"Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays

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Life Science Current Event Report Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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1)? Before pulling out sabretooth tiger remains, scientist started small. They had hypothesized that they could create live cloned animals using cells from dead, frozen specimens. This hypothesis was tested during an experiment using mice that had been frozen for 16 years. Earlier experiments had been conducted to prove this hypothesis, but those mice had been frozen using chemicals to keep the cells safe from the cold elements. While the earlier experiments were successful, the latest experiment was designed to see if cloned mice could be created from unprotected frozen cells (Anonymous, 2008).

The ultimate goal from this research is to work towards finding a way to regenerate extinct animals. Obviously any frozen woolly mammoths that archeologists find will not have been treated with preservative chemicals. The latest experiment was successful. New mice were cloned using the 16-year-old untreated frozen mice cells. The scientists "generated embryonic stem cells using nuclei harvested from [frozen] mice… then transferred nuclei from the stem cells into unfertilized eggs that had their nuclei removed" (Anonymous, 2008, para. 2).

Multiple mice received the eggs and successfully gave birth to live, healthy babies. If scientists can clone animals using frozen cells, they may even be able to create cloned animals from DNA extracted from fossils. Jurassic Park may one day be a reality instead of science fiction. This experiment was just an early step in a much lengthier research process (Anonymous, 2008).

Relating Scientific Progress to Everyday Life

Cloning technology has many implications on our lives. If we are able to resurrect 16-year-old mice by cloning them, perhaps the same can be accomplished with all of the people who have chosen to be cryogenically frozen. While many of us scoff at people who pay tens of thousands of dollars to be frozen after they die, perhaps there is a second life available for them as cloned versions of themselves. Of course, human cloning is considered unethical and is banned in most countries, but human values change, laws change. I imagine that human cloning will eventually work its way into society within my lifetime.

Before we jump that far ahead, more immediate uses for this technology include cloning our pets after they pass away. I love my dog, he is loyal, he was easy to train, and he is well behaved around my friends. There is no guarantee that a different dog that would provide equal companionship when my friend passes away. If I could clone him instead of buying another dog that would be completely unpredictable, I would seriously consider the option.

Top animal breeders would be able to get more litters out of a perfect breed specimen, even after he or she is too old to continue breeding. The dog can simply be cloned and then bred naturally. Perhaps natural breeding will be eliminated all together, the best of the breeds will be selected and all future reproductions will be clones. This idea naturally brings us to our food supply. Cloned food is already making its… [read more]


Genetic Modification Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Genetic Modification

The desire to control outcomes and determine destiny is ubiquitous within the human family. From the sailor to the artist there is a clear need to control the outcome of highly unpredictable processes. Genetic modification is another attempt to control outcomes. The challenge however is that while at present it appears that the technology has provided sublime and complete control. Nature is highly unpredictable and at a moment's notice the unintended consequences of human action can produce a trail of undesirable results. This essay considers genetic modification of plant and animal organisms. The technology that has gotten us to this point may be inadequate to address future challenges.

Genetic modification (GM) refers to technology that was created about 30 years ago (How it is done, 2002). The technology allows scientists to make changes to the characteristics of living organisms. These changes give new abilities or the capacity to produce new compounds to the modified organism. The modification occurs at the level of the genes of the organism and as a consequence, while it is a highly technical procedure it is beset with a limited measure of uncertainty as to the ultimate result of adding new genes to organisms.

Through genetic modification it is possible to generate plants, animals and microbes that possess very specific qualities. This designer organism is produced more efficiently and rapidly than the traditional approaches. The manner in which genes are transferred from one organism to another would be virtually impossible using the traditional breeding methods (G M. Basics, 2003). It should be noted that humans have always attempted to generate variety in plants and animals. So that over many generations through selected breeding specific characteristics become amplified in a particular breed of cattle to increase milk production or type of plant to gain a higher yield. This however involves the amalgamation of thousands of genes and is a very imprecise approach. Genetic modification can introduce specific genes and even turn undesirable genes off. It is a more specialized and technical process.

The procedure for genetic modification of organisms is a very complicated and involved process. How it is (2002) describes a simplified process for the introduction of genetic material into plants. The process contains six basic steps. Firstly the scientist identifies and isolates the gene that possesses the characteristic that will be introduced into the host plant (mapping). Following this several copies of the gene are produced. This process is termed polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The copied gene is subsequently transferred into the plants genes via plant tissue. A new plant is then produced from the tissue that has been modified. The scientist then determines that the gene functions in the manner it was predicted to function. The final step involves ensuring that the seeds from the plant also carry the gene.

The furor surrounding genetic modification is tremendous. There is a general sense that the science is sound but there is the possibility for unintended consequences. There is a belief that the technology… [read more]


Ionomics Genome: Essentially, the Genetic/Hereditary Information Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Ionomics

Genome:

Essentially, the genetic/hereditary information of a given organism, typically expressed in most complex organisms as a repeated sequence of DNA nucleotides and most often appearing as DNA bundles called chromosomes. The genetic map that allows for the growth and development of an organism.

Proteome:

A combination of "protein" and "genome," the term "proteome" refers to the proteins that are expressed by a given genome, or by a cell, tissue or organism. It is often used more specifically to identify the specific proteins expressed in specific given circumstances.

Transcriptome:

During cell division and other processes involving protein synthesis based on genetic information, certain specific RNA molecules are utilized by cells/tissues with a given genome. The RNAs expressed in any given circumstance are referred to as the transcriptome for that cell/genome/process.

Interactome:

The entirety of molecular interactions that take place within a give cell, process, tissue, etc. is referred to as the interactome of that cell, process, tissue, etc. This can include both genetically instigated interactions and those of other types occurring between all kinds of molecules..

Metabolome:

The whole of the metabolites and secondary metabolites, including hormones and intermediaries, contained within any biological sample (be it organism, tissue, or cell) is the metabolome.

Ionome:

Essentially the inorganic subset of the metabolome -- dietary and trace minerals and other component molecules found within an organism, cell, etc.

2)

The plant sample that is to be analyzed and characterized for ionomes is first digested, typically in a concentrated nitric acid bath that is diluted following the breakdown of the plant…… [read more]


Incidence and Possible Causative Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Gi Stromal Tumor in Chinese Population Journal

Journal  |  8 pages (2,026 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Incidence and Possible Causative Factors for Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor (GI Stromal Tumor) in Chinese Population

The objective of this work in writing is to examine the incidence and possible causative factors for Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor (GI stromal tumor in the Chinese population. GI Stromal Tumors are a quite rare sarcoma in the United States. There is now a specific treatment… [read more]


Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Meiosis vs. Mitosis:

The form of cell division which produces gametes (egg cells and sperms) in humans with reduced or halved number of chromosomes is referred to as meiosis. However, the number of chromosomes is reinstated when two gametes combine to form a zygote. While a cell with two copies of each chromosome is referred to as diploid cell, a cell with one copy of each chromosome is known as a haploid cell. Meiosis produces haploid daughter cells which are genetically different from each other as well as different from the parent cell.

On the other hand, the form of cell division that produces daughter cells which are similar to the parent cell during repair or growth is known as mitosis. In this case, each cell includes the same genetic code as the parent cell due to the fact that it copies its own chromosomes before the cell division. Notably, both meiosis and mitosis are forms of cell division in eukaryotes and are similar in many respects but different in others. The major similarities include the fact that both meiosis and mitosis involve cell division, they have the same processes of division and the fact that they have the same number of chromosomes at first divisions.

Mitosis involves single nuclear division in which the diploid parent cell (two sets of chromosomes) divides once and produces two diploid daughter cells that are genetically identical. On the contrary, meiosis involves two nuclear divisions in which a…… [read more]


Genome Sequence Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Genome Sequence

Sheep are very important farm animals that produce meat and wool for the human race. They are very closely related to cattle, which is good and bad for researchers who are studying genome sequencing. "Genome wide sets of universal probes have been designed [16], and in theory they could be used to construct whole genome contigs from large BAC libraries, with limited use of comparative genomics. However, BAC paired end mapping to the human, mouse, and rat genome sequences has been used to identify large scale rearrangements in the respective genomes [17]. This suggests that a similar approach could be applied to identify rearrangements in an organism with an unsequenced genome, if genome sequences from closely related species were available. The increasing number of complete and near complete genome sequences of other mammals suggests that a BAC end sequence and comparative genomics 'scaffolding' strategy might approach the resolution and accuracy of fingerprinting large BAC libraries" (Using comparative genomics to reorder the human genome sequence into a virtual sheep genome 2007). With understanding the sequencing, researchers have seen genes that may help differentiate M. paratuberculosis from other closely related bacterial species (Scientists Crack Genome Sequence Of Major Dairy Pathogen 2002), which means it may shed some light on the fact there is a disease among cows, sheep and pigs that could help researchers to investigate human genome sequences.

