"Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays

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Medical Ethics -- Stem Cells &amp Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Medical Ethics -- Stem Cells & Cloning


Stem cell research offers the hope of curing a wide range of human diseases, including diabetes, cystic fibrosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and many forms of cancers, to name just a few of many. In addition, stem cell-based therapies also provide the mechanism for creating human organs for transplant into thousands of patients who die every year before suitable donated human organ become available to them.

Stem cell research even holds the key to reversing traumatic paralysis caused by accidents, war wounds, and other injuries to the spinal chord that otherwise result in lifelong paralysis and incapacity (Zuckerman 2005). On the other hand, the field of stem cell research and technology provokes harsh criticism from those who maintain that it is immoral to experiment with fertilized human embryonic tissue, primarily because their religious beliefs that life begins at conception.

Unfortunately, the branch of stem cell research that holds the greatest potential for medical advances relies on fetal stem cells, because embryonic stem cells have the greatest potential for transformation into therapeutic tissue forms, because adult stem cells are much less flexible in that regard (Park 2007). Only very recently have scientists in Japan and Wisconsin discovered how to mimic the greater potential of fetal stem cells in adult cells (Zuckerman 2005), but this hardly compensates adequately for valuable research time lost by virtue of seven years of research banned from federal funding since 2000. Most scientists completely reject the belief that early embryonic tissue is "alive" in the same sense as more developed fetal tissue and point out the unjustifiable waste of prohibiting valuable research on the millions of excess embryos currently produced in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization procedures which, under current law, must be discarded as medical waste instead of being used for…… [read more]

Speech on the Benefits of Therapeutic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,420 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Speech on the Benefits of Therapeutic and Reproductive Cloning

Introductory Statement:

I would like to start this presentation with one very simple ethical principle that I believe should applies to any view of ethics in society and another equally simple principle of American life that is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution: (1) Any technology whose potential ability to help human… [read more]

Statement of Purpose Biological Science Phd Program Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  3 pages (839 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … higher education at the University of Michigan, I found myself in the same position as the vast majority of my peers -- I didn't really know what I wanted to study, let alone what I wanted to spend the rest of my life devoted to. The many interests I held and hold certainly served to make the world an interesting place, but they also made choices of selection (and thus necessarily exclusion) quite difficult. Fortune intervened in the form of a yearlong full-time research assistant position, however, and this experience made the pursuit of science a clear preference for me. More specifically, it was during this time that I resolved to pursue a doctorate in a specific are of genetic investigation, and when it comes to helping me reach this goal I can think of no better program than the University of Michigan's PIBS.

Though I took a variety of science classes during my years as an undergraduate, it was not until my junior year that I took a position at the Lo Lab as a research assistant. The Lo Lab studies transcriptional regulation, and the project I was assigned to examined enhancer activities in development, using Drosophila as a model. Initially my duties consisted of the lowly yet necessary tasks of basic lab maintenance and fruit fly husbandry (not a very complicated or arduous process), but even with a broom in hand I was being exposed to real research for the first time in my life, and I found it incredibly fascinating. I began working with Dr. Lisa Johnson on characterizing various transgenic lines using both GFP and antibodies involving the sparkling enhancer. My other duties grew more involved, and duties included micro-dissecting imaginal eye discs from Drosophila larvae and pupae, preparing and staining the tissue, and ultimately imaging the tissue using fluorescent and confocal microscopy.

Over the course of the year, my lab competencies improved immensely and I was eventually given the opportunity to head my own personal research project. Studying a novel enhancer (sparkling) sequence that could mediate remote enhancer-promoter interaction for sparkling, I experimented to determine whether or not this sequence could mediate remote interactions between other enhancers in Drosophila. Preliminary data suggested the Mef2 enhancer would form a good experimental subject due to observed functional issues exacerbated by distance form the promoter. Creating a stable transgenic line and using whole mount RNA in situ hybridization to determine whether the RCE sequence could mediate Mef2 functionality, I was initially disappointed that my research…… [read more]

Mitosis vs. Meiosis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Because't is an X-linked trait, t will be expressed, so the phenotype is 4/4 t.


A heterozygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

The genotypes for the offspring are shown below:

t T

- t tt

- T Tt

Result is 1/4 tt, 2/4 Tt and 1/4 TT genotypes.

Result is 1/4 T. phenotype (TT) and 3/4 t phenotypes (tt, Tt).


A heterosygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

A homozygous recessive has a pair of nonidentical alleles tt.

A heterozygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

The genotypes for the offspring are shown below:

T t

- t Tt

- t tT

Result is 2/4 tt and 2/4 Tt genotypes.

Result is 4/4 t phenotypes.

3. Hierarchical Plan for Categorizing Living Organisms

Categorizing living organisms is known as taxonomy and there is a hierarchy of classification.

The scheme is based on differences in physical features such as the number of legs, body size, wings or no wings, spinal column or no spinal column. Initially the system was based on defining things by how closely related they were. It should be noted that many classifications in the system do not represent close relations. The system is however, a way of clearly defining one identified organism with another.

From the broadest level down the classification system is:








The largest is the kingdom. There are six kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

The second is the phylum. For animals, the phylums include Porifera (sponges), Arthropoda and Chordata (which includes the spinal chorded humans.) For plants, one of the phylums is Anthophyta (flowering plants.)

The third is the class. Classes include Mammalia, Reptilia and Amphibia. The Mammalian class is defined as: "having the body covered with hair, a four-chambered heart, and possessing mammary glands producing milk with which the female suckles her young." (Lawrence, Eleanor. Dictionary of Biological Terms. Longman Group Limited: Essex. 1996, p330.)

The fourth is the order. Some orders include Primates, Carnivora and Insectivora.

The fifth is the family. Some examples include Orchidaceae (orchid family) and Hominidae (the family containing humans and human-like apes and gibbons.)

The sixth is the genus. Some examples of genus include Vanilla (vanilla plant genus) and Homo (genus of which the only living member is the human.)

The seventh is the species. The species is also written with the genus name. The species identifies a specific individual. Examples are Homo sapien (human) and Vanilla planifolia (Vanilla Orchid.)

Examples of a complete grouping for a plant and an animal are shown below:

Category Corn Housefly

Kingdom Plantae Animalia

Phylum Anthophyta Arthropoda

Class Monocotyledonae Insecta

Order Commelinales Diptera

Family Poaceae Muscidae

Genus Zea Musca

Species Zea mays Musca domestica

Source: Starr, C and Taggart, R. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Wadsworth: Belmont. 1995. p311.

Works Consulted

Access Excellence. Mitosis Labeled Diagram. The National Health Museum. 1999.

Blamire, John. Genotype and Phenotype. Science at a Distance. 2000.

Harmon, Brian. What… [read more]

Human Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, consider the alteration of the physical make up through cloning of plant life such as corn and legumes. These scientific and technological breakthroughs have become a source for science to possibly create super crops that could one day feed a majority of the world's currently starving population. But, these plant changes also could eliminate the need for pesticides… [read more]

Is Prostitution a Job Like Any Other? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Dangers outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Do Dangers of genetic engineering Outweigh Benefits?

Perhaps no other subject in recent years has caused such a myriad of debates and controversy than genetic engineering. Not only is the general public divided in opinions concerning the benefits and risks, but there is division among academics as well. At issue is the potential for life-saving techniques, the arrest and/or cure of life-threatening illnesses and disabilities, and the overall improvement of human health around the globe with the implementation of genetic modified food crops. During the past decade, there has been much media attention given to celebrity endorsements of bio-engineering techniques such as stem cell research that has the potential to aid in a number of diseases and injuries, such as Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's disease, birth defects, and spinal cord injuries, to name but a few. Stem cell research is generally opposed by conservative and religious groups that abhor the use of fetuses for research purposes, and fear the technology will produce less than valuable standards. Others fear genetically altered food may result in severe health risk in the future. However, it seems that the benefits of genetic engineering outweigh any potential dangers.

Generally speaking, major technological advances have the ability to fundamentally change the social, economic, political and legal landscapes of those who adopt the benefits of innovation (Adams 2002). The appropriate balance between the benefits and risks of medical intervention in individual cases is a decision made within the confines and confidentiality of a doctor-patient relationship, while risk management strategies are institutionalized in the form of legal rules, including professional ethics, negligence and fiduciary duty (Adams 2002). Advances in biotechnology have important applications to the core demographic concerns of human reproduction and longevity (Welsh 2005). These concerns raise a number of difficult ethical issues, yet in the debate over these issues, the voices of demographers and other social scientists are nearly silent (Welsh 2005). Biotechnology has the potential to positively affect human health, however, in order for health care professionals to communicate the issue effectively with their patients and clients, emphasis should be place on increasing communication through peer-reviewed journals and educational programs (Snider 2005). Perhaps the most dramatic payoff concerning this progress is the development of genetic tests for predisposition to various diseases and functional impairments (Cohen 2001). Tests already have been developed to identify the presence of several hundred particular alleles or polymorphisms that are linked to diseases such as Huntington's Disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell trait, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, and breast and colon cancer (Cohen 2001).

