"Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays

1234. . .
X Filters 

James Dewey Watson the Discovery Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Unfortunately for the distinguished scientist, Watson made racial comments, meant to be purely scientific in nature, but displayed an insensitivity which could not be forgiven socially. In the modern politically correct world, filled with those who will not tolerate anything they feel is racist, Watson's comments resulted in the only ending that could have happened, with his professional ruin.

Overall, James Watson was one of the greatest scientists in American History, making one of the greatest discoveries in the history of mankind. His discovery of the structure of DNA has made possible the understanding of the mechanism of genetics. By discovering the structure of the DNA molecule, other scientists have been able to discover how DNA works, how it replicates, how it transcribes it's information, etc., which has led to the creation of an entirely new field of science, Molecular Genetics. From this one discovery, scientists in the modern world can now understand the mechanisms of certain diseases and abnormalities, it has allowed the creation of genetically modified agricultural products, DNA identification, cloning, new treatments for illnesses, and the possibilities are endless. The best way to describe James Watson's discovery of DNA is to say that it was as important to biology as Newton's discovery of gravity was to physics.

Works Cited

"Biography James Watson." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.


"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.


"James D. Watson, Ph.D." Academy of Achievement. Academy of Achievement. Web 14 April 2011. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/wat0bio-1

"James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin" Chemheritage.org. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Web. 14 April. 2011.

www.chemheritage.org/discover/chemistry-in history/themes/biomolecules/dna/watson-crick-wilkins-franklin.aspx

Milmo, Cahal. "Fury at DNA pioneer's theory: Africans are less intelligent that Westerners." The Independent. The Independent. 17 Oct. 2007. Web 14 April 2011. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/fury-at-dna-pioneers-theory-africans-are-less-intelligent-than-westerners-394898.html

"Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA" pbs.org. A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries. Web. 14 April. 2011.


Watson, James, D. "Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science" Google books. Google. 2007. Web. 14 April 2011.


Wolf, George. "Friedrich Miescher, The Man Who Discovered DNA" Bizgraphic.ch. Bizgraphic. 2003. Web. 15 April 2011.


Wright. Robert. "Molecular Biologists Watson & Crick." Time Magazine. 29 Mar. 1999. Web. 14 April 2011. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990626,00.html… [read more]

Ethics of Genetic Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


They were all later accredited with the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Hawley 1998).

The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution" (Stableford 1996). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools. Exposing it to ultra-high frequency sound waves can break up DNA, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section (Stableford 1996). A more accurate way of DNA splicing is the use of "restriction enzymes, which are produced by various species of bacteria" (Clarke 1994). The restriction enzymes cut the DNA strand at a particular location called a nucleotide base, which makes up a DNA molecule. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to another strand of DNA by using enzymes called lipases. The final important step in the creation of a new DNA strand is giving it the ability to self-replicate. This can be accomplished by using special pieces of DNA, called vectors, that permit the generation of multiple copies of a total DNA strand and fusing it to the newly created DNA structure. Another newly developed method, called polymerase chain reaction, allows for faster replication of DNA strands and does not require the use of vectors (Clarke 1994).

Along with altering the cells of living tissues, genetic engineering has also proven extremely helpful in the alteration of bacterial genes. "Transforming bacterial cells is easier than transforming the cells of complex organisms" (Stableford 1996). Two reasons are evident for this ease of manipulation: DNA enters, and functions easily in bacteria, and the transformed bacteria cells can be easily selected out from the non-transformed ones. Bacterial bioengineering has many uses in our society; it can produce synthetic insulins, a growth hormone for the treatment of dwarfism and interferon for treatment of cancers and viral diseases (Stableford 1996).

Throughout the centuries disease has plagued the world, forcing everyone to take part in a virtual "lottery with the agents of death" (Stableford 1996). Whether viral or bacterial in nature, such disease is currently combated with the application of vaccines and antibiotics. These treatments, however, contain many unsolved problems. The difficulty with applying… [read more]

Histones Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Secondly, Belotserkovskaya, Reinberg, and colleagues report that FACT is capable of promoting transcription dependent nucleosomes alterations, and that this factor also facilitates assembly of histone proteins into nucleosomes in vitro even in the absence of RNAPII. So these results are consistent with the idea that FACT enables chromatin structure to be disrupted and then reestablished during transcription. This model is lastly supported by work from Saunders, Lis, and co-workers showing that FACT is associated with actively transcribed RNAPII genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes, and that its kinetics of association and site of action are consistent with its involvement in transcript elongation through chromatin. RNAPII has the intrinsic ability to disassemble nucleosomes during transcription.

In combination, all of these studies suggest that the apparently impossible technique of RNAPII is enabled through RNAP II's ability to disassemble nucleosomes and the use of FACT in transcript elongation. Interestingly enough RNAP III is not capable of this process, pointing to new, possible areas of research in…… [read more]

Genetic Screening Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In forensic testing, individuals are screened in order to determine a genetic link between suspects and evidence that comes from police investigations. Results of these tests are admissible in courts, and have been used to conclusively establish guilt or innocence (McCarrick).

Susceptibility testing is used to help identify individuals that are the most at risk (or susceptible) to certain disorders. For example, workers can be screened for susceptibility to toxic substances in the workplace that can cause specific disorders. It is estimated that about 390,000 susceptible workers are disabled by occupational illnesses each year, while many of their non-susceptible co-workers are unaffected (McCarrick).

Common Misconceptions

Within the general public, genetic screening is often seen as a "magical" way to predict, and somehow prevent, disease. Notes McCarrick, "the 'too-hopeful' general public has assigned a degree of scientific certainty to the as yet preliminary genetic findings for AD (Alzheimer's disease), and that teaching critical thinking skills about genetic testing to the general public is of the highest priority."

Similarly, confusion about the role of genetic screening and its relationship with contentious issues like cloning has created a great deal of public confusion. Genetic screening is often seen as a technique that can give unwanted and unprecedented control over human biology and procreation.

Social and Ethical Issues

Genetic screening is often opposed on the grounds that it interferes with the individuals' rights to procreate. As such, a great deal of debate rages as to whether genetic screening is a private responsibility or should be a public health responsibility. Often, the cost of many genetically identifiable disorders to society is profound. Approximately 21,000 babies are born in the U.S. each year with chromosomal abnormalities. Worldwide, the cost of caring for these births is about $40 billion over 20 years. As such, it is clear that genetic disorders exert a financial cost on society as a whole. However, this financial cost must be balanced carefully with the individual rights of potential parents in determining their own reproductive agenda. (Miller).

In addition, there is a great deal of debate about the use of genetic screening in pre- and post- employment examinations. These examinations would identify genetic predisposition for workplace health hazards. While these screenings would certainly prevent susceptible individuals from potential workplace hazards. However, Miller disagrees "with mandatory occupational screening based on the risk that responsibility for disease or injury may be shifted to the worker making it possible for them to fall victim to discrimination."

Further, prenatal screening is often tied closely to the debate over abortion. For many, prenatal genetic screening can be used as a way to justify abortion. However, others argue that abortions based on genetic screening may prevent a great deal of suffering and disease. Further, amniocentesis that predicts the sex of a child creates another controversy over potential abortions based on sex discrimination (Miller).


In conclusion, while the scientific basis of genetic screening is easily understandable, the social and ethical issues surrounding genetic screening are much more difficult to… [read more]

Evolution &amp Genetic Drift Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Lewis, 244).

The Old Order Amish of Pennsylvania mate within their own community, and seldom involve the outside community. This loss of genetic diversity has led to a higher incidence of certain inherited diseases within Amish communities. For example, the founder effect in the Amish settlement has caused a variety of conditions, such as dwarfism and Crigler-Najjar syndrome, where the body can't break down bilirubin. Maple Syrup Urine Disease is much more common in the Amish, as is Homocystinuria, where an individual's blood vessels are damaged. In the case of polydactyly, where a person has extra digits, the prevalence among the Amish is much higher. "Today, thanks to large families and restricted marriages, the number of cases of polydactyly among the Amish exceeds the total number in the rest of the world." (Lewis, 246).

The Afrikaner population in South Africa was settled by a small group of immigrants from Holland, France and Germany. This population has very high rates of porphyria variegata. Due to very precise record-keeping, researchers have been able to determine that "all affected people descended from one couple who came from Holland in 1688!...this couple had many children - who, in turn, had large families, passing on and amplifying the dominant gene." (Lewis, 246). Similar founder effects are also seen in the Ashkenazim, and Finns, who have less genotypic diversity than the larger population, likely because their ancestors were from a small original community.

Another type of genetic drift that occurs to alter allele frequencies is the "population bottleneck." This occurs when much of a particular group is wiped out, and the few remaining individuals are left to build up the colony. The result is a small genetic contribution to subsequent generations.

A population bottleneck occurs when the size of a genetically diverse population drastically falls, remains at this level for a time, and then expands again. The new population loses some of its genetic diversity if different alleles are lost in the bottleneck event. (Lewis, 247).

Population bottlenecks have led to genetic drift in both human and animal populations.

The cheetah population is a very genetically uniform species. This is believed to be because of two population bottlenecks, one that occurred at the end of the ice age, and one due to a slaughter of cheetahs in the 1800s. Today's cheetah populations are so genetically similar that a skin graft from one individual won't be rejected by another "unrelated" individual.

Population bottlenecks are also seen in European Jewish populations, where massacres reduced the population size. Prevalence of diseases such as Tay-Sachs Disease are consequently much higher in these communities.

Genetic drift is a critical component of evolution. Along with natural selection, genetic drift works to ensure genetic variety in all species. "The two most important mechanisms of evolution are natural selection and genetic drift. Most people have a reasonable understanding of natural selection but they don't realize that drift is also important." (Moran, paragraph 1). Although certain consequences of genetic drift, such as a higher… [read more]

Cystic Fibrosis. There Are Eleven Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


On the cellular level, cystic fibrosis patients find a "particular cell protein can not do its job and fight off bacterial infection. A genetic error deletes a single amino acid, which is just one of 15-hundred that make up the protein, causing the protein to become misshapen and preventing it from traveling to the cell's surface to begin its infection… [read more]

Individual Differences Approach to Personality Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As a result of the link, the brain subsystems are in turn associated with measurable individual differences in personality. While this biological theory to explain individual differences in personality is relatively weak, it has created significant personality research to an extent that it is still a dominant theory.

The second approach in explaining individual differences in personality with reference to genes is the type theory that suggests that personality is based in biology. Based on this foundation, biology is the determinant of type, which in turn contributes to individual traits. Type theory is explained using various systems such as ascending reticulocortical activating system and limbic system.

Given the weaknesses of each biological theory in explaining personality with reference to genes, individual differences in personality cannot be entirely and adequately explained with reference to genes. While these theories have provided the basis for biological explanations of individual differences, they are relatively weak and inconclusive. They provide biological or genetic underpinnings for understanding individual differences but do not explain these differences in a satisfactory manner. Even though individual differences in personality are inherited, genetics alone or biological underpinnings cannot be the sole contribution to these differences in personality.

The other contributing factor on why individual differences cannot be adequately explained with reference to genes is the nature of people and other animals to be fundamentally adaptive. Based on this nature, human beings are primarily adaptive to the environments they are exposed to or live in. Actually, humans have an intrinsic and tremendous ability to adapt to their respective environments.

The question of whether individual traits are caused by genetics or environments is meaningless since nature and nurture are not only in interaction but are also important to life and development. It is practically impossible for genetics to have complete effect in determining individual differences in personality. This is primarily because genotype has its impact on the developing organism within the organism's environment to generate the phenotype. Generally, biological explanations of individual differences in personality show the strong link between personality and genetics. However, genetic and environmental factors usually interact to generate some effects on an individual's personality.

