"Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays

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Nothing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (389 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



What is cloning? The simple explanation: Cloning or nuclear transplantation or somatic cell nuclear transfer involves removing the nucleus (containing a cell's DNA) from an egg cell, and transplanting the DNA from an adult cell into the enucleated egg. The egg is shocked into simulating of fertilization. When the fertilized egg is implanted into the uterus, it has the potential to develop into a full organism. This organism has the same DNA as the donor of the adult cell. The organism would be an exact copy of the adult -- at least biologically. This is "reproductive cloning." (Benagiano & Primiero, 2002)

People have come on different sides of the philosophical divide when the topic of human cloning is brought up. (Goodnough, 2003) Dolly the sheep was the first mammal cloned (Wilmut et al., 1997) -- Dolly is now dead. Recently the Raelian's (who believe that they have descended from aliens) made claims to have cloned (Tomasch, 2002) the first human baby. These unsubstantiated claims are fodder for sensationalism.

While most bio-ethicists, among them, Leon Kass (former President Bush's appointee) and Professor Glenn McGee at the University of Pennsylvania have come against human cloning…… [read more]

Genome Human Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,339 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Genome Human Cloning

Human Cloning

Cloning is the set of techniques applied to build an identical genetic duplicate of a different cell, tissue or a living organism. The material that has been copied having the identical genetic constitution is normally stated to be the clone. In the history of animal cloning, the most famous clone was the sheep Dolly who… [read more]

Double Helix by James Watson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (845 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Double Helix

The book the Double Helix has one true hero, one main protagonist, of course, and that is James Watson. But others, including me, Dr. Linus Pauling, have had something to do with making Watson's project a success, and several of us worked hard at keeping things moving in the right direction. Discovering the secret to DNA, for Watson, was an event that put him on the list of great scientific discoveries and into history. I have my own scientific credentials, of course; I won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 due to my advocacy for the dangers of nuclear testing, and for my part in the nuclear disarmament movement; and earlier, in 1954, I was fortunate to have won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

In the same year I won the Peace Prize, 1962, Watson won the Nobel Prize in Physiology - along with two of his colleagues - for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material." I had a great time long after we had first met kidding Watson about the fact that he shared his Nobel Prize with two other scientists; my Nobel Prize in Chemistry was mine alone but I poked fun at him in a friendly way.

Meanwhile, back in 1951 I had discovered important links to the structure of proteins and had made my presentation to the public and the press in Geneva, Switzerland. When Watson and I met, we both kidded each other in a friendly way of men teasing one another. Watson kidded me about the way I make presentations saying in he was going to accuse me of being a Hollywood showman in his book that he would some day write. Hey, I was just trying to make the structure of proteins interesting for the people in attendance, including the press, many of whom wouldn't know a protein from a pickle. Or a pear, for that matter.

But in any event, what I really enjoyed doing was helping to get people excited about chemistry, about science, about making discoveries. Watson was the kind of scientist who could get depressed. I told him his dreams of being famous were leading him down the wrong road. I said he should dream of the good his discoveries would do for the world and for the people who would benefit if science one day could fully understand the macromolecule. I always encouraged James Watson to remember this: don't get too high and excited…… [read more]

Nurture vs. Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,329 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Human beings and other so-called "higher" forms of biological life are products of their environments in many respects. Exposure to certain environmental factors and being reared under certain circumstances can influence the direction of many types of behavior. At the same time, the field of genetics demonstrates conclusively that inheritance also determines much of the development of everything from fundamental aspects of personality to the most superficial habits, likes, and dislikes.

Twin studies have proven particularly useful in examining the respective roles of nature and nurture in that identical twins separated at birth and reared separately under the influence of entirely different external environments. The fact that identical twins, by definition, share the same genetic predispositions makes each of them, in scientific experimental terms, a control for the other. In that respect, the most fascinating observations arise in situations where identical twins are separated at birth and raised separately, only to exhibit identical behaviors in the realm of things not usually considered to have genetic components at all (Henslin, p.59).

On the other hand, various examples of some of the most extreme forms of deviant social behavior in humans have been linked very directly to specific types of formative experiences and deprivations, particularly in the case of certain criminal behavior of the type catalogued by criminal profilers (Macionis, p.192). Few doubt that elements of both nature and nurture contribute to behavioral development, but the interplay and respective roles played by each still fascinates psychological researchers and lay observers alike.


One need look no further than at parents and their biological children to recognize the profound influence of genetics between successive generations: tall parents tend to have tall children, intelligent parents tend to have intelligent children, and the rules of genetic inheritance is so precise that it allows us to predict with accuracy the results of combining specific genetic contributors of genes known to be associated with traits that are dominant or recessive with respect to various physical traits such as eye color and color blindness (Gerrig & Zimbardo, p.112).

Behavioral traits are also dramatically influenced by genetic inheritance, although they often take much longer to reveal themselves, in addition to being more susceptible to subjective observation: whereas an individual's eye color is readily apparent on simple observation, more complex aspects of behavior are often more difficult to quantify definitively. Nevertheless, that genetic inheritance contributes to behavior, irrespective of external influences is uncontroverted.


The influence of external environmental factors on behavior is well documented both in human beings as well as in other organisms. Infant primates raised by secure, confident, dominant mothers tend to exhibit calm, secure interactions with their peers and to assume high status positions within their primate communities. Likewise, infant primates raised by insecure, fearful, and tense mothers tend to exhibit tense, insecure interactions with their peers and to adopt subservient positions within their communities that approximate their mothers' relative status within the hierarchical group social structure (Macionis, p.117).

Interplay Between Nature… [read more]

Astrocytic Tumors Brain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Astrocytic Tumors

Brain tumor is one of the most lethal forms of cancers with more than 13,000 deaths every year in the United States. Though we are still a long way from developing medical interventions that promise total recovery, advancements in the diagnostic methods such as MRS, ultrasonic aspiration and in surgical procedures such as intraoperative neuronavigation, Gamma Knife radiosurgery,… [read more]

Democratic Revolutions and the Role of the Married Woman in a Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Predictive, Forensic, And Carrier

Genetic Testing: Forensic, Predictive And Carrier

This work seeks to examine genetic testing in the light of the potential contribution of genetic testing specifically in the area of forensic testing, predictive testing, and carrier testing. Genetic testing is beneficial in today's society as both a technological and social adaptation improving information related to crime investigation and evidence and in the area of prediction of genetically inherited diseases for prevention and early detection of these diseases. According to the American Cancer Society, "recent scientific advances have allowed researcher to identify a growing number of genetic alterations that may indicate predisposition for developing cancer or other diseases. The ultimate goal of genetic testing research is the development of clinical applications for risk assessment, early detection and appropriate interventions for individual risk reduction and disease prevention." (2007)


Genetic testing is also referred to as 'gene testing' and 'DNA tests' and is a process by which the individual's DNA is examined. DNA is the material which genes are composed of which serve to determine the specific characteristics of living things. DNA determines the individual's features and as well, genetic testing has the capacity to detect particular genes in terms of whether they are present, absent, or altered and specifically in detection of chromosome abnormalities through laboratory testing.


The work of Jacobs (1997) relates the potential sues of genetic screening and testing techniques in a work published in the Occupational Medical Journal. Jacobs relates."..appropriate biotechnology has produced the capability of linking identifiable genetic structures with particular effects. In turn, this raised the possibility of modifying genetic instructions to overcome health problems. DNA analysis also has applications in forensic science, enables us to study current health risks, and also to discover the health status of preceding generations from human remains, and to pursue the genetic origins of disease leading to prevention or cure." (1997; p.367) Additionally genetic testing has enabled the detection of mutation of genes due to exposure to radiation or chemicals." (Jacobs, 1997; paraphrased; p.368)


Guidelines for genetic testing proposed in 2003 by ten genetic-medicine-related societies focused toward incorporation of genetic testing into clinical practice resulted in the creation of guidelines concerning genetic testing for the purposes of: (1) clinical diagnosis; (2) carrier detection; (3) presymptomatic diagnosis; (4) disease susceptibility estimation; (5) pharmacogenetic diagnosis; (6) prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism." (Guidelines for Genetic Testing, 2003) Carrier testing is conducted when "there is in a family a patient with autosomal recessive, X-linked recessive or unbalanced chromosomal translocation" for determining whether those being examined are carriers and if their offspring might be affected with the same disorder. (Guidelines for Genetic Testing, 2003; paraphrased) Genetic testing for prediction of disorders includes "presymptomatic testing that is almost completely predictable for the development of a single-gene disorder, and susceptibility testing that estimates the predisposition to a multifactorial disease or its risk." (Guidelines for Genetic Testing, 2003)… [read more]

Psychology the Human Genome Building Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (622 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



The Human Genome

Building on the Celera Genome" discusses the race to completely decode the human genome. A government-funded consortium of higher education centers decoded the genome in 2003, but another scientist, J. Craig Venter, announced he decoded a new version of the genome that many people think is more complete than the original. Venter calls his version a "full," or "diploid genome," and it contains the DNA in both sets of chromosomes, one from each parent, and it is the most common genome found in the human body. His research is more thorough than other methods, and so it gives more complete and valuable results to scientists and researchers. In fact, he used his own DNA for the research, so the results point to problems that could surface in his own behavior and health. The articles also gives a brief history of Dr. Venter, including how he became interested in research, and how some researchers are critical of his methods and results. He has written a book about his experiences, called "A Life Decoded," and he posts his genome research on the Internet, so other scientists can benefit from his research and understanding.

Venter's research also shows there can be many more variations in the human genome than previously thought - even abnormalities such as the same gene exists in many copies, or inversions, where the DNA is inserted in the gene upside down. Since there are more variations than initially thought, this research opens up all kinds of areas for additional research, including psychology.

The genome is still largely not understood, but the variants discovered could play a large role in psychological research and diagnosis in the future, since many of the variations can lead to diseases and conditions. For example, Dr. Venter believes that the variants can lead to the risk of alcoholism, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, antisocial…… [read more]

Wound Healing in Plant Cells Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 42


Wound Healing in Plant Cells

The Current study will attempt to further clarify and utilize Arabidopsis thaliana in studying wound healing in plants as well as the most effective means in studying the process. Root hairs are not essential for plant growth and development and are convenient to study since they are on the exterior of the root. The simplicity… [read more]

Epidemiology Gulf War Syndrome Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,046 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Gulf War Syndrome

This refers to a wide range of illnesses and symptoms, from asthma to sexual dysfunction, reported by and among U.S. allied soldiers who served in the Persian Gulf War in 1990-1991 (Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine 2001). Researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center investigated a sampling of these veterans with the syndrome (Nutrition Health… [read more]

Anti-Genetic Engineering for Beauty Purposes but Pro-Genetic Engineering for Resolving Disease Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,019 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Genetic engineering should be permitted in certain cases

Because we can.' This must not be science's credo, at least when dealing with the implications inherent in the technology of genetic engineering. Instead, science must do what it can to help humankind, but only within ethically valid guidelines. Of course, science has yielded many benefits for humanity. It has… [read more]

Cheap Genomic Sequencing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,159 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Thus, at the same time that personalized genetic information will help to redefine certain categories of "disabled," it will ultimately force society to deal not only with standards regarding who controls personal genetic information, but what those individuals actually do with said information. This is a crucial subject for discussion, because it has bearing not on those who may suffer from a genetic predisposition towards a certain illness, but also those willing and able to augment their genetic code through therapy and treatment.

Again, while the idea of someone augmenting his or her self by altering his or her genetic code may seem more in the realm of science fiction than reality, in truth the potential for genetic manipulation is well within reach, because although "direct application of biotechnology to enhance a wide range of specific human traits and capacities in a safe and predictable manner is not proximate," medical advances are proceeding at such an exponential rate that genetic enhancement will likely be possible by the end of the decade (Lindsay, 2005, p. 3). However, just as one might "abuse" knowledge regarding his or her genetic information by opting to have a child specifically due to that child's likelihood for future suffering, personalized genetic information which leads to genetic enhancements might likewise be abused because "in the absence of government regulation, access to enhancements may be limited to the wealthy" such that "the wealthy will use their advantages in financial resources to acquire enhanced intellectual capacities, such as memory and analytical ability, and physical capacities, such as strength and endurance" which "will translate into even greater success in obtaining and maintaining desirable social goods, thus exacerbating existing inequalities" (Lindsay, p. 4). Thus, the potential for abuse of personalized genetic information lies not only with corporate or governmental agencies, but individuals as well. This is why, although individuals must maintain complete control over access to their personalized genetic information, what they actually do with that information will require some oversight, the parameters of which will undoubtedly be debated over the coming decades.

Personalized genetic information offers humanity the possibility to personalized and predictive healthcare, but like any disruptive and impressive development, it also carries with it the potential for abuse, by corporations, governments, and individuals. Thus, while individuals must be allowed to maintain complete control over who has access to their personalized genetic information, both to forestall unethical marketing or surveillance practices and the emergence of new, ostracized minority groups based on certain genetic markers, what individuals can actually do with that information must be regulated according to standards decided upon by society at large. This is the only way to ensure the continued rights of the individual to determine his or her own fate regardless of inherited attributes while prohibiting the infliction of intentional suffering on those yet to be born and the exacerbation of income inequalities due to genetic enhancement.


Acem, E. (2007). Legal expertise, scientific knowledge, and medical ethics at a crossroads.

