Study "Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays 166-220

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Aging of the Body Research Paper

… Aging Body

The author bases his understanding of osteoporosis in humans on the research data from experiments with rodents, which shows estrogen deficiency triggers osteoclast activity. Increased osteoclast activity is another way of stating that bone is being resorbed or lost. When combined with a mild decrease in T cell tolerance to self-antigens, which is an immune response directed against one's own tissues, an autoimmune disorder affecting bone develops. The reason the author suspects this process is occurring is because the same process occurs in mothers immediately following delivery. Bone resorption is triggered by lower levels of estrogen, in order to supply sufficient calcium for the mother's milk.

Steps leading to atherosclerosis:

The inner walls of blood vessels (lumen) become 'sticky', because the vascular endothelium expresses molecules that promote adhesion to blood cells (Libby, Ridker, and Hansson, 2011). Normally, blood cells do not attach to the walls of blood vessels, but in the presence of irritating conditions, such as high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, or chronic inflammation, these adhesion molecules may be expressed.

b. Blood vessels also become more permeable to cholesterol. This results in the entry and retention of cholesterol into the walls of the blood vessels (intima).

c. The macrophage, a type of immune cell, will attach to blood vessel walls through the adhesion molecules and enter. Upon entry, they will transform into phagocytes or macrophages, which are a type of cell that consumes cellular debris, tumor cells, and pathogens for destruction. In the presence of cholesterol, the macrophages will accumulate cholesterol.

d. Additional immune cells will be attracted by the cholesterol-bloated macrophages (foam cells), including T cells, resulting in the formation of an atheromatous lesion or atherosclerotic plaque.

e. Smooth muscle cells in the intima begin to produce structural proteins that form a fibrous cap over the plaque.

f. Over time, the plaque grows in size due to the accumulation of foam cells. Some of these foam cells die and release cholesterol into the lesion, forming a zone in the center of the plaque devoid of living tissue and filled with lipids. Blood flow may eventually become restricted (stenosis) enough to cause tissue death (ischaemia). If the plaque dislodges (embolize) and begins to migrate through the blood vessels, it can lodge in another location and cause local tissue death…… [read more]

Consent? Research Paper

… The risk that the genetic material would be appropriated for other purposes was not perceived of as a risk by the medical and science research establishment, because of the paternalistic point-of-view that "science knows best." Harmon (2010b) quotes the researcher in question in the Havasupai case to highlight the condescending tone with which scientists talk to laypersons. To her critics, the researcher claims that they "failed to understand the fundamental nature of genetic research, where progress often occurs from studies that do not appear to bear directly on a particular disease," (cited by Harmon, 2010b). The researcher demonstrates an ethic that relies on the ends justifying the means; however, medical ethics decisions cannot be based on using human beings as means to an end.

In fact, the risk of taking DNA and using it for any purposes -- up to the researchers' whim -- is potentially great. For instance, it is not too much of a stretch to suggest that even human cloning experiments could take place without the authorization of the DNA donors, given the Havasupai situation. As for the potential benefits of the research, the Havasupai were only told that their DNA might help understand the high prevalence of diabetes in their community. Further benefits for research and medicine were not discussed openly: something the IRB certainly needed to do. Genetic research is cutting-edge, too, meaning that there are a plethora of possible uses for DNA samples that have not yet been invented yet. Those studies should of course be encouraged, to promote greater awareness and understanding of disease etiology and other issues. However, full disclosure about the potentially unlimited use of a person's DNA sample must be obtained; or else, situations like the African-American resistance to participation in scientific studies (due to the Tuskegee study) will happen again and again to the benefit of no one.


Harmon, A. (2010b). Indian tribe wins fight to limit research of its DNA. The New York Times. April 21, 2010. Retrieved online:

Harmon, A. (2010). Where'd you go with my DNA? The New York Times. April 24, 2010. Retrieved online:… [read more]

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Black Article Review

… pestis. A comparison between the ancestral Y. pseudotuberculosis genome and the ancient Y. pestis revealed complete sequence identity at the 97 positions, which suggests these single nucleotide differences have emerged during this past 660 years.

Phylogenetic analysis using 1,694 nucleotide positions previously identified as useful for this purpose revealed that the ancient Y. pestis genome differed from all 17 extant strains at only 2 of these positions for 3 of the 4 victims, while the fourth victim differed at 3 positions. This places the ancient strain from these victims into branch 1 Y. pestis. This finding suggests multiple strains were ravaging London at the time, or microevolutionary changes were occurring during the outbreak. Support for a microevolutionary mechanism was found when one nucleotide position known to be polymorphic in extant Y. pestis strains was found to also be polymorphic in a single victim, and between victims, from 660 years ago. Another 18 positions were found have sequence unique to the ancient genome and are not polymorphic in the extant strains, which could be of considerable interest because the ancient genome is suspected of being considerably more virulent.

One of the more interesting findings from the phylogenetic analysis is that all known Y. pestis strains probably derived from a common ancestor around the time this graveyard was used. This finding calls into the question the suggestion that earlier plagues in the 6th and 8th centuries were caused by Y. pestis.


The authors admit to the limitations of a capture technique that uses extant sequences. In addition, they claim to have been able to align only 93.48% with a minimum of one-fold coverage. While the sequencing and alignment of ancient Y. pestis sequence represents a remarkable feat, these limitations are significant enough that future studies will probably result in one or more revisions to the findings presented in this article.


Bos, Kirsten I., Schuenemann, Verena J., Golding, G. Brian,…… [read more]

Cheap Genomic Sequencing Research Paper

… Thus, at the same time that personalized genetic information will help to redefine certain categories of "disabled," it will ultimately force society to deal not only with standards regarding who controls personal genetic information, but what those individuals actually do with said information. This is a crucial subject for discussion, because it has bearing not on those who may suffer from a genetic predisposition towards a certain illness, but also those willing and able to augment their genetic code through therapy and treatment.

Again, while the idea of someone augmenting his or her self by altering his or her genetic code may seem more in the realm of science fiction than reality, in truth the potential for genetic manipulation is well within reach, because although "direct application of biotechnology to enhance a wide range of specific human traits and capacities in a safe and predictable manner is not proximate," medical advances are proceeding at such an exponential rate that genetic enhancement will likely be possible by the end of the decade (Lindsay, 2005, p. 3). However, just as one might "abuse" knowledge regarding his or her genetic information by opting to have a child specifically due to that child's likelihood for future suffering, personalized genetic information which leads to genetic enhancements might likewise be abused because "in the absence of government regulation, access to enhancements may be limited to the wealthy" such that "the wealthy will use their advantages in financial resources to acquire enhanced intellectual capacities, such as memory and analytical ability, and physical capacities, such as strength and endurance" which "will translate into even greater success in obtaining and maintaining desirable social goods, thus exacerbating existing inequalities" (Lindsay, p. 4). Thus, the potential for abuse of personalized genetic information lies not only with corporate or governmental agencies, but individuals as well. This is why, although individuals must maintain complete control over access to their personalized genetic information, what they actually do with that information will require some oversight, the parameters of which will undoubtedly be debated over the coming decades.

Personalized genetic information offers humanity the possibility to personalized and predictive healthcare, but like any disruptive and impressive development, it also carries with it the potential for abuse, by corporations, governments, and individuals. Thus, while individuals must be allowed to maintain complete control over who has access to their personalized genetic information, both to forestall unethical marketing or surveillance practices and the emergence of new, ostracized minority groups based on certain genetic markers, what individuals can actually do with that information must be regulated according to standards decided upon by society at large. This is the only way to ensure the continued rights of the individual to determine his or her own fate regardless of inherited attributes while prohibiting the infliction of intentional suffering on those yet to be born and the exacerbation of income inequalities due to genetic enhancement.


Acem, E. (2007). Legal expertise, scientific knowledge, and medical ethics at a crossroads.