The interactions between genetic and environmental factors usually occur through continuous processes beginning at conception and proceeding after birth with a significant increase in the diversity and complexity of environments. Environments influence individual differences in personality since they are physical and consist of other people and factors with different meanings. Individual diversity in personality is brought by the interaction processes between reactive organisms and reactive, meaningful environments (Thomas, n.d., p.326). Therefore, individual differences in personality cannot be adequately explained with reference to genes because of the influence of environmental factors on individual diversity.

In conclusion, personality is a term that refers to the many patterns of similarities and patterns of differences among individuals. There are various ways with psychologists have examined individual differences in personality including the use of genetics. Through this method, psychologists have mainly examined biological underpinnings that contribute to individual differences in… [read more]

Watson and Crick and the Discovery of DNA's Structure Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, Watson's account of getting privileged early access to Pauling's own three-strand structure model -- which he manages to see because a draft of Pauling's paper had been sent to Pauling's son Peter, whom Watson knows as a fellow American in Cambridge -- also demonstrates some of the other larger themes of the book. Upon looking at Pauling's model, Watson is able to tell that it contains a fundamental error -- "Pauling's nucleic acid was in a sense not an acid at all" -- in much the same way that Franklin was able to spot the fundamental error of Watson and Crick's three-strand model (Watson 160). The difference, though, is that Watson does not inform Pauling of the error, as Franklin had informed Watson and Crick of theirs. Instead, Watson's response is to think "we were still in the game," and to benefit from Pauling's basic error by hurrying to come up with a workable solution -- which, after getting Wilkins to show Franklin's B-structure photograph -- they manage to do (Watson 161).

In arguing that the greatest scientific gift that Watson and Crick demonstrated was that of being able to synthesize the work, the data, and the methodology of other scientists, it is difficult to say which particular element in their synthesis was the most important and enabled them to make the ultimate discovery. Certainly in Watson's own account, the tipping point would appear to occur in Chapter 23, when Wilkins gives him access to Franklin's B-structure photograph: this is where Watson describes how "my mouth fell open and my pulse began to race" (Watson 167). Given the substantial debate about Franklin's role in the discovery of DNA, it is clear that this moment is probably as important as Watson emphasizes. The handling of Franklin is one of the most perplexing and disturbing aspects of The Double Helix, considering how many inappropriate comments are made (about her lack of lipstick, her "emotional" manner, her frumpy clothing) throughout the text and how ultimately the closing paragraph of the Epilogue seems to be an apology of sorts. The truth, however, of Watson's account is that the discovery hinged upon having not only the best available data, but also the proper theoretical approach. In some sense, the real message of The Double Helix is an attempt on Watson's part to explain why Franklin had failed to correctly interpret the B-structure photograph herself -- if she had recognized it, the Nobel Prize might have been hers alone. But Watson's emphasis on her resistance to helical models altogether is intended to show why Franklin herself did not ultimately use her one most valuable piece of data to make the final step of discovery by herself. However, it goes without saying that -- however Watson may treat Franklin over the course of The Double Helix -- it was presumably Rosalind Franklin (and the data provided by her superior photographs) that was the one factor that was more important than any of the others in allowing… [read more]

Exploring the Mystery of DNA Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,357 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Cells and Molecules

The Missing Substance

The 1866 landmark discovery of the father of heredity, George Johann Mendel, and his researchers on the mystery behind the transfer of traits from parent genes in chromosomes was incomplete and lacked something. Microbiologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 drew closer to the answer when his streptococcus experiment with mice when he found that genetic material was transmitted between cells, living or dead. It was in 1944 that the series of explosive experiments conducted by Oswald Avery and two associates pointed to the missing element in he works of Mendel and Griffith and their associates. Avery and his team identified this as a deocxyribose nucleic acid, a fundamental unit and the hereditary material in genes. DNA contains all the hereditary information about an organism. It also meant that virus genes consist of DNA rather than proteins. DNA means deoxyribonucleic acid. It contains the genes specific to a given species.

In Search of the Genetic Material

The knowledge about the chromosomal basis of heredity and the relationship between genes and enzymes did not yield the answer these earlier scientists sought. Chromosomes contain both proteins and DNA. The original assumption was that genes were proteins. Griffith's experiments on bacteria served as the prototype of present methods in establishing or estimating the function of genes by inputting new DNA sequences into cells. Griffth's bacteria experiments involved the bacterium responsible for pneumonia. Deadly strains of the bacterium are protected by a polysaccharide capsule from the immune system of the host organism. The mice, which were inoculated with R- non-encapsulated bacteria and S-heat-killed encapsulated bacteria got ill of pneumonia and then died.

Succeeding experiments revealed that a cell-free extract of the S. bacteria could covert or transform R. bacteria to the S. state. A substance, which they termed the transforming principle, appeared responsible in triggering the transformation.

Friedrich Miescher is recognized as the first to successfully identify DNA in 1869. His discovery started the study of DNA. His work was followed by the discovery of the contents of DNA in 1919 by Phoebus Levene. Succeeding scientists used new discoveries in figuring out how they fit together in forming long strands, which could be read. As their study proceeded, they found that parts of these strands could be read and certain traits of the organism could be determined. Today, DNA is a major study in the field of genetic engineering.

DNA: the Blueprint of Life

These genes in one organism's DNA create the cells of that organism. They also retain the blueprint of that organism. The great interest in DNA is seen as the way to understand how to fight certain diseases and how to replicate DNA strands in the laboratory. Among these diseases are sickle-cell anemia and Down's Syndrome. DNA is among the most important parts of a living organism. It consists of all that organism's building blocks and contains all the information and traits of the organisms. These include color, size, shape and deformities that can result from the… [read more]

Exchange of Genetic Material Between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Exchange of Genetic Material Between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts

In genetic recombination, a strand of DNA or RNA molecule is broken and the joined to a different DNA molecule. The occurring chromosomal crossover results on the next generation have a combination of the two parent's strands donating the DNA. Gregor Mendel first discovered the bases for genetics with his experiments with peas and their characteristics. This paper looks at Luther Burbank and whether he did the first genetic recombination experiments or not.

Genetic engineering has become a blessing and a curse as some combinations like the Burbank Russet potato have been a blessing to all people who enjoy McDonald's French fries but the killer bees have proven to be a disaster. In genetics, the belief was that graphed tissue cells retained their DNA integrity and did not mix their genetic material, but recent findings are disproving this theory. In the article, "Exchange of Genetic Material between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts," Stegemann and Bock (2009) conclude, "our discover of grafting mediated gene transfer blurs the boundary between natural gene transfer and genetic engineering and suggest that grafting provides an avenue for genes to cross species barriers." Phylogenetic evidence from the test run on two transgenic tobacco lines grafted together suggest that DNA can be transferred between isolated species and grafting opens the path for gene transfer.

The question arises 'Who did the first recombination experiments in plants?' And the answer depends on the person asked. Some will say Mendel and others will say Burbanks. Mendel discovered the genetic inheritance traits of garden peas and did hybridization crossing of peas and in later life he tried to cross bees. Luther Burbank, on the other hand, crossed and even grafted plants and trees…… [read more]

Pre-Natal Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Prenatal development involves not only the physiologic processes which occur to produce life, it also requires an understanding of the various influences that shape the developing life and the consequences those influences have the potential to bear. The issue of nature vs. nurture is brought to bear in prenatal development. With a focus on the inherent 'tabula rasa' character of… [read more]

Effect of Genetic Engineering on Society Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,381 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Genetic Engineering

The Effect of Genetic Engineering on Society


Director Andrew Niccol's film Gattaca (1997) explores the possibilities and consequences of the genetic engineering of human beings in the near future. In the film Niccol portrays a society where people are judged by not by the color of their skin, nor by the content of their character, but by the quality of their DNA.

The film opens with two quotes, one attributed to the Bible, "Consider God's handiwork: who can straighten what He hath made crooked?" (Ecclesiastes: 7-13) and the other from Willard Gaylin, "I not only think we will tamper with Mother Nature, I think Mother Nature wants us to." Gaylin is Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Columbia University, and co-founder of The Hastings Center, a "nonpartisan research center dedicated to bioethics and the public interest" (The Hastings Center, 2010). This theme, the inherent tension between science and faith, man and God, is woven throughout the film.

Niccol sets the film in the "the not-too-distant" future, where the genetic engineering of humans has become commonplace and DNA plays a significant part in the determination of social status as well as the availability of career options. After all "why should anyone invest in non-perfect human?" The protagonist, Vincent, is conceived and is born without the aid of this technology. Because he is less than perfect, he needs glasses, has a congenital heart defect, and is given a life expectancy of 30.2 years; he faces excessive genetic discrimination and prejudice.

Niccol demonstrates his feelings about this futuristic society in various ways and through various characters. When his father, Antonio, learns that his son is less than perfect he instructs the nurse to write the name Vincent instead of Anton on the birth certificate. Medical insurance is not available because his DNA indicates he is high risk. Later in the film the name Anton is given to Vincent's younger brother, who is brought into the world through genetic engineering or "the natural way."

The accepted rational for genetically engineered children is presented by the doctor who creates Anton. The parents are given a choice among four fertilized eggs, two boys and two girls. After choosing a boy, under the pretext that Vincent would have somebody to play with, (in reality it was so the father would have a namesake) and hearing the defects the embryo has been screened for, they wonder if it is not "good to leave a few things to chance?" The doctor replies, "You want to give your child the best possible start. Believe me we have enough imperfection built in already. Your child doesn't need any additional burdens, and keep in mind this child is still you…simply the best of you. You could conceive naturally a thousand times and never get such a result." A key indication of Niccol's feelings about the validity of this society is when Vincent says "They used to say that a child conceived in love has a better chance of happiness. They… [read more]

How to Extract DNA From Anything Living Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Lab Report Template (Save as: YourName_Module#_Report.doc)

An to extract DNA from a piece of common paper formed the basis of this experiment. Though wood pulp is, of course, ultimately an organic material, it was hypothesized that the treatment of turning the pulp into paper would destroy any DNA. This hypothesis was proven incorrect.

There are a great many uses for DNA testing in this country, with the most well-known application due to high-profile lawsuits and certain television shows being paternity tests (Fuller 2010). Establishing a variety of different familial relationships is actually possible using DNA testing, and certain types of DNA can trace lineages back thousands of years (Fuller 2010). There is also the potential for DNA testing to provide information as to medical issues and the potential risks individuals face, as well as other information concerning congenital features and diseases (Fuller 2010).

DNA can also serve to help identify a wide range of other organic materials and the specific species or even organisms of which they are a part, and this can be utilized by law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists in a variety of ways (HGP 2010). Even identifying the very existence of DNA in a given sample can provide clues as to an unfamiliar substance's origin and nature, and all of these uses for DNA require first that DNA can be extracted from a sample. This experiment will attempt to extract DNA from a sample of material that was at one point organic, but that has been highly changed in form.

Materials and Methods:

A kitchen blender, some cotton swabs, and a set of six test tubes formed the hardware necessary to conduct this experiment. Approximately a quarter-sheet of standard lined notebook paper was used as the experimental sample substance. Other necessary supplies included approximately a half-teaspoon of salt, 200 mL of cold water, 30 mL of standard dish soap (in liquid form), several pinches of store-bought meat tenderizer (perhaps a tablespoon was…… [read more]

Nature and Nurture in the Current Developmental Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,132 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Nature and Nurture in the Current Developmental Psychology Research Literature

Developmental Psychology

The "nature vs. nurture" debate has resided at the heart of developmental psychology for the past several decades. From the moment that Crick and Watson discovered that genetic information is passed along through cellular structures and that this information has a role in determining who we become, scientists and ethicists alike have argued over what holds primacy, the role of genetic inheritance or the role of environmental conditioning. Applications of the debate have been found in related fields as varied as neurological science, linguistics, sociology, psychopathology, education, and gender studies, but it is in developmental psychology proper, perhaps, that the debate seems to hold a place of particular importance. If DNA is destiny, then what we do around the fetus, infant, and child seems less important. However, if nurture is primary, then the environmental structure we create are of crucial importance. It is important to understand the general contours of the debate and to know what current thinking around the subject says in order to know how to approach the very modalities basic to the discipline.

