Study "Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays 1-55

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Biology Genes Are Regions Term Paper

… Prokaryotes produce a similar effect by shifting reading frames during translation (Gene pp). The translation of RNA into a protein also starts with a specific start and stop sequence (Gene pp). Once produced, the protein interacts with the many other proteins in the cell, according to the cell metabolism, finally producing the trait (Gene pp).

The 3 types of RNA: Messenger RNA m-RNA An RNA copy of a gene;

Ribosomal RNA r-RNA Ribosomal structure; also includes the enzyme peptidyl transferase; Transfer RNA t-RNA Transfer amino acids to ribosome; have anticodons which match the m-RNA codons (Lecture pp).

Mutations may occur in a several ways, for example natural variations within regulatory sequences appear to underlie many of the heritable characteristics seen in organisms and the influence of such variations on the trajectory of evolution through natural selection may be as large as or larger than variation in sequences that encode proteins (Gene pp). Errors during DNA replication may lead to the duplication of a gene, which may diverge over time and though the two sequences may remain the same or be only slightly altered, they are typically regarded as separate genes (Gene pp).

Work Cited

Gene. Retrieved October 19, 2005 from:

Lecture 8: DNA & Heredity Transcription & Translation [read more]

Genomes and Comparative Genomics Term Paper

… These specific genes which find expression in one species while remaining passive in another are responsible for the traits pertaining to the particular species. It would also give us an idea of the effect of the structural differences between the genes in the different species.

Homology of sequences

Homology is an important concept in studying genome sequences. Detection of homologous sequences is the essence of sequence analysis. Similarities in sequences or structures may either be the result of divergent or convergent trends. Homology is actually a measure of divergence between species, which shared a common origin. So a homology actually indicates the degree of divergent relationship. Homology study also helps us infer gene functionality. Within the homologous sequences proteins may either carry out the same functions or different functions. It is necessary to identify these differences between homologues. The proteins that carryout similar functions in different species are known as orthologues while the proteins that perform different (though related) functions are known as paralogues. Orthologous proteins hold the key in our study of molecular paleontology. Biologists have studied and developed phylogenetic trees, which reveal the relationship between bacteria, fungi, insects and many other highly evolved animals. [TK Attwood, 12]

The study of paralogous proteins, on the other hand helps us understand the evolutionary designs of nature. This is because paralogous proteins are derived from successive duplication of the same gene with subsequent adaptation. However it is precisely this complex paralogous and orthologous relationships, which makes it difficult for us to arrive at any concrete classification of the protein family. The key challenge faced by the experts in the field of bioinformatics however, is the effective analysis of the enormous amount of information (sequenced data) that is currently available and in interpreting them with respect to the protein structure and function and correctly correlating them to evolution pattern. With our continuous progress in understanding protein-folding mechanism we are well poised to handle this mammoth task. [Rost, 1988]


We are making rapid progress in the subject of genetics and within the next few years we can expect tremendous changes in the field of bioinformatics. The completion of the human genome project and the development of new time saving sequencing techniques would offer entirely new possibilities in diverse fields. The possibility of Genetic therapy would provide new hopes for people with hereditary disorders and the advancements in molecular treatment would mark a new era in medical diagnosis and treatment. In conclusion we can say that in the twenty-first century marked by the congruence of information technology and genetics we are making a significant step in understanding and unraveling the mysteries of nature


Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999

Rost B, "Marrying Structure and Genomics,"… [read more]

Roles Do Genes Play Essay

… Multifactorial inheritance means that several, rather than simply one gene causes a particular trait to be expressed (such as height or intelligence). "As the number of multifactorial genes for the trait increases, the liability for the disease increases. When it reaches a threshold, the liability is so great that abnormality, what we call disease, results" (Multifactorial inheritance, 2012, Human Genetics).

There appears to be a different 'threshold of expression' for such multifactorial problems, including cleft palates, neural tube defects, or hip dysplasia. For example, "one of the environmental influences thought to contribute to hip dysplasia is the baby's response to the mothers' hormones during pregnancy. Once a child has been born with hip dysplasia, the chance for it to happen again in a male or female child is about 6% overall. In other words, there is a 94% chance that another child would not be born with hip dysplasia" (Multifactorial inheritance, 2012, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin). Studying twins with the same genetic composition helps researchers to better isolate which environmental factors predispose the expression of the genes.


Cri du chat syndrome. (2010). National Human Genome Research Institute. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

DNA replication. (2002). VBS homepage. Retrieved:

Learning about Neurofibromatosis. (2010). National Human Genome Research Institute.


Mainardi, Paola Cerruti. (2006). Cri du chat syndrome. Orphanet J. Rare Dis, 1(33).


McCance, K.A. & Huether, S.E. (2010). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (6th ed).

Multifactorial inheritance. (2012). Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. Retrieved:

Multifactorial… [read more]

How Genetics Affect Child Development Term Paper

… Genetics and Child Development

Child Genetics

Genetic research shows that genetic content of a child account for their characteristics and behavior. The environment also plays a vital role in child development. It is increasingly evident that no single fact can… [read more]

How Genetics Affect Child Development Research Paper

… ¶ … Genetics affects child development

Genetic research shows that genetic content of a child account for their characteristics and behavior. The environment also plays a vital role in child development. It is increasingly evident that no single fact can… [read more]

DNA the Genetics of Height Thesis


The Genetics of Height

DNA has a huge impact in growth and development. It has long been associated with determining height, and recent studies in specific genetic modifications back that assertion up. However, there are other factors influencing height, such as diet and prescribed medications. Additionally, research shows that there is a multitude of other genetic combinations which may have their own impact on each unique individual's height.

Two recent gene abnormalities have been discovered to have an impact on height. Both HGMA2 and GDF5 can impact on height. According to research, about "90% of our height variation is linked to DNA," (Anitei 2007). The discovery of these genes then solidifies this concept. The link within the case of HGMA2 was discovered by a medical team at the Children's Hospital in Boston. Research states that "The team looked inside the genome of 35,000 people for their single letter differences in the DNA that were found more often in tall individuals than in shorter ones," (Anitei 2007). What they found was a simple switch, where a "C" replaced the "T" in the coding. HGMA2 is a mutant gene, with two letters being switched in a previously existing code. Thus, "People who inherit both changes can be a centimeter (a third of an inch) shorter than those who inherit both of the alternative versions of the gene," (Connor 2007). The gene itself is found in young, developing children, showing elements of height being predetermined early on in life. Research has also shown evidence of genetic variations within the GDF5 gene can be correlated with adult height (Vaes et al. 2009). The gene is a controlling cell growth and helps act as a structure for the development of the skeletal system. It has also been known to play a role in the creation joints within the body as well. Unlike HMGA2, GDF5 is found in both young and adult tissues. This shows that height can still be adjusted throughout the development of the growing body.

Additional factors, like diet and medication during vulnerable developmental periods, are also supposed to have an impact in the final height of each individual as they reach maturity. There has been a wide array of studies linking factors like diet, exercise, and location to height. A genetic tie to height "is just the first of many -- and possibly as many as several hundred -- that will be found," (Connor 2007). Thus, it is clear that numerous other factors do play a key role in determining height. Modern research has found that "improved nutrition means that each generation is getting successfully taller," (Connor 2007). Also, on many cases, when some medicines are taken by a developing child, they… [read more]

Gene Expression Analysis in Cancer Research Paper

… Gene Expression Analysis in Cancer Cells

Perhaps one of the most critical links in cancer research was the discovery that certain cancers have a strong genetic component and that cancer was not simply a random occurrence. As a result, it… [read more]

Transcription Is a Process Term Paper

… The termination complex consists of terminal RNA and mRNA that associate with polypeptide chains that had hydrolyzed

Question 4 There are 64 codons total. Why do you suppose some amino acids have only one or two codons while others have… [read more]

Nature vs. Nurture Chapter

… Behaviors breed true in successive generations of organisms.

