't see;… [read more]

Oppression the Movie the Matrix Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Spirituality is similarly significant within the film, The Matrix. Many of the spiritual ideas within the movie seem not unrelated to theoretical strains of Buddhism. Indeed, other commentators have noted this affinity within the film:

Buddhism and Gnosticism share in common an attitude towards consensual reality (not reality itself, but a judgment/definition of what reality is) -- namely that the senses and even the analytical mind which processes the signals from our senses -- can only reach as far as the illusion, and therefore they cannot reinforce anything but the illusion.

Buddhism and Gnosticism in The Matrix")

Indeed, in the movie, The Matrix, Morpheus even asks Neo-what it is that he believes to be real, pointing out that, although things inside the matrix feel real, they are not. This is not in any fashion dissimilar to Buddhist statements that "All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts" (Ford). Thus, The Matrix produces a form of spirituality heavily influenced by Buddhism.

In considering the theme of community, lastly, The Matrix takes on an idea not like that of Antonio Gramsci's concept of the intellectual in society. In his idea, Gramsci felt the need for a group of intellectuals to be deemed responsible for certain tasks of governance:

Because of the way society develops, different groups of individuals will be required to take on particular tasks. Gramsci suggests that although all tasks require a degree of intellectual and creative ability, some individuals will be required to perform tasks or functions which are overtly intellectual.

Antonio Gramsci")

Like in Gramsci's outline, The Matrix presents the idea that certain elect individuals, such as Morpheus and Neo, will ultimately be responsible for ensuring the safety of humanity. Indeed, it is only through the actions of these people that the world can be protected for and eventually reclaimed by humanity.


Antonio Gramsci." May 19, 2003. http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-gram.htm#role

Baudrillard, Jean. The Vital Illusion. May 19, 2003. http://www.techdirections.com/html/vi.html

Buddhism and Gnosticism in The Matrix." May 19, 2003. http://terje.bergersen.net/mt/archives/000021.html

Ford, James L. "Buddhism, Christianity, and The Matrix: The Dialectic of Myth-Making in Contemporary Cinema." The Journal of Religion and Film. May 19, 2003. http://www.unomaha.edu/~wwwjrf/thematrix.htm

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. May 19, 2003. http://www.nd.edu/rmacrori/fyc110/design/appendices/freire/f02.shtml… [read more]

Women in Film Noir Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Women's sexuality has been traditionally linked - in Western tradition at least - with this particular fragility. Women's fecundity has all too often linked them in the minds of men as agents of chaos. Artistic creation is the mirror image of birth, but it is controlled, refined, limited, civilized: Creation without the messiness of birth. The act of creating an… [read more]

Matrix and Jung the Film Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The savior-god is a human endowed with special qualities; his existence was foretold by prophesy and his destiny is to save humanity. Neo-can also be viewed in light of the myths of the hero: he is like the Classical Greek hero, who is both reluctant and flawed but a hero nonetheless. As a classical hero, Neo-must sacrifice himself for the cause. Furthermore, Agent Smith is the archetypal villain, and in many ways the shadow self of the hero. In fact, his being a program, and thus disembodied, makes him even more closely approximate the nature of the shadow.

Neo's role in the film also approximates Jung's idea of the animus, the archetypal male. Likewise, his female counterpart is the anima, embodied by Trinity. In The Matrix, Trinity falls in love with Neo, thus symbolizing the union between animus and anima which is the essence of human sexuality and the sacred marriage that Jung addresses in the book.

Works Cited

Jung, Carl Gustav. Man and His Symbols.

Wachowski, Andy, and Wachowski, Larry.…… [read more]

Movie Mandy Moore Plays Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,534 words)
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We learn by direct instruction when we are smaller children,

We learn through the modeling of others.

We learn our social skills thorough our own experience

The teen characters have come to an important turning point of their lives wherein they had learned from direct instruction, and had learned drastically different lifestyle. They had learned by the modeling of others, which had reinforces their understanding of themselves as others were them. However, as the celluloid frames of the movie clicked by, these characters were in the process of learning about themselves through their own experiences. They had the choice to continue to reinforce the lessons which had proceeded, or to allow their own desires to help shape and form a complete, and personal identity.


This movie did not change my thought process in any way. The themes have been communicated hundreds of times before, and are somewhat worn. However, the universal natures of these themes are demonstrated in that they still attract writers, and audiences. As people, we need to learn to relate to others. The process included learning to relate to, and accept who we are so that we can discover that we have a valuable contribution to make, and…… [read more]

Monster With Charlize Theron Movie Review

Movie Review  |  3 pages (867 words)
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Monster is worth seeing if for nothing else than to witness the dramatic transformation and effort the main character went through to play Aileen. Charlize is convincing in her role. The movie provides a realistic portrait of the ravages that a life of hatred, violence and absence of love might result it. The movie is somewhat disturbing to watch, there are a number of violent and graphic scenes including the rape and abuse of the character Aileen that forces her to turn to a life of murder. The movie takes on an overall angry personality, but this is justified based on the content and purpose of the movie.

Chris Barsanti of Film Critic.com claims that the movie is worthy of three stars. Though it may not be a movie worthy of best picture, it is worthy of at least significant consideration. According to Barsanti, the film has a purpose, and that purpose is to "tell a story" not shock audiences. To this extent, the film succeeds. It is able to rely the incredible tragedy that can result when a child is brutalized during childhood, and subsequently grows up unloved and disregarded. Audiences will walk away with a true idea of how someone could turn to a life of abuse, after having been abused themselves for so many years. The audience also walks away with a sense of familiarity with Wuornos, and the desperation that must have lead her to her rampages and ultimate demise.

Monster" also accurately portrays how a person disregarded for so long can cling to anyone willing to offer them even the slightest sign of affection, no matter the form or manner. This is depicted through Ricci's character, who initially "showers" Wuornos with love. Wuornos is not so concerned about who is loving her and how, she is drawn to the fact that someone actually cares for her. One is almost left with empathy for the killer. Not that what Wuornos did was right, but audiences are certainly compelled to acknowledge that given her circumstances, what happened was not so much shocking as expected.


