Study "Genetics / DNA / Genes / Heredity" Essays 221-275

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Human Cloning Should Be Allowed Term Paper

… " These images then, are based in fear and as long as these images remain associated with cloning, it is difficult to consider the real issues. It becomes a reflex for people and the media to reject cloning, despite the… [read more]

Genetic Engineering the Alteration Term Paper

… 2001).

Besides, there would be no reason in cloning a person, since it offers little science or in other words no advantages. There are a number of people who say that if they could clone Albert Einstein then there is… [read more]

Galton's Prediction Term Paper

… Eugenicists looked at the IQ test as an "objective and quantitative tool for measuring innate mental ability (Garland, 1996)."

When the tests were administered to new immigrants at Ellis Island, eugencists found that "more than 80% of the Jewish, Hungarian, Polish, Italian and Russian immigrants were mentally defective, or feebleminded (Garland, 1996)."

This lead eugenicists to theorize the defects were transmitted through genetics in a manner similar to the way a person's hair and eye color are determined.

In Society

The Galton Society began monthly meetings in 1918 in New York to study new information on eugenics and similar ideas, and by 1923, the were more than 1,200 members in 29 states. One of the most famous members was J.H. Kellogg, the cereal giant from Michigan, who founded the Race Betterment Foundation. The theory of eugenics finally made it to colleges in 1928 and by the mid-30's high school biology textbooks contained information about and support of eugenics.


Galton believed that no matter how hard people studied, they could only do so well on tests due to their heredity. His thoughts would effect many people, cause stereotyping and eventually lead to the Nazi's attempt to create a society of intellectual supremacists.

References eugenics (accessed 10-07-2002) (

2002, 01 January). SIR FRANCIS GALTON. The Columbia Encyclopedia.

Garland, Allen E. (1996, 18 August). Science misapplied: the eugenics age revisited. (Cover

Story). Vol. 99. Technology Review, pp.22… [read more]

Search of the Perfect Host Term Paper

… Each adaptive mutation brings it more in tune with the biology of its host. Even slight variations may make real differences in the survival rates of such short-lived life forms. The amoeba that can live only moments longer can reproduce… [read more]

Cloning Bioethics Term Paper

… This type of information transfer between individuals is a lot farther from reach than mere physical duplication. It would therefore be unrealistic to expect clones to replace the original individuals.

Nature clones people all the time. Approximately one in 1000 births is an identical twin. However, despite how many or how few individual characteristics twins have in common, they are still different people. They have their own identities, their own thoughts, and their own rights. They enter different occupations, get different diseases, and have different experiences with marriage, alcohol, community leadership, etc. Twins have different personalities, as would cloned individuals. Even if someone cloned several Napoleons, each would be different and even more unique than twins; the cloned child would be raised in a different setting. Therefore, cloning does not rob individuals of their personality.

Many people feel that the issue of human cloning is absolutely unethical. Such opinions are understandable, considering that the majority of people are always going to be afraid of the unknown. Human cloning is an extremely new aspect of our technological research and should be allowed to develop further. The immense possible benefits from human cloning should not be over looked. Yet, some people still wonder whether there "are some kinds of information leading to some sorts of knowledge that human beings are really better off not having" (Smith 2). Many arguments offered against human cloning have been those such as "we would be playing the role of God" and "it is power that humans can not handle." We need to remember God cloned Eve from Adam.

At one time birth control pills, in vitro fertilization, and heart transplants were criticized on the same grounds. Genetic engineering and human cloning could someday be a tool to cure many problems for humans. The possibilities could be endless if we don't allow ourselves to be afraid of the unknown.


Bernstein, Maurice M.D. (1999, May 28). Cloning of Humans [WWW.document].URL

Whitman, Deborah B. "Generically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?" April 2000.

Human Cloning Foundation. "All the reasons to clone human beings." November 2001

Mario, C. (1997, March 5). A Spark of Science, a Storm of Controversy [WWW.document].URL

Shapiro, Harold T. "Ethical and Policy Issues of Human Cloning" Journal Group: Sci/tech 11 Jul. 1997. 195-196

Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. (June 1997). Cloning [WWW.document].URL

Hindmarsh R, Lawrence G & Norton J, 1998, "Altered Genes - Reconstructing Nature," Allan & Unwin Pty Ltd., St. Lenoard's

Wray Herbert; Jeffery L. Sheler; Traci Watson, The world after cloning. Vol. 122, U.S. News & World Report, 03-10-1997, pp 59 [read more]

Personality: Permanent? Term Paper

… Both causes play the same role controlling people's loathsome behavior.

The therapy includes giving space to the subject to openness of experience, reducing tension of threatening environment and fearsome force, or even introducing gradual learning process in a comfort zone where the subject feels safe to express him/herself.

There is an extra note; Azar also gives an interesting part in the article that both influences on certain traits "change as people age." Basically, two persons are not going to react on an experience the same way since they have different chemistry in each individual. Experiences may be influenced by individual presumption, so that people may "choose certain experiences because they fit best with our innate preferences."

She explains, genetic factor may give the fundamental of certain trait, and giving the lead on subject's acceptability to the surrounding environment. It will create a special environment when "genetically distinct people" create a matching circumstances to accommodate the need, then it induces the changes too. An active correlation may occur when subject, fully aware of his/her native genetic traits, expose themselves to change, which corresponds to "genetically influenced preferences." An evocative correlation may occur because genetically distinct people evoke different reactions from parents, peers and others. For example, teachers may select musically talented children for special opportunities.

Fujita says, genetic value could be additive or non-additive. The explanation also shared that environment - family or work or any circumstances and system where subject belongs to, including governmental system - could be open to alteration. There could also be "non-shared environmental differences" not in correspondence with environmental impact on human behavior. Both of them give mutual contribution to the change, but it does not tell much how much contribution each gives in a process; and neither will be easy to determine how much change each factor could induce to personality alteration. When a child reaches the age and able to use logical thinking, every little thing counts something to develop the personality. In conclusion, nature gives a base on how strong a personality is. After all, both nature or nurture play important roles to determine personality change.


Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association. (March28, 2002).

Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior., 2002).

Fujita, F. May 1, 1996. The Nature/Nurture Controversy. Sci.Psychology.Personality FAQ. (March28, 2002).

Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,

Philip Worchel & Donn Byrne (Eds.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1964. (March28, 2002).

McInerney, J. What indications are there that behavior has a biological basis? Behavioral Genetics. Human Genome Project Information. (March28, 2002). [read more]

Hela Cells Essay

… HeLa

Skloot notes that there are not that many laws respecting the collection and use of human tissue samples. One of the narratives in the Afterword was that the ethics are different today, because human tissue and genetic material has been commoditized. Now that companies can make money of this material, can patent genes, and make money from human tissue collection, the situation is quite different from that of Henrietta Lacks. Lacks did not consent to the use of her tissue, but in those days, nobody made money from it. Indeed, the Lacks cells are not owned by anybody.