Canadian Journal of Law… [read more]

Structure of JANN_2411( DUF14790) Article Review

… A high degree of conservation is observed for a number of positively charged residues (Arg143, Arg161, Arg165, Lys177, Arg182 and Arg184), suggesting that this region could present a nucleic acid binding site. Furthermore, residues 146 (a hydrophobic residue) and 167 (an aromatic residue) are highly conserved and could intercalate between the DNA bases. Based on the most conserved motif found in the C-terminal -helix in this family of proteins, we have named this domain the CGNR zinc finger. The actual amino-acid sequence in Jann_2411 is CQNR.

The dimer exists in quarternary form. Treble-clef zinc fingers are usually incorporated into larger structures and are found in proteins with a wide range of functions, many of which involve transcriptional regulation. Genes predicted to have functional associations with Jann_2411 in the STRING database ( include a transmembrane protein of unknown function (Jann_2410) and the transcriptional regulator Jann_2412, a member of the Asr gene family. The Asr gene family is widespread in higher plants and most members of this family are up-regulated under a range of environmental stress conditions; their products are thought to function as transcriptional regulators.

The molecular function of the ABATE domain remains elusive. However, given the prediction that the C-terminal domain binds DNA, then the N-terminal domain may allow the protein to act as a signal-dependent transcriptional regulator with the ABATE domain conferring sensitivity to some as yet undefined ligand. This combination of a DNA binding domain with a ligand-sensing domain is a prevalent form of regulation of operons in bacteria, such as the lactose or arabinose operons. Further analysis revealed that probably the ABATE domain evolved as a single unit as opposed to the gene-duplication event that might be suggested by the presence of two ABATE motifs.


The first structural representative of the DUF1470 family revealed a two-domain organization, with the N-terminal domain presenting a new fold and the C-terminal domain consisting of a treble-clef zinc finger. The structure additionally allowed a re-evaluation of the Pfam signature and the Pfam assignment and suggests a role for this family in stress-induced transcriptional regulation.

Works Cited

Bakolitsa C. et al. (2009) The structure of Jann_2411(DUF14790) from Jannaschia sp at 1.45 A resolution reveals a new fold ( the…… [read more]

Molecular Basis Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Introduction Chapter

… Sequencing reaction products were denatured for 5 min at 701C and separated on 6% polyacrylamide gels at 2500V for 2 -- 5 hr. The gels were dried and subjected to autoradiography. Alternatively, automated sequencing of the purified PCR products was… [read more]

Human Cloning the Debate Essay

… How many women would be willing to subject themselves to in vitro fertilization protocols to support a somatic cell nuclear transfer pregnancy, when the chance of success is between 1-2% (Gurdon and Melton, 1811)? The prevalence of first trimester miscarriages in cattle and sheep is between 50 and 70% (Palmieri et al., 865). Many of these failures result from the embryo failing to properly support placental development, and recent research has revealed that somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos and placenta have abnormal gene expression patterns (Campbell et al., 257). Many of the embryos that do reach term suffer from Large Offspring Syndrome, immature lungs, generalized weakness, immunodeficiencies, and high mortality rates. These defects are believed to result from disruptions in genomic imprinting, which is a biological mechanism that controls inherited patterns of gene expression essential for proper growth, development, and viability (Butler, 478).


The current state of cloning technology assures the success rate of any human cloning efforts would be dismal and fraught with countless miscarriages, birth abnormalities, and perinatal deaths. Unless we're willing to approach human reproduction in the same manner that we treat livestock reproduction, it seems unlikely that rational minds would be willing to consider human cloning as a viable medical procedure. This state of affairs provides a little breathing room so that the ethical and legal issues surrounding human cloning can be more fully addressed.


Butler, Merlin G. "Genomic imprinting disorders in humans: a mini-review." Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 26.9-10 (2009): 477-486. Web.

Campbell, Keith H.S., Alberio, Ramiro., Choi, Inchul., Fisher, Pat., Kelly, Richard D.W., Lee, Joon-Hee, Maalouf, W. "Cloning: Eight years after Dolly." Reproduction in Domestic Animals 40.4 (2005): 256-268. Web.

Gurdon, John. B. And Melton, Doug A. "Nuclear reprogramming in cells." Science 322.5909 (2008): 1811-1815. Web.

Palmieri, Chiara., Loi, Pasqualino., Ptak, Grazyna., Salda, Leanardo Della. "Review paper: A review of the pathology of abnormal…… [read more]

Eugenics Genetic Enhancement Term Paper

… [footnoteRef:5] Rapid technology driven process of genetic design may achieve meaningful group specific change without reproductive isolation. With genetic refinements accumulating in the laboratory instead of in biological lineages, the spread of gene modules would be through mimetic rather than… [read more]

Rapid Movement of the Modern Research Paper

… Limiting the location of the male sample and fully examining the genetic history might be some of the more glaring variables that need elimination.

De Iuliis' study seemed more conclusive regarding study of RF-EMR using in vitro specimens. However, because the subjects tested upon were mammalian cells, not necessarily human tissue, there are still a few variables that need tweaking. The use of male spermatozoa might heavily alter the studies indicated by looking at mammal reproductive tissue. The experimentation in the De Iuliis study, at least, has developed a better method in linking EMW to the degradation of human health.

What does become important in this study is the fact that with the increase of electromagnetic waves around the world, radiation is an ever-increasing concern. Radiobiology and the study of preventive measures would further help protect the population from the continuous hazard that the human body is endangering itself to. While the frequencies are still at minimal levels -- small enough not to be cause for worry -- the signs of detrimental DNA cannot be found. However, if the study of cell phone frequencies is any indication, prolonged use can certainly be one factor in fragmented DNA. Male infertility would only be one side effect, though the studies have also shown that this RF-EMR emission can lead to other more pressing neurodegenerative diseases, cancer being one of them.


Agarwal, Ashok, Deepinder, Fnu, Makker, Kartikeya. "Cell Phones and Male Infertility: Dissecting the Relationship." Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15.3 (2007): 266-70. RBM Online. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .

De Iuliis, Geoffry N., Rhiannon J. Newey, Bruce V. King, and R. John Aitken. "Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro." PLoS ONE. 31 July 2009. Web. 05 Mar. 2011.…… [read more]

Newcombe Experiment Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … mutation that most probably occurred was a spontaneous mutation. The data support the hypothesis that the mutations are present in the culture prior to exposure to the selective agent. The data found supports that the resistance mutations were spontaneous, meaning that the mutations in the bacteria culture occurred prior to the addition of the selective agent. Spontaneous mutations are standing mutations caused by factors other than the selective agent.

These data reprise the Newcombe experiment. The Newcombe experiment is an experimental technique used in determining whether mutations that make bacterial colonies resistant to virulent phages are spontaneous occurrences or whether exposure of the bacteria to the phage causes the resistance to arise in cells. In this experiment, bacteria are examined and the colony count of surviving colonies is counted. The plates used contained undiluted bacteria exposed to the selective agent, one plate being respread.

When respreading one of the plates and exposing the bacteria to the selective agent, the expected result, if the mutation in the bacteria causing resistance to the selective agent is spontaneous, is that the number of colonies on the respread undiluted colony plate would be higher than that of the original non-respread plates. The colony number would be expected to be higher because if the plates contain spontaneously resistant bacteria, respreading the plates would then disperse these resistant bacteria and when incubated new resistant colonies would form from these resistant bacteria.

From these experimental data, the colony count for the respread plates was higher than that of the non-respread. The mutant concentration on the non-respread undiluted plates was 11750 mutants/ml and 17360 mutants/ml on the respread undiluted E. coli plates.…… [read more]

Expression Profiling of a Novel Term Paper

… Nucleic Acids Research, 39, D225-D229. Published online November 24, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from

Mortensen, R.M. And Kingston, R.E. (2009). Selection of transfected mammalian cells. In F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith and K. Struhl (Eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Unit 9.5). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from

Rosenfeld, J., Capdevielle, J., Guillemot, J.C., and Ferrara, P. (1992). In-gel digestion of proteins for internal sequence analysis after one- or two- dimensional gel electrophoresis. Analytical Biochemistry, 203, 173-179.

