Study "Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays 56-110

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Genome-Wide Gene Expression Analysis Article Review

… Genome-Wide Gene Expression Analysis in Cancer Cells reveals 3D Growth to Affect ECM and Processes Associated with Cell Adhesion but not DNA Repair

Oliver Zschenkera, Thomas Streichertb, Stephanie Hehlgansa, and Nils Cordesa, c aOncoray -- National Center for Radiation Research… [read more]

Genetics Based on the Resulting Book Report

… Although many mutations result in a loss of function or expression, there are exceptions. For example, the gap-junction protein connexin 26 is encoded by a gene susceptible to both germ-line and somatic mutations leading to deafness (Welch, Marin, Pandya, and Amos 1567). Most of the 100 deafness-linked mutations in this gene are autosomal recessive, but a few are dominant.

Experiment 3

The parental cross alone could not have revealed whether these two traits segregate independently, but the ratios resulting from the F1 cross for both traits suggest that each is segregating independently of one another. This is confirmed by doing a chi square test on the results, as shown in the table below.




Obs - Exp



























Chi Square

Sum =


The resulting chi square sum is non-significant for three degrees of freedom, therefore there is no difference between the results and that predicted for Mendelian traits segregating independently.

Experiment 4

Incomplete dominance for flower color is supported non-pink parents resulting in an all pink F1 generation and 50% pink F2 generation. Complete dominance would not have resulted in any pink flowers. The genotypes of all the phenotypes are as follows: Red = FRFR; Pink = FRFW, FWFR; White = FWFW. Incomplete dominance can be shown by comparing the results of the F1 generation with what would be predicted if complete dominance were controlling the inheritance of this trait. The results are shown in the table below.




Obs - Exp



















Chi Square

Sum =


The chi square obtained from this comparison is off the charts in… [read more]

Forensics Techniques- Forensics Developments Research Paper

… ¶ … Forensics Techniques-

Forensics Developments

Several recent development have taken place within the field of forensics relating to the usage of DNA as possible evidence and deterrents for crime and its prevention. Although the basic concept of DNA usage remains principally the same (and is largely based on the fact that there are inherent genetic factors and attributes in people that distinguish them from others), some of these more recent developments very well may provide a considerable degree of assistance in forensics work. Several of these developments were pioneered overseas and reflect individual efforts of states to propagate the study of forensics and its applicable uses. In particular, the Netherlands has produced some fairly significant developments, including what is touted as the recently discovered ability to predict hair color.

Whereas previous efforts in the field of forensic DNA were only able to predict the hair color of redheads, this most recent development appears to include all types of colors of hair. However, a team of scientists at Holland's Erasmus University Medical Center have demonstrated a propensity for "using 13 markers in 11 genes" to denote someone's hair color (Kayser 2011). The ramifications of this development, of course, are fairly considerable for the field of forensics. If sufficient DNA is procured from a crime scene, this technique can determine what sort of hair color a potential perpetrator may have had, and effectively narrow down a list of suspects.

Another fairly recent developed technique that applies to forensics DNA usage was related to the efforts of Dan Vorhuas. Vorhaus was involved in efforts to utilize the DNA from non-human entities, such as pets or "bodily bacteria signature" from a potential perpetrator to determine evidence related to the profile of such intimate acquaintances of a suspect. Partly based upon this research, there are devices employed throughout various industries in Holland that incorporate this principle.… [read more]

DNA Evidence DNA as Evidence Organisms Research Paper

… DNA Evidence

DNA as Evidence

Organisms on planet Earth use DNA as their genetic blueprint, and each individual organism, including humans, have a DNA sequence that is unique to that individual. That means even within the same species, which share a high percentage of DNA similarity, each individual still has a unique DNA profile. With the discovery of DNA technology, the science of forensics has incorporated DNA technology into the identification of criminal suspects with increasing regularity. But how a suspect's DNA is discovered, linked to the crime scene, and used as a means of identification is an important aspect to the use of DNA in forensics.

Each individual organism possesses a unique DNA signature that can be used as a means of identification. By scanning 13 separate DNA regions within the genome, it is possible to "create a DNA profile of that individual (sometimes called a DNA fingerprint)." ("DNA Forensics") DNA fingerprinting was first investigated by Alec Jeffreys, an English scientist who, in 1985, developed a technique to use DNA as a means of performing human identification. ("History of Forensic DNA Analysis")

Since this time, the use of DNA as a means of identification has grown exponentially, especially among law enforcement, and there are currently hundreds of laboratories that perform DNA identification for such things as paternity tests or criminal investigations.

In the realm of forensics, DNA has been successfully collected and analyzed from such substances as blood or bloodstains, semen, tissues and cells, bones and organs, hairs and hair follicles, as well as urine and saliva. (Catalin, p.2) These things can be collected from such items as weapons, hats, bandannas, eyeglasses, dirty laundry, used cigarettes, stamps or envelopes, used condoms, bed linens, as well as panties or even the body of a crime victim (as in the case of rape). (Catalin, pp.3-4) it is important that these samples be collected as soon as possible as there is the concern of sample contamination or degradation caused by prolonged exposure. In the case of blood, for example, liquid blood must be stored with a proper anti-coagulant to maintain the blood's liquidity. For other blood samples, they must be dried (if still wet), then placed separately in their own sealed containers, labeled properly as to when and where the sample was collected, and stored in a… [read more]

Technology and Social Responsibility Research Paper

… " (Fukuyama, 2002) Fukuyama states that this type of technology should be regulated by governmental bodies and although "biotechnology is clearly unlike nuclear technology, whose destructive potential was immediately clear and war from the outset tightly rigged with political controls."… [read more]

Genomics and Genetics in Nursing Essay

… Podcasts by experts in their respective fields can be found here, covering a wide variety of topics that could prove informative for scientists, medical professionals, and the public. Family medical history tools and an excellent discussion of the utility and limitations of genetic testing are also provided. The wealth of information is considerable and there is a noticeable effort to interpret genetic research findings and genetic testing results conservatively, thereby discouraging patients and medical professionals alike from over interpreting the value and reliability of such results.

The National Human Genome Research Institute (2011b) provides a website that lists the links to a series of articles published in the Journal for Nursing Scholarship over a two-year period beginning in June 2005. These articles are written by professionals in the nursing field with training and experience in using genetics and genomics in the care of patients. The intended audience is nursing students, practicing nurses, nursing educators, and nursing scholars. Many of the articles provide case examples of how genetics and/or genomics can be used in the care setting, while others provide an in depth look at the current state of the technology, including its advantages and limitations. Policy issues, ethical considerations, privacy concerns, educational competencies, and future directions in genetics and genomics are some of the other topics discussed.

In summary, the information provided by these three websites is both authoritative and current, which should provide some measure of comfort for medical professionals who rely on this information when providing care and when referring the websites to patients seeking additional information about a disease or the potential implications of their family medical history.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Public health genomics. Retrieved from

National Human Genome Research Institute. (2011a). Genetics and genomics for patients and the public. Retrieved from

National Human Genome Research Institute. (2011b). Genetics and genomics in nursing. Retrieved from [read more]

Genetic Engineering Term Paper

… The Enogen would produce ethanol at a rapid and efficient rate, the product being an important industrial commodity (Pollack, 2011).

Of course, with such a fledgling science -- that is, genetic engineering -- the wariness and the concerns are rather high. Some argue about the side effects after a genetic alteration: the mice's aberrant increase in violence might also be similar should geneticists alter the same gene in the human DNA (Bhanoo, 2011). Others are concerned about the spreading of the genetically modified plants into normally or organically grown organisms; there is concern that as much as one altered corn kernel can destroy the consistency of starch from thousands of regular corn kernels (Pollack, 2011).