America is the melting pot of the whole world, the New World, seen by the rest of the world as the land of opportunity, the land of the free, the green pastures, and the crossroads where virtually all nationalities and races meet. The disease is being found in dairy and other farming species is a bacterium that causes a chronic gastrointestinal infection (Scientists Crack Genome Sequence Of Major Dairy Pathogen 2002). "M. paratuberculosis is a…… [read more]


Cloning Creating Controversy Among Scientists Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,889 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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All cloning presents an ethical problem. Why, with two options in front of us -- one that we knew would definitely lead to problems, and one that we know would definitely not lead to problems -- would we choose the option that definitely lead to problems? It would be illogical.

Works Cited

Best, Megan. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic Engineering. Ed.

Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource

Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Blackwelder, Brent. "Human Cloning Represents a Lack of Respect for Nature." At Issue: The

Ethics of Human Cloning. Ed. John Woodward. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005.

Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Fitzgerald, Kevin T. "Cloning Research Would Not Benefit Humans." Opposing Viewpoints:

Biomedical Ethics. Ed. Tamara L. Roleff. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1998. Opposing

Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Kass, Leon. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Biomedical Ethics. Ed. Viqi

Wagner. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale.

FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Rifkin, Jeremy. "Human Cloning Will Harm Society." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic

Engineering. Ed. Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing

Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .… [read more]


Nature-Nurture and the Cloned Human Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,065 words)
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Nature vs. Nurture Human Cloning

Human cloning though considered highly unethical and even illegal in many nations is theoretically possible. There is however currently a ban on human cloning, despite the fact that science will likely continue to try to develop the technology to clone humans, mostly for the purpose of reproductive treatments. It is also safe to say that animal cloning will continue unabated even by legal restrictions. Some even contend that the first, cloned human pregnancy has already occurred. The presupposition of the fact is that human cloning has been used or will be used in the future not to produce two identical twins but clones of parents, that will then be biologically related to the parents, as an infertile individuals' only opportunity to produce biological offspring. ("The Case for Human," 2002, p. 20)

It is for this and many other reasons that many argue the nature vs. nurture debate with regard to human cloning. Some ask, would the cloned human have a personality that would more closely match that of the person he or she was created from or would the individual be a completely unique person as a result of environmental influences. To answer this question one must engender a more complete understanding of the current theoretical knowledge regarding the nature vs. nurture debate. (Myers, 2006) In many ways the current theories about nature vs. nurture attest to the idea that nature and nurture are helpmates of one another, though this does not exclude opinions based upon a scale where some believe that nature has way more to do with it while others contend that nurture has primacy over nature.

Margaret and Marie, who, as natural identical twins, are about as close as possible to being pure clones. They share the same genotype, and they look remarkably alike. They even share a passion for dancing. Naturally gifted, they danced their way together from Newport, Rhode Island, to Stephens College in Missouri, becoming part of its faculty; now they run their own successful studio. At the same time, they are decidedly different in numerous ways. They are worlds apart in disposition and personality. Even in the domain of dance, they have different specialties -- the temperament for ballet is radically unlike that for modern jazz.The moral of this tale is clear. Even with natural clones such as my sisters, precise genetic copies do not translate into exact duplicates. In contrast to science fiction, science fact indicates that exact copies of Hitler, Mozart, and so on are impossible. What is possible has been demonstrated to us through the birth of Dolly: just as we had formerly produced genetic copies of molecules, cells, and plants, we could now produce genetic copies of animals. The more stunning news, however, is that we can now use adult cells as donors, cells that have already become specialized and differentiated. (Brannigan, 2001, p. 1)

From the biopsychosocial perspective of the debate would indicate that like identical twins living in different times and likely… [read more]


George W. Bush Presidency Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  13 pages (4,214 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13

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Bush Christian

The Bush Administration's Politicization of Christianity

State and Church are, by constitutional law, intended to remain separate. And yet, where America's electoral patterns are concerned, it is quite clear that voters tend to respond in one way or another to the presence and invocation of religion or issues related to religious value systems. So would this be proven… [read more]


What Would Happen if Were All the Same Chemically and Immunologically? Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Immunological Uniformity

One of the mechanisms that allows for environmental adaptation and evolution through artificial (i.e. mate) selection is genetic variation (Maitland & Johanson, 2002).

This is crucially important in immunology because a varied genetic pool allows successive generations within any species to adapt to environmental threats. Likewise, immunological and chemical variation allows for the survival of portions of a given population even after a specific environmental threat kills or sterilizes many individuals.

Conversely, gene pool uniformity would put the entire species at risk to environmental threats because the only mechanism available for adaptation would be evolution through

spontaneous mutation, which does not generally produce beneficial changes within a single successive generation (Maitland & Johanson, 2002).

A perfect example of the way that genetic immunological variation works is the major histo-compatibility (MHC) gene, an important component of human immunology

(Maitland & Johanson, 2002). Specifically, in humans, the scent of male sweat transmits important signals to females…… [read more]


Sleep Deprivation and Its Neurotransmitters Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,366 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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REM Sleep Deprivation

The complex neurochemistry of the sleep wake cycle has been researched much over the last few decades. It is clear that REM deprivation causes the brain cellular machinery to trigger various neurobiological responses involving selective expression of genes, down regulation and upregulation of neurotransmitters, as well as reorganization of excitatory synapses.

Sleep is an indispensable physiological function for all living beings. The rejuvenating and refreshing effects of sleep are well-known and over the last few decades there have been numerous research on sleep. The negative effects of sleep deprivation or sleep restriction have been analyzed by many researchers and we now understand some of the basic neurological mechanisms of sleep. It is well-known that sleep deprivation affects the thalamocortical circuits that are important for cognitive functions among other regions of the brain. Research has also documented decline in psychomotor performance due to sleep deprivation. If prolonged for long time, sleep deprivation is even fatal. Besides the well-known effects of sleep on the processing of memory, it also affects other biological processes such as immune function, energy metabolism, appetite and the expression of various genes. The neurotransmitters that are involved in the sleep wake cycle and the effects of sleep deprivation on these transmitters are the subjects of intense study in the field of neurobiology of sleep. A brief overview of some research studies pertaining to sleep deprivation and the neurotransmitter changes will provide better insight into the topic.

Sleep Deprivation (Literature Review)

The deprivation of REM (rapid eye movement sleep) causes several changes in the neurotransmitters of the brain. Neuronal changes are important in the transition between wakeful state to sleep state and vice versa. Majumdar et.al (2005) focused on the morphological effects of REM sleep deprivation on the neurons. This study observed that loss of REM affected different regions of the brain differently. It was found that regions of brain such as the locus coeruleus that are directly involved in the control of REM sleep are affected. It was also found that treatment with alpha1-adrenergic antagonist, prazosin helped reverse these changes. [Majumdar et.al (2005)] an earlier research by the same authors focused on the upregulation or down regulation of neurotransmitters such as norephinephirine, GABA and acetylcholine. For this purpose the researchers performed immunohistochemical estimations of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) the respective neurotransmitter enzymes in the locus coeruleus, pedunculopontine tegmentum and laterodorsal tegmentum and the medial preoptic regions of rat brain. The researchers observed a significant rise in the levels of TH and GAD only in the locus coeruleus area of the sleep-deprived rats when compared with the control group. [Majumdar et.al, (2003)]

Basheer et.al (1998) also studied the effects of REM deprivation on the neurochemical changes in the locus coeruleus region of the brain. The rats involved in the experiment were deprived of REM sleep for 1, 3 and 5 days and then killed and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) mRNA were measured… [read more]


Cloning Humans: Science and Society Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,084 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Cloning Humans: Science and Society

Although several types of cloning exist, including DNA cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning, the type that is most often referred to as "cloning" in science textbooks and the mass media is reproductive cloning. This is the type of cloning necessary to produce one animal from another animal that is either currently alive, or has lived previously (U.S. Department of Energy). Of course, animals already have a way of producing other animals, procreation. Cloning differs from procreation in that a cloned animal shares nuclear DNA with the other animal. In fact, the cloned animal would be nearly a carbon copy of the original animal. Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be cloned; she was born in 1996 and died in 2003 (U.S. Department of Energy). The process of cloning mammals like Dolly is complex, but is rather simple in principal. In a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer, scientists will take the DNA from the first cell, that of the previously existing animal, to an egg with a blank nucleus, or a nucleus with no genetic material. After transplanting the genetic material, the egg containing the DNA undergoes therapy to induce cell division. Finally, the embryo resulting from this implantation, once it is viable, is transferred to the uterus of a surrogate (U.S. Department of Energy).