Barsanti, Chris. "Monster." Fimcritic.com, 2004. {Online}. Retrieved April 3, 2004, http://www.filmcritic.com/misc/emporium.nsf/2a460f93626cd4678625624c007f2b46/1876d7b6a8a1ce7388256e04007c545d?OpenDocument

Monster." Reviewed by E! {Online}. Retrieved April 3, 2004. Available: http://www.eonline.com/Facts/Movies/Reviews/0,1052,88325,00.html?seed=movfact2

Monster." Reviewed by the Contra Costa Times. March 26, 2004. {Online}Available: http://www.contracostatimes.com/mld/cctimes/news/local/states/california/counties/alameda_county/cities_neighborhoods/berkeley/8282664.htm… [read more]

Siegel's 1956 Film Version Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Similarly, a shot of the public square helps to illustrate the creeping of the nightmare into the world of light and rationality. The shot shows a wide angle of the public square that is taken through an office window, and shows the square almost in its entirety. All appears normal as people go about their everyday business, until visitors are… [read more]

Artistic Elements in Movie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,451 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The availability of data and its analysis in historic perspective enables the companies to take decisions with respect to the upcoming events. The future consumer trends are also likely to be measured in terms of present and past data. With respect to tsunami warning system, the historic hazards database is required to be synchronized with the global Geographic Information Systems… [read more]

Film Required for the Class Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As the storylines progress it becomes clear that the 'hood' shapes a person and that it is difficult and almost impossible for someone to be passive with regard to what is going on around him. Tre and Caine go through great efforts in order to be different but they both end up being sucked in by the energy present on the streets. Even with this, the two films take on different positions on the idea of a person being influenced to become a criminal. Tre wants to become a criminal as a consequence of seeing his friend killed, but later realizes the error of his thinking and abandons his plan. In contrast, watching his cousin being murdered is actually what triggers Caine's interest in becoming a criminal.

Boyz n the Hood and Menace II Society are both intended to raise public awareness concerning the things happening in hoods all over the world and in the U.S. In particular. However, the former shows a moral person being gradually influenced to leave the 'hood' as he realizes the importance of doing so while the latter shows a person who is influenced to become a criminal as a consequence of the things he sees and learns. While Tre manages to leave the hood as a result of his determination, Caine is eventually killed. It is impossible not to feel sorry about Caine (even with the fact that he was a criminal) as viewers are influenced to accept that he was simply the product of the environment he was living in, especially considering the tragic ways that each of his parents died.


Dir. Allen Hughes, and Albert Hughes. Menace II Society. New Line Cinema, 1993.

Dir. John Singleton. Boyz n the Hood. Columbia…… [read more]

Misrepresentations of African-Americans in Film From the Birth of a Nation Onward Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,575 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


All serious moviegoers must sooner or later arrive at a point where they see a film for what it is, and not simply for what they feel about it. The Birth of a Nation is not a bad film because it argues for evil. Like Riefenstahl's The Triumph of the Will, it is a great film that argues for evil. To understand how it does so is to learn a great deal about film, and even something about evil.

A film, Ebert argues, can be a cinematic masterpiece and its ideology can still be evil. Although it is no longer watched today very much except in film history classes, it had a positive impact upon many aspects of how modern cinema is produced. However, its non-artistic cultural fallout cannot be ignored. A racist and false history of America had far more seductive appeal vs. more honest attempts to tell the truth, even for many whites. The popularity of Gone with the Wind similarly underlines how fiction can often be more appealing than fact when it comes to narratives about race. The dangers of both racist works are that they are appealing and effective as art in the ways that the photographs of lynchings today are not and they still have persuasive force, despite the best efforts of their critics to discount them.

Works Cited

Ebert, Roger. "The Birth of a Nation movie review." Roger Ebert Reviews. 30 Mar 2003

[4 Mar 2014] http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-the-birth-of-a-nation-1915

Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder: Southern violence and the blues tradition. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Wallace, Michele Faith. "The Good Lynching and Birth of a Nation: Discourses…… [read more]

Breakfast Club Movie Review

Movie Review  |  2 pages (488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In the real world, it is unthinkable to suppose that no minorities would be punished in the same manner as the white kids. The crime and incarceration rates depict a different story where blacks and minorities are targeted exponentially more than whites.

Whites are also targeted in this movie in other more subtle ways. The problems of all the kids are deep and disturbing. This movie furthers negative stereotypes about white people that are basically unfair. The movie attempts to break down the white race to 5 simple archetypes which desperately fall short of reality.

Impacts of the Issues

The importance of Hollywood and film for society cannot be underestimated. In our environment, films are used to dictate what is and what is not acceptable in mainstream society, and any misrepresentation of the truth betrays the audiences" trust. Art is too important to risk portraying inaccurate stereotypes. If art does not represent true life there is little value in it and should not be broadcast to the masses.

What is most important is that movies show diversity and equality whenever possible. The themes and plotlines are merely secondary to this effort as society's dependence on its entertainment is too scared to step out of the mainstream boundaries. Stereotypes are important and give us the necessary guidance and structure to make informed and intelligent decisions. In films like the Breakfast Club, inaccurate stereotypes are borderline dangerous because of the awful injustices and…… [read more]

Repentance: Film Review Film Review

Film Review  |  4 pages (1,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Keti is the perfect example of someone taking action -- people practically acknowledged their limitation and used every means they had available with the purpose of improving their condition, even if this meant to simply dream about a better life.

The film shows the church as a place where people can always go when in distress. Many are likely to consider that the motion picture is wrong in showing religion as the way out of a dictatorship. These people might prefer direct action and violence as a better solution to the problem, taking into account the military aspect of such a political system.

History dominates most of the storyline, with characters suffering greatly as a consequence of their town's background. The former leader had left them with a bad taste, but it seems that most of them are hesitant about taking matters into their own hands and actually condemning him. Keti's strength to even consider a scenario where things would get better and where people would really be able to go against their oppressors is certainly impressive. The woman manages to do something in a situation when such actions seem impossible. Even with the fact that she simply imagines things, her dedication and he general outcome of her imagination is probable to trigger intense emotions in audiences.

Christian imagery is used as a means to reach out to people and make it possible for them to observe the religious aspect of the story. The demolition of the church is a principal concept at this point, as it symbolizes the lengths to which some political leaders are willing to go in order to control the masses. Religious confessions and the idea of burial in general are also significant when considering the Christian element in the film. Again, the church seems to be the only thing separating people from the threat of dictatorship. Characters in the film appear to be fueled by their religious thinking and it seems to be the only thing helping them more on without being destroyed by the suffering that they experienced. The man with the moustache eating cakes in the form of churches contributes to showing the fact that a dictator and individuals close to him are solely interested in their personal well-being, as they are practically insensible to the suffering they provoke.

In spite of the abstract and relatively absurd way that the storyline unfolds, it would be wrong to say that it uses humor as a means of criticizing communism. The characters in Repentance are essential for the storyline and it is through them that viewers learn more about things like responsibility and history.