The authors are of the same mind when it comes to the pros and cons of genetically engineered organisms: that while there are definitely some highly-valuable discoveries and uses for genetically altered crops and animals, there are also downsides and safety concerns that should be further studied. The studies have shown that there are knowable theories on side effects due to genetic alterations, and some might even be harmful. Yet the researches do not seem highly conclusive. Further studies should be undertaken over the prospect of genetically altered organisms and whether there are long-term side effects in both organically-grown plants and humans who consume said genetically modified substances.

Works Cited

Bhanoo, Sindya N. "Altering a Mouse Gene Turns Up Aggression, Study Says." The New York Times [New York] 27 Jan. 2011, Science sec. Print.

Bittman, Mark. "Why Aren't G.M.O. Foods Labeled?" The New York Times [New York] 15 Feb. 2011, Opinionator sec. Print.

Pollack, Andrew. "U.S. Approves Corn Modified for Ethanol." The New York Times [New York] 11 Feb. 2011, Business Day sec. Print.

Pollack, Andrew. "U.S. Says Farmers May Grow Engineered Sugar Beets." The New York Times [New York] 4 Feb.… [read more]

Transposable Elements and Horizontal Gene Term Paper

… , 2009). The D. willistoni Wip strain has a P. element inserted into a heterochromatic (transcriptionally inactive) region of the genome, while the D. willistoni 17A2 strain has a P. element inserted into a euchromatic (transcriptionally active) region of the genome. This study with therefore provide a survey of P. element transposase and repressor expression patterns among these different strains.


Surprisingly, only the D. willistoni strains expressed a full length P. element transcript. Although both the repressor and transposase transcripts were expressed, the concentration varied drastically between the two strains. The RT-PCR products from D. melanogaster embryos migrated at unexpected positions in agarose gels and sequencing revealed duplications and low sequence conservation. RT-PCR amplification using sense primers revealed the presence of possible P. element antisense RNA molecules in both D. melanogaster and D. willistoni.


The findings of this study suggest multiple mechanisms may be involved in regulating P. element mobility during fruit fly embryogenesis, including the expression of repressor proteins and anti-sense RNA molecules, and a repressive chromatin state. The detection of both transposase and the repressor transcripts by RT-PCR is probably due to using RNA preparations from whole embryos that contain both germ cells and somatic cells.


Although the above study was limited in scope, the ability of the PCR primers to amplify products of distinct lengths suggests P. element intronic and exonic sequence has been highly conserved between D. melanogaster and D. willistoni species. Primer sets also produced dramatically different product sizes, which Blauth et al. (2009) explained as the product of alternative splicing. An alternative explanation for this result has been provided by an in depth analysis of the Helicon TE superfamily in a variety of organisms from insects to vertebrates (Jainy et al., 2010). In spite of the considerable evolutionary distance between some of the species included in this study, sequencing revealed high levels of Helicon conservation (80-97%) regardless of whether the comparison was between little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and fruit flies (D. willistoni), or between Drosophila subgroups.

Jainy et al. (2010) proposed that the high levels of sequence conservation and TE fragmentation is the result of recent horizontal transfer. They argued that positive selection pressures would have preserved not only the sequence, but also prevented fragmentation of the elements. The combination of high sequence conservation and fragmentation is therefore consistent with a relatively recent transposition event that could only have occurred through horizontal gene transfer. If we rely on this explanation to explain the unexpected PCR product sizes generated by amplifying D. melanogaster embryo RNA, rather than alternative splicing, then the P. element(s) that produced these products were probably acquired through horizontal gene transfer as well.


Blauth, Monica L., Bruno, Rafaela V., Abdelhay, Eliana, Loreto, Elgion L.S., and Valente, Vera L.S. (2009). Detection of P. element transcripts in embryos of Drosophila melanogaster and D. willistoni. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 81: 679-689.

Feschotte, Cedric and Pritham, Ellen J. (2007). DNA transposons and the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. Annu. Rev.… [read more]

James Dewey Watson the Discovery Essay

… Unfortunately for the distinguished scientist, Watson made racial comments, meant to be purely scientific in nature, but displayed an insensitivity which could not be forgiven socially. In the modern politically correct world, filled with those who will not tolerate anything they feel is racist, Watson's comments resulted in the only ending that could have happened, with his professional ruin.

Overall, James Watson was one of the greatest scientists in American History, making one of the greatest discoveries in the history of mankind. His discovery of the structure of DNA has made possible the understanding of the mechanism of genetics. By discovering the structure of the DNA molecule, other scientists have been able to discover how DNA works, how it replicates, how it transcribes it's information, etc., which has led to the creation of an entirely new field of science, Molecular Genetics. From this one discovery, scientists in the modern world can now understand the mechanisms of certain diseases and abnormalities, it has allowed the creation of genetically modified agricultural products, DNA identification, cloning, new treatments for illnesses, and the possibilities are endless. The best way to describe James Watson's discovery of DNA is to say that it was as important to biology as Newton's discovery of gravity was to physics.

Works Cited

"Biography James Watson." Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.

"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.

"James D. Watson, Ph.D." Academy of Achievement. Academy of Achievement. Web 14 April 2011.

"James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin" Chemical Heritage Foundation. Web. 14 April. 2011. history/themes/biomolecules/dna/watson-crick-wilkins-franklin.aspx

Milmo, Cahal. "Fury at DNA pioneer's theory: Africans are less intelligent that Westerners." The Independent. The Independent. 17 Oct. 2007. Web 14 April 2011.

"Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA" A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries. Web. 14 April. 2011.

Watson, James, D. "Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science" Google books. Google. 2007. Web. 14 April 2011.

Wolf, George. "Friedrich Miescher, The Man Who Discovered DNA" Bizgraphic. 2003. Web. 15 April 2011.

Wright. Robert. "Molecular Biologists Watson & Crick." Time Magazine. 29 Mar. 1999. Web. 14 April 2011.,9171,990626,00.html [read more]

Natural Science Concepts Essay

… Natural Science Concepts

PART 1-Scientific Concept

One specific scientific phenomenon for which our understanding has changed over time based on new knowledge / learning / information / understanding is represented by genetics. This discipline, just like the names suggests it,… [read more]

Micrornas (Mirnas) Belong to a Newly-Appreciated Research Paper

… MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a newly-appreciated and diverse class of small, regulatory, 21-25 nucleotide RNAs (Ke and al). They are endogenous, exist across many species from bacteria to mammals, and perform various regulatory functions related to physiology and development (He and Hannon). Defects in miRNA processing at the embryonic level in mammals are often lethal (Pasquinelli, Hunter and Bracht).


The first miRNAs, lin-4 and its opposing phenotype lin-14, were discovered in 1993 through a mutagenesis screening involving post-embryonic development in the roundworm C. Elegans (He and Hannon). C. Elegans go through four larval stages; mutations in lin-4 affect regulatory timing and cause certain "cell-division patterns" from the first larval stage to repeat in later stages (He and Hannon). This operation takes place as a result of "antagonistic genetic interactions" between lin-4 and lin-14.Since then hundreds of miRNAs have been discovered to be involved in processes using "antisense complementarity to inhibit expression of specific mRNAs (He and Hannon; Pasquinelli, Hunter and Bracht). Lin-4 is actually a small temporal RNA (stRNA), found to be a prototype of the abundant and varied miRNAs found across many species from plants to mammals (He and Hannon). It is already known that 2% of "known human genes encode microRNAs" (Miska).