Canadian Journal of Law… [read more]

Cloning Is No Longer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, for this to proceed, therapeutic cloning must distance itself further from reproductive cloning (Butler Pp). Robin Lovell-Badge, head of developmental genetics at the National Institute for Medical Research in London, feels that this should not be a problem, "You can get to the blastocyst stage without stringent reprogramming, but to go on to the stem-cell line stage is harder, you need a lot more genes to be programmed correctly" (Butler Pp).

With fresh competition from overseas scientists, such as South Korea who reportedly cloned human embryos in 2003, U.S. cloning advocates are highlighting the boosts that the technology could give to the American research community and to economic development (Munro Pp). In January 2004, the New Jersey Legislature approved a law banning cloning to create a live person, yet allowing cloning of human embryos for research purposes (Munro Pp). This legislation "will encourage collaboration, investment, and the building of centers that, at least in part, use human-embryo stem cells," says Im Black of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (Munro Pp). In February, the governor of New Jersey requested $6.5 million in state funds to create a new stem-cell research center, saying it "will put New Jersey at the forefront of medical and pharmaceutical research in the nation" (Munro Pp).

A group of scientists and parents of sick children in California are promoting a proposed ballot initiative that would steer some $3 billion into the field over the next ten years (Munro Pp). The campaign argues that the research could cure millions and save billion of dollars in health care costs, and moreover, create projects and jobs that will generate millions of dollars in new tax revenues for our state" (Munro Pp). This focus on research and economic benefits is due to the difficulty of developing successful therapies that use cloned and transplanted stem cells, which has resulted in discouraged investors and forced many U.S. cloning companies to cut their research staffs or even close their doors, says Robert Lanza, of Advanced Cell Technologies in Worcester, Massachusetts (Munro Pp). "They have a mind of their own and can become a hodgepodge of cells" says Lanza, and the quality standards for transplanted cells "have to be foolproof" (Munro Pp). However, as Lanza points out, venture capitalists want a product in a year or two, yet realistically it would be five to ten-year before a therapy is available using stem-cell transplants (Munro Pp). Cloning done for research purposes, as opposed to research for stem-cell transplant, can generate short-term revenue for cloning companies, and "this is going to help us in drug discovery," according to Lanzo (Munro Pp).

The debate on cloning appears to be a matter of semantics. Although most would agree that cloning to create a live human being could have diabolical consequences, there seems to be little doubt that the technology could indeed save millions of lives and billions in health care costs, as well as generating an economic industry. Whether it is called nuclear transfer… [read more]

Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


." We worry that the market for women's eggs that would be created by this research will provide unethical incentives for women to undergo health-threatening hormone treatment and surgery. We are also concerned about the increasing bio-industrialization of life by the scientific community and life science companies; we are shocked and dismayed that clonal human embryos have been patented and… [read more]

Aging of the Body Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (767 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Aging Body

The author bases his understanding of osteoporosis in humans on the research data from experiments with rodents, which shows estrogen deficiency triggers osteoclast activity. Increased osteoclast activity is another way of stating that bone is being resorbed or lost. When combined with a mild decrease in T cell tolerance to self-antigens, which is an immune response directed against one's own tissues, an autoimmune disorder affecting bone develops. The reason the author suspects this process is occurring is because the same process occurs in mothers immediately following delivery. Bone resorption is triggered by lower levels of estrogen, in order to supply sufficient calcium for the mother's milk.

Steps leading to atherosclerosis:

The inner walls of blood vessels (lumen) become 'sticky', because the vascular endothelium expresses molecules that promote adhesion to blood cells (Libby, Ridker, and Hansson, 2011). Normally, blood cells do not attach to the walls of blood vessels, but in the presence of irritating conditions, such as high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, or chronic inflammation, these adhesion molecules may be expressed.

b. Blood vessels also become more permeable to cholesterol. This results in the entry and retention of cholesterol into the walls of the blood vessels (intima).

c. The macrophage, a type of immune cell, will attach to blood vessel walls through the adhesion molecules and enter. Upon entry, they will transform into phagocytes or macrophages, which are a type of cell that consumes cellular debris, tumor cells, and pathogens for destruction. In the presence of cholesterol, the macrophages will accumulate cholesterol.

d. Additional immune cells will be attracted by the cholesterol-bloated macrophages (foam cells), including T cells, resulting in the formation of an atheromatous lesion or atherosclerotic plaque.

e. Smooth muscle cells in the intima begin to produce structural proteins that form a fibrous cap over the plaque.

f. Over time, the plaque grows in size due to the accumulation of foam cells. Some of these foam cells die and release cholesterol into the lesion, forming a zone in the center of the plaque devoid of living tissue and filled with lipids. Blood flow may eventually become restricted (stenosis) enough to cause tissue death (ischaemia). If the plaque dislodges (embolize) and begins to migrate through the blood vessels, it can lodge in another location and cause local tissue death…… [read more]

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Invader Within Eukaryotic organisms are defined by the existence of organelles within the cell format. Two of the most important of these organelles are chloroplasts and mitochondria. Both organelles serve to manufacture energy within the cell; the chloroplast uses sunlight in this reaction, while the mitochondria does not. Together these organelles are unique in that they, of all the organelles, have their own DNA separate from the nucleic DNA, and are confined within double (triple, or quad) membranes, which show a unique inversion. Because of the unique structure and purpose of these organelles, several theories have arisen considering how they may have developed. The best of these, the endosymbiosis hypothesis, suggests that mitochondria and choloroplasts were originally independent single cell organisms that were incorporated into larger cells where they survived in a symbiotic fashion before eventually becoming so integrated into cell functioning that they were neither independent nor disposable.

Before analyzing the most successful theory, one ought to quickly analyze less respectable theories. Apart from the research originating with Margulis or the deistic claims of creationists, it appears the next-best theory is that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved "step-wise" (Armstrong) by elaborating on existing structures within the cell. This is the autogenesis hypothesis. Such a hypothesis appears to be feasible for many organelles, such as the cell nucleus. However, when tested against the evidence, this hypothesis has significant flaws. For example, if organelle developed within the cell, then the cytoplasm of the organelle should be similar to that of the cell, its membranes should be compatible with other cell membranes, and there should be evidence of intermediate forms. All of these things appear in the case of the nucleus, and there are a number of organisms with "intermediate nuclear organizations." (Armstrong) However, in the case of mitochondria and chloroplasts, none of these signs are found. Mitochondria not only have different ribosome sizes than surrounding cytoplast, they also can reproduce independently, cannot be reproduced by the cell spontaneously, and are never found in intermediate stages. This seems a major flaw to the autogenesis hypothesis.

The endosymbiosis theory, on the other hand, seems to stand up to further research and experimentation. This theory points to the fact that bacteria are capable of entirely encompassing other bacteria, forming symbiotic relationships with them, and maintaining them alive within their own structures. This has…… [read more]

Cloning? Cloning Is the Exact Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (6,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He opined that the cloning technology was not 'evil' as stated by some individuals, nor was it morally wrong, as looked at by some others. Therefore, imposing restrictions and banning it would serve no good purpose other than create a controversy, said the Professor. When taken in the proper sense, the cloning technology could serve many important purposes, like for… [read more]

Start Off With an Introductory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … start off with an introductory section defining as to what is meant by cloning, background information on cloning, and its relevance to the field of business, timeline and history of cloning and the different types of cloning and how they work. Till the recent past, there was no significant ethical, social or legal debate about human cloning, but… [read more]

Genetic Engineering the Objective of Any Discovery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Genetic Engineering

The objective of any discovery should be the development of knowledge to improve the general condition of mankind, but now the entire process of discovery, supported through patents seems to be only an exercise for the financial benefit of the discoverer. One instance of this is in the case of genetic engineering. Now the DNA discovery has taken… [read more]

Against Human Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The issue of lineage becomes more problematic when a third person's DNA is used in lieu of an anonymous embryo donation. In this example, the couple will gestate and rear a child with whom they have no genetic connection. The party who consents to be cloned will have a later born genetic twin with whom s/he has no rearing or social relation. The genetic parents of the donor child will likewise have. no rearing or social connection with the clone of their offspring ( Keough, 2003)."


Cloning is a topic that is currently heating up on the debate circuit. At first glance cloning looks like a positive step in medical science, as it will allow the parts to be grown that will save lives. The problem however, is that the eventual goal is to be able to create designer gene babies. The financial ability to pay for a baby will determine who gets the best grades, the scholarship for sports and the best looks. This will create an extremely unfair world to those who grow up with a standard basis for creation. Cloning is going to disrupt the entire system of mankind and should not be allowed to happen.


Bono steps into stem cell debate with anti-cloning bill

Gannett News Service; 4/28/2005; DOUG ABRAHMS

Gannett News Service


What You're Not Being Told About Cloning

Popular Science; 12/1/2003; Dawn Stover; John Charles Kunich

Popular Science


The Capital Times (Madison, WI); 4/23/2005; Lillis, Mike

Byline: Mike Lillis The Capital Times/Medill News Service

All in…… [read more]

Nature and Nurture a Study Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Studies including identical and fraternal twins as well as siblings will therefore be revealing with regard to the nature/nurture debate. The groups can then be compared to determine to which degree the environment influenced their differences and genetics their similarities.

3. Current studies regarding this issue are inconclusive. However, it appears that it is impossible to disregard the effect of genes on behavior. Separated twins that have been studied for example display traits such as specific preferences in brand of cigarettes or marriage partner. Furthermore coincidences like timing of miscarriages and falling down stairs have also been documented (Neimark, 1997). It therefore appears that nature has a much bigger influence than might at first have been supposed, while the effect of nurture serves merely to supplement the strong influence of genetics.


Holden, Constance. (September 1987). "Genes and Behavior: A twin legacy." In Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers Inc. Online database: Findarticles.com

Neimark, Jill. (August-September 1997). "Nature's clones - research on twins." In Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers Inc. Online…… [read more]

Jungsik Yoo at Times Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I have concluded that the hands-on clinical experience only provided by a medical school education is necessary for me to fulfill the essential experiential element that is crucial to my future desired knowledge base and scope of research. Only medical school will provide me with critical experience that will give my research the desired added practical and human value.

At the end of my education, I hope to become a research doctor who combines clinical research in his study of genetic diseases. I seek to provide the science of genetics with a human face for it is, ultimately, the study of the human body, mind, and 'wiring' in the form of the human genetic code. I been the recipient of a 'Sensory Neuroscience Training Grant '(SNTG) fellowship funded by National institute of health (NIH) since the fall of 2004. Thus I am well aware of the critical role genetics plays in public health of the nation as well as of the field of medical science, because of this generous grant, and I will strive to add to this knowledge in all of my future research.

Also, as a T.A. over the past two years, I have gleaned further knowledge of the curiosity of students for 'in the field' research. I have been grateful to have this human element present even in my PhD education. I am also proud to say I have not merely have received excellent reviews from my students, but joined them in many intramural soccer games, one of my favorite pursuits of my college years. I was not given the genetic gift, sadly, of becoming a great sports star, but I do believe that it is encoded in my own personal biology to bring a vital element of clinical humanity to the important work being done in the field of genetic research.… [read more]

Stem Cell Research Genetic Engineering, Genetic Modification Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Stem Cell Research

Genetic engineering, genetic modification, and gene splicing are terms used for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, generally outside the organism's normal reproductive process (Genetic pp). This usually involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA into model organisms, most often to express a protein, in order to introduce new characteristics to an organism that will increase its usefulness, such as increasing the crop yield of a species, introducing a novel characteristic or producing a new protein or enzyme (Genetic pp). Examples are the production of human insulin through the use of modified bacteria and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the "OncoMouse," cancer mouse, for research, through genetic redesign (Genetic pp). One of the most well-known application of genetic engineering is the creation of genetically modified organisms (Genetic pp). There are potentially profound biotechnology application of genetic modification, such as oral vaccines that are produced naturally in fruit at very low cost (Genetic pp).

Genetic engineering has become the gold standard in protein research, and major research process has been made using a wide variety of techniques, including loss of function, such as in knockout experiment, in which an organism is engineered to lack one or more genes (Genetic pp). Such an experiment involves creation and manipulation of a DNA construct in vitro, which consists of a copy of the desired gene which has been altered to cripple its function (Genetic pp). Then the construct is taken up by embryonic stem cells where the copy of the gene replaces the organism's own gene (Genetic pp).

Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into numerous different cell types within the body serving as a repair system in which they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive (Stem pp). Whenever a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a red blood cell, brain cell, or muscle cell (Stem pp). Stem cell research continues to learn how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms, leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease, a field referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine (Stem pp).

Stem cells contain two important characteristics that distinguish them from other types of cells:

First, they are unspecialized cells that renew themselves for long periods through cell division.

The second is that under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become cells with special functions such as the beating cells of the heart muscle or the insulin- producing cells of the pancreas (Stem pp).

Primarily, scientists work with two types of stem cells from animals and humans, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells (Stem pp).

