"Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays

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Nature Verses Nurture One of the Arguments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nature Verses Nurture

One of the arguments that have now been raised by the discovery of genes is the question whether our behavior in future life is determined by the genes that we are born with, or the way that we are brought up with. This can be summed up as "Nature vs. Nurture" which is also the title of… [read more]

Cloning Our Group Is a Morally Committed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,829 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Our group is a morally committed organization that has had many successes in preventing various actions and activities when those activities raise moral objections. Among these would be our efforts to lobby for increased recognition of family rights so parents would have to be notified before an underage girl could get certain medical procedures, worked to prevent discrimination against… [read more]

History of Embryology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,099 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These mutant genes, however, were considered to be alleles at the same locus. The answer to this genetic quandary was to be found in the embryology of the mouse (Burian et al.).

The effect of the two alleles T. And to on notochord and mesoderm might suggest that the two alleles act on two different structures. However, if considered from… [read more]

Chronic Wasting Disease in Nebraska Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Human Gene Therapy - the Molecular Band-Aid

What is gene therapy?

How does it work?

Clinical Trials

Recent Developments

Concern for the Future.

The key to Gene Therapy, according to Kay Crabtree, is in targeting the right cells. The areas that science has discovered gene therapy a possibility in science for are in the area of genetic disorders, cancer, peripheral vascular disease, arthritis and neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic engineering began in 1932 at the 6th International Congress of Genetics focusing on plants and animals, according to Crabtree and the decade of the 1960's saw the establishment of Gene Transfer, a process of inserting cultured cells through aid of viral vectors. The decade of the 1970's transfection into cultured cells with recombinant DNA began and by the 1980's Retroviral vector transfer came into being which increased the efficiency in transfection. 1990 was the year that the first human trial was performed using Gene Therapy.

Not only is the targeting of the correct cells key in the process of Gene Therapy but also vital is the activation of the gene in order to gain a look into the gene itself as well as integration of the gene in order that the gene will replicate and stay put in the cell. Finally, the avoidance of harmful side effects of toxicity, cell death, tolerance by the cell or even organism death must be minimized as much as scientifically possible.

Crabtree also reviewed the vectors used in the transfer are those of the "Viral Vectors" which are the: "Retrovirus" "Adenovirus" "Adenoassociated" and the "Herpes Simplex" virus. Lipsomes as well as the Non-Viral Vectors. The question is asked by Crabtree, " What is a dominant negative mutation? The Answer: A mutated gene produces a mutated protein that…… [read more]

Evolution &amp Genetic Drift Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Lewis, 244).

The Old Order Amish of Pennsylvania mate within their own community, and seldom involve the outside community. This loss of genetic diversity has led to a higher incidence of certain inherited diseases within Amish communities. For example, the founder effect in the Amish settlement has caused a variety of conditions, such as dwarfism and Crigler-Najjar syndrome, where the body can't break down bilirubin. Maple Syrup Urine Disease is much more common in the Amish, as is Homocystinuria, where an individual's blood vessels are damaged. In the case of polydactyly, where a person has extra digits, the prevalence among the Amish is much higher. "Today, thanks to large families and restricted marriages, the number of cases of polydactyly among the Amish exceeds the total number in the rest of the world." (Lewis, 246).

The Afrikaner population in South Africa was settled by a small group of immigrants from Holland, France and Germany. This population has very high rates of porphyria variegata. Due to very precise record-keeping, researchers have been able to determine that "all affected people descended from one couple who came from Holland in 1688!...this couple had many children - who, in turn, had large families, passing on and amplifying the dominant gene." (Lewis, 246). Similar founder effects are also seen in the Ashkenazim, and Finns, who have less genotypic diversity than the larger population, likely because their ancestors were from a small original community.

Another type of genetic drift that occurs to alter allele frequencies is the "population bottleneck." This occurs when much of a particular group is wiped out, and the few remaining individuals are left to build up the colony. The result is a small genetic contribution to subsequent generations.

A population bottleneck occurs when the size of a genetically diverse population drastically falls, remains at this level for a time, and then expands again. The new population loses some of its genetic diversity if different alleles are lost in the bottleneck event. (Lewis, 247).

Population bottlenecks have led to genetic drift in both human and animal populations.

The cheetah population is a very genetically uniform species. This is believed to be because of two population bottlenecks, one that occurred at the end of the ice age, and one due to a slaughter of cheetahs in the 1800s. Today's cheetah populations are so genetically similar that a skin graft from one individual won't be rejected by another "unrelated" individual.

Population bottlenecks are also seen in European Jewish populations, where massacres reduced the population size. Prevalence of diseases such as Tay-Sachs Disease are consequently much higher in these communities.

Genetic drift is a critical component of evolution. Along with natural selection, genetic drift works to ensure genetic variety in all species. "The two most important mechanisms of evolution are natural selection and genetic drift. Most people have a reasonable understanding of natural selection but they don't realize that drift is also important." (Moran, paragraph 1). Although certain consequences of genetic drift, such as a higher… [read more]

Cystic Fibrosis. There Are Eleven Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


On the cellular level, cystic fibrosis patients find a "particular cell protein can not do its job and fight off bacterial infection. A genetic error deletes a single amino acid, which is just one of 15-hundred that make up the protein, causing the protein to become misshapen and preventing it from traveling to the cell's surface to begin its infection… [read more]

Genetic Screening Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In forensic testing, individuals are screened in order to determine a genetic link between suspects and evidence that comes from police investigations. Results of these tests are admissible in courts, and have been used to conclusively establish guilt or innocence (McCarrick).

Susceptibility testing is used to help identify individuals that are the most at risk (or susceptible) to certain disorders. For example, workers can be screened for susceptibility to toxic substances in the workplace that can cause specific disorders. It is estimated that about 390,000 susceptible workers are disabled by occupational illnesses each year, while many of their non-susceptible co-workers are unaffected (McCarrick).

Common Misconceptions

Within the general public, genetic screening is often seen as a "magical" way to predict, and somehow prevent, disease. Notes McCarrick, "the 'too-hopeful' general public has assigned a degree of scientific certainty to the as yet preliminary genetic findings for AD (Alzheimer's disease), and that teaching critical thinking skills about genetic testing to the general public is of the highest priority."

Similarly, confusion about the role of genetic screening and its relationship with contentious issues like cloning has created a great deal of public confusion. Genetic screening is often seen as a technique that can give unwanted and unprecedented control over human biology and procreation.

Social and Ethical Issues

Genetic screening is often opposed on the grounds that it interferes with the individuals' rights to procreate. As such, a great deal of debate rages as to whether genetic screening is a private responsibility or should be a public health responsibility. Often, the cost of many genetically identifiable disorders to society is profound. Approximately 21,000 babies are born in the U.S. each year with chromosomal abnormalities. Worldwide, the cost of caring for these births is about $40 billion over 20 years. As such, it is clear that genetic disorders exert a financial cost on society as a whole. However, this financial cost must be balanced carefully with the individual rights of potential parents in determining their own reproductive agenda. (Miller).

In addition, there is a great deal of debate about the use of genetic screening in pre- and post- employment examinations. These examinations would identify genetic predisposition for workplace health hazards. While these screenings would certainly prevent susceptible individuals from potential workplace hazards. However, Miller disagrees "with mandatory occupational screening based on the risk that responsibility for disease or injury may be shifted to the worker making it possible for them to fall victim to discrimination."

Further, prenatal screening is often tied closely to the debate over abortion. For many, prenatal genetic screening can be used as a way to justify abortion. However, others argue that abortions based on genetic screening may prevent a great deal of suffering and disease. Further, amniocentesis that predicts the sex of a child creates another controversy over potential abortions based on sex discrimination (Miller).


In conclusion, while the scientific basis of genetic screening is easily understandable, the social and ethical issues surrounding genetic screening are much more difficult to… [read more]

Histones Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Secondly, Belotserkovskaya, Reinberg, and colleagues report that FACT is capable of promoting transcription dependent nucleosomes alterations, and that this factor also facilitates assembly of histone proteins into nucleosomes in vitro even in the absence of RNAPII. So these results are consistent with the idea that FACT enables chromatin structure to be disrupted and then reestablished during transcription. This model is lastly supported by work from Saunders, Lis, and co-workers showing that FACT is associated with actively transcribed RNAPII genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes, and that its kinetics of association and site of action are consistent with its involvement in transcript elongation through chromatin. RNAPII has the intrinsic ability to disassemble nucleosomes during transcription.

In combination, all of these studies suggest that the apparently impossible technique of RNAPII is enabled through RNAP II's ability to disassemble nucleosomes and the use of FACT in transcript elongation. Interestingly enough RNAP III is not capable of this process, pointing to new, possible areas of research in…… [read more]

Ethics of Genetic Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


They were all later accredited with the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Hawley 1998).

The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution" (Stableford 1996). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools. Exposing it to ultra-high frequency sound waves can break up DNA, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section (Stableford 1996). A more accurate way of DNA splicing is the use of "restriction enzymes, which are produced by various species of bacteria" (Clarke 1994). The restriction enzymes cut the DNA strand at a particular location called a nucleotide base, which makes up a DNA molecule. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to another strand of DNA by using enzymes called lipases. The final important step in the creation of a new DNA strand is giving it the ability to self-replicate. This can be accomplished by using special pieces of DNA, called vectors, that permit the generation of multiple copies of a total DNA strand and fusing it to the newly created DNA structure. Another newly developed method, called polymerase chain reaction, allows for faster replication of DNA strands and does not require the use of vectors (Clarke 1994).

Along with altering the cells of living tissues, genetic engineering has also proven extremely helpful in the alteration of bacterial genes. "Transforming bacterial cells is easier than transforming the cells of complex organisms" (Stableford 1996). Two reasons are evident for this ease of manipulation: DNA enters, and functions easily in bacteria, and the transformed bacteria cells can be easily selected out from the non-transformed ones. Bacterial bioengineering has many uses in our society; it can produce synthetic insulins, a growth hormone for the treatment of dwarfism and interferon for treatment of cancers and viral diseases (Stableford 1996).

Throughout the centuries disease has plagued the world, forcing everyone to take part in a virtual "lottery with the agents of death" (Stableford 1996). Whether viral or bacterial in nature, such disease is currently combated with the application of vaccines and antibiotics. These treatments, however, contain many unsolved problems. The difficulty with applying… [read more]

Vertebral Column Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (662 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


19). The same study presented data that found that mutations in MEOX1 is what causes the mutations.

Some of the more common deformations (as discussed above) are spina bifada, rachischisis, chromoda and scoliosis. Spina bifada is a condition where there is imperfect fusion of the neural embryonic arch. Neuonal tissues that can be covered by a thin membrane are exposed because of this. Rachischsis takes place when a complex group of anomalies and affect axial structures. What this means is that infants who suffer from rachischsis have neural folds that fail to fuse. Chromoda takes place when a malignant tumor develops and then infiltrates the vertebral bone. Once the tumor infiltrates the bone, it is very difficult to take out. Scoliosis takes place during the formation of the vertebral column and usually refers to when the vertebra do not fuse together in a correct manner.

Since the vertebral column consists of only 33 vertebrae (of which only nine are fused) and many of the defects discussed herein concern the incorrect fusing of these vertebraes, it would seem that additional research would be extremely useful in addressing these deformations. The most important job for the vertebral column is to protect the spinal cord, any maladies, deformations or uneven fusing of the vertebrae puts the spinal cord in a vulnerable situation.

This can be a serious scenario and one that should be addressed as quickly as possible, especially in infants who suffer from many of these afflictions.