In vertebrates, several stepwise processes are involved in the biogenesis of miRNA. First, miRNAs are "coded in genomes and formed into hairpin RNAs" (Fang and James). The mature miRNA is then generally formed from "one arm of the precursor hairpin," and released from the primary transcript (priRNA) through "stepwise processing by two ribonuclease-III (RNase III) enzymes -- Drosha and Dicer (He and Hannon). In the second process involved in miRNA biogenesis, the enzyme Argonaute is involved in genetic and biochemical factors. Specifically, the "duplex miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) are transferred to pre-micro-ribonucleoprotein (pre-miRNP), a multi-protein -- RNA complex whose constituents include Argonaute and RNA helicase" (Ke and al). In a third stage, pre-miRNAs are unwound into single strands by cofactors, releasing miRNP. Finally, miRNAs within miRNPs locate their RNA targets (Ke and al).


miRNAs have multiple known functions, and several recent studies indicate their roles may be even more varied than previously thought. Known functions include: regulation of developmental transition between the first and second, and fourth to adult larval stages in C. Elegans; "promotion of cell proliferation, regulation of fat metabolism, and suppression of apoptosis in the fruit fly D. Melanogaster"; and "promotion of haematopoietic differentiation" in the house mouse M. Musculus (He and Hannon). In some plants, miRNAs are necessary for the regulation of leaf morphogenesis, floral-organ identity and flowering time (He and Hannon).

In addition, some proposed functions of miRNAs involve: embryonic eye, tail, neuronal, and muscle development in mice; hematopoiesis of the brain, lung, bone marrow, spleen, and thymus in vertebrates and some mammals;… [read more]

Recent Advances Within the Last 10 Years in the Treatment of Muscular Dystrophy Term Paper

… Advances in Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a genetic disorder that results in progressive muscular degeneration particularly those of the skeletal system (Dalkilic and Kunkel, 2003). MD impacts both skeletal and cardiac muscles which can result in… [read more]

DNA and Genetic Testing Lab Report

… ¶ … Lab Report Template (Save as: YourName_Module#_Report.doc)

An experiment was conducted to determine if DNA could be extracted from the leaf of a common weed. It was hypothesized that following proper procedures with this leaf sample would prove successful, and this hypothesis was confirmed.

DNA testing is used for a variety of applications today. DNA tests on humans are used to establish paternity during lawsuits and in other disputes (the Maury show accounting for a substantial percentage of these paternity tests), and can also be used to establish lineage to a much greater degree, even tracing individuals back to specific regions of ancestry (Fuller 2010). This use of DNA has brought a greater sense of identity to many individuals, including those whose answers were forcibly removed form their homelands, as is the case with many African-Americans.

This is not the only use for DNA, however. Forensic scientists and law enforcement can also use DNA testing to identify victims and suspects of crime (HGP 2010). Blood, hair, and even saliva can all be used to extract and identify DNA, which can be a major assistance to law enforcement in helping to solve crimes (HGP 2010). Identifying plant DNA could potentially be as useful in certain circumstances, insofar as providing clues to crime and establishing plant lineages -- the applications are virtually endless. This experiment will help to demonstrate the enormous ease with which DNA knowledge and clues can be obtained.

Materials and Methods:

In addition to a single leaf from a common garden weed (a dandelion), the necessary supplies for this experiment included a small quantity of salt (less than 1 mL), 200 mL of cold water, 30 mL of common liquid detergent, a bottle of contact lens solution (fewer than thirty drops in all were used), and approximately 300 mL of isopropyl alcohol. Five test tubes, a common kitchen blender, a glass beaker, a strainer, and several cotton sticks were also utilized.

The experiment was conducted as follows:… [read more]

Electronic Health Records (EHR) -- Pharmacy Hemophilia Term Paper

… Electronic Health Records (EHR) -- Pharmacy


Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder in which a person's blood will not clot normally. This may cause a person with the disease to bleed longer than normal following an injury, or can also… [read more]

Nature and Nurture the Relatively Recent Development Thesis

… ¶ … Nature and Nurture

The relatively recent development of DNA sciences have contributed greatly to our understanding human behavior, physiology, and heredity. Genetic sequencing and the myriad offshoots of the earlier-than-expected Human Genome Project shortly after the turn of… [read more]

Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most ATP? Thesis

… ¶ … aerobic respiration produces the most ATP? Describe how this process works including where the entering molecules came from, the cellular location and how the ATP is produced.

Although some ATP nucleotide is produced via substrate-level phosphorylation, the majority… [read more]

Hermaphrodite Is an Organism Term Paper

… Once a hermaphrodite has mated with a male, the sperm from the male are used preferentially over the sperm made by the hermaphrodite. This form of self-fertilization means that a hermaphrodite carrying a recessive mutation will automatically produce animals homozygous for that mutation, as one-quarter of its progeny, according to standard Mendelian principles. As a result, screening for mutants is made much easier, because there is no need to set up specific crosses in order to generate homozygotes. (Hope, 1999; Kaplan, 2006)

Normally, populations of this animal consist almost entirely of diploid self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. which each produce a limited number of sperm and a larger number of oocytes. Both types of gametes result from conventional meiosis with about one crossover event per chromosome. (Hope, 1999, p. 247)

In higher order species such as animals and humans, "hermaphroditism" is the technical term denoting the presence of both testicular and ovarian tissue. Within the human species, an individual organism is a true hermaphrodite when it possesses, "a DNA chromosome karyotype of 46 XX/XY (mosaic) independently of one's external appearance. Hermaphrodites have two separate chromosome karyotypes, similar to Siamese twins sharing one body. This can happen when two fecundated gametes merge." (Corazza, 2004, p. 368)

True hermaphrodism in human beings does not exist, but pseudohermaphrodism does, where an individual has both male and female external genital organs, sometimes at the same time. This condition has been met with various degrees of shock and confusion by most people, doctors included. Surgeon Franz Neugebauer also believed that, in addition to being a fairly regular problem, pseudohermaphrodism was a particularly serious problem.

He named as a principal aim of his communication the desire to impress upon his British colleagues "the grave consequences of an erroneous determination of sex, and the frequency of such mistakes in ordinary practice." Similar articles were published by Neugebauer in the French medical press, and perhaps British and French practitioners of the time needed to be admonished that "[t]he number of cases in which the surgeon is confronted by pseudohermaphrodism is much larger than is generally supposed. (Dreger, 1998, p. 15)

So while the hermaphrodite exists naturally in nature in many forms and is part of an organisms environmental coping mechanism in many cases, in humans the concept is often met with misunderstanding and even fear. The genetic component in humans and other higher organism is considered a genetic mutation.


Corazza, E. (2004). Reflecting the Mind: Indexicality and Quasi-Indexicality. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Dreger, A.D. (1998). Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hope, Ian A. (1999) C. elegans: a practical approach. London: Oxford University Press.

Kaplan, J. (2006). Misinformation, Misrepresentation and Misuse of Human Behavioral Genetics Research. Law and Contemporary Problems, 69(1-2), 47-59.

Omoto, C.K., & Lurquin, P.F. (2004). Genes and DNA: A Beginner's Guide to Genetics and Its Applications. New York: Columbia University Press.

Roughgarden, J. (2004).… [read more]

Relative Importance of Heredity and Environment Essay

… Heredity vs. environment

When discussing the impact of heredity vs. environment, heredity almost invariably seems to 'win' when one considers the impact of genetic diseases, or lack thereof, on an individual's life. A person born with Downs' Syndrome because of an extra chromosome in his or her genetic code will have a vastly different way of perceiving his or her environment than someone who does not. In the case of schizophrenia, a debilitating mental disease, the risk of developing the illness is 10% greater if one has a relative with the illness, versus the risk for the general population, which is about 1%. An identical twin raised in the same household has a 60% likelihood of developing schizophrenia as his or her sibling (Cloninger, 2009).