Many individuals are concerned that the new genetics will somehow force upon them unwanted self-awareness, sometimes called the "nocebo" effect, and prefer to remain in a state of medical or genetic ignorance for fear that knowledge will reveal the presence of a predisposition for a condition that is incurable or preventable only by resort to costly and difficult measures (Cohen 2001).

Moreover, they also fear that information about their genetic profile will be disclosed… [read more]

Human Cloning Should Be Illegal? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Cloning: The science of Controversy)

Scarcity or wasting natural resources:

An economic concern that is expected to be of great significance to human cloning is scarcity. The resources required for production process is very limited and considered scarce in comparison to its requirement. Since cloning necessitates a lot of new and advanced technology and people are required to be highly… [read more]

Fear Is an Emotion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (921 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Her argument forces us to realize that almost since the beginning of time, man has always sought to improve life and cloning is simply an extension of this very human behavior.

Gregory Pence agrees with the notion of irrational fear associated with cloning, noting that above all, it is simply unjustified. Pence maintains that a primary cause for such irrational fears is associated with horrible outcomes we often find science fiction stories and movies. As a result, society has been turned against good science with fictional bad science. Pence states, "we cannot allow such unreflected emotion to rule our lives" (Pence 5). Novels such as Brave New World and The Boys From Brazil have turned us against cloning without giving it a chance. Instead of introducing a positive aspect of cloning, we are presented with scenarios where the public fears "different forms of originating humans lead to eugenics which in turn leads to state-controlled breeding and the destruction of reproductive liberty in ordinary couples" (56). This is ridiculous because we should not only allow ourselves to be dictated by fiction but because we should also have enough faith in ourselves to might the right decisions when it comes to cloning.

Ruth Macklin also believes that the fears associated with cloning are illogical. This fear has lead to some horrific notions of what cloning actually means. For example, cloning is not for birthing children for spare parts. In addition, she is quick to point out that "no one has yet made a persuasive case that it would do any real harm" (65). She understands that the fear associated with cloning will be met with "careful scrutiny and layers of legal oversight" (65) and therefore sees no reason for fear whatsoever. In short, she has faith that mankind is responsible enough to prevent cloning from getting out of control.

None of these writers are suggesting a free-for-all cloning adventure. It should be noted that cloning, just as any other aspect of science, should be approached with a rational point-of-view and a reasonable set of limits and possibilities. A healthy dose of fear is good for mankind but an unhealthy amount of fear can stifle science and subsequently everything scientific. Cloning itself is not bad but the irrational fears associated with it are.

Works Cited

Anderson, Alun. "Cloning Can be an Ethical Form of Reproduction." Cloning. Winters,

Paul, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Baum, Rudy. "Human Cloning is Inevitable." Cloning. Winters, Paul, ed. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Pence, Gregory. Who's Afraid of Cloning? New York: Rowman and Little field Publishers,

Inc. 1998.

Macklin, Ruth. "Human Cloning Has Not Been Proven Harmful." Cloning. San Diego:

Greenhaven…… [read more]

Timing and Principle Characteristics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,228 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Even under optimal circumstances and conditions it is not always possible for the female and male germ cells to meet. A number of abnormal circumstances can also exist interfering with the fertilization process. The male or female germ cell at any point of the reproductive process may be abnormal resulting in a failed conception.

Under normal circumstances in the female body a number of hormones affect the timing and production of mature female germ cells. Within the male the same is true. Testosterone for example is produced in the testicles. The process of production of mature male germ cells begins when male germ cells grow and develop within the seminiferous tubules inside the testicles (AUA, 1005).These initial immature germ cells are immobile and incapable of fertilizing the female mature egg. Thus immature male germ cells are initially dependent on side lying structures to become functional organisms, including the sertoli cells (IVF, 2005).

Side lying cells provide nourishment to the immature sperm cells until they mature. This process occurs while the immature cells travel through a channel referred to as the epididymis, a tube located within the testicle that stores sperm until the point of maturity and climax, where sperm or mature germ cells are ejaculated from the male reproductive glands into the female reproductive system (AUA, 2005). Here mature male cells have the opportunity to meet with mature female germ cells provided the timing is right.

Female oocytes or germ cells originate in the yolk sac of the embryo. There are haploid cells containing "1N amount of DNA in the form of 22 autosomal chromosomes and one sex chromosomes" bringing the total to 23 chromosomes (Gest, 1999:1). These germ cells undergo a two phase division stage referred to as meiosis producing four haploid 1N cells (Gest, 1999).

Chromosomes are randomly distributed during the perfertilization stage that helps ensure variability in genetic offspring; the same is true of male germ cells (Gest, 1999). Most of the process of oogenesis occurs during embryonic stages of development for the female germ cell. During a woman's ovulatory cycle a single germ cell complete meiosis to transform into a secondary germ cell and a first polar body (Gest, 1999).

The mature female germ cell remains in a state called "metaphase of meiosis II" until fertilized by a mature male germ cell, after which the female germ cell complete the meiosis II stage to form a "mature oocyte and second polar body" (Gest, 1999:1). The female mature oocyte continues to grow and change rapidly from this point enabling cell division and maturation of the fetus.

This process is facilitated in the female by the release of hormones including estrogen during the first half of a woman's menstrual cycle and progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle (Gest, 1999). Male germ cells are generally capable of fertilizing an egg for roughly three days, while the female mature egg generally is only viable for a period up to 24 hours (Gest, 1999).


AUA. (2005). "Management… [read more]

Stem Cells as the California Dream Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Stem Cell Research and the California Dream

The California Dream: Stem Cell Research in California Today

The thought of a disease-free future for mankind is a tantalizing thought indeed. Imagine a time when no one gets sick anymore. No more AIDS, no more cancer, no more measles, mumps, or even the common cold. Everyone lives happily on the earth in… [read more]

Ethical Eugenics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Ethical Eugenics

Unethical: PGD

There have been several recent headlines about eugenics and the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). PGD is a method by which scientists can analyze the particular chromosomes and genes within an embryo, and see what sort of characteristics, tendencies, and conditions it will have. The idea is that this method can prevent "103… [read more]

Origin of Life When Watson Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In order for the metabolism-first scenario to be plausible, certain conditions had to have existed: an energy source driving a chemical reaction; an increasingly complex chain of chemical reactions; a net gain of material produced by the reactions; and the storage of information in the chemical network as a whole, not in designated molecules such as RNA or DNA. Shapiro shows this in a diagram that starts with the same disorganized state as in the replicator-first model. Molecules organize, not in straight chains, but in pentagonal chains that link together with shared sides. Arms of molecules attach themselves. The end result is the same as with the replicator-first model, a complex organism that has components capable of different functions. Scientists do not dispute this final model but the mechanism by which it was formed.

More than forty years ago, George Wahl reported in Scientific American about scientists' efforts to provide an explanation about the origin of life. They were giving a fresh look at the hypothesis of spontaneous generation, an idea that had been advanced, then discarded, a century earlier. The body of scientific knowledge has increased exponentially since the 1960s. The "miracle of life" that scientists were willing to accept is no longer considered scientific truth. Wahl provided diagrams that illustrated the organization of molecules into organisms, but could not provide sufficient explanation for the cause. In other words, there was no answer to the chicken-and-egg dilemma. Shapiro's report provides more substantive findings on which future research can be based. Scientists have a better understanding of metabolic processes and can make a stronger case for a reaction rather than replication as the…… [read more]

Biology Conclusion the Characteristic Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (448 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


The heterozygote phenotype came out to be short. The phenotype of wavy was selected for each of the parents. The offspring all came out with the wavy phenotype. The mode of inheritance came out to be autosomal. At least one of the parents had to have the dominant trait of short and at least one of the parents have to have the recessive trait of wavy.

These conclusions lead to a final conclusion that if parents have the same phenotype, there is an equal chance of males and females in offspring having the same trait, regardless of whether it is a dominant trait or a recessive trait. This is the autosomal mode of inheritance. In each one of the problems the offspring came out with the same phenotype as the parents regardless of whether they were male or female where both parents had the same phenotypes. In these samples, all of the offspring came out with the recessive traits indicating that at least one of the parents had the recessive trait in order to be brought out in the offspring. With the recessive trait, the offspring must be homozygous for the allele, but the parents did not possess the alternate phenotype. The characteristics used with the particular phenotypes brought out the autosomal recessive trait in the…… [read more]

Light Absorbance Visible Lab Report

Lab Report  |  2 pages (572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The lower the absorbance, the higher percentage of transmittance or the higher the absorbance, the lower the transmittance is expressed. Wavelength and color are correlated because for every range of wavelength, a color is observed. There is a higher absorbance with the higher concentration that results in a higher amount of light being absorbed. The lower the concentration has a higher transmittance with a lower amount of light being absorbed. Using the amount of absorbance from a set of standards from a known concentration of substance, a standard curve can be graphed and used to extrapolate and determine the unknown concentration of a substance.