Works Cited

Giampietro, P.F.; Raggio, C.L.; Reynolds, C.E.; Shukla, S.K.; McPherson, E.; Ghebranious, N.; Jacobsen, F.S.; Kumar, V.; Faciszewski, T.; Pauli, R.M.; Rasmussen, K.; Burmester, J.K.; Zaleski, C.; Merchant, S.; David, D.; Weber, J.L.; Glurich, I.; Blank, R.D.; (2005) An analysis of PAX1 in the development of vertebral malformations, Clinical Genetics, Vol. 68, Issue 5, pp. 448-453

Rosti, R.O.; (2013) Of mice, men, and King Tut: autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome is caused by mutations in MEOX1, Clinical Genetics, Vol. 84, Issue…… [read more]

Isolating Chromatin Lab Report

Lab Report  |  3 pages (971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


To this supernatant, enough cold 95% ethanol was slowly added so the resulting concentration would be 70% ethanol. The sponge like -DNA that precipitated was picked out and put into a flask.

To understand how this process takes plant in the plant world, strawberries were used to examine this process. Two strawberries were mashed together into a fine pulp and placed into a 250ml container. A saline solution was added and then the mixture was stirred rapidly and with force for five minutes. The next ten minutes were spent filtering this mixture through multi-layers of cheesecloth. This was then transferred to a test tube and ethanol was added to the mixture . DNA was then extracted and taken as a sample.


The results of this experiment suggest that this method of manipulating animal tissue to extract DNA is very simple and produces results. Since this is a basic experiment that focuses on developing clinical skills, the results of the experiment were used to help guide the processes and methods which produced the results. Ethanol after a post-saline bombardment and centrifuge, has a very strong effect on removing the DNA substance from the sinuous animal tissue that was used to provide the sample.

Ethanol provided an easy means to extract genetic material from plant life. As the ethanol was added a distinct and clear layer separated from the reddish mass of the mixture which provided the sample for DNA.


The main revelations of this lab report suggest that true experiment when dealing with any substance and not just DNA is denotes a certain standard operating procedure that can be used as a tool and predict events. A liver sample used in this experiment does not contain much genetic material in relationship to other sources, so being able to retrieve this material in such a fashion suggests that a fundamental and rudimentary understanding of basic lab skills have been reached and understood.

More complex experiments are based upon retrieving such genetic material from a variety of sources. It is therefore essential that this task be mastered by the aspiring researcher or lab technician. It is well documented that the effects of both saline and ethanol to the animal tissue have the desired isolation effects, however it is quite another thing to qualify these results into a meaningful argument that has scientific value and merit and can withstand the scrutiny of one's peers and fellow students.

Since plant life has so much more genetic material than animal material in this case the use of ethanol was demonstrated to be much more effective on the strawberry than the animal liver. When using the liver and manipulating it in its pellet form it is very necessary to use care and caution due to the pellet containing little genetic material that can be tested. This difference can be pointed to the…… [read more]

B Cells, T Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



B and T cells are both types of white blood cells, and are the only nucleated cells of the body that lose DNA during development and maturation. This is due to a process called somatic recombination or V (D)J recombination, which introduces an element of randomness to the process of cell formation and maturation, by putting together one of each of three types of gene segments (Variable, Diverse, and Joining, or VDJ) but not incorporating more than one of each. As a result, the cells can end up having about 300 billion different randomly-generated gene sequences, all of which are fundamentally shorter than the ordinary DNA sequence. There are several important things to note about how this process relates to DNA's role in human biology overall. For a start, this is clearly an adaptive advantage: B. And T cells are generated in the bone marrow (and T cells mature in the thymus) but their primary function is to defend against antigens. As a result, the vast number of different types produced during VDJ recombination provides an enormous repertory of different defenses. Moreover, it is possible for the body to essentially clone different types of these cells based on what type of defense is required: in fact the body will store a small amount of "memory cells" so as to essentially retain some method of cloning certain combinations that have been useful in the past. What this does is provides a tremendous adaptive advantage against potential threats to the system: the randomness is, however, a "double-edged sword" insofar as it creates non-viable possibilities (Murphy 2011, 264). As a result, the maturation process includes a test of functionality, and non-productive combinations may be subjected to further gene rearrangement. Overall, this indicates DNA's value in encoding heritable biological information: the inclusion of different possibilities within that information to maximize survival strategy is certainly the goal of this unusual form of DNA transcription here.

2. What Kara Goucher is doing artificially with the tent is essentially the same…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,196 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This resulted in the adoption of alternatives to respond to the emergence of new strains of organisms resistant to the chemicals (Finucane & Holup, 2005).

Today, genetically modification of food has advanced across the globe. Statistical analysis shows that about 8.25 million farmers grew genetic modified food in 2005. They are expected to triple by 2015. In terms of market… [read more]

Genetically Modified Organisms Technology GMO Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,252 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


The potential to alter and cause harm to others is unknown. The case of Monsanto company, which sued farmers for having their GMO crops. The GMO seeds were blown into the farmers fields by wind, and the seeds infected the farmer's crop. The farmer was not responsible as he did not willingly grow the crops, but the company forced the… [read more]

Nature Nurture Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,107 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Nature Nurture

Nature vs. Nurture

For many generations, psychologists, philosophers, and natural scientist have all debated the extent to which our genes and our environments influence our lives. This debate has been referred to as nature vs. nurture. If nature is the dominant force for factors such as intelligence and personality traits, then this has many implications for the way that we live our lives and our ability to change. However, if nurture is the dominant force then this has a different set of implications and things such as intelligence and personality traits might be largely a result of the environments in which we develop. Some physical characteristics in humans are obviously the result of genetics. Examples of this include items such as hair color, eye color, and general appearance. However, in the realm of psychology and personality, the influence of genetics is less than clear.

Nature vs. Nurture Debate


Two alcoholic mice -- a mother and her son -- sit on two bar stools, lapping gin from two thimbles. The mother mouse looks up and says, "Hey, geniuses tell me how my son got into this sorry state." "Bad inheritance," says Darwin. "Bad mothering," says Freud (Hurley, 2013).

The nature and nurture role in development, or nature vs. nurture, debate has existed for over a century. On one pole of the debate, nature is the dominant force that drives physical and mental development though the passing on of genes from one generation to the next. However, on the other end of the spectrum, many psychologists believe that much of our personality is learned from others as social creatures. We learn from our family, friends, and leaders various tidbits that form into our experience. These two poles have led to a polarized discussion of human development from either a biologically mechanistic or social perspective. Some describe the rhetoric used in the nature/nurture debate without a focus on a 'single, well-de-ned and meaningful question' of "confounding statistics and mechanisms" (Stoltz, 2012).

The physiology and cultural-based research on traits such as intelligence, for example, frequently use experiment designs such as twin studies. One study attempted to further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence by scrutinizing how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically (Kan, Wicherts, Dolan, & Maas, 2013). In this study, data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests tend to demonstrate greater heritability coefficients than do culture-reduced subtests; and (b) in samples of both adults and children, a subtest's proportion of variance shared with general intelligence is a function of its cultural load. This research suggests that the most heritable abilities are also the most culture dependent traits.

Even economists have weighed in on the nurture and nature divide by looking at siblings and their ability to participate in the economy. In one study, economists examined the relationship between different kinds of siblings and earnings and find that… [read more]

Inbreeding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,840 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Over the centuries, inbreeding has often been used to create changes in attitudes and perceptions about the passing of various genes to future generations. In the past, many from the aristocracy often embraced these ideas. This is because they wanted to keep the most favorable genes within a select pool of individuals. The basic idea is that royalty or… [read more]

Controversy With Regard to Genetic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Genetic engineering and cloning are certainly advantageous concepts when considering that they can remove such risks (Brock).

Human cloning can certainly have a great deal of benefits, ranging from parents who can clone a child who was very dear to them to society as a whole cloning individuals who have distinguished themselves through impressive abilities. One of the moral issues most commonly associated with cloning involves the right to a unique identity. Cloning practically leads to people risking the right to have a unique identity, given that they would have someone else look exactly like them. Furthermore, the fact that the clone would be acquainted with how his or her original self went through life would make it impossible for him or her to concentrate on his or her personal identity. Psychological distress would certainly be a disadvantage in the case of many clones.

Judeo-Christian beliefs promote the idea that the body needs to be acknowledged as a temple of the Holy Spirit and that it would thus be wrong for someone to attempt to desecrate this respective temple. To a certain degree however, when considering that creation is the result of sin, it would seem that altering it would not necessarily be such a negative act. Even with this, such ideas are debatable and genetic engineering would likely interfere with God's plan regarding the process of life. When studying the Bible one is probable to realize that God has a plan for everyone's life and interfering with this respective plan would practically mean that one would go against God's laws.

Genetic engineering and cloning are surely intriguing ideas when considering the benefits they can bring along. Society as a whole is likely to experience much medical progress as a consequence of these two fields experiencing significant progress. In spite of this progress, one also needs to consider numerous other implications involving fields like ethics, religion, and psychology when addressing this issue. While such advancements seem appealing, it is important to consider the long-term effect that they are going to have on the world.

Works cited:

Brock, D.W. CLONING HUMAN BEINGS. Retrieved November 6, 2013, from http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf

Greco, K.E., Tinley, S., & Seibert, D. Essential Genetic and Genomic competencies for nurses with Graduate Degrees. ISBN-13: 978-1-55810-437-2, March 2012.

Jenkins, J. Ethics: Ethical Implications of Genetic Information Ethics: Ethical Implications of Genetic Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol. 6 No. 2, Available: www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Ethics/EthicalImplicationsofGeneticInformation.aspx… [read more]

Technology Has Revolutionized Society: Communication Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html

Kelly, R. (2008, July). What are the Ethical Issues Surrounding Personzlied Medicine? Retrieved from Let's Get Personal: http://www.reagank.com/2007/03 / what_are_the_ethical_issues_in.php

Lea, D. (2009). Basic Genetics and Genomics: A Primer for Nurses. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14 (2): Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/-ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/-Vol142009/No2May09/Articles-Previous-Topics/Basic-Genetics-and-Genomics.html

Lea, D., et al. (2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(1), 3-12.

Moon, R., et al. (1998). Parental literacy level and understanding of medical information. Pediatrics. 10 (2): e25-27.

Nash, D. (September 30, 2009). Osumedicalcenter. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com / watch?v=UyIA5jgUkOc

National Public Radio. (May 12, 2012). All routine PSA tests for prostate cancer should end. NPR.org. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/05/21/153234671/all-routine-psa-tests-for-prostate-cancer-should-end-task-force-says

O'Neill, O. (2002). Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.… [read more]

Patenting Genes Ethical or Unethical Practice Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Business Case

Should Patenting Genes Be Understood as Unethical?

Summary of Sides

As the human genome is now mapped and genetic manipulation is more and more possible, the question of whether or not genes -- which are organic material -- can be patented without violating basic ethical principles regarding the inherent value of life and that might arise in practical issues where health issues cannot be properly addressed ue to patent blocks. Miriam Schulman argues that genes are a part of life and as such should not be thought of as pieces of patentable technology that can be traded, sold, and owned in such an exclusive and mercantile manner. Further, she feels that, "If the bar for patentability is set too low, it will pervert the incentive structures of the patent system," suggesting that not only are genes worthy of protection from patents in and of themselves but that the patent system itself and the ethical good it promotes could be damaged if genes become patentable (p. 334). As not entirely unique and possibly naturally repeatable "inventions," genes should remain free.