Smith, S.L. (2008). Basic confocal microscopy. In F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith and K. Struhl (Eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Unit 14.11). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from

Tatsumi, K., Ohashi, K., Taminishi, S., Okano, T., Yoshioka, A. & Shima, M. (2008). Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR in regenerating mouse livers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 374, 106-110.

Xu, L., Ma, X., Cui, B., Li, X., Ning, G., and Wang, S. (2010). Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR in high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis mice model. Molecular Biotechnology, Published online ahead of print December 24, 2010.

Yan, F., Wu, X., Crawford, M., Duan, W., Wilding, E.E., Gao, L. et al. (2010). The search for an optimal DNA, RNA, and protein detection by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and solution-based methods. Methods, 52, 281-286.

Yokoyama, W.M. (2006). Production of monoclonal antibodies. In J.P. Robinson, Z. Darzynkiewicz, R. Hoffman, J. Nolan, P. Rabinovitch, and S. Watkins (Eds.), Current Protocols in Cytometry (Appendix 3J). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Stem-Cell Research Is Immoral Research Paper

… Ethics and Morality

Stem-Cell Research is Immoral

Stem cell research is a great debate subject, particularly for government representatives who are seeking reelection. Embryos that are only days old are frozen, and even though they are fertilized and can ultimately… [read more]

Comparative Study of the Alternation of Generation Between Mosses and Ferns Essay

… ¶ … Alternation of Generation between Mosses and Ferns

Literature Review Chapter Introduction

This section will be used to introduce the chapter which presents a review of the relevant scholarly and peer-reviewed literature to provide a general background concerning the… [read more]

Genetic Structure of Indigenous African Hunter-Gatherers Research Paper

… Gene

Following their abstract/introduction of their study, the authors described their selection of participants for their study of the genetic structure of the indigenous hunter-gatherer people of southern Africa. They based these choices for genome testing on the subject's linguistic group, the geographical location, and the Y-chromosome haplogroup representation. All the men were about 80 years old, from arid desert climates and geographically and within the distribution of the Khosian and Niger-Congo languages. Four indigenous hunter-gatherers were from Namibia and the Kalahari Desert, and each was the oldest member of his community. Northern Kalahari is the origin of three of these men, and Southern Kalahari is the origin of the fourth. Their language was Khoisan, which includes clicks for additional consonants. In the study, the participants were named KBI, NBI, TKI, and MD8. The Bantu subject, called ABT, was Archbishop Desmond Tutu from South Africa, representing the Sotho-Tswana and Nguni speakers. Tutu's Y chromosome was determined by genotyping and also by sequencing data from this study.

Because they expected the genomes of the subjects to diverge more from the human reference than from the publically-accessible genomes, the researchers tried to generate a genome sequence that would be of high-enough quality so it could be compared with both the human reference and de novo assembly. To achieve this, they sequenced the genome of each subject to high coverage, the sequence data were validated. Using the Phusion assembler, they created a de novo assembly.

The authors described their methods briefly and provided a Methods Summary. The article focused on their findings. All details are available in Supplementary Tables and Supplementary Information that are referenced in their article in Nature.

This style is suitable for a magazine like Nature, which publishes research in the natural sciences, including evolutionary biology, materials science, nanotechnology, genetics, and cancer research. It is read by scientists of many disciplines, who would be interested in the facts of studies on other disciplines, but would not be interested in the underlying statistics and details.


Single-nucleotide differences from the human reference genome assembly, or SNPs, were identified for the five southern African genomes and compared with those from eight available personal genomes. Here, the SNP does not include changes to a base, and there are no restrictions on the allele frequency in a population.

The large number of novel SNPs found in the study invites the question of whether the current genotyping arrays are able to capture the actual extent of genetic diversity and the haplotype structure of the hunter-gatherers in southern Africa. When researchers used current-content Illumina rays to assess the percentage heterozygosity for over 1 million autosomal SNPs, they found that subject KBI had lower heterozygosity than a European control subject in a matched region. This was a surprise because genetic diversity is highest in Africa. But an analysis of whole-genome sequencing data for participants KBI and ABT showed the expected high percentages of heterozygous SNPs. For KB1 it was 59% and it was 60% for ABT. This… [read more]

Benefits of Genetic Engineering Research Paper

… Genetic engineering is defined as a group of applied techniques of genetic and biotechnology that is used to cut up and join together genetic material, particularly DNA from one or more species of organism to promoted change in one or more of its characteristics. Unlike traditional breeding where genes are manipulated indirectly, genetic engineering employs molecular cloning and transformation to bring about the direct alteration of genetic characteristics and structure. Genetic engineering has been successfully employed various industries particularly the medical and agricultural ones (Fridell 37).

Genetic engineering can also be used to isolate genes, modify them in order to enable them function better, prepare genes to be inserted into a new species and also develop transgenes. Transgenic organisms are the ones which contain genes which have been altered and are from other organisms. Transgenics, the process, involves isolating the gene that is required from the other thousands of genes in the genome of the donor species gene-donor species. Once isolated, the gene is altered to enable it function in the host organism. It is combined with other genes in preparation for its introduction into the other organism whereby it becomes a transgene. A transgenic organism or chimera contains a transgene introduced into it through genetic engineering rather than by selective breeding.

Genetic engineering has played an important role in the agricultural field. Through transgenics, scientists develop organisms with traits that are rare to its species an example being developing of sunflowers that are mildew resistant and insect resistant cotton which in turn promote health through reduced use of insecticides and herbicides as well as making the food more nutritious. Transgenics have combinations that are either plant-animal-human combinations, animal-animal combinations or animal-human combinations (Glenn). Transgenic plants with human proteins are used to produce vaccines that are edible. The incorporation of human proteins into bananas, potatoes and tomatoes have enabled researchers create prototypes of vaccines that are edible and help in inoculation against hepatitis B, cholera and diarrhea which have proven successful in tests on agricultural animals and human subjects as well. Genetically modified foods can help in providing a solution for the problem of starvation by increasing the quantity whereby the characteristic of the species to enable it adapt to its environment and thereby increasing production. The quality of the food can also be increased through making it more nutritious an example being the developing of rice with heightened levels of vitamin a (Pimentel et al. 608).

Genetic engineering can enable reduce environmental degradation due to the amount of stress man puts on it in a bid to utilize naturally occurring resources. With trees being the most used resources, their genes can be altered to enable them grow faster, thereby being replaced as fast as they are used. They can also be altered to absorb more carbon dioxide and reduce the threats of global warming. An example of an animal-animal combination is whereby goats have had spider genes, responsible for the production of spider silk, introduced to them. Spider silk… [read more]

Chimerism in Humans Research Paper

… Chimerism in Humans

Chimerism comes from the term 'Chimera' which has been widely referenced in botanical regards for plants which have a couple or more tissues with dissimilar genetic arrangements. It results in an offspring which have two or more… [read more]

Mutation Breeding of in Vitro Grown Begonia Rex and Analysis of Morphological Data Research Proposal

… Mutation Breeding of in Vitro Grown Begonia Rex and Analysis of Morphological Data

The purpose of this study is to examine: (1) the wide spectrum of morphological variations induced by mutation breeding; (2) the effect of mutagenic agents (chemical mutagens)… [read more]

Current Health Care Issue as it Relates to Public Administration Thesis

… Political Influence Over Stem Cell Research

Stem cell science holds tremendous potential to benefit the human condition by providing potential cures for myriad diseases and traumatic injuries. Together with the data contributed by the successful decoding of the entire human… [read more]

Anti-Social Behavior Essay

… Anti Social Behavior

Personality is something that relates to one's predisposition to think, feel, and act in certain ways. Consequent to the formation of one's personality, his features will most probably remain the same across the respective individual's life. When concerning anti-social behavior, personality is a strong factor of influence. If one were to have a criminal-inclined personality, there is a big possibility that he or she would be inclined to perform criminal acts throughout their lives.