The hypothesis would be; the tube with the highest concentration would have the highest absorbance and the tube with the lowest concentration would have the lowest absorbance because the fraction of light absorbed by each layer is the same. Each tube in the experiment was diluted by the same fraction each time, allowing the same fraction of light to absorb. So, the absorbance level with each layer would go up. The same holds true if the concentration would have been made a higher concentration of substance with each tube. The absorbance numbers would be less with each layer (Beer's Law).


Beer's Law. (n.d.). Retrieved from SHU: http://teaching.shu.ac.uk/hwb/chemistry/tutorials/molspec/beer1.htm

Colavito, M. & . (2010). Standard Curve-DNA Quantitionv2. Retrieved from SMC.edu: http://homepage.smc.edu/chen-thomas/Standard%20Curve-DNA%20Quantitationv2.doc

Spectrophotometry. (n.d.). Retrieved from USNA University: http://www.usna.edu/ChemDept/plebechem/manual/ApdxI.pdf

What Wavelenght Goes With a Color? (n.d.). Retrieved from Aeronautics and Space Administration: http://science-edu.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/Wavelengths_for_Colors.html… [read more]

Biofilm in Order to Evaluate Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (1,322 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In addition, their data was able to show that CcpA increases both icaA expression and PIA production. The presumption is that this is due to the TCA cycle genes citiB and citiZ being down-regulated. In contrast, Wang (2007) reports that it is the ClpP protease that is the major factor in biofilm production. Sadykov (2008) felt that the role PIA (polysaccharide intercellular adhesion) synthesis plays in biofilm production was the most contributory component.

Although their study was conducted with a different species of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), Tobisch (1999) had findings about CcpA that are consistent with the studies previously described. Their results included the fact that CcpA is involved in strong repression of glucose for almost all TCA cycle genes, as well as glycolytic enzymes, and the levels of several other proteins. Using a ccpA mutation, the mutants are not able to activate glycolysis or carbon overflow metabolism. Another key conclusion that they came to was that it was likely CcpA is a key regulator molecule, with control over a superregulon of glucose metabolism. The study conducted by Varga (2008) was also centered on an organism other than S. epidermidis, looking at biofilm formation by Clostridium perfringens. Their data suggested that the ability for biofilm formation was directly dependent upon having a functional CcpA protein.

So although the authors all agree that the key is to cause an alteration in the pathogen's metabolism, the exact way to do so (i.e. which mutant gene is the most effective, depending on how it alters the metabolism) is not agreed upon among these articles. After reviewing the methods used in each study, they appear to be valid and reliable. The varying conclusions reached by each of the studies do not necessarily indicate that only one of them is correct. It is certainly possible that all of the conclusions have validity to them, that the mutant genes all work to alter the metabolism. However, it is not clear that there is any agreement in which one is the most effective.

In conclusion, I do ultimately agree with the article, but also think there are some flaws as described above. Much of the data and results are supported in articles of similar studies, which further points to the validity of the contents of this article.


Fluckiger, U, Ulrich, M, Steinhuber, A, Doring, G, Mack, D, Landmann, R, Goerke, C & Wolz, C, 2005, 'Biofilm Formation, icaADBC Transcription, and Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis by Staphylococci in a Device-Related Infection Model, Infection and Immunity, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 1811-1819.

Sadykov, M, Olson, M, Halouska, S, Zhu, Y, Fey, P, Powers, R & Somerville, G 2008, 'Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle-Dependent Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis', Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 190, no. 23, pp. 7621-7632.

Sadykov, M, Hartmann, T, Mattes, T, Hiatt, M, Jann, N, Zhu, Y, Ledala, N, Landmann, R, Herrmann, M, Rohde, H, Bischoff, M & Somerville, G 2011, 'CcpA coordinates central metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis', Microbiology, vol. 157, pp.… [read more]

Limitations of Stem Cell Research Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,171 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


If decisions about imposing limitations on stem cell research are going to be based on the treatment and outcomes of pre-embryos, then similar limitations should apply to in-vitro fertilization and the decisions used in ART clinics should mirror those used in stem cell research ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009).

The provision of embryonic stem cells for use in stem cell research does depend on a viable supply -- a need that can be addressed by harvesting stem cells from embryos that are and will continue to be produced in laboratories by those who provide fertility services to women and couples, and by the provision of cells through parthenogenesis ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009. As a result, it can be argued that stem cell research, in and of itself, does not result in an increased rate of abortions or deliberate embryo deaths in the United States -- or are in any way different from what occurs at ART clinics ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009). Both of these points indicate that the limitations of embryonic and parthenogenetic stem cell research must be more particular and less general ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009).

The dialogue around the issue of ethics in stem cell research must expand to address the many new sources and techniques for utilizing this promising line of research ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009). Stem cell research issue is clouded by fears about embryonic cloning and the production of embryos for fertility, which many people object to, if not in principle, then in fact (Holden, 2009; "NIH Final Guidelines," 2000; Vogel, 2008). Further, the general public -- and pro-life leaders and pro-choice leaders -- must continue to educate themselves with the changes in the field so that they can fairly and accurately represent the issues (Holden, 2009; "NIH Final Guidelines," 2000; Vogel, 2008).

In 2006, the state of Missouri passed an amendment to the constitution known as the Missouri Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). Essentially, Missouri's legislation prohibits reproductive cloning and permits therapeutic cloning -- the latter enabling human embryonic stem cell research ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). The forms of "early stem cell research" permitted by the constitutional amendment are those extracted from pre-embryos by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) or from surplus embryos that remain after in-vitro fertilization procedures have been completed for patients at fertility clinics ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). To date, this amendment has presented the clearest legislation with language differentiating both the purposes of stem cell research and the sources of the stem cells for research ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). The limitations imposed by the state of Missouri on stem cell research include restricting the stem cell research to surplus embryos from ART clinics ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). Further, of those cells so obtained, only blastocysts less than 14 days old to preclude using embryos in which cell differentiation has begun and the development of a neural tube (which will become the brain and spinal cord) is apparent ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). The constructs resulting in this… [read more]

Research Grant National Institutes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,172 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The guide provides specific instructions for signing and copying the original application, as well as mailing instructions (PHS 398, 2009, pp. I-17 -- I- 23).

The PHS application guide provides detailed information on filling out each field of the application. For the Budget Request, sections 7 and 8 must be completed in U.S. dollars. The application must be signed by an individual authorized to act for the applicant organization. The application guide also spells out penalties for deliberate withholding, falsification or misrepresentation of information (PHS 398, 2009, pp. I-17 -- I-33).

In addition to providing information on completing the application, the guide also covers the assurances and certifications that applicants are expected to comply with. Any instance of non-compliance requires an explanation. A project description is also required, along with a list of project or performance sites as well as key personnel and other significant contributors (PHS 398, 2009, p. I-30).

For the Detailed Budget, only direct costs may be requested. If the budget request exceeds $500,000 or more for any year, the applicant must obtain prior approval from the Institute/Center. Each category of budget requests must be itemized, with a separate detailed budget for consortium and contractual organizations. The applicant must enter budget category totals, along with justification of any significant increases or decreases from the initial year budget (PHS 398, 2009, p.I-33).

Biographical sketches must be provided for anyone identified as Senior/Key Personnel and Other Significant Contributors, in the same order as listed on Form Page 2. In addition to closely following page limits, the application is restricted from using URLs unless specifically indicated. Applicants are also discouraged from submitting proprietary information unless it is essential for proper evaluation of the application (PHS 398, 2009, p. I-41).

The Research Plan lists Specific Aims of the project, along with the Research Strategy. The application must include the appropriate information on Protection of Human Subjects, Inclusion of Women and Minorities, Inclusion of Children and vertebrate Animals. If select hazardous biological agents or toxins as identified by DHHS or USDA are involved in the project, they must be listed. Since the proposed research for PAR-11-095 does not include human subjects, there are no additional forms required specific to those research parameters (PHS 398, 2009, pp I-45 -- I-46).

The Disclosure Permission Statement must be checked to allow the Government to disclose project title and contact information to interested organizations in the event a grant is not awarded. The Appendix is used for supporting documentation including graphs, diagrams, tables and charts. The application guide also lists other rules which may apply to NIH recipients, such as prompt reporting of inventions and patents (PHS 398, 2009, pp. I-48 -- I-49).