Behaviors change in response to alterations in biological structures.

Some behaviors run in human families

Behavior has an evolutionary history that persists across species." (McInerney, 2008).

One means of testing this hypothesis would be by conducting a research study. McInerney describes the traditional research strategies used in behavioral genetics, studies of twins and adoptees, techniques that are designed to sort biological from environmental influences (2008). Investigators have also added the search for pieces of DNA associated with particular behaviors.

One twin study reported by Harden, Turkheimer, and Loehlin (2006) found that shared environmental influences were stronger for adolescents from poorer homes, while genetic influences were stronger for more affluent homes. Harden et al. concluded that environmental differences between middle- to upper-class families influence the expression of genetic potential for intelligence (2006). One could argue then, that environmental factors similarly affect the expression of basketball smarts.

The question of how genes influence behavior remains unanswered. What is clear at this point, according to McInerney, is that "No single gene determines a particular behavior. Behaviors are complex traits involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors" (2008). The respective roles of nature vs. nurture, and their relative importance, remain to be clarified.

Reference List

Harden, K.P., Turkheimer, E. & Loehlin, J.C. (2006). Genotype by Environment Interaction in Adolescents' Cognitive Aptitude. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 1, doi:10.1007/s10519-006-9113-4

McInerney, J. (2008). What is behavioral genetics? Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from

The Nature of Nurture. (2010). Association for Psychological Science. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from [read more]

Genetics Study of Biological Information Essay

… Genetics: Study of Biological Information

Genetics is the branch of biology dealing with heredity and variations of organisms and the genetic makeup and phenomena of an organism, type, group, or condition (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2010). In this course, it has been defined as "the study of how biological information is stored, utilized, and passed on from one generation to the next."

The biological information is stored within the cells as Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which is responsible for the coding and reproducing of the cellular information. Proteins, amino acids, and ribonucleic acid are the other main components involved in biological information process.

The life of an organism relies on the cells ability to store, transcribe, and translate the genetic information in the cell.

The genetic material that carries all the hereditary information is the DNA and is found inside the nucleus of the cell. The DNA is a double helical structure whose backbone is composed of sugar-phosphate with nucleotide bases attached. There are four different nucleotide bases: adenine (a), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) plus a fifth one found in RNA: uracil (U) which takes the place of the thymine (T). Only a and T. Or U. can bind together and only C. And G. can bind together. This makes a strand of DNA 'complementary' to the strand being made (Genetics: Elementary human genetics, 2006).

The genetic information is basically instructions for making proteins (Alberts et al., n.d.). The proteins are made up of amino acids. The DNA is unwound in to two strands and the genetic code is transcribed on a strand of RNA; because DNA cannot leave the nucleus of the cell but RNA can leave the nucleus of the cell. The RNA then acts like a messenger delivering the genes sequence and finally translates the code information for the production of the protein. The protein decoded for plays a role in the formation and functions of the cell. The DNA of the cell is the same for all types of cells but the cells have different functions.

DNA is replicated by the use of DNA polymerase enzymes. The rate of error in the reproduction of the DNA strand is 1 in 100 million nucleotides. DNA is the storage of the genetic code but the RNA contains the actual template the protein is formed from. The RNA is broken down into three parts for this process: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA. All forms of RNA cellular components are synthesized by RNA polymerases that are guided by the DNA. The process begins with transcription which precedes the translation. The translation is the synthesis of the proteins from the messenger RNA template. The gene expression of the cell, as known as the gene flow, is:

The hereditary information is passed from parent… [read more]

Discovery of DNA as Our Heredity Material and Its Structure Essay

… ¶ … Discovery of DNA

On the afternoon of February 28, 1953, British physicist Francis Crick announced in a pub in Cambridge, England, that he and James Watson, an American geneticists, had discovered "the secret of life" on planet Earth, meaning that Crick and Watson had "figured out the structure of DNA" (deoxyribonucleic acid) and that this strange material, known as a double helix, had the capacity to "unzip to make copies of itself," thus confirming many suspicions by other scientists that DNA was the foundation of life's hereditary information (2009, "James Watson & Francis Crick," Internet).

However, Crick and Watson did not discover DNA itself because in 1868, Swiss biologist Friedrich Miescher "carried out the first carefully thought-out chemical studies on the nuclei" of human cells and after obtaining a substance based on phosphorus which he dubbed "nuclein." Miescher also discovered that this substance was acidic and that it contained histones, "a class of proteins responsible for the packaging of DNA" which remained somewhat mysterious until the late 1940's (2009, "The Search for DNA," Internet).

In 1943, some ten years before Watson and Crick unraveled the mysteries of DNA, many biologist and geneticists were convinced that DNA played some type of major role in human inheritance while other argued that such a thing was not possible. Yet the first solid evidence that DNA was the carrier of human genetic information came about at the Rockefeller Institute via research conducted by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarthy. These three men came to the conclusion that DNA "carried the genetic message" and that virulent strains of a particular bacterium known as streptococcus pneumonae did indeed contain DNA. Not

surprisingly, many scientists still were not convinced of the genetic properties of DNA (2009, "The Search for DNA," Internet).

In 1952,… [read more]

Philosophy of Psychology in the Selfish Gene Term Paper

… Psychology

Dawkins' Selfish Gene and the History of Psychology

In the Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins argues passionately and clearly for a challenging new approach to the study of biology and evolution. Of course, after thirty years, Dawkins' selfish gene hypothesis,… [read more]

Extracting DNA From Strawberries in My Experiment Lab Report

… Extracting DNA from strawberries

In my experiment, I attempted to extract the DNA from strawberries; in order to fulfill my purpose, I have followed the stages presented in the example: I blended the strawberries together with salt and cold water,… [read more]

Living Things Are Characterized Term Paper

… 37) Biotechnology has provided scientists with new means to understand the complexity of protein functions. Molecular cloning, an important tool in biotechnology, has vastly improved the prospects of understanding individual proteins and their functions. Microarray technology is another tool, which… [read more]

Human DNA Sequence Composed Term Paper

… These two databases are available for search. To search a sequence against eBLOCKs, please enter your protein sequence in FASTA format and choose either eMOTIF or eMATRIX as your Search Method." (, 2005)

DNA Sequence

The results of the internet… [read more]

Breast Cancer How Genes Influence Research Paper

… Because of that, the -656 G. allele has the potential to harbor a "higher production" of APE1 (Kang, 100). That would create the biological plausibility that APE1- 656TG/GG genotypes are then expected to be associated with a lower breast cancer… [read more]

Positive and Negative Impacts Essay

… (Surhan, 2002)

It is quite evident that genetic engineering has various pros and cons. We should be careful that the moral issues related to the genetic engineering shall be given more priority rather than the constructive and economic issues. The… [read more]

Biotechnology the Origins Essay

… " (Torrey, 1922, p.72) For instance, Mendel cross-bred two pea plants, each with two sets of traits: yellow or green color and a smooth or wrinkled surface.

From these humble beginnings, a distinct discipline of biotechnology has developed which specifically deals with the mechanisms of heredity: genetics. This development has come about primarily through the use of fermentation as an industrial mechanism. The need for a better and more efficient fermentation process led to experimentation and the introduction of industrialized biotechnology. And the use of biological agents in industry then "let to formulations of an ideal for biotechnology that has lasted to the present day, having been co-opted as the new possibilities for recombinant DNA technology came to be voiced in the late 1970's." (Hessenbruch, 2000, p.85) But the most impressive result that has developed from the work of Gregor Mendel, beside the birth of genetics and the discovery of DNA, has been the Human Genome Project (HGP). The goal of the HGP has been to use the latest DNA technology to map the entire human genome, or all of the genes that constitute human DNA. As a result of years of work, the HGP has successfully identified all of the 20 to 25 thousand genes that make up human DNA, and now uses this information for research, analysis, as well as the development of new technologies. DNA technology is only one aspect of biotechnology, but it was one of the first applications to be used by humans; even before it was fully understood. And since the work of scientists and researchers like Gregor Mendel, the study of heredity has evolved into the study of genetics, which has spawned the development of a specific branch of biotechnology called DNA technology.


