Study "Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays 111-165

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Pre-Natal Development Research Paper

… Prenatal development involves not only the physiologic processes which occur to produce life, it also requires an understanding of the various influences that shape the developing life and the consequences those influences have the potential to bear. The issue of… [read more]

Exchange of Genetic Material Between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts Research Paper

… Exchange of Genetic Material Between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts

In genetic recombination, a strand of DNA or RNA molecule is broken and the joined to a different DNA molecule. The occurring chromosomal crossover results on the next generation have a combination of the two parent's strands donating the DNA. Gregor Mendel first discovered the bases for genetics with his experiments with peas and their characteristics. This paper looks at Luther Burbank and whether he did the first genetic recombination experiments or not.

Genetic engineering has become a blessing and a curse as some combinations like the Burbank Russet potato have been a blessing to all people who enjoy McDonald's French fries but the killer bees have proven to be a disaster. In genetics, the belief was that graphed tissue cells retained their DNA integrity and did not mix their genetic material, but recent findings are disproving this theory. In the article, "Exchange of Genetic Material between Cells in Plant Tissue Grafts," Stegemann and Bock (2009) conclude, "our discover of grafting mediated gene transfer blurs the boundary between natural gene transfer and genetic engineering and suggest that grafting provides an avenue for genes to cross species barriers." Phylogenetic evidence from the test run on two transgenic tobacco lines grafted together suggest that DNA can be transferred between isolated species and grafting opens the path for gene transfer.

The question arises 'Who did the first recombination experiments in plants?' And the answer depends on the person asked. Some will say Mendel and others will say Burbanks. Mendel discovered the genetic inheritance traits of garden peas and did hybridization crossing of peas and in later life he tried to cross bees. Luther Burbank, on the other hand, crossed and even grafted plants and trees… [read more]

Nature and Nurture in the Current Developmental Research Proposal

… Nature and Nurture in the Current Developmental Psychology Research Literature

Developmental Psychology

The "nature vs. nurture" debate has resided at the heart of developmental psychology for the past several decades. From the moment that Crick and Watson discovered that genetic… [read more]

Genetic Influences on Behavior While the Debate Essay

… Genetic Influences on Behavior

While the debate continues over nature vs. nurture, the science of the genetics of behavior has gained tremendous momentum with the advancements in the refinement of DNA analysis and genetic sequencing. Beginning with the human genome project in the 1990 and onto even more fine tuned efforts such as the "Hap Map" for discovering genetic related illnesses (Johnson, 2003), the process has now extended towards specific genes related to the preponderance of behavioral influence. For the most part researches are studying these genetic effect on infants and young children who have not as yet been overly influenced by their environment. As early as 1938 researches felt that genetic influences were prevalent in behavior formation and that, "the genetic counterparts and precursors of "intelligence" manifest themselves in the functional fields of perceptual and of adaptive behavior." (Gesell, Thompson & Strunk, 1938, p. 204)

There have been direct links established between addictions ranging from alcohol to caffeine use that they are "highly heritable" (Jang, 2005, p. 138) and the behavioral geneticist to a high degree can predict the preponderance towards addiction of an individual. Current theory states that these influences can be found in other more subtle behaviors such as mood disorder, depression and so on. The question then becomes… [read more]

History of DNA and of Its Use by the Criminal Justice System Thesis


History of DNA Testing

The growth of DNA Testing and Interpretation over the years

DNA Testing Today 5

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Testing, Has grown in popularity in recent years. The testing of DNA came about in 1985 and was… [read more]

Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions Research Proposal

… Thomas Kuhn's Theory Of Scientific Revolutions

Thomas Kuhn's philosophy of scientific revolutions has become a natural part of today's scientific jargon. Although many are familiar with its basic tenets, many do not realize that they are part of the formal… [read more]

Dangers of Cloning Life Is Precious Thesis

… ¶ … Dangers of Cloning

Life is precious. This is what proponents of human cloning fail to accept. While cloning holds promise in theory, the idea fails in practice -- almost every single time it is attempted. While many see… [read more]

Human Embryonic Stem Cells Thesis

… Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Stem cell studies are on the very cutting edge of biological advancement and research. These undifferentiated cells have the potential to become any cell in the body, from a simple part of a hair follicle to… [read more]

Use of DNA Barcodes Research Proposal


In this very interesting scientific article, authors Paul D. Hebert,
Mark Y. Stoeckle, Tyler S. Zemlak and Charles M. Francis discuss in-depth
the process by which they have identified birds through their DNA barcodes,
derived from "short DNA sequences from a standardized region of the
genome." Certainly, this highly-complex process is far superior to the old
methods used to identify bird species, due to the fact that by putting
together what the authors call a public library of DNA barcodes, this would
"provide a new master key for identifying species, one whose power will
rise with increased taxon coverage and with faster, cheaper" DNA
What is most exciting about this new process is that these DNA
barcodes allow researchers and scientists to expertly determine the
differences between closely-related bird species, such as a hawk and an
eagle, which ultimately may provide researchers with the genetic link to
prove that… [read more]

Human Genome Project Thesis

… Human Genome Project may be the most controversial research project in modern medical or scientific history.

The project began in 1990 at the National Institutes of Health and was headed by James Watson. However, the project was not only a… [read more]

Polydactylism Polydactyly Is a Relatively Common Condition Essay

… Polydactylism

Polydactyly is a relatively common condition in which extra digits on the foot or hand develop during growth of the fetus. This essay presents a discussion of the organs and cells which are affected, along with a discussion of… [read more]

Biomedical Technology Term Paper

… Biomedical Technology

The field of Biomedical Technology has been growing by leaps and over the past half-century. At the beginning of that time many research scientists and their funding corporations were starting to realize the amazing potential of this field… [read more]

Nf-Kb Akirin Term Paper

… NF-kB: Akirin

NF-kB Akirin: A "Novel Nuclear Factor"

Statement of Topic Significance

Genetic engineering and experimentation hold enormous promise for eradicating many of the diseases that currently plague mankind, and researchers may even be able extend the human lifespan to… [read more]

Structural Basis of DNA Replication Origin Recognition by an Orc Protein Term Paper

… DNA Replication

Structural Basis of DNA Replication by an ORC Protein

The article selected addresses the question of what the structural basis of DNA replication may be in. Specifically it seeks to identify the first step in the assembly of a replication origin in the DNA of the archaea a. pernix. This information was sought in order to gain a better understanding of the process which may occur in human DNA replication processes.

The research uses the results of previous studies which have elucidated the structure of origin recognition complex (ORC) proteins. These recognize the replication origins in both archaea and eukaryotes. Other previous studies into genome sequences from various archaea revealed base pair repeats which were conserved across species which could possibly be the replication origins. Extended repeat sequences were termed origin replication boxes (ORB). The study builds upon previous research which has shown that these ORBs can be used to identify replication origin sites, and seeks to further understand the actual structural assembly. The study first established the crystal structure of one of the ORC proteins in a. pernix. The crystal structures and biochemical data were used to predict the interactions between the ORC protein and the DNA target within the winged helix family (WH) domain. The structural differences in the DNA helix were noted to understand how the interaction changed the structure. DNA footprinting was used to evaluate the contacts which were observed in the process. This attempted to understand the difference between contacts in the ORC protein as a whole and the contacts which occurred in the WH domain alone.