More than two decades ago, scientists discovered ways to obtain or derive stem… [read more]

Cloning Today Man Has Progressed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Today man has progressed so much in the field of science that it has claimed to possess the power and knowledge to duplicate any living organism. In the year 1997, scientists at the Roslin Institute, Scotland, announced that they have successfully cloned a sheep. Proudly naming it "Dolly," this event led to a series of concerns all across the… [read more]

Human Manipulation Y Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (403 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As the spider goats illustrated, genetic engineering can lead to new products that will help make life easier for all of us. Behind most of the apprehension about human genetic manipulation is the fear of human cloning. If a Rheseus monkey, in which 95% of the genes are similar to humans can be genetically altered to glow in the dark like a jellyfish, then why not a human? Would a cloned human have a soul?. What would be the legal ramifications? However, the issues involving animal genetic manipulation and human manipulation are two different questions requiring different answers. As of now, under our present system of jurisprudence, animals do not have any constitutionally protected rights; hence, genetic engineering is not illegal per se. Whether human manipulation of biological information is ethically wrong depends upon your view of the relationships between animal and humans. Some people believe that animals have souls; hence, human beings have an obligation to treat animals with respect.as fellow creatures. However, some people believe that animals do not have souls; hence, man have the right to genetically alter animals for human purposes.… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (736 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Mitosis and Meiosis

Both mitosis and meiosis are forms of cellular division in biology and have similar cycles. Mitosis is the process in which a complex cell separates the chromosomes within its cell nucleus into two separate nuclei. Then, this is typically followed by another division called cytokinesis which divides the cell materials into two separate cells. The process is actually quite fast, but incredibly complex and consists of several phases that cause chemical reactions to occur so that cells are divided. Mitosis was discovered in frog, rabbit and cat cells in 1873 (Maton, et.al., 1997, pp. 70-4).

Meiosis is a unique type of cell division that is necessary for sexual reproduction. The cells produced by the process of meiosis are gametes or spores (sperm and egg cells). The process of meiosis is similar to that of mitosis but there are two major differences: 1) in the process of meiosis, the chromosomes undergo a unique recombination that shuffles the genetic code, producing a different combination in each gamete -- instead of the co-existence of each pair of chromosomes that happens in mitosis, and; 2) the outcome of meiosis is four genetically unique haploid cells, compared with two genetically identical diploid cells in mitosis (Maton). Mitosis is used by single-cell organisms to reproduce and in more complex organisms for the growth of tissues. Meiosis is used for sexual reproduction of advanced organisms that allow sperm and egg to fuse to create a new organism.

As noted, the two processes are similar in that they are focused on cellular division. Mitosis is the process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides into two parts to produce a replication; while meiosis halves the number of chromosomes so they can be merged with another set to produce a full organism. The function of mitosis is cellular reproduction and general growth and occurs in all organisms as asexual reproduction, while meiosis is specific to sexual reproduction and occurs in humans, animals, and plants. The product of the process in mitosis is an identical cell with 1 division and 2 daughter cells; while in meiosis 3 divisions and 4 daughter cells. Within mitosis the chromosomal number remains identical, and the steps are Interphase,…… [read more]

Evolution and Development of Dog Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In this case, over 650 million base pairs of the dog sequence matches uniquely to the human genome. Most of the contemporary breeds of dog species originate from few founders and have been hereditary for preferred characteristics. This has largely contributed to a species with significant phenotypic diversity though with considerable homogenization of the gene pool in breeds. The amalgamation of phenotypic diversity and heritable homogeneity provides an opportunity for understanding the genetic basis of many multifaceted developmental processes in these species as well as mammals (Kirkness et. al., n.d.).

While these studies have contributed significantly to understanding the evolution and development of dog species as well as helping in dog genomic analysis, there is need for future research based on various objectives. Most of the objectives for future research originate from the limitations of the previous and present researches. First, there is need to conduct the research using other model rather than the heterochronic model since dog cranial development do not align with the prospects of this model. The need for alternative model is also fueled by the fact that dogs are not paedomorphic wolves and have evolved speedily with very minimal genetic variation into unbelievable morphologically different species. Secondly, sequence treatment of the dog genome has shown certain insights, probable applications, and limitations emanating from survey sequencing. Even though it's an economical way for obtaining significant functional annotation, it may be irrelevant for future research since it's of limited value.


Drake, A.G. (2011, April). Dispelling Dog Dogma: An Investigation of Heterochrony in Dogs

Using 3D Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Skull Shape. Evolutionary Development, 13(2), 204-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2011.00470.x.

Kirkness et al. (n.d.). The Dog Genome: Survey Sequencing and Comparative Analysis.

Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/news/0309/177.htm

Wayne, R.K. & van Holdt, B.M. (2012, February). Evolutionary Genomics of Dog

Domestication. Mammalian Genome, 23(2), 3-18.… [read more]

Cell Structure and Function Enzymes Meiosis and the Ecology of Organisms Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Cell Structure and Function, Enzymes, Meiosis, And the Ecology of Organisms

Cell function

For each structure identified, do you think its location affects its ability to function? Why or why not?

Each organelle/structure has a specific site of location in the cell that affects its distinctive function. For instance, nucleus that is the control department of the cell is located in the middle so that it can monitor all the activities. Additionally, the plasma membrane surrounds all the cell structures because it has to protect them and also has to regulate the passage of substances (Rastogi 2007).

Furthermore, mitochondria are situated all around the cell as it is the site of respiration so it can easily fuel all metabolic reactions taking place. Moreover, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are situated close to one another so that proteins and lipids from ER can easily be transported for packaging (Rastogi 2007).

Draw a labeled diagram of a small section of the plasma membrane and briefly describe its structure and function.

(Miercoles, 2011)

Plasma membrane consists of two layers of phospholipids that have cholesterol and proteins situated between them. Few carbohydrate molecules are also attached to them forming conjugate molecules. Membrane is responsible for shielding a cell from the external atmosphere and maintaining the internal environment. Moreover, it monitors and directs the transport of substances across it (Rastogi 2007).

3. Describe the differences between animal and plant cells.

Animal cell

Plant cell

Cell wall absent

Cell wall present

Chloroplasts absent

Chloroplasts present

Small vacuoles present

Large vacuole present

Plastids absent

Plastids present

Centrioles present

Centrioles absent

Irregular shape

Regular shape

4. Which of the structures are present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Plasma membrane, ribosome, genetic material (DNA/RNA) and vesicles are present in both types of cells (Rastogi 2007).

5. Where is genetic material found in plant cells?

Genetic material (DNA) is mainly present inside the nucleus of plant cell (Rastogi 2007).

6. Mitochondria are the only organelles that contain their own DNA (circular) and have a double membrane. Why do you think this might be so?

Mitochondria are structures that seek the ancestral links from bacterial cells; therefore, they contain circular DNA and possess a rough natured inner membrane like bacteria. The generation of ATP in mitochondria due to the presence of space between double membranes resembles the energy yielding process in ancient species of bacteria (Rastogi 2007).

7. How is the structure of plant's cellulose-based cell wall related to its function?

Cell wall is made up of cellulose and other molecules whose arrangement provides high flexibility and strength to the structure of the wall. It facilitates the cell wall to perform its role of allowing cells to have definite shape, shielding it from harmful agents and providing overall support to the cell (Rastogi 2007).

8. Defects in structures of the cell can lead to many diseases. Pick one structure of a eukaryotic cell and develop a hypothesis as to what you think the implications would be if that structure did… [read more]

Arctic Technology Okanagan Specialty Fruits Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The course does provide background information that enabled me understand the article and the larger issues surrounding it. For instance, biological concepts such as gene mutation, genetic engineering and DNA sequences are properly addressed in the course which enabled me to have a clear insight of the issue in the article.

The issue of having an apple that does not turn brown caught my attention. This is because all my life I have lived to see apples turn brown if cut. This made me eager to read more and understand the arctic technology. It is actually an interesting topic that relates directly into our personal life. The scientific knowledge concerning the topic covered in the article directly affects me and the world. This is because if the technology is accepted and arctic apple is released in the market, then it means that for the first time, we will be consuming a genetically modified apple.

The research on this topic should receive financial support by the government and U.S. Apple Association since; it directly relates to human life. The state should not involve the public on this research. This therefore means that taxpayer's money should not be used to support the research on the topic. This is because not everyone will be willing to consume genetically engineered apple thus; it will not be wise to involve the entire public into it. Private companies should take part in the funding of this research given the fact that they too will benefit from it if, the government allows it, and permits them to sell genetically engineered apples in the market. This topic is crucial and of great importance thus should be given the highest precedence as compared to areas of other research.


Andrew, P. (2012, July 12). That Fresh Look, Genetically Buffed. The New York Times.

Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/13/business/growers-fret-over-a-new-apple-that-wont-turn-brown.html?pagewanted=all… [read more]

Reprogramming the Injured Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The authors, however, disagree upon the number of genes to use. Qian uses three genes, but Song introduces a fourth gene named HAND2.

Palpant & Murry (2012) in the article suggests that if the nucleation of the growth of DNA shape is fast and the subsequent nucleation of self-assembly is unusual, then complete structures will form as compared to partial ones. Another method that can ensure the formation of complete structures is the Ostwald ripening. This mechanism ensures that complete structures gain strand from the least complete structures. In the Ostwald ripening mechanism, strands fall off the less stable structure and subsequently joining the stable strands.

The authors of the first article, Palpant & Murry (2012), suggest that it is crucial to validate results of reprogramming of cells in independent labs. They suggest that researchers should do this by using different lineage tracing approaches. There should be an increase of efficiency of cell reprogramming. They again suggest that, doctors must achieve reprogramming without the insertion of the transcription factor gene into fibroblasts during clinical applications. They argue that this will prevent the expected complications such as malignant formation. The authors argue of the benefits of using myocytes over immature progenitors in reprogramming of injured muscles. They argue of which of the two has great proliferative ability. Qian & Song (2012) opens a line of investigation in the cardiovascular translational medicine. The two authors suggest that if scientists could understand reprogramming mechanisms, then the use of myocytes would be the best option in reprogramming of cells. With these mechanisms, cells can reprogram to pluripotent stem cells by expression of transcription factors. According to Qian & Song researchers use this approach in the conversion of differentiated cells.

Qian & Song state that some viruses can insert genes into chromosomes directly. These chromosomes should come from cells that can actively divide. Example of these cells includes fibroblasts that form scars in the body. These viruses, however, cannot insert genes into chromosomes belonging to non-dividing cells such as cardiomyocytes. Through one month of treatment, reprogrammed cardiomyocytes comprise 2.4 to 6.5% in the region where there is injury. The study by Qian & Song showed that thirty-five percent of regenerative therapy might merely involve inducing the heart to perform reprogramming of cells without any help from outside factors.

Works cited

Palpant N.J. & Murry C.E. "Regenerative medicine: Reprogramming the injured heart." (2012). Nature; Vol. 485 Issue 7400, p585

Qian, L. & Song, K. "In vivo reprogramming of murine cardiac fibroblasts…… [read more]

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Cooper, 2000)

Thus the organisms have evolved from these tow basic structures and the organelles and membranous or non-membranous conditions have created different methods of procreation. The principal difference is being the development of the complex nucleus. Now it is pertinent to look into the components of these cells. The eukaryotes developed from a common prokaryotic ancestor along three lines… [read more]

Genetic Privacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Genetic Privacy

Can We or Should We Ensure Genetic Privacy?

Genetic science has come so far as to be able to positively identify a person based on a single artifact of DNA. As Angrist puts it, "One can imagine law enforcement salivating at the prospect of turning a bloodstain into a name and address." Some might ask what the problem might be in assisting law enforcement with arrests, greatly facilitating the carriage of justice. The answer is that DNA evidence used in forensics can be problematic. Evidence can be planted too easily at the scene of the crime, made to appear incontrovertible. In some cases, the presence of DNA might not link an individual to a crime but instead to victimhood. Moreover, "wrongful convictions can result from human error or malfeasance," and there can be data entry errors too (the Washington Times).

The potentials for misuse in forensics are broad. There are also potential misuses of DNA evidence in adoption cases, where the biological parents have the right to remain anonymous but technically cannot because of genetic science. The use of DNA in job testing can cause rampant discrimination, not necessarily on the basis of visible markers of difference such as race, but invisible markers such as psychological traits. If DNA evidence is compiled in massive databases, even when it is not used to identify its origin, that information can be bought and sold on the free market. If a scientist in a country with lax laws related to human cloning discovers a means to clone a human being based on a personal genome sequence, then that raises further ethical problems. An editorial published in Nature magazine reveals the "vulnerabilities in the security of public databases that contain genetic data." There are a host of reasons why we should ensure genetic privacy.

The second part of the question, whether we can ensure genetic privacy, is another matter. According to Angrist, "the privacy provisions of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) were revised in…… [read more]

Biosocial Criminology Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Biology and Criminal Behavior

Research has consistently shown that biological genealogy plays important factors in the behavior of humans, which can influence, create, or condition social environments in society. The combination of biological genes and environments can predict future behaviors. Without intervention, these behaviors carry over to adulthood that can create criminal behaviors in adulthood as well as other emotional and social problems.

Evidence shows that traits and characteristics remain relatively stable over time and signs of serious criminology emerge early, are multifaceted, and show remarkable resistance to change (Beaver, 2009). Traits and characteristics, such as IQ, impulsivity, and risk seeking, become apparent in young ages and define an individual's behavior throughout their lifetime. Regardless of whether an individual engages in criminal acts, the traits and characteristics of the individuals will define future behavior. For example, children that show signs of aggression will show aggression throughout life if intervention measures are not taken to teach them how to control the aggressive behavior. The biological factors produce tendencies for aggression. If the environment is abusive, this will cause the person to be abusive as well because of the genes and the environmental combination.