Bateson, William. (1913). Mendel's Principles of Heredity. London: Cambridge UP.


Hessenbruch, Arne. (2000). Reader's Guide to the History of Science. Chicago, IL:

Fitzroy Dearborn. Print.

Pierce, Benjamin. (2012). Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. New York: W.H. Freeman.


Torrey, Ray Ethan. (1922). The Anatomy and Physiology… [read more]

Gene Therapy Term Paper

… Gene Therapy

The concept of gene therapy first emerged in 1972 when the scientists were too cautious about the insertion of a foreign gene in the genomics of an individual. The use of genes for the treatment of medical conditions… [read more]

Role of Genetics on Development Essay

… Genetics

What Parents Do Not Intend to Give their Children

When individuals think about what they would like to pass on to their children, they often think of intangible traits such as personal courage or artistic talent. Such attributes no… [read more]

Discovery of the Structure of DNA by Watson and Crick Research Paper

… Discovery of the Structure of DNA by Watson and Crick

Arguably, one of the greatest discoveries of human kind has been DNA. This is because its structure holds the key to human evolution, as it is the basic foundation for… [read more]

Genetics and Human Disease Research Proposal

… Genetics and Human Disease

Millions of Americans a year have to deal with the affects of heart disease and cancer, both directly and indirectly. They prove to be the biggest threats to the average American in terms of medical dangers. What is largely un-thought of within the context of previous research on such threats is the concept of their relationship to the most basic fundamental blocks of our bodies -- genomes within DNA. Recent studies have found that there may be a potential genetic relationship between the human genome and medical conditions such as heart disease and cancer; these diseases not having any similarities between typical genetic diseases caused by abnormal genes.

Each and every one of us owes our biological make up to the human genome which determines so much of who we all are. Twenty-three pairs of chromosomes are encapsulated within each genome, which then induce the development of our physical and mental existence. These chromosomes are strands of DNA molecules and proteins which carry genetic and hereditary information of each individual. Only one pair of these chromosomes are what determines an individuals sex, the major difference between humans and are known as non-autosomal chromosomes. These are represented by the X and Y chromosomes which determine sex in an individual. Out of these twenty-three pairs of chromosomes, twenty two are what is known as autosomal chromosome pairs. These chromosomes appear the same in both male and female, and help determine such traits as race, ethnicity, and ancestry.

It is these chromosomes which also carry genetic diseases through the various generations.

Yet, not all diseases and disorders carried down through autosomal chromosomes are caused by abnormalities in the genes themselves. Several other diseases have been related to human genomes,… [read more]

DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid Thesis

… DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is the only commonly found molecule that can dictate its own syntheses through reproduction, for this reason the DNA is the cell structure that dictates genetic material to a new organism. (Carter, 2004, NP) the shape… [read more]

DNA in Science, Evidence Is Necessary Term Paper


In science, evidence is necessary to prove or disprove a hypothesis. Evidence suggests DNA is the molecule of heredity. In your response, list the scientists and the work they did to convince science and society that DNA is indeed the molecule of heredity. Next, list the evidence that would convince you that DNA is the molecule of heredity. Finally, reflect on why learning about the history and science of DNA is important in learning that DNA is the molecule of heredity.

Although James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick are credited with 'discovering' DNA, the concept of heritable traits can be traced back to the monk Gregor Mendel, who first noticed regressive and dominant characteristics in the fertilization of different plants. Watson and Crick 'only' discovered DNA's double helix structure, and by the time they conducted their experiments in DNA structure, the idea that nucleic acid contained the blueprint of humanity was already widely accepted.

To a person uneducated in the scientific method, the idea of invisible substances like DNA transmitting genetic information would seem difficult to prove, as the evidence exists on the molecular level. Without the benefits of modern technology, the idea of heritable traits could not be connected to a specific, heritable entity within living beings. It was in 1943 that an American named Oswald Avery proved the hypothesis that nucleic acid, or DNA carried genetic information. "Earlier in this century, as biologists… [read more]

Heredity and Hormones Term Paper

… Hormones and Heredity


Human behavior has been an interesting subject of discussion and research. It is commonly believed that genes and environment determine human behavior. We need to not forget that genes are precisely what we call hereditary in ordinary language. When we are that someone is hereditarily prone to doing a certain thing, what we mean is that his genetic makeup makes his susceptible to such an action. There are certain characteristics or personality traits that human beings inherit and thus we blame these on genes. There are other actions that we learn from environment. According to various researches, genetics or hereditary is a very weak source or cause of behavior. While some person may have an aggression gene or a gene for certain behavior trait, it is highly unlikely that this gene alone would make him vulnerable to aggression or would predispose him to that particular behavior. Normally there are other factors that influence a person's behavior too. Environment is a strong contender in this connection. However in this paper, we shall also study the effect on hormones on human behavior.

While environment and hereditary are important sources of determining human behavior, hormones also have a marked influence on our physical and mental state thus altering our behavior at least for some time. When we see wrestlers in the ring, thrashing their opponent or Formula One competitors driving at alarming speed, we wonder how do they do it. It doesn't even look humanly possible. But they do it with absolute ease and this is where hormones come into the equation. The production of adrenalin is what takes a person from a restive state to an excited state and causes him to behave in an agitated, excited manner as if he is in a state of acute awareness. Hormones are commonly seen as chemicals that are secreted by certain cells and they move to another to affect bodily and mental state thus affecting behavior. The main function of hormones is to keep the body in a perfect chemical state. This means that hormones are secreted, as the body requires them. How would it be if a person were unavailable to feel any excitement on seeing his partner? This would not be a normal reaction and it shows a marked disinterest in the mate. But that not so normal behavior has other psychological reasons and thus the lack of hormone production.

However chemically speaking, it was the lack of adrenalin that caused a person to behave in an unexcited manner. For this reason, hormones are considered responsible for normal human reaction. "Hormones are… [read more]

DNA Is the Abbreviation Term Paper

… Through the years, scientists have learned that the normally fragile DNA molecule can exist for hundreds, thousands and even millions of years in "certain extraordinary preserved specimens" (Poinar Pp). The sophisticated tools of molecular biology, used most often to foretell… [read more]

Genetics Option 3: Darwin's Perspective Term Paper

… Indeed, as genetic diseases become curable or at least controllable more children with potential diseases can be helped and placed in homes.

Certainly many issues and concerns need to be taken into consideration in the field of genetics. And definitely it is not an exact science. But few things are. When the intricacies of medical technology and indeed all technology are considered, few things are a certainty. Yet the basis of knowledge that human beings have accumulated over only the last century is staggering. This basis of knowledge is the result of thousands of years of evolution, starting with the first spark of fire. Ethical considerations, while having its place, should therefore be used as a guideline rather than a detriment to genetic science. On the other hand, scientists should be willing to make public any knowledge that would benefit humankind, and furthermore such knowledge should not be monopolized only by the rich and the powerful (Martone).

The science of genetics, in other words, should be applied with responsibility. The choice of responsibility towards not only its own species, but also towards others, is also a uniquely human quality. It has been suggested by Kolata that the animal and natural environment can benefit from genetic technology. But will human beings choose to do this if it means a significant investment in time and money, the benefits of which will not be immediately apparent? According to Martone, the rich and powerful are already working on monopolizing the genetic engineering industry to benefit themselves only.

This is where responsibility becomes a prominent issue. If "survival" of the species rather than the rich and powerful elitist individual is truly the concern, the responsibility lies with human beings to ensure that not only the species, but also its means of survival prevails. This includes all aspects of the environment in terms of food and energy resources. Genetic engineering thus offers much in terms of survival, but the opportunity must be used correctly.