When concerning other factors which might lead to one behaving anti-social, personality is normally believed to have a smaller influence on the individual. However, emotionally instable people had been proved of being capable of displaying anti-social behavior. People's behavior is considered by the general public to be influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Various studies have proved that anti-social behavior is largely influenced by heredity, as genetics has been discovered to influence psychiatric outcomes.

Apparently, the surrounding environment can also manipulate a person into performing anti-social…… [read more]

Future of Human Evolution Thesis

… Genetic Load in Modern Humans

Especially given the concerns of over-population, the issue of saving human beings with genetically inherited (and therefore genetically passed on) diseases that untreated would be lethal appears to be growing in complexity. The issue has never been completely straightforward from a scientific viewpoint. Though medicine's primary goal is to improve the longevity and quality of life of individuals, it must also be concerned with the health of the human species and individual populations that comprise it. These two goals are often mutually achievable, but in the instance of genetic load, which refers to the number of lethal alleles (mutations/genetic coding at specific loci that cause fatal genetic diseases and defects) present in a population of a given species. In most cases that occur in nature, genetic load is kept relatively low without any effort: individual organisms that carry lethal alleles generally die before they are able to procreate, or at least have fewer offspring than those without the lethal allele, meaning that each successive generation will have each of that specific genetic disorder.

With human medicine and technology, however, many people with previously lethal genetic disorders are able to lead relatively normal lives, and can pass on their lethal alleles to their children. There is no doubt, then, that such practices increase the genetic load of the human species. This part of the issue is not up for debate, it is a logical fact. The more members of a species that survive to procreate nad pass on a lethal allele, the higher the presence of that allele will be in the next generation -- it's simple arithmetic. The question is whether or not this will have a negative impact on the evolution of the species and, if it is deemed that it will have such an impact, what can and should be done. Would it in fact be more ethical to let individuals with genetic disorders die to…… [read more]

Metaphysics Are We Free Thesis

… Metaphysics

The problem of freedom and determinism, or the problem of free will refers to a logical conundrum: if "all events are caused" then "how can any human actions…be free?" (p. 395). Determinism does not presuppose the existence of a God or some personal force that arbitrarily creates a fate. Rather, determinism implies that human beings might not be aware of the antecedent causes of future events. Possible futures are caused by definite pasts. Free will cannot change the past, but free will can arguably change the future.

However, the problem of free will can be extended even to the realm of thought. Determinism may suggest that human beings are pre-programmed to make certain decisions: programmed by "antecedent factors over which we have no control," (p. 395). Thus, determinism applies not just to external causes but also to internal ones. Human nature or personality can be considered part of a deterministic worldview. The problem of free will therefore poses serious problems related to moral responsibility. Determinism can be interpreted to mean that people are not responsible for their actions. If people are not responsible for their actions because they have no control over their ability to make decisions, then determinism calls into question issues of personal accountability and even justice. If people are responsible for their actions and have full free will, then the law of causality is itself called into question.

2. Hard determinism assumes that "every event has a cause and that this fact is incompatible with free will," (p. 401). Free will is posited to be an illusion, one that "we maintain out of our desire to punish and blame others for wrong doing and to congratulate ourselves for doing the right thing," (p. 401). Genetics and environmental factors determine human actions and behaviors, according to hard determinism. Human beings do make choices in the course of their lives, but those…… [read more]

Biology Dunne, Vanessa and Maselli, Ricardo Thesis

… Biology

Dunne, Vanessa and Maselli, Ricardo a. (2004). Common founder effect of rapsyn N88K studied using intragenic markers. The Japan Society of Human Genetics and Springer-Verlag. 8 June 2004.

Many researchers believe that the rapsyn N88K gene, which has links to the preponderance of congenital myasthenic syndrome, is derived from a common founder effect, much as many other singularly associated genetic mutations. To date no definitive answer has been found in other research in regard to this hypothesis, but the authors of this article believe that by the use and observation of intragenic markers they may prove this to be the case.

Common founder effect is the minimization of a particular gene pool that creates a particular type of genetic drifting. This drifting in founder effect is caused by a limited number of original organisms in a startup population creating a restricted gene pool for its future descendants to draws from. This smaller population has the effect upon the descendants of a reduced genetic variation from the larger original gene pool. This also has the effect of creating a non-random sample of the genes, as opposed ot the wide variety of effect in the larger population. Founder effect creates a situation closer to hardy-Weinberg equilibrium than would otherwise be found.

The authors study was comprised of "…six patients with symptoms of CMS since birth from six independent families who carried the N88K mutation. Three patients were homozygous for the mutation, and three were heterozygous and carried a second mutation (L14P, 46 insC, orY269X)" (Dunne, & Maselli, 2005, p.367). Although this was certainly a rather small sample the group consisted of member from various genetic backgrounds. Two of the families were from Spain, one family was from India and Hindu and the other three families were of northern European descent. For intragenic markers they chose used seven intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 8 kb to characterize the haplotype that is associated with N88K. They were searching to discover if there was a common haplotype associated with the N88K mutation, which would support the hypothesis that the creation of the genetic stream was assisted by the founder effect. The Congenital myasthenic syndromes are specific to certain hereditary traits:

Congenital myasthenic syndromes…… [read more]

Genographic Project Using Strictly Online Sources Essay

… ¶ … Genographic Project

A Summary Of The Project:

Its sponsors. The Genographic Project is a 5-year research partnership is headed by Dr. Spencer Wells, National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence (the Genographic Project 1). Dr. Wells in collaboration with a team of international scientists and IBM researchers are using state-of-the-art genetic and computational technologies in an effort to identify the historical patterns that can be discerned from DNA samples collected from participants around the world in an effort to better understand humanity's collective genetic roots. According to IBM, the project is "a landmark five-year study in partnership with the National Geographic Society, to gather and analyze the largest number of human DNA samples to map how the earth was populated" (IBM transforms the art of scientific expeditions, 2005, p. 2).

Its mission/goals. The National Geographic Society states that the Genographic Project is intended to identify new knowledge concerning the migratory history of the human species by using sophisticated laboratory and computer analysis of DNA; these samples are being contributed by hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world (the Genographic Project 2). Their Society's Web site notes that, "In this unprecedented and real-time research effort, the Genographic Project is closing the gaps of what science knows today about humankind's ancient migration stories" (the Genographic Project 2-3).

Its process.

The Project's general process is comprised of three fundamental elements as follows:

To gather field research data in collaboration with indigenous and traditional peoples around the world;

To invite the general public to join the project by purchasing a Genographic Project Public Participation Kit; and,

To use proceeds from Genographic Public Participation Kit sales to further field research and the Genographic Legacy Fund which in turn supports indigenous conservation and revitalization projects (the Genographic Project 3).

Although the findings of the project hold some enormous commercial potential, the sponsors insist that the results of their efforts will be used solely for non-project purposes that also avoid any specific medical applications. For instance, the sponsors note that, "The Project is anonymous, non-medical, non-political, non-profit and non-commercial and all results will be placed in the public domain following scientific peer publication" (the Genographic Project 3).

The project is being facilitated by donations of sophisticated data-collection tools from its co-sponsor, IBM. In this regard, Loughran (2005) reports that the systems being used for field data collection consist of T42 Thinkpad laptops equipped with a custom data-gathering application that was specifically developed by IBM and the Genographic Project's principal investigators and custom-built by IBM's emerging technologies team (1). According to this author, "Research sites around the world are being equipped with specialized software to help researchers collect genetic data in remote locations and synchronize it with the master data repository" (Loughran 1-2). The customized field software captures the "context" data of DNA samples on a given expedition. it's designed so that dozens of languages and regions are acknowledged while cross populating other fields with related data, making collecting for a group of people in the same… [read more]

Human Cloning Is a Controversial Subject Research Proposal

… Human cloning is a controversial subject in today's world and for good reason. In a UNESCO report published in 2005 it is related that cloning" may seem to be a relatively recent laboratory phenomenon, but the word itself derives from… [read more]

Nothing Term Paper

… Cloning

What is cloning? The simple explanation: Cloning or nuclear transplantation or somatic cell nuclear transfer involves removing the nucleus (containing a cell's DNA) from an egg cell, and transplanting the DNA from an adult cell into the enucleated egg. The egg is shocked into simulating of fertilization. When the fertilized egg is implanted into the uterus, it has the potential to develop into a full organism. This organism has the same DNA as the donor of the adult cell. The organism would be an exact copy of the adult -- at least biologically. This is "reproductive cloning." (Benagiano & Primiero, 2002)

People have come on different sides of the philosophical divide when the topic of human cloning is brought up. (Goodnough, 2003) Dolly the sheep was the first mammal cloned (Wilmut et al., 1997) -- Dolly is now dead. Recently the Raelian's (who believe that they have descended from aliens) made claims to have cloned (Tomasch, 2002) the first human baby. These unsubstantiated claims are fodder for sensationalism.