The study showed that the principal contact in the replication origin process between the OCR and the DNA helix related to the WH. Several structural differences were noted by the insertion of the ORB into the helix. These structural changes widened the major and minor grooves of the… [read more]

Eugenics Refers to the Social Philosophy Research Paper

… Eugenics refers to the social philosophy that advocates an artificial improvement to the human hereditary traits through various mechanisms of intervention. In the modern, medical sense, eugenics refers to the use of such things as prenatal testing, screening, genetic counseling, birth control, genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization as mechanisms of preventing the passing on of various problematic genetic traits. Eugenics is typically divided between positive and negative eugenics. Positive eugenics are aimed at encouraging reproduction among the genetically advantaged. Common examples of positive eugenics include in vitro fertilization, egg transplants and cloning. Negative eugenics, on the other hand, is aimed at lowering fertility among the genetically disadvantaged. Common examples of negative eugenics include abortions, sterilization and family planning initiatives.

The issue of eugenics is highly controversial as it raises numerous legal and ethical issues. Dating back most notably to the Nazi's use of eugenics to systematically prejudice and eliminate various ethnic groups and peoples, eugenics is seen as a dangerous tool of political control. In a modern sense, the ethical issues center on whether or not one should be able to "play god" with diseases and births. On the other hand, those who support eugenics argue that if one has the ability to prevent a genetic disease, then is it ethical not to prevent the passing on of those defective traits and thus eliminate the pain and suffering caused by such a genetic trait? As is often times the case, when a procedure involves ethical questions, the law gets involved. The law is currently still developing on issues of in vitro fertilizations, abortions and other eugenics methods. Further, there are general human rights/individual constitutional rights involved in terms of right to privacy and write to life, regardless of genetic makeup.

II. Eugenics Today

An individual who is subject to any form of eugenics, either as a parent or as an individual, may suffer from lasting physical and emotional health effects. Because many of eugenics' theories are still being developed, the long-term effect of genetic modifications, for example, are unknown. Further, such birth-orientated eugenic programs as abortions or in vitro fertilization can have lasting emotional effects on the mother, father or carrier of the fetus.

Often times a health care consumer may feel pressured to opt for a eugenic test or procedure. This is because a professional health care provider, such as a doctor, is telling the consumer what is needed. The consumer tends to trust the doctor's specialized knowledge and thus will go along with a doctor's recommendations. However, this is unfair to the patient because nobody with as equal of background as the doctor is advocating for the patient. This is where a nurse can come in. The… [read more]

Co-Evolution Term Paper

… Co-Evolution

The objective of this work is to research and examine co-evolution, what it is, how it works and the biological principle of this theory and the basis of this theory to include three different community interactions.

According to the… [read more]

Genetic Testing Term Paper

… Genetic testing is concept that is used to diagnose 'genetic diseases', which are transferred to any person by their ancestry. (Wikipedia, 2007). Every person carries numbers of genes from their parents. The usage of 'genetic testing' involves studying and changing in human chromosomes, genes and the proteins. (Genetic Testing, 2007).

Genetic testing is a wider concept, which is used to for 'biochemical procedures' to screen out any 'heredity diseases' that any person might suffer. There are many people who are suffering from different diseases due to 'inter-family marriages' and 'genetically transfers' that is usually transferred from parents to children. So use of genetic testing to reduce risk associated with one's life. Many government treat 'cloning' as against the human laws so they have banned cloning in their countries but in UK and USA the cloning is considered as blessings and widely used today. (Shaun Elmore, 2007).

There are many people who born with some dangerous inherited diseases such as 'cancer' and 'HIV' so these children could only able to live 3-4 years and they live on medications because many risks are associated to their lives. In think the 'genetic testing' can be used to bring new born and children out of danger and on hope that it can reduce the risk to death of new born baby. (Genelex Corporation, 2003)

The genetic testing is helpful in finding out that any diseases from parents are likely to be transferred to their children so by knowing the possibilities of disorders. So it provides an opportunity to people to save their future by reducing any risk associated with a person life. (Mayo clinic staff, 2006)

The genetic closing must be allowed for therapeutic… [read more]

Biochemistry the Effect of BRCA1 in Sporadic Term Paper

… Biochemistry

The Effect of BRCA1 in Sporadic Breast Cancer

These who do not have a history of breast cancer in their families may be said to have sporadic breast cancer. Patterns of breast cancer in families show that hereditary factors… [read more]

Human Genome Project and Its Impact Implications Term Paper

… ¶ … Human Genome Project and its impact implications on the ethics of genetic engineering. The writer examines the project, the genetic engineering question and provides personal beliefs to the overall picture.


Cloning, and Especially Human Term Paper

… Cloning, and especially human cloning, is a hot political topic. Raising a litany of legal and ethnical questions, cloning is also an issue that has become shrouded in fallacy, myth, and misunderstanding. Media attention to cloning has in many cases… [read more]

Patent Law and Genetic Medicine Term Paper

… Human Stem Cell Medical - Legal Implications

How Do Legal Issues in Patent Law Shape Ethical Decision in Human Stem Cell Research?

Patent Law & Genetic Medicine

This work examines the issue of human stem cell research from the view… [read more]

Cloning Is the Production of Identical Genetic Term Paper

… Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies of cells or an individual. The process occurs naturally when a cell or organism reproduces asexually, through processes such as mitosis, binary fission, budding, sporulation, or parthenogenesis, or when genetically identical twins… [read more]

Genomics and Implications Term Paper

… Conclusion

The research showed that genomics is the field of automated sequencing and analysis of genes. The research also showed that with the results of the Human Genome Project in hand, genomics research is well situated to make enormous contributions to improving the human condition in the years to come; however, all of this progress has some observers suggesting that there is a Frankenstein-monster quality to such research, and it is both inappropriate and immoral to tinker with the fundamental building blocks of the human body. Nevertheless, genomics research continues to discover new insights into how these basic process operate at the most basic level, and these findings will undoubtedly be applied to an increasing range of human endeavors in the future.

Works Cited

Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health

Perspectives 112(16):934.

Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.

Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:

Anthropology and Science beyond the Two-Culture Divide. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.

Kelso, Dennis Doyle Takahashi and Rachel A. Schurman. Engineering Trouble: Biotechnology

and Its Discontents. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.