All things considered, the film provides a story that was largely unpopular in the political environment in the Soviet Union. While it probably inspired many people to take up arms against their oppressors, is also made them accept the fact that they were limited -- the system was much more powerful than them because they could only act as individuals. The… [read more]

Independent Film Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (3,194 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Winning Doesn't Matter: A Critical Examination of Little Miss Sunshine

As scholar Timothy Corrigan suggests in his book a a Short Guide to Writing About Film, "[w]riting essays about films is, in short, one of the most sophisticated ways to respond to them" (iv). Corrigan further notes that there are six main approaches to writing about films that… [read more]

Grief and Loss as it Pertains to Film Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Grief and Loss in "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest"

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, is a 1962 book by novelist Ken Kesey. It is also an iconoclastic 1975 movie directed by Milos Forman; winning all five major Academy Awards for that year: Best Picture, Best Actor (Jack Nicholson), Best Actress (Louise Fletcher), best Director and Screenplay. The novel… [read more]

Full Metal Jacket Movie Review

Movie Review  |  2 pages (767 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Full Metal Jacket

Certainly in terms of historical events in recent American history that had an impact on American society and on U.S. foreign policy, the Vietnam War ranks stands out. In nearly every community in American there are Vietnam veterans and they all have war stories to share but the most poignant and the saddest stories are based on the way the returning troops were treated when they got home. I chose this movie to critique because it is fairly realistic regarding what the U.S. troops endured in Vietnam, and also because it has a lot of humor and levity, to lighten the theme a bit.

Is it a classic movie? It probably won't stand the test of time like some other films from the Vietnam era -- like "The Deer Hunter," "Apocalypse Now" or "Platoon" -- but it has its own value, and of course Stanley Kubrick is the director and his work is revered in the annals of American film history.

The movie is historically accurate in one sense, the setting and the theme are certainly accurate, but it is a fictional portrayal of characters and scenes. And in another sense the movie is historically accurate because when a person joins the U.S. Marine Corps there is a Hell to go through just to get out of basic training. That part of the movie is very entertaining, and the actor Lee Ermey makes the basic training part of this film very funny.

Since playing the brutally hard-nosed drill instructor (or gunnery sergeant) in Full Metal Jacket, Ermey has been given a number of roles in movies, almost always playing the loudmouth hard-as-a-rock dictator of some kind. He also has made a name for himself doing commercials, falling back on the belligerent personality he perfected in the Kubrick film. When a researcher learns that Ermey actually was a drill sergeant in Vietnam, it all makes sense, and it also gives the film some historical linkage, although Ermey's character, Gunnery Sergeant Hartman, becomes a loud and obnoxious parody of himself in time.

It is easy to identify with Private Leonard Lawrence, who is named "Gomer Pyle" by Sergeant Hartman. Every kid in school has seen a chubby kid who gets harassed by the other kids. In this film, Lawrence takes a lot…… [read more]

Robert Evans: A Life on Film Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,688 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Robert Evans: A life on film and behind the scenes of the film industry

According to the Hollywood trade publication Variety, at a recent tribute to the Hollywood film producer Robert Evans, Evans said he was "the only person to have gone from being head of a studio and ended up as a cartoon" in Hollywood history.

Producer and former… [read more]

Film Witness: The Right to Privacy Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Film Witness: The Right to Privacy vs. The Right to Know

There are a lot of differences between the Amish people and the rest of the American society as a whole. Two of the major differences between the groups are the shunning of technology by the Amish and the embracing of very strong morals and ethics by that same group. In the movie there are several times where the Amish widow seems startled and overwhelmed by things that most Americans would find completely normal, such as a car. There are also times when she seems much more resourceful than would be expected, and that leads to a little bit of a gap in the realism of the movie. Not everyone would likely be bothered by that, however, and it did not seem to detract from the popularity of the movie when it hit theaters, was made available on video, or has been shown on television.

From an ethical standpoint, there is an argument that the movie industry and Hollywood overall distorted what was true and accurate about the Amish so that it could portray them the way it wanted to for the film. For example, even though they do shun technology does not mean that they are completely ignorant of it. They have dealings with people who use technology, and they know what cars and telephones and computers and guns and other things are. They know what those things are for. Just because someone chooses not to use something in their life, it is wrong to assume that they do not know anything about it. The Amish people were also portrayed as ultra-religious and socially backward, and they are neither of those things. They are religious, and they are moral and ethical people, but to suggest that they are incapable of functioning on a normal level simply because they hold themselves to high standards is unfair and makes Hollywood look bad.

The Amish also have a right to privacy just like any other person, but I do not agree that their right to privacy was invaded any more than any other American's right to privacy would be invaded if a movie was being shot in their town or city. Even though the Amish prefer to be left alone they are part of this country and cannot force people to stay away from common areas and places of business that belong to everyone. I sympathize with their desire to be left to themselves and not be bothered, but I do not think that what happened to them was a legal violation of their right to privacy. Morally and ethically, though, perhaps. That is an argument that could be made either way, however, because everyone judges the idea of morals and ethics differently.

When looking at ethics, it is important to understand that, while a broad, general definition is available, a specific definition is very illusive. This is because the ethics are involved in so much of our daily lives,… [read more]

Ethical Values Associated With the Portrayal of Women in Horror Movies Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,616 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … communication in the media. Specifically it will discuss ethical values associated with the portrayal of women in horror films. Typically, the portrayal of women in horror films is negative, sexist, and violent. Filmmakers portray the women as victims - helpless in the face of brutal attacks. They rarely have the ability to fight back, and when they win… [read more]

How Walt Disney Changed the Movie Industry and the Moral Standards He Set for Movies Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,061 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … American culture and social impact. Specifically it will discuss Walt Disney and his impact on the movie industry. Walt Disney had a large impact on the movie industry due to the moral standards he set for his films and his company, the family values he incorporated into his films, and the timeless effects his films still have on… [read more]

Film &amp Bill Nichols Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,409 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Film & Bill Nichols

What is the value of Nichols' system of documentary modes? The value first of all is in the fact that Nichols' system puts a microscope on the topic of documentaries. Nichols slows down the process of how critics and reviewers tell the movie-going public about certain films that are non-fiction films. Nichols attempts to… [read more]

Cinema Paradiso Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,186 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Cinema Paradiso

The film Cinema Paradiso (Giuseppe Tornatore, 1988) is clearly a paean to the motion picture as an art form, a shared social reality, an entertainment, and a means of personal expression. The film also details a human relationship between the old man who worked as projectionist in the local movie theater and the village boy he teaches about… [read more]

Let the Right One in by Tomas Alfredson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,085 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Tomas Alfredson's 2008 film Let the Right One In follows the story of twelve-year-old Oskar as he attempts to deal with school bullies and his parents separation, but it complicates these generally mundane, childhood concerns with the introduction of Oskar's new next-door neighbor, Eli, who happens to be a vampire. Though the film is, in the words of Roger Ebert, "deadly grim," the relationship which develops between Oskar and Eli is decidedly sweet, and constitutes the emotional core of the movie around which the violence and horror are bound (Ebert 2008). Examining certain key scenes in the film along with the dual meanings of the title itself will demonstrate how Alfredson uses the tropes of the vampire genre in order to effectively convey the isolation and anxiety of childhood.