Skloot does make the point that the legal environment has not kept up with the economics of tissue samples and genetic information. It is this commoditization, combined with the absence of a legal framework, that has created the ethical issues that we have today. More than half of all Americans have had samples collected from them, and these samples are stored on file. In many cases, there is little in the way of informed consent -- as little as a checkbox on a form that probably isn't read, and certainly would not be given much thought by someone who by definition is seeking medical care. So the practice of collecting the samples is likely to continue unabated for the foreseeable future.

The most basic framework is the common rule, or Federal Policy for the Protection on Human Subjects, but this is often thought not to apply to tissue collection, because the material collected was already being removed from the patient. Thus, whatever happens to that material, is not happening to the patient. This is true -- one may feel a sense of ownership over a former body part, but feeling a sense of ownership and actually being entitled to controlling it forever are two different things. Do we get to control our ex-boyfriends and ex-girlfriends? So the Common Rule seldom applies, and Skloot also points out that the NIH has non-binding guidelines for its research. But in general, there are no real protections for patients, or guidance under law for the collection of tissues.

The closest thing to a legal framework is in case law. There is also the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, though that just offers some protections for the consequences of your genetic information, not providing a framework for your information to be not collected in the first place. The HIPAA protects against the release of names, as happened to Henrietta Lacks, but that is as far as that law covers this issue. Privacy is important, but it is not one of the most significant issues where this law is concerned.

But should people have control over their genetic information? I would argue that nobody should. First, at the individual level, genetic information is not a form… [read more]

Posses This Deformity. Albinism Essay

… Most people born with this affliction are born to parents who do not have this condition, but the gene is recessive in nature. This means that in order to receive this trait, it must be able to receive the recessive gene, one from each parent.

Albinism may cause vision problems and they are more susceptible to sunburn and skin cancer due to the weak condition of their skin. The condition is noticed immediately after birth and the amount of pigmentation deficiency varies between albinos.

Unfortunately, there is no cure for albinism as the genetic condition prescribes the patient's conditions. It is important for those who have this genetic condition to take precautions and use care when being exposed to the sun. The eyes of those with albinism must be protected as well. Social conditions are not easy for those with this affliction and they face much public ridicule and outcast as they are different looking from most other people. Those who suffer from this, may find refuge and help within support groups that may make them feel more accepted within society.


Fitzpatrick, T.B. (1960). Albinism.… [read more]

Cell Cycle Control Essay

… Chromosome separation during mitosis can be delayed if there are some chromosomes that have not been attached to the mitotic spindle properly.

The progression through G1 and G2 is delayed through braking mechanisms incase there is damage of DNA within the chromosome. These delays at the DNA damage checkpoints provide time for the DNA that has been damaged to be repaired. The cell-cycle brakes are then released and the cell cycle resumes.

The checkpoint mechanism works through negative intracellular signals which arrest the cell cycle as opposed to removing positive signals that normally stimulate the progression of cell cycles. The cell cycle control system contains protein kinases known as cyclic-dependent kinases. Their activity rises and falls as the cell moves through the cycle (Sunkel & Pinheiro, 2012).

The molecular events which control the cell cycle are normally ordered and directional. This means that each process takes place a sequential manner and the cycle can not be reversed.


Sunkel, C & Pinheiro, D. (2012). Mechanism of Cell Cycle Control. Retrieved September 23, 2014 from"

Albert, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K. & Walter, P. (2002). Components of the cell cycle control system. Retrieved September 23, 2014 from [read more]

Origin of Life When Watson Essay

… In order for the metabolism-first scenario to be plausible, certain conditions had to have existed: an energy source driving a chemical reaction; an increasingly complex chain of chemical reactions; a net gain of material produced by the reactions; and the storage of information in the chemical network as a whole, not in designated molecules such as RNA or DNA. Shapiro shows this in a diagram that starts with the same disorganized state as in the replicator-first model. Molecules organize, not in straight chains, but in pentagonal chains that link together with shared sides. Arms of molecules attach themselves. The end result is the same as with the replicator-first model, a complex organism that has components capable of different functions. Scientists do not dispute this final model but the mechanism by which it was formed.

More than forty years ago, George Wahl reported in Scientific American about scientists' efforts to provide an explanation about the origin of life. They were giving a fresh look at the hypothesis of spontaneous generation, an idea that had been advanced, then discarded, a century earlier. The body of scientific knowledge has increased exponentially since the 1960s. The "miracle of life" that scientists were willing to accept is no longer considered scientific truth. Wahl provided diagrams that illustrated the organization of molecules into organisms, but could not provide sufficient explanation for the cause. In other words, there was no answer to the chicken-and-egg dilemma. Shapiro's report provides more substantive findings on which future research can be based. Scientists have a better understanding of metabolic processes and can make a stronger case for a reaction rather than replication as the… [read more]

Biology Conclusion the Characteristic Essay

… The heterozygote phenotype came out to be short. The phenotype of wavy was selected for each of the parents. The offspring all came out with the wavy phenotype. The mode of inheritance came out to be autosomal. At least one of the parents had to have the dominant trait of short and at least one of the parents have to have the recessive trait of wavy.

These conclusions lead to a final conclusion that if parents have the same phenotype, there is an equal chance of males and females in offspring having the same trait, regardless of whether it is a dominant trait or a recessive trait. This is the autosomal mode of inheritance. In each one of the problems the offspring came out with the same phenotype as the parents regardless of whether they were male or female where both parents had the same phenotypes. In these samples, all of the offspring came out with the recessive traits indicating that at least one of the parents had the recessive trait in order to be brought out in the offspring. With the recessive trait, the offspring must be homozygous for the allele, but the parents did not possess the alternate phenotype. The characteristics used with the particular phenotypes brought out the autosomal recessive trait in the… [read more]

Ethical Eugenics Term Paper

… ¶ … Ethical Eugenics

Unethical: PGD

There have been several recent headlines about eugenics and the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). PGD is a method by which scientists can analyze the particular chromosomes and genes within an embryo, and… [read more]

Light Absorbance Visible Lab Report

… The lower the absorbance, the higher percentage of transmittance or the higher the absorbance, the lower the transmittance is expressed. Wavelength and color are correlated because for every range of wavelength, a color is observed. There is a higher absorbance with the higher concentration that results in a higher amount of light being absorbed. The lower the concentration has a higher transmittance with a lower amount of light being absorbed. Using the amount of absorbance from a set of standards from a known concentration of substance, a standard curve can be graphed and used to extrapolate and determine the unknown concentration of a substance.

The hypothesis would be; the tube with the highest concentration would have the highest absorbance and the tube with the lowest concentration would have the lowest absorbance because the fraction of light absorbed by each layer is the same. Each tube in the experiment was diluted by the same fraction each time, allowing the same fraction of light to absorb. So, the absorbance level with each layer would go up. The same holds true if the concentration would have been made a higher concentration of substance with each tube. The absorbance numbers would be less with each layer (Beer's Law).