In this, paper, the debate between nature and nurture will be reviewed briefly and the current data on the debate in the research literature will be highlighted in order to present the current best findings, thereby informing the study of developmental psychology on this key concern.

The essential thrust of the nature vs. nurture debate revolves around the role that genetics play in determining human attitudes and behavior. The human genome project and other studies showed that genes play a very large role indeed, with different genes having been identified for all kinds of behaviors and attitudinal states such as depression, fear, and the like. This suggested that there was a genetic endowment for virtually every behavioral or attitudinal state. In fact, for much of the last half-century, the consensus view among scientists was that inheritance was the major contributor to destiny, even if we didn't always understand how genetics played out. A second consideration has been, however, that environment also affects behavior. Conditioned responses have been shown in numerous studies to accommodate for basic genetic traits, as in cases in which stroke victims or others have been helped to overcome brain-damage-induced deficiencies through rehabilitation. Still, however, the thinking for much of the past generation was that when conditioning seemed to have an impact, it simply covered over or compensated for genetic traits. If left to their own devices, the gene endowments would likely re-emerge dominant. Richardson (2000) summarizes this kind of difficulty with a dual-influence model, when he claims that for most of the history of the nature vs. nurture debate, it has been assumed that the two variables worked independently of each other and that when genetics had an impact, it was from a position in which it arrived on the job fully formed and ready to go to work (1-2). In other words, the idea that there was a… [read more]

Genetic Influences on Behavior While the Debate Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (425 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Genetic Influences on Behavior

While the debate continues over nature vs. nurture, the science of the genetics of behavior has gained tremendous momentum with the advancements in the refinement of DNA analysis and genetic sequencing. Beginning with the human genome project in the 1990 and onto even more fine tuned efforts such as the "Hap Map" for discovering genetic related illnesses (Johnson, 2003), the process has now extended towards specific genes related to the preponderance of behavioral influence. For the most part researches are studying these genetic effect on infants and young children who have not as yet been overly influenced by their environment. As early as 1938 researches felt that genetic influences were prevalent in behavior formation and that, "the genetic counterparts and precursors of "intelligence" manifest themselves in the functional fields of perceptual and of adaptive behavior." (Gesell, Thompson & Strunk, 1938, p. 204)

There have been direct links established between addictions ranging from alcohol to caffeine use that they are "highly heritable" (Jang, 2005, p. 138) and the behavioral geneticist to a high degree can predict the preponderance towards addiction of an individual. Current theory states that these influences can be found in other more subtle behaviors such as mood disorder, depression and so on. The question then becomes…… [read more]

History of DNA and of Its Use by the Criminal Justice System Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,390 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



History of DNA Testing

The growth of DNA Testing and Interpretation over the years

DNA Testing Today 5

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Testing, Has grown in popularity in recent years. The testing of DNA came about in 1985 and was first used in the criminal justice system in 1987. The first case occurred in Louisiana using a DNA dragnet. During… [read more]

Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,630 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Thomas Kuhn's Theory Of Scientific Revolutions

Thomas Kuhn's philosophy of scientific revolutions has become a natural part of today's scientific jargon. Although many are familiar with its basic tenets, many do not realize that they are part of the formal theory proposed by Thomas Kuhn. Unlike theorists before him, he did not believe that scientific progress occurred in a linear… [read more]

Dangers of Cloning Life Is Precious Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,445 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Dangers of Cloning

Life is precious. This is what proponents of human cloning fail to accept. While cloning holds promise in theory, the idea fails in practice -- almost every single time it is attempted. While many see the experiment as a great challenge, they overlook the implications that cloning will have on society and the cloned individual.… [read more]

Human Embryonic Stem Cells Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,522 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Stem cell studies are on the very cutting edge of biological advancement and research. These undifferentiated cells have the potential to become any cell in the body, from a simple part of a hair follicle to a complex neuron. Because research into this area is so new, there are still many scientific and ethical dilemmas surrounding… [read more]

Use of DNA Barcodes Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



In this very interesting scientific article, authors Paul D. Hebert,
Mark Y. Stoeckle, Tyler S. Zemlak and Charles M. Francis discuss in-depth
the process by which they have identified birds through their DNA barcodes,
derived from "short DNA sequences from a standardized region of the
genome." Certainly, this highly-complex process is far superior to the old
methods used to identify bird species, due to the fact that by putting
together what the authors call a public library of DNA barcodes, this would
"provide a new master key for identifying species, one whose power will
rise with increased taxon coverage and with faster, cheaper" DNA
What is most exciting about this new process is that these DNA
barcodes allow researchers and scientists to expertly determine the
differences between closely-related bird species, such as a hawk and an
eagle, which ultimately may provide researchers with the genetic link to
prove that…… [read more]

Human Genome Project Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,793 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Human Genome Project may be the most controversial research project in modern medical or scientific history.

The project began in 1990 at the National Institutes of Health and was headed by James Watson. However, the project was not only a U.S. project, nor was it only a government project. The National Institutes of Health worked with other governmental and private… [read more]

Polydactylism Polydactyly Is a Relatively Common Condition Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,143 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Polydactyly is a relatively common condition in which extra digits on the foot or hand develop during growth of the fetus. This essay presents a discussion of the organs and cells which are affected, along with a discussion of the genetic basis of the condition. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the treatments which are available for the… [read more]

Biomedical Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,146 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Biomedical Technology

The field of Biomedical Technology has been growing by leaps and over the past half-century. At the beginning of that time many research scientists and their funding corporations were starting to realize the amazing potential of this field for both for humanitarian and commercial use. The advances alone in the use of recombinant DNA techniques as well as… [read more]

Nf-Kb Akirin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,972 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


NF-kB: Akirin

NF-kB Akirin: A "Novel Nuclear Factor"

Statement of Topic Significance

Genetic engineering and experimentation hold enormous promise for eradicating many of the diseases that currently plague mankind, and researchers may even be able extend the human lifespan to unprecedented levels in the future. More importantly, perhaps, ongoing research into the human innate immune systems also suggests that such… [read more]

Structural Basis of DNA Replication Origin Recognition by an Orc Protein Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


DNA Replication

Structural Basis of DNA Replication by an ORC Protein

The article selected addresses the question of what the structural basis of DNA replication may be in. Specifically it seeks to identify the first step in the assembly of a replication origin in the DNA of the archaea a. pernix. This information was sought in order to gain a better understanding of the process which may occur in human DNA replication processes.

The research uses the results of previous studies which have elucidated the structure of origin recognition complex (ORC) proteins. These recognize the replication origins in both archaea and eukaryotes. Other previous studies into genome sequences from various archaea revealed base pair repeats which were conserved across species which could possibly be the replication origins. Extended repeat sequences were termed origin replication boxes (ORB). The study builds upon previous research which has shown that these ORBs can be used to identify replication origin sites, and seeks to further understand the actual structural assembly. The study first established the crystal structure of one of the ORC proteins in a. pernix. The crystal structures and biochemical data were used to predict the interactions between the ORC protein and the DNA target within the winged helix family (WH) domain. The structural differences in the DNA helix were noted to understand how the interaction changed the structure. DNA footprinting was used to evaluate the contacts which were observed in the process. This attempted to understand the difference between contacts in the ORC protein as a whole and the contacts which occurred in the WH domain alone.

The study showed that the principal contact in the replication origin process between the OCR and the DNA helix related to the WH. Several structural differences were noted by the insertion of the ORB into the helix. These structural changes widened the major and minor grooves of the…… [read more]

Eugenics Refers to the Social Philosophy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (901 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Eugenics refers to the social philosophy that advocates an artificial improvement to the human hereditary traits through various mechanisms of intervention. In the modern, medical sense, eugenics refers to the use of such things as prenatal testing, screening, genetic counseling, birth control, genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization as mechanisms of preventing the passing on of various problematic genetic traits. Eugenics is typically divided between positive and negative eugenics. Positive eugenics are aimed at encouraging reproduction among the genetically advantaged. Common examples of positive eugenics include in vitro fertilization, egg transplants and cloning. Negative eugenics, on the other hand, is aimed at lowering fertility among the genetically disadvantaged. Common examples of negative eugenics include abortions, sterilization and family planning initiatives.

The issue of eugenics is highly controversial as it raises numerous legal and ethical issues. Dating back most notably to the Nazi's use of eugenics to systematically prejudice and eliminate various ethnic groups and peoples, eugenics is seen as a dangerous tool of political control. In a modern sense, the ethical issues center on whether or not one should be able to "play god" with diseases and births. On the other hand, those who support eugenics argue that if one has the ability to prevent a genetic disease, then is it ethical not to prevent the passing on of those defective traits and thus eliminate the pain and suffering caused by such a genetic trait? As is often times the case, when a procedure involves ethical questions, the law gets involved. The law is currently still developing on issues of in vitro fertilizations, abortions and other eugenics methods. Further, there are general human rights/individual constitutional rights involved in terms of right to privacy and write to life, regardless of genetic makeup.

II. Eugenics Today

An individual who is subject to any form of eugenics, either as a parent or as an individual, may suffer from lasting physical and emotional health effects. Because many of eugenics' theories are still being developed, the long-term effect of genetic modifications, for example, are unknown. Further, such birth-orientated eugenic programs as abortions or in vitro fertilization can have lasting emotional effects on the mother, father or carrier of the fetus.

Often times a health care consumer may feel pressured to opt for a eugenic test or procedure. This is because a professional health care provider, such as a doctor, is telling the consumer what is needed. The consumer tends to trust the doctor's specialized knowledge and thus will go along with a doctor's recommendations. However, this is unfair to the patient because nobody with as equal of background as the doctor is advocating for the patient. This is where a nurse can come in. The…… [read more]

Genetic Testing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (560 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Genetic testing is concept that is used to diagnose 'genetic diseases', which are transferred to any person by their ancestry. (Wikipedia, 2007). Every person carries numbers of genes from their parents. The usage of 'genetic testing' involves studying and changing in human chromosomes, genes and the proteins. (Genetic Testing, 2007).

Genetic testing is a wider concept, which is used to for 'biochemical procedures' to screen out any 'heredity diseases' that any person might suffer. There are many people who are suffering from different diseases due to 'inter-family marriages' and 'genetically transfers' that is usually transferred from parents to children. So use of genetic testing to reduce risk associated with one's life. Many government treat 'cloning' as against the human laws so they have banned cloning in their countries but in UK and USA the cloning is considered as blessings and widely used today. (Shaun Elmore, 2007).

There are many people who born with some dangerous inherited diseases such as 'cancer' and 'HIV' so these children could only able to live 3-4 years and they live on medications because many risks are associated to their lives. In think the 'genetic testing' can be used to bring new born and children out of danger and on hope that it can reduce the risk to death of new born baby. (Genelex Corporation, 2003)

The genetic testing is helpful in finding out that any diseases from parents are likely to be transferred to their children so by knowing the possibilities of disorders. So it provides an opportunity to people to save their future by reducing any risk associated with a person life. (Mayo clinic staff, 2006)

The genetic closing must be allowed for therapeutic…… [read more]

Biochemistry the Effect of BRCA1 in Sporadic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,553 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



The Effect of BRCA1 in Sporadic Breast Cancer

These who do not have a history of breast cancer in their families may be said to have sporadic breast cancer. Patterns of breast cancer in families show that hereditary factors do not contribute to 80% of those found to have breast cancer. This makes scientists suspect there are non-genetic factors… [read more]

Human Genome Project and Its Impact Implications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,561 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Human Genome Project and its impact implications on the ethics of genetic engineering. The writer examines the project, the genetic engineering question and provides personal beliefs to the overall picture.