Once the application has been submitted, the applicant is responsible for checking eRA Commons for review assignment and contact information, which information is available two weeks after the submission due date. The application then proceeds through the review process, and hopefully award.

Works Cited

Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Retrieved August… [read more]

Isolate One Issue Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,970 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


We must understand that all the concerns about stem cell research use for genetic pre-determination of sex or eye-color or brains etc. are unfounded because this research is very expensive and is currently being used to identify and remove genetic disorders and to see how a child may be pre-disposed to genetic disorder and how it can be cured before birth.

The question is personhood is again flawed because a person is something who has a mind, a soul and a body. The blastocyst has none of those characteristics. It is true that if untouched, the blastocyst would grow into a human being and that's where the contention exists. But there are millions of blastocysts that never develop into anything, if an embryo that is not growing is obtained for research purposes, and then it must be considered a perfectly legal source for stem cells.

We must not kill a human being or an embryo that has a chance of growing into a human being. Abortion is wrong for the same reason but a blastocyst is not yet developed to a stage where it can be called a person. And even though it's true that all embryos must be given a fair chance to grow into a healthy human being, it also is true that stem cell research doesn't recruit healthy embryos. In most cases, the embryos which are not needed or which have stopped growing are used to extract stem cells.


Stem cell research is a very important area of research and can easily be considered the most vital research to have taken place in the last decade. The potential for stem cell application is enormous and the tremendous benefits that can be derived from this research can only be realized when we view this research with an open mind.

We cannot ignore the fact that even if we stop the progress of stem cell research, we will still be losing embryos on daily basis through abortions, through fertility methods and through other means. Why not then put those embryos to good use and save millions of children from possible genetic disorders in the future-Because if every child has a right to a life, then by the same standard, they also have a right to a healthy life.


[1]The President's Council on Bioethics, White Paper: Alternative Sources of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, May 2005, at [http://www.bioethics.gov/reports/white_paper/index.html].

[2] ibid, Personal Statement of Michael S. Gazzaniga, p. 76 and Personal Statement of Dr.

Janet D. Rowley, p. 90.

[3] Pittenger, M.F., Mackay, A.M., Beck, S.C., Jaiswal, R.K., Douglas, R., Mosca, J., Moorman, M.,

Simonetti, D., Craig, S., and Marshak, D.R., "Multilineage Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells."

Science, 284: 143-147 (1999).

[4] For statistics and estimations see: http://www.diabetes.org/ada/c20f.asp.… [read more]

Color Discrimination in Carriers Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (538 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


They conclude that this does not indicate pathological vision on the part of deutan carriers, just impaired color discrimination. They also speculate on whether women have more delicacy in color discrimination and answer tentatively in the negative to this question.

The article was well-written and understandable, and given the context provided by the authors, the research question was appropriately addressed. The materials and methods were adequately explained so that I could understand what exactly they did and the data was interpreted in sound fashion. The graphs showed clearly how deutan carriers differed in chromatic discrimination from protan carriers and normal controls. The results were discussed well and referred back to the hypothesis. The significance of the study was also addressed in the results section with reference to vision of deutan carriers and color deficiency in X-inactivated chromosome carriers.

I was especially impressed by their explanation of the molecular genetic mechanisms to help explain the basis for color discrimination differences between protan and deutan carriers. The links to the primary literature indicating where the authors obtained their genetic information were also helpful.

Most of the discussion centered on clarifying that pathological vision, or lack thereof, in deutan carriers was not tantamount to deficiency in color discrimination. This was a helpful distinction to make. Their claim concerning sex-based differences in color discrimination was not thoroughly convincing, however. Future studies might concentrate on discerning gender differences among protan and…… [read more]

Life Science Current Event Report Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


1)? Before pulling out sabretooth tiger remains, scientist started small. They had hypothesized that they could create live cloned animals using cells from dead, frozen specimens. This hypothesis was tested during an experiment using mice that had been frozen for 16 years. Earlier experiments had been conducted to prove this hypothesis, but those mice had been frozen using chemicals to keep the cells safe from the cold elements. While the earlier experiments were successful, the latest experiment was designed to see if cloned mice could be created from unprotected frozen cells (Anonymous, 2008).

The ultimate goal from this research is to work towards finding a way to regenerate extinct animals. Obviously any frozen woolly mammoths that archeologists find will not have been treated with preservative chemicals. The latest experiment was successful. New mice were cloned using the 16-year-old untreated frozen mice cells. The scientists "generated embryonic stem cells using nuclei harvested from [frozen] mice… then transferred nuclei from the stem cells into unfertilized eggs that had their nuclei removed" (Anonymous, 2008, para. 2).

Multiple mice received the eggs and successfully gave birth to live, healthy babies. If scientists can clone animals using frozen cells, they may even be able to create cloned animals from DNA extracted from fossils. Jurassic Park may one day be a reality instead of science fiction. This experiment was just an early step in a much lengthier research process (Anonymous, 2008).

Relating Scientific Progress to Everyday Life

Cloning technology has many implications on our lives. If we are able to resurrect 16-year-old mice by cloning them, perhaps the same can be accomplished with all of the people who have chosen to be cryogenically frozen. While many of us scoff at people who pay tens of thousands of dollars to be frozen after they die, perhaps there is a second life available for them as cloned versions of themselves. Of course, human cloning is considered unethical and is banned in most countries, but human values change, laws change. I imagine that human cloning will eventually work its way into society within my lifetime.

Before we jump that far ahead, more immediate uses for this technology include cloning our pets after they pass away. I love my dog, he is loyal, he was easy to train, and he is well behaved around my friends. There is no guarantee that a different dog that would provide equal companionship when my friend passes away. If I could clone him instead of buying another dog that would be completely unpredictable, I would seriously consider the option.

Top animal breeders would be able to get more litters out of a perfect breed specimen, even after he or she is too old to continue breeding. The dog can simply be cloned and then bred naturally. Perhaps natural breeding will be eliminated all together, the best of the breeds will be selected and all future reproductions will be clones. This idea naturally brings us to our food supply. Cloned food is already making its… [read more]

Cloning in 1997 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (813 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ever since agriculture and the domesticated raising of animals, man has been modifying the genetic make-up of animals by selective breeding. For example, livestock of superior quality could be cloned for farmers. Such livestock would yield higher quality meat, milk, and wool.

People could also clone animals that produce human proteins and other substances used in medical drugs. Another possibility for the use of cloning is the generation of genetically modified animal organs that are suitable for transplantation into humans. At present, thousands of patients die each year before a replacement heart, liver, or kidney becomes available (Wilmut, 1998).

Although genetic disorders represent a small fraction of the total burden of ill health, genetic engineering in the form of "gene therapy" could be used to repair damaged or replace missing genes in people who have genetic disorders. This would be another promising aspect of cloning. The rapid production of large animals carrying genetic defects that mimic human illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis. The ability to make animals with a precisely engineered genetic constitution could also become cell-bases therapies for important illnesses that include Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and muscular dystrophy. With new research in the area of cloning and stem cell research, cures might be found for these illnesses that affect many human lives.

Cloning could also be a way to produce herds of cattle that lack the prion protein gene. This gene makes cattle susceptible to infection that might cause bovine spongiform encephalitis or mad cow disease. Many animal activists are against this kind of genetic engineering, but again the benefits outweigh the negative aspects. The technique could also prevent the transmission of genetic diseases. Many scientists are now working on therapies that would supplement or replace defective genes in cells.

There are many people who desire to eat healthier foods, couples who are waiting on the opportunity to have children and others that need a cure found for a disease they have. Without the use of cloning or stem cell research, none of these dreams will be achieved. Yes, there are concerns about this issue. However, when the pros are weighed against the cons we can certainly understand that society cannot let this opportunity go by without further research.

Works Cited

Biotechnology Industry Organization. "Cloning Technology, not Human Cloning."

Pharmaceutical Technology. 2001.

Gorman, C. "Cloning: Humans May Have It Easier." Time, August 27, 2001. v158 i8 p56+

Wilmut, Ian. "Cloning for Medicine." Scientific…… [read more]

Cloning People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Family relationships would not be affected because the parents would perceive a cloned baby as their child despite the genetic ramifications. There is also the fear that the facility would be available only to the rich where people would create custom-designed children who were talented who would have better futures. To this, Wachbroit once again counters with the argument that environment plays an important role.

Wachbroit makes strong and well-reasoned arguments. However, accept for concerns that he personally voices -- namely, that cloning is a nascent science -- his arguments leave a lot to be desired. During the attempts a cloning a sheep, the failed results were grotesque creatures. No human should have to witness failed experiments when humans are involved. As in the case of the most celebrated clone yet -- Dolly -- did not survive long. It means that there were genetic factors that made the clone susceptible to disease with a potentially weakened system.