Anabelle Lever disagrees, pointing out that many genes have already been patented and that genes that receive patents are highly unique and have been altered by laboratory processes. Lever does not disagree that that human genes are un-patentable, but contends, "Though the genes in your body are not patentable, the degree of manipulation and alteration that is required to isolate and identify a human gene scienti-cally means that genes so altered and manipulated can merit a legal patent" (p. 338). The basic contention in this argument is…… [read more]

Societal Interventions in Genetic Diseases Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This type of genetic screening has been continually used for various decades through the use of different techniques.

In the United States and the United Kingdom, genetic screening used was testing newborn babies for PKU deficiency. As a compulsory screening, a newborn baby is put on a special diet and will not undergo serious mental retardation if he/she is found to have PKU deficiency. More information regarding societal interventions in genetic diseases in the United States and United Kingdom reveals that there is screening for genetic vulnerability to diseases that are environmentally induced illnesses like elevated blood cholesterol. Similar to the U.S. And the UK, genetic screening is the most common societal intervention in genetic diseases used in other parts of the world. However, there are various techniques for genetic screening used elsewhere such as the effective screening program for Thalassemia used in Cyprus and Italy.

An epidemiological approach for preventing and controlling the three most common genetic diseases is the new intervention measure used to prevent such diseases. The approach has been developed through examining diseases like deafness in dalmations, great dane, hip dysplasia in German shepard, lab retrievers, Newfoundland, and glaucoma FCR in canine pedigree breeds. As a new technology for designing programs to prevent genetic diseases, the epidemiological approach consists of methods that use all relationships within the pedigree and common environmental factors (Wood, Lakhani & Henley, 2004, p. 24). Based on the outcomes of polygenic model in the approach, the method proves to be effective in preventing the diseases.


Samem, F.M.A. (n.d). Human Genetic Screening. Retrieved from North Dakota State University

website: http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/students/firas.htm

Scacheri, C. (n.d.). Genetics and Society. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topic/genetics-and-society-11

Wood, J.L.N., Lakhani, K.H. & Henley, W.E. (2004). An Epidemiological Approach to Prevention and Control of Three Common Heritable Diseases in Canine Pedigree Breeds in the United Kingdom. The Veterinary Journal, 168, 14-27. Retrieved from http://www.ansci.wsu.edu/Courses/as464/notes/webdocs/Background%20Information/geneticdiseaseepidemiologyvetjournalagu2004.pdf… [read more]

Human Cloning Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Mappes 568) He asserts that clones would not have the freedom to choose their future, but have their future controlled by another, something that Kass believes is "despotic."

One of Kass' main objections to cloning deals with the issue of identity, and what he calls being "saddled with a genotype that has already lived. He will not be fully a surprise to the world…." (Mappes 568) But Robert Wachbroit rightly points out that a clone is not the result of "asexual reproduction," but simply a twin who's birth has been delayed. Kass believes that the clone will somehow live a repeat of the life of the DNA donor, but Wachbroit explains that because the clone is a delayed twin, it "would be a separate person from her non-contemporaneous twin." (Mappes 572) The idea that the clone would live a similar life to the DNA donor would be to believe in genetic determinism, a belief that is rejected by the majority of scientist. If Kass is correct in this belief, then the lives of millions of identical twins would live parallel lives, something that is simply not the case.

Finally, in response to this criticism of Kass' argument that the clone would be living a life that has already been lived, it is important to remember that in the act of procreation, two sets of DNA are mixed together to create a new and unique individual with their own genetic identity. In this way each child is a new and genetically distinctive individual who is worthy of independence from their parents. It is their genetic distinctiveness that identifies each life as unique and independent of all others. And as Kass states, "it can also be an important support for living a worthy and dignified life." (Mappes 567) Another reason that Kass may be correct in his assertion that human cloning is repugnant is the fact that cloning by it very nature of making genetic copies interferes in the process of human evolution. As each child is created from the genetic templates of both parents, the resulting genome is unique, and therefore possessing different, and sometimes mutated genes. It is these mutations that occur during procreation that is the basis for the continued evolution of the human race. Cloning would put a stop to this evolution and would be making the statement that humans are already genetically perfect and no longer in need of change. Unfortunately, evolution occurs in response to environmental factors and unless the Earth's environment remains exactly the same, a human race composed entirely of clones will never survive.

Works Cited

Mappes, Thomas…… [read more]

Biofuels to Dissect Locust Guts to Culture Dissertation

Dissertation  |  10 pages (3,671 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 30



To dissect locust guts

To culture anaerobic microorganisms (bacteria) from locust guts on cellulose

containing media and screen for microbes with Cellulolytic activity.

To extract DNA from Cellulolytic microorganisms

To do PCR of 16s rDNA to identify the bacteria.

To clone and sequence PCR product.

The study discusses the aims and objective to enhance greater understanding on the strategy… [read more]

Fragile X Syndrome Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The positive behavioral changes were modest, but encouraging. Nonetheless, there is much more research for occupational therapists to do. For example, the long-term effects of the use of the stories have not been investigated and it is not certain at ages or developmental levels these stories have the largest and least benefits.

One of the important considerations when judging the… [read more]

Breeding Psychology Breeding Selective Traits in Animals Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Breeding


Breeding selective traits in animals: Negative traits in Paint horses

Scientists frequently try to breed selective traits in animals for research purposes, as in the case of mice bred for their propensity to become addicted to alcohol. However, this is only one example of a trend which has had a long history in humanity's relationship with the animal world. Breeding animals to manifest select traits has been common since early humans engaged in agricultural production. Today, some traits in horses are occasionally selected for efficacy in sporting activities, others for appearance. Selective breeding is used to predictably produce such traits, just as speed in Thoroughbreds, agility in cutting horses, and jumping ability in Warmbloods. Other examples include special 'colored' horses such as palominos and Paint horses (Grandin 1998).

However, breeding for one type of desirable trait can occasionally cause the manifestation of a connected, yet undesirable trait. "Genetic traits are linked in complex ways. Over-selecting animals for physical traits often causes changes in behavior. Likewise, over-selection for behavioral traits can cause corresponding changes in physical traits" (Grandin 1994). Such is the case in breeding Paint horses, in which exaggeratedly large white patches with underlying pink skin called 'piebalding' is considered particularly attractive and desirable. Animals with "large piebald spots on the head and body may have neurological defects similar to the genetic defect known in humans as piebaldism. The piebald condition is linked to defects in both the visual system and in hearing" (Grandin 1995). Piebald spots do not always signal neurological defects and not all Paints have piebald spots. But breeding two Paint Horses who have large areas of piebald patches can produce problematic results.

For example, nervousness is common in animals with large piebald areas. Animal behaviorist Temple Grandin notes she "observed some extremely abnormal behavior in a highly depigmented Paint stallion at a horse show. The stallion was so distressed by the sights and sounds of the show that he was literally eating up his stall. This behavior was in sharp contrast to the normal behavior shown by a frightened horse" (Grandin 1994). These horses also exhibit balance problems due to defects in the inner ear, confirming a relatively old adage among horsemen: "Four white feet, pass him by" (Grandin…… [read more]

Epidemiology Liegl-Atzwanger, Fletcher Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 50


Figure 4:GISTs having epitheliod features.


According to Fulop et at.,(2009),molecular genetics as well as histogenesis GISTs represents a unique and a special group of gastro-intestinal tumors which originates from the interstitial Cajal cells (ICC). Interstitial Cajal cells (ICC) .According to Fulop et at.(2009),this hypothesis is supported by the fact that, according to the an immunhistochemical perspective, the GISTs and… [read more]

Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing

Throughout the years, genetic testing has been extensively used in: treating medical disorders and identifying the risks brought on by a particular disease. Also known as DNA-based tests, it consists of techniques that are utilized in: determining genetic disorders and examining the DNA of a patient (Sequeiros & Guimaraes, 2008).

As a result, this kind… [read more]

Risk of Development and Progression Article Review

Article Review  |  10 pages (3,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


(D Otaegui1, A Sa'enz1, P Caman "o1, 2006)

Pearson's chi square test was used to perform the homogeneity test between the two distributions of the genotypes. Yate's chi square test was utilized to perform tests to compare frequencies of the CD 24 V/V genotype between cases and controls. (D Otaegui1, A Sa'enz1, P Caman "o1, 2006)

Patients with an EDDS… [read more]

Human Cloning Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,195 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


If cloning technology is allowed to continue, the future may produce technologies wherein a person's own organs can be cloned from their own genetic material ensuring a match and a good likelihood that the body will accept the organ (Clone 2009).

There are many reasons that individuals might desire to have themselves or a loved one cloned. The most common justifications for cloning fall under the categories of utility and autonomy. Utility arguments include the desire to make more of yourself in order to have a larger impact on the world, replacing a dead child with a genetic duplicate, making a clone to provide bone marrow or organs to an original person, or producing individuals with higher or lower mental capacities to perform designated tasks (Kilner 2002). There are three arguments for human cloning that have to do with autonomy. The first of these is personal freedom. In the United States in particular, there is a strong commitment to the idea of personal freedom which people who desire to participate in human cloning utilize in order to prove that they have the right to choice. The second is reproductive choice wherein parents declare they have the right to have children in any way that they choose and that society should have no part in personal decisions. The third argument is scientific inquiry. Scientists have argued that they have the right by their profession to investigate all matters, including human cloning, and that no government or ethical concern should affect what experiments they conduct or how they conduct those experiments (Kilner 2002).


One of the dangers of any dispute is the potential of one side of the discussion to completely dismiss any astute arguments on behalf of their adversary. The more controversial the topic, the greater the chance for adversarial discord and, consequently there becomes less likelihood for a compromise. Both sides of the cloning conundrum have been guilty of using certain tactics to dismiss the observations of their enemy. This straw man technique is a tactic in which the views of the opponents are oversimplified and exaggerated so that the original point is distorted (Moore 2007). Although research shows that the dangers of human cloning outweigh the benefits, there are aspects of the technology which should be used and incorporated into other fields of scientific research.

The American Medical Association has argued that even a genetically identical individual would not, in fact, be a copy of the original person's personality since they would not be raised in duplicate environments. Since the individuals would not be exact copies of one another, several of the promised applications of human cloning prove themselves to be illogical. Replicating a child who has perished, for example, would be impossible because the new individual would only be a physical duplicate of the first child. The personality would be molded by the new emotional environment (Ethics 1999-page 2). However, this same organization did determine that cloning could be used for the purposes of artificial conception of… [read more]

Effect of Genetic Engineering on Society Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,381 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Genetic Engineering

The Effect of Genetic Engineering on Society


Director Andrew Niccol's film Gattaca (1997) explores the possibilities and consequences of the genetic engineering of human beings in the near future. In the film Niccol portrays a society where people are judged by not by the color of their skin, nor by the content of their character, but by the quality of their DNA.

The film opens with two quotes, one attributed to the Bible, "Consider God's handiwork: who can straighten what He hath made crooked?" (Ecclesiastes: 7-13) and the other from Willard Gaylin, "I not only think we will tamper with Mother Nature, I think Mother Nature wants us to." Gaylin is Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Columbia University, and co-founder of The Hastings Center, a "nonpartisan research center dedicated to bioethics and the public interest" (The Hastings Center, 2010). This theme, the inherent tension between science and faith, man and God, is woven throughout the film.

Niccol sets the film in the "the not-too-distant" future, where the genetic engineering of humans has become commonplace and DNA plays a significant part in the determination of social status as well as the availability of career options. After all "why should anyone invest in non-perfect human?" The protagonist, Vincent, is conceived and is born without the aid of this technology. Because he is less than perfect, he needs glasses, has a congenital heart defect, and is given a life expectancy of 30.2 years; he faces excessive genetic discrimination and prejudice.