While this process may seem relatively simple, as easy as moving material from one host to the next, it is actually very difficult to achieve. In fact, many problems have ensued during attempts to clone animals. Probably the most obvious problem is the fact that the clone is not an exact carbon copy of the original contributor. Instead, the clone only has some of the blank cell's genetic material, as the mitochondria in the cytoplasm supply this information (U.S. Department of Energy). Other problems associated with animal cloning include the "reprogramming phase. Before Dolly's debut, many scientists thought that a cell was predestined to be a certain body part -- a "liver, heart, udder, bone," etc. After Dolly's creation, however, scientists were able to determine that these cells can be reprogrammed to become different body parts. However, "errors or incompleteness in the reprogramming process can cause high rates of death, deformity, and disability observed among animal clones" (U.S. Department of Energy). Despite these errors and the problems ensuing from animal cloning, scientists have been able to advance the process to accomplish astounding heights. For example, Reuters recently reported that scientists were able to clone mice who had been frozen for up to 16 years. According to the news agency, this has implications for extinct animals, such as mammoths ("Frozen mice cloned"). In fact, scientists are currently grappling with the idea of using cloning on many extinct or endangered species ("Cloning: saving the endangered species").

Dolly is not the only animal that scientists have been able to clone. In fact, Reuters reported mammals from cattle to dogs have been cloned, and that livestock breeders hope to use cloning… [read more]


Governments Should Not Allow Human Cloning Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Governments Should Not Allow Human Cloning

As society comes closer to the reality of cloning humans, we should pause a moment and look at what we are doing and where it will lead. As children, we are taught to take responsibility for our actions and face the consequences of our choices. We are also expected to think ahead and use foresight when making decisions. While it is easier to think in the here and now, it is wise to think of the implications of what our choices will mean tomorrow. This is especially true with cloning. No doubt, it is in our future, but the questions we should be asking relate to the notion if we are actually ready to deal with cloning. At present, we are not ready - thee are still many unanswered questions regarding the subject. While the issue is hefty when it comes to debate and while it offers the possibility of hope, it also offers just as many, if not more, dangers. We should wait until we are sure about the ramifications of such an endeavor before stepping forward. Governments should not allow scientist to experiment with human cloning because we cannot know the outcome or the long-lasting ramifications of it.

While the promise of new technology is exciting and holds promise, we should not become blinded by that promise to what the worst case scenario could be. We should move ahead with our eyes open and until we know everything there is to know, we should not move on. Ian Wilmut, cloning pioneer, even admits that there is still so much about cloning that we do not know. He states that this lack of knowledge lies primarily with the aging of a cloned organism. He states:

As we grow older, changes occur in our cells that reduce the number of times they can reproduce. This clock of age is reset by normal reproduction during the production of sperm and eggs; that is why children of each new generation have a full life span. It is not yet known whether aging is reversed during cloning or if the clone's natural life is shortened by the years its parent has already lived" (Wilmut).

Wilmut also notes that automatic genetic systems that seek out and correct errors in our genes is a system that occur "during normal reproduction" (Wilmut) and "it is not known if that can occur during cloning. Research with animals is urgently required to measure the life span and determine the cause of death of animals produced by cloning" (Wilmut). This major issue lies unaddressed and society must know the answer to this question before moving ahead. We are adults and we should act responsibly before we do anything.

James Watson is correct in stating that we should not postpone experiments that we can conduct today, we should not simply do something because we can. We should remember is the fact that we can take nothing back. Once a process has started, it is… [read more]


Izumo Protein Required for Sperm Egg Fusion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,243 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Izumo Protein

Understanding the molecular mechanics of fertilization has been a challenging task for biologists for the last two decades. The discovery of the ADAM group of genes, which were supposed to play a vital role in the fusion process, in the mid nineties, was widely regarded as a big breakthrough. However, shortly later, experiments with mice downplayed the importance of ADAM genes. Since then, the quest for understanding the fertilization process at the gene level has continued without much success until the research work of Naokazu Inoue, et al. (2005) that proved to be revolutionary in its outcome. The finding of the all important protein molecule named Izumo by the researchers has opened a whole new frontier in the field of reproductive biology and research in the science of contraception. This breakthrough is considered remarkable, as it would enable scientists to create contraceptive solutions that do not carry the risks and potential side effects of hormone-based contraceptives. A brief review would help us gain better insight into the field of reproductive biology.

Discussion

This research by Inoue et al. created a whole new understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of fertilization. Before this research was undertaken it was well-known that CD9, a protein molecule found in the surface of the eggs, was primarily responsible for the fusion of egg and sperm. Even though, as early as 1987, the main researcher of this paper had discovered an 'anti mice sperm monoclonal antibody' known as OBF13 which had significantly affected the fertilization rate in mice, it was only much later during this research that the unknown antigen which was bound to OBF13, was identified to be the crucial Izumo protein. The authors found the new antigen using fusion inhibiting antibodies and gene cloning techniques. Thus, this research is considered a breakthrough in that it resulted in finding the first protein molecule on the sperm, which is found to be indispensable for fertilization. [Inoue et. al, 2005]

For the research, the authors used the process of homologous recombination to produce Izumo deficient allele and 3 types of mice: wild type, heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice (Izumo -/- with no izumo protein). It is important to note that izumo is detectable only after the sperm undergoes acrosome reaction. [Nazet.al 2001] the researchers found that the expression of the izumo protein did not in any way affect the levels of other related proteins such as ADAM2, CD147, and sp56 that are also involved in fusion process. Nine wild type female mice were paired with izumo -/- males and the results showed not a single case of pregnancy. The research also clearly showed that izumo protein was essential for the process of fusion and izumo deficient sperms can still produce healthy embryos. The possibility that fusion might have occurred and some other factor prevented formation of pronucleus was totally outruled because all the 282 studied eggs failed to form pronucleus in the presence of izumo devoid sperms. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of… [read more]


Medical Ethics -- Stem Cells &amp Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Medical Ethics -- Stem Cells & Cloning

STEM CELLS and CLONING: ETHICAL ISSUES

Stem cell research offers the hope of curing a wide range of human diseases, including diabetes, cystic fibrosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and many forms of cancers, to name just a few of many. In addition, stem cell-based therapies also provide the mechanism for creating human organs for transplant into thousands of patients who die every year before suitable donated human organ become available to them.

Stem cell research even holds the key to reversing traumatic paralysis caused by accidents, war wounds, and other injuries to the spinal chord that otherwise result in lifelong paralysis and incapacity (Zuckerman 2005). On the other hand, the field of stem cell research and technology provokes harsh criticism from those who maintain that it is immoral to experiment with fertilized human embryonic tissue, primarily because their religious beliefs that life begins at conception.

Unfortunately, the branch of stem cell research that holds the greatest potential for medical advances relies on fetal stem cells, because embryonic stem cells have the greatest potential for transformation into therapeutic tissue forms, because adult stem cells are much less flexible in that regard (Park 2007). Only very recently have scientists in Japan and Wisconsin discovered how to mimic the greater potential of fetal stem cells in adult cells (Zuckerman 2005), but this hardly compensates adequately for valuable research time lost by virtue of seven years of research banned from federal funding since 2000. Most scientists completely reject the belief that early embryonic tissue is "alive" in the same sense as more developed fetal tissue and point out the unjustifiable waste of prohibiting valuable research on the millions of excess embryos currently produced in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization procedures which, under current law, must be discarded as medical waste instead of being used for…… [read more]


Speech on the Benefits of Therapeutic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,420 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Speech on the Benefits of Therapeutic and Reproductive Cloning

Introductory Statement:

I would like to start this presentation with one very simple ethical principle that I believe should applies to any view of ethics in society and another equally simple principle of American life that is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution: (1) Any technology whose potential ability to help human… [read more]


Stem Cells as the California Dream Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Stem Cell Research and the California Dream

The California Dream: Stem Cell Research in California Today

The thought of a disease-free future for mankind is a tantalizing thought indeed. Imagine a time when no one gets sick anymore. No more AIDS, no more cancer, no more measles, mumps, or even the common cold. Everyone lives happily on the earth in… [read more]


Timing and Principle Characteristics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,228 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Even under optimal circumstances and conditions it is not always possible for the female and male germ cells to meet. A number of abnormal circumstances can also exist interfering with the fertilization process. The male or female germ cell at any point of the reproductive process may be abnormal resulting in a failed conception.

Under normal circumstances in the female body a number of hormones affect the timing and production of mature female germ cells. Within the male the same is true. Testosterone for example is produced in the testicles. The process of production of mature male germ cells begins when male germ cells grow and develop within the seminiferous tubules inside the testicles (AUA, 1005).These initial immature germ cells are immobile and incapable of fertilizing the female mature egg. Thus immature male germ cells are initially dependent on side lying structures to become functional organisms, including the sertoli cells (IVF, 2005).