The title, Let the Right One In, functions on two different levels. Firstly it refers to the film's usage of the vampire trope in which a vampire cannot enter a home or room without first being invited in, which is referenced when Oskar first invites Eli into his room. In addition, the title functions on a thematic level, because it serves as a kind of instruction to both Oskar and Eli; each of them can only survive by opening up to another person, but they must be careful who that person is. For Oskar, some form of genuine kinship with his mother or father, or even anyone else at his school, is all that he is lacking, but for one reason or another he cannot find this companionship, as his parents are more concerned with their own issues than him, and as "he is smarter, prettier and lonelier than anyone in his school, […] he naturally attracts abuse from the bullies" (Anderson 2008). This fact makes Oskar's fascination with Eli all the more understandable, because any of the odd hints which suggest that something about Eli is off or different are not enough to dissuade Oskar from pursuing this relationship, which represents the only genuine interaction he has in the film.

Eli arguably has a more difficult time connecting, because her existence seems predicated upon avoiding close interaction with those people who might one day become her prey. As such, her only companionship is a seemingly lecherous old man Hakan, who for inscrutable (or unthinkable) reasons is dedicated to providing blood for Eli. While this relationship affords Eli with the physical sustenance she needs to survive, her relationship with Hakan does not offer the kind of emotional connection that both her and Oskar are ultimately seeking. Only when she meets Oskar, someone as isolated as she is, does Eli find the kind of relationship that can provide for those needs beyond the drinking of blood.

When Oskar and Eli meet, Eli is at first reluctant to allow herself to grow close to Oskar, telling him that they cannot be friends, but other time the two develop a bond. For example, Eli is the only person to whom Oskar reveals the physical… [read more]

Artists in Film Area or Others Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Artists in Film

In believe three of the greatest artists in film today are Steven Spielberg, Michael Moore, and Pixar Studios. Each of these artists have changed the way we look at film, and each of these artists bring their own particular brand of filmmaking to the public, raising public awareness to a higher level. Each can be controversial, but each of these filmmakers create meaningful, emotional, political, and social content that amuses, entertains, but also makes us think about more important issues facing society today. Each uses a different approach to get their message across, but each share some of the same characteristics and methods.

First, Pixar Studios is the animation genius behind such hits as "Shrek," "Toy Story," and now television's "Father of the Pride." Pixar created a new form of computerized animation that uses three-dimensional forms that are much more lifelike and real. They also use common, good vs. evil type themes of fairy tales and legends to create films that appeal to children, but also appeal to adults. For example, "Shrek" seems on the surface to be nothing more than a child's fairy tale retold in Pixar's unique animation. However, underneath the simple story line of Cinderella and her Prince Charming that rescue her are themes that touch all ages. Some of the dialogue is actually quite risque, and only older children and adults will get the full meaning of it. In addition, the ultimate theme of not judging only on appearances is age old, and yet retold in this modern way it creates a whole new awareness of how society judge's the "ogres" of the world. In this context, Pixar is developing relevant social, emotional, and meaningful themes through their whimsical animations.

Michael Moore is another great not only because of his content, but also mostly because of his great ability to stir up commentary and public awareness. His themes are highly controversial, but he has managed to get people to pay admission to see documentaries, and made them highly…… [read more]

Vincent Canby Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Vincent Canby

Canby a passionate supporter of many filmmakers was born in Chicago, Illinois to Katharine Anne and Lloyd Canby in July 27, 1924. He attended a boarding school with the novelist William Styron and after war service in Pacific; he attended Dartmouth College, which saw his employment as a film critic by "Variety." He served in the navy as an officer in World War II. Serving long time in Japan and France helped him build up a taste of adventurous foreign films. A prolific writer, he penned the novels "Unnatural Scenery" and authored plays. He never got married but maintained a long time partnership with critic and film fiction writer Penelope Gilliatt who passed away in 1993.

He heavily criticized much-admired films, such as "The godfather II." He later switched his attention to theatre and later named the chief theatre critic in 1994. He got branded as America's most prominent critic for a quarter century. He had an effortless style that captivated with wit and common sense. Known for his polished, outspoken but expressive prose and his longtime eagerness for writers and directors, he was part of a generation of thoughtful and artistic critics. During his long time as a leading film critic, his opinions were mostly cherished and hotly debated because he was a trusted and frank guide for the audience. Despite his respect for intelligent filmmaking, it was challenging for playing the role of the advocate. He would always finish writing a review, and then carefully analyze it to remove lines that could be quoted by the studios. Seeing his name in citation previews was dissimilar to his own sense of dignity.

Canby began writing the theatre column in 1993, taking a break from the position to try his hand as the chief theater critic before returning. In print, he was a dignified voice that could take on a note of opposition when attacking the dishonesty of more improved musicals. His writing improvised the whole intensity of criticism. He had an excellent understanding of the theatre hence refined review of theatrical arts. In the review of the movie "Let the Good Times Roll," which follows a performance in the 1970's, Canby cited that the film seemed not to be deliberate on social observations, with the majority-white viewers giving the black fist to the majority Negro performers. He suggests that it portrayed the sense that there were no black memories of the nineteen-fifties.

The 1981 Australian film "Mad Max 2" directed by George Miller released on December 24, 1981 sparked critics. The film got a well reception from critics being the best of 1981. Canby noted that never has a films visualization of post nuclear sacred world seemed quite wild and as atrocious. As action packed and sometimes as hilarious as depicted in the movie, an exaggerated film fancy that resembles a fiction comic book came to life. He later points out that the movie does not reveal its vision of a violent future with characters band dialogue.… [read more]

Hit Documentary Movie by Michael Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Kreager) So that is when adults are needed to intervene. But if the adults are scared of society as well, who are the kids to turn to?

In conclusion, this paper attempted to evaluate the documentary by Michael Moore called "Bowling for Columbine" from a criminologist point-of-view. The criminologist point-of-view of choice was "Criminology: The Core, 8th edition" by Larry J. Siegel as well as criminal justice research journals. The objective of the paper was to addresses if this documentary supported information taught by Siegel. The paper aims to discuss theories the movie covered, provide insight into gun control and discuss violence in schools. Another objective of the paper was to discuss if the movie's arguments portrayed real life. And finally, the paper tries to provide an evaluation of my personal beliefs about "Bowling For Columbine" and crime in general.