Yet -- the real surprise about this figure is that "about 40% of the co-twins of a schizophrenic live completely normal lives without disease," despite having the same genetic material and upbringing as their affected twin (Cloninger, 2009). Clearly, environment has some impact on the development of the human psyche. And a child who… [read more]

Histone H2AX Term Paper

… Histone H2AX

In the study of biology, histones are the main, large and organic compounds made of amino acids that are considered as among the most important elements of chromatin. Chromatin is the compound and compact form of deoxyribonucleic acid… [read more]

Biology - Genetic Engineering: Applications Term Paper

… Biology - Genetic Engineering


Genetic engineering is the process of deliberately changing the genetic material of an organism by manipulating its deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecular structure for the purpose of transmitting those specifically designed changes… [read more]

Cell Biology for Knockout Mice Experiments With Diabetes Term Paper

… Cell Biology for Knockout Mice Experiments With Diabetes

Genetic engineering holds some real promise for curing the diseases that afflict mankind and for extending human lives. To further these genetic investigations, scientists use knockout mice in an effort to determine… [read more]

Sickle Cell Anemia Term Paper

… Sickle Cell Anemia

There are a number of hereditary anemias, which feature disorders of the structure or synthesis of hemoglobin, deficiencies of enzymes which provide energy to red blood cells or protect the red blood cells from damage, or abnormalities… [read more]

Cloning Benefits Term Paper

… ¶ … Cloning

History and Background of Cloning.

Possible Negative Consequences and their Consequences.

Alternative Solutions.

Rebuttals of Opponents.


An Analysis of the Potential Benefits of Cloning

The ongoing heated debates concerning the ethical aspects of using human stem-cells,… [read more]

How Do Genes Influence Behavior? Term Paper

… ¶ … Genes Influence Behavior

My friend Jennifer smokes about a pack of cigarettes a day. Despite constant nagging from her friends and her family and her own stated desire to quit, she is unable to break her smoking addiction. She is very concerned that smoking causes serious health consequences and even death. In the past, she has quit for short periods of time. But, then she encounters some stress in her life that she claims causes her to start smoking again. Jennifer states that cigarettes help calm her nerves. Is Jennifer's smoking habit attributable to her own lack of will power or is there something else going on? Some scientists now believe that people are genetically predisposed to their habits such as smoking. However, the jury is still out on whether or not this can actually be proved.

The goal of research on genes and behavior is to discover genes that affect brain functions that in turn affect how people interact with their environments (Azar, 2002). But, the research is very complex because many genes are responsible for various aspects of people's temperament. According to Azar (2002), genes appear to interact with each other in complicated ways that influence several traits at once -- and then likely only in very subtle ways, with any one gene likely accounting for only one or two percent of the variance in a trait. This means that hundreds of genes potentially influence each of our personality traits. However, there are only two candidate genes related to behavior that scientists can understand with any degree of confidence (Azar, 2002). The first gene is a dopamine receptor called DRD4 that may have a link to novelty seeking behavior. The second is a serotonin transporter gene called 5-HTTLPR that may be linked to neuroticism and additional anxiety-related traits such as harm avoidance.

Despite the difficulties of linking… [read more]

Thomas Morgan Term Paper

… Thomas Hunt Morgan was an American pioneer in the fields of genetics and embryology. He is best known for his studies of mutation in Drosophila melanogaster, more commonly known as the fruit fly. Morgan's studies on mutations among the fruit flies showed that genes were carried in chromosomes, and therefore, genes were the basis of heredity. Morgan's work formed the basis for the modern study of genetics. In recognition of his achievements, Morgan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933.

Early influences

Morgan was born on September 25, 1866, to a family that was considered southern royalty. He was descended from illustrious families, with ancestors including Confederate General John Hunt Morgan, millionaire John Wesley Hunt and great-grandfather Francis Scott Key. However, the family's fortune turned after the Civil War, and lost much of their property (Allen 2000).

This experience partially pushed Morgan into the sciences, rather than the political and business pursuits of his family. Morgan entered the State College of Kentucky at the age of 16, where he studied natural history. During the summer, Morgan also worked with the federal geological survey. He earned his Bachelor of Science in 1886, graduating as class valedictorian (Allen 2000).

Morgan decided to pursue graduate studies in Biology, and entered Johns Hopkins University, one of the few universities at the time that had an extensive biology program. It was here that Morgan met and studied under famed embryologist and morphologist William Keith Brooks. Under Brooks' tutelege, Morgan was able to undertake experimental work and was able to co-author several important publications. Despite tight finances, Morgan was able to secure a fellowship large enough to help him finance his studies. He eventually earned his Doctorate in Philosophy in 1890 (Allen 2000).

Work in embryology year after earning his PhD, Morgan accepted a teaching position at Bryn Mawr College. It was here where he began to analyze the development of embryos from separated blastomeres. His work also included the study of fertilization in nucleated and non-nucleated egg fragments (Shine and Wrobel 1976). In addition to fueling his professional work, Bryn Mawr was also where Morgan met graduate student Lillian V. Sampson, a cytologist and embryologist who eventually became his wife.

The early 20th century ushered in considerable interest in Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, and Morgan was no exception. While Morgan agreed with evolution as a given, he wanted to know more about how natural selection occurs. The future Nobel Prize winner was interested in further explanations on the role of heredity in the transmission of variations among the species.

Morgan was also interested in… [read more]

Nature Verses Nurture One of the Arguments Term Paper

… Nature Verses Nurture

One of the arguments that have now been raised by the discovery of genes is the question whether our behavior in future life is determined by the genes that we are born with, or the way that… [read more]

Cloning Our Group Is a Morally Committed Term Paper

… Cloning

Our group is a morally committed organization that has had many successes in preventing various actions and activities when those activities raise moral objections. Among these would be our efforts to lobby for increased recognition of family rights so… [read more]

History of Embryology Term Paper

… These mutant genes, however, were considered to be alleles at the same locus. The answer to this genetic quandary was to be found in the embryology of the mouse (Burian et al.).

The effect of the two alleles T. And… [read more]

Chronic Wasting Disease in Nebraska Term Paper

… Human Gene Therapy - the Molecular Band-Aid

What is gene therapy?

How does it work?

Clinical Trials

Recent Developments

Concern for the Future.

The key to Gene Therapy, according to Kay Crabtree, is in targeting the right cells. The areas that science has discovered gene therapy a possibility in science for are in the area of genetic disorders, cancer, peripheral vascular disease, arthritis and neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic engineering began in 1932 at the 6th International Congress of Genetics focusing on plants and animals, according to Crabtree and the decade of the 1960's saw the establishment of Gene Transfer, a process of inserting cultured cells through aid of viral vectors. The decade of the 1970's transfection into cultured cells with recombinant DNA began and by the 1980's Retroviral vector transfer came into being which increased the efficiency in transfection. 1990 was the year that the first human trial was performed using Gene Therapy.

Not only is the targeting of the correct cells key in the process of Gene Therapy but also vital is the activation of the gene in order to gain a look into the gene itself as well as integration of the gene in order that the gene will replicate and stay put in the cell. Finally, the avoidance of harmful side effects of toxicity, cell death, tolerance by the cell or even organism death must be minimized as much as scientifically possible.