Niccol demonstrates his feelings about this futuristic society in various ways and through various characters. When his father, Antonio, learns that his son is less than perfect he instructs the nurse to write the name Vincent instead of Anton on the birth certificate. Medical insurance is not available because his DNA indicates he is high risk. Later in the film the name Anton is given to Vincent's younger brother, who is brought into the world through genetic engineering or "the natural way."

The accepted rational for genetically engineered children is presented by the doctor who creates Anton. The parents are given a choice among four fertilized eggs, two boys and two girls. After choosing a boy, under the pretext that Vincent would have somebody to play with, (in reality it was so the father would have a namesake) and hearing the defects the embryo has been screened for, they wonder if it is not "good to leave a few things to chance?" The doctor replies, "You want to give your child the best possible start. Believe me we have enough imperfection built in already. Your child doesn't need any additional burdens, and keep in mind this child is still you…simply the best of you. You could conceive naturally a thousand times and never get such a result." A key indication of Niccol's feelings about the validity of this society is when Vincent says "They used to say that a child conceived in love has a better chance of happiness. They… [read more]

How to Extract DNA From Anything Living Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Lab Report Template (Save as: YourName_Module#_Report.doc)

An to extract DNA from a piece of common paper formed the basis of this experiment. Though wood pulp is, of course, ultimately an organic material, it was hypothesized that the treatment of turning the pulp into paper would destroy any DNA. This hypothesis was proven incorrect.

There are a great many uses for DNA testing in this country, with the most well-known application due to high-profile lawsuits and certain television shows being paternity tests (Fuller 2010). Establishing a variety of different familial relationships is actually possible using DNA testing, and certain types of DNA can trace lineages back thousands of years (Fuller 2010). There is also the potential for DNA testing to provide information as to medical issues and the potential risks individuals face, as well as other information concerning congenital features and diseases (Fuller 2010).

DNA can also serve to help identify a wide range of other organic materials and the specific species or even organisms of which they are a part, and this can be utilized by law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists in a variety of ways (HGP 2010). Even identifying the very existence of DNA in a given sample can provide clues as to an unfamiliar substance's origin and nature, and all of these uses for DNA require first that DNA can be extracted from a sample. This experiment will attempt to extract DNA from a sample of material that was at one point organic, but that has been highly changed in form.

Materials and Methods:

A kitchen blender, some cotton swabs, and a set of six test tubes formed the hardware necessary to conduct this experiment. Approximately a quarter-sheet of standard lined notebook paper was used as the experimental sample substance. Other necessary supplies included approximately a half-teaspoon of salt, 200 mL of cold water, 30 mL of standard dish soap (in liquid form), several pinches of store-bought meat tenderizer (perhaps a tablespoon was…… [read more]

Pre-Natal Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Prenatal development involves not only the physiologic processes which occur to produce life, it also requires an understanding of the various influences that shape the developing life and the consequences those influences have the potential to bear. The issue of nature vs. nurture is brought to bear in prenatal development. With a focus on the inherent 'tabula rasa' character of… [read more]

Exchange of Genetic Material Between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Exchange of Genetic Material Between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts

In genetic recombination, a strand of DNA or RNA molecule is broken and the joined to a different DNA molecule. The occurring chromosomal crossover results on the next generation have a combination of the two parent's strands donating the DNA. Gregor Mendel first discovered the bases for genetics with his experiments with peas and their characteristics. This paper looks at Luther Burbank and whether he did the first genetic recombination experiments or not.

Genetic engineering has become a blessing and a curse as some combinations like the Burbank Russet potato have been a blessing to all people who enjoy McDonald's French fries but the killer bees have proven to be a disaster. In genetics, the belief was that graphed tissue cells retained their DNA integrity and did not mix their genetic material, but recent findings are disproving this theory. In the article, "Exchange of Genetic Material between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts," Stegemann and Bock (2009) conclude, "our discover of grafting mediated gene transfer blurs the boundary between natural gene transfer and genetic engineering and suggest that grafting provides an avenue for genes to cross species barriers." Phylogenetic evidence from the test run on two transgenic tobacco lines grafted together suggest that DNA can be transferred between isolated species and grafting opens the path for gene transfer.

The question arises 'Who did the first recombination experiments in plants?' And the answer depends on the person asked. Some will say Mendel and others will say Burbanks. Mendel discovered the genetic inheritance traits of garden peas and did hybridization crossing of peas and in later life he tried to cross bees. Luther Burbank, on the other hand, crossed and even grafted plants and trees…… [read more]

Nature and Nurture in the Current Developmental Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,132 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Nature and Nurture in the Current Developmental Psychology Research Literature

Developmental Psychology

The "nature vs. nurture" debate has resided at the heart of developmental psychology for the past several decades. From the moment that Crick and Watson discovered that genetic information is passed along through cellular structures and that this information has a role in determining who we become, scientists and ethicists alike have argued over what holds primacy, the role of genetic inheritance or the role of environmental conditioning. Applications of the debate have been found in related fields as varied as neurological science, linguistics, sociology, psychopathology, education, and gender studies, but it is in developmental psychology proper, perhaps, that the debate seems to hold a place of particular importance. If DNA is destiny, then what we do around the fetus, infant, and child seems less important. However, if nurture is primary, then the environmental structure we create are of crucial importance. It is important to understand the general contours of the debate and to know what current thinking around the subject says in order to know how to approach the very modalities basic to the discipline.

In this, paper, the debate between nature and nurture will be reviewed briefly and the current data on the debate in the research literature will be highlighted in order to present the current best findings, thereby informing the study of developmental psychology on this key concern.

The essential thrust of the nature vs. nurture debate revolves around the role that genetics play in determining human attitudes and behavior. The human genome project and other studies showed that genes play a very large role indeed, with different genes having been identified for all kinds of behaviors and attitudinal states such as depression, fear, and the like. This suggested that there was a genetic endowment for virtually every behavioral or attitudinal state. In fact, for much of the last half-century, the consensus view among scientists was that inheritance was the major contributor to destiny, even if we didn't always understand how genetics played out. A second consideration has been, however, that environment also affects behavior. Conditioned responses have been shown in numerous studies to accommodate for basic genetic traits, as in cases in which stroke victims or others have been helped to overcome brain-damage-induced deficiencies through rehabilitation. Still, however, the thinking for much of the past generation was that when conditioning seemed to have an impact, it simply covered over or compensated for genetic traits. If left to their own devices, the gene endowments would likely re-emerge dominant. Richardson (2000) summarizes this kind of difficulty with a dual-influence model, when he claims that for most of the history of the nature vs. nurture debate, it has been assumed that the two variables worked independently of each other and that when genetics had an impact, it was from a position in which it arrived on the job fully formed and ready to go to work (1-2). In other words, the idea that there was a… [read more]

Genetic Influences on Behavior While the Debate Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (425 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Genetic Influences on Behavior

While the debate continues over nature vs. nurture, the science of the genetics of behavior has gained tremendous momentum with the advancements in the refinement of DNA analysis and genetic sequencing. Beginning with the human genome project in the 1990 and onto even more fine tuned efforts such as the "Hap Map" for discovering genetic related illnesses (Johnson, 2003), the process has now extended towards specific genes related to the preponderance of behavioral influence. For the most part researches are studying these genetic effect on infants and young children who have not as yet been overly influenced by their environment. As early as 1938 researches felt that genetic influences were prevalent in behavior formation and that, "the genetic counterparts and precursors of "intelligence" manifest themselves in the functional fields of perceptual and of adaptive behavior." (Gesell, Thompson & Strunk, 1938, p. 204)

There have been direct links established between addictions ranging from alcohol to caffeine use that they are "highly heritable" (Jang, 2005, p. 138) and the behavioral geneticist to a high degree can predict the preponderance towards addiction of an individual. Current theory states that these influences can be found in other more subtle behaviors such as mood disorder, depression and so on. The question then becomes…… [read more]

History of DNA and of Its Use by the Criminal Justice System Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,390 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



History of DNA Testing

The growth of DNA Testing and Interpretation over the years

DNA Testing Today 5

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Testing, Has grown in popularity in recent years. The testing of DNA came about in 1985 and was first used in the criminal justice system in 1987. The first case occurred in Louisiana using a DNA dragnet. During… [read more]

Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,630 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Thomas Kuhn's Theory Of Scientific Revolutions

Thomas Kuhn's philosophy of scientific revolutions has become a natural part of today's scientific jargon. Although many are familiar with its basic tenets, many do not realize that they are part of the formal theory proposed by Thomas Kuhn. Unlike theorists before him, he did not believe that scientific progress occurred in a linear… [read more]

Dangers of Cloning Life Is Precious Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,445 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Dangers of Cloning

Life is precious. This is what proponents of human cloning fail to accept. While cloning holds promise in theory, the idea fails in practice -- almost every single time it is attempted. While many see the experiment as a great challenge, they overlook the implications that cloning will have on society and the cloned individual.… [read more]

Human Embryonic Stem Cells Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,522 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Stem cell studies are on the very cutting edge of biological advancement and research. These undifferentiated cells have the potential to become any cell in the body, from a simple part of a hair follicle to a complex neuron. Because research into this area is so new, there are still many scientific and ethical dilemmas surrounding… [read more]

Use of DNA Barcodes Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



In this very interesting scientific article, authors Paul D. Hebert,
Mark Y. Stoeckle, Tyler S. Zemlak and Charles M. Francis discuss in-depth
the process by which they have identified birds through their DNA barcodes,
derived from "short DNA sequences from a standardized region of the
genome." Certainly, this highly-complex process is far superior to the old
methods used to identify bird species, due to the fact that by putting
together what the authors call a public library of DNA barcodes, this would
"provide a new master key for identifying species, one whose power will
rise with increased taxon coverage and with faster, cheaper" DNA
What is most exciting about this new process is that these DNA
barcodes allow researchers and scientists to expertly determine the
differences between closely-related bird species, such as a hawk and an
eagle, which ultimately may provide researchers with the genetic link to
prove that…… [read more]

Human Genome Project Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,793 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Human Genome Project may be the most controversial research project in modern medical or scientific history.

The project began in 1990 at the National Institutes of Health and was headed by James Watson. However, the project was not only a U.S. project, nor was it only a government project. The National Institutes of Health worked with other governmental and private… [read more]

Polydactylism Polydactyly Is a Relatively Common Condition Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,143 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Polydactyly is a relatively common condition in which extra digits on the foot or hand develop during growth of the fetus. This essay presents a discussion of the organs and cells which are affected, along with a discussion of the genetic basis of the condition. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the treatments which are available for the… [read more]

Biomedical Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,146 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Biomedical Technology

The field of Biomedical Technology has been growing by leaps and over the past half-century. At the beginning of that time many research scientists and their funding corporations were starting to realize the amazing potential of this field for both for humanitarian and commercial use. The advances alone in the use of recombinant DNA techniques as well as… [read more]

Nf-Kb Akirin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,972 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


NF-kB: Akirin

NF-kB Akirin: A "Novel Nuclear Factor"

Statement of Topic Significance

Genetic engineering and experimentation hold enormous promise for eradicating many of the diseases that currently plague mankind, and researchers may even be able extend the human lifespan to unprecedented levels in the future. More importantly, perhaps, ongoing research into the human innate immune systems also suggests that such… [read more]

Structural Basis of DNA Replication Origin Recognition by an Orc Protein Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


DNA Replication

Structural Basis of DNA Replication by an ORC Protein

The article selected addresses the question of what the structural basis of DNA replication may be in. Specifically it seeks to identify the first step in the assembly of a replication origin in the DNA of the archaea a. pernix. This information was sought in order to gain a better understanding of the process which may occur in human DNA replication processes.