Beer's Law. (n.d.). Retrieved from SHU:

Colavito, M. & . (2010). Standard Curve-DNA Quantitionv2. Retrieved from

Spectrophotometry. (n.d.). Retrieved from USNA University:

What Wavelenght Goes With a Color? (n.d.). Retrieved from Aeronautics and Space Administration: [read more]

Biofilm in Order to Evaluate Article Critique

… In addition, their data was able to show that CcpA increases both icaA expression and PIA production. The presumption is that this is due to the TCA cycle genes citiB and citiZ being down-regulated. In contrast, Wang (2007) reports that it is the ClpP protease that is the major factor in biofilm production. Sadykov (2008) felt that the role PIA (polysaccharide intercellular adhesion) synthesis plays in biofilm production was the most contributory component.

Although their study was conducted with a different species of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), Tobisch (1999) had findings about CcpA that are consistent with the studies previously described. Their results included the fact that CcpA is involved in strong repression of glucose for almost all TCA cycle genes, as well as glycolytic enzymes, and the levels of several other proteins. Using a ccpA mutation, the mutants are not able to activate glycolysis or carbon overflow metabolism. Another key conclusion that they came to was that it was likely CcpA is a key regulator molecule, with control over a superregulon of glucose metabolism. The study conducted by Varga (2008) was also centered on an organism other than S. epidermidis, looking at biofilm formation by Clostridium perfringens. Their data suggested that the ability for biofilm formation was directly dependent upon having a functional CcpA protein.

So although the authors all agree that the key is to cause an alteration in the pathogen's metabolism, the exact way to do so (i.e. which mutant gene is the most effective, depending on how it alters the metabolism) is not agreed upon among these articles. After reviewing the methods used in each study, they appear to be valid and reliable. The varying conclusions reached by each of the studies do not necessarily indicate that only one of them is correct. It is certainly possible that all of the conclusions have validity to them, that the mutant genes all work to alter the metabolism. However, it is not clear that there is any agreement in which one is the most effective.

In conclusion, I do ultimately agree with the article, but also think there are some flaws as described above. Much of the data and results are supported in articles of similar studies, which further points to the validity of the contents of this article.


Fluckiger, U, Ulrich, M, Steinhuber, A, Doring, G, Mack, D, Landmann, R, Goerke, C & Wolz, C, 2005, 'Biofilm Formation, icaADBC Transcription, and Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis by Staphylococci in a Device-Related Infection Model, Infection and Immunity, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 1811-1819.

Sadykov, M, Olson, M, Halouska, S, Zhu, Y, Fey, P, Powers, R & Somerville, G 2008, 'Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle-Dependent Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis', Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 190, no. 23, pp. 7621-7632.

Sadykov, M, Hartmann, T, Mattes, T, Hiatt, M, Jann, N, Zhu, Y, Ledala, N, Landmann, R, Herrmann, M, Rohde, H, Bischoff, M & Somerville, G 2011, 'CcpA coordinates central metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis', Microbiology, vol. 157, pp.… [read more]

Limitations of Stem Cell Research Term Paper

… If decisions about imposing limitations on stem cell research are going to be based on the treatment and outcomes of pre-embryos, then similar limitations should apply to in-vitro fertilization and the decisions used in ART clinics should mirror those used in stem cell research ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009).

The provision of embryonic stem cells for use in stem cell research does depend on a viable supply -- a need that can be addressed by harvesting stem cells from embryos that are and will continue to be produced in laboratories by those who provide fertility services to women and couples, and by the provision of cells through parthenogenesis ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009. As a result, it can be argued that stem cell research, in and of itself, does not result in an increased rate of abortions or deliberate embryo deaths in the United States -- or are in any way different from what occurs at ART clinics ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009). Both of these points indicate that the limitations of embryonic and parthenogenetic stem cell research must be more particular and less general ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009).

The dialogue around the issue of ethics in stem cell research must expand to address the many new sources and techniques for utilizing this promising line of research ("Stem Cell Breakthrough," 2009). Stem cell research issue is clouded by fears about embryonic cloning and the production of embryos for fertility, which many people object to, if not in principle, then in fact (Holden, 2009; "NIH Final Guidelines," 2000; Vogel, 2008). Further, the general public -- and pro-life leaders and pro-choice leaders -- must continue to educate themselves with the changes in the field so that they can fairly and accurately represent the issues (Holden, 2009; "NIH Final Guidelines," 2000; Vogel, 2008).

In 2006, the state of Missouri passed an amendment to the constitution known as the Missouri Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). Essentially, Missouri's legislation prohibits reproductive cloning and permits therapeutic cloning -- the latter enabling human embryonic stem cell research ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). The forms of "early stem cell research" permitted by the constitutional amendment are those extracted from pre-embryos by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) or from surplus embryos that remain after in-vitro fertilization procedures have been completed for patients at fertility clinics ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). To date, this amendment has presented the clearest legislation with language differentiating both the purposes of stem cell research and the sources of the stem cells for research ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). The limitations imposed by the state of Missouri on stem cell research include restricting the stem cell research to surplus embryos from ART clinics ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). Further, of those cells so obtained, only blastocysts less than 14 days old to preclude using embryos in which cell differentiation has begun and the development of a neural tube (which will become the brain and spinal cord) is apparent ("2006 Ballot Measure," 2005). The constructs resulting in this… [read more]

Statement of Purpose Biological Science Phd Program Admission Essay

… ¶ … higher education at the University of Michigan, I found myself in the same position as the vast majority of my peers -- I didn't really know what I wanted to study, let alone what I wanted to spend the rest of my life devoted to. The many interests I held and hold certainly served to make the world an interesting place, but they also made choices of selection (and thus necessarily exclusion) quite difficult. Fortune intervened in the form of a yearlong full-time research assistant position, however, and this experience made the pursuit of science a clear preference for me. More specifically, it was during this time that I resolved to pursue a doctorate in a specific are of genetic investigation, and when it comes to helping me reach this goal I can think of no better program than the University of Michigan's PIBS.

Though I took a variety of science classes during my years as an undergraduate, it was not until my junior year that I took a position at the Lo Lab as a research assistant. The Lo Lab studies transcriptional regulation, and the project I was assigned to examined enhancer activities in development, using Drosophila as a model. Initially my duties consisted of the lowly yet necessary tasks of basic lab maintenance and fruit fly husbandry (not a very complicated or arduous process), but even with a broom in hand I was being exposed to real research for the first time in my life, and I found it incredibly fascinating. I began working with Dr. Lisa Johnson on characterizing various transgenic lines using both GFP and antibodies involving the sparkling enhancer. My other duties grew more involved, and duties included micro-dissecting imaginal eye discs from Drosophila larvae and pupae, preparing and staining the tissue, and ultimately imaging the tissue using fluorescent and confocal microscopy.

Over the course of the year, my lab competencies improved immensely and I was eventually given the opportunity to head my own personal research project. Studying a novel enhancer (sparkling) sequence that could mediate remote enhancer-promoter interaction for sparkling, I experimented to determine whether or not this sequence could mediate remote interactions between other enhancers in Drosophila. Preliminary data suggested the Mef2 enhancer would form a good experimental subject due to observed functional issues exacerbated by distance form the promoter. Creating a stable transgenic line and using whole mount RNA in situ hybridization to determine whether the RCE sequence could mediate Mef2 functionality, I was initially disappointed that my research… [read more]

Research Grant National Institutes Research Paper

… The guide provides specific instructions for signing and copying the original application, as well as mailing instructions (PHS 398, 2009, pp. I-17 -- I- 23).