Crabtree also reviewed the vectors used in the transfer are those of the "Viral Vectors" which are the: "Retrovirus" "Adenovirus" "Adenoassociated" and the "Herpes Simplex" virus. Lipsomes as well as the Non-Viral Vectors. The question is asked by Crabtree, " What is a dominant negative mutation? The Answer: A mutated gene produces a mutated protein that… [read more]

Evolution and Genetic Drift Term Paper

… " (Lewis, 244).

The Old Order Amish of Pennsylvania mate within their own community, and seldom involve the outside community. This loss of genetic diversity has led to a higher incidence of certain inherited diseases within Amish communities. For example, the founder effect in the Amish settlement has caused a variety of conditions, such as dwarfism and Crigler-Najjar syndrome, where the body can't break down bilirubin. Maple Syrup Urine Disease is much more common in the Amish, as is Homocystinuria, where an individual's blood vessels are damaged. In the case of polydactyly, where a person has extra digits, the prevalence among the Amish is much higher. "Today, thanks to large families and restricted marriages, the number of cases of polydactyly among the Amish exceeds the total number in the rest of the world." (Lewis, 246).

The Afrikaner population in South Africa was settled by a small group of immigrants from Holland, France and Germany. This population has very high rates of porphyria variegata. Due to very precise record-keeping, researchers have been able to determine that "all affected people descended from one couple who came from Holland in 1688!...this couple had many children - who, in turn, had large families, passing on and amplifying the dominant gene." (Lewis, 246). Similar founder effects are also seen in the Ashkenazim, and Finns, who have less genotypic diversity than the larger population, likely because their ancestors were from a small original community.

Another type of genetic drift that occurs to alter allele frequencies is the "population bottleneck." This occurs when much of a particular group is wiped out, and the few remaining individuals are left to build up the colony. The result is a small genetic contribution to subsequent generations.

A population bottleneck occurs when the size of a genetically diverse population drastically falls, remains at this level for a time, and then expands again. The new population loses some of its genetic diversity if different alleles are lost in the bottleneck event. (Lewis, 247).

Population bottlenecks have led to genetic drift in both human and animal populations.

The cheetah population is a very genetically uniform species. This is believed to be because of two population bottlenecks, one that occurred at the end of the ice age, and one due to a slaughter of cheetahs in the 1800s. Today's cheetah populations are so genetically similar that a skin graft from one individual won't be rejected by another "unrelated" individual.

Population bottlenecks are also seen in European Jewish populations, where massacres reduced the population size. Prevalence of diseases such as Tay-Sachs Disease are consequently much higher in these communities.

Genetic drift is a critical component of evolution. Along with natural selection, genetic drift works to ensure genetic variety in all species. "The two most important mechanisms of evolution are natural selection and genetic drift. Most people have a reasonable understanding of natural selection but they don't realize that drift is also important." (Moran, paragraph 1). Although certain consequences of genetic drift, such as a higher… [read more]

Cystic Fibrosis. There Are Eleven Term Paper

… On the cellular level, cystic fibrosis patients find a "particular cell protein can not do its job and fight off bacterial infection. A genetic error deletes a single amino acid, which is just one of 15-hundred that make up the… [read more]

Genetic Screening Term Paper

… In forensic testing, individuals are screened in order to determine a genetic link between suspects and evidence that comes from police investigations. Results of these tests are admissible in courts, and have been used to conclusively establish guilt or innocence (McCarrick).

Susceptibility testing is used to help identify individuals that are the most at risk (or susceptible) to certain disorders. For example, workers can be screened for susceptibility to toxic substances in the workplace that can cause specific disorders. It is estimated that about 390,000 susceptible workers are disabled by occupational illnesses each year, while many of their non-susceptible co-workers are unaffected (McCarrick).

Common Misconceptions

Within the general public, genetic screening is often seen as a "magical" way to predict, and somehow prevent, disease. Notes McCarrick, "the 'too-hopeful' general public has assigned a degree of scientific certainty to the as yet preliminary genetic findings for AD (Alzheimer's disease), and that teaching critical thinking skills about genetic testing to the general public is of the highest priority."

Similarly, confusion about the role of genetic screening and its relationship with contentious issues like cloning has created a great deal of public confusion. Genetic screening is often seen as a technique that can give unwanted and unprecedented control over human biology and procreation.

Social and Ethical Issues

Genetic screening is often opposed on the grounds that it interferes with the individuals' rights to procreate. As such, a great deal of debate rages as to whether genetic screening is a private responsibility or should be a public health responsibility. Often, the cost of many genetically identifiable disorders to society is profound. Approximately 21,000 babies are born in the U.S. each year with chromosomal abnormalities. Worldwide, the cost of caring for these births is about $40 billion over 20 years. As such, it is clear that genetic disorders exert a financial cost on society as a whole. However, this financial cost must be balanced carefully with the individual rights of potential parents in determining their own reproductive agenda. (Miller).

In addition, there is a great deal of debate about the use of genetic screening in pre- and post- employment examinations. These examinations would identify genetic predisposition for workplace health hazards. While these screenings would certainly prevent susceptible individuals from potential workplace hazards. However, Miller disagrees "with mandatory occupational screening based on the risk that responsibility for disease or injury may be shifted to the worker making it possible for them to fall victim to discrimination."

Further, prenatal screening is often tied closely to the debate over abortion. For many, prenatal genetic screening can be used as a way to justify abortion. However, others argue that abortions based on genetic screening may prevent a great deal of suffering and disease. Further, amniocentesis that predicts the sex of a child creates another controversy over potential abortions based on sex discrimination (Miller).


In conclusion, while the scientific basis of genetic screening is easily understandable, the social and ethical issues surrounding genetic screening are much more difficult to… [read more]

Histones Term Paper

… Secondly, Belotserkovskaya, Reinberg, and colleagues report that FACT is capable of promoting transcription dependent nucleosomes alterations, and that this factor also facilitates assembly of histone proteins into nucleosomes in vitro even in the absence of RNAPII. So these results are consistent with the idea that FACT enables chromatin structure to be disrupted and then reestablished during transcription. This model is lastly supported by work from Saunders, Lis, and co-workers showing that FACT is associated with actively transcribed RNAPII genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes, and that its kinetics of association and site of action are consistent with its involvement in transcript elongation through chromatin. RNAPII has the intrinsic ability to disassemble nucleosomes during transcription.

In combination, all of these studies suggest that the apparently impossible technique of RNAPII is enabled through RNAP II's ability to disassemble nucleosomes and the use of FACT in transcript elongation. Interestingly enough RNAP III is not capable of this process, pointing to new, possible areas of research in… [read more]

Ethics of Genetic Engineering Term Paper

… They were all later accredited with the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Hawley 1998).

The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution" (Stableford 1996). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools. Exposing it to ultra-high frequency sound waves can break up DNA, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section (Stableford 1996). A more accurate way of DNA splicing is the use of "restriction enzymes, which are produced by various species of bacteria" (Clarke 1994). The restriction enzymes cut the DNA strand at a particular location called a nucleotide base, which makes up a DNA molecule. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to another strand of DNA by using enzymes called lipases. The final important step in the creation of a new DNA strand is giving it the ability to self-replicate. This can be accomplished by using special pieces of DNA, called vectors, that permit the generation of multiple copies of a total DNA strand and fusing it to the newly created DNA structure. Another newly developed method, called polymerase chain reaction, allows for faster replication of DNA strands and does not require the use of vectors (Clarke 1994).