The research uses the results of previous studies which have elucidated the structure of origin recognition complex (ORC) proteins. These recognize the replication origins in both archaea and eukaryotes. Other previous studies into genome sequences from various archaea revealed base pair repeats which were conserved across species which could possibly be the replication origins. Extended repeat sequences were termed origin replication boxes (ORB). The study builds upon previous research which has shown that these ORBs can be used to identify replication origin sites, and seeks to further understand the actual structural assembly. The study first established the crystal structure of one of the ORC proteins in a. pernix. The crystal structures and biochemical data were used to predict the interactions between the ORC protein and the DNA target within the winged helix family (WH) domain. The structural differences in the DNA helix were noted to understand how the interaction changed the structure. DNA footprinting was used to evaluate the contacts which were observed in the process. This attempted to understand the difference between contacts in the ORC protein as a whole and the contacts which occurred in the WH domain alone.

The study showed that the principal contact in the replication origin process between the OCR and the DNA helix related to the WH. Several structural differences were noted by the insertion of the ORB into the helix. These structural changes widened the major and minor grooves of the…… [read more]

Eugenics Refers to the Social Philosophy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (901 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Eugenics refers to the social philosophy that advocates an artificial improvement to the human hereditary traits through various mechanisms of intervention. In the modern, medical sense, eugenics refers to the use of such things as prenatal testing, screening, genetic counseling, birth control, genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization as mechanisms of preventing the passing on of various problematic genetic traits. Eugenics is typically divided between positive and negative eugenics. Positive eugenics are aimed at encouraging reproduction among the genetically advantaged. Common examples of positive eugenics include in vitro fertilization, egg transplants and cloning. Negative eugenics, on the other hand, is aimed at lowering fertility among the genetically disadvantaged. Common examples of negative eugenics include abortions, sterilization and family planning initiatives.

The issue of eugenics is highly controversial as it raises numerous legal and ethical issues. Dating back most notably to the Nazi's use of eugenics to systematically prejudice and eliminate various ethnic groups and peoples, eugenics is seen as a dangerous tool of political control. In a modern sense, the ethical issues center on whether or not one should be able to "play god" with diseases and births. On the other hand, those who support eugenics argue that if one has the ability to prevent a genetic disease, then is it ethical not to prevent the passing on of those defective traits and thus eliminate the pain and suffering caused by such a genetic trait? As is often times the case, when a procedure involves ethical questions, the law gets involved. The law is currently still developing on issues of in vitro fertilizations, abortions and other eugenics methods. Further, there are general human rights/individual constitutional rights involved in terms of right to privacy and write to life, regardless of genetic makeup.

II. Eugenics Today

An individual who is subject to any form of eugenics, either as a parent or as an individual, may suffer from lasting physical and emotional health effects. Because many of eugenics' theories are still being developed, the long-term effect of genetic modifications, for example, are unknown. Further, such birth-orientated eugenic programs as abortions or in vitro fertilization can have lasting emotional effects on the mother, father or carrier of the fetus.

Often times a health care consumer may feel pressured to opt for a eugenic test or procedure. This is because a professional health care provider, such as a doctor, is telling the consumer what is needed. The consumer tends to trust the doctor's specialized knowledge and thus will go along with a doctor's recommendations. However, this is unfair to the patient because nobody with as equal of background as the doctor is advocating for the patient. This is where a nurse can come in. The…… [read more]

Co-Evolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,213 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The objective of this work is to research and examine co-evolution, what it is, how it works and the biological principle of this theory and the basis of this theory to include three different community interactions.

According to the work of Jones (2000) entitled: "Reductionism: Analysis and the Fullness of Reality" the work of Richard Dawkins makes the claim that human beings or our genetics are "survival machines - robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes. We are throwaway survival machines' create by selfish genes to propagate themselves. In short, genes are the only real forces. As the saying goes, organisms are nothing by DNA's way of making more DNA. There are no causal realities above the level of genes - no real societies, not even ultimately real individuals, but only genes pulling the strings indirectly like a computer programmer." (Jones, 2000) Others, specifically Edward Wilson hold that while human being do have "a hard biological structure unaffectable by sociocultural factors..." that once having reached "the human level, genes have given away most of their sovereignty over behavior, although they do maintain a certain amount of influence at least the behavioral qualities. In short, the genes do keep a leash on human behavior, but it is a long leash." (Jones, 2000) Those who oppose Wilson are stated to feel that "sociobiology is simplistic and mechanistic and that there is no scientific evidence for any role of genes in directing human behavior..." denying any form of genetic determinism." (Jones, 2000) Jones reports the work of Wilson and his colleague, Charles Lumsden, who are in the midst of the development of a theory of "gene and culture co-evolution: culture is created and shaped by biological processes, while the biological processes are simultaneously altered in the response to cultural change. In short, culture affects genetic evolution and genes affect cultural evolution." (Jones, 2000)


The process of evolution is not always a nature process and this is emphasized in the work of Wheelis, et al. (1998) entitled: "Manual for Assessing Ecological and Human Health Effects of Genetically Engineer Organisms," a publication of the Scientists' Working Group on Biosafety which states: "Genetic engineering techniques currently are used for such diverse purposes as improvement of agricultural crops and crop yield, enhancement of farmed fish and shell fish broodstocks and their associated yields, production of microbes for bioremediation and other specific tasks, and changes in disease-transmission rates by insect vectors. Each of these purposes holds the promise of benefit to one or several groups. However, the potential benefits are accompanied by potential hazards to human health and the environment." (Wheelis, et al., 1998) This hazard may arise from the effects of generation of new species at a rapid rate that involves evolution that does not occur in unison with the world and environment and its living creatures but instead is an evolution independent of other living plants, species, and life. One such negative… [read more]

Genetic Testing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (560 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Genetic testing is concept that is used to diagnose 'genetic diseases', which are transferred to any person by their ancestry. (Wikipedia, 2007). Every person carries numbers of genes from their parents. The usage of 'genetic testing' involves studying and changing in human chromosomes, genes and the proteins. (Genetic Testing, 2007).

Genetic testing is a wider concept, which is used to for 'biochemical procedures' to screen out any 'heredity diseases' that any person might suffer. There are many people who are suffering from different diseases due to 'inter-family marriages' and 'genetically transfers' that is usually transferred from parents to children. So use of genetic testing to reduce risk associated with one's life. Many government treat 'cloning' as against the human laws so they have banned cloning in their countries but in UK and USA the cloning is considered as blessings and widely used today. (Shaun Elmore, 2007).

There are many people who born with some dangerous inherited diseases such as 'cancer' and 'HIV' so these children could only able to live 3-4 years and they live on medications because many risks are associated to their lives. In think the 'genetic testing' can be used to bring new born and children out of danger and on hope that it can reduce the risk to death of new born baby. (Genelex Corporation, 2003)

The genetic testing is helpful in finding out that any diseases from parents are likely to be transferred to their children so by knowing the possibilities of disorders. So it provides an opportunity to people to save their future by reducing any risk associated with a person life. (Mayo clinic staff, 2006)

The genetic closing must be allowed for therapeutic…… [read more]

Biochemistry the Effect of BRCA1 in Sporadic Term Paper

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The Effect of BRCA1 in Sporadic Breast Cancer

These who do not have a history of breast cancer in their families may be said to have sporadic breast cancer. Patterns of breast cancer in families show that hereditary factors do not contribute to 80% of those found to have breast cancer. This makes scientists suspect there are non-genetic factors… [read more]

Human Genome Project and Its Impact Implications Term Paper

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¶ … Human Genome Project and its impact implications on the ethics of genetic engineering. The writer examines the project, the genetic engineering question and provides personal beliefs to the overall picture.


Recent advances in the field of medical science have taken mankind to heights never before imagined. Today, the life… [read more]

Cloning, and Especially Human Term Paper

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Cloning, and especially human cloning, is a hot political topic. Raising a litany of legal and ethnical questions, cloning is also an issue that has become shrouded in fallacy, myth, and misunderstanding. Media attention to cloning has in many cases distorted the issues, making it seem as if science labs are manufacturing monsters and mutants. Moreover, cloning is a broad… [read more]

Patent Law and Genetic Medicine Term Paper

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Human Stem Cell Medical - Legal Implications

How Do Legal Issues in Patent Law Shape Ethical Decision in Human Stem Cell Research?

Patent Law & Genetic Medicine

This work examines the issue of human stem cell research from the view of the medical profession with an eye on funding, the public perspective and legislation historically affecting and futuristically possible in… [read more]

Cloning Is the Production of Identical Genetic Term Paper

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Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies of cells or an individual. The process occurs naturally when a cell or organism reproduces asexually, through processes such as mitosis, binary fission, budding, sporulation, or parthenogenesis, or when genetically identical twins are produced naturally.

Even the process of horticultural grafting and cuttings are technically cloning as the resultant plant is a… [read more]

Genomics and Implications Term Paper

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The research showed that genomics is the field of automated sequencing and analysis of genes. The research also showed that with the results of the Human Genome Project in hand, genomics research is well situated to make enormous contributions to improving the human condition in the years to come; however, all of this progress has some observers suggesting that there is a Frankenstein-monster quality to such research, and it is both inappropriate and immoral to tinker with the fundamental building blocks of the human body. Nevertheless, genomics research continues to discover new insights into how these basic process operate at the most basic level, and these findings will undoubtedly be applied to an increasing range of human endeavors in the future.

Works Cited

Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health

Perspectives 112(16):934.

Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.

Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:

Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.

Kelso, Dennis Doyle Takahashi and Rachel A. Schurman. Engineering Trouble: Biotechnology

and Its Discontents. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.

Omenn, Gilbert S. (2005, Spring). "Genomics and Public Health: Potential Benefits Depend on Linking Genetic…… [read more]

Do the Dangers of Genetic Engineering as Applied to Humans Outweigh Its Benefits? Term Paper

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Genetic engineering (GE) has been presented to the public as a way to improve the quality of our lives, enhance agriculture and advance our ability to fight genetic illnesses. The possibilities seem endless, but raise worries as well as optimism (Fricker, 2002). The Human Genome Project, conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human… [read more]

Cloning the Term Cloning Is Commonly Construed Term Paper

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The term cloning is commonly construed as reproductive cloning or the asexual genetic replication of a living organism (Cloning, 2005). However, in reality, scientists use the term cloning to describe all the different processes that are involved in the duplication of biological material. While there is virtually universal agreement that human cloning is neither safe nor ethically desirable, the… [read more]

Human Genome Project (Hgp) Term Paper

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al., 1998). In both the cases of clear-cut genetic causation, such as with Huntington's Chorea, and in cases where genetics may play a role, such as in some types of breast cancer, medical professionals as well as patients have to make some difficult decisions (Collins et. al., 1998). Would most people want to know if they were destined to develop Huntington's Chorea, or would they rather not know? Does an individual want to know that he or she carries a gene that can lead to breast cancer even though this knowledge, by itself, cannot predict whether the person will get the disease or not? (Collins et. al., 1998)

Other questions involve the right of individuals to privacy. Once we have human DNA completely mapped, will we then begin to generate detailed genetic profiles of all medical patients? If we do, is this information that can be shared with other organizations, by, for instance, hospitals? If it can be shared, insurance companies might then drop people with genes that make them prone to certain kinds of cancer, or destined to develop some genetically-driven disease such as Huntington's. In those cases, the individuals would get glimpses into their medical future whether they wanted to know what their genes reveal or not.