This responsibility then touches upon a more basic field than ethics or religion. All scientific fields can and should work together in order to use their newly acquired tools correctly. Oceanographers and environmentalists can identify genetic needs that genetic engineers can fulfill. Funding organizations can work to fund research programs. Knowledge about all these issues should be made publicly available to ensure that all human beings realize what is at stake. Even ethicists can have their place in using genetic science. Potential ethical difficulties can be pinpointed by these people, and these can be dealt with before they become crises.

Perhaps the above is a somewhat idealistic view of things. Human beings by nature will always disagree on everything from politics to religion to where to go for lunch. The point is that human beings will always advance maybe to some degree despite themselves. However it is used, genetics is an evolutionary advancement to help human beings survive. How human beings choose to use this new survival skill will determine the longevity… [read more]

DNA Fingerprinting Research Paper

… " Journal Of

Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 13.1 (2012): 3-

21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Ai, Bingjie, et al. "The Elimination Of DNA From The Cry Toxin-DNA Complex Is A

Necessary Step In The Mode Of Action Of The Cry8 Toxin." Plos One 8.12

(2013): e81335. MEDLINE. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Butler, John M. Forensic DNA Typing: Biology, Technology, And Genetics Of STR

Markers. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2005. eBook Academic

Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Dietrich, Dimo, et al. "Improved PCR Performance Using Template DNA From Formalin-

Fixed And Paraffin-Embedded Tissues By Overcoming PCR Inhibition." Plos

One 8.10 (2013): e77771. MEDLINE. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

"DNA Fingerprinting." Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia (2014): 1p. 1. Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Ghanim, Motasem Hilmi, et al. "Low Electric Field DNA Separation And In-Channel

Amperometric Detection By Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis." IET

Nanobiotechnology / IET 8.2 (2014): 77-82. MEDLINE. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Gorman, Bridget K, and Meredith Chu. "Racial And Ethnic Differences In Adult Asthma

Prevalence, Problems, And Medical Care." Ethnicity & Health 14.5 (2009): 527-

552. MEDLINE. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Kaye, David H. "Why So Contrived? Fourth Amendment Balancing, Per Se Rules, And

DNA Databases After Maryland V. King." Journal Of Criminal Law & Criminology 104.3 (2014): 535-595. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct.


Scherr, Albert E. "Genetic Privacy & The Fourth Amendment: Unregulated Surreptitious

DNA Harvesting." Georgia Law Review 47.2… [read more]

DNA the Emergence Research Paper

… It is now possible to perform DNA testing with a very small sample, something that was not possible when the technique rose to prominence in the forensic business. The legality of the testing being a state issue, the environment for it is quite complex. Prisoners need to understand their state laws -- some prisoners would at this point have no access to DNA testing that could exonerate them. However, by identifying that the person who has been convicted was not the person who was at the crime, it is possible to exonerate people who have been wrongly convicted, and therefore to have the conviction overturned.

2. It is not possible to determine how successful this is compared with the number of cases. The important number of cases here is the number of people who have been wrongly convicted -- that is the denominator when considering the success rate. How many wrongful convictions are discovered is a function of how many there were in the first place, not a function of the testing. If there were no wrongful convictions, the testing would find nothing even if the test was 100% effective. So the reality is there is "success rate" that can be determined because the denominator is unknown.

What is known is that dozens of people have been exonerated through the use of post-conviction DNA testing. There are more such cases that the general public perhaps realizes, and the fact that there were 17 cases on death row should be enough to give anybody pause for thought.

The success of DNA testing in exoneration therefore needs to be considered in non-numerical terms. Success would have to be measured in the number of jurisdictions who allow this procedure. This would bring about validation of post-conviction DNA testing, and the right of prisoners to seek exoneration. While 49 states allow for post-conviction DNA testing, many place limits on the practice. Statutes of limitations in particular present a barrier to those who were convicted years ago. Yet it is those convicts who would benefit the most from the technique.

Thus, while there have been some successes with gaining recognition for the value of post-conviction DNA testing, there is still work to be done with respect to ensuring the use of the technique. Exoneration is something that should have no statute of limitations, as those would only reduce the ability of those wrongfully convicted to seek justice and remedy.

Works Cited:

ACLU. (2011). DNA testing and the death penalty. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from

Lithwick, D. (2012). The exoneration of Bennett Barbour. Slate Magazine. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from

Mears, B. (2013). DNA tests after arrest? Some justices not so sure. CNN. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from

Michaels, M. (2012). 33 convicted of sex crimes could be exonerated by Virginia DNA project. Mint Press News. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from [read more]

Authors Address Jacobsen Syndrome, Which Is Related Essay

… ¶ … authors address Jacobsen syndrome, which is related to terminal deletion of 11q chromosome, usually occurring do novo. It is a rare congenital disorder. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is also mentioned. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome occurs due to duplication of the paternal allele of 11p15. These are pediatric areas of genetic research, demonstrating the ways chromosomal abnormalities are not necessarily genetically inherited, how they evolve de novo, and how they express themselves at birth. Moreover, the article addresses various diagnostic procedures, including a multitude of chromosomal testing methods for identification of the disease in infants.

The article addresses the methods by which the deletion of the genetic material takes place; that is, breaks at the long end at 11q23.3 -- in "expanded CCG-trinucleotide repeats within the folate sensitive fragile site FRA11b," (962). The trinucleotide repeats can cause increased chromosomal instabilities and eventual terminal deletion of 11q. Complex rearrangements of the chromosomes may not always be identifiable using the most routine methods of testing.

Identify the broad goals of the research described in the article.

The primary goal of the research is to encourage routine testing of Jacobsen syndrome via the use of available technologies and procedures including Array-CGH, FISH, and SKY. Conventional chromosomal analysis can usually identify the absence of the 11q and possible presence of Jacobsen syndrome. Secondary goals include pinpointing the breakpoints that occur in the chromosome. Tertiary goals include urging future research into Jacobsen syndrome in order to reveal the specific mechanisms of the genes on chromosome 11 area q.

Explain the genetic concept tested in the study and how it is tested.

The overall genetic concept tested is prenatal and perinatal chromosomal rearrangement. This is a case study experimental research design. The researchers work with an infant male, born premature (born in the 32+5-week of pregnancy) to two healthy parents. The infant was admitted to hospital for respiratory problems and the subsequent clinical examination revealed several symptoms including organ system impairment, facial dysmorphia, and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. Chromosome analysis was conducted, via culturing. Moreover, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method of analysis was also used on fifteen metaphases. Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) analysis, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and array CGH were also used during the diagnostic procedures. It was found that the critical region of 11q was lost, confirming Jacobsen syndrome. The researchers also postulate the presence of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome due primarily to the fact that the infant in the case study was large in… [read more]

Gene Therapy Treatment in Sickle Cell Disease Annotated Bibliography

… Sickle Gene

Gene Therapies for Sickle Cell Anemia: Annotated Bibliography

Kohn, D. & Candotti, F. (2009). Gene therapy fulfilling its promise. NEJM 360(5): 518-21. This brief and relatively broad review details a diversity of the advances that have been made… [read more]

Plasmids "Construction of the Mobilizable Article Review

… "This plasmid has all the genes of its parental pMV158 and harbors the gfp gene under the control of the Pm inducible promoter." (Nieto, 2003, p. 283) In other words, this plasmid is the pMV158 plasmid but with a gfp gene under to the control of maltose inserted into it.