Along with altering the cells of living tissues, genetic engineering has also proven extremely helpful in the alteration of bacterial genes. "Transforming bacterial cells is easier than transforming the cells of complex organisms" (Stableford 1996). Two reasons are evident for this ease of manipulation: DNA enters, and functions easily in bacteria, and the transformed bacteria cells can be easily selected out from the non-transformed ones. Bacterial bioengineering has many uses in our society; it can produce synthetic insulins, a growth hormone for the treatment of dwarfism and interferon for treatment of cancers and viral diseases (Stableford 1996).

Throughout the centuries disease has plagued the world, forcing everyone to take part in a virtual "lottery with the agents of death" (Stableford 1996). Whether viral or bacterial in nature, such disease is currently combated with the application of vaccines and antibiotics. These treatments, however, contain many unsolved problems. The difficulty with applying [read more]

Vertebral Column Essay

… 19). The same study presented data that found that mutations in MEOX1 is what causes the mutations.

Some of the more common deformations (as discussed above) are spina bifada, rachischisis, chromoda and scoliosis. Spina bifada is a condition where there is imperfect fusion of the neural embryonic arch. Neuonal tissues that can be covered by a thin membrane are exposed because of this. Rachischsis takes place when a complex group of anomalies and affect axial structures. What this means is that infants who suffer from rachischsis have neural folds that fail to fuse. Chromoda takes place when a malignant tumor develops and then infiltrates the vertebral bone. Once the tumor infiltrates the bone, it is very difficult to take out. Scoliosis takes place during the formation of the vertebral column and usually refers to when the vertebra do not fuse together in a correct manner.

Since the vertebral column consists of only 33 vertebrae (of which only nine are fused) and many of the defects discussed herein concern the incorrect fusing of these vertebraes, it would seem that additional research would be extremely useful in addressing these deformations. The most important job for the vertebral column is to protect the spinal cord, any maladies, deformations or uneven fusing of the vertebrae puts the spinal cord in a vulnerable situation.

This can be a serious scenario and one that should be addressed as quickly as possible, especially in infants who suffer from many of these afflictions.

Works Cited

Giampietro, P.F.; Raggio, C.L.; Reynolds, C.E.; Shukla, S.K.; McPherson, E.; Ghebranious, N.; Jacobsen, F.S.; Kumar, V.; Faciszewski, T.; Pauli, R.M.; Rasmussen, K.; Burmester, J.K.; Zaleski, C.; Merchant, S.; David, D.; Weber, J.L.; Glurich, I.; Blank, R.D.; (2005) An analysis of PAX1 in the development of vertebral malformations, Clinical Genetics, Vol. 68, Issue 5, pp. 448-453

Rosti, R.O.; (2013) Of mice, men, and King Tut: autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome is caused by mutations in MEOX1, Clinical Genetics, Vol. 84, Issue… [read more]

Isolating Chromatin Lab Report

… To this supernatant, enough cold 95% ethanol was slowly added so the resulting concentration would be 70% ethanol. The sponge like -DNA that precipitated was picked out and put into a flask.

To understand how this process takes plant in the plant world, strawberries were used to examine this process. Two strawberries were mashed together into a fine pulp and placed into a 250ml container. A saline solution was added and then the mixture was stirred rapidly and with force for five minutes. The next ten minutes were spent filtering this mixture through multi-layers of cheesecloth. This was then transferred to a test tube and ethanol was added to the mixture . DNA was then extracted and taken as a sample.


The results of this experiment suggest that this method of manipulating animal tissue to extract DNA is very simple and produces results. Since this is a basic experiment that focuses on developing clinical skills, the results of the experiment were used to help guide the processes and methods which produced the results. Ethanol after a post-saline bombardment and centrifuge, has a very strong effect on removing the DNA substance from the sinuous animal tissue that was used to provide the sample.

Ethanol provided an easy means to extract genetic material from plant life. As the ethanol was added a distinct and clear layer separated from the reddish mass of the mixture which provided the sample for DNA.


The main revelations of this lab report suggest that true experiment when dealing with any substance and not just DNA is denotes a certain standard operating procedure that can be used as a tool and predict events. A liver sample used in this experiment does not contain much genetic material in relationship to other sources, so being able to retrieve this material in such a fashion suggests that a fundamental and rudimentary understanding of basic lab skills have been reached and understood.

More complex experiments are based upon retrieving such genetic material from a variety of sources. It is therefore essential that this task be mastered by the aspiring researcher or lab technician. It is well documented that the effects of both saline and ethanol to the animal tissue have the desired isolation effects, however it is quite another thing to qualify these results into a meaningful argument that has scientific value and merit and can withstand the scrutiny of one's peers and fellow students.

Since plant life has so much more genetic material than animal material in this case the use of ethanol was demonstrated to be much more effective on the strawberry than the animal liver. When using the liver and manipulating it in its pellet form it is very necessary to use care and caution due to the pellet containing little genetic material that can be tested. This difference can be pointed to the… [read more]

B Cells, T Essay

… Biology

B and T cells are both types of white blood cells, and are the only nucleated cells of the body that lose DNA during development and maturation. This is due to a process called somatic recombination or V (D)J recombination, which introduces an element of randomness to the process of cell formation and maturation, by putting together one of each of three types of gene segments (Variable, Diverse, and Joining, or VDJ) but not incorporating more than one of each. As a result, the cells can end up having about 300 billion different randomly-generated gene sequences, all of which are fundamentally shorter than the ordinary DNA sequence. There are several important things to note about how this process relates to DNA's role in human biology overall. For a start, this is clearly an adaptive advantage: B. And T cells are generated in the bone marrow (and T cells mature in the thymus) but their primary function is to defend against antigens. As a result, the vast number of different types produced during VDJ recombination provides an enormous repertory of different defenses. Moreover, it is possible for the body to essentially clone different types of these cells based on what type of defense is required: in fact the body will store a small amount of "memory cells" so as to essentially retain some method of cloning certain combinations that have been useful in the past. What this does is provides a tremendous adaptive advantage against potential threats to the system: the randomness is, however, a "double-edged sword" insofar as it creates non-viable possibilities (Murphy 2011, 264). As a result, the maturation process includes a test of functionality, and non-productive combinations may be subjected to further gene rearrangement. Overall, this indicates DNA's value in encoding heritable biological information: the inclusion of different possibilities within that information to maximize survival strategy is certainly the goal of this unusual form of DNA transcription here.

2. What Kara Goucher is doing artificially with the tent is essentially the same… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Research Paper

… This resulted in the adoption of alternatives to respond to the emergence of new strains of organisms resistant to the chemicals (Finucane & Holup, 2005).

Today, genetically modification of food has advanced across the globe. Statistical analysis shows that about… [read more]

Genetically Modified Organisms Technology GMO Research Paper

… The potential to alter and cause harm to others is unknown. The case of Monsanto company, which sued farmers for having their GMO crops. The GMO seeds were blown into the farmers fields by wind, and the seeds infected the… [read more]

Nature Nurture Essay

… Nature Nurture

Nature vs. Nurture

For many generations, psychologists, philosophers, and natural scientist have all debated the extent to which our genes and our environments influence our lives. This debate has been referred to as nature vs. nurture. If nature… [read more]

Inbreeding Term Paper

… Inbreeding

Over the centuries, inbreeding has often been used to create changes in attitudes and perceptions about the passing of various genes to future generations. In the past, many from the aristocracy often embraced these ideas. This is because they… [read more]

Controversy With Regard to Genetic Research Paper

… Genetic engineering and cloning are certainly advantageous concepts when considering that they can remove such risks (Brock).