Recent advances in the field of medical science have taken mankind to heights never before imagined. Today, the life… [read more]

Cloning, and Especially Human Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Cloning, and especially human cloning, is a hot political topic. Raising a litany of legal and ethnical questions, cloning is also an issue that has become shrouded in fallacy, myth, and misunderstanding. Media attention to cloning has in many cases distorted the issues, making it seem as if science labs are manufacturing monsters and mutants. Moreover, cloning is a broad… [read more]

Patent Law and Genetic Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,660 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Human Stem Cell Medical - Legal Implications

How Do Legal Issues in Patent Law Shape Ethical Decision in Human Stem Cell Research?

Patent Law & Genetic Medicine

This work examines the issue of human stem cell research from the view of the medical profession with an eye on funding, the public perspective and legislation historically affecting and futuristically possible in… [read more]

Epidemiology Liegl-Atzwanger, Fletcher Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 50


Figure 4:GISTs having epitheliod features.


According to Fulop et at.,(2009),molecular genetics as well as histogenesis GISTs represents a unique and a special group of gastro-intestinal tumors which originates from the interstitial Cajal cells (ICC). Interstitial Cajal cells (ICC) .According to Fulop et at.(2009),this hypothesis is supported by the fact that, according to the an immunhistochemical perspective, the GISTs and… [read more]

Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing

Throughout the years, genetic testing has been extensively used in: treating medical disorders and identifying the risks brought on by a particular disease. Also known as DNA-based tests, it consists of techniques that are utilized in: determining genetic disorders and examining the DNA of a patient (Sequeiros & Guimaraes, 2008).

As a result, this kind… [read more]

Breeding Psychology Breeding Selective Traits in Animals Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Breeding


Breeding selective traits in animals: Negative traits in Paint horses

Scientists frequently try to breed selective traits in animals for research purposes, as in the case of mice bred for their propensity to become addicted to alcohol. However, this is only one example of a trend which has had a long history in humanity's relationship with the animal world. Breeding animals to manifest select traits has been common since early humans engaged in agricultural production. Today, some traits in horses are occasionally selected for efficacy in sporting activities, others for appearance. Selective breeding is used to predictably produce such traits, just as speed in Thoroughbreds, agility in cutting horses, and jumping ability in Warmbloods. Other examples include special 'colored' horses such as palominos and Paint horses (Grandin 1998).

However, breeding for one type of desirable trait can occasionally cause the manifestation of a connected, yet undesirable trait. "Genetic traits are linked in complex ways. Over-selecting animals for physical traits often causes changes in behavior. Likewise, over-selection for behavioral traits can cause corresponding changes in physical traits" (Grandin 1994). Such is the case in breeding Paint horses, in which exaggeratedly large white patches with underlying pink skin called 'piebalding' is considered particularly attractive and desirable. Animals with "large piebald spots on the head and body may have neurological defects similar to the genetic defect known in humans as piebaldism. The piebald condition is linked to defects in both the visual system and in hearing" (Grandin 1995). Piebald spots do not always signal neurological defects and not all Paints have piebald spots. But breeding two Paint Horses who have large areas of piebald patches can produce problematic results.

For example, nervousness is common in animals with large piebald areas. Animal behaviorist Temple Grandin notes she "observed some extremely abnormal behavior in a highly depigmented Paint stallion at a horse show. The stallion was so distressed by the sights and sounds of the show that he was literally eating up his stall. This behavior was in sharp contrast to the normal behavior shown by a frightened horse" (Grandin 1994). These horses also exhibit balance problems due to defects in the inner ear, confirming a relatively old adage among horsemen: "Four white feet, pass him by" (Grandin…… [read more]

Biofuels to Dissect Locust Guts to Culture Dissertation

Dissertation  |  10 pages (3,671 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 30



To dissect locust guts

To culture anaerobic microorganisms (bacteria) from locust guts on cellulose

containing media and screen for microbes with Cellulolytic activity.

To extract DNA from Cellulolytic microorganisms

To do PCR of 16s rDNA to identify the bacteria.

To clone and sequence PCR product.

The study discusses the aims and objective to enhance greater understanding on the strategy… [read more]

Cyborgs Transgenic Designer Kids Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cogito Ergo Sum

As stated centuries ago by Rene Descartes, the statement "I think, therefore I am," no longer holds true for the dawn of the twenty first century. Due to emerging monumental technological advances in virtual reality since Descartes first coined the phrase in the seventeenth century "My computer thinks, therefore I am" has become the contemporary version of… [read more]

Sickle Cell Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). After hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them to squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and cause blockages that deprive organs and tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

Sickle cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In the Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come from Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births and one in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About two million Americans, or one in twelve African-Americans, carry the sickle cell trait.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromosome pairs with one of each pair inherited from the father, and one from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent and child occurs only rarely. Most likely, sickle cell disease depends on inherited genes from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired or otherwise transmitted. The disease is caused by a change in a single amino acid difference in the beta chain of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies of the sickle form of the gene have sickle cell anemia (Malaria, sickle cell anemia and balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal and one mutant copy of the sickle gene -- appear normal and do not manifest the disease except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Approximately ten percent of African-Americans are carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de to protection against malaria that occurred for people with sickle cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta globin is a major component of adult hemoglobin and its gene is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (Ashley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle cell disease. The most influential risk factor for disease severity is genotype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous for the sickle beta globin gene (b S) have sickle cell anemia (SS disease). Individuals with sickle beta thalassemia have a b S. gene and a gene for beta thalassemia. If no beta globin is produced by the beta thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb o thalassemia (Sb o thal). If some normal beta globin is produced by the thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case of hemoglobin (SC disease), the… [read more]

Human Genome Project (Hgp) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


al., 1998). In both the cases of clear-cut genetic causation, such as with Huntington's Chorea, and in cases where genetics may play a role, such as in some types of breast cancer, medical professionals as well as patients have to make some difficult decisions (Collins et. al., 1998). Would most people want to know if they were destined to develop Huntington's Chorea, or would they rather not know? Does an individual want to know that he or she carries a gene that can lead to breast cancer even though this knowledge, by itself, cannot predict whether the person will get the disease or not? (Collins et. al., 1998)

Other questions involve the right of individuals to privacy. Once we have human DNA completely mapped, will we then begin to generate detailed genetic profiles of all medical patients? If we do, is this information that can be shared with other organizations, by, for instance, hospitals? If it can be shared, insurance companies might then drop people with genes that make them prone to certain kinds of cancer, or destined to develop some genetically-driven disease such as Huntington's. In those cases, the individuals would get glimpses into their medical future whether they wanted to know what their genes reveal or not.

Advances in genomic science raise innumerable psychosocial questions. The issues underlying the story of the Genetic Revolution are fundamental, even philosophical What is the essence of being human? How much will we try to control the gender, the temperament, and the genetic heritage of our children? How much can we improve on the human condition? Are disabilities to be avoided or embraced? Who has… [read more]

Cloning the Term Cloning Is Commonly Construed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,578 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The term cloning is commonly construed as reproductive cloning or the asexual genetic replication of a living organism (Cloning, 2005). However, in reality, scientists use the term cloning to describe all the different processes that are involved in the duplication of biological material. While there is virtually universal agreement that human cloning is neither safe nor ethically desirable, the… [read more]

Do the Dangers of Genetic Engineering as Applied to Humans Outweigh Its Benefits? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,006 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Genetic engineering (GE) has been presented to the public as a way to improve the quality of our lives, enhance agriculture and advance our ability to fight genetic illnesses. The possibilities seem endless, but raise worries as well as optimism (Fricker, 2002). The Human Genome Project, conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human… [read more]

Genomics and Implications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The research showed that genomics is the field of automated sequencing and analysis of genes. The research also showed that with the results of the Human Genome Project in hand, genomics research is well situated to make enormous contributions to improving the human condition in the years to come; however, all of this progress has some observers suggesting that there is a Frankenstein-monster quality to such research, and it is both inappropriate and immoral to tinker with the fundamental building blocks of the human body. Nevertheless, genomics research continues to discover new insights into how these basic process operate at the most basic level, and these findings will undoubtedly be applied to an increasing range of human endeavors in the future.

Works Cited

Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health

Perspectives 112(16):934.

Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.

Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:

Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.

Kelso, Dennis Doyle Takahashi and Rachel A. Schurman. Engineering Trouble: Biotechnology

and Its Discontents. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.

Omenn, Gilbert S. (2005, Spring). "Genomics and Public Health: Potential Benefits Depend on Linking Genetic…… [read more]

Cloning Is the Production of Identical Genetic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies of cells or an individual. The process occurs naturally when a cell or organism reproduces asexually, through processes such as mitosis, binary fission, budding, sporulation, or parthenogenesis, or when genetically identical twins are produced naturally.

Even the process of horticultural grafting and cuttings are technically cloning as the resultant plant is a… [read more]

Co-Evolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,213 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The objective of this work is to research and examine co-evolution, what it is, how it works and the biological principle of this theory and the basis of this theory to include three different community interactions.

According to the work of Jones (2000) entitled: "Reductionism: Analysis and the Fullness of Reality" the work of Richard Dawkins makes the claim that human beings or our genetics are "survival machines - robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes. We are throwaway survival machines' create by selfish genes to propagate themselves. In short, genes are the only real forces. As the saying goes, organisms are nothing by DNA's way of making more DNA. There are no causal realities above the level of genes - no real societies, not even ultimately real individuals, but only genes pulling the strings indirectly like a computer programmer." (Jones, 2000) Others, specifically Edward Wilson hold that while human being do have "a hard biological structure unaffectable by sociocultural factors..." that once having reached "the human level, genes have given away most of their sovereignty over behavior, although they do maintain a certain amount of influence at least the behavioral qualities. In short, the genes do keep a leash on human behavior, but it is a long leash." (Jones, 2000) Those who oppose Wilson are stated to feel that "sociobiology is simplistic and mechanistic and that there is no scientific evidence for any role of genes in directing human behavior..." denying any form of genetic determinism." (Jones, 2000) Jones reports the work of Wilson and his colleague, Charles Lumsden, who are in the midst of the development of a theory of "gene and culture co-evolution: culture is created and shaped by biological processes, while the biological processes are simultaneously altered in the response to cultural change. In short, culture affects genetic evolution and genes affect cultural evolution." (Jones, 2000)


The process of evolution is not always a nature process and this is emphasized in the work of Wheelis, et al. (1998) entitled: "Manual for Assessing Ecological and Human Health Effects of Genetically Engineer Organisms," a publication of the Scientists' Working Group on Biosafety which states: "Genetic engineering techniques currently are used for such diverse purposes as improvement of agricultural crops and crop yield, enhancement of farmed fish and shell fish broodstocks and their associated yields, production of microbes for bioremediation and other specific tasks, and changes in disease-transmission rates by insect vectors. Each of these purposes holds the promise of benefit to one or several groups. However, the potential benefits are accompanied by potential hazards to human health and the environment." (Wheelis, et al., 1998) This hazard may arise from the effects of generation of new species at a rapid rate that involves evolution that does not occur in unison with the world and environment and its living creatures but instead is an evolution independent of other living plants, species, and life. One such negative… [read more]

Human Cloning Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Mappes 568) He asserts that clones would not have the freedom to choose their future, but have their future controlled by another, something that Kass believes is "despotic."