Works Cited

Grasmick, Harold G. "Criminal Behavior And Age: A Test Of Three Provocative Hypothesis." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology September (1997).

How to Deal with the Lies and the Lying Liars When They Lie about "Bowling for Columbine." Ed. Michael Moore. Michael Moore. Retrieved on 16 Nov. 2004, from .

Kreager, Derek A. "Strangers in the Halls: Isolation and Delinquency in School Networks." Social Forces September. (2004).

Moore, Michael. "Bowling For Columbine." DVD: 2002.

Siegel, Larry J. Criminology: The Core. 8th ed.…… [read more]

Michael Almereyda's Use of Technology in His 2000 Film Version of Hamlet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Almereyda's Hamlet

The play Hamlet is one of the most complicated and respected plays in all of theater. One reason for this is that Shakespeare's characters are written both powerfully and ambiguously. Therefore, the role of the director in a production of Hamlet is pivotal. It is the director that decides how the audience is to perceive the characters in… [read more]

Hippie Revolution Over the Course Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (4,645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


G18). The film was attacked on nearly every level, but nowhere more so than its particular narrative and stylistic choices, which upset some reviewers for either being too much or not enough. The Washington Post said that the film "has no sense of pace and its intentional formlessness is only a cover for a lack of imagination" (Rice, 1968, p.… [read more]

Automobiles in American Film and TV Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … automobiles in the film industry, and specifically how they are impacted by mass media and how mass media influences their use and popular culture surrounding their use. The writer explores several books and movies to analyze the use of autos in American film and mass media influence on that decision..

Since the inception of the automobile, significant importance… [read more]

Magnolia Paul Thomas Anderson's 1999 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Similarly, Claudia breaks through from her self-imposed depression and addiction, but not without the help of a cop who falls in love with her. Both Claudia and Frank Mackey are affected by their father's illnesses, and each changes of their own accord. Their liberation is noticeable also in the changes in young Stanley, who finally sticks up to his overbearing father.

P.T. Anderson creates a soulful and surreal, yet ironic and darkly comedic mood throughout Magnolia. Music and sound are some of the key cinematic elements the writer/director uses to impart mood. For example, the parent-child conflict is reflected in subtle cues such as a voice-over repeating the Catholic adage about the sins of the father, being reenacted in the children. Songs pierce through and punctuate the film, culminating in a song that is sung simultaneously by all the main characters. Such unifying elements occur throughout Magnolia, and are the key to showing how in spite of separate lives, all human beings are interconnected. Weather is one of the most inescapable and cosmic realities that no human being can escape. Anderson capitalizes on this by punctuating the film with weather reports, as the weather links all people within any given locale. Cosmic events as well as chance encounters tie together otherwise distant individuals. For example, Jim the cop happened to be driving down the street off-duty, and notices Donnie climbing up a building pipe. Their lives intersected through chance and coincidence. Jim lost his gun under similar circumstances: driving home off-duty, he stopped to investigate a suspicious person and lost his gun. When Jim and Donnie meet during the frog downfall, the gun, too, falls from the sky.

Symbolism pervades Magnolia. For example, Jim's gun is a symbol of his manhood and masculinity. However, most of the film's symbols refer to antagonism and duality, darkness and light, life and death. For example, several scenes are set up with two characters speaking to each other across the room from each other in profile: Frank Mackey's interview and Claudia and Jim's encounters are the most notable examples. Antagonism is reflected in almost all relationships in the movie, such as Linda Partridge's (Julianne Moore) encounter at the pharmacy. The quiz show is a symbol in Magnolia too, for the game pits two teams or individuals against each other. Anderson imparts antagonism and duality through symbolism and other visual elements like lighting. The spotlight emphasizes intense light in contrast to surrounding darkness; Mackey runs to the spotlight in order to hide the darkness in his soul. Color also plays a role in the film, especially through the intense redness of Linda's hair. Finally, the closing sequence of a freak frog storm delivers another symbol of duality, as frogs are amphibious creatures comfortable both on land and in water.

The quiz show ties almost everything in the movie together. Through it, the audience perceives the tension between two sides, the adults and the children. The unique quiz show format surreally mirrors the antagonistic family relationships… [read more]

Characters Have to Be Interesting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (465 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This movie gives the audience some insight into how other people around them might really feel about themselves and how they are stereotyped. There is much in this movie to make the audience think.

Five high school kids with different backgrounds and personalities, who are forced to spend an entire day together, is definitely an attention getter. As they get to know each other, each of them begins to see the others apart from their stereotypes, and learns that they are all essentially the same. By the end of the movie they all appear to have changed. The audience wants to believe that they have changed for the better - that they will be less judgmental towards their fellow students and that they will break out of their own stereotypical roles. However, the movie gives no indication what happens to these five people the next day, or the day after that.

The Breakfast Club is a classic movie for good reason. What makes this movie rise above the rest is the character development. Every character in The Breakfast Club is three dimensional. The characters are interesting and the audience cares what happens to them. The plot leaves the audience with something to think about. This movie captures the attention of the audience and leaves them…… [read more]

Lion King Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,481 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Lion King: Animated Film and Stage Play

When the Disney film The Lion King (1994, Buena Vista) came out, it was an immediate hit with audiences and grossed $328,539,505 that year (plus home videos and merchandizing) making it "the fifth highest domestic grossing film in history (Honeycutt 13, 37). It is a children's story that adults are able… [read more]

John Grierson the Documentary Film Developed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  75 pages (22,277 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


John Grierson

The documentary film developed alongside the narrative film, though largely during the sound era. It was shaped most profoundly during the 1930s as filmmakers began to record sociological an anthropological studies of different populations. Some of the early films were treated much as narrative films were and were widely released in theaters, achieving some popularity. In the early… [read more]

Ace Ventura Pet Detective Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ace Ventura

Comedy and the Pet Detective

Bergson and what it means to laugh

Henri Bergson dissects the reasons why comedy works and what it means to be funny in his "classic statement of the principles of humor" (Kelly, Young). Bergson's view of humor comes from his understanding of life, which he saw as a "vital impulse, not to be… [read more]

Bollywood it Is Believed Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,433 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



It is believed that the word Bollywood has been inspired from Hollywood, meanwhile the B. comes from the initial of the city Bombay that is now known as Mumbai, which is the center of the film world in India. It has been known that the India cinema was initiated in the year 1913 with the silent film that was… [read more]

Nora Ephron and Romantic Comedies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Nora Ephron and Romantic Comedies