Still, other research evidence shows a wide range of behavior problems, personality disorders, and mood disorders are influenced by genes and deficiencies in IQ and its corollaries are risk factors in the etiology of delinquency (Wright, 2008). Behavior problems and personality and mood disorders are influenced by genes and, when combined with environmental factors, can bring about delinquent behaviors. The same goes for children who have special needs, such as ADHD or other special learning needs. Genetic makeup can cause the disorders, but when placed in negative environments, such as violence, neglect, drugs, alcohol, etc., the combination of the genes and the environment leads the child to delinquency. If the child remains in the environment with no intervention measures taken, it can…… [read more]

Gattaca the Main Question Asked Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The future described by the film Gattaca is definitely no utopia, it is a society where those with genetically inferior DNA are known as "degenerates," and are the victims of discrimination based on genetics, known as "genoism" But at the same time it offers humanity a future physical perfection, one devoid of genetic defects. But as the film demonstrates, DNA may not be the best scale in which to define humanity. Vincent's success demonstrates what a natural human can achieve, despite his "flaws." It is logical to assume that Vincent has qualities beyond what genetics can create, and that these qualities are what truly make a person human.

While genetic modification may be the key to physical perfection, it is not the way to create better human beings. This type of alteration to the human genome does have a place in society, but not the all-encompassing one of the film. I personally would use genetic modifications to ensure my children were without genetic problems like heart defects or other such physical handicaps. As a parent I would want the best health I could give to my offspring, children without heart defects, eyesight problems, high cholesterol, mental illnesses like depression, schizophrenia, etc., or other such problems. But if I could I would also like to give my children increased intelligence, perfect eyesight, strong teeth, a full head of hair, physical height and strength. While I would want my children to have all the physical advantages a person could have, I also know that humanity is more than physical perfection. These "gifts" to my children would only be their core and that much more is needed to be a fully developed human. In a sense, the gifts bestowed should only aid in the development of the other, non-physical attributes exemplified by Vincent and his success.

Works Cited

Gattaca. Dir. Andrew Niccol. Columbia Pictures, 1997. DVD.

"What is DNA?" Genetics Home Reference. Web. 27 Feb. 2011.

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna… [read more]

Genetic Diversity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" (Chapter 6, n.d., Buffalo State). The movement of new organisms into the population that can mate with other organisms facilitates the creation of greater genetic diversity. Unlike spontaneous mutations, genetic migration has its origins in the movement of organisms outside of the population into the population. For favorable traits that are supported by the environment: "If selection and migration tend to increase the frequencies of the same alleles, selection can amplify effect of migration" (Chapter 6, n.d., Buffalo State). But if the new traits are not supported by the needs of the environment "selection is stronger than migration, than differences among populations will be maintained, even in the face of migration" (Chapter 6, n.d., Buffalo State).

Genetic drift, however, can cause populations to become less, rather than more heterogeneous. "In each generation, some individuals may, just by chance, leave behind a few more descendants (and genes, of course!) than other individuals. The genes of the next generation will be the genes of the 'lucky' individuals, not necessarily the healthier or 'better' individuals" (Genetic drift, n.d., Evolution 101). While genetic drift can manifest itself in all populations, it is more notable in smaller populations. In larger populations, it is less likely that only one or two organisms will dominate the gene pool by chance.


Chapter 6. Mendelian genetics in populations II: Migration, genetic drift and non-random

Mating. (n.d.). Buffalo State University. Retrieved: http://faculty.buffalostate.edu/penaloj/bio405/outline6.html

Furr, Susan H. (n.d.). Sources of genetic diversity: A web learning experience.

University of Arizona. Retrieved: http://biology.arizona.edu/sciconn/lessons2/Furr/GeneticDiversity/GeneticDiversityHome.htm

Genetic drift. (n.d.). Evolution 101. The University of California-Berkley. Retrieved:


Hardin, Bertoni & Kleinsmith. (2012). Principles of cell biology. Becker's World of the Cell. 8th

Edition. Retrieved: http://www.mun.ca/biology/desmid/brian/BIOL2060/BIOL2060-20/CB20.html

Saey, Tina Hesman. (2011). Moth mutation explains classic example of evolution. Wired.


http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/04/evolution-peppered-moth/… [read more]

Consent? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The risk that the genetic material would be appropriated for other purposes was not perceived of as a risk by the medical and science research establishment, because of the paternalistic point-of-view that "science knows best." Harmon (2010b) quotes the researcher in question in the Havasupai case to highlight the condescending tone with which scientists talk to laypersons. To her critics, the researcher claims that they "failed to understand the fundamental nature of genetic research, where progress often occurs from studies that do not appear to bear directly on a particular disease," (cited by Harmon, 2010b). The researcher demonstrates an ethic that relies on the ends justifying the means; however, medical ethics decisions cannot be based on using human beings as means to an end.

In fact, the risk of taking DNA and using it for any purposes -- up to the researchers' whim -- is potentially great. For instance, it is not too much of a stretch to suggest that even human cloning experiments could take place without the authorization of the DNA donors, given the Havasupai situation. As for the potential benefits of the research, the Havasupai were only told that their DNA might help understand the high prevalence of diabetes in their community. Further benefits for research and medicine were not discussed openly: something the IRB certainly needed to do. Genetic research is cutting-edge, too, meaning that there are a plethora of possible uses for DNA samples that have not yet been invented yet. Those studies should of course be encouraged, to promote greater awareness and understanding of disease etiology and other issues. However, full disclosure about the potentially unlimited use of a person's DNA sample must be obtained; or else, situations like the African-American resistance to participation in scientific studies (due to the Tuskegee study) will happen again and again to the benefit of no one.


Harmon, A. (2010b). Indian tribe wins fight to limit research of its DNA. The New York Times. April 21, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/22/us/22dna.html?pagewanted=all

Harmon, A. (2010). Where'd you go with my DNA? The New York Times. April 24, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/25/weekinreview/25harmon.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all… [read more]

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Black Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


pestis. A comparison between the ancestral Y. pseudotuberculosis genome and the ancient Y. pestis revealed complete sequence identity at the 97 positions, which suggests these single nucleotide differences have emerged during this past 660 years.

Phylogenetic analysis using 1,694 nucleotide positions previously identified as useful for this purpose revealed that the ancient Y. pestis genome differed from all 17 extant strains at only 2 of these positions for 3 of the 4 victims, while the fourth victim differed at 3 positions. This places the ancient strain from these victims into branch 1 Y. pestis. This finding suggests multiple strains were ravaging London at the time, or microevolutionary changes were occurring during the outbreak. Support for a microevolutionary mechanism was found when one nucleotide position known to be polymorphic in extant Y. pestis strains was found to also be polymorphic in a single victim, and between victims, from 660 years ago. Another 18 positions were found have sequence unique to the ancient genome and are not polymorphic in the extant strains, which could be of considerable interest because the ancient genome is suspected of being considerably more virulent.

One of the more interesting findings from the phylogenetic analysis is that all known Y. pestis strains probably derived from a common ancestor around the time this graveyard was used. This finding calls into the question the suggestion that earlier plagues in the 6th and 8th centuries were caused by Y. pestis.


The authors admit to the limitations of a capture technique that uses extant sequences. In addition, they claim to have been able to align only 93.48% with a minimum of one-fold coverage. While the sequencing and alignment of ancient Y. pestis sequence represents a remarkable feat, these limitations are significant enough that future studies will probably result in one or more revisions to the findings presented in this article.


Bos, Kirsten I., Schuenemann, Verena J., Golding, G. Brian,…… [read more]

Structure of JANN_2411( DUF14790) Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


A high degree of conservation is observed for a number of positively charged residues (Arg143, Arg161, Arg165, Lys177, Arg182 and Arg184), suggesting that this region could present a nucleic acid binding site. Furthermore, residues 146 (a hydrophobic residue) and 167 (an aromatic residue) are highly conserved and could intercalate between the DNA bases. Based on the most conserved motif found in the C-terminal -helix in this family of proteins, we have named this domain the CGNR zinc finger. The actual amino-acid sequence in Jann_2411 is CQNR.

The dimer exists in quarternary form. Treble-clef zinc fingers are usually incorporated into larger structures and are found in proteins with a wide range of functions, many of which involve transcriptional regulation. Genes predicted to have functional associations with Jann_2411 in the STRING database (http://string.embl.de) include a transmembrane protein of unknown function (Jann_2410) and the transcriptional regulator Jann_2412, a member of the Asr gene family. The Asr gene family is widespread in higher plants and most members of this family are up-regulated under a range of environmental stress conditions; their products are thought to function as transcriptional regulators.

The molecular function of the ABATE domain remains elusive. However, given the prediction that the C-terminal domain binds DNA, then the N-terminal domain may allow the protein to act as a signal-dependent transcriptional regulator with the ABATE domain conferring sensitivity to some as yet undefined ligand. This combination of a DNA binding domain with a ligand-sensing domain is a prevalent form of regulation of operons in bacteria, such as the lactose or arabinose operons. Further analysis revealed that probably the ABATE domain evolved as a single unit as opposed to the gene-duplication event that might be suggested by the presence of two ABATE motifs.


The first structural representative of the DUF1470 family revealed a two-domain organization, with the N-terminal domain presenting a new fold and the C-terminal domain consisting of a treble-clef zinc finger. The structure additionally allowed a re-evaluation of the Pfam signature and the Pfam assignment and suggests a role for this family in stress-induced transcriptional regulation.

Works Cited

Bakolitsa C. et al. (2009) The structure of Jann_2411(DUF14790) from Jannaschia sp at 1.45 A resolution reveals a new fold ( the…… [read more]

Molecular Basis Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  8 pages (2,810 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sequencing reaction products were denatured for 5 min at 701C and separated on 6% polyacrylamide gels at 2500V for 2 -- 5 hr. The gels were dried and subjected to autoradiography. Alternatively, automated sequencing of the purified PCR products was performed on an Applied Biosystems Genetic Analyzer 3100 (www.PEBIO.com) (Peretz et al., 2006).

RFLP assays were designed to confirm the… [read more]

Human Cloning the Debate Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


How many women would be willing to subject themselves to in vitro fertilization protocols to support a somatic cell nuclear transfer pregnancy, when the chance of success is between 1-2% (Gurdon and Melton, 1811)? The prevalence of first trimester miscarriages in cattle and sheep is between 50 and 70% (Palmieri et al., 865). Many of these failures result from the embryo failing to properly support placental development, and recent research has revealed that somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos and placenta have abnormal gene expression patterns (Campbell et al., 257). Many of the embryos that do reach term suffer from Large Offspring Syndrome, immature lungs, generalized weakness, immunodeficiencies, and high mortality rates. These defects are believed to result from disruptions in genomic imprinting, which is a biological mechanism that controls inherited patterns of gene expression essential for proper growth, development, and viability (Butler, 478).


The current state of cloning technology assures the success rate of any human cloning efforts would be dismal and fraught with countless miscarriages, birth abnormalities, and perinatal deaths. Unless we're willing to approach human reproduction in the same manner that we treat livestock reproduction, it seems unlikely that rational minds would be willing to consider human cloning as a viable medical procedure. This state of affairs provides a little breathing room so that the ethical and legal issues surrounding human cloning can be more fully addressed.


Butler, Merlin G. "Genomic imprinting disorders in humans: a mini-review." Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 26.9-10 (2009): 477-486. Web.

Campbell, Keith H.S., Alberio, Ramiro., Choi, Inchul., Fisher, Pat., Kelly, Richard D.W., Lee, Joon-Hee, Maalouf, W. "Cloning: Eight years after Dolly." Reproduction in Domestic Animals 40.4 (2005): 256-268. Web.

Gurdon, John. B. And Melton, Doug A. "Nuclear reprogramming in cells." Science 322.5909 (2008): 1811-1815. Web.

Palmieri, Chiara., Loi, Pasqualino., Ptak, Grazyna., Salda, Leanardo Della. "Review paper: A review of the pathology of abnormal…… [read more]

Eugenics Genetic Enhancement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,490 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


[footnoteRef:5] Rapid technology driven process of genetic design may achieve meaningful group specific change without reproductive isolation. With genetic refinements accumulating in the laboratory instead of in biological lineages, the spread of gene modules would be through mimetic rather than biological mechanisms. With the advent of germline engineering, human artificial chromosomes would render laboratory conception obligatory rather than optional. Unpredictability… [read more]

Rapid Movement of the Modern Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Limiting the location of the male sample and fully examining the genetic history might be some of the more glaring variables that need elimination.

De Iuliis' study seemed more conclusive regarding study of RF-EMR using in vitro specimens. However, because the subjects tested upon were mammalian cells, not necessarily human tissue, there are still a few variables that need tweaking. The use of male spermatozoa might heavily alter the studies indicated by looking at mammal reproductive tissue. The experimentation in the De Iuliis study, at least, has developed a better method in linking EMW to the degradation of human health.

What does become important in this study is the fact that with the increase of electromagnetic waves around the world, radiation is an ever-increasing concern. Radiobiology and the study of preventive measures would further help protect the population from the continuous hazard that the human body is endangering itself to. While the frequencies are still at minimal levels -- small enough not to be cause for worry -- the signs of detrimental DNA cannot be found. However, if the study of cell phone frequencies is any indication, prolonged use can certainly be one factor in fragmented DNA. Male infertility would only be one side effect, though the studies have also shown that this RF-EMR emission can lead to other more pressing neurodegenerative diseases, cancer being one of them.


Agarwal, Ashok, Deepinder, Fnu, Makker, Kartikeya. "Cell Phones and Male Infertility: Dissecting the Relationship." Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15.3 (2007): 266-70. RBM Online. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .

De Iuliis, Geoffry N., Rhiannon J. Newey, Bruce V. King, and R. John Aitken. "Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro." PLoS ONE. 31 July 2009. Web. 05 Mar. 2011.…… [read more]

Expression Profiling of a Novel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


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Mortensen, R.M. And Kingston, R.E. (2009). Selection of transfected mammalian cells. In F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith and K. Struhl (Eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Unit 9.5). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/0471142727.mb0905s86/pdf

Rosenfeld, J., Capdevielle, J., Guillemot, J.C., and Ferrara, P. (1992). In-gel digestion of proteins for internal sequence analysis after one- or two- dimensional gel electrophoresis. Analytical Biochemistry, 203, 173-179.

Smith, S.L. (2008). Basic confocal microscopy. In F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith and K. Struhl (Eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Unit 14.11). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from http://www.currentprotocols.com/protocol/mb1411

Tatsumi, K., Ohashi, K., Taminishi, S., Okano, T., Yoshioka, A. & Shima, M. (2008). Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR in regenerating mouse livers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 374, 106-110.

Xu, L., Ma, X., Cui, B., Li, X., Ning, G., and Wang, S. (2010). Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR in high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis mice model. Molecular Biotechnology, Published online ahead of print December 24, 2010.

Yan, F., Wu, X., Crawford, M., Duan, W., Wilding, E.E., Gao, L. et al. (2010). The search for an optimal DNA, RNA, and protein detection by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and solution-based methods. Methods, 52, 281-286.

Yokoyama, W.M. (2006). Production of monoclonal antibodies. In J.P. Robinson, Z. Darzynkiewicz, R. Hoffman, J. Nolan, P. Rabinovitch, and S. Watkins (Eds.), Current Protocols in Cytometry (Appendix 3J). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/0471142956.cya03js37/pdf… [read more]

Personality: Permanent? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Both causes play the same role controlling people's loathsome behavior.

The therapy includes giving space to the subject to openness of experience, reducing tension of threatening environment and fearsome force, or even introducing gradual learning process in a comfort zone where the subject feels safe to express him/herself.

There is an extra note; Azar also gives an interesting part in the article that both influences on certain traits "change as people age." Basically, two persons are not going to react on an experience the same way since they have different chemistry in each individual. Experiences may be influenced by individual presumption, so that people may "choose certain experiences because they fit best with our innate preferences."

She explains, genetic factor may give the fundamental of certain trait, and giving the lead on subject's acceptability to the surrounding environment. It will create a special environment when "genetically distinct people" create a matching circumstances to accommodate the need, then it induces the changes too. An active correlation may occur when subject, fully aware of his/her native genetic traits, expose themselves to change, which corresponds to "genetically influenced preferences." An evocative correlation may occur because genetically distinct people evoke different reactions from parents, peers and others. For example, teachers may select musically talented children for special opportunities.

Fujita says, genetic value could be additive or non-additive. The explanation also shared that environment - family or work or any circumstances and system where subject belongs to, including governmental system - could be open to alteration. There could also be "non-shared environmental differences" not in correspondence with environmental impact on human behavior. Both of them give mutual contribution to the change, but it does not tell much how much contribution each gives in a process; and neither will be easy to determine how much change each factor could induce to personality alteration. When a child reaches the age and able to use logical thinking, every little thing counts something to develop the personality. In conclusion, nature gives a base on how strong a personality is. After all, both nature or nurture play important roles to determine personality change.


Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association. http://www.snc.edu/psych/korshavn/natnur02.htm (March28, 2002).

Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/children/05/30/born.bad.wmd/(March28, 2002).

Fujita, F. May 1, 1996. The Nature/Nurture Controversy. Sci.Psychology.Personality FAQ. http://www.iusb.edu/~ffujita/Documents/nn.html (March28, 2002).

Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,

Philip Worchel & Donn Byrne (Eds.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1964. http://www.focusing.org/personality_change.html (March28, 2002).

McInerney, J. What indications are there that behavior has a biological basis? Behavioral Genetics. Human Genome Project Information. http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/elsi/behavior.html (March28, 2002).… [read more]

Cloning Bioethics Term Paper

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This type of information transfer between individuals is a lot farther from reach than mere physical duplication. It would therefore be unrealistic to expect clones to replace the original individuals.

Nature clones people all the time. Approximately one in 1000 births is an identical twin. However, despite how many or how few individual characteristics twins have in common, they are still different people. They have their own identities, their own thoughts, and their own rights. They enter different occupations, get different diseases, and have different experiences with marriage, alcohol, community leadership, etc. Twins have different personalities, as would cloned individuals. Even if someone cloned several Napoleons, each would be different and even more unique than twins; the cloned child would be raised in a different setting. Therefore, cloning does not rob individuals of their personality.

Many people feel that the issue of human cloning is absolutely unethical. Such opinions are understandable, considering that the majority of people are always going to be afraid of the unknown. Human cloning is an extremely new aspect of our technological research and should be allowed to develop further. The immense possible benefits from human cloning should not be over looked. Yet, some people still wonder whether there "are some kinds of information leading to some sorts of knowledge that human beings are really better off not having" (Smith 2). Many arguments offered against human cloning have been those such as "we would be playing the role of God" and "it is power that humans can not handle." We need to remember God cloned Eve from Adam.

At one time birth control pills, in vitro fertilization, and heart transplants were criticized on the same grounds. Genetic engineering and human cloning could someday be a tool to cure many problems for humans. The possibilities could be endless if we don't allow ourselves to be afraid of the unknown.


Bernstein, Maurice M.D. (1999, May 28). Cloning of Humans [WWW.document].URL http://www-hsc.usc.edu/~mbernste/

Whitman, Deborah B. "Generically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?" April 2000. http://www.csa.com/hottopics/gmfood/oview.html

Human Cloning Foundation. "All the reasons to clone human beings." November 2001 http://www.humancloning.org/allthe.htm

Mario, C. (1997, March 5). A Spark of Science, a Storm of Controversy [WWW.document].URL http://www.princetoninfo.com/clone.html

Shapiro, Harold T. "Ethical and Policy Issues of Human Cloning" Journal Group: Sci/tech 11 Jul. 1997. 195-196

Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. (June 1997). Cloning [WWW.document].URL http://www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Documents.center/dn97laws.html#cloning

Hindmarsh R, Lawrence G & Norton J, 1998, "Altered Genes - Reconstructing Nature," Allan & Unwin Pty Ltd., St. Lenoard's

Wray Herbert; Jeffery L. Sheler; Traci Watson, The world after cloning. Vol. 122, U.S. News & World Report, 03-10-1997, pp 59… [read more]

Search of the Perfect Host Term Paper

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Each adaptive mutation brings it more in tune with the biology of its host. Even slight variations may make real differences in the survival rates of such short-lived life forms. The amoeba that can live only moments longer can reproduce that much more often than its counterparts. In time, a parasite is created that is perfectly attuned to every nuance… [read more]

Galton's Prediction Term Paper

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Eugenicists looked at the IQ test as an "objective and quantitative tool for measuring innate mental ability (Garland, 1996)."

When the tests were administered to new immigrants at Ellis Island, eugencists found that "more than 80% of the Jewish, Hungarian, Polish, Italian and Russian immigrants were mentally defective, or feebleminded (Garland, 1996)."

This lead eugenicists to theorize the defects were transmitted through genetics in a manner similar to the way a person's hair and eye color are determined.

In Society

The Galton Society began monthly meetings in 1918 in New York to study new information on eugenics and similar ideas, and by 1923, the were more than 1,200 members in 29 states. One of the most famous members was J.H. Kellogg, the cereal giant from Michigan, who founded the Race Betterment Foundation. The theory of eugenics finally made it to colleges in 1928 and by the mid-30's high school biology textbooks contained information about and support of eugenics.


Galton believed that no matter how hard people studied, they could only do so well on tests due to their heredity. His thoughts would effect many people, cause stereotyping and eventually lead to the Nazi's attempt to create a society of intellectual supremacists.

References eugenics (accessed 10-07-2002) (http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/index.html).

2002, 01 January). SIR FRANCIS GALTON. The Columbia Encyclopedia.

Garland, Allen E. (1996, 18 August). Science misapplied: the eugenics age revisited. (Cover

Story). Vol. 99. Technology Review, pp.22…… [read more]

Genetic Engineering the Alteration Term Paper

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Besides, there would be no reason in cloning a person, since it offers little science or in other words no advantages. There are a number of people who say that if they could clone Albert Einstein then there is much more that can be learned about science as well as the theory of relativity, which is not true (George.2001).… [read more]

Scientist Cannot Simply Do "Pure Term Paper

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When scientists have tried to collect the blood of certain indigenous peoples, in order to study the unique idiosyncracies of their genome, the people have often protested violently. Some felt their blood was being stolen, and they would not reap the economic benefit -- instead, the corporations and drug companies sponsoring the university research would make the money. Native Americans, for instance, have protested that scientists want to patent their genes to make money. Though this is a simplistic understanding, to some extent, they are correct.

Though scientists may think of themselves as purists, and may simply want to do their "pure" research in their laboratories, studying genetically isolated populations to help further life-saving research or simply to better understand our history and past, they must not and cannot operate in an ivory tower. That is because their science, sooner or later, will leave that ivory tower. Science will be applied. The fact is, genetic anthropology often intersects very meaningfully with society. One genetic study found that a black, Christian tribe in South Africa named the Lemba was correct in its claim that its members were descended from Jews known as kohanim -- priests said to be direct descendents of Moses and Aaron. This turned a legend into genuine history -- astonishing Jews. Another study found that enalapril, a standard treatment for chronic heart failure, was less helpful to blacks than to whites, because blacks metabolized the drug differently. As a result, drug companies may end up developing new medications that work better for certain groups than others.

Clearly, science operates in the real world -- even when it is based on truly "pure" ideals. Thus all scientists must understand the implications of their science, and actively support not only research, but the ethical use of scientific findings in their…… [read more]

Human Cloning Should Be Allowed Term Paper

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" These images then, are based in fear and as long as these images remain associated with cloning, it is difficult to consider the real issues. It becomes a reflex for people and the media to reject cloning, despite the fact that the arguments against it are unfounded.

Another author further shows how the argument is not based on reality,… [read more]

Ethics of Human Cloning Term Paper

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A woman carrying a cloned child risks the effects of hormone manipulation and possible multiple miscarriages. A potential child faces the possibility of severe physical and developmental abnormalities.

Potential Social Harm

Critics of cloning also believe that cloning technology has the potential to cause greater social harm on two levels.

First, critics like Leonard Kass, a molecular biologist, argue that… [read more]

Phenotype, Genotype, Systematics, Sporangium, Archegonium Term Paper

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Every speck of tissue visible to the eye carries hundreds or thousands of these genetic representations in the chromosomes of its cells. Moreover, they do not merely describe but are part of an elaborate cellular machinery to cause a body part to develop the form of those descriptions.

The genotype is the full complement of the genetic information repeated exactly in every body cell. It is a major determinant of the phenotypic attributes of the organism, which is why an egg laid by a hen hatches as a chick instead of a duckling. But, genes are not exclusively responsible for a person's phenotype. In general phenotypic traits are specified or "determined" by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The way genes interact with the environment is complex. One popular conceptualization is that the genotype specifies potential for a person's traits or abilities and the environment determines how fully that potential is reached. Another view is that genes and the environment have additive effects the final phenotype reflecting the sum of a myriad of genetic and phenotypic influences.

In what ways can systematics preserve biodiversity?

Systematic biology, the study of inferring evolutionary patterns, and discovering, describing, and classifying the diversity of past and present life. Systematics provides a basis for biodiversity conservation priorities. With increasing pressures from a growing world population and resulting pressure on biotic resources, we now and in the future have to make difficult decisions about what parts of the Earth will be maintained in a "natural" state in order to conserve the biodiversity present there. How do we decide, given limited resources, which to protect? If we decide that we want to maximize biodiversity, then… [read more]

Ability to Study of Human Term Paper

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The audience is now awake and definitely waiting for more information. Their interest in the topic is further increased by adding mystery element to it: "people are afraid of the information we will find, they will keep us from finding it." The author's style is simple yet highly effective. He doesn't let the audience get lost in the ambiguity of scientific terminologies. He uses simple language to make his audience feel comfortable in his presence. He wants to them to be able to relate to him and therefore in paragraph 13, he cashes in on their emotions when he says: "I am a concerned parent for whom things have not gone completely right."

Through the essay he focuses more on why Human Genome project must be supported and less on what exactly it is. It is the 'why' question that he keeps his attention focused on. He tries to convince his audience why they need to know about human genome. There are numerous instances, which tell us that 'why' is indeed important to the author and his audience. Since health is a major issue of concern with most Americans, the author declares that learning more about human genome is crucial to "improve American health." He then goes to explain how DNA examination can help in eradication of diseases and minimize "terrible human affliction."

Watson is also aware of the audience's fears. He knows that his audience is scared of too much intrusion in their lives and therefore develops a tactic to address them. He tries to create a direct link with his audience when he addresses their fears and reassures them that he too believes that no one "should have access to anyone else's DNA fingerprints."