With the pMV158gfp plasmid created, the authors then had to test whether or not this plasmid had the ability to transfer between bacteria, or mobilize, and at what frequency, if any, this occurred. The plasmid pMV158 had previously been mobilized between pneumococcal and lactococcal strains of bacteria by means of incorporation into a separate auxiliary plasmid. The authors needed to use such an auxiliary plasmid to test whether their pMV158gfp plasmid could be transferred between three different species of Gram-positive bacteria: S. pneumoniae, L. lactis, and E. faecalis. They used pAM?1 as their auxiliary plasmid with the pMV158 and their pMV158gfp used as the replicons to be transferred. Nieto and Espinosa then used a newly developed mobilzation assay "based on the nutritional differences between pneumococcal and lactococcal" to select for transconjugants, or bacteria that have incorporated the new DNA into their cells. (Nieto 2003, p. 283) And by growing the bacteria in maltose, fluorescence could be used to test for the incorporation of the plasmids. According to the authors, all three strains of bacteria showed a measurable fluorescence "although cells of E. faecalis/pMV158GFP exhibited such a high level of fluorescence that the color was appreciable when colonies were illuminated with an UV lamp." (Nieto, 2003, p. 284)

With the creation of pMV158GFP a new tool has been developed that can be used to observe the processes of bacteria, especially infectious bacteria. And since its development, pMV158GFP has been transferred to more that a dozen species of bacteria. It has also been used to develop a test for the "colonization and persistence of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products," using fluorescence as an indicator during the production of cheese. (Nieto, 2003, p. 285) And with a plasmid that can be mobilize between bacteria containing the fluorescence marker gfp, the future application of this tool is almost limitless when investigating the processes of bacteria.


Nieto, Concepcion, and Manuel Espinoza. (2003). Construction of the mobilizable plasmid pMV158GFP, a derivative of pMV158 that carries the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein. Plasmid 49: 281-285. [read more]

Huge Cancer Epidemiology Huge Study Term Paper

… When reported, the adjusted effect estimate was included in the analysis in preference to the unadjusted one. If odds ratios were not reported, we computed unadjusted odds ratios from the data presented. Analyses were conducted by using Stata statistical software,… [read more]

PCR Gapdh Genes Parsley Capstone Project

… In contrast, the plastids of many other algae, such as dinoflagellates, diatoms and euglenids, are usually bound by more than two membranes, suggesting that these were acquired indirectly via endosymbiotic mergers between nonphotosynthetic eukaryotic hosts and eukaryotic algal endosymbionts. An increasing amount of PCR analysis of GAPDH genes from diverse photosynthetic taxa has made it possible to test specific hypotheses about the evolution of photosynthesis in eukaryotes and, consequently, improve our understanding of the genomic and biochemical diversity of modern-day eukaryotic phototrophs (Kim and Archibald, 2009).

Works Cited

Kim, E. And Archibald, J. (2009) Diversity and Evolution of Plastids and Their Genomes. Plant Cell Monograph. 1-39.

Lopez-Juez, E. 2007. Plastid biogenesis, between light and shadows. J. Exper. Bot. 58: 11 -- 26.

Martin, W., Rujan, T., Richly, E., Hansen, A., Cornelsen, S., Lins, T., Leister, D., Stoebe, B., Hasegawa, M, & Penny, D. 2002. Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastic phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus. PNAS 99: 12246 -- 12251.

Plaxton, W.C. 1996. The organization and regulation of plant glycolysis. Annu. Rev. PlantPhysiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47: 185 -- 214.

Sirover, M.A. 1999. New insights into an old protein: the functional diversity of mammalian glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Bioch. Biophys. Acta… [read more]

Genetics Case Study

… Whereas genetic testing performed in a clinical diagnostic laboratory is subject to strict quality control criteria including results that are available in a timely fashion, this often is different for research gene testing, and reports of results may be obtained… [read more]

Virtual PCR and DNA Sequencing Experiment Lab Report

… PCR-DNA Experiment

Abstract- Science and Biology have not been the same since the discovery and subsequent research on the mechanisms of DNA, the gene, and the way that chemicals combine to form traits. Numerous projects have stemmed from the original work, among which the Human Genome Project is possibly the most famous. For our purposes, using a virtual laboratory simulation, DNA samples were extracted and amplified for analysis. Computer analysis found the samples to be pure enough to allow for a strong statistical probability that they were Bartonella henselae, a common animal vector bacterial transfer.

Introduction- DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a fascinating modern subject that has implications far beyond science and technology. Since 1953, when the double helix was discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick, science has never been the same. In fact, Crick is known to have remarked shortly after they confirmed their findings, "We have found the secret of life!" (Nobel). DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe, or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. Chemically, DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases. It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information. This information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA, in a process called transcription (Walker and Jones).

Materials and Methods - In this simulation, all laboratory materials were virtual, but the technique and methods were appropriate techniques… [read more]

PCR and DNA Sequencing Experiment Lab Report

… PCR and DNA Sequencing Experiment

PCR and DNA Sequencing

PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify a bacterium isolated from a patient. The bacterium was determined to be Bartonella henselae. B. henselae is associated with cat scratch disease (CSD) and is transmitted to humans via cats.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to amplify segments of DNA for many years. It is a very useful tool for further molecular manipulations with a piece of DNA (Liang). Also, it makes the study of bacteria that are difficult to grow in laboratory conditions easier since only the DNA is needed for PCR not pure colonies. PCR takes advantage of a highly conserved strand of bacterial DNA that can be used as universal primers to make copies of bacterial DNA called 16S rDNA. Now, using these conserved 16S rDNA primers and fluorescently labeled terminal nucleotides in a PCR one can make a lot of small fragments of DNA copies that then can be used to sequence the DNA strand (Hiraishi). The resulting fragments are then separated electrophoretically in a DNA sequencing machine that also reads the fluorescent labels of the terminal nucleotides thus determining the sequence of the small overlapping fragments, which are then used to construct the entire DNA sequence. The purpose of this research was to identify a bacterium from a patient sample using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. The bacterium was identified to be Bartonella henselae.

Materials and Methods

A patient sample was taken and isolated bacterial colonies were grown from this sample on solid media. Bacterial DNA was extracted from an isolated colony by breaking down the cell wall with proteases and separating the cell debris from the DNA by centrifuging. The supernatant containing the bacterial DNA was then amplified using standard PCR methods (Mullis). An initial incubation at 95°C for ten minutes was followed by 30 cycles of the following conditions: Melt at 95°C for 30 seconds, anneal at 60°C for 30 seconds, and extend at 72°C for 45 seconds. The PCR is completed by a final extension at 72°C for 10 minutes then stored at 4°C. Next, the amplified bacterial DNA was purified using a microconcentrator column. A buffer and the DNA sample were applied to the column and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for fifteen minutes, which collects the amplified DNA on the column. The column is then inverted into a clean tube and washed with another buffer via centrifugation at 3000 rpm for two minutes to release… [read more]

Genetics or Evolution Essay

… Biology

Genetics or Evolution

In the article How the Butterflies got their Spots (2010), it talks about how scientists at Cambridge have found "hotspots" in butterflies' genes that they believe will explain one of the most extraordinary examples of mimicry in the natural world. They believe that their discovery will explain the phenomenon of how two butterfly species have evolved exactly the same striking wing color and pattern.

Heliconius, or passion-vine butterflies, live in the Americas and although they cannot interbreed, H. melpomene and H. erato have evolved to mimic one another perfectly. These butterflies have splashes of red and yellow on their black wings that signal to birds that they contain toxins and are extremely unpleasant. These two butterflies mimic one another's color and pattern in order to reinforce these warning signals.

A team of researchers from UK and U.S. universities led by experts from Cambridge, have been breeding the butterflies in Panama for the past decade, and have been searching for the genes responsible for the butterflies' wing… [read more]

Gene Therapy FDA Ethics Term Paper

… "Gene therapy is a medical intervention based on modification of the genetic material of living cells. Cells may be modified ex-vivo for subsequent administration to humans, or may be altered in vivo by gene therapy given directly to the subject. When the genetic manipulation is performed ex-vivo on cells which are then administered to the patient, this is also a form of somatic cell therapy. The genetic manipulation may be intended to have a therapeutic or prophylactic effect, or may provide a way of marking cells for later identification. Recombinant DNA materials used to transfer genetic material for such therapy are considered components of gene therapy and as such are subject to regulatory oversight." (Murphy, p3)

New drugs and medical techniques that wish to receive approval have to go through many steps to final market acceptance. On e overseer of the gene therapy process is the CBER which stands for the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Their main function is to regulate all human gene therapy products. This entails all products made that introduce any type of genetic material into a human body with the intent of replacing some faulty or missing genetic material. The objective of this process must currently be to treat or cure a disease or abnormal medical condition. CBER has at its disposal various legal means to help it such as the 'Public Health Service Act and the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act as enabling statutes for oversight.' "All gene therapy products and most somatic cell therapy products are regulated by the FDA. See "A Proposed Approach to the Regulation of Cellular and Tissue-Based Products," February 28, 1997, (62 FR 9721) as well as subsequent regulations and policy issued in this area." (Murphy) The FDA has not approved human gene therapy products for free market sale but there is currently so much gene-related research and development occurring throughout the United States and the world that the FDA has had to incorporate all new process to verify that legal mandates are being followed by all involved in this potential trillion dollar industry.