Side lying cells provide nourishment to the immature sperm cells until they mature. This process occurs while the immature cells travel through a channel referred to as the epididymis, a tube located within the testicle that stores sperm until the point of maturity and climax, where sperm or mature germ cells are ejaculated from the male reproductive glands into the female reproductive system (AUA, 2005). Here mature male cells have the opportunity to meet with mature female germ cells provided the timing is right.

Female oocytes or germ cells originate in the yolk sac of the embryo. There are haploid cells containing "1N amount of DNA in the form of 22 autosomal chromosomes and one sex chromosomes" bringing the total to 23 chromosomes (Gest, 1999:1). These germ cells undergo a two phase division stage referred to as meiosis producing four haploid 1N cells (Gest, 1999).

Chromosomes are randomly distributed during the perfertilization stage that helps ensure variability in genetic offspring; the same is true of male germ cells (Gest, 1999). Most of the process of oogenesis occurs during embryonic stages of development for the female germ cell. During a woman's ovulatory cycle a single germ cell complete meiosis to transform into a secondary germ cell and a first polar body (Gest, 1999).

The mature female germ cell remains in a state called "metaphase of meiosis II" until fertilized by a mature male germ cell, after which the female germ cell complete the meiosis II stage to form a "mature oocyte and second polar body" (Gest, 1999:1). The female mature oocyte continues to grow and change rapidly from this point enabling cell division and maturation of the fetus.

This process is facilitated in the female by the release of hormones including estrogen during the first half of a woman's menstrual cycle and progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle (Gest, 1999). Male germ cells are generally capable of fertilizing an egg for roughly three days, while the female mature egg generally is only viable for a period up to 24 hours (Gest, 1999).

References:

AUA. (2005). "Management… [read more]


Fear Is an Emotion Term Paper

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Her argument forces us to realize that almost since the beginning of time, man has always sought to improve life and cloning is simply an extension of this very human behavior.

Gregory Pence agrees with the notion of irrational fear associated with cloning, noting that above all, it is simply unjustified. Pence maintains that a primary cause for such irrational fears is associated with horrible outcomes we often find science fiction stories and movies. As a result, society has been turned against good science with fictional bad science. Pence states, "we cannot allow such unreflected emotion to rule our lives" (Pence 5). Novels such as Brave New World and The Boys From Brazil have turned us against cloning without giving it a chance. Instead of introducing a positive aspect of cloning, we are presented with scenarios where the public fears "different forms of originating humans lead to eugenics which in turn leads to state-controlled breeding and the destruction of reproductive liberty in ordinary couples" (56). This is ridiculous because we should not only allow ourselves to be dictated by fiction but because we should also have enough faith in ourselves to might the right decisions when it comes to cloning.

Ruth Macklin also believes that the fears associated with cloning are illogical. This fear has lead to some horrific notions of what cloning actually means. For example, cloning is not for birthing children for spare parts. In addition, she is quick to point out that "no one has yet made a persuasive case that it would do any real harm" (65). She understands that the fear associated with cloning will be met with "careful scrutiny and layers of legal oversight" (65) and therefore sees no reason for fear whatsoever. In short, she has faith that mankind is responsible enough to prevent cloning from getting out of control.

None of these writers are suggesting a free-for-all cloning adventure. It should be noted that cloning, just as any other aspect of science, should be approached with a rational point-of-view and a reasonable set of limits and possibilities. A healthy dose of fear is good for mankind but an unhealthy amount of fear can stifle science and subsequently everything scientific. Cloning itself is not bad but the irrational fears associated with it are.

Works Cited

Anderson, Alun. "Cloning Can be an Ethical Form of Reproduction." Cloning. Winters,

Paul, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Baum, Rudy. "Human Cloning is Inevitable." Cloning. Winters, Paul, ed. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Pence, Gregory. Who's Afraid of Cloning? New York: Rowman and Little field Publishers,

Inc. 1998.

Macklin, Ruth. "Human Cloning Has Not Been Proven Harmful." Cloning. San Diego:

Greenhaven…… [read more]


Is Prostitution a Job Like Any Other? Term Paper

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¶ … Dangers outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Do Dangers of genetic engineering Outweigh Benefits?

Perhaps no other subject in recent years has caused such a myriad of debates and controversy than genetic engineering. Not only is the general public divided in opinions concerning the benefits and risks, but there is division among academics as well. At issue is the potential for life-saving techniques, the arrest and/or cure of life-threatening illnesses and disabilities, and the overall improvement of human health around the globe with the implementation of genetic modified food crops. During the past decade, there has been much media attention given to celebrity endorsements of bio-engineering techniques such as stem cell research that has the potential to aid in a number of diseases and injuries, such as Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's disease, birth defects, and spinal cord injuries, to name but a few. Stem cell research is generally opposed by conservative and religious groups that abhor the use of fetuses for research purposes, and fear the technology will produce less than valuable standards. Others fear genetically altered food may result in severe health risk in the future. However, it seems that the benefits of genetic engineering outweigh any potential dangers.

Generally speaking, major technological advances have the ability to fundamentally change the social, economic, political and legal landscapes of those who adopt the benefits of innovation (Adams 2002). The appropriate balance between the benefits and risks of medical intervention in individual cases is a decision made within the confines and confidentiality of a doctor-patient relationship, while risk management strategies are institutionalized in the form of legal rules, including professional ethics, negligence and fiduciary duty (Adams 2002). Advances in biotechnology have important applications to the core demographic concerns of human reproduction and longevity (Welsh 2005). These concerns raise a number of difficult ethical issues, yet in the debate over these issues, the voices of demographers and other social scientists are nearly silent (Welsh 2005). Biotechnology has the potential to positively affect human health, however, in order for health care professionals to communicate the issue effectively with their patients and clients, emphasis should be place on increasing communication through peer-reviewed journals and educational programs (Snider 2005). Perhaps the most dramatic payoff concerning this progress is the development of genetic tests for predisposition to various diseases and functional impairments (Cohen 2001). Tests already have been developed to identify the presence of several hundred particular alleles or polymorphisms that are linked to diseases such as Huntington's Disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell trait, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, and breast and colon cancer (Cohen 2001).

Many individuals are concerned that the new genetics will somehow force upon them unwanted self-awareness, sometimes called the "nocebo" effect, and prefer to remain in a state of medical or genetic ignorance for fear that knowledge will reveal the presence of a predisposition for a condition that is incurable or preventable only by resort to costly and difficult measures (Cohen 2001).

Moreover, they also fear that information about their genetic profile will be disclosed… [read more]


Human Cloning Should Be Illegal? Term Paper

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(Cloning: The science of Controversy)

Scarcity or wasting natural resources:

An economic concern that is expected to be of great significance to human cloning is scarcity. The resources required for production process is very limited and considered scarce in comparison to its requirement. Since cloning necessitates a lot of new and advanced technology and people are required to be highly… [read more]


Human Cloning Term Paper

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For example, consider the alteration of the physical make up through cloning of plant life such as corn and legumes. These scientific and technological breakthroughs have become a source for science to possibly create super crops that could one day feed a majority of the world's currently starving population. But, these plant changes also could eliminate the need for pesticides… [read more]


Buck vs. Bell Lee M Term Paper

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It was with the emergence of INF, argues Silver, that human beings grasped their reproductive destiny.

Silver tackles the implications of reproductive engineering by assessing the right of parents to genetically enhance their children. A society that allows rich parents to choose private education for their offspring, argues Silver, cannot justifiably argue that it is 'unfair' for wealthy parents to… [read more]


Cloning Charles Darwin Believed Term Paper

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Despite persistent scares and technical failures and difficulties, experiments and research on cloning, using aborted fetal body parts, continue in recent years, especially in the management or treatment of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease, a genetic condition that affects only a particular body part. It is not like AIDS. The transplants used are pieces of liver and parts of… [read more]


Morality of Cloning Term Paper

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This is, of course, because genes which encourage preference for their own genetic contributions consistently reproduce more successfully and pass on to the next generation. So it is completely natural for individuals to prefer to give birth to their own genetic offspring and to children which share parts of the same genetic code. Cloning allows one to birth and parent… [read more]


Kin Selection the Organization Term Paper

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Deleterious genetic mutations would be purged from the population and the inbred species may be prone to evolve sociality as all members of a colony have nearly identical genetic backgrounds. In addition to consanguineous matings (inbreeding), the process of genetic drift can also produce high levels of inbreeding.