Wachbroit repeatedly makes the argument that environmental factors play an important role in a person's upbringing. This theory called the Blank Slate was developed in the early sixties, and till recently has held sway. In a recent book by MIT's cognitive scientist Stephen Pinker, "The Blank Slate," the author systematically debunks the blank slate theory. Whatever, one might think of these competing theories, the Blank Slate theory cannot be considered as absolute.

Also, human nature being what it is, it is not completely out of the realm of possibility that those who can afford cloning would seek designer children. Recently, there were stories of websites auctioning the eggs of super-models in the hope that people would have physically stunning children. Even if cloning were successful with zero percent failure, Wachbroit's theory that clones would not be identical is merely speculative; though mammals have been cloned, we do not have the clones of humans. Higher faculties distinguish humans, even as biological specimens. Even the Human Genome is incomplete until the functional aspects of DNA have been identified to know what the origins and progress of human make-up really is.

In conclusions therefore, Wachbroit does make a positive step in the discussion of aspects of human cloning. He is right that it should be debated in the open so that renegade scientists should not defy common sense and decency by pursuing human cloning. As for Wachbroit believing that human cloning is correct -- he is…… [read more]

Origin of Eukaryotes Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (478 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Origin of Mitochondria

During membrane infolding, highly oxidized prokaryotic cells are ingested in eukaryotic cells. These cells are too small and indigestible. Instead of being digested, they continue to live inside the host that becomes an ideal environment for them because of the organic molecules and inorganic compounds the host provides them. The energy released by the endosymbiotic cell (the ingested small prokaryotic cells), on the other hand, provides benefit to the host making it more productive and successful. After some time, the endosymbitic cells lose their cellular autonomy and later become a mitochondrion.

Origin of Chloroplasts

The origin of chloroplasts is almost the same as that of mitochondria. Some eukaryotic cells ingest small prokaryotic photosynthetic cells. These photosynthetic cells provide the host with organic molecules while the host provides them with inorganic compounds. Eventually, the photosynthetic cells lose their cellular autonomy and then later become chloroplasts.

However, contrast to mitochondria, not all eukaryotic cells ingest chloroplasts. This is the reason why all eukaryotes contain mitochondrion but not all contain chloroplasts.


Origin of Eukaryotes.

2003. George Washington University. 23 April 2003. http://www.gwu.edu/~darwin/BiSc151/Eukaryotes/Eukaryotes.html

Endosymbiosis in Evolution.

2000. Sidwell Friends School. 23 April 2003. http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Bacteria/symbiosis.html

The Origin of Eukaryote Chloroplast. http://hypnea.botany.uwc.ac.za/phylogeny/classif/euk2.htm… [read more]

Plant Cell Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is the site of cellular respiration.

Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus & Endoplasmic Reticulum: Ribosomes are non-membranous, spherical bodies composed of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein enzymes. They are the site of protein synthesis. Similarly, Golgi Apparatus is made of stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae) and its main function is modification of chemicals to make them functional. The Endoplasmic Reticulum is made of sheets of unit membrane with ribosomes on the outside, forming a tubular network throughout the cell. Their main function is the transport of chemicals within and outside the cells.

Nucleus: Consists of nuclear envelope, chromatin, and nucleolus. Nuclear envelope is made of unit membranes with a fluid-filled space; chromatin from long thin strands of DNA and nucleolus from non-membraneous matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid). The nucleus specifies which proteins are produced by the cell, stores and passes on genetic information to future generations of cells during cell division.


Brown, Terry. (1999) "Cell Structure and Processes." Retrieved on June 22, 2003 at http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi3a1/Cells/cells.htm

Crosby, Marshall R. And Peter H. Raven. (2003) Article on "Plant." (Para on Plant Cells). Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Cellulose is made up of molecules of sugar glucose

Plant Cell… [read more]

Chernobyl Disaster the Chernobyl Nuclear Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The recessive nature of the genetic disorder implies that the mutations will take more time to manifest. There is a strong possibility that the genetic anomalies will find expression in future generations of children who are born to parents affected by mutation. [Souchkevitch, G. N]

The IAEA organized a study of the population in areas, which had caesium contamination of above 555 KBq / m2. The study that was conducted after a decade of the incident was organized into different control groups of 2000 to 50000 people based on their age. In all 1356 people were analyzed and the findings indicated that the absence of any significant radiation related diseases but projected an increase in non-radiation related disorders both within the contaminated as well as the control regions. The soviet atomic energy minister Mr. Rumyantsev said, 'radio-phobia' cause more harm than actual radioactive contamination," [Elizabeth Manning]. So the psychological implications of the disaster cannot be lightly ignored. More recent studies have confirmed our fears that even low dose of radiation can induce genetic mutations. A joint research conducted by Ukraine and Israeli scientists has revealed an "an unexpectedly high increase" in mutation levels in children born to affected parents. "These results indicate that low doses of radiation can induce multiple changes in human germline DNA." [BBC]

Habitat destruction

The effect of radiation was such that large cultivable lands were rendered unusable for decades together. To quote Mr. Valery Boldin, senor staff in the Gorbachev government, "radioactivity had contaminated enormous areas, some of which would be unsuitable for human habitation for many decades." The entire ecosystem in the nearby 'red forest' was destroyed. Almost all the trees in the forest were dead due to the radiation. [Jason Manning]

Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

One of the most obvious and direct consequences of the disaster was the observed increase in Thyroid cancer among children, particularly in Belarus. The radiation absorption by the thyroid gland was the primary factor used by the researchers in assessing the level of irradiation. In Gomel Oblast, (Belarus) the instances of thyroid cancer in children increased more than 200 times the usual number of cases. Iodine 131 isotope, one of the nucleotides that got scattered in the explosion is found to be the main cause for the increase in the reported cases of thyroid cancer. The presence of radiation in the sand affects the plants, which in turn affect the grazing animals. Iodine 134, one of the radioactive isotopes is easily absorbed into milk. The consumption of milk from these affected animals has been cited as the major cause for the increased cases of thyroid cancer among the children of Belarus. [Nuclear Energy Agency]


Based on the pilot study and the research results conducted by the IPHECA and the IAEA we draw the conclusion that the effects of the radiation is more pronounced in terms of the genetic anomalies rather than the acute diseases. We do not yet have complete information pertaining to the health implications of the… [read more]

Cloning the Debate About Human Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (3,044 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Human Cloning - The Ethical Issues)

If it were possible for a parent or parents to select a particular gene for their child, it would have been wonderful. Though loving parents would do anything to achieve such impossibility, though they do quite a lot of things for their children socially, it is just not possible to select a gene, and… [read more]

Kin Selection the Organization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Deleterious genetic mutations would be purged from the population and the inbred species may be prone to evolve sociality as all members of a colony have nearly identical genetic backgrounds. In addition to consanguineous matings (inbreeding), the process of genetic drift can also produce high levels of inbreeding.

Genetic drift is the random loss of alleles from a population owing… [read more]

Morality of Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This is, of course, because genes which encourage preference for their own genetic contributions consistently reproduce more successfully and pass on to the next generation. So it is completely natural for individuals to prefer to give birth to their own genetic offspring and to children which share parts of the same genetic code. Cloning allows one to birth and parent… [read more]

Cloning Charles Darwin Believed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Despite persistent scares and technical failures and difficulties, experiments and research on cloning, using aborted fetal body parts, continue in recent years, especially in the management or treatment of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease, a genetic condition that affects only a particular body part. It is not like AIDS. The transplants used are pieces of liver and parts of… [read more]

Buck vs. Bell Lee M Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,498 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It was with the emergence of INF, argues Silver, that human beings grasped their reproductive destiny.

Silver tackles the implications of reproductive engineering by assessing the right of parents to genetically enhance their children. A society that allows rich parents to choose private education for their offspring, argues Silver, cannot justifiably argue that it is 'unfair' for wealthy parents to… [read more]

Cell Cycle Control Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Chromosome separation during mitosis can be delayed if there are some chromosomes that have not been attached to the mitotic spindle properly.

The progression through G1 and G2 is delayed through braking mechanisms incase there is damage of DNA within the chromosome. These delays at the DNA damage checkpoints provide time for the DNA that has been damaged to be repaired. The cell-cycle brakes are then released and the cell cycle resumes.

The checkpoint mechanism works through negative intracellular signals which arrest the cell cycle as opposed to removing positive signals that normally stimulate the progression of cell cycles. The cell cycle control system contains protein kinases known as cyclic-dependent kinases. Their activity rises and falls as the cell moves through the cycle (Sunkel & Pinheiro, 2012).

The molecular events which control the cell cycle are normally ordered and directional. This means that each process takes place a sequential manner and the cycle can not be reversed.