Advances in genomic science raise innumerable psychosocial questions. The issues underlying the story of the Genetic Revolution are fundamental, even philosophical What is the essence of being human? How much will we try to control the gender, the temperament, and the genetic heritage of our children? How much can we improve on the human condition? Are disabilities to be avoided or embraced? Who has… [read more]

Sickle Cell Term Paper

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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). After hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them to squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and cause blockages that deprive organs and tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

Sickle cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In the Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come from Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births and one in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About two million Americans, or one in twelve African-Americans, carry the sickle cell trait.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromosome pairs with one of each pair inherited from the father, and one from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent and child occurs only rarely. Most likely, sickle cell disease depends on inherited genes from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired or otherwise transmitted. The disease is caused by a change in a single amino acid difference in the beta chain of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies of the sickle form of the gene have sickle cell anemia (Malaria, sickle cell anemia and balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal and one mutant copy of the sickle gene -- appear normal and do not manifest the disease except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Approximately ten percent of African-Americans are carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de to protection against malaria that occurred for people with sickle cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta globin is a major component of adult hemoglobin and its gene is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (Ashley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle cell disease. The most influential risk factor for disease severity is genotype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous for the sickle beta globin gene (b S) have sickle cell anemia (SS disease). Individuals with sickle beta thalassemia have a b S. gene and a gene for beta thalassemia. If no beta globin is produced by the beta thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb o thalassemia (Sb o thal). If some normal beta globin is produced by the thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case of hemoglobin (SC disease), the… [read more]

Cyborgs Transgenic Designer Kids Term Paper

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Cogito Ergo Sum

As stated centuries ago by Rene Descartes, the statement "I think, therefore I am," no longer holds true for the dawn of the twenty first century. Due to emerging monumental technological advances in virtual reality since Descartes first coined the phrase in the seventeenth century "My computer thinks, therefore I am" has become the contemporary version of… [read more]

Human Cloning: The Ethical Debate Term Paper

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That would end abortion, in vitro fertilization, and many types of prenatal genetic testing in the United States.

There are many reasons why human cloning is unethical, but, in my opinion, the greatest reason is that it would destroy the way that families and children are created and built. However, looking at the issue from a scientific perspective, the possibilities for humanity outweigh the risks. Human cloning research would allow doctors to determine the cause of spontaneous abortions, give oncologists an understanding of the rapid cell growth of cancer, allow the use of stem cells to regenerate nerve tissues, and advance work on aging, genetics, and medicines (Jones, 1998).

Opponents and supporters agree that at the current time the technology is not safe enough to use on humans (Jones, 1998). However, this does not rule out the possibilities for the future. With additional experimentation on other types of mammals, scientists can reduce the errors and problems associated with human cloning.

Many proponents hold the belief that "no human activity is free of accidental death" and we should not put that burden on human cloning. Dr. Richard Seed, the scientists who has made public his desire to clone babies, believes that cloning technology could extend human life.

However, there is no proof that children cloned from another person will not necessarily feel this way (Jones, 1998). This argument is based on speculations. Supporters counter argue that human clones will "have the advantage of knowing early in life what they are good at."

Seed thinks that human cloning will help humans understand, and eventually reverse, the human aging process (Wikipedia, 2004). A cure for cancer by a better understanding of the cell-differentiation process, as well as better treatments for heart attacks and improved cosmetic surgery, are being cited as being possible with the new technology.

While opponents of human cloning fear that somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning may encourage a type of eugenics as people would be able to pick and choose desirable traits. Some have articulated fears that cloning might become "almost a preferred practice" and parents who choose to "play the lottery of old-fashioned reproduction would be considered irresponsible (Jones, 1998)."

In light of this concern, the potential benefits to society of cloning exceptional people such as scientists and medical masterminds would outweigh potential harms. It is possible that cloning may be less radical than other technologies like gene manipulation because cloning does not manipulate genes.


In conclusion, cloning offers amazing insight into the power of creation that humanity has built. One theological analysis states that humans are co-creators with God; perhaps it is more accurate to say that humans are shifting from making babies to creating babies (McGee, 2001). The issue of human cloning is a remarkable test of human restraint, wisdom and institutional development, one that has the potential to identify the moral features of 21st century biotechnology.

The future of human cloning is wide open (Wikipedia, 2004). Scientists plan to create a fertility treatment that allows… [read more]

Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual Term Paper

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48, No. 5

Real Time Quantitative PCR (QPCR) represents a potential advance in the identification of usable DNA material in biological samples over technologies currently in use by the Center of Forensic Sciences, such as the Perkin-Elmer

QuantiBlot ™ test. While this system of quantifying DNA in forensic casework samples is considered reliable and appropriately sensitive, it is also time consuming and labor intensive.

Equally important is the fact that slot blot methods incorporate a subjective element. Automated instrumentation for identifying usable human DNA material offers the prospect of reducing the time and effort necessary to do so, in addition to requiring less laboratory space and increased accuracy.

QPCR has already demonstrated the ability to distinguish human DNA from concentrations as dilute as one part human per one thousand animal DNA sources.

Likewise, QPCR has also proven itself reliable in quantifying human DNA across the entire spectrum of racial genetic spectrum.

The most significant improvements offered by QPCR over present slot-block technologies is its repeatability and even more so, its ability to extract high quality, usable quantities of human DNA prior to processing. This feature in particular represents a tremendous increase in efficiency because valuable laboratory time and effort is spared that would otherwise be necessary just to eliminate…… [read more]

Bombing of Hiroshima Studies Term Paper

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This leads to the conclusion that the exposure of the parents before conception and birth may have been a contributing factor to genetic defects resulting in infant death as well.

Studies concentrating on the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl have also indicated that exposure to radiation, even years after the fact, have negative implications when it comes to birth defects (Stone, 2001).


The research is in and there is no denying the impact radiation has on genetic birth defects. Exposure before conception carries a risk of specific birth defects including mental retardation and childhood cancers. For these risks to be avoided in the future it is important to re-evaluate the location of nuclear reactor sites as well as the frequency of x-rays.


The Basics of Genetic Effects and Birth Defects http://www.doh.wa.gov/Hanford/publications/overview/genetic.html

Study finds increases in birth defects near CANDU reactor http://www.antenna.nl/wise/361/3568.html

Are birth defects more common among the children of atomic-bomb survivors?



Congressional Testimony; 4/21/1998

Congressional Testimony


Radiation: Children at Risk.(Brief Article)

Multinational Monitor; 6/1/2000; Mokhiber, Russell

Living in the Shadow of Chornobyl

Science; 4/20/2001; Stone, Richard

The dark side of the nuclear family.(health effects ofradiation)

New Statesman (1996); 1/15/1999; Roff, Sue Rabbitt… [read more]

Human Genetic Term Paper

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These attempts require regulators to consider only the risks of bioengineered crops and not their benefits, and they hold gene-splicing to a standard of safety that could not possibly be met by non-biotech products and practices (Conko)."

These opponents therefore illustrate they are basing their reasons on politics instead of sound science.


Gene therapy research has the potential to change both human and plant genetics. While proponents feel these changes will be better for mankind, opponents point out there is still too little information available, allowing genetically engineered "monsters" to be created.

Works Cited

Conko, Gregory. The benefits of biotech: as the world's population grows, environmental stewardship will require science to find ways to produce more food on less land.

Agriculture). Regulation. (2003): 22 March.

Phillips, G.C., M.A. O'Connell, I.M. Ray, R.G. Cantrell, and C. Sengupta-Gopalan.

The Importance of Plant Biotechnology in the Future Development of Arid

Lands. New Mexico Journal of Science. (1999): 01 November.

Unknown. A Cure That May Cost Us Ourselves: SOCIETY: One of the pioneers of human genetic engineering predicts that within 30 years, there will be a gene-based therapy for most diseases. But he fears the profound dangers of... Newsweek. (2000): 01 January.

Vinha, Laura. INTERVIEW-Conservationist say GM crops…… [read more]

Joe Student Joe Teacher Term Paper

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Chromosomes are most commonly visualized in their condensed form, during cell division. At other times, when the cell is performing a function, rather than dividing, the genetic material is diffuse, spread throughout the cell nucleus. In an ordinary cell, there are two copies of each piece of DNA: one inherited from father, and one from mother. In more concrete terms, one inherits a single set of chromosomes from each parent, and a normal cell consists of two of each chromosome." (Marks, 17) With that being said, I think back to all the times my mom called me her perfect little angle. Was she trying to convince me of something she didn't really think to be true. Can parents cause perfection? I guess not.

So if the schools can't do it and parent's can't do it, if I wanted to be the perfect kid, how could it happen? I suppose I should rethink what perfection is. When in doubt, find a dictionary. Webster's defines perfection as "the state of being perfect or complete, so that nothing requisite is wanting; as perfection in an art or science; perfection in a system of morals." I love art and I have seen Van Goh's 'Starry Night' which to me seemed like perfection. But, I suppose that BMW I have always considered to be a 'requisite want' would eliminate me from that definition of perfection. Let's face it, a Beemer is great reason no to be the perfect kid.

Webster's went on to say, "Metaphysical or transcendental perfection, is the possession of all the essential attributes or all the parts necessary to the integrity of a substance. This is absolute, where all defect is precluded, such as the perfection of God; or according to its kind, as in created things. Moral perfection, is the complete possession of all moral excellence, as in the Supreme Being; or the possession of such moral qualities and virtues as a thing is capable of. A quality, endowment or acquirement completely excellent, or of great worth. An inherent or essential attribute of supreme or infinite excellence; or one perfect in its kind; as the perfection's of God. The infinite power, holiness, justice, benevolence and wisdom of God are denominated his perfection's."

That's it. I now know why I am not the perfect kid. I am lacking some of the necessary ingredients. I am lacking infinite power, holiness, justice, benevolence and the wisdom of God. I am not the perfect kid because I do not feel like -- well, God. If I was the supreme being I would be and feel perfect. Being perfect would therefore have allowed me to prevent the current war with Iraq not to mention the countless wars and the world over. Oh yeah, and I would've have stopped the terrorist hijackings that lead to the senseless deaths at the Pentagon, the Twin Towers in New York and the plane that just fell into a field. I am sure as a perfect kid I would stop Global… [read more]

Genetic Engineering Is a Tool Term Paper

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Today there are more than 300 restriction enzymes and the list ever continues to grow. Each of these restriction enzymes precisely identify and target particular DNA bases. When treated with DNA the restriction enzymes scan through the DNA strands and identify the specific sequence bases and cut through them. This opening makes possible the insertion of the human gene. This… [read more]

Human Genome, Stem Cells Term Paper

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It may even dictate whether an organism is human or another species, each having their own genome. Research at the HGB has so far revealed that there are approximately 31,000 genes (the basic units of heredity) in the nucleus of a human cell. It has also been determined that these genes are located on 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are… [read more]

Medical Advancements in Medicine Term Paper

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All diseases have a genetic component, whether inherited or resulting from the body's response to environmental stresses. The successes of the Human Genome Project (HGP) have even enabled researchers to pinpoint errors in genes -- the smallest units of heredity -- that cause or contribute to disease.2

The real news is that in the right hands, genetic engineering can be used to develop new ways to treat, cure, or even prevent the thousands of diseases. Today, biotech companies are designing diagnostic tests to detect "bad" genes that may cause particular diseases. http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/genetest.html

Imagine the changes in medicine if geneticists could find and replace genes that cause illness and disease.

The potential for using genes to treat disease, commonly known as gene therapy is the most exciting application of genetic engineering. This rapidly developing field holds great potential for treating or even curing genetic and acquired diseases, using normal genes to replace or supplement a defective gene.