Genetic drift is the random loss of alleles from a population owing… [read more]


Cloning the Debate About Human Term Paper

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(Human Cloning - The Ethical Issues)

If it were possible for a parent or parents to select a particular gene for their child, it would have been wonderful. Though loving parents would do anything to achieve such impossibility, though they do quite a lot of things for their children socially, it is just not possible to select a gene, and… [read more]


Chernobyl Disaster the Chernobyl Nuclear Term Paper

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The recessive nature of the genetic disorder implies that the mutations will take more time to manifest. There is a strong possibility that the genetic anomalies will find expression in future generations of children who are born to parents affected by mutation. [Souchkevitch, G. N]

The IAEA organized a study of the population in areas, which had caesium contamination of above 555 KBq / m2. The study that was conducted after a decade of the incident was organized into different control groups of 2000 to 50000 people based on their age. In all 1356 people were analyzed and the findings indicated that the absence of any significant radiation related diseases but projected an increase in non-radiation related disorders both within the contaminated as well as the control regions. The soviet atomic energy minister Mr. Rumyantsev said, 'radio-phobia' cause more harm than actual radioactive contamination," [Elizabeth Manning]. So the psychological implications of the disaster cannot be lightly ignored. More recent studies have confirmed our fears that even low dose of radiation can induce genetic mutations. A joint research conducted by Ukraine and Israeli scientists has revealed an "an unexpectedly high increase" in mutation levels in children born to affected parents. "These results indicate that low doses of radiation can induce multiple changes in human germline DNA." [BBC]

Habitat destruction

The effect of radiation was such that large cultivable lands were rendered unusable for decades together. To quote Mr. Valery Boldin, senor staff in the Gorbachev government, "radioactivity had contaminated enormous areas, some of which would be unsuitable for human habitation for many decades." The entire ecosystem in the nearby 'red forest' was destroyed. Almost all the trees in the forest were dead due to the radiation. [Jason Manning]

Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

One of the most obvious and direct consequences of the disaster was the observed increase in Thyroid cancer among children, particularly in Belarus. The radiation absorption by the thyroid gland was the primary factor used by the researchers in assessing the level of irradiation. In Gomel Oblast, (Belarus) the instances of thyroid cancer in children increased more than 200 times the usual number of cases. Iodine 131 isotope, one of the nucleotides that got scattered in the explosion is found to be the main cause for the increase in the reported cases of thyroid cancer. The presence of radiation in the sand affects the plants, which in turn affect the grazing animals. Iodine 134, one of the radioactive isotopes is easily absorbed into milk. The consumption of milk from these affected animals has been cited as the major cause for the increased cases of thyroid cancer among the children of Belarus. [Nuclear Energy Agency]

Conclusion

Based on the pilot study and the research results conducted by the IPHECA and the IAEA we draw the conclusion that the effects of the radiation is more pronounced in terms of the genetic anomalies rather than the acute diseases. We do not yet have complete information pertaining to the health implications of the… [read more]


Plant Cell Term Paper

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It is the site of cellular respiration.

Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus & Endoplasmic Reticulum: Ribosomes are non-membranous, spherical bodies composed of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein enzymes. They are the site of protein synthesis. Similarly, Golgi Apparatus is made of stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae) and its main function is modification of chemicals to make them functional. The Endoplasmic Reticulum is made of sheets of unit membrane with ribosomes on the outside, forming a tubular network throughout the cell. Their main function is the transport of chemicals within and outside the cells.

Nucleus: Consists of nuclear envelope, chromatin, and nucleolus. Nuclear envelope is made of unit membranes with a fluid-filled space; chromatin from long thin strands of DNA and nucleolus from non-membraneous matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid). The nucleus specifies which proteins are produced by the cell, stores and passes on genetic information to future generations of cells during cell division.

Bibliography

Brown, Terry. (1999) "Cell Structure and Processes." Retrieved on June 22, 2003 at http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi3a1/Cells/cells.htm

Crosby, Marshall R. And Peter H. Raven. (2003) Article on "Plant." (Para on Plant Cells). Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Cellulose is made up of molecules of sugar glucose

Plant Cell… [read more]


Origin of Eukaryotes Theory Term Paper

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Origin of Mitochondria

During membrane infolding, highly oxidized prokaryotic cells are ingested in eukaryotic cells. These cells are too small and indigestible. Instead of being digested, they continue to live inside the host that becomes an ideal environment for them because of the organic molecules and inorganic compounds the host provides them. The energy released by the endosymbiotic cell (the ingested small prokaryotic cells), on the other hand, provides benefit to the host making it more productive and successful. After some time, the endosymbitic cells lose their cellular autonomy and later become a mitochondrion.

Origin of Chloroplasts

The origin of chloroplasts is almost the same as that of mitochondria. Some eukaryotic cells ingest small prokaryotic photosynthetic cells. These photosynthetic cells provide the host with organic molecules while the host provides them with inorganic compounds. Eventually, the photosynthetic cells lose their cellular autonomy and then later become chloroplasts.

However, contrast to mitochondria, not all eukaryotic cells ingest chloroplasts. This is the reason why all eukaryotes contain mitochondrion but not all contain chloroplasts.

Bibliography

Origin of Eukaryotes.

2003. George Washington University. 23 April 2003. http://www.gwu.edu/~darwin/BiSc151/Eukaryotes/Eukaryotes.html

Endosymbiosis in Evolution.

2000. Sidwell Friends School. 23 April 2003. http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Bacteria/symbiosis.html

The Origin of Eukaryote Chloroplast. http://hypnea.botany.uwc.ac.za/phylogeny/classif/euk2.htm… [read more]


Cloning in 1997 Term Paper

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Ever since agriculture and the domesticated raising of animals, man has been modifying the genetic make-up of animals by selective breeding. For example, livestock of superior quality could be cloned for farmers. Such livestock would yield higher quality meat, milk, and wool.

People could also clone animals that produce human proteins and other substances used in medical drugs. Another possibility for the use of cloning is the generation of genetically modified animal organs that are suitable for transplantation into humans. At present, thousands of patients die each year before a replacement heart, liver, or kidney becomes available (Wilmut, 1998).

Although genetic disorders represent a small fraction of the total burden of ill health, genetic engineering in the form of "gene therapy" could be used to repair damaged or replace missing genes in people who have genetic disorders. This would be another promising aspect of cloning. The rapid production of large animals carrying genetic defects that mimic human illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis. The ability to make animals with a precisely engineered genetic constitution could also become cell-bases therapies for important illnesses that include Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and muscular dystrophy. With new research in the area of cloning and stem cell research, cures might be found for these illnesses that affect many human lives.

Cloning could also be a way to produce herds of cattle that lack the prion protein gene. This gene makes cattle susceptible to infection that might cause bovine spongiform encephalitis or mad cow disease. Many animal activists are against this kind of genetic engineering, but again the benefits outweigh the negative aspects. The technique could also prevent the transmission of genetic diseases. Many scientists are now working on therapies that would supplement or replace defective genes in cells.

There are many people who desire to eat healthier foods, couples who are waiting on the opportunity to have children and others that need a cure found for a disease they have. Without the use of cloning or stem cell research, none of these dreams will be achieved. Yes, there are concerns about this issue. However, when the pros are weighed against the cons we can certainly understand that society cannot let this opportunity go by without further research.

Works Cited

Biotechnology Industry Organization. "Cloning Technology, not Human Cloning."

Pharmaceutical Technology. 2001.

Gorman, C. "Cloning: Humans May Have It Easier." Time, August 27, 2001. v158 i8 p56+

Wilmut, Ian. "Cloning for Medicine." Scientific…… [read more]


Cloning People Term Paper

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Family relationships would not be affected because the parents would perceive a cloned baby as their child despite the genetic ramifications. There is also the fear that the facility would be available only to the rich where people would create custom-designed children who were talented who would have better futures. To this, Wachbroit once again counters with the argument that environment plays an important role.

Wachbroit makes strong and well-reasoned arguments. However, accept for concerns that he personally voices -- namely, that cloning is a nascent science -- his arguments leave a lot to be desired. During the attempts a cloning a sheep, the failed results were grotesque creatures. No human should have to witness failed experiments when humans are involved. As in the case of the most celebrated clone yet -- Dolly -- did not survive long. It means that there were genetic factors that made the clone susceptible to disease with a potentially weakened system.

Wachbroit repeatedly makes the argument that environmental factors play an important role in a person's upbringing. This theory called the Blank Slate was developed in the early sixties, and till recently has held sway. In a recent book by MIT's cognitive scientist Stephen Pinker, "The Blank Slate," the author systematically debunks the blank slate theory. Whatever, one might think of these competing theories, the Blank Slate theory cannot be considered as absolute.

Also, human nature being what it is, it is not completely out of the realm of possibility that those who can afford cloning would seek designer children. Recently, there were stories of websites auctioning the eggs of super-models in the hope that people would have physically stunning children. Even if cloning were successful with zero percent failure, Wachbroit's theory that clones would not be identical is merely speculative; though mammals have been cloned, we do not have the clones of humans. Higher faculties distinguish humans, even as biological specimens. Even the Human Genome is incomplete until the functional aspects of DNA have been identified to know what the origins and progress of human make-up really is.