Brannigan, Michael C. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. New York, NY: Seven Bridges Press, LLC, 2000.

Food and Drug Administration. "Cellular & Gene Therapy Products." Retrieved on December 7, 2009, from FDA at:

Murphy, Dano B.. "Guidance for Industry: Guidance for Human Somatic Cell, Therapy and Gene Therapy." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug, Center for Biologics Evaluation and… [read more]

DNA the Structure and Nature Term Paper

… Translation allows for the production of proteins in ribosomes according to the genetic code within the DNA molecule. In other words, the blueprint for life encoded in the DNA helix provides the chemical information necessary to produce a seemingly infinite variety of biological forms based on, among other factors, the synthesis of proteins according to the original genetic code.

It is our knowledge of how DNA operates within living organisms to produce the endless variety of life that we see around us that is crucial to the way in which we consider and interact with biological processes. By grasping the chemical processes that lead to replication, transcription, translation, and protein synthesis within cells, we have gained a beginning of the understanding to intervene in these processes when necessary to rewrite the genetic code of lifeforms ("The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA"). Scientists have been able to successfully insert specific genes and gene sequences, and thus create new protein expressions, into plants and animals to produce new traits or resistances that are valuable for combatting diseases or producing new expressions of life that were previously unknown. In this way, we have expanded our basic knowledge of biology and the role that DNA plays therein to manipulate life at a chemical level.

Works Cited

"The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA - The Double Helix." The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation. 2009. 5 Dec. 2009 .

Farabee, M.J. "Protein Synthesis." Estrella Mountain Community College. 6 June 2007. 5 Dec. 2009 .

"Replication/Transcription/Translation." Radboud University Nijmegen. 12 Feb. 2008. 5 Dec. 2009 . [read more]

Future of DNA Testing Research Proposal

… Future of DNA Testing

The Beginnings of Genetic Identity Testing

DNA fingerprinting

Genetic identity testing establishes the patterns of genetic material, which is specific and unique for almost every human being.1 The sequence differences between individuals are used as basis… [read more]

How Does Genes Affect the Way We Look and Act? Thesis

… Genes

The last two decades have brought an amazing amount of gene research to the forefront of the scientific world. The possibilities presented by such research are complex, yet exciting to ponder. Scientists can now manipulate genes in manners previously… [read more]

Survival Theory Richard Dawkins' the Selfish Gene Term Paper

… Survival Theory

Richard Dawkins' the Selfish Gene and Jonathan Kozol's Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools

Sociobiology uses the Darwinian theory of evolution to understand human social behavior. To do so, sociobiologists make several key assumptions. First, sociobiologists assume that… [read more]

DNA Term Paper

… ¶ … DNA, which to some of you probably sounds like some kind of esoteric scientific research; or maybe others of you understand DNA as part of the basic human building blocks of biology; and surely all of us are… [read more]

DNA an Investigators Silent Partner Term Paper

… DNA- An Investigator's Silent Partner

This essay is about DNA fingerprinting and how it has become a silent partner in the war on crime. The ever popular O.J. Simpson murder trial in the early 90's made DNA evidence another household concept. Since that trial, DNA evidence has become a common feature throughout American criminal trials and jurisprudence. "As a forensic tool, DNA analysis was initially used to link an already known suspect to a particular crime scene. In these situations, law enforcement officers obtain DNA from the suspect and compare it to DNA recovered from the crime scene." (Peterson) Direct analysis of known suspects DNA has become a very common forensic tool.

Today, the FBI and many other law enforcement agencies house individuals DNA samples in electronic databases. "Combining the results of several genetic systems as is done in DNA fingerprinting by the direct use of the product rule is based on an assumption of random mating, because it assumes that any profile of alleles at more than one locus occurs at random, that alleles at different loci even if initially found together in a subpopulation, will randomize over time." (Schacter 155) These databases carry both convicted and innocent individuals information and the objective is to create an efficient and universal acceptable DNA fingerprint process.

The norm in criminal investigation today is that if and when a crime occurs and DNA evidence is recovered, the police literally compare that sample against any and all previously obtained DNA fingerprints that are already in the database. There have been many inadvertent matches that have led to convictions but there have also been many innocent men released from custody once it was discovered that they could not have committed a crime for which they were convicted.

DNA Fingerprinting

The reason DNA is such an effective forensic identification tool requires insights into the DNA molecule. DNA fingerprinting has been distinguished as a very accurate methodology for identification. "Allozymes, DNA Fingerprinting, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), minisatellite, and microsatellite techniques shed light on population differentiation and genetic variability." (Caro 14) the fingerprinting concept is based on the same philosophy as the art of fingerprinting - each fingerprint is unique. DNA represents a two-stranded molecule and each strand is a polynucleotide composed of a (adenosine), T (thymidine), C (cytidine), and G (guanosine) residues.

These residues are polymerized by 'dehydration' synthesis in a unique linear chain of sequences. Modern science has clearly identified that nucleotide residue is complementary along double-stranded DNA molecules. Consider that adenosine or a forms two hydrogen-bonds with thymidine or T. Or cytidine or C. forms three hydrogen bonds with guanosine or G. Therefore, in the majority of situations, a two-stranded anti-parallel complementary DNA molecule is said to fold to create a helical structure similar to a spiral staircase. Because of this, DNA is often referred to as a "Double… [read more]

Physical Life Science Term Paper

… Physical Life Science

Genes are the basic genetic material or the fundamental 'building blocks' of life. They are made up of spiraled sequences called DNA. (Deoxyribonucleic acid). They provide instructions for the cells and are responsible for specific traits of the body. Proteins are vital amino acids synthesized within the body that control the structural (hair, nails, etc.) and functional aspects (enzyme functions, saliva, digestive enzymes, muscle movement (myosin), etc.) of the entire cellular network of the body. Genes are like the 'blueprint for protein synthesis' and every gene is responsible for coding for a particular protein or a segment of a polypeptide. Genes and proteins are associated in a complex relationship, while the genes encode for proteins the proteins in turn control the expression of a gene.

Since the completion of the human genome project in 2003 the issue of genetic screening for hereditary diseases has become a much-debated one with ethical undertones. Presently researchers have found more than 4000 genetically inherited diseases and results have identified the specific genes responsible for more than 450 of them. [Cherie Dimaline]. For parents who have a family history of chronic genetically inherited degenerative diseases genetic screening would offer a scientific way to know the predisposition of their children to such diseases. Particularly for chronic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, muscular dystrophy and sickle cell anemia genetic screening and counseling will provide prospective parents with enough information about the potential risk and would also give them more time to make informed decisions regarding future pregnancies. Further, the genetic counselor can also discuss treatment options if they are available for a particular genetic condition. Gene therapy is already being tested for Muscular Dystrophy and as molecular medicine advances more genetic disorders can be successfully managed. [Dr. Joseph F. Smith]

3) the DNA (has a double helical structure) is the principal component of the chromosomes while the gene is actually a segment of the DNA molecule, which can code for a particular protein. Genes control the production of proteins, which control the structural and functional metabolism of the body. [IBAC] Transcription… [read more]

DNA Technology in Law Term Paper

… Ongoing research is unlocking the biological mechanisms by which a comparatively small number of genes regulated by complex protein synthesis and enzymatic actions accounts for the profound differences between human beings and fruit flies, whose genome sequence is approximately two… [read more]

Alcoholism and Disorders Term Paper

… [Genome.Org 2002].