Human cloning can certainly have a great deal of benefits, ranging from parents who can clone a child who was very dear to them to society as a whole cloning individuals who have distinguished themselves through impressive abilities. One of the moral issues most commonly associated with cloning involves the right to a unique identity. Cloning practically leads to people risking the right to have a unique identity, given that they would have someone else look exactly like them. Furthermore, the fact that the clone would be acquainted with how his or her original self went through life would make it impossible for him or her to concentrate on his or her personal identity. Psychological distress would certainly be a disadvantage in the case of many clones.

Judeo-Christian beliefs promote the idea that the body needs to be acknowledged as a temple of the Holy Spirit and that it would thus be wrong for someone to attempt to desecrate this respective temple. To a certain degree however, when considering that creation is the result of sin, it would seem that altering it would not necessarily be such a negative act. Even with this, such ideas are debatable and genetic engineering would likely interfere with God's plan regarding the process of life. When studying the Bible one is probable to realize that God has a plan for everyone's life and interfering with this respective plan would practically mean that one would go against God's laws.

Genetic engineering and cloning are surely intriguing ideas when considering the benefits they can bring along. Society as a whole is likely to experience much medical progress as a consequence of these two fields experiencing significant progress. In spite of this progress, one also needs to consider numerous other implications involving fields like ethics, religion, and psychology when addressing this issue. While such advancements seem appealing, it is important to consider the long-term effect that they are going to have on the world.

Works cited:

Brock, D.W. CLONING HUMAN BEINGS. Retrieved November 6, 2013, from

Greco, K.E., Tinley, S., & Seibert, D. Essential Genetic and Genomic competencies for nurses with Graduate Degrees. ISBN-13: 978-1-55810-437-2, March 2012.

Jenkins, J. Ethics: Ethical Implications of Genetic Information Ethics: Ethical Implications of Genetic Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol. 6 No. 2, Available: [read more]

Technology Has Revolutionized Society: Communication Essay

… References

About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database:

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report:

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from:

Kelly, R. (2008, July). What are the Ethical Issues Surrounding Personzlied Medicine? Retrieved from Let's Get Personal: / what_are_the_ethical_issues_in.php

Lea, D. (2009). Basic Genetics and Genomics: A Primer for Nurses. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14 (2): Retrieved from:

Lea, D., et al. (2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(1), 3-12.

Moon, R., et al. (1998). Parental literacy level and understanding of medical information. Pediatrics. 10 (2): e25-27.

Nash, D. (September 30, 2009). Osumedicalcenter. Retrieved from: / watch?v=UyIA5jgUkOc

National Public Radio. (May 12, 2012). All routine PSA tests for prostate cancer should end. Retrieved from:

O'Neill, O. (2002). Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. [read more]

Patenting Genes Ethical or Unethical Practice Article Review

… Business Case

Should Patenting Genes Be Understood as Unethical?

Summary of Sides

As the human genome is now mapped and genetic manipulation is more and more possible, the question of whether or not genes -- which are organic material -- can be patented without violating basic ethical principles regarding the inherent value of life and that might arise in practical issues where health issues cannot be properly addressed ue to patent blocks. Miriam Schulman argues that genes are a part of life and as such should not be thought of as pieces of patentable technology that can be traded, sold, and owned in such an exclusive and mercantile manner. Further, she feels that, "If the bar for patentability is set too low, it will pervert the incentive structures of the patent system," suggesting that not only are genes worthy of protection from patents in and of themselves but that the patent system itself and the ethical good it promotes could be damaged if genes become patentable (p. 334). As not entirely unique and possibly naturally repeatable "inventions," genes should remain free.

Anabelle Lever disagrees, pointing out that many genes have already been patented and that genes that receive patents are highly unique and have been altered by laboratory processes. Lever does not disagree that that human genes are un-patentable, but contends, "Though the genes in your body are not patentable, the degree of manipulation and alteration that is required to isolate and identify a human gene scienti-cally means that genes so altered and manipulated can merit a legal patent" (p. 338). The basic contention in this argument is… [read more]

Societal Interventions in Genetic Diseases Essay

… This type of genetic screening has been continually used for various decades through the use of different techniques.

In the United States and the United Kingdom, genetic screening used was testing newborn babies for PKU deficiency. As a compulsory screening, a newborn baby is put on a special diet and will not undergo serious mental retardation if he/she is found to have PKU deficiency. More information regarding societal interventions in genetic diseases in the United States and United Kingdom reveals that there is screening for genetic vulnerability to diseases that are environmentally induced illnesses like elevated blood cholesterol. Similar to the U.S. And the UK, genetic screening is the most common societal intervention in genetic diseases used in other parts of the world. However, there are various techniques for genetic screening used elsewhere such as the effective screening program for Thalassemia used in Cyprus and Italy.

An epidemiological approach for preventing and controlling the three most common genetic diseases is the new intervention measure used to prevent such diseases. The approach has been developed through examining diseases like deafness in dalmations, great dane, hip dysplasia in German shepard, lab retrievers, Newfoundland, and glaucoma FCR in canine pedigree breeds. As a new technology for designing programs to prevent genetic diseases, the epidemiological approach consists of methods that use all relationships within the pedigree and common environmental factors (Wood, Lakhani & Henley, 2004, p. 24). Based on the outcomes of polygenic model in the approach, the method proves to be effective in preventing the diseases.


Samem, F.M.A. (n.d). Human Genetic Screening. Retrieved from North Dakota State University


Scacheri, C. (n.d.). Genetics and Society. Retrieved October 7, 2012, from

Wood, J.L.N., Lakhani, K.H. & Henley, W.E. (2004). An Epidemiological Approach to Prevention and Control of Three Common Heritable Diseases in Canine Pedigree Breeds in the United Kingdom. The Veterinary Journal, 168, 14-27. Retrieved from [read more]

Human Cloning Essay

… (Mappes 568) He asserts that clones would not have the freedom to choose their future, but have their future controlled by another, something that Kass believes is "despotic."

One of Kass' main objections to cloning deals with the issue of identity, and what he calls being "saddled with a genotype that has already lived. He will not be fully a surprise to the world…." (Mappes 568) But Robert Wachbroit rightly points out that a clone is not the result of "asexual reproduction," but simply a twin who's birth has been delayed. Kass believes that the clone will somehow live a repeat of the life of the DNA donor, but Wachbroit explains that because the clone is a delayed twin, it "would be a separate person from her non-contemporaneous twin." (Mappes 572) The idea that the clone would live a similar life to the DNA donor would be to believe in genetic determinism, a belief that is rejected by the majority of scientist. If Kass is correct in this belief, then the lives of millions of identical twins would live parallel lives, something that is simply not the case.

Finally, in response to this criticism of Kass' argument that the clone would be living a life that has already been lived, it is important to remember that in the act of procreation, two sets of DNA are mixed together to create a new and unique individual with their own genetic identity. In this way each child is a new and genetically distinctive individual who is worthy of independence from their parents. It is their genetic distinctiveness that identifies each life as unique and independent of all others. And as Kass states, "it can also be an important support for living a worthy and dignified life." (Mappes 567) Another reason that Kass may be correct in his assertion that human cloning is repugnant is the fact that cloning by it very nature of making genetic copies interferes in the process of human evolution. As each child is created from the genetic templates of both parents, the resulting genome is unique, and therefore possessing different, and sometimes mutated genes. It is these mutations that occur during procreation that is the basis for the continued evolution of the human race. Cloning would put a stop to this evolution and would be making the statement that humans are already genetically perfect and no longer in need of change. Unfortunately, evolution occurs in response to environmental factors and unless the Earth's environment remains exactly the same, a human race composed entirely of clones will never survive.