Ephron was among those pioneer film makers who revolutionized the industry by introducing the concept of romance in comedy in the era when feminism was prevalent. The best thing acknowledged in the great work of Ephron is the way she introduced this concept without stimulating any negatives vibes and assumptions about the desires of men… [read more]

Directors Presentation of the Ghost in Three 3 Films of Hamlet Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,342 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Director's presentation of the Ghost in the three Hamlet films

The adaptation of a Shakespeare play to film is always another director's interpretation of the characters and the text. Numerous Shakespeare plays have been adapted by filmmakers across the globe, who tweak the screenplay slightly or more in accordance to the culture, context and language that they are presenting to. Hamlet is one of the more popular plays of Shakespeare. It has been adapted to film by many directors over the years since it was first enacted (Heroajax, 2008). There are over fifty film adaptations of Hamlet. The full text of Hamlet can run up to four hours in performance. The most important character, after the title character of Hamlet, is that of his father's ghost. Referred to as just "ghost" in the stage play as well as the film adaptations, it is pivotal to the story, and so is its adaptation from stage to screen. The essence of the ghost remains the same in each movie; however, other factors vary from film to film, director to director. The ghost essentially sets the plot into motion by demanding revenge from Hamlet for his murder by Claudius, his brother and Hamlet's uncle (Goldman, 2001). It appears in the play script four times, and is often viewed as a figment of Hamlet's imagination. But it is the appearance of the ghost that leads to Hamlet questioning his sanity. Eventually, Hamlet does manage to avenge his father's death but dies in course of fighting for it. The comparison of different interpretations of the ghost in these films can be made in order to analyze each director's take on the character, as well as the effect that it has on the respective Hamlet character in the given film.

Analysis of Kenneth Branagh's interpretation of the Ghost in Hamlet 1996:

This version of Hamlet is a full text, uncut version of the play. Like the play, the film duration is around over four hours long. This version received much critical acclaim, with Academy Award nominations for Best Original Score, Best Costume Design, Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay) and Best Art Direction for the 69th Academy Awards (Ebert, 1997).

The timeline for the play has been updated for this film and the film has been set in the 19th century. The Branagh version of the play is darker and more dramatic than previous versions before it. Hence, the ghost in that version is depicted as just a dark character than it is. The setting in which Hamlet is confronted by the ghost of his father is much more dramatic. The ghost in the Branagh version fetches similarities to that of a devil. The interpretation is that of a demon-like creature manifesting itself in such a form, while taking the identity of Hamlet's father's spirit. The ghost is dressed in armor, and has the appearance of Hamlet's father. His eyes are filled with fury and anger, and it behaves in a ruthless and asserting manner. The… [read more]

Television in Australia Television Itself Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,504 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Advertising agencies found the entire tactic of sponsoring films and television shows. Due to this reason, commercial television basically enhanced the role of advertising and it went on to control what the public ultimately watched on television. [6: Arrow, "The Introduction of Television in Australia," 152]

One thing that especially changed in the country was the way people responded to… [read more]

Horror What Is Horror? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I believe I was highly influenced by this film because of my young age and inability to fully comprehend that dolls did not have the ability to come to life, nor were they actively attempting to kill me.

Since the inception of horror cinema during the German Expressionist movement of the 1930s, horror has developed into something that is more concerned with the depiction of gore and gratuitous violence more than a genre that seeks to explore an individual's psychological limits. True horror leaves something to the imagination and influences one's perspectives without explicitly showing why a situation is wrong or uncanny. For instance, Robert Weine's "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" forces that audience to imagine the details of what is going on because of the film's silent nature. Furthermore, unease is created through the mise-en-scene, not necessarily through what the viewers sees. Likewise, Fritz Lang's "M" can be considered a horror film because although the audience knows that a serial killer is targeting and killing children, they do not know how he does it, nor does Lang let the audience know who the serial killer is. Furthermore, "M" plays upon the audience's fears because of the realistic nature of the crimes and events that occur in the film. George Romero's (Night of the Living Dead, etc.) and Danny Boyle (28 Days Later) zombie films can also be categorized as successful horror films because they force the audience to contemplate their mortality in both the present and future. It is difficult to classify slasher films as horror because of their formulaic structure, which was satirically alluded to in the "Scream" films.

In order to be truly successful, a horror film must engage the viewer psychologically and force them to explore and come to terms with any fears he or she may have. A horror film should not aim to compact as much gore and violence within a set amount of time, but rather should aim at creating unease or tension on screen as well as…… [read more]

Ken Burns' Documentary: The National Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,479 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The superintendent of the Death Valley National Park shows enthusiasm for having kids come to the park to learn. The film shows kids descending into the crater that is Death Valley's lowest point. "Suddenly you're in a wide-open expanse," the park ranger explains, "and away from everything." Taking city kids to the country is one thing, but taking kids from… [read more]

Culture Films as Expressions Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


B. We determine the meaning of films through close analysis of the content and production.

C. We also determine meaning from films by including an awareness of the greater contexts within which the films are made and consumed.

D. Love stories are an old idea in film, yet there are a finite number of combinations of love relationships that are shown in film. These films mentioned in this paper defy the normative sexual/romantic relationship is some distinctive way. The films reflect and influence viewers with respect to attitudes about non-normative sexual partnerships on the individual and on the societal levels. The analysis has demonstrated in which cultures non-normative relationships are more likely to be accepted or rejected and why, supplying evidence from the films for support.

Introductory paragraph:

Films from the United States and from Italy will be compared. The films that will be compared are feature non-normative sexual and/or romantic partnerships. The paper will endeavor to understand how the values of each culture regarding perceptions and acceptance of non-normative sexual expression. For every Italian film, there exists an American counterpart that is similar in narrative, genre, time period, premise, and more. Among the numerous differences, points of difference between the films are things such as culture, society, and significantly, values. Through emulation and use of a variety of effective media analysis techniques, the paper explores how non-normative romantic partnerships are perceived and valued by the respective cultures in question.


Abrams, Nathan, Bell, Ian, & Udris, Jan. Studying Film. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.

Bellantoni, Patti. If It's Purple, Someone's Gonna Die -- The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling. Oxford, UK: Focal Press, 2005. Print.

Benyahia, Sarah Casey, Gaffney, Freddie, & White, John. AS Film Studies -- The Essential Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Bordwell, David, & Thompson, Kristin. Film Art -- An Introduction. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.

Butler, Andrew M. Film Studies -- The Pocket Essential. North Pomfret, VT: Pocket Essentials, 2005. Print.

Campbell, Drew. Technical Film and TV for Nontechnical People. New York, NY: Allworth Press, 2002. Print.