Gene Disorder

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT;

116790) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the production of dopamine. It has been suggested in research that a functional genetic polymorphism or genetic disorder in the COMT gene results in 3- to 4- fold change in the enzyme activity and may contribute to mental disorders and alcoholism. [NCBI. 2003].

Researchers have also found a link between the leu7-to-pro polymorphism in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene and the chances of an individual developing alcoholism. [NCBI. 2003].

Alcoholism and genetic disorder

Recordings of the neuroelectric activity of the brain called Event-Related Brain Potentials measured by electrodes attached to the scalp and usually in response to some task indicate a reduction in the P3 component of alcoholic subjects. P3 is a positive peak in ERP approximately 300-600ms after a stimulus. The reduction in P3 levels is observed after long periods of abstinence from alcohol and it is also observed in the young naive sons of alcoholics. A similar abnormality was observed with N4 component of ERP. The changes in N4 ERP levels indicate a change in several chromosomal regions while the change in P3 level indicates changes in chromosome 4 and 5. [NCBI. 2003].

Genetic changes in alcohol preferring rats have also been linked to polymorphism in alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA;

163890). [NCBI. 2003].

The organs that are affected due to alcoholism include the heart, (cardiomyopathy) the liver, (cirrhosis) and the pancreas, (pancreatitis). It is however rare for more then one of the organs to be effected. [NCBI. 2003].

Cure for alcoholism

Gene therapy is a relatively new technique for altering genes responsible for specific diseases and thus curing the disease. For Gene therapy to be successful the faulty genes must be identified and replaced by the genes without the defect causing the disease. Either viruses or stem cells can be used to replace the defective genes. Scientists now have the knowledge and the skills to replace the virus' own genes and replace them with healthy human genes. These altered genes can then be used to smuggle healthy genes into the human cells and replace defective genes. Some of the vectors are capable of not only carrying the healthy genes but also inserting them into human cells. Stem cells are immature cells which can differentiate and develop into cells with different functions. [Centre for Genetic Education. 2002].

At this point in time, however, gene therapy is not sufficiently developed and the linkage of alcoholism to genes is not fully understood to offer some magic treatment of alcoholism in spite of on going research and evidence of linkage of alcoholism with genetic disorder and inheritance. This is also the case with many other diseases which have genetic linkages.


In this paper, alcoholism which is a disease involving craving and addiction to alcohol is looked at from a genetic perspective. It is found that there is evidence to suggest that alcoholism is inherited and there is a genetic linkage. In spite of ongoing research into… [read more]

Exploring the Mystery of DNA Book Report

… Cells and Molecules

The Missing Substance

The 1866 landmark discovery of the father of heredity, George Johann Mendel, and his researchers on the mystery behind the transfer of traits from parent genes in chromosomes was incomplete and lacked something. Microbiologist… [read more]

Watson and Crick and the Discovery of DNA's Structure Essay

… However, Watson's account of getting privileged early access to Pauling's own three-strand structure model -- which he manages to see because a draft of Pauling's paper had been sent to Pauling's son Peter, whom Watson knows as a fellow American in Cambridge -- also demonstrates some of the other larger themes of the book. Upon looking at Pauling's model, Watson is able to tell that it contains a fundamental error -- "Pauling's nucleic acid was in a sense not an acid at all" -- in much the same way that Franklin was able to spot the fundamental error of Watson and Crick's three-strand model (Watson 160). The difference, though, is that Watson does not inform Pauling of the error, as Franklin had informed Watson and Crick of theirs. Instead, Watson's response is to think "we were still in the game," and to benefit from Pauling's basic error by hurrying to come up with a workable solution -- which, after getting Wilkins to show Franklin's B-structure photograph -- they manage to do (Watson 161).

In arguing that the greatest scientific gift that Watson and Crick demonstrated was that of being able to synthesize the work, the data, and the methodology of other scientists, it is difficult to say which particular element in their synthesis was the most important and enabled them to make the ultimate discovery. Certainly in Watson's own account, the tipping point would appear to occur in Chapter 23, when Wilkins gives him access to Franklin's B-structure photograph: this is where Watson describes how "my mouth fell open and my pulse began to race" (Watson 167). Given the substantial debate about Franklin's role in the discovery of DNA, it is clear that this moment is probably as important as Watson emphasizes. The handling of Franklin is one of the most perplexing and disturbing aspects of The Double Helix, considering how many inappropriate comments are made (about her lack of lipstick, her "emotional" manner, her frumpy clothing) throughout the text and how ultimately the closing paragraph of the Epilogue seems to be an apology of sorts. The truth, however, of Watson's account is that the discovery hinged upon having not only the best available data, but also the proper theoretical approach. In some sense, the real message of The Double Helix is an attempt on Watson's part to explain why Franklin had failed to correctly interpret the B-structure photograph herself -- if she had recognized it, the Nobel Prize might have been hers alone. But Watson's emphasis on her resistance to helical models altogether is intended to show why Franklin herself did not ultimately use her one most valuable piece of data to make the final step of discovery by herself. However, it goes without saying that -- however Watson may treat Franklin over the course of The Double Helix -- it was presumably Rosalind Franklin (and the data provided by her superior photographs) that was the one factor that was more important than any of the others in allowing… [read more]

Individual Differences Approach to Personality Essay

… As a result of the link, the brain subsystems are in turn associated with measurable individual differences in personality. While this biological theory to explain individual differences in personality is relatively weak, it has created significant personality research to an extent that it is still a dominant theory.

The second approach in explaining individual differences in personality with reference to genes is the type theory that suggests that personality is based in biology. Based on this foundation, biology is the determinant of type, which in turn contributes to individual traits. Type theory is explained using various systems such as ascending reticulocortical activating system and limbic system.

Given the weaknesses of each biological theory in explaining personality with reference to genes, individual differences in personality cannot be entirely and adequately explained with reference to genes. While these theories have provided the basis for biological explanations of individual differences, they are relatively weak and inconclusive. They provide biological or genetic underpinnings for understanding individual differences but do not explain these differences in a satisfactory manner. Even though individual differences in personality are inherited, genetics alone or biological underpinnings cannot be the sole contribution to these differences in personality.

The other contributing factor on why individual differences cannot be adequately explained with reference to genes is the nature of people and other animals to be fundamentally adaptive. Based on this nature, human beings are primarily adaptive to the environments they are exposed to or live in. Actually, humans have an intrinsic and tremendous ability to adapt to their respective environments.

The question of whether individual traits are caused by genetics or environments is meaningless since nature and nurture are not only in interaction but are also important to life and development. It is practically impossible for genetics to have complete effect in determining individual differences in personality. This is primarily because genotype has its impact on the developing organism within the organism's environment to generate the phenotype. Generally, biological explanations of individual differences in personality show the strong link between personality and genetics. However, genetic and environmental factors usually interact to generate some effects on an individual's personality.

The interactions between genetic and environmental factors usually occur through continuous processes beginning at conception and proceeding after birth with a significant increase in the diversity and complexity of environments. Environments influence individual differences in personality since they are physical and consist of other people and factors with different meanings. Individual diversity in personality is brought by the interaction processes between reactive organisms and reactive, meaningful environments (Thomas, n.d., p.326). Therefore, individual differences in personality cannot be adequately explained with reference to genes because of the influence of environmental factors on individual diversity.