Omenn, Gilbert S. (2005, Spring). "Genomics and Public Health: Potential Benefits Depend on Linking Genetic… [read more]

Do the Dangers of Genetic Engineering as Applied to Humans Outweigh Its Benefits? Term Paper

… Genetic engineering (GE) has been presented to the public as a way to improve the quality of our lives, enhance agriculture and advance our ability to fight genetic illnesses. The possibilities seem endless, but raise worries as well as optimism… [read more]

Cloning the Term Cloning Is Commonly Construed Term Paper

… Cloning

The term cloning is commonly construed as reproductive cloning or the asexual genetic replication of a living organism (Cloning, 2005). However, in reality, scientists use the term cloning to describe all the different processes that are involved in the… [read more]

Human Genome Project (Hgp) Term Paper

… al., 1998). In both the cases of clear-cut genetic causation, such as with Huntington's Chorea, and in cases where genetics may play a role, such as in some types of breast cancer, medical professionals as well as patients have to make some difficult decisions (Collins et. al., 1998). Would most people want to know if they were destined to develop Huntington's Chorea, or would they rather not know? Does an individual want to know that he or she carries a gene that can lead to breast cancer even though this knowledge, by itself, cannot predict whether the person will get the disease or not? (Collins et. al., 1998)

Other questions involve the right of individuals to privacy. Once we have human DNA completely mapped, will we then begin to generate detailed genetic profiles of all medical patients? If we do, is this information that can be shared with other organizations, by, for instance, hospitals? If it can be shared, insurance companies might then drop people with genes that make them prone to certain kinds of cancer, or destined to develop some genetically-driven disease such as Huntington's. In those cases, the individuals would get glimpses into their medical future whether they wanted to know what their genes reveal or not.

Advances in genomic science raise innumerable psychosocial questions. The issues underlying the story of the Genetic Revolution are fundamental, even philosophical What is the essence of being human? How much will we try to control the gender, the temperament, and the genetic heritage of our children? How much can we improve on the human condition? Are disabilities to be avoided or embraced? Who has [read more]

Sickle Cell Term Paper

… Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). After hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells… [read more]

Cyborgs Transgenic Designer Kids Term Paper

… Cogito Ergo Sum

As stated centuries ago by Rene Descartes, the statement "I think, therefore I am," no longer holds true for the dawn of the twenty first century. Due to emerging monumental technological advances in virtual reality since Descartes… [read more]

Human Cloning: The Ethical Debate Term Paper

… That would end abortion, in vitro fertilization, and many types of prenatal genetic testing in the United States.

There are many reasons why human cloning is unethical, but, in my opinion, the greatest reason is that it would destroy the way that families and children are created and built. However, looking at the issue from a scientific perspective, the possibilities for humanity outweigh the risks. Human cloning research would allow doctors to determine the cause of spontaneous abortions, give oncologists an understanding of the rapid cell growth of cancer, allow the use of stem cells to regenerate nerve tissues, and advance work on aging, genetics, and medicines (Jones, 1998).

Opponents and supporters agree that at the current time the technology is not safe enough to use on humans (Jones, 1998). However, this does not rule out the possibilities for the future. With additional experimentation on other types of mammals, scientists can reduce the errors and problems associated with human cloning.

Many proponents hold the belief that "no human activity is free of accidental death" and we should not put that burden on human cloning. Dr. Richard Seed, the scientists who has made public his desire to clone babies, believes that cloning technology could extend human life.

However, there is no proof that children cloned from another person will not necessarily feel this way (Jones, 1998). This argument is based on speculations. Supporters counter argue that human clones will "have the advantage of knowing early in life what they are good at."

Seed thinks that human cloning will help humans understand, and eventually reverse, the human aging process (Wikipedia, 2004). A cure for cancer by a better understanding of the cell-differentiation process, as well as better treatments for heart attacks and improved cosmetic surgery, are being cited as being possible with the new technology.

While opponents of human cloning fear that somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning may encourage a type of eugenics as people would be able to pick and choose desirable traits. Some have articulated fears that cloning might become "almost a preferred practice" and parents who choose to "play the lottery of old-fashioned reproduction would be considered irresponsible (Jones, 1998)."

In light of this concern, the potential benefits to society of cloning exceptional people such as scientists and medical masterminds would outweigh potential harms. It is possible that cloning may be less radical than other technologies like gene manipulation because cloning does not manipulate genes.


In conclusion, cloning offers amazing insight into the power of creation that humanity has built. One theological analysis states that humans are co-creators with God; perhaps it is more accurate to say that humans are shifting from making babies to creating babies (McGee, 2001). The issue of human cloning is a remarkable test of human restraint, wisdom and institutional development, one that has the potential to identify the moral features of 21st century biotechnology.

The future of human cloning is wide open (Wikipedia, 2004). Scientists plan to create a fertility treatment that allows… [read more]

Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual Term Paper

… 48, No. 5

Real Time Quantitative PCR (QPCR) represents a potential advance in the identification of usable DNA material in biological samples over technologies currently in use by the Center of Forensic Sciences, such as the Perkin-Elmer

QuantiBlot ™ test. While this system of quantifying DNA in forensic casework samples is considered reliable and appropriately sensitive, it is also time consuming and labor intensive.

Equally important is the fact that slot blot methods incorporate a subjective element. Automated instrumentation for identifying usable human DNA material offers the prospect of reducing the time and effort necessary to do so, in addition to requiring less laboratory space and increased accuracy.

QPCR has already demonstrated the ability to distinguish human DNA from concentrations as dilute as one part human per one thousand animal DNA sources.

Likewise, QPCR has also proven itself reliable in quantifying human DNA across the entire spectrum of racial genetic spectrum.

The most significant improvements offered by QPCR over present slot-block technologies is its repeatability and even more so, its ability to extract high quality, usable quantities of human DNA prior to processing. This feature in particular represents a tremendous increase in efficiency because valuable laboratory time and effort is spared that would otherwise be necessary just to eliminate… [read more]

Bombing of Hiroshima Studies Term Paper

… This leads to the conclusion that the exposure of the parents before conception and birth may have been a contributing factor to genetic defects resulting in infant death as well.

Studies concentrating on the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl have also indicated that exposure to radiation, even years after the fact, have negative implications when it comes to birth defects (Stone, 2001).


The research is in and there is no denying the impact radiation has on genetic birth defects. Exposure before conception carries a risk of specific birth defects including mental retardation and childhood cancers. For these risks to be avoided in the future it is important to re-evaluate the location of nuclear reactor sites as well as the frequency of x-rays.


The Basics of Genetic Effects and Birth Defects

Study finds increases in birth defects near CANDU reactor

Are birth defects more common among the children of atomic-bomb survivors?


Congressional Testimony; 4/21/1998

Congressional Testimony


Radiation: Children at Risk.(Brief Article)

Multinational Monitor; 6/1/2000; Mokhiber, Russell

Living in the Shadow of Chornobyl

Science; 4/20/2001; Stone, Richard

The dark side of the nuclear family.(health effects ofradiation)

New Statesman (1996); 1/15/1999; Roff, Sue Rabbitt [read more]

Human Genetic Term Paper

… These attempts require regulators to consider only the risks of bioengineered crops and not their benefits, and they hold gene-splicing to a standard of safety that could not possibly be met by non-biotech products and practices (Conko)."