While most bio-ethicists, among them, Leon Kass (former President Bush's appointee) and Professor Glenn McGee at the University of Pennsylvania have come against human cloning…… [read more]

Genome Human Cloning Term Paper

… Genome Human Cloning

Human Cloning

Cloning is the set of techniques applied to build an identical genetic duplicate of a different cell, tissue or a living organism. The material that has been copied having the identical genetic constitution is normally… [read more]

Double Helix by James Watson Term Paper

… ¶ … Double Helix

The book the Double Helix has one true hero, one main protagonist, of course, and that is James Watson. But others, including me, Dr. Linus Pauling, have had something to do with making Watson's project a success, and several of us worked hard at keeping things moving in the right direction. Discovering the secret to DNA, for Watson, was an event that put him on the list of great scientific discoveries and into history. I have my own scientific credentials, of course; I won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 due to my advocacy for the dangers of nuclear testing, and for my part in the nuclear disarmament movement; and earlier, in 1954, I was fortunate to have won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

In the same year I won the Peace Prize, 1962, Watson won the Nobel Prize in Physiology - along with two of his colleagues - for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material." I had a great time long after we had first met kidding Watson about the fact that he shared his Nobel Prize with two other scientists; my Nobel Prize in Chemistry was mine alone but I poked fun at him in a friendly way.

Meanwhile, back in 1951 I had discovered important links to the structure of proteins and had made my presentation to the public and the press in Geneva, Switzerland. When Watson and I met, we both kidded each other in a friendly way of men teasing one another. Watson kidded me about the way I make presentations saying in he was going to accuse me of being a Hollywood showman in his book that he would some day write. Hey, I was just trying to make the structure of proteins interesting for the people in attendance, including the press, many of whom wouldn't know a protein from a pickle. Or a pear, for that matter.

But in any event, what I really enjoyed doing was helping to get people excited about chemistry, about science, about making discoveries. Watson was the kind of scientist who could get depressed. I told him his dreams of being famous were leading him down the wrong road. I said he should dream of the good his discoveries would do for the world and for the people who would benefit if science one day could fully understand the macromolecule. I always encouraged James Watson to remember this: don't get too high and excited…… [read more]

Nurture vs. Nature Term Paper


Human beings and other so-called "higher" forms of biological life are products of their environments in many respects. Exposure to certain environmental factors and being reared under certain circumstances can influence the direction of many types of behavior. At the same time, the field of genetics demonstrates conclusively that inheritance also determines much of the development of everything from fundamental aspects of personality to the most superficial habits, likes, and dislikes.

Twin studies have proven particularly useful in examining the respective roles of nature and nurture in that identical twins separated at birth and reared separately under the influence of entirely different external environments. The fact that identical twins, by definition, share the same genetic predispositions makes each of them, in scientific experimental terms, a control for the other. In that respect, the most fascinating observations arise in situations where identical twins are separated at birth and raised separately, only to exhibit identical behaviors in the realm of things not usually considered to have genetic components at all (Henslin, p.59).

On the other hand, various examples of some of the most extreme forms of deviant social behavior in humans have been linked very directly to specific types of formative experiences and deprivations, particularly in the case of certain criminal behavior of the type catalogued by criminal profilers (Macionis, p.192). Few doubt that elements of both nature and nurture contribute to behavioral development, but the interplay and respective roles played by each still fascinates psychological researchers and lay observers alike.


One need look no further than at parents and their biological children to recognize the profound influence of genetics between successive generations: tall parents tend to have tall children, intelligent parents tend to have intelligent children, and the rules of genetic inheritance is so precise that it allows us to predict with accuracy the results of combining specific genetic contributors of genes known to be associated with traits that are dominant or recessive with respect to various physical traits such as eye color and color blindness (Gerrig & Zimbardo, p.112).

Behavioral traits are also dramatically influenced by genetic inheritance, although they often take much longer to reveal themselves, in addition to being more susceptible to subjective observation: whereas an individual's eye color is readily apparent on simple observation, more complex aspects of behavior are often more difficult to quantify definitively. Nevertheless, that genetic inheritance contributes to behavior, irrespective of external influences is uncontroverted.


The influence of external environmental factors on behavior is well documented both in human beings as well as in other organisms. Infant primates raised by secure, confident, dominant mothers tend to exhibit calm, secure interactions with their peers and to assume high status positions within their primate communities. Likewise, infant primates raised by insecure, fearful, and tense mothers tend to exhibit tense, insecure interactions with their peers and to adopt subservient positions within their communities that approximate their mothers' relative status within the hierarchical group social structure (Macionis, p.117).

Interplay Between Nature… [read more]

Astrocytic Tumors Brain Term Paper

… Astrocytic Tumors

Brain tumor is one of the most lethal forms of cancers with more than 13,000 deaths every year in the United States. Though we are still a long way from developing medical interventions that promise total recovery, advancements… [read more]

Democratic Revolutions and the Role of the Married Woman in a Democracy Term Paper

… Predictive, Forensic, And Carrier

Genetic Testing: Forensic, Predictive And Carrier

This work seeks to examine genetic testing in the light of the potential contribution of genetic testing specifically in the area of forensic testing, predictive testing, and carrier testing. Genetic testing is beneficial in today's society as both a technological and social adaptation improving information related to crime investigation and evidence and in the area of prediction of genetically inherited diseases for prevention and early detection of these diseases. According to the American Cancer Society, "recent scientific advances have allowed researcher to identify a growing number of genetic alterations that may indicate predisposition for developing cancer or other diseases. The ultimate goal of genetic testing research is the development of clinical applications for risk assessment, early detection and appropriate interventions for individual risk reduction and disease prevention." (2007)


Genetic testing is also referred to as 'gene testing' and 'DNA tests' and is a process by which the individual's DNA is examined. DNA is the material which genes are composed of which serve to determine the specific characteristics of living things. DNA determines the individual's features and as well, genetic testing has the capacity to detect particular genes in terms of whether they are present, absent, or altered and specifically in detection of chromosome abnormalities through laboratory testing.