One of Kass' main objections to cloning deals with the issue of identity, and what he calls being "saddled with a genotype that has already lived. He will not be fully a surprise to the world…." (Mappes 568) But Robert Wachbroit rightly points out that a clone is not the result of "asexual reproduction," but simply a twin who's birth has been delayed. Kass believes that the clone will somehow live a repeat of the life of the DNA donor, but Wachbroit explains that because the clone is a delayed twin, it "would be a separate person from her non-contemporaneous twin." (Mappes 572) The idea that the clone would live a similar life to the DNA donor would be to believe in genetic determinism, a belief that is rejected by the majority of scientist. If Kass is correct in this belief, then the lives of millions of identical twins would live parallel lives, something that is simply not the case.

Finally, in response to this criticism of Kass' argument that the clone would be living a life that has already been lived, it is important to remember that in the act of procreation, two sets of DNA are mixed together to create a new and unique individual with their own genetic identity. In this way each child is a new and genetically distinctive individual who is worthy of independence from their parents. It is their genetic distinctiveness that identifies each life as unique and independent of all others. And as Kass states, "it can also be an important support for living a worthy and dignified life." (Mappes 567) Another reason that Kass may be correct in his assertion that human cloning is repugnant is the fact that cloning by it very nature of making genetic copies interferes in the process of human evolution. As each child is created from the genetic templates of both parents, the resulting genome is unique, and therefore possessing different, and sometimes mutated genes. It is these mutations that occur during procreation that is the basis for the continued evolution of the human race. Cloning would put a stop to this evolution and would be making the statement that humans are already genetically perfect and no longer in need of change. Unfortunately, evolution occurs in response to environmental factors and unless the Earth's environment remains exactly the same, a human race composed entirely of clones will never survive.

Works Cited

Mappes, Thomas…… [read more]

Societal Interventions in Genetic Diseases Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This type of genetic screening has been continually used for various decades through the use of different techniques.

In the United States and the United Kingdom, genetic screening used was testing newborn babies for PKU deficiency. As a compulsory screening, a newborn baby is put on a special diet and will not undergo serious mental retardation if he/she is found to have PKU deficiency. More information regarding societal interventions in genetic diseases in the United States and United Kingdom reveals that there is screening for genetic vulnerability to diseases that are environmentally induced illnesses like elevated blood cholesterol. Similar to the U.S. And the UK, genetic screening is the most common societal intervention in genetic diseases used in other parts of the world. However, there are various techniques for genetic screening used elsewhere such as the effective screening program for Thalassemia used in Cyprus and Italy.

An epidemiological approach for preventing and controlling the three most common genetic diseases is the new intervention measure used to prevent such diseases. The approach has been developed through examining diseases like deafness in dalmations, great dane, hip dysplasia in German shepard, lab retrievers, Newfoundland, and glaucoma FCR in canine pedigree breeds. As a new technology for designing programs to prevent genetic diseases, the epidemiological approach consists of methods that use all relationships within the pedigree and common environmental factors (Wood, Lakhani & Henley, 2004, p. 24). Based on the outcomes of polygenic model in the approach, the method proves to be effective in preventing the diseases.


Samem, F.M.A. (n.d). Human Genetic Screening. Retrieved from North Dakota State University

website: http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/students/firas.htm

Scacheri, C. (n.d.). Genetics and Society. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topic/genetics-and-society-11

Wood, J.L.N., Lakhani, K.H. & Henley, W.E. (2004). An Epidemiological Approach to Prevention and Control of Three Common Heritable Diseases in Canine Pedigree Breeds in the United Kingdom. The Veterinary Journal, 168, 14-27. Retrieved from http://www.ansci.wsu.edu/Courses/as464/notes/webdocs/Background%20Information/geneticdiseaseepidemiologyvetjournalagu2004.pdf… [read more]

Patenting Genes Ethical or Unethical Practice Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Business Case

Should Patenting Genes Be Understood as Unethical?

Summary of Sides

As the human genome is now mapped and genetic manipulation is more and more possible, the question of whether or not genes -- which are organic material -- can be patented without violating basic ethical principles regarding the inherent value of life and that might arise in practical issues where health issues cannot be properly addressed ue to patent blocks. Miriam Schulman argues that genes are a part of life and as such should not be thought of as pieces of patentable technology that can be traded, sold, and owned in such an exclusive and mercantile manner. Further, she feels that, "If the bar for patentability is set too low, it will pervert the incentive structures of the patent system," suggesting that not only are genes worthy of protection from patents in and of themselves but that the patent system itself and the ethical good it promotes could be damaged if genes become patentable (p. 334). As not entirely unique and possibly naturally repeatable "inventions," genes should remain free.

Anabelle Lever disagrees, pointing out that many genes have already been patented and that genes that receive patents are highly unique and have been altered by laboratory processes. Lever does not disagree that that human genes are un-patentable, but contends, "Though the genes in your body are not patentable, the degree of manipulation and alteration that is required to isolate and identify a human gene scienti-cally means that genes so altered and manipulated can merit a legal patent" (p. 338). The basic contention in this argument is…… [read more]

Technology Has Revolutionized Society: Communication Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html

Kelly, R. (2008, July). What are the Ethical Issues Surrounding Personzlied Medicine? Retrieved from Let's Get Personal: http://www.reagank.com/2007/03 / what_are_the_ethical_issues_in.php

Lea, D. (2009). Basic Genetics and Genomics: A Primer for Nurses. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14 (2): Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/-ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/-Vol142009/No2May09/Articles-Previous-Topics/Basic-Genetics-and-Genomics.html

Lea, D., et al. (2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(1), 3-12.

Moon, R., et al. (1998). Parental literacy level and understanding of medical information. Pediatrics. 10 (2): e25-27.

Nash, D. (September 30, 2009). Osumedicalcenter. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com / watch?v=UyIA5jgUkOc

National Public Radio. (May 12, 2012). All routine PSA tests for prostate cancer should end. NPR.org. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/05/21/153234671/all-routine-psa-tests-for-prostate-cancer-should-end-task-force-says

O'Neill, O. (2002). Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.… [read more]

Fragile X Syndrome Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The positive behavioral changes were modest, but encouraging. Nonetheless, there is much more research for occupational therapists to do. For example, the long-term effects of the use of the stories have not been investigated and it is not certain at ages or developmental levels these stories have the largest and least benefits.

One of the important considerations when judging the… [read more]

Risk of Development and Progression Article Review

Article Review  |  10 pages (3,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


(D Otaegui1, A Sa'enz1, P Caman "o1, 2006)

Pearson's chi square test was used to perform the homogeneity test between the two distributions of the genotypes. Yate's chi square test was utilized to perform tests to compare frequencies of the CD 24 V/V genotype between cases and controls. (D Otaegui1, A Sa'enz1, P Caman "o1, 2006)

Patients with an EDDS… [read more]

Human Cloning Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,195 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


If cloning technology is allowed to continue, the future may produce technologies wherein a person's own organs can be cloned from their own genetic material ensuring a match and a good likelihood that the body will accept the organ (Clone 2009).

There are many reasons that individuals might desire to have themselves or a loved one cloned. The most common justifications for cloning fall under the categories of utility and autonomy. Utility arguments include the desire to make more of yourself in order to have a larger impact on the world, replacing a dead child with a genetic duplicate, making a clone to provide bone marrow or organs to an original person, or producing individuals with higher or lower mental capacities to perform designated tasks (Kilner 2002). There are three arguments for human cloning that have to do with autonomy. The first of these is personal freedom. In the United States in particular, there is a strong commitment to the idea of personal freedom which people who desire to participate in human cloning utilize in order to prove that they have the right to choice. The second is reproductive choice wherein parents declare they have the right to have children in any way that they choose and that society should have no part in personal decisions. The third argument is scientific inquiry. Scientists have argued that they have the right by their profession to investigate all matters, including human cloning, and that no government or ethical concern should affect what experiments they conduct or how they conduct those experiments (Kilner 2002).


One of the dangers of any dispute is the potential of one side of the discussion to completely dismiss any astute arguments on behalf of their adversary. The more controversial the topic, the greater the chance for adversarial discord and, consequently there becomes less likelihood for a compromise. Both sides of the cloning conundrum have been guilty of using certain tactics to dismiss the observations of their enemy. This straw man technique is a tactic in which the views of the opponents are oversimplified and exaggerated so that the original point is distorted (Moore 2007). Although research shows that the dangers of human cloning outweigh the benefits, there are aspects of the technology which should be used and incorporated into other fields of scientific research.

The American Medical Association has argued that even a genetically identical individual would not, in fact, be a copy of the original person's personality since they would not be raised in duplicate environments. Since the individuals would not be exact copies of one another, several of the promised applications of human cloning prove themselves to be illogical. Replicating a child who has perished, for example, would be impossible because the new individual would only be a physical duplicate of the first child. The personality would be molded by the new emotional environment (Ethics 1999-page 2). However, this same organization did determine that cloning could be used for the purposes of artificial conception of… [read more]

Controversy With Regard to Genetic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Genetic engineering and cloning are certainly advantageous concepts when considering that they can remove such risks (Brock).

Human cloning can certainly have a great deal of benefits, ranging from parents who can clone a child who was very dear to them to society as a whole cloning individuals who have distinguished themselves through impressive abilities. One of the moral issues most commonly associated with cloning involves the right to a unique identity. Cloning practically leads to people risking the right to have a unique identity, given that they would have someone else look exactly like them. Furthermore, the fact that the clone would be acquainted with how his or her original self went through life would make it impossible for him or her to concentrate on his or her personal identity. Psychological distress would certainly be a disadvantage in the case of many clones.

Judeo-Christian beliefs promote the idea that the body needs to be acknowledged as a temple of the Holy Spirit and that it would thus be wrong for someone to attempt to desecrate this respective temple. To a certain degree however, when considering that creation is the result of sin, it would seem that altering it would not necessarily be such a negative act. Even with this, such ideas are debatable and genetic engineering would likely interfere with God's plan regarding the process of life. When studying the Bible one is probable to realize that God has a plan for everyone's life and interfering with this respective plan would practically mean that one would go against God's laws.

Genetic engineering and cloning are surely intriguing ideas when considering the benefits they can bring along. Society as a whole is likely to experience much medical progress as a consequence of these two fields experiencing significant progress. In spite of this progress, one also needs to consider numerous other implications involving fields like ethics, religion, and psychology when addressing this issue. While such advancements seem appealing, it is important to consider the long-term effect that they are going to have on the world.

Works cited:

Brock, D.W. CLONING HUMAN BEINGS. Retrieved November 6, 2013, from http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf

Greco, K.E., Tinley, S., & Seibert, D. Essential Genetic and Genomic competencies for nurses with Graduate Degrees. ISBN-13: 978-1-55810-437-2, March 2012.

Jenkins, J. Ethics: Ethical Implications of Genetic Information Ethics: Ethical Implications of Genetic Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol. 6 No. 2, Available: www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Ethics/EthicalImplicationsofGeneticInformation.aspx… [read more]

Medical Advancements in Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


All diseases have a genetic component, whether inherited or resulting from the body's response to environmental stresses. The successes of the Human Genome Project (HGP) have even enabled researchers to pinpoint errors in genes -- the smallest units of heredity -- that cause or contribute to disease.2

The real news is that in the right hands, genetic engineering can be used to develop new ways to treat, cure, or even prevent the thousands of diseases. Today, biotech companies are designing diagnostic tests to detect "bad" genes that may cause particular diseases. http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/genetest.html

Imagine the changes in medicine if geneticists could find and replace genes that cause illness and disease.

The potential for using genes to treat disease, commonly known as gene therapy is the most exciting application of genetic engineering. This rapidly developing field holds great potential for treating or even curing genetic and acquired diseases, using normal genes to replace or supplement a defective gene.

What does that mean for mankind? For life expectancy? Are we trying to play God? Most members of the scientific and medical community would agree that this advancement is the biggest thing to come along in centuries. Humans could live extended lives, free from debilitating diseases and endangered species could be kept form becoming extinct. Imagine a technology that could preserve precious cells and use them to enhance life.