In conclusions therefore, Wachbroit does make a positive step in the discussion of aspects of human cloning. He is right that it should be debated in the open so that renegade scientists should not defy common sense and decency by pursuing human cloning. As for Wachbroit believing that human cloning is correct -- he is…… [read more]


Mitosis vs. Meiosis Term Paper

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Because't is an X-linked trait, t will be expressed, so the phenotype is 4/4 t.

B)

A heterozygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

The genotypes for the offspring are shown below:

t T

- t tt

- T Tt

Result is 1/4 tt, 2/4 Tt and 1/4 TT genotypes.

Result is 1/4 T. phenotype (TT) and 3/4 t phenotypes (tt, Tt).

C)

A heterosygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

A homozygous recessive has a pair of nonidentical alleles tt.

A heterozygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

The genotypes for the offspring are shown below:

T t

- t Tt

- t tT

Result is 2/4 tt and 2/4 Tt genotypes.

Result is 4/4 t phenotypes.

3. Hierarchical Plan for Categorizing Living Organisms

Categorizing living organisms is known as taxonomy and there is a hierarchy of classification.

The scheme is based on differences in physical features such as the number of legs, body size, wings or no wings, spinal column or no spinal column. Initially the system was based on defining things by how closely related they were. It should be noted that many classifications in the system do not represent close relations. The system is however, a way of clearly defining one identified organism with another.

From the broadest level down the classification system is:

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

The largest is the kingdom. There are six kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

The second is the phylum. For animals, the phylums include Porifera (sponges), Arthropoda and Chordata (which includes the spinal chorded humans.) For plants, one of the phylums is Anthophyta (flowering plants.)

The third is the class. Classes include Mammalia, Reptilia and Amphibia. The Mammalian class is defined as: "having the body covered with hair, a four-chambered heart, and possessing mammary glands producing milk with which the female suckles her young." (Lawrence, Eleanor. Dictionary of Biological Terms. Longman Group Limited: Essex. 1996, p330.)

The fourth is the order. Some orders include Primates, Carnivora and Insectivora.

The fifth is the family. Some examples include Orchidaceae (orchid family) and Hominidae (the family containing humans and human-like apes and gibbons.)

The sixth is the genus. Some examples of genus include Vanilla (vanilla plant genus) and Homo (genus of which the only living member is the human.)

The seventh is the species. The species is also written with the genus name. The species identifies a specific individual. Examples are Homo sapien (human) and Vanilla planifolia (Vanilla Orchid.)

Examples of a complete grouping for a plant and an animal are shown below:

Category Corn Housefly

Kingdom Plantae Animalia

Phylum Anthophyta Arthropoda

Class Monocotyledonae Insecta

Order Commelinales Diptera

Family Poaceae Muscidae

Genus Zea Musca

Species Zea mays Musca domestica

Source: Starr, C and Taggart, R. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Wadsworth: Belmont. 1995. p311.

Works Consulted

Access Excellence. Mitosis Labeled Diagram. The National Health Museum. 1999.

Blamire, John. Genotype and Phenotype. Science at a Distance. 2000.

Harmon, Brian. What… [read more]


Market Rates and Solar Research Paper

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Solar Power

An Analysis and Discussion of how Solar Prices and Externalities of the Energy Industry Will Influence the Adoption of the Illinois Solar Power Total Output

This research is based on a hypothesis that was constructed relative to identifying the market energy prices that might be needed for local businesses to consider investing in alternative energy sources such as… [read more]


Case for Hydroelectric Power Research Paper

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Steam Power

Hydroelectricity has proven to be an important source of energy, and can be a pathway for our energy future. In many countries around the world, major hydroelectricity projects have proven to deliver key jobs during construction, and a sustainable supply of energy thereafter. There are many examples, but when looking at a means of providing energy in a… [read more]


How a Systems View Helps the Environment Research Paper

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Oberlin Project and the Systems View of Life

Mind-Map of Frijtof's Talk

As Fritjof (2014) points out, there are four dimensions of life -- the biological, cognitive, social and ecological dimensions. This vision of life, moreover, results in specific philosophical, social and political repercussions in the world. These repercussions or implications are evident in the focuses of the current modern era, such as projects like sustainable communities, which do not focus on "economic" growth or capitalistic advantage, but rather on "the very web of life on which our long-term survival depends" (Fritjof, 2014). This shows that by working together in mutual respect and appreciation in a communal way with nature (rather than in an effort to exploit nature for one's own profit) actually helps to reinforce the systems view of life and recognize the planet is not an infinite source of raw materials.

Sustainable communities should be designed in a manner that ensure that the community's technology, institutions, etc., do not interfere with nature's ability to sustain life. The implication is that nature is the guiding hand and ultimate support that people should depend upon, and when they attempt to control rather than be supported by nature, the trouble begins -- and can be seen in issues such as global warming, pollution, de-forestation, the eradication of species, soil erosion, water levels rising, ice caps melting, smog, carcinogens in the air, toxic streams, and genetically-modified food organisms that have been shown to be cancer-causing.

Thus the main point of the talk by Fritjof is that people should respect nature and work with it rather than against it. Nature is a strong force that has been sustaining life on the planet for thousands of years and that can continue to do so if people stop attempting to confine their view of life in a materialistic box, or in a philosophical system that puts the elevation of self above the rightful place of the world of nature. As Fritjof and Luisi note in their book on the same subject, it is vital that the world stop calling that growth which is actually waste: "Let's define growth as that which enhances life -- as generation and regeneration -- and declare that our planet needs more of it."

In the light of this main thesis of Fritjof, the Oberlin Project and the sustainable practices of Istanbul and Oberlin cities can be compared and discussed more…… [read more]


How a City May Lower Energy Costs With Windmills Grant Proposal

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Wind Farm Proposal

There is ample empirical scientific evidence that the world's climate is changing, and notwithstanding those in positions of authority that deny the climate is warming, the facts are clear. Seas are rising, temperatures are rising on land and in the oceans, ice sheets are shrinking, glaciers are shrinking, the ocean is becoming acidified, and there is strong evidence that the use of fossil fuels -- in particular, coal -- is contributing to the climate change. So, the need to introduce renewable energy sources -- that do not contribute to carbon to the atmosphere, is seen as a positive way to slow down the warming of the earth.

Among the renewable energy sources being installed and instituted is wind power. There are many advantages to wind energy (it's green; space-efficient; renewable; protects homeowners from power outages; the cost of wind energy has been reduced by 80% since 1980; and wind power (stirred by the sun) has enormous potential because though winds do subside on occasion, there will always be wind).

Proposal for two 100 kW Wind Turbines

A small town in northern Colorado is considering installing two 100 kW Wind Turbines to produce a significant portion of the needed electricity. Wellington, Colorado, is a town of 6,725 (according to the 2010 U.S. Census) north of Fort Collins. Available wind information from www.city-data.com shows that Fort Collins has wind speeds on average of 12.8 MPH.

The town's fiscal administrator proposed to the city council that the community invest in a pair of 100 kW turbines, which will power all or nearly all the city's infrastructure, representing an annual savings of $19,000 to $26,000. The engineering department researched the cost of the turbines, the expected cost of installation, the tax credits available and the federal dollars available through grants. And the fiscal administrator followed up with the data provided through the engineering research and made a proposal to the mayor and the city council.

The report to the mayor and city council --…… [read more]


Article Review on Greenhouse Gases Article Critique

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Greenhouse gases have become a topic of discussion in recent times. Local governments have been planting trees in the last decade to offset carbon emissions. In "Urban Tree Planting and Greenhouse Gas Reductions" by Greg McPherson, the author argues that tree planting fights global warming by cooling the air temperature of the areas the trees are planted in and absorbing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Some proponents against tree planting say that the dark non-reflective leaves of trees contribute to global warming by making the surface area from tree canopies abler to absorb heat from sunlight. The author makes some excellent points as to why such assumptions are invalid and why tree planting can and has contributed to reducing global warming.

The first point he makes is that tree planting is not an exclusive way to end global warming. If anything, it is complementary. It adds to the many ways to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and carbon emissions. How tree planting can contribute to reducing global warming is through the tree's ability to absorb carbon dioxide and cool the air where its planted. In urban areas where additional trees were planted, during the summer months, the overall temperature was less compared to before the planting of additional trees. A good example of this is New York City and its tree planting initiative.

Several years after the initiative finished, the overall air temperature during the summer months changed, providing relief from the heat and enabled less use of air conditioners, leading to less energy used overall. Carbon emissions come from energy usage and energy creation. As McPherson stated, "Lowering summertime temperatures by planting trees in cities is one way to reduce energy use and thereby reduce carbon dioxide emissions. And planting trees is an immediate solution." (McPherson) It makes sense that trees could and do and contribute to reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through both absorbing the carbon dioxide and reducing usage of electricity/fuel.