The work of Jacobs (1997) relates the potential sues of genetic screening and testing techniques in a work published in the Occupational Medical Journal. Jacobs relates."..appropriate biotechnology has produced the capability of linking identifiable genetic structures with particular effects. In turn, this raised the possibility of modifying genetic instructions to overcome health problems. DNA analysis also has applications in forensic science, enables us to study current health risks, and also to discover the health status of preceding generations from human remains, and to pursue the genetic origins of disease leading to prevention or cure." (1997; p.367) Additionally genetic testing has enabled the detection of mutation of genes due to exposure to radiation or chemicals." (Jacobs, 1997; paraphrased; p.368)


Guidelines for genetic testing proposed in 2003 by ten genetic-medicine-related societies focused toward incorporation of genetic testing into clinical practice resulted in the creation of guidelines concerning genetic testing for the purposes of: (1) clinical diagnosis; (2) carrier detection; (3) presymptomatic diagnosis; (4) disease susceptibility estimation; (5) pharmacogenetic diagnosis; (6) prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism." (Guidelines for Genetic Testing, 2003) Carrier testing is conducted when "there is in a family a patient with autosomal recessive, X-linked recessive or unbalanced chromosomal translocation" for determining whether those being examined are carriers and if their offspring might be affected with the same disorder. (Guidelines for Genetic Testing, 2003; paraphrased) Genetic testing for prediction of disorders includes "presymptomatic testing that is almost completely predictable for the development of a single-gene disorder, and susceptibility testing that estimates the predisposition to a multifactorial disease or its risk." (Guidelines for Genetic Testing, 2003)… [read more]

Psychology the Human Genome Building Term Paper

… Psychology

The Human Genome

Building on the Celera Genome" discusses the race to completely decode the human genome. A government-funded consortium of higher education centers decoded the genome in 2003, but another scientist, J. Craig Venter, announced he decoded a new version of the genome that many people think is more complete than the original. Venter calls his version a "full," or "diploid genome," and it contains the DNA in both sets of chromosomes, one from each parent, and it is the most common genome found in the human body. His research is more thorough than other methods, and so it gives more complete and valuable results to scientists and researchers. In fact, he used his own DNA for the research, so the results point to problems that could surface in his own behavior and health. The articles also gives a brief history of Dr. Venter, including how he became interested in research, and how some researchers are critical of his methods and results. He has written a book about his experiences, called "A Life Decoded," and he posts his genome research on the Internet, so other scientists can benefit from his research and understanding.

Venter's research also shows there can be many more variations in the human genome than previously thought - even abnormalities such as the same gene exists in many copies, or inversions, where the DNA is inserted in the gene upside down. Since there are more variations than initially thought, this research opens up all kinds of areas for additional research, including psychology.

The genome is still largely not understood, but the variants discovered could play a large role in psychological research and diagnosis in the future, since many of the variations can lead to diseases and conditions. For example, Dr. Venter believes that the variants can lead to the risk of alcoholism, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, antisocial…… [read more]

Wound Healing in Plant Cells Term Paper

… Wound Healing in Plant Cells

The Current study will attempt to further clarify and utilize Arabidopsis thaliana in studying wound healing in plants as well as the most effective means in studying the process. Root hairs are not essential for… [read more]

Epidemiology Gulf War Syndrome Term Paper

… Epidemiology

Gulf War Syndrome

This refers to a wide range of illnesses and symptoms, from asthma to sexual dysfunction, reported by and among U.S. allied soldiers who served in the Persian Gulf War in 1990-1991 (Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine 2001).… [read more]

Anti-Genetic Engineering for Beauty Purposes but Pro-Genetic Engineering for Resolving Disease Term Paper

… ¶ … Genetic engineering should be permitted in certain cases

Because we can.' This must not be science's credo, at least when dealing with the implications inherent in the technology of genetic engineering. Instead, science must do what it can… [read more]

Cloning Today Man Has Progressed Term Paper

… Cloning

Today man has progressed so much in the field of science that it has claimed to possess the power and knowledge to duplicate any living organism. In the year 1997, scientists at the Roslin Institute, Scotland, announced that they… [read more]

Human Manipulation Y Term Paper

… As the spider goats illustrated, genetic engineering can lead to new products that will help make life easier for all of us. Behind most of the apprehension about human genetic manipulation is the fear of human cloning. If a Rheseus monkey, in which 95% of the genes are similar to humans can be genetically altered to glow in the dark like a jellyfish, then why not a human? Would a cloned human have a soul?. What would be the legal ramifications? However, the issues involving animal genetic manipulation and human manipulation are two different questions requiring different answers. As of now, under our present system of jurisprudence, animals do not have any constitutionally protected rights; hence, genetic engineering is not illegal per se. Whether human manipulation of biological information is ethically wrong depends upon your view of the relationships between animal and humans. Some people believe that animals have souls; hence, human beings have an obligation to treat animals with fellow creatures. However, some people believe that animals do not have souls; hence, man have the right to genetically alter animals for human purposes.… [read more]

Nature and Nurture a Study Term Paper

… Studies including identical and fraternal twins as well as siblings will therefore be revealing with regard to the nature/nurture debate. The groups can then be compared to determine to which degree the environment influenced their differences and genetics their similarities.

3. Current studies regarding this issue are inconclusive. However, it appears that it is impossible to disregard the effect of genes on behavior. Separated twins that have been studied for example display traits such as specific preferences in brand of cigarettes or marriage partner. Furthermore coincidences like timing of miscarriages and falling down stairs have also been documented (Neimark, 1997). It therefore appears that nature has a much bigger influence than might at first have been supposed, while the effect of nurture serves merely to supplement the strong influence of genetics.


Holden, Constance. (September 1987). "Genes and Behavior: A twin legacy." In Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers Inc. Online database:

Neimark, Jill. (August-September 1997). "Nature's clones - research on twins." In Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers Inc. Online…… [read more]

Genetic Engineering the Objective of Any Discovery Term Paper

… Genetic Engineering

The objective of any discovery should be the development of knowledge to improve the general condition of mankind, but now the entire process of discovery, supported through patents seems to be only an exercise for the financial benefit… [read more]

Stem Cell Research Genetic Engineering, Genetic Modification Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research

Genetic engineering, genetic modification, and gene splicing are terms used for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, generally outside the organism's normal reproductive process (Genetic pp). This usually involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA into model organisms, most often to express a protein, in order to introduce new characteristics to an organism that will increase its usefulness, such as increasing the crop yield of a species, introducing a novel characteristic or producing a new protein or enzyme (Genetic pp). Examples are the production of human insulin through the use of modified bacteria and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the "OncoMouse," cancer mouse, for research, through genetic redesign (Genetic pp). One of the most well-known application of genetic engineering is the creation of genetically modified organisms (Genetic pp). There are potentially profound biotechnology application of genetic modification, such as oral vaccines that are produced naturally in fruit at very low cost (Genetic pp).

Genetic engineering has become the gold standard in protein research, and major research process has been made using a wide variety of techniques, including loss of function, such as in knockout experiment, in which an organism is engineered to lack one or more genes (Genetic pp). Such an experiment involves creation and manipulation of a DNA construct in vitro, which consists of a copy of the desired gene which has been altered to cripple its function (Genetic pp). Then the construct is taken up by embryonic stem cells where the copy of the gene replaces the organism's own gene (Genetic pp).

Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into numerous different cell types within the body serving as a repair system in which they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive (Stem pp). Whenever a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a red blood cell, brain cell, or muscle cell (Stem pp). Stem cell research continues to learn how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms, leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease, a field referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine (Stem pp).

Stem cells contain two important characteristics that distinguish them from other types of cells:

First, they are unspecialized cells that renew themselves for long periods through cell division.

The second is that under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become cells with special functions such as the beating cells of the heart muscle or the insulin- producing cells of the pancreas (Stem pp).

Primarily, scientists work with two types of stem cells from animals and humans, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells (Stem pp).

More than two decades ago, scientists discovered ways to obtain or derive stem… [read more]

Jungsik Yoo at Times Admission Essay

… I have concluded that the hands-on clinical experience only provided by a medical school education is necessary for me to fulfill the essential experiential element that is crucial to my future desired knowledge base and scope of research. Only medical school will provide me with critical experience that will give my research the desired added practical and human value.

At the end of my education, I hope to become a research doctor who combines clinical research in his study of genetic diseases. I seek to provide the science of genetics with a human face for it is, ultimately, the study of the human body, mind, and 'wiring' in the form of the human genetic code. I been the recipient of a 'Sensory Neuroscience Training Grant '(SNTG) fellowship funded by National institute of health (NIH) since the fall of 2004. Thus I am well aware of the critical role genetics plays in public health of the nation as well as of the field of medical science, because of this generous grant, and I will strive to add to this knowledge in all of my future research.