Sunkel, C & Pinheiro, D. (2012). Mechanism of Cell Cycle Control. Retrieved September 23, 2014 from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcanalbq.spb.pt%2Fdocs%2FCanalBQ_0009-4-17.pdf&ei=im4hVJqpHYmiO6mrgZAI&usg=AFQjCNHAAoZerDzhVOJ7XPc4rYDEsiGGuw&sig2=4eY4DyQdCfHGSUrFNyt2RQ"


Albert, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K. & Walter, P. (2002). Components of the cell cycle control system. Retrieved September 23, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26824/… [read more]

Posses This Deformity. Albinism Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (377 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Most people born with this affliction are born to parents who do not have this condition, but the gene is recessive in nature. This means that in order to receive this trait, it must be able to receive the recessive gene, one from each parent.

Albinism may cause vision problems and they are more susceptible to sunburn and skin cancer due to the weak condition of their skin. The condition is noticed immediately after birth and the amount of pigmentation deficiency varies between albinos.

Unfortunately, there is no cure for albinism as the genetic condition prescribes the patient's conditions. It is important for those who have this genetic condition to take precautions and use care when being exposed to the sun. The eyes of those with albinism must be protected as well. Social conditions are not easy for those with this affliction and they face much public ridicule and outcast as they are different looking from most other people. Those who suffer from this, may find refuge and help within support groups that may make them feel more accepted within society.


Fitzpatrick, T.B. (1960). Albinism.…… [read more]

Hela Cells Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Skloot notes that there are not that many laws respecting the collection and use of human tissue samples. One of the narratives in the Afterword was that the ethics are different today, because human tissue and genetic material has been commoditized. Now that companies can make money of this material, can patent genes, and make money from human tissue collection, the situation is quite different from that of Henrietta Lacks. Lacks did not consent to the use of her tissue, but in those days, nobody made money from it. Indeed, the Lacks cells are not owned by anybody.

Skloot does make the point that the legal environment has not kept up with the economics of tissue samples and genetic information. It is this commoditization, combined with the absence of a legal framework, that has created the ethical issues that we have today. More than half of all Americans have had samples collected from them, and these samples are stored on file. In many cases, there is little in the way of informed consent -- as little as a checkbox on a form that probably isn't read, and certainly would not be given much thought by someone who by definition is seeking medical care. So the practice of collecting the samples is likely to continue unabated for the foreseeable future.

The most basic framework is the common rule, or Federal Policy for the Protection on Human Subjects, but this is often thought not to apply to tissue collection, because the material collected was already being removed from the patient. Thus, whatever happens to that material, is not happening to the patient. This is true -- one may feel a sense of ownership over a former body part, but feeling a sense of ownership and actually being entitled to controlling it forever are two different things. Do we get to control our ex-boyfriends and ex-girlfriends? So the Common Rule seldom applies, and Skloot also points out that the NIH has non-binding guidelines for its research. But in general, there are no real protections for patients, or guidance under law for the collection of tissues.

The closest thing to a legal framework is in case law. There is also the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, though that just offers some protections for the consequences of your genetic information, not providing a framework for your information to be not collected in the first place. The HIPAA protects against the release of names, as happened to Henrietta Lacks, but that is as far as that law covers this issue. Privacy is important, but it is not one of the most significant issues where this law is concerned.

But should people have control over their genetic information? I would argue that nobody should. First, at the individual level, genetic information is not a form…… [read more]

Human Cloning and Genetic Engineering Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Human Cloning and Genetic Engineering

The subject of human cloning is one of the most controversial subjects being debated today. It is also one of the most scientifically fascinating subjects, because it is the first to bring science and God together. Whether or not human creation belongs to the realm of God, or to the realm of science, has created a science conscience that did not previously exist in science before human cloning and genetic engineering became a reality. As a result of the science that now exists, and which makes possible genetic engineering that can alter and improve the human condition, and perhaps even more importantly, the cloning of existing human perfection, which can go beyond that perfection with additional genetic engineering, we are seeing the debate for and against human cloning and genetic engineering take on the dimensions of ethics and public policy.

In examining and analyzing this controversial debate, I will rely upon the existing body of research and work by authors on both sides of the debate. My research will be supported by the following works, which I might add to as my research progresses.

Annotated Bibliography

Cohen, Cynthia B. Renewing the Stuff of Life: Stem Cells, Ethics, and Public Policy. New York, Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Cohen's book is important because it provides the research paper with a succinct look at perhaps the most emotional and contentious issue in the subject of genetic engineering: stem cell research and public policy. Stem cells have been touted as the miracle cure to most of the diseases that are prolonged and debilitating. High profile figures, like former First Lady Nancy Reagan, have come out in support of stem cell research and application.

Cohen not only looks at the emotional and public side of stem cell research, but she also provides the science that is needed in this research paper as it regards stem cells. The science must be addressed from the scientific only perspective; that is, the facts of the science and using the scientific language as the basis for that discussion.

Cummings, Claire Hope. Uncertain Peril and the Future of Seeds. Boston: Beacon Press, 2009. Print.

This book will support and enhance this research paper in looking to the future of the science and genetic engineering research and application. It focuses on genetic engineering in its less controversial form, but a form that could nonetheless transfer itself to the more important issue of human cloning. Right now, genetic engineering is widely accepted in the human food supply. Cummings raises interesting questions about what that means in terms of who owns the food supply, who controls it, and how the engineering translates to trade secrets and patents. Is this what we have to be concerned about on the human side too?

This book is useful only to the extent that it provides some clarity as to how genetic engineering is already being done on human food supplies. It will be used in a limited way, and might… [read more]

Blastoderm Fate Mapping and Chick Cardia Bifida Experiments Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Chicken Lab

Chicken Embryo Lab Report

A fate map can be used to track the progression of cell movements during chick embryo development. There are several potential uses for the information gathered and recorded on fate maps; the movement of cells and organs during development can yield a great deal of information regarding specifics of the species or genetic line as well as more general evolutionary information. In this technique, pioneered by N. Spratt and H. Haas (Journal of Experimental Zoology 103: 259-304 1946; 144: 139-158, 1960), the fate map is created by placing carbon markers in the blastoderm after it has been transferred to a petri dish. It is expected that significant movement of the carbon markers will occur during the experiment.

Materials and Methods

A chick blastoderm was explanted into an agar-containing petri dish following an incubation period. Glass needles were created y melting and stretching the ends of pipettes, and these needles were used to place very small amounts of carbon (charcoal) at three different spots near he primitive streak of the blastoderm. The embryo was at an early stage when it was marked, and after marking retained the faint "V" of the primitive streak with three clumps of carbon of varying size ranged in a perpendicular line to the point of the "V." The petri dish was returned to the incubator wth damp paper towels and was retrieved for further observation two days after the initial markings with charcoal were made.


Following two days of continuing incubation, the blastoderm appeared…… [read more]

In-Vitro Fertilization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (844 words)
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e., that the process should be used as a last resort for infertile couples. Next, using in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis could open the floodgates to couples wanting "designer" babies, i.e., babies who possess those traits which are perceived as being the most genetically desirable.

Third, using in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is permitting human life to be created as a means to an end, not an end in itself. Although proponents of such treatment argue that it is being created to help another sibling, once it has been conceded that human life may be created for purposes other than those originally intended, it is very difficult to see where one should draw the line. Lastly, using in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to create a baby which is free of genetic disorders violates the notion that childbirth is the result of an act of God, one which sometimes produces babies which suffer from genetic disorders. Permitting doctors to assist individuals in creating "designer" babies is comparable to giving doctors a license to play God.


In-vitro fertilization was originally intended to assist couples who were infertile in having a baby. However, in recent years, the use of in-vitro fertilization and especially pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has been vastly expanded beyond its original intent. It is now possible for individuals to utilize such procedures and tests to create "designer" (i.e., babies without any genetic disorders) babies. Likewise, it is now possible for individuals to utilize in-vitro fertilization in order to create a baby whose umbilical cord blood will be able to cure or treat a genetic disorder in another child.

While proponents of in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis argue that such treatments were only created and are only being utilized to help save lives, the use of such procedures and tests is an extremely slippery slope which is riddled with potentially dangerous ethical and medical implications. For once it has been conceded that human life may be created for other purposes than those which were originally intended (i.e., to help deal with the issue of infertility), then it is very difficult to see where one should draw the line. In addition, while proponents of in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis argue that such treatments have only been and will only be approved in extremely rare circumstances and under strict controls, the mere fact that such treatment is being utilized at all leaves the door open to abuse by individuals seeking to create "perfect" babies.… [read more]

Embryonic Stem Cell Research in November 1998 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Embryonic Stem Cell Research

In November 1998, two research groups independently announced that they had isolated human stem cells from embryonic tissues, had cultivated the cells, and shown these cells could develop into all three basic layers of cells in the human embryo (Lysaught 1999). Because these cells could potentially develop into nearly every type of human cell and tissue,… [read more]

Against Human Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (922 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Against Human Cloning

For many decades, the scientific idea for human cloning has, for the most part, only been discussed in the realm of science fiction, but in today's highly technical world, human cloning has almost become a reality which has to be discussed and examined with much caution and the use of hard facts. In essence, the arguments for and against human cloning vary widely; some scientist and researchers claim that human cloning will lead to great advances in medicine and how diseases are treated, and while this may be true, human cloning itself is a major violation against our embodied and engendered selves as human beings and has the potential to destroy the social relations as designed by nature.