The PHS application guide provides detailed information on filling out each field of the application. For the Budget Request, sections 7 and 8 must be completed in U.S. dollars. The application must be signed by an individual authorized to act for the applicant organization. The application guide also spells out penalties for deliberate withholding, falsification or misrepresentation of information (PHS 398, 2009, pp. I-17 -- I-33).

In addition to providing information on completing the application, the guide also covers the assurances and certifications that applicants are expected to comply with. Any instance of non-compliance requires an explanation. A project description is also required, along with a list of project or performance sites as well as key personnel and other significant contributors (PHS 398, 2009, p. I-30).

For the Detailed Budget, only direct costs may be requested. If the budget request exceeds $500,000 or more for any year, the applicant must obtain prior approval from the Institute/Center. Each category of budget requests must be itemized, with a separate detailed budget for consortium and contractual organizations. The applicant must enter budget category totals, along with justification of any significant increases or decreases from the initial year budget (PHS 398, 2009, p.I-33).

Biographical sketches must be provided for anyone identified as Senior/Key Personnel and Other Significant Contributors, in the same order as listed on Form Page 2. In addition to closely following page limits, the application is restricted from using URLs unless specifically indicated. Applicants are also discouraged from submitting proprietary information unless it is essential for proper evaluation of the application (PHS 398, 2009, p. I-41).

The Research Plan lists Specific Aims of the project, along with the Research Strategy. The application must include the appropriate information on Protection of Human Subjects, Inclusion of Women and Minorities, Inclusion of Children and vertebrate Animals. If select hazardous biological agents or toxins as identified by DHHS or USDA are involved in the project, they must be listed. Since the proposed research for PAR-11-095 does not include human subjects, there are no additional forms required specific to those research parameters (PHS 398, 2009, pp I-45 -- I-46).

The Disclosure Permission Statement must be checked to allow the Government to disclose project title and contact information to interested organizations in the event a grant is not awarded. The Appendix is used for supporting documentation including graphs, diagrams, tables and charts. The application guide also lists other rules which may apply to NIH recipients, such as prompt reporting of inventions and patents (PHS 398, 2009, pp. I-48 -- I-49).

Once the application has been submitted, the applicant is responsible for checking eRA Commons for review assignment and contact information, which information is available two weeks after the submission due date. The application then proceeds through the review process, and hopefully award.

Works Cited

Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Retrieved August… [read more]

Isolate One Issue Research Paper

… We must understand that all the concerns about stem cell research use for genetic pre-determination of sex or eye-color or brains etc. are unfounded because this research is very expensive and is currently being used to identify and remove genetic disorders and to see how a child may be pre-disposed to genetic disorder and how it can be cured before birth.

The question is personhood is again flawed because a person is something who has a mind, a soul and a body. The blastocyst has none of those characteristics. It is true that if untouched, the blastocyst would grow into a human being and that's where the contention exists. But there are millions of blastocysts that never develop into anything, if an embryo that is not growing is obtained for research purposes, and then it must be considered a perfectly legal source for stem cells.

We must not kill a human being or an embryo that has a chance of growing into a human being. Abortion is wrong for the same reason but a blastocyst is not yet developed to a stage where it can be called a person. And even though it's true that all embryos must be given a fair chance to grow into a healthy human being, it also is true that stem cell research doesn't recruit healthy embryos. In most cases, the embryos which are not needed or which have stopped growing are used to extract stem cells.


Stem cell research is a very important area of research and can easily be considered the most vital research to have taken place in the last decade. The potential for stem cell application is enormous and the tremendous benefits that can be derived from this research can only be realized when we view this research with an open mind.

We cannot ignore the fact that even if we stop the progress of stem cell research, we will still be losing embryos on daily basis through abortions, through fertility methods and through other means. Why not then put those embryos to good use and save millions of children from possible genetic disorders in the future-Because if every child has a right to a life, then by the same standard, they also have a right to a healthy life.


[1]The President's Council on Bioethics, White Paper: Alternative Sources of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, May 2005, at [].

[2] ibid, Personal Statement of Michael S. Gazzaniga, p. 76 and Personal Statement of Dr.

Janet D. Rowley, p. 90.

[3] Pittenger, M.F., Mackay, A.M., Beck, S.C., Jaiswal, R.K., Douglas, R., Mosca, J., Moorman, M.,

Simonetti, D., Craig, S., and Marshak, D.R., "Multilineage Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells."

Science, 284: 143-147 (1999).

[4] For statistics and estimations see: [read more]

Color Discrimination in Carriers Article Review

… They conclude that this does not indicate pathological vision on the part of deutan carriers, just impaired color discrimination. They also speculate on whether women have more delicacy in color discrimination and answer tentatively in the negative to this question.

The article was well-written and understandable, and given the context provided by the authors, the research question was appropriately addressed. The materials and methods were adequately explained so that I could understand what exactly they did and the data was interpreted in sound fashion. The graphs showed clearly how deutan carriers differed in chromatic discrimination from protan carriers and normal controls. The results were discussed well and referred back to the hypothesis. The significance of the study was also addressed in the results section with reference to vision of deutan carriers and color deficiency in X-inactivated chromosome carriers.

I was especially impressed by their explanation of the molecular genetic mechanisms to help explain the basis for color discrimination differences between protan and deutan carriers. The links to the primary literature indicating where the authors obtained their genetic information were also helpful.

Most of the discussion centered on clarifying that pathological vision, or lack thereof, in deutan carriers was not tantamount to deficiency in color discrimination. This was a helpful distinction to make. Their claim concerning sex-based differences in color discrimination was not thoroughly convincing, however. Future studies might concentrate on discerning gender differences among protan and… [read more]

Ethics of Human Cloning in Recent Times Essay

… Ethics of Human Cloning

In recent times, researchers and scientists are making constant efforts and endeavours to discover and study unknown regions, ocean and space in order to gain knowledge. Their intention is to increase human knowledge and understanding of… [read more]

Life Science Current Event Report Term Paper

… 1)? Before pulling out sabretooth tiger remains, scientist started small. They had hypothesized that they could create live cloned animals using cells from dead, frozen specimens. This hypothesis was tested during an experiment using mice that had been frozen for 16 years. Earlier experiments had been conducted to prove this hypothesis, but those mice had been frozen using chemicals to keep the cells safe from the cold elements. While the earlier experiments were successful, the latest experiment was designed to see if cloned mice could be created from unprotected frozen cells (Anonymous, 2008).

The ultimate goal from this research is to work towards finding a way to regenerate extinct animals. Obviously any frozen woolly mammoths that archeologists find will not have been treated with preservative chemicals. The latest experiment was successful. New mice were cloned using the 16-year-old untreated frozen mice cells. The scientists "generated embryonic stem cells using nuclei harvested from [frozen] mice… then transferred nuclei from the stem cells into unfertilized eggs that had their nuclei removed" (Anonymous, 2008, para. 2).