In the end, he reiterates his thesis and again makes his purpose and stance absolutely clear. The audience is reminded of the core purpose of the essay in the last paragraph when Watson says: "We have to convince our fellow citizens somehow that there will be more advantages to knowing the human genome than not knowing it." this helps in leaving a lasting impact and the audience leaves with a clear idea of what the…… [read more]

Therapeutic Cloning Recent Years Term Paper

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Another counter to therapeutic cloning is the possibility of alternative methods to reaching the same goal, methods such as the use of adult stem cells or even the use of stem cells from umbilical cord blood have no moral stigma attached to them. Secondly, there is promising research work being done in these areas. So why experiment with human embryos… [read more]

Eugenics Matt Ridley's Opinions Term Paper

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But, unfortunately, policies turned into a human-rights catastrophe: the rejection of many immigrants, the sterilization of many people whose only crime was to have below-average intelligence, and eventually, in Germany, the extermination of millions of people. Societal genetics are impossible to prevent because of the social norms and harsh governments that exist in many countries. Ridley appears to be too optimistic on this topic, stating that China is the only country that still preaches eugenics for the good of society. However, as population levels swell, poor and desperate countries could easily be inclined to turn to societal eugenics as a solution. Other countries can exert only so much influence on foreign governments and it's easy to imagine the unconstrained increase in societal eugenics, particularly as technology advances make it easier to implement.

Ridley, Matt. "The New Eugenics: Better Than the Old." National Review 31…… [read more]

River Out of Eden Term Paper

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As he says, "Before Darwin, even educated people who had abandoned "Why" questions....still implicitly accepted the legitimacy of the "Why" question where living creatures were concerned. Now only the scientifically illiterate do. But 'only' conceals the unpalatable truth that we are still talking about an absolute majority" (Dawkins, 1995).

In chapter five, The Replication Bomb, he argues that when life… [read more]

Therapeutic Cloning for Leukimia Term Paper

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By injecting embryonic cells with healthy genes, it is possible to manipulate DNA and eliminate specific defective genes that are known to cause cancer (Kaku, 1997). Ultimately, stem cell research and cloning technology have the potential to cure practically all cancers at the genetic level, but current legislation strictly prohibits practically all of the necessary research to apply cloning technology to human medicine and any federal funding of research on new stem cell lines.

Ethical Analysis and Conclusion:

The last decade of the twentieth century witnessed some of the most incredible advances in the biological sciences since Watson and Crick first detailed the basic structure of the DNA helix in 1953. In vitro fertilization had already been achieved by 1978, but when British researchers actually succeeded in cloning a sheep from a single adult sheep cell, it ignited both the hopes of medical researchers as well as furious protests on the ethics of human cloning. Combined with the early completion of the Human Genome Project, stem cell research and cloning technology now represent the potential for incredible advances in the medical treatment of countless other diseases such as Alzheimer's, Diabetes, Parkinson's, Sickle Cell Anemia, not to mention reversing traumatic paralysis and (eventually) providing entire new organs for the thousands of patients who die every year while waiting for donor organs which are perpetually in short supply.

In 1997, the Clinton Administration hastily prohibited all research into human cloning science, primarily out of (rightful) concern over the prospect of irresponsible attempts by unscrupulous researchers to capitalize on the economic (or publicity) potential of cloning an actual human being before it is medically responsible and ethical to do so.

Medical ethicists are united in the view that cloning a human being in the manner that Dolly the sheep was cloned would be extremely irresponsible. On the other hand, they are similarly united in the position that many avenues of research of human cloning technology represent the potential to cure some of the most devastating and previously incurable diseases. In the opinion of this writer, it is completely unnecessary to prohibit the development of these valuable treatments for diseases such as Leukemia and other cancers, merely in order to prevent the irresponsible cloning of an actual human being, since the vast majority of research derived from cloning technology involves merely the manipulation of embryonic cells in a petrii dish without ever permitting any of those embryos to develop into a complete organism (Krock, 2001).

The Bush administration severely undermined beneficial medical research into crucial stem cell and cloning-based therapeutic applications by prohibiting federal funding on research on any new cell lines, despite the fact that the NIH has admitted that most of the existing cell lines have already mutated and degenerated to the extent that they are essentially unusable for research purposes.

Ultimately, legislative obstacles to valuable and necessary research capable of developing cures for Leukemia and other cancers is absolutely inconsistent with the principles of medical ethics as well as with U.S.… [read more]

Ethics of Human Cloning Genetic Term Paper

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What is required to ensure the welfare of society are laws that prohibit only the unethical misuses of new technology, without unnecessarily interfering with the uncontroverted applications of scientific progress that improve human health and well-being.


Bronowski, J. (1965) Science and Human Values.

Harper & Row: New York

Horgan, J. (1997) The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age. Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass

Ladd, J. Ed. (1979) Ethical Issues Related to Life and Death.

Oxford University Press: New York

Kaku, M. (1997) Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century.

Doubleday: New York

Krock, L. (xxxx) On Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed July 23, 2004, at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html

Ramsey, P. Shall We "Reproduce"? The Medical Ethics of In Vitro

Fertilization. (JAMA, vol. 220, no. 10, Jun/72)

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York

Sagan, C. (1996) The Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Random House: New York

Soares, C. Why Human Clones…… [read more]

Ethical Debates Surrounding Stem Cell Research Thesis

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Bibliography Sources: 15


What follows is a brief description of the primary types of human stem cells that have captured the interest of scientists, clinicians, ethicists, policymakers, and religious organizations.

Fetal stem cells. The most controversial stem cells are those derived from human embryos, but in contrast to adult stem cells, these are truly pluripotent and therefore have captured the attention of biologists… [read more]

Neuroscience and Nature-Nurture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


When considering personality in the long-term, researchers have found that genetic factors have a stabilizing effect on personality while environmental factors are associated with changes in personality (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 293). The seeming reciprocity of environmental and genetic influence has some basis in the literature, stemming from the belief that behavior subject to genetic influence tends "to elicit common patterns of responses from the environment, and because people gravitate toward environments that meet their psychological needs and avoid environments that do not" (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 293). Put simply, genetic and environmental influences have been shown to interact and influence personality, and these gene-environment interactions are referred to as G. x E (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 298).

The new molecular perspective examines G. x E. interactions by considering how the expression of genes is moderated by the individual life experiences of people or by environmental variables (Canli, 2008, p. 313). The expression of Extraversion and Neuroticism are believed to be associated with differences in cognitive processes across different individuals, and are particularly tied to the cognitive processing of stimuli that is valenced -- stimuli that have negative or positive value assigned to them by an individual.


Canli, T. (2008). Toward a "Molecular Psychology" of Personality. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, R.W., and L.A. Pervin, Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. (3rd ed.) (pp. 311-323). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Krueger, R.F. And Johnson, W. (2008). Behavioral genetics and personality: A new look at the integration of nature and nurture. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, R.W., and L.A. Pervin, Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research.…… [read more]

Ethics of Embryo Design Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (636 words)
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Additionally, the cells of the embryo could be damaged during the testing process, which could result in even more dangerous complications for the unborn child. For and against the Shannon's procedure design

In the Shannons' case, there are strong ethical considerations for choosing such a controversial procedure. They are looking to improve the quality of life of both of their children. However, PGD can also be used for non-health related purposes, which change the situation dramatically and are extremely unethical. For example, the procedure can be used to choose a gender for the child. Thus, if a couple wants a certain gender, they could pick and choose from the fertilized embryos based on gender. However, this is largely considered unethical by the medical community, because PGD should only really be used in drastic situations, like that of the Shannons (American Pregnancy Association, 2013). If everyone were able to map genetic structure, there would definitely be discrimination against certain genetic traits, which may even result in a weakening of society's genetic pool. It is wrong to choose one life over another because of desired genetic traits.

Overall, for the Shannons, I think PGD is a good procedure to choose. It is for the betterment of all involved, including the unborn child and their other daughter Sally. Still, the medical field must be careful of how such procedures are used. It is essentially like playing God, which can get very dangerous is misused or handled inappropriately. It is important only to use such procedures for cases that really need it, like the Shannons.


American Pregnancy Association. (2013). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: PGD. Infertility. Web. http://americanpregnancy.org/infertility/preimplantationgeneticdiagnosis.html

Human Fertilization & Embryo Authority. (2014). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Treatment and Storage Options. Web. http://www.hfea.gov.uk/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis.html… [read more]

Cloning of Biological Organisms Research Paper

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In this process, a set of genes are introduced into a cell type, which send signals for the cell to become a mature stem cell (de Grey & Rae, 152). One of the advantages of this subtype of cloning is that it does not involve an embryo or an egg cell. Because of that, there is less controversy with it. If the effectiveness can be improved, it could become highly valuable.

Of course, there is another type of cloning, and that is the creation of an entire human being who is an exact genetic copy of another human and produced by artificial means (Russel, 25). That is the most controversial type of cloning available, and one that may never be realized in the United States with true scientific backing. The main issue is that people consider this type of cloning to be "playing God," and they also often cite concerns over viability, privacy, safety, and other issues that have to be considered. Still, there are those who are pushing for this type of cloning in an effort to address aging and "replace" a person's body when it gets old and starts to fail (de Grey & Rae, 154). If it would be possible to, essentially, replace a person with an exact copy each time the person got ill or started to age, it would be as though that person could live forever. This would definitely be a breakthrough, but there are certainly ethical and legal implications that go along with it.

Human cloning (i.e. creating an exact copy of an entire person) is generally considered unethical because it focuses on an artificial way to produce human beings (de Grey & Rae, 156). Not everyone objects to this type of creation, but once there are one or more clones of a person the waters are muddied when considering "who" those clones really are. Picture several people who are identical in every way moving about the same city. They are not just twins, or people who look similar. They are, for all intents and purposes, the same person. If one of them were to apply for some type of benefit, attend school, commit a crime, or do anything that required name, social security number, and other identifying information, it would implicate all of them in whatever took place. That is the main reason why reproductive cloning will likely never be something considered legal and ethical by the general public. There are simply too many hurdles that have to be overcome and that could not easily be sorted out (de Grey & Rae, 157).

There are big plans for the future of medicinal cloning. As human cloning becomes easier and new ideas are created and tested that allow organs and tissues to be grown more quickly and successfully, the value of human cloning on a therapeutic level will become more apparent (Russel, 184). The main value of this cloning is in the treatment of disease. By cloning new, healthy organs and tissues for… [read more]

History of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Many people that have disabilities are aware that the technologies that make it possible to select good genes and normal traits can lead to the devaluation of disabled people's bodies and even their lives. This concern is fueled by past and ongoing discrimination against the people that have disabilities which often include brutal practices. A perfect example among the 20th century eugenics in the United States and even other European countries there was sponsoring of programs that saw the sterilization of tens of thousands of the disabled people. The Nazi genocide started when nurses and doctors began exterminating disabled people in German medical facilities whereas other perished in concentration camps (Corsetti, 2010).

Another application of eugenics is when we look at genetic disorders. There have been dysgenic trend for medical progress when it comes to the preservation of lives of many people that have genetic disorders that enables them to have children and transmit the adverse genes they have to their succeeding generations. There are several disorders that can be included in this category such as Marfan's syndrome, Huntington's disease, Cystic fibrosis, dwarfism, color blindness, sickle cell anemia, Hemophilia and so on. Individuals with these disorders can be sterilized until they are proved to be fit o become parents. This helps in bringing forth children who do not have any of these disorders from their parents (Corsetti, 2010).


Corsetti, J.(2010).Genetic Testing:Modern -- Day Eugeneics.Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.cis.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2009/5/09.05.01.x.html

Quigley, M.(2009). Eugenics and Social Control. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.publiceye.org/magazine/v09n1/eugenics.html

Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/human-testing-the-eugenics-movement-and-irbs-724

Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://galton.org/essays/1900-1911/galton-1904-am-journ-soc-eugenics-scope-aims.htm

Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http://users.adam.com.au/bstett/BEugenics72Bergman73Potter77.htm… [read more]

Ethics and Morality: Right to Live and Die Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (761 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Dolly, for instance, died at the age of four -- six years below the average life expectancy of normal sheep.

Cloning Undermines the Concepts of Family and Reproduction: when cloned children join the family unit, they basically disrupt the normal physiological construction of the same. A key concern among sociologists and medical specialists is that cloning would impede on the conventional mating process because then everyone would want to have an exact duplicate of themselves; and not many people would be satisfied with contributing only half of their child's genetic make-up as is the case now (Wordpress, 2009).

The Possibility of Ambiguous Progenitor-Cloned Child Relationships: I tend to think that apart from the medical benefits, there perhaps is no other reason why someone would want to have a genetic duplicate of themselves. Nonetheless, is for argument's sake, one chooses to engage in cloning for medical reasons -- is it really fair for the clone? Doesn't he/she also have a say on whether they wish to donate whatever they were intended for? Doesn't a clone have the same rights and privileges as everyone else?

Well, these ethical concerns indicate that despite the moral wrongness of the whole idea of human cloning, there is no guarantee that the process will be successful and that my sister will even get to benefit from the same. Moreover, Kantian law requires people to evaluate the morality of their actions through the universal principle -- assessing whether they would consent to the same being adopted as universal law, which in my case would translate to whether I would positively subscribe to the thought of everyone else engaging in cloning, creating their own mini-me, and endangering multiple lives just to save that of someone they love. Additionally, by engaging in cloning, with no guarantee that the same will be successful, I would be putting three lives at risk -- the clone's, the surrogate's and my sister's. Further, in the end, we culd just have a cycle of people creating clones, and so many of them dying; and the concept of life will ultimately lose meaning.


Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or Not to Clone: The Ethical Question. Farnsworth.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014 from http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm

Wordpress. (2013). Ethical Issues Surrounding Human Cloning. Wordpress. Retrieved 6…… [read more]

Ethics and Morality: Unit Questions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Only God reserves the right to give and take life; granting ourselves this right through cloning, therefore, is a violation of God's Law. All the same, I would support the cloning of tissues, particularly because it puts no lives in danger.