According to Brigid Greenberg in her article, "Medical Strides Produce Ethical Quandries," cloning research has raised questions. Two years ago, Scottish researchers cloned a sheep named Dolly. Last year, a physicist in Chicago said he would attempt to create the first human clone. Where does medical research go from here? Ethicists say it will continue to press the limits, prompting debates that will only get sharper.3

As for what the future holds, the ethical and moral issues are many and the debate will continue as geneticists persist in their work. Even beyond medicine, genes may one day be able to be used to I.D. A person and that has huge ramifications and potential controversial issues such as an invasion of privacy. Should we have access to someone else's gene characteristics? Could it potentially be used against them in discriminatory ways? The speculations are many and only time will tell but there is great potential for genetic engineering to enhance and expand medical advances in the next decade.

Brigid Greenberg, "Medical Strides Produce Ethical Quandries," Associated Press

Other Sources of Information:

Publications www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/genechoice/index.html" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project

Books www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/hgn/v9n1/15cshl.html" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care


Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program… [read more]

Human Genome, Stem Cells Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It may even dictate whether an organism is human or another species, each having their own genome. Research at the HGB has so far revealed that there are approximately 31,000 genes (the basic units of heredity) in the nucleus of a human cell. It has also been determined that these genes are located on 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are… [read more]

Genetic Engineering Is a Tool Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Today there are more than 300 restriction enzymes and the list ever continues to grow. Each of these restriction enzymes precisely identify and target particular DNA bases. When treated with DNA the restriction enzymes scan through the DNA strands and identify the specific sequence bases and cut through them. This opening makes possible the insertion of the human gene. This… [read more]

Joe Student Joe Teacher Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Chromosomes are most commonly visualized in their condensed form, during cell division. At other times, when the cell is performing a function, rather than dividing, the genetic material is diffuse, spread throughout the cell nucleus. In an ordinary cell, there are two copies of each piece of DNA: one inherited from father, and one from mother. In more concrete terms, one inherits a single set of chromosomes from each parent, and a normal cell consists of two of each chromosome." (Marks, 17) With that being said, I think back to all the times my mom called me her perfect little angle. Was she trying to convince me of something she didn't really think to be true. Can parents cause perfection? I guess not.

So if the schools can't do it and parent's can't do it, if I wanted to be the perfect kid, how could it happen? I suppose I should rethink what perfection is. When in doubt, find a dictionary. Webster's defines perfection as "the state of being perfect or complete, so that nothing requisite is wanting; as perfection in an art or science; perfection in a system of morals." I love art and I have seen Van Goh's 'Starry Night' which to me seemed like perfection. But, I suppose that BMW I have always considered to be a 'requisite want' would eliminate me from that definition of perfection. Let's face it, a Beemer is great reason no to be the perfect kid.

Webster's went on to say, "Metaphysical or transcendental perfection, is the possession of all the essential attributes or all the parts necessary to the integrity of a substance. This is absolute, where all defect is precluded, such as the perfection of God; or according to its kind, as in created things. Moral perfection, is the complete possession of all moral excellence, as in the Supreme Being; or the possession of such moral qualities and virtues as a thing is capable of. A quality, endowment or acquirement completely excellent, or of great worth. An inherent or essential attribute of supreme or infinite excellence; or one perfect in its kind; as the perfection's of God. The infinite power, holiness, justice, benevolence and wisdom of God are denominated his perfection's."

That's it. I now know why I am not the perfect kid. I am lacking some of the necessary ingredients. I am lacking infinite power, holiness, justice, benevolence and the wisdom of God. I am not the perfect kid because I do not feel like -- well, God. If I was the supreme being I would be and feel perfect. Being perfect would therefore have allowed me to prevent the current war with Iraq not to mention the countless wars and the world over. Oh yeah, and I would've have stopped the terrorist hijackings that lead to the senseless deaths at the Pentagon, the Twin Towers in New York and the plane that just fell into a field. I am sure as a perfect kid I would stop Global… [read more]

Human Genetic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (417 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These attempts require regulators to consider only the risks of bioengineered crops and not their benefits, and they hold gene-splicing to a standard of safety that could not possibly be met by non-biotech products and practices (Conko)."

These opponents therefore illustrate they are basing their reasons on politics instead of sound science.


Gene therapy research has the potential to change both human and plant genetics. While proponents feel these changes will be better for mankind, opponents point out there is still too little information available, allowing genetically engineered "monsters" to be created.

Works Cited

Conko, Gregory. The benefits of biotech: as the world's population grows, environmental stewardship will require science to find ways to produce more food on less land.

Agriculture). Regulation. (2003): 22 March.

Phillips, G.C., M.A. O'Connell, I.M. Ray, R.G. Cantrell, and C. Sengupta-Gopalan.

The Importance of Plant Biotechnology in the Future Development of Arid

Lands. New Mexico Journal of Science. (1999): 01 November.

Unknown. A Cure That May Cost Us Ourselves: SOCIETY: One of the pioneers of human genetic engineering predicts that within 30 years, there will be a gene-based therapy for most diseases. But he fears the profound dangers of... Newsweek. (2000): 01 January.

Vinha, Laura. INTERVIEW-Conservationist say GM crops…… [read more]

Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (445 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


48, No. 5

Real Time Quantitative PCR (QPCR) represents a potential advance in the identification of usable DNA material in biological samples over technologies currently in use by the Center of Forensic Sciences, such as the Perkin-Elmer

QuantiBlot ™ test. While this system of quantifying DNA in forensic casework samples is considered reliable and appropriately sensitive, it is also time consuming and labor intensive.

Equally important is the fact that slot blot methods incorporate a subjective element. Automated instrumentation for identifying usable human DNA material offers the prospect of reducing the time and effort necessary to do so, in addition to requiring less laboratory space and increased accuracy.

QPCR has already demonstrated the ability to distinguish human DNA from concentrations as dilute as one part human per one thousand animal DNA sources.

Likewise, QPCR has also proven itself reliable in quantifying human DNA across the entire spectrum of racial genetic spectrum.

The most significant improvements offered by QPCR over present slot-block technologies is its repeatability and even more so, its ability to extract high quality, usable quantities of human DNA prior to processing. This feature in particular represents a tremendous increase in efficiency because valuable laboratory time and effort is spared that would otherwise be necessary just to eliminate…… [read more]

Bombing of Hiroshima Studies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This leads to the conclusion that the exposure of the parents before conception and birth may have been a contributing factor to genetic defects resulting in infant death as well.

Studies concentrating on the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl have also indicated that exposure to radiation, even years after the fact, have negative implications when it comes to birth defects (Stone, 2001).


The research is in and there is no denying the impact radiation has on genetic birth defects. Exposure before conception carries a risk of specific birth defects including mental retardation and childhood cancers. For these risks to be avoided in the future it is important to re-evaluate the location of nuclear reactor sites as well as the frequency of x-rays.


The Basics of Genetic Effects and Birth Defects http://www.doh.wa.gov/Hanford/publications/overview/genetic.html

Study finds increases in birth defects near CANDU reactor http://www.antenna.nl/wise/361/3568.html

Are birth defects more common among the children of atomic-bomb survivors?



Congressional Testimony; 4/21/1998

Congressional Testimony


Radiation: Children at Risk.(Brief Article)

Multinational Monitor; 6/1/2000; Mokhiber, Russell

Living in the Shadow of Chornobyl

Science; 4/20/2001; Stone, Richard

The dark side of the nuclear family.(health effects ofradiation)

New Statesman (1996); 1/15/1999; Roff, Sue Rabbitt… [read more]

Human Cloning: The Ethical Debate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,183 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


That would end abortion, in vitro fertilization, and many types of prenatal genetic testing in the United States.

There are many reasons why human cloning is unethical, but, in my opinion, the greatest reason is that it would destroy the way that families and children are created and built. However, looking at the issue from a scientific perspective, the possibilities for humanity outweigh the risks. Human cloning research would allow doctors to determine the cause of spontaneous abortions, give oncologists an understanding of the rapid cell growth of cancer, allow the use of stem cells to regenerate nerve tissues, and advance work on aging, genetics, and medicines (Jones, 1998).

Opponents and supporters agree that at the current time the technology is not safe enough to use on humans (Jones, 1998). However, this does not rule out the possibilities for the future. With additional experimentation on other types of mammals, scientists can reduce the errors and problems associated with human cloning.

Many proponents hold the belief that "no human activity is free of accidental death" and we should not put that burden on human cloning. Dr. Richard Seed, the scientists who has made public his desire to clone babies, believes that cloning technology could extend human life.

However, there is no proof that children cloned from another person will not necessarily feel this way (Jones, 1998). This argument is based on speculations. Supporters counter argue that human clones will "have the advantage of knowing early in life what they are good at."

Seed thinks that human cloning will help humans understand, and eventually reverse, the human aging process (Wikipedia, 2004). A cure for cancer by a better understanding of the cell-differentiation process, as well as better treatments for heart attacks and improved cosmetic surgery, are being cited as being possible with the new technology.

While opponents of human cloning fear that somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning may encourage a type of eugenics as people would be able to pick and choose desirable traits. Some have articulated fears that cloning might become "almost a preferred practice" and parents who choose to "play the lottery of old-fashioned reproduction would be considered irresponsible (Jones, 1998)."

In light of this concern, the potential benefits to society of cloning exceptional people such as scientists and medical masterminds would outweigh potential harms. It is possible that cloning may be less radical than other technologies like gene manipulation because cloning does not manipulate genes.


In conclusion, cloning offers amazing insight into the power of creation that humanity has built. One theological analysis states that humans are co-creators with God; perhaps it is more accurate to say that humans are shifting from making babies to creating babies (McGee, 2001). The issue of human cloning is a remarkable test of human restraint, wisdom and institutional development, one that has the potential to identify the moral features of 21st century biotechnology.

The future of human cloning is wide open (Wikipedia, 2004). Scientists plan to create a fertility treatment that allows… [read more]

Inbreeding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,840 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Over the centuries, inbreeding has often been used to create changes in attitudes and perceptions about the passing of various genes to future generations. In the past, many from the aristocracy often embraced these ideas. This is because they wanted to keep the most favorable genes within a select pool of individuals. The basic idea is that royalty or… [read more]

Nature Nurture Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,107 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Nature Nurture

Nature vs. Nurture

For many generations, psychologists, philosophers, and natural scientist have all debated the extent to which our genes and our environments influence our lives. This debate has been referred to as nature vs. nurture. If nature is the dominant force for factors such as intelligence and personality traits, then this has many implications for the way that we live our lives and our ability to change. However, if nurture is the dominant force then this has a different set of implications and things such as intelligence and personality traits might be largely a result of the environments in which we develop. Some physical characteristics in humans are obviously the result of genetics. Examples of this include items such as hair color, eye color, and general appearance. However, in the realm of psychology and personality, the influence of genetics is less than clear.

Nature vs. Nurture Debate


Two alcoholic mice -- a mother and her son -- sit on two bar stools, lapping gin from two thimbles. The mother mouse looks up and says, "Hey, geniuses tell me how my son got into this sorry state." "Bad inheritance," says Darwin. "Bad mothering," says Freud (Hurley, 2013).

The nature and nurture role in development, or nature vs. nurture, debate has existed for over a century. On one pole of the debate, nature is the dominant force that drives physical and mental development though the passing on of genes from one generation to the next. However, on the other end of the spectrum, many psychologists believe that much of our personality is learned from others as social creatures. We learn from our family, friends, and leaders various tidbits that form into our experience. These two poles have led to a polarized discussion of human development from either a biologically mechanistic or social perspective. Some describe the rhetoric used in the nature/nurture debate without a focus on a 'single, well-de-ned and meaningful question' of "confounding statistics and mechanisms" (Stoltz, 2012).