Also, as a T.A. over the past two years, I have gleaned further knowledge of the curiosity of students for 'in the field' research. I have been grateful to have this human element present even in my PhD education. I am also proud to say I have not merely have received excellent reviews from my students, but joined them in many intramural soccer games, one of my favorite pursuits of my college years. I was not given the genetic gift, sadly, of becoming a great sports star, but I do believe that it is encoded in my own personal biology to bring a vital element of clinical humanity to the important work being done in the field of genetic research.… [read more]

Against Human Cloning Term Paper

… The issue of lineage becomes more problematic when a third person's DNA is used in lieu of an anonymous embryo donation. In this example, the couple will gestate and rear a child with whom they have no genetic connection. The party who consents to be cloned will have a later born genetic twin with whom s/he has no rearing or social relation. The genetic parents of the donor child will likewise have. no rearing or social connection with the clone of their offspring ( Keough, 2003)."


Cloning is a topic that is currently heating up on the debate circuit. At first glance cloning looks like a positive step in medical science, as it will allow the parts to be grown that will save lives. The problem however, is that the eventual goal is to be able to create designer gene babies. The financial ability to pay for a baby will determine who gets the best grades, the scholarship for sports and the best looks. This will create an extremely unfair world to those who grow up with a standard basis for creation. Cloning is going to disrupt the entire system of mankind and should not be allowed to happen.


Bono steps into stem cell debate with anti-cloning bill

Gannett News Service; 4/28/2005; DOUG ABRAHMS

Gannett News Service


What You're Not Being Told About Cloning

Popular Science; 12/1/2003; Dawn Stover; John Charles Kunich

Popular Science


The Capital Times (Madison, WI); 4/23/2005; Lillis, Mike

Byline: Mike Lillis The Capital Times/Medill News Service

All in…… [read more]

Start Off With an Introductory Term Paper

… ¶ … start off with an introductory section defining as to what is meant by cloning, background information on cloning, and its relevance to the field of business, timeline and history of cloning and the different types of cloning and… [read more]

Cloning? Cloning Is the Exact Term Paper

… He opined that the cloning technology was not 'evil' as stated by some individuals, nor was it morally wrong, as looked at by some others. Therefore, imposing restrictions and banning it would serve no good purpose other than create a… [read more]

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Term Paper

… Biology

The Invader Within Eukaryotic organisms are defined by the existence of organelles within the cell format. Two of the most important of these organelles are chloroplasts and mitochondria. Both organelles serve to manufacture energy within the cell; the chloroplast uses sunlight in this reaction, while the mitochondria does not. Together these organelles are unique in that they, of all the organelles, have their own DNA separate from the nucleic DNA, and are confined within double (triple, or quad) membranes, which show a unique inversion. Because of the unique structure and purpose of these organelles, several theories have arisen considering how they may have developed. The best of these, the endosymbiosis hypothesis, suggests that mitochondria and choloroplasts were originally independent single cell organisms that were incorporated into larger cells where they survived in a symbiotic fashion before eventually becoming so integrated into cell functioning that they were neither independent nor disposable.

Before analyzing the most successful theory, one ought to quickly analyze less respectable theories. Apart from the research originating with Margulis or the deistic claims of creationists, it appears the next-best theory is that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved "step-wise" (Armstrong) by elaborating on existing structures within the cell. This is the autogenesis hypothesis. Such a hypothesis appears to be feasible for many organelles, such as the cell nucleus. However, when tested against the evidence, this hypothesis has significant flaws. For example, if organelle developed within the cell, then the cytoplasm of the organelle should be similar to that of the cell, its membranes should be compatible with other cell membranes, and there should be evidence of intermediate forms. All of these things appear in the case of the nucleus, and there are a number of organisms with "intermediate nuclear organizations." (Armstrong) However, in the case of mitochondria and chloroplasts, none of these signs are found. Mitochondria not only have different ribosome sizes than surrounding cytoplast, they also can reproduce independently, cannot be reproduced by the cell spontaneously, and are never found in intermediate stages. This seems a major flaw to the autogenesis hypothesis.

The endosymbiosis theory, on the other hand, seems to stand up to further research and experimentation. This theory points to the fact that bacteria are capable of entirely encompassing other bacteria, forming symbiotic relationships with them, and maintaining them alive within their own structures. This has…… [read more]

Cloning Term Paper

… ." We worry that the market for women's eggs that would be created by this research will provide unethical incentives for women to undergo health-threatening hormone treatment and surgery. We are also concerned about the increasing bio-industrialization of life by… [read more]

Cloning Is No Longer Term Paper

… However, for this to proceed, therapeutic cloning must distance itself further from reproductive cloning (Butler Pp). Robin Lovell-Badge, head of developmental genetics at the National Institute for Medical Research in London, feels that this should not be a problem, "You can get to the blastocyst stage without stringent reprogramming, but to go on to the stem-cell line stage is harder, you need a lot more genes to be programmed correctly" (Butler Pp).

With fresh competition from overseas scientists, such as South Korea who reportedly cloned human embryos in 2003, U.S. cloning advocates are highlighting the boosts that the technology could give to the American research community and to economic development (Munro Pp). In January 2004, the New Jersey Legislature approved a law banning cloning to create a live person, yet allowing cloning of human embryos for research purposes (Munro Pp). This legislation "will encourage collaboration, investment, and the building of centers that, at least in part, use human-embryo stem cells," says Im Black of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (Munro Pp). In February, the governor of New Jersey requested $6.5 million in state funds to create a new stem-cell research center, saying it "will put New Jersey at the forefront of medical and pharmaceutical research in the nation" (Munro Pp).

A group of scientists and parents of sick children in California are promoting a proposed ballot initiative that would steer some $3 billion into the field over the next ten years (Munro Pp). The campaign argues that the research could cure millions and save billion of dollars in health care costs, and moreover, create projects and jobs that will generate millions of dollars in new tax revenues for our state" (Munro Pp). This focus on research and economic benefits is due to the difficulty of developing successful therapies that use cloned and transplanted stem cells, which has resulted in discouraged investors and forced many U.S. cloning companies to cut their research staffs or even close their doors, says Robert Lanza, of Advanced Cell Technologies in Worcester, Massachusetts (Munro Pp). "They have a mind of their own and can become a hodgepodge of cells" says Lanza, and the quality standards for transplanted cells "have to be foolproof" (Munro Pp). However, as Lanza points out, venture capitalists want a product in a year or two, yet realistically it would be five to ten-year before a therapy is available using stem-cell transplants (Munro Pp). Cloning done for research purposes, as opposed to research for stem-cell transplant, can generate short-term revenue for cloning companies, and "this is going to help us in drug discovery," according to Lanzo (Munro Pp).

The debate on cloning appears to be a matter of semantics. Although most would agree that cloning to create a live human being could have diabolical consequences, there seems to be little doubt that the technology could indeed save millions of lives and billions in health care costs, as well as generating an economic industry. Whether it is called nuclear transfer… [read more]

Therapeutic Cloning for Leukimia Term Paper

… By injecting embryonic cells with healthy genes, it is possible to manipulate DNA and eliminate specific defective genes that are known to cause cancer (Kaku, 1997). Ultimately, stem cell research and cloning technology have the potential to cure practically all cancers at the genetic level, but current legislation strictly prohibits practically all of the necessary research to apply cloning technology to human medicine and any federal funding of research on new stem cell lines.

Ethical Analysis and Conclusion:

The last decade of the twentieth century witnessed some of the most incredible advances in the biological sciences since Watson and Crick first detailed the basic structure of the DNA helix in 1953. In vitro fertilization had already been achieved by 1978, but when British researchers actually succeeded in cloning a sheep from a single adult sheep cell, it ignited both the hopes of medical researchers as well as furious protests on the ethics of human cloning. Combined with the early completion of the Human Genome Project, stem cell research and cloning technology now represent the potential for incredible advances in the medical treatment of countless other diseases such as Alzheimer's, Diabetes, Parkinson's, Sickle Cell Anemia, not to mention reversing traumatic paralysis and (eventually) providing entire new organs for the thousands of patients who die every year while waiting for donor organs which are perpetually in short supply.