These opponents therefore illustrate they are basing their reasons on politics instead of sound science.


Gene therapy research has the potential to change both human and plant genetics. While proponents feel these changes will be better for mankind, opponents point out there is still too little information available, allowing genetically engineered "monsters" to be created.

Works Cited

Conko, Gregory. The benefits of biotech: as the world's population grows, environmental stewardship will require science to find ways to produce more food on less land.

Agriculture). Regulation. (2003): 22 March.

Phillips, G.C., M.A. O'Connell, I.M. Ray, R.G. Cantrell, and C. Sengupta-Gopalan.

The Importance of Plant Biotechnology in the Future Development of Arid

Lands. New Mexico Journal of Science. (1999): 01 November.

Unknown. A Cure That May Cost Us Ourselves: SOCIETY: One of the pioneers of human genetic engineering predicts that within 30 years, there will be a gene-based therapy for most diseases. But he fears the profound dangers of... Newsweek. (2000): 01 January.

Vinha, Laura. INTERVIEW-Conservationist say GM crops… [read more]

Joe Student Joe Teacher Term Paper

… Chromosomes are most commonly visualized in their condensed form, during cell division. At other times, when the cell is performing a function, rather than dividing, the genetic material is diffuse, spread throughout the cell nucleus. In an ordinary cell, there are two copies of each piece of DNA: one inherited from father, and one from mother. In more concrete terms, one inherits a single set of chromosomes from each parent, and a normal cell consists of two of each chromosome." (Marks, 17) With that being said, I think back to all the times my mom called me her perfect little angle. Was she trying to convince me of something she didn't really think to be true. Can parents cause perfection? I guess not.

So if the schools can't do it and parent's can't do it, if I wanted to be the perfect kid, how could it happen? I suppose I should rethink what perfection is. When in doubt, find a dictionary. Webster's defines perfection as "the state of being perfect or complete, so that nothing requisite is wanting; as perfection in an art or science; perfection in a system of morals." I love art and I have seen Van Goh's 'Starry Night' which to me seemed like perfection. But, I suppose that BMW I have always considered to be a 'requisite want' would eliminate me from that definition of perfection. Let's face it, a Beemer is great reason no to be the perfect kid.

Webster's went on to say, "Metaphysical or transcendental perfection, is the possession of all the essential attributes or all the parts necessary to the integrity of a substance. This is absolute, where all defect is precluded, such as the perfection of God; or according to its kind, as in created things. Moral perfection, is the complete possession of all moral excellence, as in the Supreme Being; or the possession of such moral qualities and virtues as a thing is capable of. A quality, endowment or acquirement completely excellent, or of great worth. An inherent or essential attribute of supreme or infinite excellence; or one perfect in its kind; as the perfection's of God. The infinite power, holiness, justice, benevolence and wisdom of God are denominated his perfection's."

That's it. I now know why I am not the perfect kid. I am lacking some of the necessary ingredients. I am lacking infinite power, holiness, justice, benevolence and the wisdom of God. I am not the perfect kid because I do not feel like -- well, God. If I was the supreme being I would be and feel perfect. Being perfect would therefore have allowed me to prevent the current war with Iraq not to mention the countless wars and the world over. Oh yeah, and I would've have stopped the terrorist hijackings that lead to the senseless deaths at the Pentagon, the Twin Towers in New York and the plane that just fell into a field. I am sure as a perfect kid I would stop Global… [read more]

Genetic Engineering Is a Tool Term Paper

… Today there are more than 300 restriction enzymes and the list ever continues to grow. Each of these restriction enzymes precisely identify and target particular DNA bases. When treated with DNA the restriction enzymes scan through the DNA strands and… [read more]

Human Genome, Stem Cells Term Paper

… It may even dictate whether an organism is human or another species, each having their own genome. Research at the HGB has so far revealed that there are approximately 31,000 genes (the basic units of heredity) in the nucleus of… [read more]

Medical Advancements in Medicine Term Paper

… All diseases have a genetic component, whether inherited or resulting from the body's response to environmental stresses. The successes of the Human Genome Project (HGP) have even enabled researchers to pinpoint errors in genes -- the smallest units of heredity -- that cause or contribute to disease.2

The real news is that in the right hands, genetic engineering can be used to develop new ways to treat, cure, or even prevent the thousands of diseases. Today, biotech companies are designing diagnostic tests to detect "bad" genes that may cause particular diseases.

Imagine the changes in medicine if geneticists could find and replace genes that cause illness and disease.

The potential for using genes to treat disease, commonly known as gene therapy is the most exciting application of genetic engineering. This rapidly developing field holds great potential for treating or even curing genetic and acquired diseases, using normal genes to replace or supplement a defective gene.

What does that mean for mankind? For life expectancy? Are we trying to play God? Most members of the scientific and medical community would agree that this advancement is the biggest thing to come along in centuries. Humans could live extended lives, free from debilitating diseases and endangered species could be kept form becoming extinct. Imagine a technology that could preserve precious cells and use them to enhance life.

According to Brigid Greenberg in her article, "Medical Strides Produce Ethical Quandries," cloning research has raised questions. Two years ago, Scottish researchers cloned a sheep named Dolly. Last year, a physicist in Chicago said he would attempt to create the first human clone. Where does medical research go from here? Ethicists say it will continue to press the limits, prompting debates that will only get sharper.3

As for what the future holds, the ethical and moral issues are many and the debate will continue as geneticists persist in their work. Even beyond medicine, genes may one day be able to be used to I.D. A person and that has huge ramifications and potential controversial issues such as an invasion of privacy. Should we have access to someone else's gene characteristics? Could it potentially be used against them in discriminatory ways? The speculations are many and only time will tell but there is great potential for genetic engineering to enhance and expand medical advances in the next decade.

Brigid Greenberg, "Medical Strides Produce Ethical Quandries," Associated Press

Other Sources of Information:

Publications" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project

Books" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care


Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program [read more]

Use in Contemporary Genetic Therapies Chapter

… MicroRNAs and anti-miRs (antagomirs)

The use in contemporary genetic therapies

Summary of the therapy

The process of using micro RNAs as a type of genetic therapy involves altering its original genetic patterns in a manner which could potentially have a significant impact upon many individuals' lives: scientists are able to effectively rewrite the organism's faulty genetic code by enabling new patterns 'binding' of molecules to the RNA strand. "The human genome contains more than 500 miRNAs, and each miRNA can repress hundreds of genes, regulating almost every cellular process… Inappropriate miRNA expression has been linked to a variety of diseases" (Broderick & Zamore 2011). Conversely, appropriate miRNA expression has been linked to health promotion. "For example, the let-7 miRNA prevents proliferation of cancer stem cells. miRNAs have roles in metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes; differentiation of adipocytes is promoted by miR-143 and insulin secretion is regulated by miR-375 in pancreatic-islet cells" (Broderick & Zamore 2011).