What does that mean for mankind? For life expectancy? Are we trying to play God? Most members of the scientific and medical community would agree that this advancement is the biggest thing to come along in centuries. Humans could live extended lives, free from debilitating diseases and endangered species could be kept form becoming extinct. Imagine a technology that could preserve precious cells and use them to enhance life.

According to Brigid Greenberg in her article, "Medical Strides Produce Ethical Quandries," cloning research has raised questions. Two years ago, Scottish researchers cloned a sheep named Dolly. Last year, a physicist in Chicago said he would attempt to create the first human clone. Where does medical research go from here? Ethicists say it will continue to press the limits, prompting debates that will only get sharper.3

As for what the future holds, the ethical and moral issues are many and the debate will continue as geneticists persist in their work. Even beyond medicine, genes may one day be able to be used to I.D. A person and that has huge ramifications and potential controversial issues such as an invasion of privacy. Should we have access to someone else's gene characteristics? Could it potentially be used against them in discriminatory ways? The speculations are many and only time will tell but there is great potential for genetic engineering to enhance and expand medical advances in the next decade.

Brigid Greenberg, "Medical Strides Produce Ethical Quandries," Associated Press

Other Sources of Information:

Publications www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/genechoice/index.html" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project

Books www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/hgn/v9n1/15cshl.html" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care


Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program… [read more]

Use in Contemporary Genetic Therapies Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  3 pages (872 words)
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MicroRNAs and anti-miRs (antagomirs)

The use in contemporary genetic therapies

Summary of the therapy

The process of using micro RNAs as a type of genetic therapy involves altering its original genetic patterns in a manner which could potentially have a significant impact upon many individuals' lives: scientists are able to effectively rewrite the organism's faulty genetic code by enabling new patterns 'binding' of molecules to the RNA strand. "The human genome contains more than 500 miRNAs, and each miRNA can repress hundreds of genes, regulating almost every cellular process… Inappropriate miRNA expression has been linked to a variety of diseases" (Broderick & Zamore 2011). Conversely, appropriate miRNA expression has been linked to health promotion. "For example, the let-7 miRNA prevents proliferation of cancer stem cells. miRNAs have roles in metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes; differentiation of adipocytes is promoted by miR-143 and insulin secretion is regulated by miR-375 in pancreatic-islet cells" (Broderick & Zamore 2011).

MicroRNA/anti-miR therapy exploits the fact that "miRNAs have typically many targets within cellular networks, which, in turn, enable modulation of entire pathways in a disease state via therapeutic targeting of disease-associated miRNAs" (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014). miRNAs are typically very short and common to a number of species which makes the creation of preclinical trials involving animals relatively safe and effective before the treatment is actually used upon humans. The two main approaches to the therapy entail either restoring the original function of a damaged miRNA through the use of "synthetic double-stranded miRNAs or viral vector-based overexpression" or the use of chemically modified antimiR oligonucleotides to inhibit negative miRNA functioning (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014).

Mechanism of action

The simplest method of therapeutic action is the simply 'rewriting' of an RNA strand. Researchers can use synthetic RNA duplexes "that harbor chemical modifications to improve stability and cellular uptake" and the synthetic double-stranded miRNA can thus mimic "the strand identical to the miRNA of interest" as the guide (antisense) strand, while "the opposite (passenger or sense) strand is less stable and can be linked to a molecule, such as cholesterol, to enhance cellular uptake" (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014). A second method of action is the use of mature miRNAs which "can be inhibited using either miRNA sponges or antisense oligonucleotides, known as antimiRs" to produce the desired genetic effect (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014).

The mechanisms of miRNA are also useful in current research on a variety of pathogens. For example, one recent application of miRNA functioning involved use of genomic SELEX, "a method to identify protein-binding RNAs encoded in the genome, to search for further regulatory RNAs"…… [read more]

Genetics Discrimination Term Paper

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Genetic research has led to breakthroughs in genome sequencing, which can be used to detect otherwise unknown risk factors for disease. The technology can save lives and improve quality of lives by preventing problems before they arise. However, privacy laws do not protect the information collected by genetic researchers adequately enough. This article discusses what can and often does happen when third parties have unbridled access to a person's genetic records. Ironically, the third parties in this case are not insurance companies. As the author points out, insurance companies are allowed to discriminate against applicants with certain predispositions, family history, or preconditions. Insurers ask for and investigate family history sufficiently to make some assumptions about the cost of the individual's premiums. As the author points out, insurers also know that risk factors does not guarantee disease manifestation and that a host of environmental and other variables will come into play. Most importantly, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) expressly forbids group insurance providers from denying coverage based on genetic results. This provision does not, however, extend to individual providers.

Furthermore, the problem in this case is not insurance companies but potential employers. Corporations with the wealth and potential to access a person's genetic profile can and have made hiring or termination decisions based on the person's genome. This constitutes an overt form of discrimination. Laws are currently only in place to protect employees of the federal government, but no laws prohibit the public sector from engaging in genetic discrimination.

The major ethical points described in this case include confidentiality, privacy, access to information, and discrimination. From the perspective of the private sector, however, spurious their points may be, genetic information helps a company make informed and educated human resources decisions. Hiring a person with known genetic markers for undesirable traits would be a…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality: Unit Questions Essay

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Only God reserves the right to give and take life; granting ourselves this right through cloning, therefore, is a violation of God's Law. All the same, I would support the cloning of tissues, particularly because it puts no lives in danger.

5 LC1: Unit 5 Live Chat Session

Wealth distribution has been a subject of debate for centuries, particularly in less-developed countries, where there are huge disparities in wealth and income endowment, and a bulk of society's wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few people. The process and end-of-state views of social justice attempt to explain why these disparities exist, attributing the same to differences in individuals' levels of contribution and achievement in the attainment of wealth. Towards this end, hardworking individuals have more wealth than their less-hardworking counterparts.

Through his theory of justice, John Rawlins attempts to explain how people ought to live with each other in society in the wake of the inherently inevitable disparities in resource-endowment. In his view, everyone has a right to access basic necessities, as well as the right to exercise their rights and freedoms free of the interference of others; and people would naturally prefer a society with lower levels of inequality to one with huge disparities. Towards this end, resources ought to be allocated such that they benefit the least-disadvantaged member of society.

5 LC2: Human Beings Hold no Special Place in Nature

Whilst it remains undisputable that humans were created, and in fact, evolved differently from the rest of creation, consensus is yet to be reached in regard to whether or not they occupy a special place in nature. Renowned paleontologist, Stephen Gould, proposes the happenstance view, which postulates that humans occupy no special place in creation because their emergence and subsequent evolution were only happenstance occurrences -- humans were not planned for, and just came about because a meteor swept across the face of the earth, wiping out dinosaurs and allowing for the emergence of mammals (Ray, 2013). Numerous other scientists have held that based on fossil evidence and DNA, there is substantial interrelatedness between humans and other animals (Ray, 2013).

Proponents of the view that humans are a special creation maintain that right from the creation story, God established a special relationship with man, and made him the bearer of His image (Ray, 2013). Further, they argue that God's decision to give man control over the rest of creation, as well as a sense of duty and responsibility symbolize that they are a special creation. In my view, humans are a special creation particularly because of their capacity to think, which is also why God gave them duties and responsibilities.


Bergeron, B.P. (2004). Case Studies in Genes and Disease: A Primer for Clinicians. East Peoria: IL: Versa Press

Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or not to Clone: The ethical Question. The Farnsworths.com. Retrieved 16th October 2014 from http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm

Ray, J.K. (2013). Evolution and Human Beings. Wordpress. Retrieved 17th…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality: Right to Live and Die Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (761 words)
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Dolly, for instance, died at the age of four -- six years below the average life expectancy of normal sheep.

Cloning Undermines the Concepts of Family and Reproduction: when cloned children join the family unit, they basically disrupt the normal physiological construction of the same. A key concern among sociologists and medical specialists is that cloning would impede on the conventional mating process because then everyone would want to have an exact duplicate of themselves; and not many people would be satisfied with contributing only half of their child's genetic make-up as is the case now (Wordpress, 2009).

The Possibility of Ambiguous Progenitor-Cloned Child Relationships: I tend to think that apart from the medical benefits, there perhaps is no other reason why someone would want to have a genetic duplicate of themselves. Nonetheless, is for argument's sake, one chooses to engage in cloning for medical reasons -- is it really fair for the clone? Doesn't he/she also have a say on whether they wish to donate whatever they were intended for? Doesn't a clone have the same rights and privileges as everyone else?

Well, these ethical concerns indicate that despite the moral wrongness of the whole idea of human cloning, there is no guarantee that the process will be successful and that my sister will even get to benefit from the same. Moreover, Kantian law requires people to evaluate the morality of their actions through the universal principle -- assessing whether they would consent to the same being adopted as universal law, which in my case would translate to whether I would positively subscribe to the thought of everyone else engaging in cloning, creating their own mini-me, and endangering multiple lives just to save that of someone they love. Additionally, by engaging in cloning, with no guarantee that the same will be successful, I would be putting three lives at risk -- the clone's, the surrogate's and my sister's. Further, in the end, we culd just have a cycle of people creating clones, and so many of them dying; and the concept of life will ultimately lose meaning.


Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or Not to Clone: The Ethical Question. Farnsworth.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014 from http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm

Wordpress. (2013). Ethical Issues Surrounding Human Cloning. Wordpress. Retrieved 6…… [read more]

History of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Many people that have disabilities are aware that the technologies that make it possible to select good genes and normal traits can lead to the devaluation of disabled people's bodies and even their lives. This concern is fueled by past and ongoing discrimination against the people that have disabilities which often include brutal practices. A perfect example among the 20th century eugenics in the United States and even other European countries there was sponsoring of programs that saw the sterilization of tens of thousands of the disabled people. The Nazi genocide started when nurses and doctors began exterminating disabled people in German medical facilities whereas other perished in concentration camps (Corsetti, 2010).

Another application of eugenics is when we look at genetic disorders. There have been dysgenic trend for medical progress when it comes to the preservation of lives of many people that have genetic disorders that enables them to have children and transmit the adverse genes they have to their succeeding generations. There are several disorders that can be included in this category such as Marfan's syndrome, Huntington's disease, Cystic fibrosis, dwarfism, color blindness, sickle cell anemia, Hemophilia and so on. Individuals with these disorders can be sterilized until they are proved to be fit o become parents. This helps in bringing forth children who do not have any of these disorders from their parents (Corsetti, 2010).


Corsetti, J.(2010).Genetic Testing:Modern -- Day Eugeneics.Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.cis.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2009/5/09.05.01.x.html

Quigley, M.(2009). Eugenics and Social Control. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.publiceye.org/magazine/v09n1/eugenics.html

Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/human-testing-the-eugenics-movement-and-irbs-724

Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://galton.org/essays/1900-1911/galton-1904-am-journ-soc-eugenics-scope-aims.htm

Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http://users.adam.com.au/bstett/BEugenics72Bergman73Potter77.htm… [read more]

Cloning of Biological Organisms Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,252 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


In this process, a set of genes are introduced into a cell type, which send signals for the cell to become a mature stem cell (de Grey & Rae, 152). One of the advantages of this subtype of cloning is that it does not involve an embryo or an egg cell. Because of that, there is less controversy with it. If the effectiveness can be improved, it could become highly valuable.

Of course, there is another type of cloning, and that is the creation of an entire human being who is an exact genetic copy of another human and produced by artificial means (Russel, 25). That is the most controversial type of cloning available, and one that may never be realized in the United States with true scientific backing. The main issue is that people consider this type of cloning to be "playing God," and they also often cite concerns over viability, privacy, safety, and other issues that have to be considered. Still, there are those who are pushing for this type of cloning in an effort to address aging and "replace" a person's body when it gets old and starts to fail (de Grey & Rae, 154). If it would be possible to, essentially, replace a person with an exact copy each time the person got ill or started to age, it would be as though that person could live forever. This would definitely be a breakthrough, but there are certainly ethical and legal implications that go along with it.