Another point McPherson made was that while tree planting may be temporary due to any number of factors, contracts, ordinances and so forth may help provide a more long-lasting solution to tree planting. Sure development of alternative energy sources can be helpful in the long run for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, cars for example produce a greenhouse gases and contribute greatly to global warming. If every car on the road used an alternative fuel source that did not produce greenhouse gases or if less cars were on the road, it would significantly contribute to alleviating global warming for years to come. However, as the author suggests, this idea plus an immediate solution like tree planting can be used together along with other ways to reduce carbon-dioxide emission like using less energy to cool or heat homes, riding bicycles, recycling, and…… [read more]


Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks Term Paper

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Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Network

The wireless sensor network is considered to be one of the most significant technologies in this epoch, and has been receiving a great deal of emphasis not only from the industries, but also from the world of academia. In definition, according to Gandham et al. (2003), a sensor network is a motionless ad hoc… [read more]


Acas X Technology and the Next Generation of Flying Research Paper

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¶ … Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS/ACAS)

The collision avoidance systems TCAS/ACAS used by large craft are essential in avoiding midair collisions. Over time they have been developed in such a way that they can now supply pilots with advisories that, when heeded, can help guide the crafts out of dangerous situations where collisions may occur. The latest generation of… [read more]


Ethics Birth Essay

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Ethics

Couples should not be encouraged to have preimplantation genetic determination (PGD). PGD is a technique that involves "removing cells from the early embryo to test for genetic mutations, which can cause disease" (Morris, 2008). Ethically, there is nothing wrong with using PGD, as it is essentially a diagnostic tool, and does not cause harm to the mother or the child (Morris, 2008). However, it is also not a medically-necessary procedure. PGD can be used for a number of purposes, but one of the most important is to evaluate for genetic mutations such as those that might cause disease or conditions like Down's Syndrome. While it is beneficial for parents to know about the potential for these things, in many cases PGD is not a 100% accurate predictor of conditions, so is not necessarily going to be used to make decisions about the pregnancy. Arguably, such diagnoses can be made after birth more easily and accurately, so for most patients that is probably the best course of action. Again, while there is benefit to PGD is not a medical necessity, and while there is limited risk associated with it, there is no reason to claim that it is necessary to recommend PGD. It can be recommended, but it is not necessary to do so.

There are exceptions, however, and certainly so for patients with specific risk factors. Sherbahn (2013) notes that mothers with advanced age of 38 years or more are at greater risk from their pregnancies; that mothers with repeated in vitro fertilization failure are at greater risk; those with inherited genetic conditions or are carriers of chromosomal translocations and those with recurrent miscarriages are all patients for whom PGD might be medically necessary or beneficial. These patients would represent an exception, and in such cases it could be argued that mothers with these characteristics should receive PGD testing, as it could reduce the risk to the mother or avoid passing…… [read more]


Blastoderm Fate Mapping and Chick Cardia Bifida Experiments Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Chicken Lab

Chicken Embryo Lab Report

A fate map can be used to track the progression of cell movements during chick embryo development. There are several potential uses for the information gathered and recorded on fate maps; the movement of cells and organs during development can yield a great deal of information regarding specifics of the species or genetic line as well as more general evolutionary information. In this technique, pioneered by N. Spratt and H. Haas (Journal of Experimental Zoology 103: 259-304 1946; 144: 139-158, 1960), the fate map is created by placing carbon markers in the blastoderm after it has been transferred to a petri dish. It is expected that significant movement of the carbon markers will occur during the experiment.

Materials and Methods

A chick blastoderm was explanted into an agar-containing petri dish following an incubation period. Glass needles were created y melting and stretching the ends of pipettes, and these needles were used to place very small amounts of carbon (charcoal) at three different spots near he primitive streak of the blastoderm. The embryo was at an early stage when it was marked, and after marking retained the faint "V" of the primitive streak with three clumps of carbon of varying size ranged in a perpendicular line to the point of the "V." The petri dish was returned to the incubator wth damp paper towels and was retrieved for further observation two days after the initial markings with charcoal were made.

Results

Following two days of continuing incubation, the blastoderm appeared…… [read more]


Bioethical Concerns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

A., Pedersen, D., Clepper, D., Nelson, M.., Sanger, W., Gokhale, S., Wolf, D. & Mitalipov, S. (2007). Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature, 450 (7169), 497 -- 502.

Chung, L., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Marh, J. et al. (2006). Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature, 439(7073), 216 -- 219.

Cohen, C.B. (2007). Renewing the stuff of life: Stem cells, ethics, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hyun, I. & Jung, K.W. (2006). Human research cloning, embryos, and embryo-like artifacts. Hastings Center Report, 36(5), 34 -- 41.

ISSCR. (2008). ISSCR task force for the clinical translation of Stem Cells. In Guidelines for the clinical translation of stem cells. Retrieved June 25, 2011, from http://isscr.org/clinical_trans/pdfs/ISSCRGLClinicalTrans.pdf.

Takahashi, K. & Yamanaka, S. (2006). Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell, 126(4), 663 -- 676.

Meissner, A. & Jaenisch, R. (2006). Generation of nuclear transfer-derived pluripotent ES cells from cloned Cdx2-deficient blastocysts. Nature, 439(7073), 212 -- 215.

National Research Council. (2005). Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Nisbet, M.C. (2004). Public opinion about stem cell research and human cloning. Public Opinion Quarterly,…… [read more]


Human Cloning and Genetic Engineering Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Human Cloning and Genetic Engineering

The subject of human cloning is one of the most controversial subjects being debated today. It is also one of the most scientifically fascinating subjects, because it is the first to bring science and God together. Whether or not human creation belongs to the realm of God, or to the realm of science, has created a science conscience that did not previously exist in science before human cloning and genetic engineering became a reality. As a result of the science that now exists, and which makes possible genetic engineering that can alter and improve the human condition, and perhaps even more importantly, the cloning of existing human perfection, which can go beyond that perfection with additional genetic engineering, we are seeing the debate for and against human cloning and genetic engineering take on the dimensions of ethics and public policy.

In examining and analyzing this controversial debate, I will rely upon the existing body of research and work by authors on both sides of the debate. My research will be supported by the following works, which I might add to as my research progresses.

Annotated Bibliography

Cohen, Cynthia B. Renewing the Stuff of Life: Stem Cells, Ethics, and Public Policy. New York, Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Cohen's book is important because it provides the research paper with a succinct look at perhaps the most emotional and contentious issue in the subject of genetic engineering: stem cell research and public policy. Stem cells have been touted as the miracle cure to most of the diseases that are prolonged and debilitating. High profile figures, like former First Lady Nancy Reagan, have come out in support of stem cell research and application.

Cohen not only looks at the emotional and public side of stem cell research, but she also provides the science that is needed in this research paper as it regards stem cells. The science must be addressed from the scientific only perspective; that is, the facts of the science and using the scientific language as the basis for that discussion.

Cummings, Claire Hope. Uncertain Peril and the Future of Seeds. Boston: Beacon Press, 2009. Print.

This book will support and enhance this research paper in looking to the future of the science and genetic engineering research and application. It focuses on genetic engineering in its less controversial form, but a form that could nonetheless transfer itself to the more important issue of human cloning. Right now, genetic engineering is widely accepted in the human food supply. Cummings raises interesting questions about what that means in terms of who owns the food supply, who controls it, and how the engineering translates to trade secrets and patents. Is this what we have to be concerned about on the human side too?

This book is useful only to the extent that it provides some clarity as to how genetic engineering is already being done on human food supplies. It will be used in a limited way, and might… [read more]


Human Beings and Primates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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The genetic difference between humans and chimps means that that the less goal-directed chimpanzees live in the wilderness. It takes planning to build houses and make tools but chimps do not make use of tools, because the four percent genetic difference limits their physical and mental capacity to do so. Instead, chimpanzees make use of their entire bodies more than humans to survive. Even chimpanzees in the zoo engage in more physical contact regarding survival. Chimps establish dominance by fighting in against other chimps, while humans make use of verbal communication as well as physical communication.

Chimpanzees are also, because they live in the wild and do not have tools, more dependent on one another. Even though chimpanzees live in groups, while humans can live alone. This is because of the four percent of genetic differences between the two species. Thus chimps do not have the support system of a civilization that provides them with ready access to food at the supermarket, or protects them from the elements in the form of ready-made clothing. Human beings were able to evolve to create more sophisticated tools and commodities, so they did not have to constantly cope with the demands of heat, cold, and the threat of starvation.