MicroRNA/anti-miR therapy exploits the fact that "miRNAs have typically many targets within cellular networks, which, in turn, enable modulation of entire pathways in a disease state via therapeutic targeting of disease-associated miRNAs" (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014). miRNAs are typically very short and common to a number of species which makes the creation of preclinical trials involving animals relatively safe and effective before the treatment is actually used upon humans. The two main approaches to the therapy entail either restoring the original function of a damaged miRNA through the use of "synthetic double-stranded miRNAs or viral vector-based overexpression" or the use of chemically modified antimiR oligonucleotides to inhibit negative miRNA functioning (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014).

Mechanism of action

The simplest method of therapeutic action is the simply 'rewriting' of an RNA strand. Researchers can use synthetic RNA duplexes "that harbor chemical modifications to improve stability and cellular uptake" and the synthetic double-stranded miRNA can thus mimic "the strand identical to the miRNA of interest" as the guide (antisense) strand, while "the opposite (passenger or sense) strand is less stable and can be linked to a molecule, such as cholesterol, to enhance cellular uptake" (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014). A second method of action is the use of mature miRNAs which "can be inhibited using either miRNA sponges or antisense oligonucleotides, known as antimiRs" to produce the desired genetic effect (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014).

The mechanisms of miRNA are also useful in current research on a variety of pathogens. For example, one recent application of miRNA functioning involved use of genomic SELEX, "a method to identify protein-binding RNAs encoded in the genome, to search for further regulatory RNAs"… [read more]

Genetics Discrimination Term Paper

… Genetic research has led to breakthroughs in genome sequencing, which can be used to detect otherwise unknown risk factors for disease. The technology can save lives and improve quality of lives by preventing problems before they arise. However, privacy laws do not protect the information collected by genetic researchers adequately enough. This article discusses what can and often does happen when third parties have unbridled access to a person's genetic records. Ironically, the third parties in this case are not insurance companies. As the author points out, insurance companies are allowed to discriminate against applicants with certain predispositions, family history, or preconditions. Insurers ask for and investigate family history sufficiently to make some assumptions about the cost of the individual's premiums. As the author points out, insurers also know that risk factors does not guarantee disease manifestation and that a host of environmental and other variables will come into play. Most importantly, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) expressly forbids group insurance providers from denying coverage based on genetic results. This provision does not, however, extend to individual providers.

Furthermore, the problem in this case is not insurance companies but potential employers. Corporations with the wealth and potential to access a person's genetic profile can and have made hiring or termination decisions based on the person's genome. This constitutes an overt form of discrimination. Laws are currently only in place to protect employees of the federal government, but no laws prohibit the public sector from engaging in genetic discrimination.

The major ethical points described in this case include confidentiality, privacy, access to information, and discrimination. From the perspective of the private sector, however, spurious their points may be, genetic information helps a company make informed and educated human resources decisions. Hiring a person with known genetic markers for undesirable traits would be a… [read more]

Ethics and Morality: Unit Questions Essay

… Only God reserves the right to give and take life; granting ourselves this right through cloning, therefore, is a violation of God's Law. All the same, I would support the cloning of tissues, particularly because it puts no lives in danger.

5 LC1: Unit 5 Live Chat Session

Wealth distribution has been a subject of debate for centuries, particularly in less-developed countries, where there are huge disparities in wealth and income endowment, and a bulk of society's wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few people. The process and end-of-state views of social justice attempt to explain why these disparities exist, attributing the same to differences in individuals' levels of contribution and achievement in the attainment of wealth. Towards this end, hardworking individuals have more wealth than their less-hardworking counterparts.

Through his theory of justice, John Rawlins attempts to explain how people ought to live with each other in society in the wake of the inherently inevitable disparities in resource-endowment. In his view, everyone has a right to access basic necessities, as well as the right to exercise their rights and freedoms free of the interference of others; and people would naturally prefer a society with lower levels of inequality to one with huge disparities. Towards this end, resources ought to be allocated such that they benefit the least-disadvantaged member of society.

5 LC2: Human Beings Hold no Special Place in Nature

Whilst it remains undisputable that humans were created, and in fact, evolved differently from the rest of creation, consensus is yet to be reached in regard to whether or not they occupy a special place in nature. Renowned paleontologist, Stephen Gould, proposes the happenstance view, which postulates that humans occupy no special place in creation because their emergence and subsequent evolution were only happenstance occurrences -- humans were not planned for, and just came about because a meteor swept across the face of the earth, wiping out dinosaurs and allowing for the emergence of mammals (Ray, 2013). Numerous other scientists have held that based on fossil evidence and DNA, there is substantial interrelatedness between humans and other animals (Ray, 2013).

Proponents of the view that humans are a special creation maintain that right from the creation story, God established a special relationship with man, and made him the bearer of His image (Ray, 2013). Further, they argue that God's decision to give man control over the rest of creation, as well as a sense of duty and responsibility symbolize that they are a special creation. In my view, humans are a special creation particularly because of their capacity to think, which is also why God gave them duties and responsibilities.


Bergeron, B.P. (2004). Case Studies in Genes and Disease: A Primer for Clinicians. East Peoria: IL: Versa Press

Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or not to Clone: The ethical Question. The Retrieved 16th October 2014 from

Ray, J.K. (2013). Evolution and Human Beings. Wordpress. Retrieved 17th… [read more]

Ethics and Morality: Right to Live and Die Essay

… Dolly, for instance, died at the age of four -- six years below the average life expectancy of normal sheep.

Cloning Undermines the Concepts of Family and Reproduction: when cloned children join the family unit, they basically disrupt the normal physiological construction of the same. A key concern among sociologists and medical specialists is that cloning would impede on the conventional mating process because then everyone would want to have an exact duplicate of themselves; and not many people would be satisfied with contributing only half of their child's genetic make-up as is the case now (Wordpress, 2009).

The Possibility of Ambiguous Progenitor-Cloned Child Relationships: I tend to think that apart from the medical benefits, there perhaps is no other reason why someone would want to have a genetic duplicate of themselves. Nonetheless, is for argument's sake, one chooses to engage in cloning for medical reasons -- is it really fair for the clone? Doesn't he/she also have a say on whether they wish to donate whatever they were intended for? Doesn't a clone have the same rights and privileges as everyone else?

Well, these ethical concerns indicate that despite the moral wrongness of the whole idea of human cloning, there is no guarantee that the process will be successful and that my sister will even get to benefit from the same. Moreover, Kantian law requires people to evaluate the morality of their actions through the universal principle -- assessing whether they would consent to the same being adopted as universal law, which in my case would translate to whether I would positively subscribe to the thought of everyone else engaging in cloning, creating their own mini-me, and endangering multiple lives just to save that of someone they love. Additionally, by engaging in cloning, with no guarantee that the same will be successful, I would be putting three lives at risk -- the clone's, the surrogate's and my sister's. Further, in the end, we culd just have a cycle of people creating clones, and so many of them dying; and the concept of life will ultimately lose meaning.


Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or Not to Clone: The Ethical Question. Retrieved 7 October 2014 from

Wordpress. (2013). Ethical Issues Surrounding Human Cloning. Wordpress. Retrieved 6… [read more]

History of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care Term Paper

… Many people that have disabilities are aware that the technologies that make it possible to select good genes and normal traits can lead to the devaluation of disabled people's bodies and even their lives. This concern is fueled by past and ongoing discrimination against the people that have disabilities which often include brutal practices. A perfect example among the 20th century eugenics in the United States and even other European countries there was sponsoring of programs that saw the sterilization of tens of thousands of the disabled people. The Nazi genocide started when nurses and doctors began exterminating disabled people in German medical facilities whereas other perished in concentration camps (Corsetti, 2010).

Another application of eugenics is when we look at genetic disorders. There have been dysgenic trend for medical progress when it comes to the preservation of lives of many people that have genetic disorders that enables them to have children and transmit the adverse genes they have to their succeeding generations. There are several disorders that can be included in this category such as Marfan's syndrome, Huntington's disease, Cystic fibrosis, dwarfism, color blindness, sickle cell anemia, Hemophilia and so on. Individuals with these disorders can be sterilized until they are proved to be fit o become parents. This helps in bringing forth children who do not have any of these disorders from their parents (Corsetti, 2010).


Corsetti, J.(2010).Genetic Testing:Modern -- Day Eugeneics.Retrieved May 6,2014 from

Quigley, M.(2009). Eugenics and Social Control. Retrieved May 6,2014 from

Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from

Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from

Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from [read more]

Cloning of Biological Organisms Research Paper

… In this process, a set of genes are introduced into a cell type, which send signals for the cell to become a mature stem cell (de Grey & Rae, 152). One of the advantages of this subtype of cloning is that it does not involve an embryo or an egg cell. Because of that, there is less controversy with it. If the effectiveness can be improved, it could become highly valuable.

Of course, there is another type of cloning, and that is the creation of an entire human being who is an exact genetic copy of another human and produced by artificial means (Russel, 25). That is the most controversial type of cloning available, and one that may never be realized in the United States with true scientific backing. The main issue is that people consider this type of cloning to be "playing God," and they also often cite concerns over viability, privacy, safety, and other issues that have to be considered. Still, there are those who are pushing for this type of cloning in an effort to address aging and "replace" a person's body when it gets old and starts to fail (de Grey & Rae, 154). If it would be possible to, essentially, replace a person with an exact copy each time the person got ill or started to age, it would be as though that person could live forever. This would definitely be a breakthrough, but there are certainly ethical and legal implications that go along with it.

Human cloning (i.e. creating an exact copy of an entire person) is generally considered unethical because it focuses on an artificial way to produce human beings (de Grey & Rae, 156). Not everyone objects to this type of creation, but once there are one or more clones of a person the waters are muddied when considering "who" those clones really are. Picture several people who are identical in every way moving about the same city. They are not just twins, or people who look similar. They are, for all intents and purposes, the same person. If one of them were to apply for some type of benefit, attend school, commit a crime, or do anything that required name, social security number, and other identifying information, it would implicate all of them in whatever took place. That is the main reason why reproductive cloning will likely never be something considered legal and ethical by the general public. There are simply too many hurdles that have to be overcome and that could not easily be sorted out (de Grey & Rae, 157).

There are big plans for the future of medicinal cloning. As human cloning becomes easier and new ideas are created and tested that allow organs and tissues to be grown more quickly and successfully, the value of human cloning on a therapeutic level will become more apparent (Russel, 184). The main value of this cloning is in the treatment of disease. By cloning new, healthy organs and tissues for… [read more]

Ethics of Embryo Design Reaction Paper

… Additionally, the cells of the embryo could be damaged during the testing process, which could result in even more dangerous complications for the unborn child. For and against the Shannon's procedure design

In the Shannons' case, there are strong ethical considerations for choosing such a controversial procedure. They are looking to improve the quality of life of both of their children. However, PGD can also be used for non-health related purposes, which change the situation dramatically and are extremely unethical. For example, the procedure can be used to choose a gender for the child. Thus, if a couple wants a certain gender, they could pick and choose from the fertilized embryos based on gender. However, this is largely considered unethical by the medical community, because PGD should only really be used in drastic situations, like that of the Shannons (American Pregnancy Association, 2013). If everyone were able to map genetic structure, there would definitely be discrimination against certain genetic traits, which may even result in a weakening of society's genetic pool. It is wrong to choose one life over another because of desired genetic traits.

Overall, for the Shannons, I think PGD is a good procedure to choose. It is for the betterment of all involved, including the unborn child and their other daughter Sally. Still, the medical field must be careful of how such procedures are used. It is essentially like playing God, which can get very dangerous is misused or handled inappropriately. It is important only to use such procedures for cases that really need it, like the Shannons.


American Pregnancy Association. (2013). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: PGD. Infertility. Web.

Human Fertilization & Embryo Authority. (2014). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Treatment and Storage Options. Web. [read more]

Neuroscience and Nature-Nurture Term Paper

… When considering personality in the long-term, researchers have found that genetic factors have a stabilizing effect on personality while environmental factors are associated with changes in personality (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 293). The seeming reciprocity of environmental and genetic influence has some basis in the literature, stemming from the belief that behavior subject to genetic influence tends "to elicit common patterns of responses from the environment, and because people gravitate toward environments that meet their psychological needs and avoid environments that do not" (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 293). Put simply, genetic and environmental influences have been shown to interact and influence personality, and these gene-environment interactions are referred to as G. x E (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 298).

The new molecular perspective examines G. x E. interactions by considering how the expression of genes is moderated by the individual life experiences of people or by environmental variables (Canli, 2008, p. 313). The expression of Extraversion and Neuroticism are believed to be associated with differences in cognitive processes across different individuals, and are particularly tied to the cognitive processing of stimuli that is valenced -- stimuli that have negative or positive value assigned to them by an individual.


Canli, T. (2008). Toward a "Molecular Psychology" of Personality. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, R.W., and L.A. Pervin, Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. (3rd ed.) (pp. 311-323). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Krueger, R.F. And Johnson, W. (2008). Behavioral genetics and personality: A new look at the integration of nature and nurture. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, R.W., and L.A. Pervin, Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research.… [read more]

Ethical Debates Surrounding Stem Cell Research Thesis

… What follows is a brief description of the primary types of human stem cells that have captured the interest of scientists, clinicians, ethicists, policymakers, and religious organizations.

Fetal stem cells. The most controversial stem cells are those derived from human… [read more]

Genetic Privacy Term Paper

… Genetic Privacy

Can We or Should We Ensure Genetic Privacy?