First of all, human cloning has the potential to completely alter the future of a human being, especially in relation to the unborn, and violates the right to choose how a person lives his/her own life and the right to be a unique human being, both mentally and physically. Also, it is a violation on the part of the clone itself, meaning that he/she will be deprived of the opportunity to live within a viable future, not to mention that all the important aspects of a person will be known beforehand, such as physical appearance and abilities which will place a huge burden on the person as to the expectations of others.

Robert Wachbroit adds to this argument by stating that cloned individuals "would be wronged in morally significant ways... being "the right to an open future." For example, "a child might be constantly compared to the adult from whom he/she was cloned and thereby burdened with oppressive expectations... Finally... A child might be burdened with the thought that he/she is a copy and not an original, (affecting) the child's sense of self-worth or individuality or dignity... " (Internet, 1999).

Second, it is quite obvious that human cloning is a repugnant activity when compared to the normal method of human reproduction. According to Glenn McGee, "those who oppose human cloning point to the repugnance of a style of reproduction with such profound potential for vanity, arguing that the freedom of children and (the) nature of the family are in danger" (Internet, 2001). Basically, human cloning is an asexual process, meaning that it involves no type of sexual activity between two consenting persons. This makes the process comparable to many lower forms of life, such as bacteria, algae, fungi and a number of lower invertebrates. In the scope of human sexuality, life is generally begun by two individuals through love and nurturing; however, with human cloning, this process is voided because love and nurturing play no role whatsoever. Thus, human cloning goes completely against human nature and allows any…… [read more]

Human Beings and Primates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The genetic difference between humans and chimps means that that the less goal-directed chimpanzees live in the wilderness. It takes planning to build houses and make tools but chimps do not make use of tools, because the four percent genetic difference limits their physical and mental capacity to do so. Instead, chimpanzees make use of their entire bodies more than humans to survive. Even chimpanzees in the zoo engage in more physical contact regarding survival. Chimps establish dominance by fighting in against other chimps, while humans make use of verbal communication as well as physical communication.

Chimpanzees are also, because they live in the wild and do not have tools, more dependent on one another. Even though chimpanzees live in groups, while humans can live alone. This is because of the four percent of genetic differences between the two species. Thus chimps do not have the support system of a civilization that provides them with ready access to food at the supermarket, or protects them from the elements in the form of ready-made clothing. Human beings were able to evolve to create more sophisticated tools and commodities, so they did not have to constantly cope with the demands of heat, cold, and the threat of starvation.

Humans are able to forego immediate goals in society, with an eye upon long-term goals because their brains are more developed than chimpanzees, one of the results of the seemingly few but very important genetic differences. Sometimes these goals are impressive, such as the achievements of the space program, modern medicine, and the physical understanding of the universe, while other human social power plays might make us long for the simpler, seemingly more honest physical fighting of chimpanzees! Chimpanzees only have goals such as feeding themselves, or winning a fight, but they do not plot and plan, or make scientific discoveries because the four percent difference limits their mental focus to the moment, and this affects chimp civilizations' ability to create long-term goals…… [read more]

Ethics Birth Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Couples should not be encouraged to have preimplantation genetic determination (PGD). PGD is a technique that involves "removing cells from the early embryo to test for genetic mutations, which can cause disease" (Morris, 2008). Ethically, there is nothing wrong with using PGD, as it is essentially a diagnostic tool, and does not cause harm to the mother or the child (Morris, 2008). However, it is also not a medically-necessary procedure. PGD can be used for a number of purposes, but one of the most important is to evaluate for genetic mutations such as those that might cause disease or conditions like Down's Syndrome. While it is beneficial for parents to know about the potential for these things, in many cases PGD is not a 100% accurate predictor of conditions, so is not necessarily going to be used to make decisions about the pregnancy. Arguably, such diagnoses can be made after birth more easily and accurately, so for most patients that is probably the best course of action. Again, while there is benefit to PGD is not a medical necessity, and while there is limited risk associated with it, there is no reason to claim that it is necessary to recommend PGD. It can be recommended, but it is not necessary to do so.

There are exceptions, however, and certainly so for patients with specific risk factors. Sherbahn (2013) notes that mothers with advanced age of 38 years or more are at greater risk from their pregnancies; that mothers with repeated in vitro fertilization failure are at greater risk; those with inherited genetic conditions or are carriers of chromosomal translocations and those with recurrent miscarriages are all patients for whom PGD might be medically necessary or beneficial. These patients would represent an exception, and in such cases it could be argued that mothers with these characteristics should receive PGD testing, as it could reduce the risk to the mother or avoid passing…… [read more]

Bioethical Concerns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


A., Pedersen, D., Clepper, D., Nelson, M.., Sanger, W., Gokhale, S., Wolf, D. & Mitalipov, S. (2007). Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature, 450 (7169), 497 -- 502.

Chung, L., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Marh, J. et al. (2006). Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature, 439(7073), 216 -- 219.

Cohen, C.B. (2007). Renewing the stuff of life: Stem cells, ethics, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hyun, I. & Jung, K.W. (2006). Human research cloning, embryos, and embryo-like artifacts. Hastings Center Report, 36(5), 34 -- 41.

ISSCR. (2008). ISSCR task force for the clinical translation of Stem Cells. In Guidelines for the clinical translation of stem cells. Retrieved June 25, 2011, from http://isscr.org/clinical_trans/pdfs/ISSCRGLClinicalTrans.pdf.

Takahashi, K. & Yamanaka, S. (2006). Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell, 126(4), 663 -- 676.

Meissner, A. & Jaenisch, R. (2006). Generation of nuclear transfer-derived pluripotent ES cells from cloned Cdx2-deficient blastocysts. Nature, 439(7073), 212 -- 215.

National Research Council. (2005). Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Nisbet, M.C. (2004). Public opinion about stem cell research and human cloning. Public Opinion Quarterly,…… [read more]

Congressional Ban on 'Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Boston Globe)"

The fate of cloning is at a crossroads now as the GOP readies to reintroduce the bill to ban cloning. Recently the Boston Globe wrote "Therapeutic cloning will achieve the same unassailable status [as In Vitro fertilization] if it ever leads to successful treatments of Parkinson's disease, heart failure, or other serious conditions. But it will be deprived of the chance to prove itself, at least in this country, if the anticloning bill of GOP Senator Sam Brownback of Kansas is passed. (A12)"

Throughout history people have been afraid of things they do not understand. The medical field has seen itself face prosecution to improve the services it would provide to make people healthier and well. From the Middle Ages to the present, doctors have found themselves under constant public scrutiny and struggling to research new methods and practices. Cloning is the beginning of new medical sciences that will contribute to the well being and improved health conditions of people around the world, including those in the poorer Third World countries.

The British Medical Association said, "Public hostility to human reproductive cloning may be based on an illogical and transient fear of a new technology (humancloning.org)." I believe this is true, and it is important for Congress to allow for medical science to research cloning and the advances in health care that will stem from it.


Boston Globe Editorial A Cloud Over Cloning. Boston Globe (A12), 25 November 2002.

The Human Cloning Foundation http://www.humancloning.orgOnline. 8 December, 2002.

Westphal, Sylvia Pagan. Cloned Stem Cells May Give New Lease on Life.

New Scientist…… [read more]

Clarkia Unguiculata: Onagraceae Evolutionary (Pollination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The main finding of the research is that it is the nature of genotype rather than the type of pollination that directly affects the reproductive success of C. unguiculata. It is also inferred that the rate of metabolism affects reproductive success as reflected in the form of speedy pollen tube development in the case of CC allele. However the positive effects of the increased metabolic rate can be offset by the negative effects as in the case of reduced ovule fertilization time. (Leading to fewer seeds). In short the counterbalancing effects of the rate of metabolism on the male and female reproductive systems creates a kind of equilibrium.