Celli, Carlo, & Cottino-Jones, Marga. A New Guide to Italian Cinema. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Print.

Cubitt, Sean. The Cinema Effect. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004. Print.

Dixon, Wheeler Winston, & Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey. A Short History of Film. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008. Print.

Fabe, Marilyn. Closely Watched Films: An Introduction to the Art of Narrative Film Technique. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004. Print.

Felleman, Susan. Art in the Cinematic Imagination. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2006. Print.

Galt, Rosalind. The New European Cinema. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2006. Print.

Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2003. Print.

Hayward, Susan. Cinema Studies -- The Key Concepts. London & New York: Routledge, 2000. Print.

Kozloff, Sarah. Overhearing Film Dialogue. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000. Print.

Miller, Toby, & Stam, Robert. (eds)… [read more]

Future of Broadcast Network Television Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,241 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Yes, there are still 'tribes of affinity' today based upon what programs people watch (Lotz 246). But those tribes have grown vastly more diluted. Someone who loves edgy comedy shows in the 1960s might find a common dialogue with other people who liked Laugh-In, but given the ubiquity of Comedy Central and seemingly infinite numbers of comedy shows and stand-up acts, it can no longer be assumed that every person with an alternative sense of humor watches The Daily Show.

The disassociation of cultural significance from large swathes of viewership is also manifested in the fact that many shows with a clear cultural impact like Sex in the City actually did not have very many viewers, because they appeared on cable. It is not necessary for a show to be on a network or even attract the majority of the viewing audience to have enough cultural cache to spawn a cupcake craze and two feature films (Lotz 218). Cable television also provided a more robust forum for free expression, including frank discussions about sexuality that were prohibited on standard network programming. Even PBS was more daring in terms of discussing themes such as homosexuality than network television (Marcus 58).

In the far future, television may become 'a la carte,' allowing viewer to purchase only what channels and even what programs they want. If bundling continues, it must offer more flexible alternatives, acknowledging people's changes in consumption habits, otherwise people will cut off cable altogether, distancing themselves from the major networks. As a result, the content of network television will become segmented to more narrow audiences, given the proliferation of venues on which to watch. Even 'event' television like major sporting events is now available for a nominal fee online, like the NCA A tournament and the Superbowl. It is also very possible that fewer people in general will be watching television, given the delights of interactive media online, gaming, and other screen-based entertainment. In particular, young people are watching less and less television. In 2011, the number of 18-49-year-olds watching television declined 1.4% "from the same period a year earlier and 2.7% from two years ago… The four most-watched broadcast networks have been among the hardest hit. Roughly 3.6 million people between 18 and 49 years old watched prime-time shows on the four biggest broadcast networks this TV season through May 22, down 9% from a year earlier" (Schneider 2011).

The bright side of this is that television will likely improve in quality, as it no longer needs to pander to the needs of a mass audience. Thanks to the improved quality generated by the cutthroat competition, television is no longer called a vast wasteland of content (Ouelette 22). The major networks may continue, but they will be vastly less powerful and significant as they must make a case to viewers that they are worthy of a cable subscription, and are no longer the default option for television viewing.


Hilmes, Michelle. "Audiences." TV History Book. London: BFI, 2003.

Hilmes,… [read more]

Tense Right Now in Israel Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Dreyfus becomes the film's great martyr: the tragic heroine whose plot to assassinate the Nazis coincides brilliantly with the Basterd's own plans. There are several interlocking threads and characters in Inglourius Basterds. We have the dairy farmers, including Shosanna's family. We have the eight Basterds, including "Bear Jew" Donny Donowitz. Most of the Basterds are the children of recent Jewish immigrants to the United States. Then, we have the members of both the Allied and Nazi military including a rather cameo-esque appearance by Mike Myers as a British officer. Although few of the characters are developed in full, they are done so just enough so the audience can feel sympathy with them. For example, we understand that Shosanna has been living as a sort of undercover Jew during the continued Nazi occupation of her home country. She also has a black boyfriend, which irks the Nazi racists even more, and which garners even greater love for the female protagonist.

The opening scene of Inglourius Basterds depicts a French dairy farmer who is hiding the Dreyfus family beneath his floorboards in Nazi-occupied France. The Nazis have been continually hounding the farmer, who eventually breaks down and gives away the Dreyfus family in order to protect his own. The entire family is murdered in cold blood, except for Shosanna. The young girl escapes and runs off into the forest. Colonel Hans Landa (played by Christoph Waltz) laughs as he lets Shosanna run. Landa has earned himself the nickname the "Jew Hunter." Their paths cross again in Paris, where Shosanna runs the small movie theater she inherited from her aunt. Shosanna and Landa have a face-off scene towards the end of the movie. In the interests of avoiding spoilers, it would be irresponsible to comment on the outcome of that confrontation. Any viewer familiar in the least with Tarantino will not necessarily be surprised by anything that happens in Inglourius Basterds. Which of course, detracts little from the overall effect of the film.

Inglourius Basterds is far from perfect. There are moments the film does not enable the type of deep satisfaction that might come from watching people kill Nazis, which is rather surprising. Even the scalping scenes and those involving Raine's signature swastika in the forehead scarring of his victims: they are comedic but not cathartic.

Ultimately, Tarantino's film is satisfying. Even if it is not Tarantino's masterpiece, Inglourius Basterds does deserve the accolades and fan support it receives. Pitt is particularly engaging as the lead. Tarantino's signature style is woven liberally throughout the film. As over-the-top as Inglourious Basterds might be, there remains a kernel of truth that elevates the film to a status that even Pulp Fiction cannot attain. Perhaps this is because of the fact that Nazis were -- and still are -- real, and that many viewers will sympathize with both Shosanna and the Basterds in their desire to annihilate and teach Nazis a lesson.

Inglourius Basterds definitely makes for good New Year viewing fodder. In the week… [read more]

Hunger Games Trilogy Lions Gate Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  3 pages (816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Lions Gate's key competitor for the Hunger Games has been without a doubt the Twilight series. These two brands are competing with the same market segments. These segments include young adults as well as fans of the books; as well as the young at heart as well as the parents of some of the younger fans. Some commentators have speculated that the Hunger Games trilogy might actually have the potential to overcome the success of Twilight because the movie appeals more to both genders; while the Twilight series is more popular among females (Bowles, 2012).