Genetic science has come so far as to be able to positively identify a person based on a single artifact of DNA. As Angrist puts it, "One can imagine law enforcement salivating at the prospect of turning a bloodstain into a name and address." Some might ask what the problem might be in assisting law enforcement with arrests, greatly facilitating the carriage of justice. The answer is that DNA evidence used in forensics can be problematic. Evidence can be planted too easily at the scene of the crime, made to appear incontrovertible. In some cases, the presence of DNA might not link an individual to a crime but instead to victimhood. Moreover, "wrongful convictions can result from human error or malfeasance," and there can be data entry errors too (the Washington Times).

The potentials for misuse in forensics are broad. There are also potential misuses of DNA evidence in adoption cases, where the biological parents have the right to remain anonymous but technically cannot because of genetic science. The use of DNA in job testing can cause rampant discrimination, not necessarily on the basis of visible markers of difference such as race, but invisible markers such as psychological traits. If DNA evidence is compiled in massive databases, even when it is not used to identify its origin, that information can be bought and sold on the free market. If a scientist in a country with lax laws related to human cloning discovers a means to clone a human being based on a personal genome sequence, then that raises further ethical problems. An editorial published in Nature magazine reveals the "vulnerabilities in the security of public databases that contain genetic data." There are a host of reasons why we should ensure genetic privacy.

The second part of the question, whether we can ensure genetic privacy, is another matter. According to Angrist, "the privacy provisions of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) were revised in… [read more]

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Essay

… (Cooper, 2000)

Thus the organisms have evolved from these tow basic structures and the organelles and membranous or non-membranous conditions have created different methods of procreation. The principal difference is being the development of the complex nucleus. Now it is… [read more]

Reprogramming the Injured Article Review

… The authors, however, disagree upon the number of genes to use. Qian uses three genes, but Song introduces a fourth gene named HAND2.

Palpant & Murry (2012) in the article suggests that if the nucleation of the growth of DNA shape is fast and the subsequent nucleation of self-assembly is unusual, then complete structures will form as compared to partial ones. Another method that can ensure the formation of complete structures is the Ostwald ripening. This mechanism ensures that complete structures gain strand from the least complete structures. In the Ostwald ripening mechanism, strands fall off the less stable structure and subsequently joining the stable strands.

The authors of the first article, Palpant & Murry (2012), suggest that it is crucial to validate results of reprogramming of cells in independent labs. They suggest that researchers should do this by using different lineage tracing approaches. There should be an increase of efficiency of cell reprogramming. They again suggest that, doctors must achieve reprogramming without the insertion of the transcription factor gene into fibroblasts during clinical applications. They argue that this will prevent the expected complications such as malignant formation. The authors argue of the benefits of using myocytes over immature progenitors in reprogramming of injured muscles. They argue of which of the two has great proliferative ability. Qian & Song (2012) opens a line of investigation in the cardiovascular translational medicine. The two authors suggest that if scientists could understand reprogramming mechanisms, then the use of myocytes would be the best option in reprogramming of cells. With these mechanisms, cells can reprogram to pluripotent stem cells by expression of transcription factors. According to Qian & Song researchers use this approach in the conversion of differentiated cells.

Qian & Song state that some viruses can insert genes into chromosomes directly. These chromosomes should come from cells that can actively divide. Example of these cells includes fibroblasts that form scars in the body. These viruses, however, cannot insert genes into chromosomes belonging to non-dividing cells such as cardiomyocytes. Through one month of treatment, reprogrammed cardiomyocytes comprise 2.4 to 6.5% in the region where there is injury. The study by Qian & Song showed that thirty-five percent of regenerative therapy might merely involve inducing the heart to perform reprogramming of cells without any help from outside factors.

Works cited

Palpant N.J. & Murry C.E. "Regenerative medicine: Reprogramming the injured heart." (2012). Nature; Vol. 485 Issue 7400, p585

Qian, L. & Song, K. "In vivo reprogramming of murine cardiac fibroblasts… [read more]

Biosocial Criminology Essay

… Biology and Criminal Behavior

Research has consistently shown that biological genealogy plays important factors in the behavior of humans, which can influence, create, or condition social environments in society. The combination of biological genes and environments can predict future behaviors. Without intervention, these behaviors carry over to adulthood that can create criminal behaviors in adulthood as well as other emotional and social problems.

Evidence shows that traits and characteristics remain relatively stable over time and signs of serious criminology emerge early, are multifaceted, and show remarkable resistance to change (Beaver, 2009). Traits and characteristics, such as IQ, impulsivity, and risk seeking, become apparent in young ages and define an individual's behavior throughout their lifetime. Regardless of whether an individual engages in criminal acts, the traits and characteristics of the individuals will define future behavior. For example, children that show signs of aggression will show aggression throughout life if intervention measures are not taken to teach them how to control the aggressive behavior. The biological factors produce tendencies for aggression. If the environment is abusive, this will cause the person to be abusive as well because of the genes and the environmental combination.

Still, other research evidence shows a wide range of behavior problems, personality disorders, and mood disorders are influenced by genes and deficiencies in IQ and its corollaries are risk factors in the etiology of delinquency (Wright, 2008). Behavior problems and personality and mood disorders are influenced by genes and, when combined with environmental factors, can bring about delinquent behaviors. The same goes for children who have special needs, such as ADHD or other special learning needs. Genetic makeup can cause the disorders, but when placed in negative environments, such as violence, neglect, drugs, alcohol, etc., the combination of the genes and the environment leads the child to delinquency. If the child remains in the environment with no intervention measures taken, it can… [read more]

Gattaca the Main Question Asked Essay

… The future described by the film Gattaca is definitely no utopia, it is a society where those with genetically inferior DNA are known as "degenerates," and are the victims of discrimination based on genetics, known as "genoism" But at the same time it offers humanity a future physical perfection, one devoid of genetic defects. But as the film demonstrates, DNA may not be the best scale in which to define humanity. Vincent's success demonstrates what a natural human can achieve, despite his "flaws." It is logical to assume that Vincent has qualities beyond what genetics can create, and that these qualities are what truly make a person human.

While genetic modification may be the key to physical perfection, it is not the way to create better human beings. This type of alteration to the human genome does have a place in society, but not the all-encompassing one of the film. I personally would use genetic modifications to ensure my children were without genetic problems like heart defects or other such physical handicaps. As a parent I would want the best health I could give to my offspring, children without heart defects, eyesight problems, high cholesterol, mental illnesses like depression, schizophrenia, etc., or other such problems. But if I could I would also like to give my children increased intelligence, perfect eyesight, strong teeth, a full head of hair, physical height and strength. While I would want my children to have all the physical advantages a person could have, I also know that humanity is more than physical perfection. These "gifts" to my children would only be their core and that much more is needed to be a fully developed human. In a sense, the gifts bestowed should only aid in the development of the other, non-physical attributes exemplified by Vincent and his success.

Works Cited

Gattaca. Dir. Andrew Niccol. Columbia Pictures, 1997. DVD.