Multiple mice received the eggs and successfully gave birth to live, healthy babies. If scientists can clone animals using frozen cells, they may even be able to create cloned animals from DNA extracted from fossils. Jurassic Park may one day be a reality instead of science fiction. This experiment was just an early step in a much lengthier research process (Anonymous, 2008).

Relating Scientific Progress to Everyday Life

Cloning technology has many implications on our lives. If we are able to resurrect 16-year-old mice by cloning them, perhaps the same can be accomplished with all of the people who have chosen to be cryogenically frozen. While many of us scoff at people who pay tens of thousands of dollars to be frozen after they die, perhaps there is a second life available for them as cloned versions of themselves. Of course, human cloning is considered unethical and is banned in most countries, but human values change, laws change. I imagine that human cloning will eventually work its way into society within my lifetime.

Before we jump that far ahead, more immediate uses for this technology include cloning our pets after they pass away. I love my dog, he is loyal, he was easy to train, and he is well behaved around my friends. There is no guarantee that a different dog that would provide equal companionship when my friend passes away. If I could clone him instead of buying another dog that would be completely unpredictable, I would seriously consider the option.

Top animal breeders would be able to get more litters out of a perfect breed specimen, even after he or she is too old to continue breeding. The dog can simply be cloned and then bred naturally. Perhaps natural breeding will be eliminated all together, the best of the breeds will be selected and all future reproductions will be clones. This idea naturally brings us to our food supply. Cloned food is already making its… [read more]

Genetic Modification Term Paper

… Genetic Modification

The desire to control outcomes and determine destiny is ubiquitous within the human family. From the sailor to the artist there is a clear need to control the outcome of highly unpredictable processes. Genetic modification is another attempt… [read more]

Ionomics Genome: Essentially, the Genetic/Hereditary Information Essay

… Ionomics


Essentially, the genetic/hereditary information of a given organism, typically expressed in most complex organisms as a repeated sequence of DNA nucleotides and most often appearing as DNA bundles called chromosomes. The genetic map that allows for the growth and development of an organism.


A combination of "protein" and "genome," the term "proteome" refers to the proteins that are expressed by a given genome, or by a cell, tissue or organism. It is often used more specifically to identify the specific proteins expressed in specific given circumstances.


During cell division and other processes involving protein synthesis based on genetic information, certain specific RNA molecules are utilized by cells/tissues with a given genome. The RNAs expressed in any given circumstance are referred to as the transcriptome for that cell/genome/process.


The entirety of molecular interactions that take place within a give cell, process, tissue, etc. is referred to as the interactome of that cell, process, tissue, etc. This can include both genetically instigated interactions and those of other types occurring between all kinds of molecules..


The whole of the metabolites and secondary metabolites, including hormones and intermediaries, contained within any biological sample (be it organism, tissue, or cell) is the metabolome.


Essentially the inorganic subset of the metabolome -- dietary and trace minerals and other component molecules found within an organism, cell, etc.


The plant sample that is to be analyzed and characterized for ionomes is first digested, typically in a concentrated nitric acid bath that is diluted following the breakdown of the plant… [read more]

Incidence and Possible Causative Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Gi Stromal Tumor in Chinese Population Journal

… Incidence and Possible Causative Factors for Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor (GI Stromal Tumor) in Chinese Population

The objective of this work in writing is to examine the incidence and possible causative factors for Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor (GI stromal tumor in the… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Essay

… Meiosis vs. Mitosis:

The form of cell division which produces gametes (egg cells and sperms) in humans with reduced or halved number of chromosomes is referred to as meiosis. However, the number of chromosomes is reinstated when two gametes combine to form a zygote. While a cell with two copies of each chromosome is referred to as diploid cell, a cell with one copy of each chromosome is known as a haploid cell. Meiosis produces haploid daughter cells which are genetically different from each other as well as different from the parent cell.

On the other hand, the form of cell division that produces daughter cells which are similar to the parent cell during repair or growth is known as mitosis. In this case, each cell includes the same genetic code as the parent cell due to the fact that it copies its own chromosomes before the cell division. Notably, both meiosis and mitosis are forms of cell division in eukaryotes and are similar in many respects but different in others. The major similarities include the fact that both meiosis and mitosis involve cell division, they have the same processes of division and the fact that they have the same number of chromosomes at first divisions.

Mitosis involves single nuclear division in which the diploid parent cell (two sets of chromosomes) divides once and produces two diploid daughter cells that are genetically identical. On the contrary, meiosis involves two nuclear divisions in which a… [read more]

Genome Sequence Essay

… Genome Sequence

Sheep are very important farm animals that produce meat and wool for the human race. They are very closely related to cattle, which is good and bad for researchers who are studying genome sequencing. "Genome wide sets of universal probes have been designed [16], and in theory they could be used to construct whole genome contigs from large BAC libraries, with limited use of comparative genomics. However, BAC paired end mapping to the human, mouse, and rat genome sequences has been used to identify large scale rearrangements in the respective genomes [17]. This suggests that a similar approach could be applied to identify rearrangements in an organism with an unsequenced genome, if genome sequences from closely related species were available. The increasing number of complete and near complete genome sequences of other mammals suggests that a BAC end sequence and comparative genomics 'scaffolding' strategy might approach the resolution and accuracy of fingerprinting large BAC libraries" (Using comparative genomics to reorder the human genome sequence into a virtual sheep genome 2007). With understanding the sequencing, researchers have seen genes that may help differentiate M. paratuberculosis from other closely related bacterial species (Scientists Crack Genome Sequence Of Major Dairy Pathogen 2002), which means it may shed some light on the fact there is a disease among cows, sheep and pigs that could help researchers to investigate human genome sequences.

America is the melting pot of the whole world, the New World, seen by the rest of the world as the land of opportunity, the land of the free, the green pastures, and the crossroads where virtually all nationalities and races meet. The disease is being found in dairy and other farming species is a bacterium that causes a chronic gastrointestinal infection (Scientists Crack Genome Sequence Of Major Dairy Pathogen 2002). "M. paratuberculosis is a… [read more]

Cloning Creating Controversy Among Scientists Term Paper

… All cloning presents an ethical problem. Why, with two options in front of us -- one that we knew would definitely lead to problems, and one that we know would definitely not lead to problems -- would we choose the option that definitely lead to problems? It would be illogical.

Works Cited

Best, Megan. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic Engineering. Ed.

Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource

Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Blackwelder, Brent. "Human Cloning Represents a Lack of Respect for Nature." At Issue: The

Ethics of Human Cloning. Ed. John Woodward. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005.

Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Fitzgerald, Kevin T. "Cloning Research Would Not Benefit Humans." Opposing Viewpoints:

Biomedical Ethics. Ed. Tamara L. Roleff. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1998. Opposing

Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Kass, Leon. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Biomedical Ethics. Ed. Viqi

Wagner. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale.