In conclusion, personality is a term that refers to the many patterns of similarities and patterns of differences among individuals. There are various ways with psychologists have examined individual differences in personality including the use of genetics. Through this method, psychologists have mainly examined biological underpinnings that contribute to individual differences in… [read more]

Women Living in Western Society Research Proposal

… Protein Structure

Rb was identified as a tumor suppressor gene because of its frequent mutation in the rare pediatric eye tumor, retinoblastoma (16). Rb encodes a protein of 928 amino acids and three domains (Figure 2)

(16). Domains A and B. are highly conserved and form the central pocket which is critical to the tumor suppressor function of Rbp (17). A common motif, LXCXE, occurs in many proteins that bind to the AB

pocket. (17). The carboxyl terminal region of Rbp has the ability to bind DNA non-specifically and is also involved in an apoptotic pathway (4). The amino-terminal region contains consensus cdk phosphorylation sites, which are important in cell cycle control (16)(Figure 3).

The Role of Rbp in Cell Proliferation

Rbp functions in the regulation of cell cycle progression from G1 to S. phase. The transition from G1 to S. phase is dependent on the transcriptional activation of genes, such as

DNA polymerase (18). DNA polymerase and other G1/S specific genes contain E2F binding sites in their promoters (19). E2F is a transcription factor whose activity is regulated by Rbp. In its unphosphorylated, active form,

Rbp binds E2F and prevents its binding to DNA

(19). This prevents transcription of genes needed for S. phase initiation. At the G1 - S

transition, Rbp is phosphorylated by the cyclin

E complex. Phosphorylation allows E2F to be released and bind to DNA (19). E2F [read more]

Lac Operon Genetics Practical Lab Report

… These strains are therefore phenotypically lac?. Genotypically, these strains could be lacZ? Or lacY?, since either mutation would result in an inability to metabolize lactose. Other mutations or combinations could also explain this phenotype, but are not being explored here. A lacZ? strain would not be able to produce a viable beta-galactosidase enzyme and therefore could not metabolize lactose and reduce the pH of the surrounding growth medium. The lacY gene produces a promiscuous permease transporter required for lactose entry into the bacterium, and in its absence beta-galactosidase has no substrate to hydrolize. Therefore, the genotype of the J. And K. strains are most likely [lacZ? Or lacY?], and lacI+.

The beta-galactosidase activity of the WT strain on nutrient agar plates with glucose or lactose, as assayed using MUG overlays, revealed the suppression of lac operon expression in the presence of glucose and its upregulation in the presence of lactose. This is consistent with glucose acting as a suppressor of lac operon expression.

In contrast, the lac operon is constitutively expressed in the H. strain in the presence of either glucose or lactose. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for suppression of the lac operon by glucose has been compromised. This is consistent with the H. strain having a genotype of lacZ+, lacY+, and lacI?.

The beta-glactosidase activity of the J. And K. strains is the same whether in the presence of glucose or lactose and are therefore indifferent to the two conditions. The J. strain is capable of low-levels of beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of glucose and lactose, but the K. strain is not. Therefore the J. strain is lacZ+, which in turn suggests the sugars are unable to efficiently enter the bacterium. This suggests the genotype of the J. strain is lacZ+, lacY?, and lacI+ and the genotype of the K. strain is lacZ?, lacY+, and lacI+.

7. In your own words, explain the mechanism by which regulation of E. coli trp operon gene expression responds to levels of tryptophan in growth medium. What are the similarities and differences compared to lac operon regulation? (3 marks)

The E. Coli trp operon contains the same regulatory components as the lac operon, with the difference that the gene encoding the repressor is not located near the operon and the operator element is located within the trp promoter. Another important difference is the trp operon encodes the genes necessary for tryptophan synthesis, rather than its metabolism.

The major regulatory difference is that the trp system is repressible, which means an effector molecule, in this case tryptophan, binds to the repressor and increases its activity. The result is that increasing tryptophan levels suppresses trp operon transcriptional activity via increased suppressor activity. This represents a negative feedback loop that regulates how much of the cell's energy is devoted to tryptophan production. In contrast, the lac system is an inducible system, such that the production of allolactose binds to and inhibits the lac repressor, thereby inducing the lac operon. The lac transcriptional regulatory… [read more]

Genetic Engineering Essay

… The course helps in understanding the article and major issues related to genetic engineering through various ways. First, it provides an understanding of the new direction taken by synthetic biology from the conventional focus on gene sequencing ("Extreme Genetic Engineering," 2007). Through this, the course promotes the identification and understanding of the role of genes found in nature. Secondly, the course provides information about traditional biotechnology, risks in synthetic biology, and genetic engineering.

Relation of the Article to Daily Life:

The link between the article and daily issues in life is understood based on the applications and uses of genetic engineering, which is the reason for interest in the article. It enables me to gain knowledge on how scientists and biologists understand the process with which living organisms develop and obtain their essential hereditary attributes ("Genetic Engineering," n.d.). The main issue covered by this article is related to the treatment of many wild diseases that have become common in today's society.

First, it shows how genetic vaccines through genetic modification or engineering offers improved and safer therapies and preventives for diseases that are beyond the reach of medicine. Secondly, the possibility of genetic engineering to substitute an individual's defective genes and deal with viruses through introduction of proper genes is also mentioned. Third, information on how biologists can use genetic information to control some dimensions of human existence and behaviors are also discussed. These three issues are major problems in today's world that have significant impacts on people's life. Therefore, the scientific knowledge about the topic addressed in the article provides a way with which major issues in life can be tackled.

Research on the Topic:

Research on genetic engineering should be funded by taxpayers' monies because the issues addressed in this topic affect many people regardless of their status and position in society. While the topic has continued to generate heated concerns from various people groups including clergymen and environmentalists, issues associated with it affect the society at large. Therefore, such research should be funded by public funds in order to contribute to the discovery of effective solutions to severe problems in the society.

In conclusion, the article primarily addresses ways with which biologists can contribute to a better society by developing positive traits through genetic engineering. The issues addressed in the article are based on various biological concepts. Since these issues affect the society, they are directly related to daily life and necessitate the use of public fund for research.


Alleyne, R. (2012, August 16). Genetically Engineering 'Ethical' Babies is a Moral Obligation,

Says Oxford Professor. The Telegraph. Retrieved January 17, 2013, from

"Extreme Genetic Engineering: An Introduction to Synthetic Biology" (2007, January). ETC

Group. Retrieved January 17, 2013, from

"Genetic Engineering." (n.d.). Oracle ThinkQuest -- Education Foundation. Retrieved January

17, 2013, from [read more]

Race and Genetics Essay

… As Adelman (2003) points out, many people have dark skin, not just Africans. Superficial appearance traits are the root of the racial construct.

The argument for a genetic component to race comes from the most unlikely of sources, though: the Jews. In Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People, Harry Ostrer presents evidence linking together all Jews in the diaspora, Sephardi, Mizrahi, and Ashkenazi alike. The evidence is rooted in genetic science, and would seem to contradict what Adelman (2003) and the PBS documentary The Power of an Illusion discuss. Yet Ostrer's ideas actually coincide with the prevailing conclusion that genetic markers are more closely related to patterns of population migration and geography than to clusters of pre-determined races. All human beings can from the same ancestral pool, meaning variations in appearance are not qualitatively different from variations in disease predilection. The two things do not necessarily go hand-in-hand, which is why some Gentiles have Tay Sachs genes and some Arabs have sickle cell anemia genes. Those genes are not transmitted via race but via patterns of population migration that have occurred since the first Homo sapiens.

"In accord with most geneticists, Ostrer firmly rejects the fashionable postmodernist dismissal of the concept of race as genetically naive, opting for a more nuanced perspective," (Entine, 2012). Perhaps a more nuanced perspective is called for, because certainly genetics play a role in human health. Yet the most important facet of race is not skin color, hair color, or disease etiology. The most important facet of race is sociological and psychological. Race creates artificial categories of human being, and those categories are mistakenly believed to be immutable and deterministic.


Adelman, L. (2003). Race and gene studies: what differences make a difference? Retrieved online:

Entine, J. (2012). Jews Are a 'Race,' Genes Reveal. The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved online: [read more]

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