Works Cited

Mappes, Thomas… [read more]

Biofuels to Dissect Locust Guts to Culture Dissertation

… Biofuels

To dissect locust guts

To culture anaerobic microorganisms (bacteria) from locust guts on cellulose

containing media and screen for microbes with Cellulolytic activity.

To extract DNA from Cellulolytic microorganisms

To do PCR of 16s rDNA to identify the bacteria.… [read more]

Fragile X Syndrome Research Paper

… The positive behavioral changes were modest, but encouraging. Nonetheless, there is much more research for occupational therapists to do. For example, the long-term effects of the use of the stories have not been investigated and it is not certain at… [read more]

Breeding Psychology Breeding Selective Traits in Animals Research Paper

… ¶ … Breeding


Breeding selective traits in animals: Negative traits in Paint horses

Scientists frequently try to breed selective traits in animals for research purposes, as in the case of mice bred for their propensity to become addicted to alcohol. However, this is only one example of a trend which has had a long history in humanity's relationship with the animal world. Breeding animals to manifest select traits has been common since early humans engaged in agricultural production. Today, some traits in horses are occasionally selected for efficacy in sporting activities, others for appearance. Selective breeding is used to predictably produce such traits, just as speed in Thoroughbreds, agility in cutting horses, and jumping ability in Warmbloods. Other examples include special 'colored' horses such as palominos and Paint horses (Grandin 1998).

However, breeding for one type of desirable trait can occasionally cause the manifestation of a connected, yet undesirable trait. "Genetic traits are linked in complex ways. Over-selecting animals for physical traits often causes changes in behavior. Likewise, over-selection for behavioral traits can cause corresponding changes in physical traits" (Grandin 1994). Such is the case in breeding Paint horses, in which exaggeratedly large white patches with underlying pink skin called 'piebalding' is considered particularly attractive and desirable. Animals with "large piebald spots on the head and body may have neurological defects similar to the genetic defect known in humans as piebaldism. The piebald condition is linked to defects in both the visual system and in hearing" (Grandin 1995). Piebald spots do not always signal neurological defects and not all Paints have piebald spots. But breeding two Paint Horses who have large areas of piebald patches can produce problematic results.

For example, nervousness is common in animals with large piebald areas. Animal behaviorist Temple Grandin notes she "observed some extremely abnormal behavior in a highly depigmented Paint stallion at a horse show. The stallion was so distressed by the sights and sounds of the show that he was literally eating up his stall. This behavior was in sharp contrast to the normal behavior shown by a frightened horse" (Grandin 1994). These horses also exhibit balance problems due to defects in the inner ear, confirming a relatively old adage among horsemen: "Four white feet, pass him by" (Grandin… [read more]

Epidemiology Liegl-Atzwanger, Fletcher Research Proposal

… Figure 4:GISTs having epitheliod features.


According to Fulop et at.,(2009),molecular genetics as well as histogenesis GISTs represents a unique and a special group of gastro-intestinal tumors which originates from the interstitial Cajal cells (ICC). Interstitial Cajal cells (ICC) .According… [read more]

Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing Essay

… Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing

Throughout the years, genetic testing has been extensively used in: treating medical disorders and identifying the risks brought on by a particular disease. Also known as DNA-based tests, it consists of techniques that are utilized… [read more]

Risk of Development and Progression Article Review

… (D Otaegui1, A Sa'enz1, P Caman "o1, 2006)

Pearson's chi square test was used to perform the homogeneity test between the two distributions of the genotypes. Yate's chi square test was utilized to perform tests to compare frequencies of the… [read more]

Human Cloning Essay

… If cloning technology is allowed to continue, the future may produce technologies wherein a person's own organs can be cloned from their own genetic material ensuring a match and a good likelihood that the body will accept the organ (Clone 2009).

There are many reasons that individuals might desire to have themselves or a loved one cloned. The most common justifications for cloning fall under the categories of utility and autonomy. Utility arguments include the desire to make more of yourself in order to have a larger impact on the world, replacing a dead child with a genetic duplicate, making a clone to provide bone marrow or organs to an original person, or producing individuals with higher or lower mental capacities to perform designated tasks (Kilner 2002). There are three arguments for human cloning that have to do with autonomy. The first of these is personal freedom. In the United States in particular, there is a strong commitment to the idea of personal freedom which people who desire to participate in human cloning utilize in order to prove that they have the right to choice. The second is reproductive choice wherein parents declare they have the right to have children in any way that they choose and that society should have no part in personal decisions. The third argument is scientific inquiry. Scientists have argued that they have the right by their profession to investigate all matters, including human cloning, and that no government or ethical concern should affect what experiments they conduct or how they conduct those experiments (Kilner 2002).


One of the dangers of any dispute is the potential of one side of the discussion to completely dismiss any astute arguments on behalf of their adversary. The more controversial the topic, the greater the chance for adversarial discord and, consequently there becomes less likelihood for a compromise. Both sides of the cloning conundrum have been guilty of using certain tactics to dismiss the observations of their enemy. This straw man technique is a tactic in which the views of the opponents are oversimplified and exaggerated so that the original point is distorted (Moore 2007). Although research shows that the dangers of human cloning outweigh the benefits, there are aspects of the technology which should be used and incorporated into other fields of scientific research.

The American Medical Association has argued that even a genetically identical individual would not, in fact, be a copy of the original person's personality since they would not be raised in duplicate environments. Since the individuals would not be exact copies of one another, several of the promised applications of human cloning prove themselves to be illogical. Replicating a child who has perished, for example, would be impossible because the new individual would only be a physical duplicate of the first child. The personality would be molded by the new emotional environment (Ethics 1999-page 2). However, this same organization did determine that cloning could be used for the purposes of artificial conception of… [read more]

Effect of Genetic Engineering on Society Essay

… Genetic Engineering

The Effect of Genetic Engineering on Society


Director Andrew Niccol's film Gattaca (1997) explores the possibilities and consequences of the genetic engineering of human beings in the near future. In the film Niccol portrays a society where… [read more]

How to Extract DNA From Anything Living Essay

… ¶ … Lab Report Template (Save as: YourName_Module#_Report.doc)

An to extract DNA from a piece of common paper formed the basis of this experiment. Though wood pulp is, of course, ultimately an organic material, it was hypothesized that the treatment of turning the pulp into paper would destroy any DNA. This hypothesis was proven incorrect.

There are a great many uses for DNA testing in this country, with the most well-known application due to high-profile lawsuits and certain television shows being paternity tests (Fuller 2010). Establishing a variety of different familial relationships is actually possible using DNA testing, and certain types of DNA can trace lineages back thousands of years (Fuller 2010). There is also the potential for DNA testing to provide information as to medical issues and the potential risks individuals face, as well as other information concerning congenital features and diseases (Fuller 2010).

DNA can also serve to help identify a wide range of other organic materials and the specific species or even organisms of which they are a part, and this can be utilized by law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists in a variety of ways (HGP 2010). Even identifying the very existence of DNA in a given sample can provide clues as to an unfamiliar substance's origin and nature, and all of these uses for DNA require first that DNA can be extracted from a sample. This experiment will attempt to extract DNA from a sample of material that was at one point organic, but that has been highly changed in form.

Materials and Methods:

A kitchen blender, some cotton swabs, and a set of six test tubes formed the hardware necessary to conduct this experiment. Approximately a quarter-sheet of standard lined notebook paper was used as the experimental sample substance. Other necessary supplies included approximately a half-teaspoon of salt, 200 mL of cold water, 30 mL of standard dish soap (in liquid form), several pinches of store-bought meat tenderizer (perhaps a tablespoon was… [read more]

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