Similarly we can discern from the study is that the BB maternal genotypes accounted for higher number of viable seeds while recipients homozygous for the CC alleles accounted for more aborted seeds indicating a decreased female fertility rate. However increased seed viability in BB allele does not in any way increase the total seed mass for a fruit. This makes it clear that allelic variations have a contrasting effect on male and female fertility in C. unguiculata. This also leads us to the conclusion that Allozyme genotypes have a direct influence on the reproductive success of CLARKIA UNGUICULATA. In this way the reproductive ability or the efficiency is maintained in Clarkia. Unguiculata. The plant Clarkia.Unguiculata is an ideal example for the branch of evolutionary pollination ecology.


The following article was used as the source.



Cloning Is Among the Feats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If this is what is going to occur, cloning therefore is a threat on every aspect of living. It endangers the existence of naturally born human beings and on the peace of society because cloning can present different kinds crimes such as falsification of identity.

Aside from the social problems that cloning presents, it can also bring more problems in the health of humans. Any mistake in genetic engineering can present new kinds of diseases because genetic engineering is considered as a process of "trial and error," without any assurance of success. Such problem can be inherited by future generations and can bring more problems to the already existing ones. A cycle of solving medical problems through genetic engineering and enhancements would only mean a continuous danger to human health.


Bailey, Ronald. Cloning is Ethical. Ethics.

Brenda Stalcup, Ed Current Controversies Series.

Greenhaven Press.

Edwords, Fred. Genetic Engineering Can Be Ethical. The Ethics of Genetic Engineering.

Lisa Yount Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press.

Gert, Bernard. Genetic Engineering of Humans is Largely Unethical.

Genetic Engineering. 2001. James D. Torr, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

Greenhaven Press.

Kass, Leon R. Cloning Humans Is Not Ethical. Genetic Engineering.

2002. Lisa Yount Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press.

Minerd, Jeff T. Genetic Engineering Will Benefit Human Health and the Environment.

Genetic Engineering.

2002. Lisa Yount Ed. Current Controversies Series.

Greenhaven Press.

Silver,…… [read more]

Article Review on Greenhouse Gases Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Greenhouse gases have become a topic of discussion in recent times. Local governments have been planting trees in the last decade to offset carbon emissions. In "Urban Tree Planting and Greenhouse Gas Reductions" by Greg McPherson, the author argues that tree planting fights global warming by cooling the air temperature of the areas the trees are planted in and absorbing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Some proponents against tree planting say that the dark non-reflective leaves of trees contribute to global warming by making the surface area from tree canopies abler to absorb heat from sunlight. The author makes some excellent points as to why such assumptions are invalid and why tree planting can and has contributed to reducing global warming.

The first point he makes is that tree planting is not an exclusive way to end global warming. If anything, it is complementary. It adds to the many ways to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and carbon emissions. How tree planting can contribute to reducing global warming is through the tree's ability to absorb carbon dioxide and cool the air where its planted. In urban areas where additional trees were planted, during the summer months, the overall temperature was less compared to before the planting of additional trees. A good example of this is New York City and its tree planting initiative.

Several years after the initiative finished, the overall air temperature during the summer months changed, providing relief from the heat and enabled less use of air conditioners, leading to less energy used overall. Carbon emissions come from energy usage and energy creation. As McPherson stated, "Lowering summertime temperatures by planting trees in cities is one way to reduce energy use and thereby reduce carbon dioxide emissions. And planting trees is an immediate solution." (McPherson) It makes sense that trees could and do and contribute to reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through both absorbing the carbon dioxide and reducing usage of electricity/fuel.

Another point McPherson made was that while tree planting may be temporary due to any number of factors, contracts, ordinances and so forth may help provide a more long-lasting solution to tree planting. Sure development of alternative energy sources can be helpful in the long run for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, cars for example produce a greenhouse gases and contribute greatly to global warming. If every car on the road used an alternative fuel source that did not produce greenhouse gases or if less cars were on the road, it would significantly contribute to alleviating global warming for years to come. However, as the author suggests, this idea plus an immediate solution like tree planting can be used together along with other ways to reduce carbon-dioxide emission like using less energy to cool or heat homes, riding bicycles, recycling, and…… [read more]

Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Network

The wireless sensor network is considered to be one of the most significant technologies in this epoch, and has been receiving a great deal of emphasis not only from the industries, but also from the world of academia. In definition, according to Gandham et al. (2003), a sensor network is a motionless ad hoc… [read more]

Case for Hydroelectric Power Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Steam Power

Hydroelectricity has proven to be an important source of energy, and can be a pathway for our energy future. In many countries around the world, major hydroelectricity projects have proven to deliver key jobs during construction, and a sustainable supply of energy thereafter. There are many examples, but when looking at a means of providing energy in a… [read more]

Acas X Technology and the Next Generation of Flying Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,502 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS/ACAS)

The collision avoidance systems TCAS/ACAS used by large craft are essential in avoiding midair collisions. Over time they have been developed in such a way that they can now supply pilots with advisories that, when heeded, can help guide the crafts out of dangerous situations where collisions may occur. The latest generation of… [read more]

How a Systems View Helps the Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Oberlin Project and the Systems View of Life

Mind-Map of Frijtof's Talk

As Fritjof (2014) points out, there are four dimensions of life -- the biological, cognitive, social and ecological dimensions. This vision of life, moreover, results in specific philosophical, social and political repercussions in the world. These repercussions or implications are evident in the focuses of the current modern era, such as projects like sustainable communities, which do not focus on "economic" growth or capitalistic advantage, but rather on "the very web of life on which our long-term survival depends" (Fritjof, 2014). This shows that by working together in mutual respect and appreciation in a communal way with nature (rather than in an effort to exploit nature for one's own profit) actually helps to reinforce the systems view of life and recognize the planet is not an infinite source of raw materials.

Sustainable communities should be designed in a manner that ensure that the community's technology, institutions, etc., do not interfere with nature's ability to sustain life. The implication is that nature is the guiding hand and ultimate support that people should depend upon, and when they attempt to control rather than be supported by nature, the trouble begins -- and can be seen in issues such as global warming, pollution, de-forestation, the eradication of species, soil erosion, water levels rising, ice caps melting, smog, carcinogens in the air, toxic streams, and genetically-modified food organisms that have been shown to be cancer-causing.

Thus the main point of the talk by Fritjof is that people should respect nature and work with it rather than against it. Nature is a strong force that has been sustaining life on the planet for thousands of years and that can continue to do so if people stop attempting to confine their view of life in a materialistic box, or in a philosophical system that puts the elevation of self above the rightful place of the world of nature. As Fritjof and Luisi note in their book on the same subject, it is vital that the world stop calling that growth which is actually waste: "Let's define growth as that which enhances life -- as generation and regeneration -- and declare that our planet needs more of it."

In the light of this main thesis of Fritjof, the Oberlin Project and the sustainable practices of Istanbul and Oberlin cities can be compared and discussed more…… [read more]

Market Rates and Solar Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (4,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Solar Power

An Analysis and Discussion of how Solar Prices and Externalities of the Energy Industry Will Influence the Adoption of the Illinois Solar Power Total Output

This research is based on a hypothesis that was constructed relative to identifying the market energy prices that might be needed for local businesses to consider investing in alternative energy sources such as… [read more]

How a City May Lower Energy Costs With Windmills Grant Proposal

Grant Proposal  |  2 pages (666 words)
Style: Let the writer choose  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Wind Farm Proposal

There is ample empirical scientific evidence that the world's climate is changing, and notwithstanding those in positions of authority that deny the climate is warming, the facts are clear. Seas are rising, temperatures are rising on land and in the oceans, ice sheets are shrinking, glaciers are shrinking, the ocean is becoming acidified, and there is strong evidence that the use of fossil fuels -- in particular, coal -- is contributing to the climate change. So, the need to introduce renewable energy sources -- that do not contribute to carbon to the atmosphere, is seen as a positive way to slow down the warming of the earth.

Among the renewable energy sources being installed and instituted is wind power. There are many advantages to wind energy (it's green; space-efficient; renewable; protects homeowners from power outages; the cost of wind energy has been reduced by 80% since 1980; and wind power (stirred by the sun) has enormous potential because though winds do subside on occasion, there will always be wind).

Proposal for two 100 kW Wind Turbines

A small town in northern Colorado is considering installing two 100 kW Wind Turbines to produce a significant portion of the needed electricity. Wellington, Colorado, is a town of 6,725 (according to the 2010 U.S. Census) north of Fort Collins. Available wind information from www.city-data.com shows that Fort Collins has wind speeds on average of 12.8 MPH.

The town's fiscal administrator proposed to the city council that the community invest in a pair of 100 kW turbines, which will power all or nearly all the city's infrastructure, representing an annual savings of $19,000 to $26,000. The engineering department researched the cost of the turbines, the expected cost of installation, the tax credits available and the federal dollars available through grants. And the fiscal administrator followed up with the data provided through the engineering research and made a proposal to the mayor and the city council.

The report to the mayor and city council --…… [read more]