Humans are able to forego immediate goals in society, with an eye upon long-term goals because their brains are more developed than chimpanzees, one of the results of the seemingly few but very important genetic differences. Sometimes these goals are impressive, such as the achievements of the space program, modern medicine, and the physical understanding of the universe, while other human social power plays might make us long for the simpler, seemingly more honest physical fighting of chimpanzees! Chimpanzees only have goals such as feeding themselves, or winning a fight, but they do not plot and plan, or make scientific discoveries because the four percent difference limits their mental focus to the moment, and this affects chimp civilizations' ability to create long-term goals…… [read more]


Against Human Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (922 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Against Human Cloning

For many decades, the scientific idea for human cloning has, for the most part, only been discussed in the realm of science fiction, but in today's highly technical world, human cloning has almost become a reality which has to be discussed and examined with much caution and the use of hard facts. In essence, the arguments for and against human cloning vary widely; some scientist and researchers claim that human cloning will lead to great advances in medicine and how diseases are treated, and while this may be true, human cloning itself is a major violation against our embodied and engendered selves as human beings and has the potential to destroy the social relations as designed by nature.

First of all, human cloning has the potential to completely alter the future of a human being, especially in relation to the unborn, and violates the right to choose how a person lives his/her own life and the right to be a unique human being, both mentally and physically. Also, it is a violation on the part of the clone itself, meaning that he/she will be deprived of the opportunity to live within a viable future, not to mention that all the important aspects of a person will be known beforehand, such as physical appearance and abilities which will place a huge burden on the person as to the expectations of others.

Robert Wachbroit adds to this argument by stating that cloned individuals "would be wronged in morally significant ways... being "the right to an open future." For example, "a child might be constantly compared to the adult from whom he/she was cloned and thereby burdened with oppressive expectations... Finally... A child might be burdened with the thought that he/she is a copy and not an original, (affecting) the child's sense of self-worth or individuality or dignity... " (Internet, 1999).

Second, it is quite obvious that human cloning is a repugnant activity when compared to the normal method of human reproduction. According to Glenn McGee, "those who oppose human cloning point to the repugnance of a style of reproduction with such profound potential for vanity, arguing that the freedom of children and (the) nature of the family are in danger" (Internet, 2001). Basically, human cloning is an asexual process, meaning that it involves no type of sexual activity between two consenting persons. This makes the process comparable to many lower forms of life, such as bacteria, algae, fungi and a number of lower invertebrates. In the scope of human sexuality, life is generally begun by two individuals through love and nurturing; however, with human cloning, this process is voided because love and nurturing play no role whatsoever. Thus, human cloning goes completely against human nature and allows any…… [read more]


Embryonic Stem Cell Research in November 1998 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Embryonic Stem Cell Research

In November 1998, two research groups independently announced that they had isolated human stem cells from embryonic tissues, had cultivated the cells, and shown these cells could develop into all three basic layers of cells in the human embryo (Lysaught 1999). Because these cells could potentially develop into nearly every type of human cell and tissue,… [read more]


Cloning Is Among the Feats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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If this is what is going to occur, cloning therefore is a threat on every aspect of living. It endangers the existence of naturally born human beings and on the peace of society because cloning can present different kinds crimes such as falsification of identity.

Aside from the social problems that cloning presents, it can also bring more problems in the health of humans. Any mistake in genetic engineering can present new kinds of diseases because genetic engineering is considered as a process of "trial and error," without any assurance of success. Such problem can be inherited by future generations and can bring more problems to the already existing ones. A cycle of solving medical problems through genetic engineering and enhancements would only mean a continuous danger to human health.

Bibliography

Bailey, Ronald. Cloning is Ethical. Ethics.

Brenda Stalcup, Ed Current Controversies Series.

Greenhaven Press.

Edwords, Fred. Genetic Engineering Can Be Ethical. The Ethics of Genetic Engineering.

Lisa Yount Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press.

Gert, Bernard. Genetic Engineering of Humans is Largely Unethical.

Genetic Engineering. 2001. James D. Torr, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

Greenhaven Press.

Kass, Leon R. Cloning Humans Is Not Ethical. Genetic Engineering.

2002. Lisa Yount Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press.

Minerd, Jeff T. Genetic Engineering Will Benefit Human Health and the Environment.

Genetic Engineering.

2002. Lisa Yount Ed. Current Controversies Series.

Greenhaven Press.

Silver,…… [read more]


Clarkia Unguiculata: Onagraceae Evolutionary (Pollination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The main finding of the research is that it is the nature of genotype rather than the type of pollination that directly affects the reproductive success of C. unguiculata. It is also inferred that the rate of metabolism affects reproductive success as reflected in the form of speedy pollen tube development in the case of CC allele. However the positive effects of the increased metabolic rate can be offset by the negative effects as in the case of reduced ovule fertilization time. (Leading to fewer seeds). In short the counterbalancing effects of the rate of metabolism on the male and female reproductive systems creates a kind of equilibrium.

Similarly we can discern from the study is that the BB maternal genotypes accounted for higher number of viable seeds while recipients homozygous for the CC alleles accounted for more aborted seeds indicating a decreased female fertility rate. However increased seed viability in BB allele does not in any way increase the total seed mass for a fruit. This makes it clear that allelic variations have a contrasting effect on male and female fertility in C. unguiculata. This also leads us to the conclusion that Allozyme genotypes have a direct influence on the reproductive success of CLARKIA UNGUICULATA. In this way the reproductive ability or the efficiency is maintained in Clarkia. Unguiculata. The plant Clarkia.Unguiculata is an ideal example for the branch of evolutionary pollination ecology.

Bibliography

The following article was used as the source.

1) Steven E. Travers, a, 1 and Susan J. Mazera, Department of Ecology and Marine Biology, University of California, "TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTION ASSOCIATED WITH ALLOZYME VARIATION IN PHOSPHOGLUCOISOMERASE IN AN ANNUAL PLANT (CLARKIA

UNGUICULATA: ONAGRACEAE)"… [read more]


Congressional Ban on 'Cloning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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(Boston Globe)"

The fate of cloning is at a crossroads now as the GOP readies to reintroduce the bill to ban cloning. Recently the Boston Globe wrote "Therapeutic cloning will achieve the same unassailable status [as In Vitro fertilization] if it ever leads to successful treatments of Parkinson's disease, heart failure, or other serious conditions. But it will be deprived of the chance to prove itself, at least in this country, if the anticloning bill of GOP Senator Sam Brownback of Kansas is passed. (A12)"

Throughout history people have been afraid of things they do not understand. The medical field has seen itself face prosecution to improve the services it would provide to make people healthier and well. From the Middle Ages to the present, doctors have found themselves under constant public scrutiny and struggling to research new methods and practices. Cloning is the beginning of new medical sciences that will contribute to the well being and improved health conditions of people around the world, including those in the poorer Third World countries.

The British Medical Association said, "Public hostility to human reproductive cloning may be based on an illogical and transient fear of a new technology (humancloning.org)." I believe this is true, and it is important for Congress to allow for medical science to research cloning and the advances in health care that will stem from it.

Bibliography

Boston Globe Editorial A Cloud Over Cloning. Boston Globe (A12), 25 November 2002.

The Human Cloning Foundation http://www.humancloning.orgOnline. 8 December, 2002.

Westphal, Sylvia Pagan. Cloned Stem Cells May Give New Lease on Life.

New Scientist…… [read more]


In-Vitro Fertilization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (844 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

e., that the process should be used as a last resort for infertile couples. Next, using in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis could open the floodgates to couples wanting "designer" babies, i.e., babies who possess those traits which are perceived as being the most genetically desirable.

Third, using in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is permitting human life to be created as a means to an end, not an end in itself. Although proponents of such treatment argue that it is being created to help another sibling, once it has been conceded that human life may be created for purposes other than those originally intended, it is very difficult to see where one should draw the line. Lastly, using in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to create a baby which is free of genetic disorders violates the notion that childbirth is the result of an act of God, one which sometimes produces babies which suffer from genetic disorders. Permitting doctors to assist individuals in creating "designer" babies is comparable to giving doctors a license to play God.

CONCLUSION

In-vitro fertilization was originally intended to assist couples who were infertile in having a baby. However, in recent years, the use of in-vitro fertilization and especially pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has been vastly expanded beyond its original intent. It is now possible for individuals to utilize such procedures and tests to create "designer" (i.e., babies without any genetic disorders) babies. Likewise, it is now possible for individuals to utilize in-vitro fertilization in order to create a baby whose umbilical cord blood will be able to cure or treat a genetic disorder in another child.

While proponents of in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis argue that such treatments were only created and are only being utilized to help save lives, the use of such procedures and tests is an extremely slippery slope which is riddled with potentially dangerous ethical and medical implications. For once it has been conceded that human life may be created for other purposes than those which were originally intended (i.e., to help deal with the issue of infertility), then it is very difficult to see where one should draw the line. In addition, while proponents of in-vitro fertilization and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis argue that such treatments have only been and will only be approved in extremely rare circumstances and under strict controls, the mere fact that such treatment is being utilized at all leaves the door open to abuse by individuals seeking to create "perfect" babies.… [read more]