"What is DNA?" Genetics Home Reference. Web. 27 Feb. 2011. [read more]

Arctic Technology Okanagan Specialty Fruits Essay

… The course does provide background information that enabled me understand the article and the larger issues surrounding it. For instance, biological concepts such as gene mutation, genetic engineering and DNA sequences are properly addressed in the course which enabled me to have a clear insight of the issue in the article.

The issue of having an apple that does not turn brown caught my attention. This is because all my life I have lived to see apples turn brown if cut. This made me eager to read more and understand the arctic technology. It is actually an interesting topic that relates directly into our personal life. The scientific knowledge concerning the topic covered in the article directly affects me and the world. This is because if the technology is accepted and arctic apple is released in the market, then it means that for the first time, we will be consuming a genetically modified apple.

The research on this topic should receive financial support by the government and U.S. Apple Association since; it directly relates to human life. The state should not involve the public on this research. This therefore means that taxpayer's money should not be used to support the research on the topic. This is because not everyone will be willing to consume genetically engineered apple thus; it will not be wise to involve the entire public into it. Private companies should take part in the funding of this research given the fact that they too will benefit from it if, the government allows it, and permits them to sell genetically engineered apples in the market. This topic is crucial and of great importance thus should be given the highest precedence as compared to areas of other research.


Andrew, P. (2012, July 12). That Fresh Look, Genetically Buffed. The New York Times.

Retrieved from [read more]

Genetic Diversity Research Paper

… " (Chapter 6, n.d., Buffalo State). The movement of new organisms into the population that can mate with other organisms facilitates the creation of greater genetic diversity. Unlike spontaneous mutations, genetic migration has its origins in the movement of organisms outside of the population into the population. For favorable traits that are supported by the environment: "If selection and migration tend to increase the frequencies of the same alleles, selection can amplify effect of migration" (Chapter 6, n.d., Buffalo State). But if the new traits are not supported by the needs of the environment "selection is stronger than migration, than differences among populations will be maintained, even in the face of migration" (Chapter 6, n.d., Buffalo State).

Genetic drift, however, can cause populations to become less, rather than more heterogeneous. "In each generation, some individuals may, just by chance, leave behind a few more descendants (and genes, of course!) than other individuals. The genes of the next generation will be the genes of the 'lucky' individuals, not necessarily the healthier or 'better' individuals" (Genetic drift, n.d., Evolution 101). While genetic drift can manifest itself in all populations, it is more notable in smaller populations. In larger populations, it is less likely that only one or two organisms will dominate the gene pool by chance.


Chapter 6. Mendelian genetics in populations II: Migration, genetic drift and non-random

Mating. (n.d.). Buffalo State University. Retrieved:

Furr, Susan H. (n.d.). Sources of genetic diversity: A web learning experience.

University of Arizona. Retrieved:

Genetic drift. (n.d.). Evolution 101. The University of California-Berkley. Retrieved:

Hardin, Bertoni & Kleinsmith. (2012). Principles of cell biology. Becker's World of the Cell. 8th

Edition. Retrieved:

Saey, Tina Hesman. (2011). Moth mutation explains classic example of evolution. Wired.

Retrieved: [read more]

Cell Structure and Function Enzymes Meiosis and the Ecology of Organisms Research Paper

… Cell Structure and Function, Enzymes, Meiosis, And the Ecology of Organisms

Cell function

For each structure identified, do you think its location affects its ability to function? Why or why not?

Each organelle/structure has a specific site of location in… [read more]

Evolution and Development of Dog Essay

… In this case, over 650 million base pairs of the dog sequence matches uniquely to the human genome. Most of the contemporary breeds of dog species originate from few founders and have been hereditary for preferred characteristics. This has largely contributed to a species with significant phenotypic diversity though with considerable homogenization of the gene pool in breeds. The amalgamation of phenotypic diversity and heritable homogeneity provides an opportunity for understanding the genetic basis of many multifaceted developmental processes in these species as well as mammals (Kirkness et. al., n.d.).

While these studies have contributed significantly to understanding the evolution and development of dog species as well as helping in dog genomic analysis, there is need for future research based on various objectives. Most of the objectives for future research originate from the limitations of the previous and present researches. First, there is need to conduct the research using other model rather than the heterochronic model since dog cranial development do not align with the prospects of this model. The need for alternative model is also fueled by the fact that dogs are not paedomorphic wolves and have evolved speedily with very minimal genetic variation into unbelievable morphologically different species. Secondly, sequence treatment of the dog genome has shown certain insights, probable applications, and limitations emanating from survey sequencing. Even though it's an economical way for obtaining significant functional annotation, it may be irrelevant for future research since it's of limited value.


Drake, A.G. (2011, April). Dispelling Dog Dogma: An Investigation of Heterochrony in Dogs

Using 3D Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Skull Shape. Evolutionary Development, 13(2), 204-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2011.00470.x.

Kirkness et al. (n.d.). The Dog Genome: Survey Sequencing and Comparative Analysis.

Retrieved September 29, 2012, from

Wayne, R.K. & van Holdt, B.M. (2012, February). Evolutionary Genomics of Dog

Domestication. Mammalian Genome, 23(2), 3-18. [read more]

Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Essay

… Mitosis and Meiosis

Both mitosis and meiosis are forms of cellular division in biology and have similar cycles. Mitosis is the process in which a complex cell separates the chromosomes within its cell nucleus into two separate nuclei. Then, this is typically followed by another division called cytokinesis which divides the cell materials into two separate cells. The process is actually quite fast, but incredibly complex and consists of several phases that cause chemical reactions to occur so that cells are divided. Mitosis was discovered in frog, rabbit and cat cells in 1873 (Maton,, 1997, pp. 70-4).

Meiosis is a unique type of cell division that is necessary for sexual reproduction. The cells produced by the process of meiosis are gametes or spores (sperm and egg cells). The process of meiosis is similar to that of mitosis but there are two major differences: 1) in the process of meiosis, the chromosomes undergo a unique recombination that shuffles the genetic code, producing a different combination in each gamete -- instead of the co-existence of each pair of chromosomes that happens in mitosis, and; 2) the outcome of meiosis is four genetically unique haploid cells, compared with two genetically identical diploid cells in mitosis (Maton). Mitosis is used by single-cell organisms to reproduce and in more complex organisms for the growth of tissues. Meiosis is used for sexual reproduction of advanced organisms that allow sperm and egg to fuse to create a new organism.

As noted, the two processes are similar in that they are focused on cellular division. Mitosis is the process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides into two parts to produce a replication; while meiosis halves the number of chromosomes so they can be merged with another set to produce a full organism. The function of mitosis is cellular reproduction and general growth and occurs in all organisms as asexual reproduction, while meiosis is specific to sexual reproduction and occurs in humans, animals, and plants. The product of the process in mitosis is an identical cell with 1 division and 2 daughter cells; while in meiosis 3 divisions and 4 daughter cells. Within mitosis the chromosomal number remains identical, and the steps are Interphase,… [read more]

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