Lions Gate currently has a tremendous amount of strengths in which it can leverage to promote the new movie -- Catching Fire. The first movie in the trilogy has already laid the groundwork for a marketing campaign and built a loyal audience. This target market will be some of the first in line for the new movie. However, Lions Gate also has the opportunity to tap into their target demographic even further. Even the potential consumers who did not go and see the first movie at the box office, can still watch the DVD in order to catch up with the storyline. Thus it is reasonable to suspect that with an effective marketing campaign that Lions Gate could beat the numbers from the first movie. However, the industry in general has suffered from the financial recession and lack of consumer disposable income. This creates a significant amount of pressure for the movie opening. However, there are some signs that the economy is stabilizing and this could create an environment in which consumers would be more open to viewing the movie in the theater.

Works Cited

Bowles, S. (2012, March 26). 'Hunger Games' devours the competition at box office. Retrieved from USA Today: http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/news/story/2012-03-25/box-office-hunger-games/53769322/1

Caris, C. (2012, April 23). A Hunger for Lions Gate. Retrieved from Barron's: http://online.barrons.com/article/SB50001424053111903591504577361962292271868.html

Hamilton, K., & Wagner, B. (2011). An exploration of spectacular consumption at the movies: Mamma Mia! Journal of Consumer Behavior, 375-390.

MPAA. (2011). The Economic Contribution of the Motion Picture & Television Industry to the United States. Retrieved from The American Motion Picture Association: http://www.mpaa.org/Resources/3a76ac00-6940-4012-a6e2-da9a7b036da2.pdf

Orden, E. (2012, April 27). "Hunger Games" Studio Plots Moves. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304811304577370074121864652.html… [read more]

Aesthetics Widdowson Claims That Television Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The fact that both film and television are arts of motion means that these art forms are malleable. Their aesthetic effects will be correspondingly malleable, changeable, and in flux. In many film and television productions, the dialogue can even be considered secondary to the visual element. This is not always true, of course. In films like Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, the script is rendered no differently from its stage production in the sense that the action is secondary to the dialogue. Only one actual scene encompasses all the action between the protagonists. However, there are ample examples of television and film productions that rely more on visual elements than on literary prowess. Jerry Bruckheimer movies are an example of films that rely on visuals, with scripts serving as delivery mechanisms for special effects. Animated films are likewise reliant solely on visuals to convey the aesthetic effect the original producer and writer intended. When the film involves an adapted screenplay, one that is based on a literary text like a novel, the aesthetic effect differences are especially apparent. The screenplay adaptation will "involve the transference of much written dialogue into visually enacted forms," (124).

Widdowson's assessment of the aesthetic effect of film and television is, however, anachronistic on some counts. For instance, Widdowson claims that film and television cannot be literary products because they are not portable, like books are. In fact, film and television have been portable for many years: from the advent of portable DVD players to the current use of mobile computing and even smartphones as means of interacting with digital video content. Likewise, Widdowson assumes that it is not possible to interact with film and television in a robust way that allows for forwarding and rewinding; when in fact TiVo and other methods allow just…… [read more]

Touki Bouki &amp Black Girl: Experimental Films Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,481 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Another trait indicative of the Nouvelle Vague is the confusion of fiction and non-fiction plots as a result of the verite-style aesthetic. In modern times, this aesthetic is often seen in reality television programming, as well as normative types of documentary television and films.

Touki Bouki seems to be heavily influenced by the filmmaking techniques developed in the early and… [read more]

American Film Industry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This reduces the potential revenue of the film industry. Renting DVDs and Netflix is far cheaper than going to the movies as well. The Internet culture and the culture of multiple cable television stations has caused people's interests to grow far more scattered and diffuse, making it more difficult for filmmakers to reach a coherent, large audience base.

Q5. Some nations, such as the United Kingdom and Germany, offer financial support to the film industry, along with other arts. Film is considered a part of the nation's natural 'treasures' and heritage. However, the dominant trend in the commercial film industry in the United States has been away from artistic modes of production and has instead favored the use of spectacle, like 3D, as a way of justifying the additional expense for consumers of attending films. Subsidizing smaller, independent films that need additional support to thrive is one possible option for the U.S., but it could be countered that while some small, independent films do become hits, the even more highbrow, less-attended arts like opera, dance, the visual arts, and theater are even more in need of state aid than independent film. The U.S. government has tried to legally limit Internet piracy of films to reduce this form of illegal cash drain, but this has proven to be difficult to do without substantially limiting freedom of speech. Even illegal appropriation on YouTube of some films and television shows is not always discouraged by the makers, as a way of generating 'buzz' for the project. Ultimately, the government cannot legislate away the main threat to the film industry -- which is not Internet piracy, but the Internet and digital culture itself, which provides a new way of experiencing the world and entertaining one's self. Film must learn to compete, just like theater had to learn to compete with film.… [read more]

Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The movie "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" seems about one thing. It is about challenging the laughable mainstream assumption that there is a distinct good and a distinct bad in the world. Independent films offered a look at reality that many of the major motion picture companies could not handle.

One only has to look at history to see the fallacy perpetrated by major motion picture studios. "They Died with Their Boots On" is a retelling of the story of the Little Bighorn massacre which starred Errol Flynn and was released by the major motion picture company Warner Bros. The movie makes a hero of Custer as he tries to run down Sitting Bull and a corrupt, gun-selling Indian agent. The picture is factually inaccurate from start to finish and perpetuates the myth that Custer was the honorable one at Little Bighorn. Sitting Bull is seen as an opportunist and a rebel who only wants to kill white people. This sort of movie was immensely popular (released in 1949) because, although everyone knew it was probably a biased retelling, it had a distinct hero and a villain (there were actually later movies which had Sitting Bull as the hero which is also factually inaccurate). Although the movie is enjoyable when an individual wants to spend a mind-numbing few hours in front of the TV, it is also a symbol of why many people were tired of major motion pictures, and why indie films have gained the traction that they currently have. A true telling of the story would reveal that neither was a hero, but that Custer, as a glory-seeker and narcissist, sacrificed his troop on a fool's errand.

In recent times, major motion picture studios have gotten the message, at least partially, that people crave a little more reality. That is why big name releases such as "American History X" and "American Beauty" were released by New Line Cinema and Dream Works respectively. These are considered indie film companies, but they are that in name only. These are both major studios that are producing edgy movies under an indie tag. Both of the releases mentioned above were both critical and box office successes because they were edgy. Another film that shows the influence that indie films has had is "Unforgiven." This is not a classic Western that has a distinct white-hatted good guy and a black hat wearing bad guy. The lines are blurred between the sheriff and the ex-outlaw. Some of the things Eastwood's outlaw character does are good, and some are not. The same can be said of Hackman's sheriff character.

These movies seem to rely on the success of such movies as "One Flew Over a Cuckoo's Nest." Because movie producers could see a major shift in the way they viewed edgy movies, the large motion picture studios changed the way they made movies. The money shifted, so the movie…… [read more]

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