Rifkin, Jeremy. "Human Cloning Will Harm Society." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic

Engineering. Ed. Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing

Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 . [read more]

Nature-Nurture and the Cloned Human Thesis

… Nature vs. Nurture Human Cloning

Human cloning though considered highly unethical and even illegal in many nations is theoretically possible. There is however currently a ban on human cloning, despite the fact that science will likely continue to try to… [read more]

George W. Bush Presidency Research Proposal

… Bush Christian

The Bush Administration's Politicization of Christianity

State and Church are, by constitutional law, intended to remain separate. And yet, where America's electoral patterns are concerned, it is quite clear that voters tend to respond in one way or… [read more]

What Would Happen if Were All the Same Chemically and Immunologically? Thesis

… Immunological Uniformity

One of the mechanisms that allows for environmental adaptation and evolution through artificial (i.e. mate) selection is genetic variation (Maitland & Johanson, 2002).

This is crucially important in immunology because a varied genetic pool allows successive generations within any species to adapt to environmental threats. Likewise, immunological and chemical variation allows for the survival of portions of a given population even after a specific environmental threat kills or sterilizes many individuals.

Conversely, gene pool uniformity would put the entire species at risk to environmental threats because the only mechanism available for adaptation would be evolution through

spontaneous mutation, which does not generally produce beneficial changes within a single successive generation (Maitland & Johanson, 2002).

A perfect example of the way that genetic immunological variation works is the major histo-compatibility (MHC) gene, an important component of human immunology

(Maitland & Johanson, 2002). Specifically, in humans, the scent of male sweat transmits important signals to females… [read more]

Sleep Deprivation and Its Neurotransmitters Research Proposal

… REM Sleep Deprivation

The complex neurochemistry of the sleep wake cycle has been researched much over the last few decades. It is clear that REM deprivation causes the brain cellular machinery to trigger various neurobiological responses involving selective expression of… [read more]

Cloning Humans: Science and Society Thesis

… Cloning Humans: Science and Society

Although several types of cloning exist, including DNA cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning, the type that is most often referred to as "cloning" in science textbooks and the mass media is reproductive cloning. This… [read more]

Governments Should Not Allow Human Cloning Essay

… Governments Should Not Allow Human Cloning

As society comes closer to the reality of cloning humans, we should pause a moment and look at what we are doing and where it will lead. As children, we are taught to take… [read more]

Izumo Protein Required for Sperm Egg Fusion Term Paper

… Izumo Protein

Understanding the molecular mechanics of fertilization has been a challenging task for biologists for the last two decades. The discovery of the ADAM group of genes, which were supposed to play a vital role in the fusion process,… [read more]

Medical Ethics -- Stem Cells and Cloning Term Paper

… Medical Ethics -- Stem Cells & Cloning


Stem cell research offers the hope of curing a wide range of human diseases, including diabetes, cystic fibrosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and many forms of cancers, to name just a few of many. In addition, stem cell-based therapies also provide the mechanism for creating human organs for transplant into thousands of patients who die every year before suitable donated human organ become available to them.

Stem cell research even holds the key to reversing traumatic paralysis caused by accidents, war wounds, and other injuries to the spinal chord that otherwise result in lifelong paralysis and incapacity (Zuckerman 2005). On the other hand, the field of stem cell research and technology provokes harsh criticism from those who maintain that it is immoral to experiment with fertilized human embryonic tissue, primarily because their religious beliefs that life begins at conception.

Unfortunately, the branch of stem cell research that holds the greatest potential for medical advances relies on fetal stem cells, because embryonic stem cells have the greatest potential for transformation into therapeutic tissue forms, because adult stem cells are much less flexible in that regard (Park 2007). Only very recently have scientists in Japan and Wisconsin discovered how to mimic the greater potential of fetal stem cells in adult cells (Zuckerman 2005), but this hardly compensates adequately for valuable research time lost by virtue of seven years of research banned from federal funding since 2000. Most scientists completely reject the belief that early embryonic tissue is "alive" in the same sense as more developed fetal tissue and point out the unjustifiable waste of prohibiting valuable research on the millions of excess embryos currently produced in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization procedures which, under current law, must be discarded as medical waste instead of being used for… [read more]

Speech on the Benefits of Therapeutic Term Paper

… Speech on the Benefits of Therapeutic and Reproductive Cloning

Introductory Statement:

I would like to start this presentation with one very simple ethical principle that I believe should applies to any view of ethics in society and another equally simple… [read more]

Stem Cells as the California Dream Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research and the California Dream

The California Dream: Stem Cell Research in California Today

The thought of a disease-free future for mankind is a tantalizing thought indeed. Imagine a time when no one gets sick anymore. No more… [read more]

Timing and Principle Characteristics Term Paper

… Even under optimal circumstances and conditions it is not always possible for the female and male germ cells to meet. A number of abnormal circumstances can also exist interfering with the fertilization process. The male or female germ cell at… [read more]

Fear Is an Emotion Term Paper

… Her argument forces us to realize that almost since the beginning of time, man has always sought to improve life and cloning is simply an extension of this very human behavior.

Gregory Pence agrees with the notion of irrational fear associated with cloning, noting that above all, it is simply unjustified. Pence maintains that a primary cause for such irrational fears is associated with horrible outcomes we often find science fiction stories and movies. As a result, society has been turned against good science with fictional bad science. Pence states, "we cannot allow such unreflected emotion to rule our lives" (Pence 5). Novels such as Brave New World and The Boys From Brazil have turned us against cloning without giving it a chance. Instead of introducing a positive aspect of cloning, we are presented with scenarios where the public fears "different forms of originating humans lead to eugenics which in turn leads to state-controlled breeding and the destruction of reproductive liberty in ordinary couples" (56). This is ridiculous because we should not only allow ourselves to be dictated by fiction but because we should also have enough faith in ourselves to might the right decisions when it comes to cloning.

Ruth Macklin also believes that the fears associated with cloning are illogical. This fear has lead to some horrific notions of what cloning actually means. For example, cloning is not for birthing children for spare parts. In addition, she is quick to point out that "no one has yet made a persuasive case that it would do any real harm" (65). She understands that the fear associated with cloning will be met with "careful scrutiny and layers of legal oversight" (65) and therefore sees no reason for fear whatsoever. In short, she has faith that mankind is responsible enough to prevent cloning from getting out of control.

None of these writers are suggesting a free-for-all cloning adventure. It should be noted that cloning, just as any other aspect of science, should be approached with a rational point-of-view and a reasonable set of limits and possibilities. A healthy dose of fear is good for mankind but an unhealthy amount of fear can stifle science and subsequently everything scientific. Cloning itself is not bad but the irrational fears associated with it are.

Works Cited

Anderson, Alun. "Cloning Can be an Ethical Form of Reproduction." Cloning. Winters,

Paul, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Baum, Rudy. "Human Cloning is Inevitable." Cloning. Winters, Paul, ed. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Pence, Gregory. Who's Afraid of Cloning? New York: Rowman and Little field Publishers,

Inc. 1998.

Macklin, Ruth. "Human Cloning Has Not Been Proven Harmful." Cloning. San Diego:

Greenhaven… [read more]

Is Prostitution a Job Like Any Other? Term Paper

… ¶ … Dangers outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Do Dangers of genetic engineering Outweigh Benefits?