5 LC1: Unit 5 Live Chat Session

Wealth distribution has been a subject of debate for centuries, particularly in less-developed countries, where there are huge disparities in wealth and income endowment, and a bulk of society's wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few people. The process and end-of-state views of social justice attempt to explain why these disparities exist, attributing the same to differences in individuals' levels of contribution and achievement in the attainment of wealth. Towards this end, hardworking individuals have more wealth than their less-hardworking counterparts.

Through his theory of justice, John Rawlins attempts to explain how people ought to live with each other in society in the wake of the inherently inevitable disparities in resource-endowment. In his view, everyone has a right to access basic necessities, as well as the right to exercise their rights and freedoms free of the interference of others; and people would naturally prefer a society with lower levels of inequality to one with huge disparities. Towards this end, resources ought to be allocated such that they benefit the least-disadvantaged member of society.

5 LC2: Human Beings Hold no Special Place in Nature

Whilst it remains undisputable that humans were created, and in fact, evolved differently from the rest of creation, consensus is yet to be reached in regard to whether or not they occupy a special place in nature. Renowned paleontologist, Stephen Gould, proposes the happenstance view, which postulates that humans occupy no special place in creation because their emergence and subsequent evolution were only happenstance occurrences -- humans were not planned for, and just came about because a meteor swept across the face of the earth, wiping out dinosaurs and allowing for the emergence of mammals (Ray, 2013). Numerous other scientists have held that based on fossil evidence and DNA, there is substantial interrelatedness between humans and other animals (Ray, 2013).

Proponents of the view that humans are a special creation maintain that right from the creation story, God established a special relationship with man, and made him the bearer of His image (Ray, 2013). Further, they argue that God's decision to give man control over the rest of creation, as well as a sense of duty and responsibility symbolize that they are a special creation. In my view, humans are a special creation particularly because of their capacity to think, which is also why God gave them duties and responsibilities.


Bergeron, B.P. (2004). Case Studies in Genes and Disease: A Primer for Clinicians. East Peoria: IL: Versa Press

Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or not to Clone: The ethical Question. The Farnsworths.com. Retrieved 16th October 2014 from http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm

Ray, J.K. (2013). Evolution and Human Beings. Wordpress. Retrieved 17th…… [read more]

Use in Contemporary Genetic Therapies Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  3 pages (872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


MicroRNAs and anti-miRs (antagomirs)

The use in contemporary genetic therapies

Summary of the therapy

The process of using micro RNAs as a type of genetic therapy involves altering its original genetic patterns in a manner which could potentially have a significant impact upon many individuals' lives: scientists are able to effectively rewrite the organism's faulty genetic code by enabling new patterns 'binding' of molecules to the RNA strand. "The human genome contains more than 500 miRNAs, and each miRNA can repress hundreds of genes, regulating almost every cellular process… Inappropriate miRNA expression has been linked to a variety of diseases" (Broderick & Zamore 2011). Conversely, appropriate miRNA expression has been linked to health promotion. "For example, the let-7 miRNA prevents proliferation of cancer stem cells. miRNAs have roles in metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes; differentiation of adipocytes is promoted by miR-143 and insulin secretion is regulated by miR-375 in pancreatic-islet cells" (Broderick & Zamore 2011).

MicroRNA/anti-miR therapy exploits the fact that "miRNAs have typically many targets within cellular networks, which, in turn, enable modulation of entire pathways in a disease state via therapeutic targeting of disease-associated miRNAs" (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014). miRNAs are typically very short and common to a number of species which makes the creation of preclinical trials involving animals relatively safe and effective before the treatment is actually used upon humans. The two main approaches to the therapy entail either restoring the original function of a damaged miRNA through the use of "synthetic double-stranded miRNAs or viral vector-based overexpression" or the use of chemically modified antimiR oligonucleotides to inhibit negative miRNA functioning (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014).

Mechanism of action

The simplest method of therapeutic action is the simply 'rewriting' of an RNA strand. Researchers can use synthetic RNA duplexes "that harbor chemical modifications to improve stability and cellular uptake" and the synthetic double-stranded miRNA can thus mimic "the strand identical to the miRNA of interest" as the guide (antisense) strand, while "the opposite (passenger or sense) strand is less stable and can be linked to a molecule, such as cholesterol, to enhance cellular uptake" (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014). A second method of action is the use of mature miRNAs which "can be inhibited using either miRNA sponges or antisense oligonucleotides, known as antimiRs" to produce the desired genetic effect (Van Rooik & Kauppinen 2014).

The mechanisms of miRNA are also useful in current research on a variety of pathogens. For example, one recent application of miRNA functioning involved use of genomic SELEX, "a method to identify protein-binding RNAs encoded in the genome, to search for further regulatory RNAs"…… [read more]

Genetics Discrimination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Genetic research has led to breakthroughs in genome sequencing, which can be used to detect otherwise unknown risk factors for disease. The technology can save lives and improve quality of lives by preventing problems before they arise. However, privacy laws do not protect the information collected by genetic researchers adequately enough. This article discusses what can and often does happen when third parties have unbridled access to a person's genetic records. Ironically, the third parties in this case are not insurance companies. As the author points out, insurance companies are allowed to discriminate against applicants with certain predispositions, family history, or preconditions. Insurers ask for and investigate family history sufficiently to make some assumptions about the cost of the individual's premiums. As the author points out, insurers also know that risk factors does not guarantee disease manifestation and that a host of environmental and other variables will come into play. Most importantly, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) expressly forbids group insurance providers from denying coverage based on genetic results. This provision does not, however, extend to individual providers.

Furthermore, the problem in this case is not insurance companies but potential employers. Corporations with the wealth and potential to access a person's genetic profile can and have made hiring or termination decisions based on the person's genome. This constitutes an overt form of discrimination. Laws are currently only in place to protect employees of the federal government, but no laws prohibit the public sector from engaging in genetic discrimination.

The major ethical points described in this case include confidentiality, privacy, access to information, and discrimination. From the perspective of the private sector, however, spurious their points may be, genetic information helps a company make informed and educated human resources decisions. Hiring a person with known genetic markers for undesirable traits would be a…… [read more]

Genome Sequence Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Genome Sequence

Sheep are very important farm animals that produce meat and wool for the human race. They are very closely related to cattle, which is good and bad for researchers who are studying genome sequencing. "Genome wide sets of universal probes have been designed [16], and in theory they could be used to construct whole genome contigs from large BAC libraries, with limited use of comparative genomics. However, BAC paired end mapping to the human, mouse, and rat genome sequences has been used to identify large scale rearrangements in the respective genomes [17]. This suggests that a similar approach could be applied to identify rearrangements in an organism with an unsequenced genome, if genome sequences from closely related species were available. The increasing number of complete and near complete genome sequences of other mammals suggests that a BAC end sequence and comparative genomics 'scaffolding' strategy might approach the resolution and accuracy of fingerprinting large BAC libraries" (Using comparative genomics to reorder the human genome sequence into a virtual sheep genome 2007). With understanding the sequencing, researchers have seen genes that may help differentiate M. paratuberculosis from other closely related bacterial species (Scientists Crack Genome Sequence Of Major Dairy Pathogen 2002), which means it may shed some light on the fact there is a disease among cows, sheep and pigs that could help researchers to investigate human genome sequences.

America is the melting pot of the whole world, the New World, seen by the rest of the world as the land of opportunity, the land of the free, the green pastures, and the crossroads where virtually all nationalities and races meet. The disease is being found in dairy and other farming species is a bacterium that causes a chronic gastrointestinal infection (Scientists Crack Genome Sequence Of Major Dairy Pathogen 2002). "M. paratuberculosis is a…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Meiosis vs. Mitosis:

The form of cell division which produces gametes (egg cells and sperms) in humans with reduced or halved number of chromosomes is referred to as meiosis. However, the number of chromosomes is reinstated when two gametes combine to form a zygote. While a cell with two copies of each chromosome is referred to as diploid cell, a cell with one copy of each chromosome is known as a haploid cell. Meiosis produces haploid daughter cells which are genetically different from each other as well as different from the parent cell.

On the other hand, the form of cell division that produces daughter cells which are similar to the parent cell during repair or growth is known as mitosis. In this case, each cell includes the same genetic code as the parent cell due to the fact that it copies its own chromosomes before the cell division. Notably, both meiosis and mitosis are forms of cell division in eukaryotes and are similar in many respects but different in others. The major similarities include the fact that both meiosis and mitosis involve cell division, they have the same processes of division and the fact that they have the same number of chromosomes at first divisions.

Mitosis involves single nuclear division in which the diploid parent cell (two sets of chromosomes) divides once and produces two diploid daughter cells that are genetically identical. On the contrary, meiosis involves two nuclear divisions in which a…… [read more]

Incidence and Possible Causative Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Gi Stromal Tumor in Chinese Population Journal

Journal  |  8 pages (2,026 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Incidence and Possible Causative Factors for Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor (GI Stromal Tumor) in Chinese Population

The objective of this work in writing is to examine the incidence and possible causative factors for Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor (GI stromal tumor in the Chinese population. GI Stromal Tumors are a quite rare sarcoma in the United States. There is now a specific treatment… [read more]

Ethics of Human Cloning in Recent Times Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Ethics of Human Cloning

In recent times, researchers and scientists are making constant efforts and endeavours to discover and study unknown regions, ocean and space in order to gain knowledge. Their intention is to increase human knowledge and understanding of the environment. With this purpose, the ultimate quest of researchers is to reach new horizons and to improve the survival… [read more]

Genetic Modification Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Genetic Modification

The desire to control outcomes and determine destiny is ubiquitous within the human family. From the sailor to the artist there is a clear need to control the outcome of highly unpredictable processes. Genetic modification is another attempt to control outcomes. The challenge however is that while at present it appears that the technology has provided sublime and complete control. Nature is highly unpredictable and at a moment's notice the unintended consequences of human action can produce a trail of undesirable results. This essay considers genetic modification of plant and animal organisms. The technology that has gotten us to this point may be inadequate to address future challenges.

Genetic modification (GM) refers to technology that was created about 30 years ago (How it is done, 2002). The technology allows scientists to make changes to the characteristics of living organisms. These changes give new abilities or the capacity to produce new compounds to the modified organism. The modification occurs at the level of the genes of the organism and as a consequence, while it is a highly technical procedure it is beset with a limited measure of uncertainty as to the ultimate result of adding new genes to organisms.

Through genetic modification it is possible to generate plants, animals and microbes that possess very specific qualities. This designer organism is produced more efficiently and rapidly than the traditional approaches. The manner in which genes are transferred from one organism to another would be virtually impossible using the traditional breeding methods (G M. Basics, 2003). It should be noted that humans have always attempted to generate variety in plants and animals. So that over many generations through selected breeding specific characteristics become amplified in a particular breed of cattle to increase milk production or type of plant to gain a higher yield. This however involves the amalgamation of thousands of genes and is a very imprecise approach. Genetic modification can introduce specific genes and even turn undesirable genes off. It is a more specialized and technical process.

The procedure for genetic modification of organisms is a very complicated and involved process. How it is (2002) describes a simplified process for the introduction of genetic material into plants. The process contains six basic steps. Firstly the scientist identifies and isolates the gene that possesses the characteristic that will be introduced into the host plant (mapping). Following this several copies of the gene are produced. This process is termed polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The copied gene is subsequently transferred into the plants genes via plant tissue. A new plant is then produced from the tissue that has been modified. The scientist then determines that the gene functions in the manner it was predicted to function. The final step involves ensuring that the seeds from the plant also carry the gene.

The furor surrounding genetic modification is tremendous. There is a general sense that the science is sound but there is the possibility for unintended consequences. There is a belief that the technology… [read more]

Ionomics Genome: Essentially, the Genetic/Hereditary Information Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3




Essentially, the genetic/hereditary information of a given organism, typically expressed in most complex organisms as a repeated sequence of DNA nucleotides and most often appearing as DNA bundles called chromosomes. The genetic map that allows for the growth and development of an organism.


A combination of "protein" and "genome," the term "proteome" refers to the proteins that are expressed by a given genome, or by a cell, tissue or organism. It is often used more specifically to identify the specific proteins expressed in specific given circumstances.


During cell division and other processes involving protein synthesis based on genetic information, certain specific RNA molecules are utilized by cells/tissues with a given genome. The RNAs expressed in any given circumstance are referred to as the transcriptome for that cell/genome/process.


The entirety of molecular interactions that take place within a give cell, process, tissue, etc. is referred to as the interactome of that cell, process, tissue, etc. This can include both genetically instigated interactions and those of other types occurring between all kinds of molecules..


The whole of the metabolites and secondary metabolites, including hormones and intermediaries, contained within any biological sample (be it organism, tissue, or cell) is the metabolome.


Essentially the inorganic subset of the metabolome -- dietary and trace minerals and other component molecules found within an organism, cell, etc.


The plant sample that is to be analyzed and characterized for ionomes is first digested, typically in a concentrated nitric acid bath that is diluted following the breakdown of the plant…… [read more]

Cloning Creating Controversy Among Scientists Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,889 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


All cloning presents an ethical problem. Why, with two options in front of us -- one that we knew would definitely lead to problems, and one that we know would definitely not lead to problems -- would we choose the option that definitely lead to problems? It would be illogical.

Works Cited

Best, Megan. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic Engineering. Ed.

Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource

Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Blackwelder, Brent. "Human Cloning Represents a Lack of Respect for Nature." At Issue: The

Ethics of Human Cloning. Ed. John Woodward. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005.

Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Fitzgerald, Kevin T. "Cloning Research Would Not Benefit Humans." Opposing Viewpoints:

Biomedical Ethics. Ed. Tamara L. Roleff. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1998. Opposing

Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Kass, Leon. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Biomedical Ethics. Ed. Viqi

Wagner. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale.


Rifkin, Jeremy. "Human Cloning Will Harm Society." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic

Engineering. Ed. Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing

Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .… [read more]

Nature-Nurture and the Cloned Human Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,065 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Nature vs. Nurture Human Cloning

Human cloning though considered highly unethical and even illegal in many nations is theoretically possible. There is however currently a ban on human cloning, despite the fact that science will likely continue to try to develop the technology to clone humans, mostly for the purpose of reproductive treatments. It is also safe to say that animal cloning will continue unabated even by legal restrictions. Some even contend that the first, cloned human pregnancy has already occurred. The presupposition of the fact is that human cloning has been used or will be used in the future not to produce two identical twins but clones of parents, that will then be biologically related to the parents, as an infertile individuals' only opportunity to produce biological offspring. ("The Case for Human," 2002, p. 20)

It is for this and many other reasons that many argue the nature vs. nurture debate with regard to human cloning. Some ask, would the cloned human have a personality that would more closely match that of the person he or she was created from or would the individual be a completely unique person as a result of environmental influences. To answer this question one must engender a more complete understanding of the current theoretical knowledge regarding the nature vs. nurture debate. (Myers, 2006) In many ways the current theories about nature vs. nurture attest to the idea that nature and nurture are helpmates of one another, though this does not exclude opinions based upon a scale where some believe that nature has way more to do with it while others contend that nurture has primacy over nature.

Margaret and Marie, who, as natural identical twins, are about as close as possible to being pure clones. They share the same genotype, and they look remarkably alike. They even share a passion for dancing. Naturally gifted, they danced their way together from Newport, Rhode Island, to Stephens College in Missouri, becoming part of its faculty; now they run their own successful studio. At the same time, they are decidedly different in numerous ways. They are worlds apart in disposition and personality. Even in the domain of dance, they have different specialties -- the temperament for ballet is radically unlike that for modern jazz.The moral of this tale is clear. Even with natural clones such as my sisters, precise genetic copies do not translate into exact duplicates. In contrast to science fiction, science fact indicates that exact copies of Hitler, Mozart, and so on are impossible. What is possible has been demonstrated to us through the birth of Dolly: just as we had formerly produced genetic copies of molecules, cells, and plants, we could now produce genetic copies of animals. The more stunning news, however, is that we can now use adult cells as donors, cells that have already become specialized and differentiated. (Brannigan, 2001, p. 1)

From the biopsychosocial perspective of the debate would indicate that like identical twins living in different times and likely… [read more]

George W. Bush Presidency Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  13 pages (4,214 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


Bush Christian

The Bush Administration's Politicization of Christianity

State and Church are, by constitutional law, intended to remain separate. And yet, where America's electoral patterns are concerned, it is quite clear that voters tend to respond in one way or another to the presence and invocation of religion or issues related to religious value systems. So would this be proven… [read more]

What Would Happen if Were All the Same Chemically and Immunologically? Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Immunological Uniformity

One of the mechanisms that allows for environmental adaptation and evolution through artificial (i.e. mate) selection is genetic variation (Maitland & Johanson, 2002).

This is crucially important in immunology because a varied genetic pool allows successive generations within any species to adapt to environmental threats. Likewise, immunological and chemical variation allows for the survival of portions of a given population even after a specific environmental threat kills or sterilizes many individuals.

Conversely, gene pool uniformity would put the entire species at risk to environmental threats because the only mechanism available for adaptation would be evolution through

spontaneous mutation, which does not generally produce beneficial changes within a single successive generation (Maitland & Johanson, 2002).

A perfect example of the way that genetic immunological variation works is the major histo-compatibility (MHC) gene, an important component of human immunology

(Maitland & Johanson, 2002). Specifically, in humans, the scent of male sweat transmits important signals to females…… [read more]

Sleep Deprivation and Its Neurotransmitters Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,366 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


REM Sleep Deprivation

The complex neurochemistry of the sleep wake cycle has been researched much over the last few decades. It is clear that REM deprivation causes the brain cellular machinery to trigger various neurobiological responses involving selective expression of genes, down regulation and upregulation of neurotransmitters, as well as reorganization of excitatory synapses.

Sleep is an indispensable physiological function for all living beings. The rejuvenating and refreshing effects of sleep are well-known and over the last few decades there have been numerous research on sleep. The negative effects of sleep deprivation or sleep restriction have been analyzed by many researchers and we now understand some of the basic neurological mechanisms of sleep. It is well-known that sleep deprivation affects the thalamocortical circuits that are important for cognitive functions among other regions of the brain. Research has also documented decline in psychomotor performance due to sleep deprivation. If prolonged for long time, sleep deprivation is even fatal. Besides the well-known effects of sleep on the processing of memory, it also affects other biological processes such as immune function, energy metabolism, appetite and the expression of various genes. The neurotransmitters that are involved in the sleep wake cycle and the effects of sleep deprivation on these transmitters are the subjects of intense study in the field of neurobiology of sleep. A brief overview of some research studies pertaining to sleep deprivation and the neurotransmitter changes will provide better insight into the topic.

Sleep Deprivation (Literature Review)

The deprivation of REM (rapid eye movement sleep) causes several changes in the neurotransmitters of the brain. Neuronal changes are important in the transition between wakeful state to sleep state and vice versa. Majumdar et.al (2005) focused on the morphological effects of REM sleep deprivation on the neurons. This study observed that loss of REM affected different regions of the brain differently. It was found that regions of brain such as the locus coeruleus that are directly involved in the control of REM sleep are affected. It was also found that treatment with alpha1-adrenergic antagonist, prazosin helped reverse these changes. [Majumdar et.al (2005)] an earlier research by the same authors focused on the upregulation or down regulation of neurotransmitters such as norephinephirine, GABA and acetylcholine. For this purpose the researchers performed immunohistochemical estimations of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) the respective neurotransmitter enzymes in the locus coeruleus, pedunculopontine tegmentum and laterodorsal tegmentum and the medial preoptic regions of rat brain. The researchers observed a significant rise in the levels of TH and GAD only in the locus coeruleus area of the sleep-deprived rats when compared with the control group. [Majumdar et.al, (2003)]

Basheer et.al (1998) also studied the effects of REM deprivation on the neurochemical changes in the locus coeruleus region of the brain. The rats involved in the experiment were deprived of REM sleep for 1, 3 and 5 days and then killed and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) mRNA were measured… [read more]

Cloning Humans: Science and Society Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,084 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Cloning Humans: Science and Society

Although several types of cloning exist, including DNA cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning, the type that is most often referred to as "cloning" in science textbooks and the mass media is reproductive cloning. This is the type of cloning necessary to produce one animal from another animal that is either currently alive, or has lived previously (U.S. Department of Energy). Of course, animals already have a way of producing other animals, procreation. Cloning differs from procreation in that a cloned animal shares nuclear DNA with the other animal. In fact, the cloned animal would be nearly a carbon copy of the original animal. Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be cloned; she was born in 1996 and died in 2003 (U.S. Department of Energy). The process of cloning mammals like Dolly is complex, but is rather simple in principal. In a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer, scientists will take the DNA from the first cell, that of the previously existing animal, to an egg with a blank nucleus, or a nucleus with no genetic material. After transplanting the genetic material, the egg containing the DNA undergoes therapy to induce cell division. Finally, the embryo resulting from this implantation, once it is viable, is transferred to the uterus of a surrogate (U.S. Department of Energy).

While this process may seem relatively simple, as easy as moving material from one host to the next, it is actually very difficult to achieve. In fact, many problems have ensued during attempts to clone animals. Probably the most obvious problem is the fact that the clone is not an exact carbon copy of the original contributor. Instead, the clone only has some of the blank cell's genetic material, as the mitochondria in the cytoplasm supply this information (U.S. Department of Energy). Other problems associated with animal cloning include the "reprogramming phase. Before Dolly's debut, many scientists thought that a cell was predestined to be a certain body part -- a "liver, heart, udder, bone," etc. After Dolly's creation, however, scientists were able to determine that these cells can be reprogrammed to become different body parts. However, "errors or incompleteness in the reprogramming process can cause high rates of death, deformity, and disability observed among animal clones" (U.S. Department of Energy). Despite these errors and the problems ensuing from animal cloning, scientists have been able to advance the process to accomplish astounding heights. For example, Reuters recently reported that scientists were able to clone mice who had been frozen for up to 16 years. According to the news agency, this has implications for extinct animals, such as mammoths ("Frozen mice cloned"). In fact, scientists are currently grappling with the idea of using cloning on many extinct or endangered species ("Cloning: saving the endangered species").

Dolly is not the only animal that scientists have been able to clone. In fact, Reuters reported mammals from cattle to dogs have been cloned, and that livestock breeders hope to use cloning… [read more]

Governments Should Not Allow Human Cloning Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Governments Should Not Allow Human Cloning

As society comes closer to the reality of cloning humans, we should pause a moment and look at what we are doing and where it will lead. As children, we are taught to take responsibility for our actions and face the consequences of our choices. We are also expected to think ahead and use foresight when making decisions. While it is easier to think in the here and now, it is wise to think of the implications of what our choices will mean tomorrow. This is especially true with cloning. No doubt, it is in our future, but the questions we should be asking relate to the notion if we are actually ready to deal with cloning. At present, we are not ready - thee are still many unanswered questions regarding the subject. While the issue is hefty when it comes to debate and while it offers the possibility of hope, it also offers just as many, if not more, dangers. We should wait until we are sure about the ramifications of such an endeavor before stepping forward. Governments should not allow scientist to experiment with human cloning because we cannot know the outcome or the long-lasting ramifications of it.

While the promise of new technology is exciting and holds promise, we should not become blinded by that promise to what the worst case scenario could be. We should move ahead with our eyes open and until we know everything there is to know, we should not move on. Ian Wilmut, cloning pioneer, even admits that there is still so much about cloning that we do not know. He states that this lack of knowledge lies primarily with the aging of a cloned organism. He states:

As we grow older, changes occur in our cells that reduce the number of times they can reproduce. This clock of age is reset by normal reproduction during the production of sperm and eggs; that is why children of each new generation have a full life span. It is not yet known whether aging is reversed during cloning or if the clone's natural life is shortened by the years its parent has already lived" (Wilmut).

Wilmut also notes that automatic genetic systems that seek out and correct errors in our genes is a system that occur "during normal reproduction" (Wilmut) and "it is not known if that can occur during cloning. Research with animals is urgently required to measure the life span and determine the cause of death of animals produced by cloning" (Wilmut). This major issue lies unaddressed and society must know the answer to this question before moving ahead. We are adults and we should act responsibly before we do anything.

James Watson is correct in stating that we should not postpone experiments that we can conduct today, we should not simply do something because we can. We should remember is the fact that we can take nothing back. Once a process has started, it is… [read more]

Izumo Protein Required for Sperm Egg Fusion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,243 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Izumo Protein

Understanding the molecular mechanics of fertilization has been a challenging task for biologists for the last two decades. The discovery of the ADAM group of genes, which were supposed to play a vital role in the fusion process, in the mid nineties, was widely regarded as a big breakthrough. However, shortly later, experiments with mice downplayed the importance of ADAM genes. Since then, the quest for understanding the fertilization process at the gene level has continued without much success until the research work of Naokazu Inoue, et al. (2005) that proved to be revolutionary in its outcome. The finding of the all important protein molecule named Izumo by the researchers has opened a whole new frontier in the field of reproductive biology and research in the science of contraception. This breakthrough is considered remarkable, as it would enable scientists to create contraceptive solutions that do not carry the risks and potential side effects of hormone-based contraceptives. A brief review would help us gain better insight into the field of reproductive biology.


This research by Inoue et al. created a whole new understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of fertilization. Before this research was undertaken it was well-known that CD9, a protein molecule found in the surface of the eggs, was primarily responsible for the fusion of egg and sperm. Even though, as early as 1987, the main researcher of this paper had discovered an 'anti mice sperm monoclonal antibody' known as OBF13 which had significantly affected the fertilization rate in mice, it was only much later during this research that the unknown antigen which was bound to OBF13, was identified to be the crucial Izumo protein. The authors found the new antigen using fusion inhibiting antibodies and gene cloning techniques. Thus, this research is considered a breakthrough in that it resulted in finding the first protein molecule on the sperm, which is found to be indispensable for fertilization. [Inoue et. al, 2005]

For the research, the authors used the process of homologous recombination to produce Izumo deficient allele and 3 types of mice: wild type, heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice (Izumo -/- with no izumo protein). It is important to note that izumo is detectable only after the sperm undergoes acrosome reaction. [Nazet.al 2001] the researchers found that the expression of the izumo protein did not in any way affect the levels of other related proteins such as ADAM2, CD147, and sp56 that are also involved in fusion process. Nine wild type female mice were paired with izumo -/- males and the results showed not a single case of pregnancy. The research also clearly showed that izumo protein was essential for the process of fusion and izumo deficient sperms can still produce healthy embryos. The possibility that fusion might have occurred and some other factor prevented formation of pronucleus was totally outruled because all the 282 studied eggs failed to form pronucleus in the presence of izumo devoid sperms. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of… [read more]

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