In 1997, the Clinton Administration hastily prohibited all research into human cloning science, primarily out of (rightful) concern over the prospect of irresponsible attempts by unscrupulous researchers to capitalize on the economic (or publicity) potential of cloning an actual human being before it is medically responsible and ethical to do so.

Medical ethicists are united in the view that cloning a human being in the manner that Dolly the sheep was cloned would be extremely irresponsible. On the other hand, they are similarly united in the position that many avenues of research of human cloning technology represent the potential to cure some of the most devastating and previously incurable diseases. In the opinion of this writer, it is completely unnecessary to prohibit the development of these valuable treatments for diseases such as Leukemia and other cancers, merely in order to prevent the irresponsible cloning of an actual human being, since the vast majority of research derived from cloning technology involves merely the manipulation of embryonic cells in a petrii dish without ever permitting any of those embryos to develop into a complete organism (Krock, 2001).

The Bush administration severely undermined beneficial medical research into crucial stem cell and cloning-based therapeutic applications by prohibiting federal funding on research on any new cell lines, despite the fact that the NIH has admitted that most of the existing cell lines have already mutated and degenerated to the extent that they are essentially unusable for research purposes.

Ultimately, legislative obstacles to valuable and necessary research capable of developing cures for Leukemia and other cancers is absolutely inconsistent with the principles of medical ethics as well as with U.S.… [read more]

Ethics of Human Cloning Genetic Term Paper

… What is required to ensure the welfare of society are laws that prohibit only the unethical misuses of new technology, without unnecessarily interfering with the uncontroverted applications of scientific progress that improve human health and well-being.


Bronowski, J. (1965) Science and Human Values.

Harper & Row: New York

Horgan, J. (1997) The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age. Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass

Ladd, J. Ed. (1979) Ethical Issues Related to Life and Death.

Oxford University Press: New York

Kaku, M. (1997) Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century.

Doubleday: New York

Krock, L. (xxxx) On Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed July 23, 2004, at

Ramsey, P. Shall We "Reproduce"? The Medical Ethics of In Vitro

Fertilization. (JAMA, vol. 220, no. 10, Jun/72)

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York

Sagan, C. (1996) The Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Random House: New York

Soares, C. Why Human Clones…… [read more]

River Out of Eden Term Paper

… As he says, "Before Darwin, even educated people who had abandoned "Why" questions....still implicitly accepted the legitimacy of the "Why" question where living creatures were concerned. Now only the scientifically illiterate do. But 'only' conceals the unpalatable truth that we… [read more]

Eugenics Matt Ridley's Opinions Term Paper

… But, unfortunately, policies turned into a human-rights catastrophe: the rejection of many immigrants, the sterilization of many people whose only crime was to have below-average intelligence, and eventually, in Germany, the extermination of millions of people. Societal genetics are impossible to prevent because of the social norms and harsh governments that exist in many countries. Ridley appears to be too optimistic on this topic, stating that China is the only country that still preaches eugenics for the good of society. However, as population levels swell, poor and desperate countries could easily be inclined to turn to societal eugenics as a solution. Other countries can exert only so much influence on foreign governments and it's easy to imagine the unconstrained increase in societal eugenics, particularly as technology advances make it easier to implement.

Ridley, Matt. "The New Eugenics: Better Than the Old." National Review 31…… [read more]

Ability to Study of Human Term Paper

… The audience is now awake and definitely waiting for more information. Their interest in the topic is further increased by adding mystery element to it: "people are afraid of the information we will find, they will keep us from finding it." The author's style is simple yet highly effective. He doesn't let the audience get lost in the ambiguity of scientific terminologies. He uses simple language to make his audience feel comfortable in his presence. He wants to them to be able to relate to him and therefore in paragraph 13, he cashes in on their emotions when he says: "I am a concerned parent for whom things have not gone completely right."

Through the essay he focuses more on why Human Genome project must be supported and less on what exactly it is. It is the 'why' question that he keeps his attention focused on. He tries to convince his audience why they need to know about human genome. There are numerous instances, which tell us that 'why' is indeed important to the author and his audience. Since health is a major issue of concern with most Americans, the author declares that learning more about human genome is crucial to "improve American health." He then goes to explain how DNA examination can help in eradication of diseases and minimize "terrible human affliction."

Watson is also aware of the audience's fears. He knows that his audience is scared of too much intrusion in their lives and therefore develops a tactic to address them. He tries to create a direct link with his audience when he addresses their fears and reassures them that he too believes that no one "should have access to anyone else's DNA fingerprints."

In the end, he reiterates his thesis and again makes his purpose and stance absolutely clear. The audience is reminded of the core purpose of the essay in the last paragraph when Watson says: "We have to convince our fellow citizens somehow that there will be more advantages to knowing the human genome than not knowing it." this helps in leaving a lasting impact and the audience leaves with a clear idea of what the…… [read more]

Therapeutic Cloning Recent Years Term Paper

… Another counter to therapeutic cloning is the possibility of alternative methods to reaching the same goal, methods such as the use of adult stem cells or even the use of stem cells from umbilical cord blood have no moral stigma… [read more]

Phenotype, Genotype, Systematics, Sporangium, Archegonium Term Paper

… Every speck of tissue visible to the eye carries hundreds or thousands of these genetic representations in the chromosomes of its cells. Moreover, they do not merely describe but are part of an elaborate cellular machinery to cause a body part to develop the form of those descriptions.

The genotype is the full complement of the genetic information repeated exactly in every body cell. It is a major determinant of the phenotypic attributes of the organism, which is why an egg laid by a hen hatches as a chick instead of a duckling. But, genes are not exclusively responsible for a person's phenotype. In general phenotypic traits are specified or "determined" by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The way genes interact with the environment is complex. One popular conceptualization is that the genotype specifies potential for a person's traits or abilities and the environment determines how fully that potential is reached. Another view is that genes and the environment have additive effects the final phenotype reflecting the sum of a myriad of genetic and phenotypic influences.

In what ways can systematics preserve biodiversity?

Systematic biology, the study of inferring evolutionary patterns, and discovering, describing, and classifying the diversity of past and present life. Systematics provides a basis for biodiversity conservation priorities. With increasing pressures from a growing world population and resulting pressure on biotic resources, we now and in the future have to make difficult decisions about what parts of the Earth will be maintained in a "natural" state in order to conserve the biodiversity present there. How do we decide, given limited resources, which to protect? If we decide that we want to maximize biodiversity, then… [read more]

Ethics of Human Cloning Term Paper

… A woman carrying a cloned child risks the effects of hormone manipulation and possible multiple miscarriages. A potential child faces the possibility of severe physical and developmental abnormalities.

Potential Social Harm

Critics of cloning also believe that cloning technology has… [read more]

Scientist Cannot Simply Do "Pure Term Paper

… When scientists have tried to collect the blood of certain indigenous peoples, in order to study the unique idiosyncracies of their genome, the people have often protested violently. Some felt their blood was being stolen, and they would not reap the economic benefit -- instead, the corporations and drug companies sponsoring the university research would make the money. Native Americans, for instance, have protested that scientists want to patent their genes to make money. Though this is a simplistic understanding, to some extent, they are correct.

Though scientists may think of themselves as purists, and may simply want to do their "pure" research in their laboratories, studying genetically isolated populations to help further life-saving research or simply to better understand our history and past, they must not and cannot operate in an ivory tower. That is because their science, sooner or later, will leave that ivory tower. Science will be applied. The fact is, genetic anthropology often intersects very meaningfully with society. One genetic study found that a black, Christian tribe in South Africa named the Lemba was correct in its claim that its members were descended from Jews known as kohanim -- priests said to be direct descendents of Moses and Aaron. This turned a legend into genuine history -- astonishing Jews. Another study found that enalapril, a standard treatment for chronic heart failure, was less helpful to blacks than to whites, because blacks metabolized the drug differently. As a result, drug companies may end up developing new medications that work better for certain groups than others.

Clearly, science operates in the real world -- even when it is based on truly "pure" ideals. Thus all scientists must understand the implications of their science, and actively support not only research, but the ethical use of scientific findings in their…… [read more]

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