Perhaps no other subject in recent years has caused such a myriad of debates and controversy than genetic engineering. Not only is the general public divided… [read more]

Human Cloning Should Be Illegal? Term Paper

… (Cloning: The science of Controversy)

Scarcity or wasting natural resources:

An economic concern that is expected to be of great significance to human cloning is scarcity. The resources required for production process is very limited and considered scarce in comparison… [read more]

Human Cloning Term Paper

… For example, consider the alteration of the physical make up through cloning of plant life such as corn and legumes. These scientific and technological breakthroughs have become a source for science to possibly create super crops that could one day… [read more]

Buck vs. Bell Lee M Term Paper

… It was with the emergence of INF, argues Silver, that human beings grasped their reproductive destiny.

Silver tackles the implications of reproductive engineering by assessing the right of parents to genetically enhance their children. A society that allows rich parents… [read more]

Cloning Charles Darwin Believed Term Paper

… Despite persistent scares and technical failures and difficulties, experiments and research on cloning, using aborted fetal body parts, continue in recent years, especially in the management or treatment of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease, a genetic condition that affects… [read more]

Morality of Cloning Term Paper

… This is, of course, because genes which encourage preference for their own genetic contributions consistently reproduce more successfully and pass on to the next generation. So it is completely natural for individuals to prefer to give birth to their own… [read more]

Kin Selection the Organization Term Paper

… Deleterious genetic mutations would be purged from the population and the inbred species may be prone to evolve sociality as all members of a colony have nearly identical genetic backgrounds. In addition to consanguineous matings (inbreeding), the process of genetic… [read more]

Cloning the Debate About Human Term Paper

… (Human Cloning - The Ethical Issues)

If it were possible for a parent or parents to select a particular gene for their child, it would have been wonderful. Though loving parents would do anything to achieve such impossibility, though they… [read more]

Chernobyl Disaster the Chernobyl Nuclear Term Paper

… The recessive nature of the genetic disorder implies that the mutations will take more time to manifest. There is a strong possibility that the genetic anomalies will find expression in future generations of children who are born to parents affected by mutation. [Souchkevitch, G. N]

The IAEA organized a study of the population in areas, which had caesium contamination of above 555 KBq / m2. The study that was conducted after a decade of the incident was organized into different control groups of 2000 to 50000 people based on their age. In all 1356 people were analyzed and the findings indicated that the absence of any significant radiation related diseases but projected an increase in non-radiation related disorders both within the contaminated as well as the control regions. The soviet atomic energy minister Mr. Rumyantsev said, 'radio-phobia' cause more harm than actual radioactive contamination," [Elizabeth Manning]. So the psychological implications of the disaster cannot be lightly ignored. More recent studies have confirmed our fears that even low dose of radiation can induce genetic mutations. A joint research conducted by Ukraine and Israeli scientists has revealed an "an unexpectedly high increase" in mutation levels in children born to affected parents. "These results indicate that low doses of radiation can induce multiple changes in human germline DNA." [BBC]

Habitat destruction

The effect of radiation was such that large cultivable lands were rendered unusable for decades together. To quote Mr. Valery Boldin, senor staff in the Gorbachev government, "radioactivity had contaminated enormous areas, some of which would be unsuitable for human habitation for many decades." The entire ecosystem in the nearby 'red forest' was destroyed. Almost all the trees in the forest were dead due to the radiation. [Jason Manning]

Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

One of the most obvious and direct consequences of the disaster was the observed increase in Thyroid cancer among children, particularly in Belarus. The radiation absorption by the thyroid gland was the primary factor used by the researchers in assessing the level of irradiation. In Gomel Oblast, (Belarus) the instances of thyroid cancer in children increased more than 200 times the usual number of cases. Iodine 131 isotope, one of the nucleotides that got scattered in the explosion is found to be the main cause for the increase in the reported cases of thyroid cancer. The presence of radiation in the sand affects the plants, which in turn affect the grazing animals. Iodine 134, one of the radioactive isotopes is easily absorbed into milk. The consumption of milk from these affected animals has been cited as the major cause for the increased cases of thyroid cancer among the children of Belarus. [Nuclear Energy Agency]


Based on the pilot study and the research results conducted by the IPHECA and the IAEA we draw the conclusion that the effects of the radiation is more pronounced in terms of the genetic anomalies rather than the acute diseases. We do not yet have complete information pertaining to the health implications of the… [read more]

Plant Cell Term Paper

… It is the site of cellular respiration.

Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus & Endoplasmic Reticulum: Ribosomes are non-membranous, spherical bodies composed of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein enzymes. They are the site of protein synthesis. Similarly, Golgi Apparatus is made of stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae) and its main function is modification of chemicals to make them functional. The Endoplasmic Reticulum is made of sheets of unit membrane with ribosomes on the outside, forming a tubular network throughout the cell. Their main function is the transport of chemicals within and outside the cells.

Nucleus: Consists of nuclear envelope, chromatin, and nucleolus. Nuclear envelope is made of unit membranes with a fluid-filled space; chromatin from long thin strands of DNA and nucleolus from non-membraneous matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid). The nucleus specifies which proteins are produced by the cell, stores and passes on genetic information to future generations of cells during cell division.


Brown, Terry. (1999) "Cell Structure and Processes." Retrieved on June 22, 2003 at

Crosby, Marshall R. And Peter H. Raven. (2003) Article on "Plant." (Para on Plant Cells). Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Cellulose is made up of molecules of sugar glucose

Plant Cell [read more]

Origin of Eukaryotes Theory Term Paper

… Origin of Mitochondria

During membrane infolding, highly oxidized prokaryotic cells are ingested in eukaryotic cells. These cells are too small and indigestible. Instead of being digested, they continue to live inside the host that becomes an ideal environment for them because of the organic molecules and inorganic compounds the host provides them. The energy released by the endosymbiotic cell (the ingested small prokaryotic cells), on the other hand, provides benefit to the host making it more productive and successful. After some time, the endosymbitic cells lose their cellular autonomy and later become a mitochondrion.

Origin of Chloroplasts

The origin of chloroplasts is almost the same as that of mitochondria. Some eukaryotic cells ingest small prokaryotic photosynthetic cells. These photosynthetic cells provide the host with organic molecules while the host provides them with inorganic compounds. Eventually, the photosynthetic cells lose their cellular autonomy and then later become chloroplasts.

However, contrast to mitochondria, not all eukaryotic cells ingest chloroplasts. This is the reason why all eukaryotes contain mitochondrion but not all contain chloroplasts.


Origin of Eukaryotes.

2003. George Washington University. 23 April 2003.

Endosymbiosis in Evolution.

2000. Sidwell Friends School. 23 April 2003.

The Origin of Eukaryote Chloroplast. [read more]

Cloning in 1997 Term Paper

… Ever since agriculture and the domesticated raising of animals, man has been modifying the genetic make-up of animals by selective breeding. For example, livestock of superior quality could be cloned for farmers. Such livestock would yield higher quality meat, milk, and wool.