The physiology and cultural-based research on traits such as intelligence, for example, frequently use experiment designs such as twin studies. One study attempted to further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence by scrutinizing how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically (Kan, Wicherts, Dolan, & Maas, 2013). In this study, data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests tend to demonstrate greater heritability coefficients than do culture-reduced subtests; and (b) in samples of both adults and children, a subtest's proportion of variance shared with general intelligence is a function of its cultural load. This research suggests that the most heritable abilities are also the most culture dependent traits.

Even economists have weighed in on the nurture and nature divide by looking at siblings and their ability to participate in the economy. In one study, economists examined the relationship between different kinds of siblings and earnings and find that… [read more]

Genetically Modified Organisms Technology GMO Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,252 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


The potential to alter and cause harm to others is unknown. The case of Monsanto company, which sued farmers for having their GMO crops. The GMO seeds were blown into the farmers fields by wind, and the seeds infected the farmer's crop. The farmer was not responsible as he did not willingly grow the crops, but the company forced the… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,196 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This resulted in the adoption of alternatives to respond to the emergence of new strains of organisms resistant to the chemicals (Finucane & Holup, 2005).

Today, genetically modification of food has advanced across the globe. Statistical analysis shows that about 8.25 million farmers grew genetic modified food in 2005. They are expected to triple by 2015. In terms of market… [read more]

B Cells, T Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



B and T cells are both types of white blood cells, and are the only nucleated cells of the body that lose DNA during development and maturation. This is due to a process called somatic recombination or V (D)J recombination, which introduces an element of randomness to the process of cell formation and maturation, by putting together one of each of three types of gene segments (Variable, Diverse, and Joining, or VDJ) but not incorporating more than one of each. As a result, the cells can end up having about 300 billion different randomly-generated gene sequences, all of which are fundamentally shorter than the ordinary DNA sequence. There are several important things to note about how this process relates to DNA's role in human biology overall. For a start, this is clearly an adaptive advantage: B. And T cells are generated in the bone marrow (and T cells mature in the thymus) but their primary function is to defend against antigens. As a result, the vast number of different types produced during VDJ recombination provides an enormous repertory of different defenses. Moreover, it is possible for the body to essentially clone different types of these cells based on what type of defense is required: in fact the body will store a small amount of "memory cells" so as to essentially retain some method of cloning certain combinations that have been useful in the past. What this does is provides a tremendous adaptive advantage against potential threats to the system: the randomness is, however, a "double-edged sword" insofar as it creates non-viable possibilities (Murphy 2011, 264). As a result, the maturation process includes a test of functionality, and non-productive combinations may be subjected to further gene rearrangement. Overall, this indicates DNA's value in encoding heritable biological information: the inclusion of different possibilities within that information to maximize survival strategy is certainly the goal of this unusual form of DNA transcription here.

2. What Kara Goucher is doing artificially with the tent is essentially the same…… [read more]

Isolating Chromatin Lab Report

Lab Report  |  3 pages (971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


To this supernatant, enough cold 95% ethanol was slowly added so the resulting concentration would be 70% ethanol. The sponge like -DNA that precipitated was picked out and put into a flask.

To understand how this process takes plant in the plant world, strawberries were used to examine this process. Two strawberries were mashed together into a fine pulp and placed into a 250ml container. A saline solution was added and then the mixture was stirred rapidly and with force for five minutes. The next ten minutes were spent filtering this mixture through multi-layers of cheesecloth. This was then transferred to a test tube and ethanol was added to the mixture . DNA was then extracted and taken as a sample.


The results of this experiment suggest that this method of manipulating animal tissue to extract DNA is very simple and produces results. Since this is a basic experiment that focuses on developing clinical skills, the results of the experiment were used to help guide the processes and methods which produced the results. Ethanol after a post-saline bombardment and centrifuge, has a very strong effect on removing the DNA substance from the sinuous animal tissue that was used to provide the sample.

Ethanol provided an easy means to extract genetic material from plant life. As the ethanol was added a distinct and clear layer separated from the reddish mass of the mixture which provided the sample for DNA.


The main revelations of this lab report suggest that true experiment when dealing with any substance and not just DNA is denotes a certain standard operating procedure that can be used as a tool and predict events. A liver sample used in this experiment does not contain much genetic material in relationship to other sources, so being able to retrieve this material in such a fashion suggests that a fundamental and rudimentary understanding of basic lab skills have been reached and understood.

More complex experiments are based upon retrieving such genetic material from a variety of sources. It is therefore essential that this task be mastered by the aspiring researcher or lab technician. It is well documented that the effects of both saline and ethanol to the animal tissue have the desired isolation effects, however it is quite another thing to qualify these results into a meaningful argument that has scientific value and merit and can withstand the scrutiny of one's peers and fellow students.

Since plant life has so much more genetic material than animal material in this case the use of ethanol was demonstrated to be much more effective on the strawberry than the animal liver. When using the liver and manipulating it in its pellet form it is very necessary to use care and caution due to the pellet containing little genetic material that can be tested. This difference can be pointed to the…… [read more]

Vertebral Column Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (662 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


19). The same study presented data that found that mutations in MEOX1 is what causes the mutations.

Some of the more common deformations (as discussed above) are spina bifada, rachischisis, chromoda and scoliosis. Spina bifada is a condition where there is imperfect fusion of the neural embryonic arch. Neuonal tissues that can be covered by a thin membrane are exposed because of this. Rachischsis takes place when a complex group of anomalies and affect axial structures. What this means is that infants who suffer from rachischsis have neural folds that fail to fuse. Chromoda takes place when a malignant tumor develops and then infiltrates the vertebral bone. Once the tumor infiltrates the bone, it is very difficult to take out. Scoliosis takes place during the formation of the vertebral column and usually refers to when the vertebra do not fuse together in a correct manner.

Since the vertebral column consists of only 33 vertebrae (of which only nine are fused) and many of the defects discussed herein concern the incorrect fusing of these vertebraes, it would seem that additional research would be extremely useful in addressing these deformations. The most important job for the vertebral column is to protect the spinal cord, any maladies, deformations or uneven fusing of the vertebrae puts the spinal cord in a vulnerable situation.

This can be a serious scenario and one that should be addressed as quickly as possible, especially in infants who suffer from many of these afflictions.

Works Cited

Giampietro, P.F.; Raggio, C.L.; Reynolds, C.E.; Shukla, S.K.; McPherson, E.; Ghebranious, N.; Jacobsen, F.S.; Kumar, V.; Faciszewski, T.; Pauli, R.M.; Rasmussen, K.; Burmester, J.K.; Zaleski, C.; Merchant, S.; David, D.; Weber, J.L.; Glurich, I.; Blank, R.D.; (2005) An analysis of PAX1 in the development of vertebral malformations, Clinical Genetics, Vol. 68, Issue 5, pp. 448-453

Rosti, R.O.; (2013) Of mice, men, and King Tut: autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome is caused by mutations in MEOX1, Clinical Genetics, Vol. 84, Issue…… [read more]

Chimerism in Humans Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Chimerism in Humans

Chimerism comes from the term 'Chimera' which has been widely referenced in botanical regards for plants which have a couple or more tissues with dissimilar genetic arrangements. It results in an offspring which have two or more sets of cells which distinctly come from multiple zygotes. In mythological tales, the word 'Chimera' has also been to denote… [read more]

Benefits of Genetic Engineering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,134 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Genetic engineering is defined as a group of applied techniques of genetic and biotechnology that is used to cut up and join together genetic material, particularly DNA from one or more species of organism to promoted change in one or more of its characteristics. Unlike traditional breeding where genes are manipulated indirectly, genetic engineering employs molecular cloning and transformation to bring about the direct alteration of genetic characteristics and structure. Genetic engineering has been successfully employed various industries particularly the medical and agricultural ones (Fridell 37).

Genetic engineering can also be used to isolate genes, modify them in order to enable them function better, prepare genes to be inserted into a new species and also develop transgenes. Transgenic organisms are the ones which contain genes which have been altered and are from other organisms. Transgenics, the process, involves isolating the gene that is required from the other thousands of genes in the genome of the donor species gene-donor species. Once isolated, the gene is altered to enable it function in the host organism. It is combined with other genes in preparation for its introduction into the other organism whereby it becomes a transgene. A transgenic organism or chimera contains a transgene introduced into it through genetic engineering rather than by selective breeding.

Genetic engineering has played an important role in the agricultural field. Through transgenics, scientists develop organisms with traits that are rare to its species an example being developing of sunflowers that are mildew resistant and insect resistant cotton which in turn promote health through reduced use of insecticides and herbicides as well as making the food more nutritious. Transgenics have combinations that are either plant-animal-human combinations, animal-animal combinations or animal-human combinations (Glenn). Transgenic plants with human proteins are used to produce vaccines that are edible. The incorporation of human proteins into bananas, potatoes and tomatoes have enabled researchers create prototypes of vaccines that are edible and help in inoculation against hepatitis B, cholera and diarrhea which have proven successful in tests on agricultural animals and human subjects as well. Genetically modified foods can help in providing a solution for the problem of starvation by increasing the quantity whereby the characteristic of the species to enable it adapt to its environment and thereby increasing production. The quality of the food can also be increased through making it more nutritious an example being the developing of rice with heightened levels of vitamin a (Pimentel et al. 608).

Genetic engineering can enable reduce environmental degradation due to the amount of stress man puts on it in a bid to utilize naturally occurring resources. With trees being the most used resources, their genes can be altered to enable them grow faster, thereby being replaced as fast as they are used. They can also be altered to absorb more carbon dioxide and reduce the threats of global warming. An example of an animal-animal combination is whereby goats have had spider genes, responsible for the production of spider silk, introduced to them. Spider silk… [read more]

Genetic Structure of Indigenous African Hunter-Gatherers Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,366 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Following their abstract/introduction of their study, the authors described their selection of participants for their study of the genetic structure of the indigenous hunter-gatherer people of southern Africa. They based these choices for genome testing on the subject's linguistic group, the geographical location, and the Y-chromosome haplogroup representation. All the men were about 80 years old, from arid desert climates and geographically and within the distribution of the Khosian and Niger-Congo languages. Four indigenous hunter-gatherers were from Namibia and the Kalahari Desert, and each was the oldest member of his community. Northern Kalahari is the origin of three of these men, and Southern Kalahari is the origin of the fourth. Their language was Khoisan, which includes clicks for additional consonants. In the study, the participants were named KBI, NBI, TKI, and MD8. The Bantu subject, called ABT, was Archbishop Desmond Tutu from South Africa, representing the Sotho-Tswana and Nguni speakers. Tutu's Y chromosome was determined by genotyping and also by sequencing data from this study.

Because they expected the genomes of the subjects to diverge more from the human reference than from the publically-accessible genomes, the researchers tried to generate a genome sequence that would be of high-enough quality so it could be compared with both the human reference and de novo assembly. To achieve this, they sequenced the genome of each subject to high coverage, the sequence data were validated. Using the Phusion assembler, they created a de novo assembly.

The authors described their methods briefly and provided a Methods Summary. The article focused on their findings. All details are available in Supplementary Tables and Supplementary Information that are referenced in their article in Nature.

This style is suitable for a magazine like Nature, which publishes research in the natural sciences, including evolutionary biology, materials science, nanotechnology, genetics, and cancer research. It is read by scientists of many disciplines, who would be interested in the facts of studies on other disciplines, but would not be interested in the underlying statistics and details.


Single-nucleotide differences from the human reference genome assembly, or SNPs, were identified for the five southern African genomes and compared with those from eight available personal genomes. Here, the SNP does not include changes to a base, and there are no restrictions on the allele frequency in a population.