Human cloning (i.e. creating an exact copy of an entire person) is generally considered unethical because it focuses on an artificial way to produce human beings (de Grey & Rae, 156). Not everyone objects to this type of creation, but once there are one or more clones of a person the waters are muddied when considering "who" those clones really are. Picture several people who are identical in every way moving about the same city. They are not just twins, or people who look similar. They are, for all intents and purposes, the same person. If one of them were to apply for some type of benefit, attend school, commit a crime, or do anything that required name, social security number, and other identifying information, it would implicate all of them in whatever took place. That is the main reason why reproductive cloning will likely never be something considered legal and ethical by the general public. There are simply too many hurdles that have to be overcome and that could not easily be sorted out (de Grey & Rae, 157).

There are big plans for the future of medicinal cloning. As human cloning becomes easier and new ideas are created and tested that allow organs and tissues to be grown more quickly and successfully, the value of human cloning on a therapeutic level will become more apparent (Russel, 184). The main value of this cloning is in the treatment of disease. By cloning new, healthy organs and tissues for… [read more]

Ethics of Embryo Design Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (636 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Additionally, the cells of the embryo could be damaged during the testing process, which could result in even more dangerous complications for the unborn child. For and against the Shannon's procedure design

In the Shannons' case, there are strong ethical considerations for choosing such a controversial procedure. They are looking to improve the quality of life of both of their children. However, PGD can also be used for non-health related purposes, which change the situation dramatically and are extremely unethical. For example, the procedure can be used to choose a gender for the child. Thus, if a couple wants a certain gender, they could pick and choose from the fertilized embryos based on gender. However, this is largely considered unethical by the medical community, because PGD should only really be used in drastic situations, like that of the Shannons (American Pregnancy Association, 2013). If everyone were able to map genetic structure, there would definitely be discrimination against certain genetic traits, which may even result in a weakening of society's genetic pool. It is wrong to choose one life over another because of desired genetic traits.

Overall, for the Shannons, I think PGD is a good procedure to choose. It is for the betterment of all involved, including the unborn child and their other daughter Sally. Still, the medical field must be careful of how such procedures are used. It is essentially like playing God, which can get very dangerous is misused or handled inappropriately. It is important only to use such procedures for cases that really need it, like the Shannons.


American Pregnancy Association. (2013). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: PGD. Infertility. Web. http://americanpregnancy.org/infertility/preimplantationgeneticdiagnosis.html

Human Fertilization & Embryo Authority. (2014). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Treatment and Storage Options. Web. http://www.hfea.gov.uk/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis.html… [read more]

Neuroscience and Nature-Nurture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


When considering personality in the long-term, researchers have found that genetic factors have a stabilizing effect on personality while environmental factors are associated with changes in personality (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 293). The seeming reciprocity of environmental and genetic influence has some basis in the literature, stemming from the belief that behavior subject to genetic influence tends "to elicit common patterns of responses from the environment, and because people gravitate toward environments that meet their psychological needs and avoid environments that do not" (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 293). Put simply, genetic and environmental influences have been shown to interact and influence personality, and these gene-environment interactions are referred to as G. x E (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 298).

The new molecular perspective examines G. x E. interactions by considering how the expression of genes is moderated by the individual life experiences of people or by environmental variables (Canli, 2008, p. 313). The expression of Extraversion and Neuroticism are believed to be associated with differences in cognitive processes across different individuals, and are particularly tied to the cognitive processing of stimuli that is valenced -- stimuli that have negative or positive value assigned to them by an individual.


Canli, T. (2008). Toward a "Molecular Psychology" of Personality. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, R.W., and L.A. Pervin, Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. (3rd ed.) (pp. 311-323). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Krueger, R.F. And Johnson, W. (2008). Behavioral genetics and personality: A new look at the integration of nature and nurture. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, R.W., and L.A. Pervin, Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research.…… [read more]

Ethical Debates Surrounding Stem Cell Research Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (5,533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


What follows is a brief description of the primary types of human stem cells that have captured the interest of scientists, clinicians, ethicists, policymakers, and religious organizations.

Fetal stem cells. The most controversial stem cells are those derived from human embryos, but in contrast to adult stem cells, these are truly pluripotent and therefore have captured the attention of biologists… [read more]

Genetic Privacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Genetic Privacy

Can We or Should We Ensure Genetic Privacy?

Genetic science has come so far as to be able to positively identify a person based on a single artifact of DNA. As Angrist puts it, "One can imagine law enforcement salivating at the prospect of turning a bloodstain into a name and address." Some might ask what the problem might be in assisting law enforcement with arrests, greatly facilitating the carriage of justice. The answer is that DNA evidence used in forensics can be problematic. Evidence can be planted too easily at the scene of the crime, made to appear incontrovertible. In some cases, the presence of DNA might not link an individual to a crime but instead to victimhood. Moreover, "wrongful convictions can result from human error or malfeasance," and there can be data entry errors too (the Washington Times).

The potentials for misuse in forensics are broad. There are also potential misuses of DNA evidence in adoption cases, where the biological parents have the right to remain anonymous but technically cannot because of genetic science. The use of DNA in job testing can cause rampant discrimination, not necessarily on the basis of visible markers of difference such as race, but invisible markers such as psychological traits. If DNA evidence is compiled in massive databases, even when it is not used to identify its origin, that information can be bought and sold on the free market. If a scientist in a country with lax laws related to human cloning discovers a means to clone a human being based on a personal genome sequence, then that raises further ethical problems. An editorial published in Nature magazine reveals the "vulnerabilities in the security of public databases that contain genetic data." There are a host of reasons why we should ensure genetic privacy.

The second part of the question, whether we can ensure genetic privacy, is another matter. According to Angrist, "the privacy provisions of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) were revised in…… [read more]

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Cooper, 2000)

Thus the organisms have evolved from these tow basic structures and the organelles and membranous or non-membranous conditions have created different methods of procreation. The principal difference is being the development of the complex nucleus. Now it is pertinent to look into the components of these cells. The eukaryotes developed from a common prokaryotic ancestor along three lines… [read more]

Reprogramming the Injured Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The authors, however, disagree upon the number of genes to use. Qian uses three genes, but Song introduces a fourth gene named HAND2.

Palpant & Murry (2012) in the article suggests that if the nucleation of the growth of DNA shape is fast and the subsequent nucleation of self-assembly is unusual, then complete structures will form as compared to partial ones. Another method that can ensure the formation of complete structures is the Ostwald ripening. This mechanism ensures that complete structures gain strand from the least complete structures. In the Ostwald ripening mechanism, strands fall off the less stable structure and subsequently joining the stable strands.

The authors of the first article, Palpant & Murry (2012), suggest that it is crucial to validate results of reprogramming of cells in independent labs. They suggest that researchers should do this by using different lineage tracing approaches. There should be an increase of efficiency of cell reprogramming. They again suggest that, doctors must achieve reprogramming without the insertion of the transcription factor gene into fibroblasts during clinical applications. They argue that this will prevent the expected complications such as malignant formation. The authors argue of the benefits of using myocytes over immature progenitors in reprogramming of injured muscles. They argue of which of the two has great proliferative ability. Qian & Song (2012) opens a line of investigation in the cardiovascular translational medicine. The two authors suggest that if scientists could understand reprogramming mechanisms, then the use of myocytes would be the best option in reprogramming of cells. With these mechanisms, cells can reprogram to pluripotent stem cells by expression of transcription factors. According to Qian & Song researchers use this approach in the conversion of differentiated cells.

Qian & Song state that some viruses can insert genes into chromosomes directly. These chromosomes should come from cells that can actively divide. Example of these cells includes fibroblasts that form scars in the body. These viruses, however, cannot insert genes into chromosomes belonging to non-dividing cells such as cardiomyocytes. Through one month of treatment, reprogrammed cardiomyocytes comprise 2.4 to 6.5% in the region where there is injury. The study by Qian & Song showed that thirty-five percent of regenerative therapy might merely involve inducing the heart to perform reprogramming of cells without any help from outside factors.

Works cited

Palpant N.J. & Murry C.E. "Regenerative medicine: Reprogramming the injured heart." (2012). Nature; Vol. 485 Issue 7400, p585

Qian, L. & Song, K. "In vivo reprogramming of murine cardiac fibroblasts…… [read more]

Biosocial Criminology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Biology and Criminal Behavior

Research has consistently shown that biological genealogy plays important factors in the behavior of humans, which can influence, create, or condition social environments in society. The combination of biological genes and environments can predict future behaviors. Without intervention, these behaviors carry over to adulthood that can create criminal behaviors in adulthood as well as other emotional and social problems.

Evidence shows that traits and characteristics remain relatively stable over time and signs of serious criminology emerge early, are multifaceted, and show remarkable resistance to change (Beaver, 2009). Traits and characteristics, such as IQ, impulsivity, and risk seeking, become apparent in young ages and define an individual's behavior throughout their lifetime. Regardless of whether an individual engages in criminal acts, the traits and characteristics of the individuals will define future behavior. For example, children that show signs of aggression will show aggression throughout life if intervention measures are not taken to teach them how to control the aggressive behavior. The biological factors produce tendencies for aggression. If the environment is abusive, this will cause the person to be abusive as well because of the genes and the environmental combination.

Still, other research evidence shows a wide range of behavior problems, personality disorders, and mood disorders are influenced by genes and deficiencies in IQ and its corollaries are risk factors in the etiology of delinquency (Wright, 2008). Behavior problems and personality and mood disorders are influenced by genes and, when combined with environmental factors, can bring about delinquent behaviors. The same goes for children who have special needs, such as ADHD or other special learning needs. Genetic makeup can cause the disorders, but when placed in negative environments, such as violence, neglect, drugs, alcohol, etc., the combination of the genes and the environment leads the child to delinquency. If the child remains in the environment with no intervention measures taken, it can…… [read more]

Gattaca the Main Question Asked Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The future described by the film Gattaca is definitely no utopia, it is a society where those with genetically inferior DNA are known as "degenerates," and are the victims of discrimination based on genetics, known as "genoism" But at the same time it offers humanity a future physical perfection, one devoid of genetic defects. But as the film demonstrates, DNA may not be the best scale in which to define humanity. Vincent's success demonstrates what a natural human can achieve, despite his "flaws." It is logical to assume that Vincent has qualities beyond what genetics can create, and that these qualities are what truly make a person human.

While genetic modification may be the key to physical perfection, it is not the way to create better human beings. This type of alteration to the human genome does have a place in society, but not the all-encompassing one of the film. I personally would use genetic modifications to ensure my children were without genetic problems like heart defects or other such physical handicaps. As a parent I would want the best health I could give to my offspring, children without heart defects, eyesight problems, high cholesterol, mental illnesses like depression, schizophrenia, etc., or other such problems. But if I could I would also like to give my children increased intelligence, perfect eyesight, strong teeth, a full head of hair, physical height and strength. While I would want my children to have all the physical advantages a person could have, I also know that humanity is more than physical perfection. These "gifts" to my children would only be their core and that much more is needed to be a fully developed human. In a sense, the gifts bestowed should only aid in the development of the other, non-physical attributes exemplified by Vincent and his success.

Works Cited

Gattaca. Dir. Andrew Niccol. Columbia Pictures, 1997. DVD.

"What is DNA?" Genetics Home Reference. Web. 27 Feb. 2011.

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna… [read more]

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