People could also clone animals that produce human proteins and other substances used in medical drugs. Another possibility for the use of cloning is the generation of genetically modified animal organs that are suitable for transplantation into humans. At present, thousands of patients die each year before a replacement heart, liver, or kidney becomes available (Wilmut, 1998).

Although genetic disorders represent a small fraction of the total burden of ill health, genetic engineering in the form of "gene therapy" could be used to repair damaged or replace missing genes in people who have genetic disorders. This would be another promising aspect of cloning. The rapid production of large animals carrying genetic defects that mimic human illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis. The ability to make animals with a precisely engineered genetic constitution could also become cell-bases therapies for important illnesses that include Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and muscular dystrophy. With new research in the area of cloning and stem cell research, cures might be found for these illnesses that affect many human lives.

Cloning could also be a way to produce herds of cattle that lack the prion protein gene. This gene makes cattle susceptible to infection that might cause bovine spongiform encephalitis or mad cow disease. Many animal activists are against this kind of genetic engineering, but again the benefits outweigh the negative aspects. The technique could also prevent the transmission of genetic diseases. Many scientists are now working on therapies that would supplement or replace defective genes in cells.

There are many people who desire to eat healthier foods, couples who are waiting on the opportunity to have children and others that need a cure found for a disease they have. Without the use of cloning or stem cell research, none of these dreams will be achieved. Yes, there are concerns about this issue. However, when the pros are weighed against the cons we can certainly understand that society cannot let this opportunity go by without further research.

Works Cited

Biotechnology Industry Organization. "Cloning Technology, not Human Cloning."

Pharmaceutical Technology. 2001.

Gorman, C. "Cloning: Humans May Have It Easier." Time, August 27, 2001. v158 i8 p56+

Wilmut, Ian. "Cloning for Medicine." Scientific… [read more]

Cloning People Term Paper

… Family relationships would not be affected because the parents would perceive a cloned baby as their child despite the genetic ramifications. There is also the fear that the facility would be available only to the rich where people would create custom-designed children who were talented who would have better futures. To this, Wachbroit once again counters with the argument that environment plays an important role.

Wachbroit makes strong and well-reasoned arguments. However, accept for concerns that he personally voices -- namely, that cloning is a nascent science -- his arguments leave a lot to be desired. During the attempts a cloning a sheep, the failed results were grotesque creatures. No human should have to witness failed experiments when humans are involved. As in the case of the most celebrated clone yet -- Dolly -- did not survive long. It means that there were genetic factors that made the clone susceptible to disease with a potentially weakened system.

Wachbroit repeatedly makes the argument that environmental factors play an important role in a person's upbringing. This theory called the Blank Slate was developed in the early sixties, and till recently has held sway. In a recent book by MIT's cognitive scientist Stephen Pinker, "The Blank Slate," the author systematically debunks the blank slate theory. Whatever, one might think of these competing theories, the Blank Slate theory cannot be considered as absolute.

Also, human nature being what it is, it is not completely out of the realm of possibility that those who can afford cloning would seek designer children. Recently, there were stories of websites auctioning the eggs of super-models in the hope that people would have physically stunning children. Even if cloning were successful with zero percent failure, Wachbroit's theory that clones would not be identical is merely speculative; though mammals have been cloned, we do not have the clones of humans. Higher faculties distinguish humans, even as biological specimens. Even the Human Genome is incomplete until the functional aspects of DNA have been identified to know what the origins and progress of human make-up really is.

In conclusions therefore, Wachbroit does make a positive step in the discussion of aspects of human cloning. He is right that it should be debated in the open so that renegade scientists should not defy common sense and decency by pursuing human cloning. As for Wachbroit believing that human cloning is correct -- he is… [read more]

Mitosis vs. Meiosis Term Paper

… Because't is an X-linked trait, t will be expressed, so the phenotype is 4/4 t.


A heterozygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

The genotypes for the offspring are shown below:

t T

- t tt

- T Tt

Result is 1/4 tt, 2/4 Tt and 1/4 TT genotypes.

Result is 1/4 T. phenotype (TT) and 3/4 t phenotypes (tt, Tt).


A heterosygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

A homozygous recessive has a pair of nonidentical alleles tt.

A heterozygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

The genotypes for the offspring are shown below:

T t

- t Tt

- t tT

Result is 2/4 tt and 2/4 Tt genotypes.

Result is 4/4 t phenotypes.

3. Hierarchical Plan for Categorizing Living Organisms

Categorizing living organisms is known as taxonomy and there is a hierarchy of classification.

The scheme is based on differences in physical features such as the number of legs, body size, wings or no wings, spinal column or no spinal column. Initially the system was based on defining things by how closely related they were. It should be noted that many classifications in the system do not represent close relations. The system is however, a way of clearly defining one identified organism with another.

From the broadest level down the classification system is:








The largest is the kingdom. There are six kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

The second is the phylum. For animals, the phylums include Porifera (sponges), Arthropoda and Chordata (which includes the spinal chorded humans.) For plants, one of the phylums is Anthophyta (flowering plants.)

The third is the class. Classes include Mammalia, Reptilia and Amphibia. The Mammalian class is defined as: "having the body covered with hair, a four-chambered heart, and possessing mammary glands producing milk with which the female suckles her young." (Lawrence, Eleanor. Dictionary of Biological Terms. Longman Group Limited: Essex. 1996, p330.)

The fourth is the order. Some orders include Primates, Carnivora and Insectivora.

The fifth is the family. Some examples include Orchidaceae (orchid family) and Hominidae (the family containing humans and human-like apes and gibbons.)

The sixth is the genus. Some examples of genus include Vanilla (vanilla plant genus) and Homo (genus of which the only living member is the human.)

The seventh is the species. The species is also written with the genus name. The species identifies a specific individual. Examples are Homo sapien (human) and Vanilla planifolia (Vanilla Orchid.)

Examples of a complete grouping for a plant and an animal are shown below:

Category Corn Housefly

Kingdom Plantae Animalia

Phylum Anthophyta Arthropoda

Class Monocotyledonae Insecta

Order Commelinales Diptera

Family Poaceae Muscidae

Genus Zea Musca

Species Zea mays Musca domestica

Source: Starr, C and Taggart, R. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life. Wadsworth: Belmont. 1995. p311.

Works Consulted

Access Excellence. Mitosis Labeled Diagram. The National Health Museum. 1999.

Blamire, John. Genotype and Phenotype. Science at a Distance. 2000.

Harmon, Brian. What… [read more]

Market Rates and Solar Research Paper

… Solar Power

An Analysis and Discussion of how Solar Prices and Externalities of the Energy Industry Will Influence the Adoption of the Illinois Solar Power Total Output

This research is based on a hypothesis that was constructed relative to identifying… [read more]

Case for Hydroelectric Power Research Paper

… Steam Power

Hydroelectricity has proven to be an important source of energy, and can be a pathway for our energy future. In many countries around the world, major hydroelectricity projects have proven to deliver key jobs during construction, and a… [read more]

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