The large number of novel SNPs found in the study invites the question of whether the current genotyping arrays are able to capture the actual extent of genetic diversity and the haplotype structure of the hunter-gatherers in southern Africa. When researchers used current-content Illumina rays to assess the percentage heterozygosity for over 1 million autosomal SNPs, they found that subject KBI had lower heterozygosity than a European control subject in a matched region. This was a surprise because genetic diversity is highest in Africa. But an analysis of whole-genome sequencing data for participants KBI and ABT showed the expected high percentages of heterozygous SNPs. For KB1 it was 59% and it was 60% for ABT. This… [read more]

Newcombe Experiment Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … mutation that most probably occurred was a spontaneous mutation. The data support the hypothesis that the mutations are present in the culture prior to exposure to the selective agent. The data found supports that the resistance mutations were spontaneous, meaning that the mutations in the bacteria culture occurred prior to the addition of the selective agent. Spontaneous mutations are standing mutations caused by factors other than the selective agent.

These data reprise the Newcombe experiment. The Newcombe experiment is an experimental technique used in determining whether mutations that make bacterial colonies resistant to virulent phages are spontaneous occurrences or whether exposure of the bacteria to the phage causes the resistance to arise in cells. In this experiment, bacteria are examined and the colony count of surviving colonies is counted. The plates used contained undiluted bacteria exposed to the selective agent, one plate being respread.

When respreading one of the plates and exposing the bacteria to the selective agent, the expected result, if the mutation in the bacteria causing resistance to the selective agent is spontaneous, is that the number of colonies on the respread undiluted colony plate would be higher than that of the original non-respread plates. The colony number would be expected to be higher because if the plates contain spontaneously resistant bacteria, respreading the plates would then disperse these resistant bacteria and when incubated new resistant colonies would form from these resistant bacteria.

From these experimental data, the colony count for the respread plates was higher than that of the non-respread. The mutant concentration on the non-respread undiluted plates was 11750 mutants/ml and 17360 mutants/ml on the respread undiluted E. coli plates.…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Stem-Cell Research Is Immoral Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,484 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Ethics and Morality

Stem-Cell Research is Immoral

Stem cell research is a great debate subject, particularly for government representatives who are seeking reelection. Embryos that are only days old are frozen, and even though they are fertilized and can ultimately be set in a woman and a baby born, there is a discussion as to whether they are thought to… [read more]

Comparative Study of the Alternation of Generation Between Mosses and Ferns Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Alternation of Generation between Mosses and Ferns

Literature Review Chapter Introduction

This section will be used to introduce the chapter which presents a review of the relevant scholarly and peer-reviewed literature to provide a general background concerning the alternation of generation between mosses and ferns and the specific life cycles for these organisms. A brief summary of the… [read more]

Mutation Breeding of in Vitro Grown Begonia Rex and Analysis of Morphological Data Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,499 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


Mutation Breeding of in Vitro Grown Begonia Rex and Analysis of Morphological Data

The purpose of this study is to examine: (1) the wide spectrum of morphological variations induced by mutation breeding; (2) the effect of mutagenic agents (chemical mutagens) such as colchicine on mutation frequency; (3) the effect of the physiological state of explants material on mutation frequency; (4)… [read more]

Current Health Care Issue as it Relates to Public Administration Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,905 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Political Influence Over Stem Cell Research

Stem cell science holds tremendous potential to benefit the human condition by providing potential cures for myriad diseases and traumatic injuries. Together with the data contributed by the successful decoding of the entire human genome, medical applications of stem cell scientific research could conceivably end all human illness. However, political opposition to stem cell… [read more]

Anti-Social Behavior Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (328 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Anti Social Behavior

Personality is something that relates to one's predisposition to think, feel, and act in certain ways. Consequent to the formation of one's personality, his features will most probably remain the same across the respective individual's life. When concerning anti-social behavior, personality is a strong factor of influence. If one were to have a criminal-inclined personality, there is a big possibility that he or she would be inclined to perform criminal acts throughout their lives.

When concerning other factors which might lead to one behaving anti-social, personality is normally believed to have a smaller influence on the individual. However, emotionally instable people had been proved of being capable of displaying anti-social behavior. People's behavior is considered by the general public to be influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Various studies have proved that anti-social behavior is largely influenced by heredity, as genetics has been discovered to influence psychiatric outcomes.

Apparently, the surrounding environment can also manipulate a person into performing anti-social…… [read more]

Future of Human Evolution Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Genetic Load in Modern Humans

Especially given the concerns of over-population, the issue of saving human beings with genetically inherited (and therefore genetically passed on) diseases that untreated would be lethal appears to be growing in complexity. The issue has never been completely straightforward from a scientific viewpoint. Though medicine's primary goal is to improve the longevity and quality of life of individuals, it must also be concerned with the health of the human species and individual populations that comprise it. These two goals are often mutually achievable, but in the instance of genetic load, which refers to the number of lethal alleles (mutations/genetic coding at specific loci that cause fatal genetic diseases and defects) present in a population of a given species. In most cases that occur in nature, genetic load is kept relatively low without any effort: individual organisms that carry lethal alleles generally die before they are able to procreate, or at least have fewer offspring than those without the lethal allele, meaning that each successive generation will have each of that specific genetic disorder.

With human medicine and technology, however, many people with previously lethal genetic disorders are able to lead relatively normal lives, and can pass on their lethal alleles to their children. There is no doubt, then, that such practices increase the genetic load of the human species. This part of the issue is not up for debate, it is a logical fact. The more members of a species that survive to procreate nad pass on a lethal allele, the higher the presence of that allele will be in the next generation -- it's simple arithmetic. The question is whether or not this will have a negative impact on the evolution of the species and, if it is deemed that it will have such an impact, what can and should be done. Would it in fact be more ethical to let individuals with genetic disorders die to…… [read more]

Metaphysics Are We Free Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The problem of freedom and determinism, or the problem of free will refers to a logical conundrum: if "all events are caused" then "how can any human actions…be free?" (p. 395). Determinism does not presuppose the existence of a God or some personal force that arbitrarily creates a fate. Rather, determinism implies that human beings might not be aware of the antecedent causes of future events. Possible futures are caused by definite pasts. Free will cannot change the past, but free will can arguably change the future.

However, the problem of free will can be extended even to the realm of thought. Determinism may suggest that human beings are pre-programmed to make certain decisions: programmed by "antecedent factors over which we have no control," (p. 395). Thus, determinism applies not just to external causes but also to internal ones. Human nature or personality can be considered part of a deterministic worldview. The problem of free will therefore poses serious problems related to moral responsibility. Determinism can be interpreted to mean that people are not responsible for their actions. If people are not responsible for their actions because they have no control over their ability to make decisions, then determinism calls into question issues of personal accountability and even justice. If people are responsible for their actions and have full free will, then the law of causality is itself called into question.

2. Hard determinism assumes that "every event has a cause and that this fact is incompatible with free will," (p. 401). Free will is posited to be an illusion, one that "we maintain out of our desire to punish and blame others for wrong doing and to congratulate ourselves for doing the right thing," (p. 401). Genetics and environmental factors determine human actions and behaviors, according to hard determinism. Human beings do make choices in the course of their lives, but those…… [read more]

Biology Dunne, Vanessa and Maselli, Ricardo Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Dunne, Vanessa and Maselli, Ricardo a. (2004). Common founder effect of rapsyn N88K studied using intragenic markers. The Japan Society of Human Genetics and Springer-Verlag. 8 June 2004.

Many researchers believe that the rapsyn N88K gene, which has links to the preponderance of congenital myasthenic syndrome, is derived from a common founder effect, much as many other singularly associated genetic mutations. To date no definitive answer has been found in other research in regard to this hypothesis, but the authors of this article believe that by the use and observation of intragenic markers they may prove this to be the case.

Common founder effect is the minimization of a particular gene pool that creates a particular type of genetic drifting. This drifting in founder effect is caused by a limited number of original organisms in a startup population creating a restricted gene pool for its future descendants to draws from. This smaller population has the effect upon the descendants of a reduced genetic variation from the larger original gene pool. This also has the effect of creating a non-random sample of the genes, as opposed ot the wide variety of effect in the larger population. Founder effect creates a situation closer to hardy-Weinberg equilibrium than would otherwise be found.

The authors study was comprised of "…six patients with symptoms of CMS since birth from six independent families who carried the N88K mutation. Three patients were homozygous for the mutation, and three were heterozygous and carried a second mutation (L14P, 46 insC, orY269X)" (Dunne, & Maselli, 2005, p.367). Although this was certainly a rather small sample the group consisted of member from various genetic backgrounds. Two of the families were from Spain, one family was from India and Hindu and the other three families were of northern European descent. For intragenic markers they chose used seven intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 8 kb to characterize the haplotype that is associated with N88K. They were searching to discover if there was a common haplotype associated with the N88K mutation, which would support the hypothesis that the creation of the genetic stream was assisted by the founder effect. The Congenital myasthenic syndromes are specific to certain hereditary traits:

Congenital myasthenic syndromes…… [read more]

Genographic Project Using Strictly Online Sources Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Genographic Project

A Summary Of The Project:

Its sponsors. The Genographic Project is a 5-year research partnership is headed by Dr. Spencer Wells, National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence (the Genographic Project 1). Dr. Wells in collaboration with a team of international scientists and IBM researchers are using state-of-the-art genetic and computational technologies in an effort to identify the historical patterns that can be discerned from DNA samples collected from participants around the world in an effort to better understand humanity's collective genetic roots. According to IBM, the project is "a landmark five-year study in partnership with the National Geographic Society, to gather and analyze the largest number of human DNA samples to map how the earth was populated" (IBM transforms the art of scientific expeditions, 2005, p. 2).

Its mission/goals. The National Geographic Society states that the Genographic Project is intended to identify new knowledge concerning the migratory history of the human species by using sophisticated laboratory and computer analysis of DNA; these samples are being contributed by hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world (the Genographic Project 2). Their Society's Web site notes that, "In this unprecedented and real-time research effort, the Genographic Project is closing the gaps of what science knows today about humankind's ancient migration stories" (the Genographic Project 2-3).

Its process.

The Project's general process is comprised of three fundamental elements as follows:

To gather field research data in collaboration with indigenous and traditional peoples around the world;

To invite the general public to join the project by purchasing a Genographic Project Public Participation Kit; and,

To use proceeds from Genographic Public Participation Kit sales to further field research and the Genographic Legacy Fund which in turn supports indigenous conservation and revitalization projects (the Genographic Project 3).

Although the findings of the project hold some enormous commercial potential, the sponsors insist that the results of their efforts will be used solely for non-project purposes that also avoid any specific medical applications. For instance, the sponsors note that, "The Project is anonymous, non-medical, non-political, non-profit and non-commercial and all results will be placed in the public domain following scientific peer publication" (the Genographic Project 3).

The project is being facilitated by donations of sophisticated data-collection tools from its co-sponsor, IBM. In this regard, Loughran (2005) reports that the systems being used for field data collection consist of T42 Thinkpad laptops equipped with a custom data-gathering application that was specifically developed by IBM and the Genographic Project's principal investigators and custom-built by IBM's emerging technologies team (1). According to this author, "Research sites around the world are being equipped with specialized software to help researchers collect genetic data in remote locations and synchronize it with the master data repository" (Loughran 1-2). The customized field software captures the "context" data of DNA samples on a given expedition. it's designed so that dozens of languages and regions are acknowledged while cross populating other fields with related data, making collecting for a group of people in the same… [read more]

Human Cloning Is a Controversial Subject Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,456 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Human cloning is a controversial subject in today's world and for good reason. In a UNESCO report published in 2005 it is related that cloning" may seem to be a relatively recent laboratory phenomenon, but the word itself derives from antiquity: the Greek word klwn for 'twig'." In fact, the use of the term in the beginning was applicable to… [read more]

1234. . .
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.